1. Mid-Atlantic States – The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region often includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington, when discussing climate, Connecticut is often included with the Mid-Atlantic region. The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade and it has been called the typically American region by Frederick Jackson Turner. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington. But also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Albany, and Buffalo, New York City, with its skyscrapers, subways, and headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income, there are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic. Sometimes, the nucleus is considered to consist of Maryland, Delaware, other sources consider New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania to be the core Mid-Atlantic states, with others sometimes included. West Virginia and parts of Virginia are atypical of this region in several ways, although a few of West Virginias eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington, D. C. MSA, the portion of the state is rural. Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era, the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1609 and claimed it for the Dutch, jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America seven years earlier in 1607. From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a range of European people than in New England or the South. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania to Quakers, in time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities. The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution, cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways. Such flourishing cities included New York City and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River, United, New York City FC, New York Red Bulls and Philadelphia Union, as well as two WNBA teams, New York Liberty and Washington MysticsMid-Atlantic States – An 1897 map displays an inclusive definition of the Mid-Atlantic region, including Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.
2. New Jersey – New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. New Jersey lies entirely within the statistical areas of New York City. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, in the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. New Jersey was the site of decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as rivers, swamps. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact, scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenape society was divided into clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign, Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf and they first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey, the Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of ownership was not recognized by the Lenape. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen, peter Minuits purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and it was from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the states inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrantsNew Jersey – The New Jersey Botanical Garden at Skylands in Ringwood State Park, Passaic and Bergen Counties
3. Iroquois – The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. The Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their cultures as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, the historic Erie, Susquehannock, Wyandot, and St. Lawrence Iroquoians, all independent peoples, spoke Iroquoian languages. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, the most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin. The first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, other spellings occurring in the earliest sources include Erocoise, Hiroquois, Hyroquoise, Irecoies, Iriquois, Iroquaes, Irroquois, and Yroquois. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that the Charlevoix etymology was dubious, Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, and was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa they who smoke or Cayuga iakwai a bear. Hewitt responded to Hales etymology in 1888 by expressing doubt that either of those words even exist in the respective languages, a more modern etymology is that advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, who elaborates upon an earlier etymology given by Charles Arnaud in 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning terrible man, Day proposes a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning a man, an Iroquois, as the origin of this term. More recently, Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for Iroquois. g and he proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil to kill, ko, and a. He also argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as the killer people, a different term, Haudenosaunee, is the designation more commonly used by the Iroquois to refer to themselves. It is also preferred by scholars of Native American history who consider the name Iroquois to be derogatory in origin. An alternate designation, Ganonsyoni, is encountered as well. More transparently, the Iroquois confederacy is also referred to simply as the Six Nations. The history of the Iroquois Confederacy goes back to its formation by the Peacemaker in 1142, each nation within the Iroquoian family had a distinct language, territory and function in the League. Iroquois influence extended into present-day Canada, westward along the Great Lakes, the League is governed by a Grand Council, an assembly of fifty chiefs or sachems, each representing one of the clans of one of the nations. The original Iroquois League or Five Nations, occupied areas of present-day New York State up to the St. Lawrence River, west of the Hudson River. The League was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, in or close to 1722, the Tuscarora tribe joined the League, having migrated from the Carolinas after being displaced by Anglo-European settlementIroquois – Meeting of Hiawatha and Deganawidah by Sanford Plummer
4. Dutch people – The Dutch, occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, Nederlanders—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a culture and speak the Dutch language. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at an early date. During the Republic the first series of large scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place, despite the small size of the Netherlands, the Dutch left behind a legacy in excess of their mere numbers. The traditional art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of music, dances, architectural styles and clothing. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt, Vermeer and Van Gogh are held in high regard, the dominant religion of the Dutch is Christianity, although in modern times the majority is no longer religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, agnosticism, atheism or individual spirituality, as with all ethnic groups the ethnogenesis of the Dutch has been a lengthy and complex process. The text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group, for Dutch national history, for Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. Following the end of the period in the West around 500, with large federations settling the decaying Roman Empire. In the Low Countries, this began when the Franks, themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes. Eventually, in 358, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the areas Southern lands as foederati, Roman allies in charge of border defense. On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism and founded a number of kingdoms, however, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or even early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part of the Empire, the current Dutch-French language border has remained virtually identical ever since, and could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks. The medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the already relatively loose local form of feudalism, as they became increasingly powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility. While the cities were of political importance, they also formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture. The various city guilds as well as the necessity of water boards in the Dutch delta and it is also around this time, that ethnonyms such as Diets and Nederlands emerge. This process marked a new episode in the development of the Dutch ethnic group, as now political unity started to emerge, consolidating the strengthened cultural, despite their linguistic and cultural unity, and economic similarities, there was still little sense of political unity among the Dutch people. However, the centralist policies of Burgundy in the 14th and 15th centuries, at first violently opposed by the cities of the Low Countries, had a profound impact and changed thisDutch people
5. Fort Orange – Fort Orange was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland, the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site. It was built in 1624 as a replacement for Fort Nassau, which had built on nearby Castle Island and served as a trading post until 1617 or 1618. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch House of Orange-Nassau, after conquest of the region by the English, they soon abandoned Fort Orange in favor of a new fort, Fort Frederick, constructed in 1676. In 1624, a ship with 30 Protestant Walloons landed in New Netherland,18 of the men were sent to the location near present-day Albany, the Walloons were later recalled south to settle New Amsterdam. A1628 publication on the population of New Netherland stated that there are no families at Fort Orange and they keep five or six and twenty persons, traders, there. The Dutch party was ambushed and three men were killed approximately a mile from the fort, roughly where Lincoln Park and Delaware Avenue are sited today, whereas later settlement would be through the purchase of land from the Native Americans, the Dutch built Fort Orange without any consent. They continued to hold it only through the goodwill of the Mahican, and this land patent was interpreted by van Rensselaer as including Fort Orange and the settlement that had begun outside its walls. He began purchasing and acquiring title to the lands from the Mahican, in 1630, Gillis Hoosett purchased in van Rensselaers name the lands to the south and north of the fort from the natives. Later in 1630 the first permanent Dutch settlers and farmers came to Fort Orange and settled on the outskirts of the fort, their village was first called the Fuyck and later Beverwyck. In 1634 the commander of Fort Orange ordered Harmen Meyndertsz van den Bogaert west into the Mohawk Valley and Indian country, the trip lasted six weeks and took Bogaert and his men through a number of Mohawk villages and into Oneida villages, at least 100 miles from the fort. This journey was recorded in van den Bogaerts daily journal which is titled, A Journey into Mohawk and Oneida Country. In the 1640s a French Jesuit priest and missionary, Isaac Jogues, described Fort Orange as a little fort. built of stakes. In 1648, dispute arose between agents of the Dutch West India Company and agents of the patroon over control of Fort Orange, several confrontations arose over the status of the fort and the rights of settlers around it. Stuyvesant at first ordered all buildings within cannon shot of the fort to be destroyed, in response, the patroons agent, Commander van Schlechtenhorst, decided to expand settlement to within pistol shot of Fort Orange. After the yearly freshets had damaged much of the fort, the West India Company decided to reconstruct the fort using stone. In response, van Schlechtenhorst declared it illegal for anyone to quarry stone within Rensselaerswyck for the fort or for anyone to sell the material to the forts commander, all material for the fort had to be shipped in from outside the colony. In 1651, Stuyvesant declared the jurisdiction of the fort to extend 600 paces around the fort, thereby severing it from Rensselaerswyck, he appointed Johannes Dyckman as commissary of Fort Orange. By the end of the 1650s, the fort was in disrepair again, in 1663 smallpox raged in Fort Orange, killing one person a day, which was a large percentage given the small population in the fortFort Orange – Map of Castle Island and Fort Orange in 1629
6. Albany, New York – Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Roughly 150 miles north of New York City, Albany developed on the west bank of the Hudson River, the population of the City of Albany was 97,856 according to the 2010 census. With a Census-estimated population of 98,4242013, the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state and 38th in the United States. Fortune 500 companies that have offices in Albany include American Express, J. P. Morgan and Chase, Merrill Lynch, General Electric, Verizon, Goldman Sachs, International Paper, and Key Bank. In the 21st century, the Capital District has emerged as an anchor of Tech Valley. This was the first European settlement in the state, settled by Dutch colonists who built Fort Nassau for fur trading in 1614 and they formed successful relations with both the Mahican and the Mohawk peoples, two major Native American nations in the region. The fur trade attracted settlers who founded a village called Beverwijck near Fort Orange, in 1664 the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the then Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland. The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War, Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. Its charter is possibly the longest-running instrument of government in the Western Hemisphere. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade, Albanys main exports at the time were beer, lumber, published works, and ironworks. Beginning in 1810, Albany was one of the ten most populous cities in the United States, in the 20th century, the city opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, the precursor of todays Albany International Airport. During the 1920s a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in the state capital and it marshalled the power of immigrants and their descendants in both cities. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, Albany has been a center of higher education for over a century, with much of the remainder of its economy dependent on state government and health care services. The city has rebounded from the decline of the 1970s and 1980s. Albany is known for its history, commerce, culture, architecture. Albany won the All-America City Award in both 1991 and 2009, Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-MuhhcanneuwAlbany, New York – Clockwise from top: Albany skyline from Rensselaer; middle-class housing in the Helderberg neighborhood; Palace Theatre; Empire State Plaza from the Cultural Education Center; North Pearl Street at Columbia Street; and the State Quad at SUNY Albany.
7. Manhattan – Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government. The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City. In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776. The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the cityManhattan – View from Midtown Manhattan, facing south toward Lower Manhattan
8. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various statesUnited States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
9. United States Department of Commerce – The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making and this organizations main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans. The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, the department was originally created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14,1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4,1913, as the bureaus, in 1940, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Agriculture Department, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency, in 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was created on October 3,1970.6 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows, Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades, the Economic Development Administration would be completely eliminated. The Obama administration projects that the reorganization would save $3 billion, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. Later that year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a secretary of business in reference to the plan. The reorganization was part of a proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, the Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nations oceans, the plan was reiterated in the Obama administrations FY2016 budget proposal that was released in February 2015United States Department of Commerce – The Herbert C. Hoover Building, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
10. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
11. Poverty – Poverty is general scarcity or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. It is a concept, which includes social, economic. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the lack of necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing. Absolute poverty is meant to be about the independent of location. After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made producing goods increasingly less expensive, of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, to provide enough yield to feed the population. Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable typically include welfare, economic freedoms, Poverty reduction is a major goal and issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. The World Bank forecasts that 702.1 million people, down from 1.75 billion in 1990, of these, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia. According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the population living in extreme poverty fell from 37. 1% to 9. 6%. Nevertheless, given the current economic model, built on GDP, extreme poverty is a global challenge, it is observed in all parts of the world, including developed economies. UNICEF estimates half the children live in poverty. It has been argued by some academics that the policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF. Another estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. In 2012 it is estimated that, given a poverty line of $1.25 a day 1.2 billion people lived in poverty, the word poverty comes from old French poverté, from Latin paupertās from pauper. The English word poverty via Anglo-Norman povert, there are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, and the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty, a familys income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries, United Nations, Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of capacity to participate effectively in society. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and it means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank, Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions and it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignityPoverty – An example of urban poverty in this slum in Jakarta, Indonesia
12. Upper West Side – The Upper West Side is sometimes also considered by the real estate industry to include the neighborhood of Morningside Heights. Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent, primarily residential area with many of its residents working in areas of Midtown. Conversely, the Upper East Side is traditionally perceived to be home to commercial, the Upper West Side, along with the Upper East Side, is considered to be among New York Citys wealthiest neighborhoods. Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, and its northern boundary is somewhat less obvious. Although it has historically been cited as 110th Street, which fixes the neighborhood alongside Central Park, it is now considered to be 125th Street. The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is also identified as Manhattan Valley, the overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District. From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, Broadway, Amsterdam Avenue, Columbus Avenue, with the building of Lincoln Center, its name, though perhaps not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street. This is a reversion to the historical name. The long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people, in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New Yorks most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road. It became increasingly infilled with smaller, more villas in the first half of the nineteenth century. Its name was a derivation of the given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland, likely from Bloemendaal. The Dutch Anglicized the name to Bloomingdale or the Bloomingdale District and it consisted of farms and villages along a road known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots, by the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the citys well-off, a major parcel of which was the Apthorp Farm. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville, Stryckers Bay, Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street. Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping, transportation, the Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to connect New York City to Albany, and soon ran along the riverbank. One major non-industrial development, the creation of Central Park in the 1850s and 60s, parts of the neighborhood became a ragtag collection of squatters housing, boarding houses, and rowdy taverns. In 1868, the city began straightening and grading the section of the Bloomingdale Road from Harsenville north and it retained that name until the end of the century, when the name Broadway finally supplanted it. Development of the neighborhood lagged even while Central Park was being out in the 1860s and 70sUpper West Side – The Upper West Side and Central Park as seen from the Rockefeller Center Observatory. In the distance is the Hudson River and George Washington Bridge.
13. Amtrak – Founded in 1971 to take over most of the remaining U. S. passenger rail services, it is partially government funded yet operated and managed as a for-profit corporation. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains each day over 21,300 miles of track, some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2015, Amtrak served 30.8 million passengers and had $2.185 billion in revenue, nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas, 83% of passengers travel on routes shorter than 400 miles. Its headquarters is at Union Station in Washington, D. C, the name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. From the mid-19th century until about 1920, nearly all intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, historically, U. S. passenger trains were owned and operated by the same privately owned companies that operated freight trains. About 65,000 railroad passenger cars operated in 1929, from 1920 into the later 20th century, passenger rails popularity diminished and there was a series of pullbacks and tentative recoveries. Rail passenger revenues declined dramatically between 1920 and 1934 because of the rise of the automobile, in the same period, many travelers were lost to interstate bus companies such as Greyhound Lines. However, in the mid-1930s, railroads reignited popular imagination with service improvements and new, diesel-powered streamliners, such as the gleaming silver Pioneer Zephyr and Flying Yankee. Even with the improvements, on a basis, traffic continued to decline. World War II broke the malaise, passenger traffic soared sixfold thanks to troop movements, in 1946, there remained 45 percent fewer passenger trains than in 1929, and the decline quickened despite railroad optimism. Passengers disappeared and so did trains, few trains generated profits, most produced losses. Broad-based passenger rail deficits appeared as early as 1948, and by the mid-1950s, by 1965, only 10,000 rail passenger cars were in operation,85 percent fewer than in 1929. Passenger service was provided on only 75,000 miles of track, the 1960s also saw the end of railway post office revenues, which had helped some of the remaining trains break even. The causes of the decline of rail in the United States were complex. Until 1920, rail was the practical form of intercity transport. By 1930, the companies had constructed, with private funding. In 1916, the amount of track in the United States peaked at 254,251 miles, some rail routes had been built primarily to facilitate the sale of stock in the railroad companies, they were redundant from the beginning. These were the first to be abandoned as the financial positions deterioratedAmtrak – The Illinois Central Railroad 's Panama Limited long-distance diesel streamliner train
14. Hudson River – The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows through the Hudson Valley, the river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York, and further north between New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary occupying the Hudson Fjord, tidal waters influence the Hudsons flow from as far north as Troy. The river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, and after whom Canadas Hudson Bay is also named. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River –, during the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, the Hudson was also the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, which, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States. The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream. From that point on, the stream is known as the Hudson River. Popular culture and convention, however, more often cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source, South of the confluence of Indian Pass Brook and Calamity Brook, the Hudson River flows south into Sanford Lake. South of the outlet of the lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson, the Hudson then flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties, in the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows entirely in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the forms the boundary between Warren and Saratoga Counties. The river then takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake, shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, and through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake. It next goes through Hudson Falls, at this point the river forms the boundary between Washington and Saratoga Counties. At this point the river has an altitude of 200 feet, further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river then forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties, the river then enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River, which extends into Massachusetts, shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford. Shortly thereafter, the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, at an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson RiverHudson River – The Bear Mountain Bridge across the Hudson River as seen from Bear Mountain
15. 2006 Winter Olympics – This marked the second time Italy hosted the Olympic Winter Games, the first being the VII Olympic Winter Games in Cortina dAmpezzo in 1956. Italy also hosted the Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome in 1960, Turin was selected as the host city for the 2006 games in June 1999. The official logo displayed the name Torino, the Italian name of the city, the Olympic mascots of the games were Neve, a female snowball, and Gliz, a male ice cube. The official motto of the XX Olympic Winter Games was Passion lives here, Turin was chosen as the host of the Olympics on June 19,1999, at the 109th IOC Session in Seoul, South Korea. This was after the IOC had adopted new procedures during the 108th Extraordinary IOC Session in light of the corruption scandals surrounding the votes for the 1998 and 2002 Winter Olympics. The full IOC Session then voted on the chosen as finalist cities by the Selection College. The selection of Turin over Sion came as a surprise, since Sion was the favorite in part because the IOC is based in Switzerland. Turins selection came two years after Romes unsuccessful 2004 Summer Olympics bid and those games were ultimately awarded to Athens, Greece. The information below comes from the International Olympic Committee Vote History web page, the Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Torino 2006 Winter Olympics at USD4.4 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 80% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the committee for the purpose of staging the Games. The competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. The Games featured 84 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports, events that made their Olympic debut in Turin included mass start biathlon, team sprint cross country skiing, snowboard cross and team pursuit speedskating. Most of the cross country skiing events at these Games involved different distances from those in Salt Lake City, the following are the sports and disciplines that were contested at the games. The numbers in parentheses after each sport discipline indicate the number of events contested, all dates are in Central European Time Host country To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title. Stefania Belmondo, a 10-time Olympic medalist in cross-country skiing, lit the Olympic Flame during the ceremony on February 10. Before that, the ceremony celebrated the best of Italy and Sport including a segment honoring the Alps, the FilmMaster Group K-events created and produced the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the XX Winter Olympic Games in Turin in 2006. Executive Producer Marco Balich, Content Supervisor Alfredo Accatino, Art Direction Lida Castelli, monica Maimone of Studio Festi directed the section From Renaissance To Baroque, part of the Opening Ceremony. The first gold medal of the 2006 Games was awarded in the 20 kilometre biathlon, won by German Michael Greis on the first day of competition, on February 12, Latvia won its first winter Olympic medal when Mārtiņš Rubenis took the bronze in the mens luge2006 Winter Olympics – "Passion lives here", the Turin 2006 motto written by the Italian calligrapher Francesca Biasetton.
16. Olive Risley Seward – Olive Risley Seward was a writer and the adopted daughter of William Henry Seward, United States Secretary of State under Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Olive F. Risley, was born in Fredonia, New York and she was the daughter of the former Harriet C. Crosby and Hanson A. Risley, a prominent civil servant who worked for the Secretary of the Treasury and resided in Washington. She attended local schools and grew up in the atmosphere of the capital. Beginning about 1868, when she was in her early 20s and their relationship followed the deaths of Sewards wife Frances Adeline Miller Seward and daughter Frances Adeline Fanny Seward, and was shortly after the death of Olives own mother. In company with her sister Harriet Risley, and her father Hanson, Olive traveled extensively with Seward through Asia, in order to curtail gossip and family worries that they might marry, Seward formally adopted Olive as his daughter in 1870. When they returned to New York, Seward and Olive began work on a book about their experiences. Unfortunately, Seward died before the book was finished, published by D. Appleton & Co. in 1873, William H. Sewards Travels Around the World became a best seller. According to James Cephas Derby, the Seward estate made $50,000 from the sales, after Sewards death, Olive, who inherited a quarter share of Sewards $200,000 estate, moved back to Fredonia to be with her birth father. By 1874, she had moved to Washington D. C. where she, with her lifelong companion Sara Carr Upton and she was also a member of the Washington Club and the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1889, she wrote a book of stories for children based on her travels with Seward called Around the World Stories that was published by D. Lothrop Company and she died in 1908 at her home on Nineteenth Street, NW. In 1971, sculptor John Cavanaugh chose to create a statue honoring her, a picture of her was not found at the time, so Cavanaugh sculpted his idea of an idealized Victorian lady instead. The statue stands in front of a residence on North Carolina Avenue and Sixth Street, SE in Washington. Risleys head is turned to the left as if gazing toward the nearby Seward Square, James M. Goode, The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D. C. John M. Taylor, William Henry Seward, Lincolns Right Hand, Olive Risley Seward, ed. William H. Sewards travels around the world, with two hundred illustrations. Olive Risley Seward, Around the World Stories, Olive Risley Seward at Find A Grave Olive Risley Seward statueOlive Risley Seward – Olive Risley Seward, age 25
17. Fredonia, New York – Fredonia is a village in Chautauqua County, New York, United States. The population was 11,230 as of the 2010 census, Fredonia is in the town of Pomfret south of Lake Erie. The village borders the city of Dunkirk and is the home of the State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia is one of only twelve villages in New York still incorporated under a charter, the other villages having incorporated or re-incorporated under the provisions of Village Law. The area which is now Fredonia was most likely first occupied by early Mound Builders, then the Erie people, in 1791, Robert Morris purchased the Fredonia land from Massachusetts and sold it to the Holland Land Company. Parcels were sold to pioneers around 1800, and the first settlers came around 1803 or 1804, in 1821, William Hart dug the first well specifically to produce natural gas in the United States on the banks of Canadaway Creek in Fredonia. It was 27 feet deep, excavated with shovels by hand and it supplied enough natural gas for lights in two stores, two shops and a gristmill by 1825. Expanding on Harts work, the Fredonia Gas Light Company was formed in 1858, the site of the first gas well is marked by a stone monument in downtown Fredonia. The village of Fredonia was incorporated in 1829, the original name for the area was Canadaway. The name Fredonia was coined by Samuel Latham Mitchill, coupling the English word freedom with a Latin ending and he proposed it as a replacement name for the United States. It failed in that regard, but became the name of many towns, established within 20 years of the founding of Fredonia, the Fredonia Academy was the first higher educational institution in Chautauqua County. It was started in 1824 and opened in 1826, the academy became a State Normal School in 1866. On August 8,1867, the cornerstone of the Fredonia Normal School was laid on a site where the Old Main building stands today. The Normal School used the building, which stood on the site of the present village hall. The Fredonia Normal School is now One Temple Square and Association, a 91-unit, NY HUD housing project for the disabled, thereafter the academy building was used for some time as fire department headquarters. Today the building houses the offices and includes the 1891 Fredonia Opera House. The theater underwent a complete restoration in the 1980s by the Fredonia Preservation Society. It now serves as a performing arts center. In 1930 under the director of the Normal School, Hermann Cooper,58 acres of land west of Central Avenue were bought with the dream one day it would become a campusFredonia, New York – Post Office, Fredonia, NY
18. United States Secretary of State – Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level. The current Secretary of State is former ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson and those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, and the drafting of certain proclamations. The Secretary also negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries, under Federal Law, the resignation of a President or of a Vice President is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the Secretary of State. Accordingly, the resignations of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in instruments delivered to the Secretary of State, six Secretaries of State have gone on to be elected President. Former Secretaries of State retain the right to add the title Secretary to their surnames, as the head of the United States Foreign Service, the Secretary of State is responsible for management of the diplomatic service of the United States. The foreign service employs about 12,000 people domestically and internationally, the U. S. Secretary of State has the power to remove any foreign diplomat from U. S. soil for any reason. The nature of the means that Secretaries of State engage in travel around the world. The record for most countries visited in a secretarys tenure is 112, second is Madeleine Albright with 96. The record for most air miles traveled in a secretarys tenure is 1.380 million miles, second is Condoleezza Rices 1.059 million miles and third is Clintons 956,733 miles. SUnited States Secretary of State – Incumbent John Kerry since February 1, 2013
19. Abraham Lincoln – Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks, tariffs, and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union. Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days later on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents. Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents fatherAbraham Lincoln – Lincoln in 1863, aged 54
20. Andrew Johnson – Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, the new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress. The first American president to be impeached, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote, Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several towns before settling in Greeneville. He served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835, after brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms. He became Governor of Tennessee for four years, and was elected by the legislature to the Senate in 1857, in his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, which was enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862. As Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America and he was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his states secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as governor of Tennessee after most of it had been retaken. When Johnson was sworn in as president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech. Six weeks later, the assassination of Lincoln made him president, Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to re-form their civil governments. Johnson vetoed their bills, and Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency, Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. In 1866, Johnson went on a national tour promoting his executive policies. As the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnsons ability to fire Cabinet officials. When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, and narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, Johnson is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. While some admire his strict constitutionalism, his opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is widely criticizedAndrew Johnson – Andrew Johnson
21. David Paterson – David Alexander Paterson is an American politician who served as the 55th Governor of New York, in office from 2008 to 2010. He was the first African American governor of New York and also the second legally blind governor of any U. S. state after Bob C, riley, who was Acting Governor of Arkansas for 11 days in January 1975. After graduating from Hofstra Law School, Paterson worked in the District Attorneys office of Queens County, New York, and on the staff of Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins. In 1985, he was elected to the New York State Senate to a seat that was held by his father, former New York Secretary of State Basil Paterson. In 2003, he rose to the position of Senate Minority Leader, Paterson was selected as running mate by then-New York Attorney General and Democratic Party gubernatorial nominee Eliot Spitzer in the 2006 New York gubernatorial election. Spitzer and Paterson were elected in November 2006 with 69 percent of the vote, when Spitzer resigned in the wake of a prostitution scandal, Paterson was sworn in as governor of New York on March 17,2008. Paterson launched a campaign for a full term as governor in the 2010 gubernatorial election, but announced on February 26,2010. David Paterson was born in Brooklyn to Portia Paterson, a homemaker, Basil Paterson was later a New York state senator and secretary of state, and served as deputy mayor of New York City. According to a New York Now interview, Paterson traces his roots on his mothers side of the family to pre-Civil War African American slaves in the states of North Carolina and his paternal grandmother, a Jamaican, Evangeline Rondon Paterson was secretary to Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. His paternal grandfather was Leonard James Paterson, a native of Carriacou who arrived in the United States aboard the S. S. Vestris on May 16,1917 and it was reported by The Genetic Genealogist in March 2008 that Paterson had recently undergone genetic genealogy testing. At the age of three months, Paterson contracted an ear infection which spread to his optic nerve, leaving him with no sight in his left eye, Paterson was the first disabled student in the Hempstead public schools, graduating from Hempstead High School in 1971. Paterson received a B. A. in History from Columbia College of Columbia University in 1977, after law school, he went to work for the Queens District Attorneys Office, but did not pass the New York bar examination, thus not becoming an Attorney at law. He claimed that his failing the New York bar was partially the result of insufficient accommodation for his visual impairment, while he was governor, Patersons staff read documents to him over voice mail. Paterson was the first governor of New York to be partly blind, Paterson and his wife, Michelle Paige Paterson, separated after 19 years of marriage in September 2012. In 1985, Paterson resigned from the Queens District Attorneys office so he could join the campaign of city clerk David Dinkins to win the Democratic nomination for Manhattan Borough President. That summer, on August 6, state senator Leon Bogues died, in mid-September, a meeting of 648 Democratic committee members on the first ballot gave Paterson 58% of the vote, giving him the party nomination. That October, Paterson won the virtually uncontested special State Senate election, at the time, the 29th Senate district covered the Manhattan neighborhoods of Harlem, Manhattan Valley and the Upper West Side, the same district that Patersons father had represented. Upon his election, Paterson became the youngest State Senator in AlbanyDavid Paterson – David Paterson
22. Manhattan Borough President – A borough president is an elective office in each of the five boroughs of New York City. Borough presidents currently have little power in New York City government and they generally act as advocates for their boroughs at the mayoral agencies, the city council, the New York State government, public corporations, and private businesses. Their authorizing law is codified in title 4, sections 81 to 85 of the New York City Charter, Borough presidents currently have a relatively small discretionary budget for projects within their boroughs. They also act as advocates for their boroughs at mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York State government, public corporations, Borough presidents are currently elected by popular vote to four-year terms, and can serve up to three consecutive terms. Borough presidents influence the Uniform Land Use Review Procedure by appointing NYC community boards, each of the five boroughs has a borough board. They are composed of the president, council members from the borough. Community boards advise on land use and zoning, participate in the city budget process, community boards act in an advisory capacity, and have no authority to make or enforce laws. On January 1,1898, the boroughs of Manhattan, The Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, as part of the consolidation, all town and county governments within the city were dissolved, and their powers were given to the city and the boroughs. The boroughs assumed most county functions, but did not replace them, the eastern two-thirds of Queens County was not part of the borough of Queens. The initial city charter established the five borough president offices with terms of four years, the salaries of the presidents of Manhattan, The Bronx, and Brooklyn were $5,000, and those of Queens and Richmond were $3,000. The borough presidents were subject to removal for cause by the mayor, with approval by the governor, in a later writers words, the offices of the borough presidents were created to preserve local pride and affection for the old municipalities after consolidation. Borough presidents gradually gained more authority, assisting in the formulation of more aspects of the city budget and controlling land use, contracts, and franchise powers. Although some borough presidents served for decades, the position was used as a stepping-stone to other elective offices such as judgeships or, in the case of Robert F. Wagner. On March 22,1989, the Supreme Court of the United States, the city charter was quickly revised and passed in a referendum that fall, and the Board of Estimate was abolished. The offices of the presidents were retained, but with greatly reduced power. The borough budgets became the responsibility of the mayor and City Council, Borough presidents currently have a relatively small discretionary budget for projects within their boroughs. The two major remaining appointments of the presidents are one member each on the City Planning Commission. Borough presidents generally adopt specific projects to promote while in office and they also act as advocates for their boroughs at mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York State government, public corporations, and private businessesManhattan Borough President – Memorial to Joseph Guider, Borough President of Brooklyn
23. Senate Minority Leader – The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate. They are elected to their positions in the Senate by their party caucuses, the Senate Democratic Caucus. By rule, the Presiding Officer gives the Majority Leader priority in obtaining recognition to speak on the floor of the Senate, the Assistant Majority and Minority Leaders of the United States Senate are the second-ranking members of each partys leadership. The main function of the Majority and Minority Whips is to gather votes on major issues, because they are the second ranking member of the Senate, if there is no floor leader present, the whip may become acting floor leader. Before 1969, the titles were Majority Whip and Minority Whip. The Senate is currently composed of 52 Republicans,46 Democrats, the current leaders are Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Democratic Minority Leader Chuck Schumer of New York. The current Assistant Majority Leader is Republican John Cornyn of Texas, the current Assistant Minority Leader/Whip is Democrat Dick Durbin of Illinois. The Democrats began the practice of electing floor leaders in 1920 while they were in the minority, John W. Kern was a Democratic Senator from Indiana. While the title was not official, he is considered to be the first Senate party leader from 1913 through 1917, the Constitution designates the Vice President of the United States as President of the United States Senate. The Constitution also calls for a President pro tempore to serve as the leader of the body when the President of the Senate is absent, for these reasons, it is the Majority Leader who, in practice, manages the Senate. This is in contrast to the House of Representatives where the elected Speaker of the House has a deal of discretionary power. The Democratic Party first selected a leader in 1920, the Republican Party first formally designated a leader in 1925. gov Republican Majority Democratic MinoritySenate Minority Leader – Incumbent Mitch McConnell (R) since January 3, 2015
24. Coney Island – The site was formerly an outer barrier island but became partially connected to the rest of Long Island by land fill. Coney Island is well known as the site of amusement parks, the attractions reached a historical peak during the first half of the 20th century, declining in popularity after World War II and years of neglect. Coney Island is the westernmost part of the islands of Long Island. At its highest it is 7 feet above sea level, the perimeter of Coney Island features man made structures designed to maintain its current shape. The beaches are not a natural feature with replenishing sand being cut off by the jetty at Breezy Point. Sand has been redeposited on the beaches via beach nourishment since 1922-1923, the first such project ever, Sheepshead Bay on the east side is, for the most part, enclosed in bulkheads. The original Native American inhabitants of the region, the Lenape and this name has been attributed the meaning of land without shadows or always in light describing how its south facing beaches always remained in sunlight. A second meaning attributed to Narrioch is point or corner of land, the Dutch established the colony of Nieuw Amsterdam in that area in the early 17th century. The western most island was Coney Island, a 1.25 mile shifting sandspit with an island at its western end extending into Lower New York Bay. East of Coney was originally a peninsula called Coney Hook but in 1750 a canal was dug through the Coney Hook salt-marsh from Brown’s creek east to Hubbard’s creek. This connection to the waterways behind the islands allowed shipping traffic to travel from Jamaica Bay to New York Harbor without having to venture out into the ocean, the canal turned Coney Hook into a detached half mile long island called Pine Island, due to the woods on it. East of Pine was the largest section of island called Gysberts or Guisberts Island, containing most of the land and extending east through todays Brighton Beach. Each island was separated by an inlet that could only be crossed at low tide, Development of the island was slow over the period of the Dutch occupation up through the early 1800s due to land disputes and the intervening Revolutionary War and War of 1812. By the early 1800s there were only a handful of farms across the entire island. There is no historical consensus on how the island got the name Coney Island, a name, in the form of Conyne Eylandt. Development on Coney Island has always been controversial, when the first structures were built around the 1830s, there was an outcry to prevent any development on the island and preserve it as a natural park. Starting in the early 1900s, the City of New York made efforts to all buildings. It was an effort to reclaim the beach which by then had almost completely built over with bath houses, clam bars, amusementsConey Island – The Riegelmann Boardwalk
25. Emo Philips – Emo Philips is an American comedian. Much of his stand-up comedy makes use of paraprosdokians spoken in a falsetto tone of voice. The confused, childlike delivery of his material produces the comic timing in a manner invoking the wisdom of children or the idiot savant. Philips has recorded three comedy albums and his album E=mo², recorded live at Carolines in New York City, won the 1985 New Music Award for best comedy album. It was later re-released along with his Live at the Hasty Pudding Theatre album on a single CD and he also released an album called Emo in 2001. A joke of his was voted funniest religious joke ever in a 2005 online poll, in 2006, he appeared at the Newbury Comedy Festival. He was included in the top 50 of E4s 100 Greatest Comedians, aside from Philipss long career as a standup comic, he has been featured in acting roles on television series such as Miami Vice and The Weird Al Show. In 2006, he appeared on British television, as a guest on the panel game 8 Out of 10 Cats, Philips has also appeared on three episodes of @midnight, in February 2015, April 8,2016, and a 90s themed episode on September 26,2016. He has appeared in films including 1989s UHF and Desperation Boulevard in 1998. Additionally, he appeared in the original 1992 version of Meet the Parents and was a producer of the 2000 remake. Philips was born in the Chicago suburb of Downers Grove, comedian Judy Tenuta, another entertainer with an offbeat comic persona, has denied rumors that Philips ever married or dated her. Tenuta said, Isnt it weird how rumors start, no, Emo and I used to do shows together. Emo Philips at the Internet Movie Database 1988 KCRW radio interview Bob Clasters Funny Stuff w/performance excerptsEmo Philips – Emo Philips in 2002.
26. Interstate 90 – Interstate 90 is a transcontinental freeway, and the longest Interstate Highway in the United States at 3,020.54 miles. Its western terminus is in Seattle, at Edgar Martinez Drive S. near Safeco Field and CenturyLink Field, I-90 crosses the Continental Divide over Homestake Pass just east of Butte, Montana. East of the Wisconsin-Illinois border, much of I-90 follows several toll roads, the Interstate is not tolled through some segments in downtown Chicago, Greater Cleveland, and the rest of Northeast Ohio, Pennsylvania, and through brief sections near Buffalo, Albany, and Boston. Erie, Pennsylvania, Madison, Wisconsin, Billings, Montana, the western I-90 terminus is in the SoDo neighborhood of Seattle. I-90 eastbound begins at exit 2B, Edgar Martínez Drive S and 4th Avenue S. I-90 westbound exit 2B ends at Edgar Martínez Dr and 4th Ave near Safeco Field, as well as 4th Ave just north of S. Royal Brougham Way near CenturyLink Field, about a block east of the entrance to the Port of Seattles container shipping terminal 46, the tunnel that carries I-90 under the Mount Baker Ridge is on the National Register of Historic Places. The east portal of the tunnel is constructed as a bas relief concrete sculpture and they are the second and fifth longest such bridges, respectively. Forty miles east of Bellevue, I-90 traverses the Cascade Ranges Snoqualmie Pass and it intersects I-82 shortly after exiting the mountains and crosses the Columbia River on the Vantage Bridge at mile post 137. After entering Spokane near mile post 279, it enters Idaho eighteen miles later, since 1980, I-90 from Seattle to Thorp was designated the Mountains to Sound Greenway to protect its outstanding scenic and cultural resources. The Washington section of I-90 is defined in the Revised Code of Washington, the small town of Wallace still prides itself on having what was the last stop light in the Rocky Mountains on I-90. As a result, the government was forced, at great expense, to reroute the freeway to the northern edge of downtown. That section of I-90 opened in September 1991, a bicycle path is routed beneath part of that segment. In the period between 1995 and 1999, there was no numbered speed limit on I-90 in Montana, the speed limit was simply defined as reasonable and prudent as determined on a case-by-case basis by the Montana Highway Patrol. The speed limit in Montana is now 80 mph, from the west I-90 enters Montana on the summit of Lookout Pass. It passes between the Gallatin and Bridger mountain ranges over Bozeman Pass between Bozeman and Livingston and it follows the Yellowstone River from Livingston to Billings where it connects the suburbs of Laurel and Lockwood with the rest of the Billings area. In Lockwood it intersects with I-94s western terminus and turns south, South of Hardin it passes the site of the Battle of the Little Bighorn at Crow Agency on the Crow Indian Reservation. Montana boasts the longest stretch of I-90, ranging just over 551 miles, I-90 enters the state of Wyoming from the north after splitting off from I-94 in Billings, Montana. The first major town is Sheridan where it heads southbound and it then goes across the Powder River Basin toward Gillette, Moorcroft, and Sundance where it shares alignments with both US14 and US16Interstate 90 – I-90 crossing Lake Washington
27. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and then as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security. His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work also influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was presidentFranklin D. Roosevelt – Roosevelt in 1933
28. Hurricane Floyd – Hurricane Floyd was a very powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane which struck the east coast of the United States. It was the named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the third largest evacuation in US history when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached and it was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength ever recorded. Floyd was once forecast to strike Florida, but turned away, instead, Floyd struck The Bahamas at peak strength, causing heavy damage. It then paralleled the East Coast of the United States, causing massive evacuations, the hurricane produced torrential rainfall in Eastern North Carolina, adding more rain to an area hit by Hurricane Dennis just weeks earlier. The rains caused flooding over a period of several weeks. In total, Floyd was responsible for 57 fatalities and $6.9 billion in damage, due to the destruction, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Floyd. Floyd originated as a wave that exited the coast of Africa on September 2. At this point, the National Hurricane Center designated it as Tropical Depression Eight, a strong ridge of high pressure to its north forced the developing tropical cyclone westward over warmer waters, allowing it to strengthen to Tropical Storm Floyd on September 8. Although a large storm, Floyd initially lacked a well-defined inner core, on September 10 it organized enough to reach hurricane status, and Floyd approached major hurricane strength on September 11 while north of the Leeward Islands. The central Atlantic upper tropospheric trough, along with a low in the eastern Caribbean Sea, produced vertical wind shear over the hurricane. One contributor to the intensification was the high heat content along the storms path. The new, larger eyewall contracted slightly, and the hurricane briefly re-intensified to Category 4 status, a strong mid- to upper-level trough eroded the western portion of the high-pressure ridge, steering Floyd to the northwest. It paralleled the eastern Florida coast 110 miles off shore, and steadily weakened because of entrainment of dry air and upper-level shear. The storm remained extremely large, however, at its peak, tropical storm-force winds spanned a diameter of 580 mi, Floyd accelerated to the north and northeast, and weakened greatly to a Category 2 hurricane. It made landfall in Cape Fear, North Carolina with winds of 105 mph on September 16, after crossing over North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, it briefly re-entered the western Atlantic Ocean before reaching Long Island on September 17. The storm gradually lost its characteristics due to an approaching frontal zone. The extratropical storm continued to the northeast, and after passing over the Canadian Maritimes, although Floyds track prediction was above average while out at sea, the forecasts as it approached the coastline were merely average compared to forecasts from the previous ten yearsHurricane Floyd – Hurricane Floyd near peak intensity at 12:59 UTC September 14, 1999.
29. New York State Route 28 – New York State Route 28 is a state highway extending for 281.69 miles in the shape of a C between the Hudson Valley city of Kingston and southern Warren County in the U. S. state of New York. Along the way, it intersects several major routes, including Interstate 88, U. S. Route 20, the southern terminus of NY28 is at NY32 in Kingston and the northern terminus is at US9 in Warrensburg. In Kingston, NY28 is co-designated as Interstate 587 from its terminus at NY32 to the roundabout linking it to the Thruway. NY28 was originally assigned in 1924 to an alignment extending from Colliersville in the south to Utica in the north via Ilion. From Colliersville to Cooperstown, the highway followed its current routing, north of Cooperstown, the route was extended south to Kingston and north to Warrensburg as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. At the same time, NY28 was realigned between Cooperstown and Mohawk to follow its modern routing, other than minor realignments in Kingston, Oneonta, and Oneida County, NY28 has remained the same to this day. NY 28s southern terminus is with NY32 in the city of Kingston, the route heads north, then northwest on Colonel Chandler Drive, a four-lane limited-access highway. The roadway is designated and signed as I-587, which begins at NY32 as well. Although Colonel Chandler Drive is built to Interstate Highway standards, it has no intermediary interchanges, after crossing over the Esopus Creek into Ulster, I-587 terminates at a roundabout that links I-587 and NY28 to the New York State Thruway at exit 19. West of I-87, the crosses the Blue Line of Catskill Park. Not long afterward, the highway meets US209 by way of a cloverleaf interchange, past US209, the highway enters a rural area as it heads northwest into the center of the state park. Near the eastern tip of the Ashokan Reservoir, in the town of Kingston, West of NY 28A, NY28 continues towards the north and west along the northern edge of the reservoir. In West Hurley, the route intersects the terminus of NY375. It proceeds along the reservoir to its end in the town of Olive community of Boiceville. At Phoenicia, the largest settlement since Kingston, NY214 reaches its terminus at the highway. Past Phoenicia, the slopes become steeper as the road and creek curve around Panther Mountain, one of the Catskill High Peaks. At Allaben, the Shandaken Tunnel crosses under the road, bringing water from Schoharie Reservoir into the creek. The road and creek start bending to the south to the hamlet of Shandaken, as NY28 continues trending southwest, the valley becomes less developedNew York State Route 28 – Mount Tremper
30. New York State Route 32 – New York State Route 32 is a north–south state highway that extends for 176.73 miles through the Hudson Valley and Capital District regions of the U. S. state of New York. It is a surface road for nearly its entire length, with few divided. From Harriman to Albany, it is parallel to Interstate 87 and U. S. Route 9W. NY32 begins at NY17 on the outskirts of the New York metropolitan area in Woodbury just outside Harriman, in between, the road passes through the cities of Newburgh, Kingston, Albany, Cohoes, and Glens Falls. Outside of the cities, it views of the Hudson Highlands, Shawangunk Ridge, Catskill Mountains, and, during an overlap with US4 north of Albany. The roads now making up the highway were part of several privately maintained turnpikes. Once part of the former NY58, it has been NY32 since 1930, only one of three letter-suffixed spur routes remains. Maintenance of NY32 is split between the New York State Department of Transportation and the departments of several different jurisdictions. Within the cities of Newburgh and Watervliet, the route is entirely city-maintained, in four other cities—Albany, Cohoes, Glens Falls, and Kingston—NY32 is mostly locally maintained. The piece of the route in the city of Mechanicville, meanwhile, is city-maintained north of Frances Street, one last locally maintained section exists in the Albany suburb of Bethlehem, where the route is county-maintained between Feura Bush Road and the Delmar Bypass. This section is co-signed as County Route 52, which continues northwest of NY32 to a junction with NY140 near Slingerlands. Route 32 begins where NY17 leaves the Quickway overpass west of the New York State Thruway toll barrier, to the east is Woodbury Common Premium Outlets, across from Central Valley Elementary School of the Monroe–Woodbury Central School District. Beyond the mall, site of major traffic jams, NY32 descends into downtown Central Valley. 2 miles north is another of the Town of Woodburys hamlets, beyond the Rushmore Memorial Library at the north end of the hamlet the road bends slightly east upon reaching the southeastern foot of Orange Countys highest peak, Schunemunk Mountain. Shortly after Highland Mills, the Port Jervis Line, operated by Metro-North Railroad, after crossing over Woodbury Creek and under the Thruway, NY32 runs along the eastern side of the narrow valley between Schunemunk and the Hudson Highlands. This section of highway runs through wooded terrain as it leaves Woodbury for Cornwall. Just north of Mountainville and the end of Schunemunk, the road crosses Moodna Creek downstream from the Woodbury Creek confluence. The intersection with Angola Road 0.25 miles to the south was once the beginning of the former NY307, across the creek from CR107 is Orrs Mills Road, another county road that leads to Storm King Art CenterNew York State Route 32 – NY 32 begins here in Woodbury.
31. Oakwood Cemetery (Troy, New York) – Oakwood Cemetery is a nonsectarian rural cemetery in northeastern Troy, New York, United States. It operates under the direction of the Troy Cemetery Association, a board of directors that deals strictly with the operation of the cemetery. It was established in 1848 in response to the rural cemetery movement in New England. Oakwood was the rural cemetery opened in New York and its governing body was the first rural cemetery association created in the state. It features four man-made lakes, two structures, a chapel, a crematorium,24 mausolea, and about 60,000 graves. It is known both for its foliage and rolling lawns, and has historically been used as a public park by Lansingburgh. Oakwood was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, the cemetery has been said to be one of New York States most distinguished and well-preserved nineteenth-century rural cemeteries. It also offers a panoramic view of the Hudson River Valley that is said to be the most concentrated. The first rural cemetery in the United States—Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, rural cemeteries are burial grounds typically located on the fringe of a city that offer a natural setting for interment of the dead. The development of rural cemeteries followed closely with the English garden movement of the early 19th century, the Troy Cemetery Association was formed on September 9,1848, John Paine, D. Thomas Vail, Isaac McConihe, George M. Tibbits, John B. Gale, and Stephen E. Warren were elected its trustees and it was the first rural cemetery association incorporated under an 1847 law authorizing the incorporation of such associations. The trustees appointed a committee to report on a location for a cemetery and on September 5,1849. On October 16,1850, the land of the cemetery was consecrated, the Association is made up of lot owners who are elected by fellow lot owners, the position is voluntary and receives no pay. Oakwood was designed by John C, Sidney, a Philadelphia engineer familiar with cemetery design, with the help of Garnet Douglass Baltimore, the first African American to earn a degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For all Sidneys extensive planning, the first plots were laid out in a haphazard manner by the first superintendent. Although Sidney was the architect of the cemetery, it was superintendent John Boetcher that gave Oakwood its charm, Boetcher became superintendent in 1871 and continued in the position until 1898. At the beginning of his tenure, Oakwood was said to be quite crude, Boetcher brought in rare and foreign plants to help beautify the cemetery, including umbrella pines and Colorado blue spruce. In 1869, the City of Troy bought the property of the Third Street Burying Ground for the site of a new city hallOakwood Cemetery (Troy, New York) – Oakwood Cemetery
32. Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame – The Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame is a museum in Goshen, New York. The museum collects and preserves the history of racing and serves as a hall of fame for The American Standardbred horse. Orange County is the birthplace of Hambletonian 10, the ancestor of all American Standardbred horses, established in 1838, the neighboring half-mile Historic Track is a National Historic Landmark, the oldest harness horse track still in use in the United States. Stables still operate on the grounds and races are held annually, the museum opened in 1951, during Goshens Hambletonian Stake era. The half-timber building that houses the museum was built as a stable in 1913 and it houses artwork by famous equine artists and racing memorabilia dating back to the start of trotting. The museum also maintains a library with more than 4,000 books. The Hall of Fame is contained within the museum, the Hall of Fame inducts nominees under several categories, divided between those for horses and those for humans, including drivers, owners, and trainers. The three main categories are Living Persons, Living Horses, and Immortals, winners from each category are inducted on Hall of Fame Day, the first Sunday of each July. All members with more than 10 years of membership are eligible to vote, winners receive a ring, and a statuette of each inductee is added to the Hall of Fame. The museum maintains a committee which compiles a list of five nominees per year to be voted on by all museum members. All horses are required to have been drug-free during their careers, there is a category for race horses, another for stallions, and another for broodmares, each with its own criteria. Winners receive a plaque in the Hall of Fame, and a replica is presented to the current owner of each horse, Museum members in good standing nominate people and horses who are deceased more than 3 years. The nominations are reviewed by a committee, recommendations are made to the board of trustees, inductees include horses such as Greyhound and Victory Song and drivers such as Thomas S. Berry Del Cameron, Jim Dennis, Gladys F. Harriman and Gene Riegle. Inductees are trainers, owners, breeders, industry executives, artists, writers, Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame home page Hambletonian Society home pageHarness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame – Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame
33. The CIA and September 11 (book) – The book has enjoyed considerable commercial success in Germany, where it is published by Piper Verlag, and has sold over 100,000 copies. In subsequent media appearances, Bülow has defended his work, and it is written in a speculative style, laden with terms such as could, might, maybe and if, and does not directly accuse the Central Intelligence Agency of direct responsibility for the attacks. For instance, while it is argued that such well-organized attacks could occur with the support of the intelligence agencies. The book suggests that no plane crashed into The Pentagon and none in Pennsylvania on 9/11, and it states that the theory of the Arab hijackers was created by the CIA, and that these Arabs may not even have been aware that the planes were going to crash. Seven of the hijackers are claimed in the book to have been found alive. The book explores the possibility that the aircraft could have been remote-controlled. It cites observations in support of the theory that the collapse of the World Trade Center might have been due to explosives, von Bülow does not believe that Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda are responsible for the 9/11 attacks. The 271 page book has had a vast print run in Germany, with more than 100,000 copies being sold, Piper Verlag is considered a reputable publisher. A representative from the Börsenblatt bookstore also suggested that in the past, the release coincided with widespread skepticism among the German public about the honesty and motivation of the George W. The work has described as supporting or fostering anti-Americanism. The CIA and September 11 was one of the subjects of a story in Der Spiegel in September 2003. Ungelöst and the books Conspiracies, Conspiracy Theories and the Secrets of September 11th, an example of this is the assertion that at least six of the suspected hijackers named in the aftermath of the attacks turned up alive, the so-called zombie hijackers claim. No photographs of the hijackers had been released at this point in time. In one instance, a man with the name of Said al-Ghamdi had given an interview to Asharq Al-Awsat newspaper in Tunis, CNN had broadcast his photograph after doing research on their own and finding a Saudi Said al-Ghamdi who had received flight training in the United States. CNN had found the suspect, which only became clear once the FBI officially released the photographs of the suspected hijackers. The Spiegel article accuses von Bülow of accepting without due scrutiny any fragment or urban legend that fits his suspicions of foul play, Der Spiegel followed up several claims in an interview with the author. It concludes that his allegations were little more than whispers in the dark, fueled by conspiracy myths circulating on the Internet. Mentions of the theory that Jews stayed away from the WTC on 9/11, a report by the American Jewish Committee accused the book, along with other so-called 9/11 conspiracy literature of 2003, of perpetuating myths and stereotyping Jews as criminal and conspiratorialThe CIA and September 11 (book) – The stark front cover includes the seal of the CIA
34. The French Connection (hockey) – The French Connection was the nickname of a forward line that played for the Buffalo Sabres of the National Hockey League from 1972 until 1979. The line consisted of Hall of Famer Gilbert Perreault at centre and All-Stars Rick Martin and Rene Robert at left wing and right wing, all three players were French-Canadians from Quebec, Perreault from Victoriaville, Robert from Trois-Rivières, and Martin from Verdun, Quebec. The name referred both to the origins of the players and to the 1971 movie The French Connection, based upon the book of the same name. Perreault and Martin were the first-round draft picks of the Sabres in the franchises first two years, while Robert was acquired in a late in the Buffalos second season. They continue to hold many of the scoring records. Each member of the French Connection was named to the official NHL All-Star Team at least once, Perreault was acquired by the team with their first draft pick of their inaugural season in the 1970 Entry Draft. Martin followed the year as the teams first pick in 1971. Both players were drafted after three seasons with the Montreal Junior Canadiens, Robert was acquired in a trade on March 4,1972, for Eddie Shack. He played twelve games for the Sabres during the 1971–72 NHL season, Perreault played his entire 17-season career with the Sabres. Martin played all but 4 games of his injury-shortened 11-season career with the Sabres, the trio played together as a line most of the time until the fall of 1979. On October 5,1979, Scotty Bowman traded Robert to the Colorado Rockies for defenseman John Van Boxmeer and this ended the French Connection era in Buffalo, but not before the trio became the first three players to accumulate 200 goals in a Sabres uniform. Each players jerseys were retired, Perreaults #11 was retired during a ceremony on October 17,1990, all three numbers hang together from the First Niagara Center under a French Connection banner. Perreault was regarded as a skater and tremendous stickhandler. Perreault was chosen to be the player around which a team could be built. Although Martin and Perreault had played two years together with the Montreal Junior Canadiens, they had never played on the line before being paired in Buffalo. Since Martin was one of the few who could keep up with Perreault as a skater they were paired together after the Sabres drafted Martin and it was very clear during the 1971–72 season that Perreault and Martin were a natural pairing. Sabres coach Joe Crozier felt the two just needed a player who would stay high and check. Sabres coach quickly teamed Robert with Perreault and Martin after the trade, the two players complemented Perreault and became a dynamic combination that dazzled fansThe French Connection (hockey)
35. Wall Street – Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the markets of the United States as a whole. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Wall Street area, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, the New York Board of Trade, there are varying accounts about how the Dutch-named de Walstraat got its name. A conflicting explanation is that Wall Street was named after Walloons— the Dutch name for a Walloon is Waal, among the first settlers that embarked on the ship Nieu Nederlandt in 1624 were 30 Walloon families. The Dutch word wal can be translated as rampart, however, even some English maps show the name as Waal Straat, and not as Wal Straat. But soon after that, the Dutch governor, Kieft, sent his men out there one night, few of them escaped, but they spread the story of what had been done, and this did much to antagonize all the remaining tribes against all the white settlers. Shortly after, Nieuw Amsterdam erected a palisade for defense against its now enraged red neighbors. The space between the walls is now called Wall Street, and its spirit is still that of a bulwark against the people. In the 1640s basic picket and plank fences denoted plots and residences in the colony, in 1685, surveyors laid out Wall Street along the lines of the original stockade. In these early days, local merchants and traders would gather at disparate spots to buy and sell shares and bonds, Wall Street was also the marketplace where owners could hire out their slaves by the day or week. The rampart was removed in 1699, the slave market operated from 1711 to 1762 at the corner of Wall and Pearl Streets. It was a structure with a roof and open sides, although walls may have been added over the years. The city directly benefited from the sale of slaves by implementing taxes on every person who was bought, in the late 18th century there was a buttonwood tree at the foot of Wall Street under which traders and speculators would gather to trade securities. The benefit was being in proximity to each other, in 1792, traders formalized their association with the Buttonwood Agreement which was the origin of the New York Stock Exchange. The idea of the agreement was to make the more structured and without the manipulative auctions. Persons signing the agreement agreed to each other a standard commission rate, persons not signing could still participate. In 1789 Wall Street was the scene of the United States first presidential inauguration when George Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on April 30,1789 and this was also the location of the passing of the Bill Of Rights. Alexander Hamilton, who was the first Treasury secretary and architect of the early United States financial system, is buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, in the first few decades, both residences and businesses occupied the area, but increasingly business predominatedWall Street – Street sign
36. 2009 International Bowl – The 2009 International Bowl was a postseason college football bowl game between the Connecticut Huskies and the Buffalo Bulls at the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, on January 3,2009. The game was the final contest of the 2008 NCAA Division I-Football Bowl Subdivision football season for teams, and ended in a 38–20 victory for Connecticut. UConn represented the Big East Conference in the game, Buffalo entered as the Mid-American Conference champion, Connecticut was selected as a participant in the 2009 International Bowl following a 7–5 regular season where they won their first five games, only to lose five of their last seven contests. Facing the Huskies were the Buffalo Bulls with a season record of 8–5. 12 and undefeated Ball State in the 2008 MAC Championship Game, pre-game media coverage focused on the legacy of the 1958 Buffalo Bulls, the first team from the university to be invited to a bowl game. When told that the two African-American members of the team would not be allowed to play because of segregation, the elected to refuse the bowl bid. Buffalo would not play in a bowl until this game,50 years later, the game began at 12,00 PM EST. UConn would close the gap to 20–17 by halftime, and take the lead for good late in the quarter off a 4-yard touchdown pass from quarterback Tyler Lorenzen to tight end Steve Brouse. UConn junior running back Donald Brown was named player of the game and he finished with 261 rushing yards and one touchdown, his 2,083 rushing yards for the 2008 season was best in the NCAA. Following the game, Brown declared his eligibility for the 2009 NFL Draft, three other UConn players were drafted in the second round. The International Bowl had contracts with the Big East and Mid-American Conferences that allowed them to one team from each conference to participate in their annual game. By virtue of being the Big East champion Cincinnati was awarded an automatic Bowl Championship Series berth, the Meineke Car Care Bowl, which had the third selection, picked West Virginia. There were three remaining bowl-eligible Big East teams, Connecticut, Rutgers, and South Florida, additionally, the St. Petersburg Bowl, in its inaugural year, sought to have local team South Florida play in their game to drive local attendance. Therefore, the teams were apportioned among the bowls as follows, South Florida to the St. Petersburg Bowl, Rutgers to the PapaJohns. com Bowl, on December 7,2008, UConn formally accepted the bowl invitation, the third in their history. Buffalo accepted an invitation to the International Bowl following their victory over then-undefeated Ball State in the 2008 MAC Championship Game, the game marked the first bowl for the Bulls after their first MAC Championship since moving to Division I-A and joining the MAC in 1999. The Bulls and Huskies had been frequent opponents during the decade as both programs made the transition from Division I-AA to Division I-A. The two teams played each other in six seasons from 1999 to 2005, with Connecticut winning five of the six contents. The 2005 game, won by UConn 38–0, was the most recent meeting between the two teams, overall, the Huskies and Bulls had played each other 16 times since their first meeting in 1939, with Connecticut holding a 12–4 advantage in the all-time series2009 International Bowl – Toronto, home of the International Bowl
37. Tropical Storm Allison – Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. An arguable example of the ocean effect, Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 15 days. The storm developed from a wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4,2001. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, the storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline, the storm dropped heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at over 40 inches in Texas. The worst flooding occurred in Houston, where most of Allisons damage occurred,30,000 became homeless after the storm flooded over 70,000 houses, downtown Houston was inundated with flooding, causing severe damage to hospitals and businesses. Along its entire path, Allison caused $9 billion in damage and 41 deaths, aside from Texas, the places worst hit were Louisiana and southeastern Pennsylvania. Following the storm, President George W. Bush designated 75 counties along Allisons path as disaster areas, Allison was the first Atlantic tropical storm to have its name retired without ever having reached hurricane strength. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on May 21,2001 and it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean, retaining little convection on its way. After moving across South America and the southwestern Caribbean Sea, the wave entered the eastern North Pacific Ocean on June 1, a low-level circulation developed on June 2, while it was about 230 miles south-southeast of Salina Cruz, Mexico. Southerly flow forced the system northward, and the wave moved inland on June 3, the low-level circulation dissipated, though the mid-level circulation persisted. It emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on June 4, at 1200 UTC on June 5, the disturbance developed a broad, low-level circulation, and was classified as Tropical Storm Allison, the first storm of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. Some intensification was projected, though it was expected to be hindered by cool sea surface temperatures. Due to the nature of the center, Allison initially contained subtropical characteristics. The storm initially moved little, and the presence of several small vortices from within the deep convection caused difficulty in determining the exact center location. Later in the day, several different track forecasts arose, one scenario had the cyclone tracking westward into Mexico. Another projected the storm moving east towards southern Louisiana, at the time, it was noted that little rain or wind persisted near the center, but rather to the north and east. Inland, the storm weakened, and the National Hurricane Center discontinued advisories early on June 6Tropical Storm Allison – Tropical Storm Allison on June 5, 2001
38. Hillary Clinton – Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician who was the 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, and the Democratic Partys nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election. Born in Chicago, Illinois, and raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969, after serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married Bill Clinton in 1975. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families and she was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978 and became the first female partner at Rose Law Firm the following year. As First Lady of Arkansas, she led a force whose recommendations helped reform Arkansass public schools. As First Lady of the United States, Clinton fought for gender equality, because her marriage survived the Lewinsky scandal, her role as first lady drew a polarized response from the public. Clinton was elected in 2000 as the first female senator from New York and she was re-elected to the Senate in 2006. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, as Secretary of State in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2013, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring, during which she advocated the U. S. military intervention in Libya. Leaving office after Obamas first term, she wrote her book and undertook speaking engagements. Clinton made a presidential run in 2016. She became the first female candidate to be nominated for president by a major U. S. political party, despite winning a plurality of the national popular vote, Clinton lost the Electoral College and the presidency to her Republican rival Donald Trump. Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 26,1947, at Edgewater Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. In 1995, Clinton claimed that her mother had named her after Sir Edmund Hillary, co-first mountaineer to scale Mount Everest, however, the Everest climb did not take place until 1953, more than five years after Clinton was born. Clinton was raised in a United Methodist family, living first in Chicago and her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent, and managed a small but successful textile business. Her mother, Dorothy Emma Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, English, French Canadian, Scottish, Clinton has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony. As a child, Rodham was a student of her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge. She participated in such as swimming and baseball, and earned numerous badges as a Brownie. She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council, the school newspaper, and was selected for the National Honor SocietyHillary Clinton – Clinton as Secretary of State in 2009
39. James II of England – James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, the second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britains Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and he was replaced by his eldest, Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. James made one attempt to recover his crowns from William. After the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamites at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and he lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV. James, the surviving son of King Charles I and his wife. Later that same year, he was baptised by William Laud and he was educated by private tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham, George and Francis Villiers. At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral, the position was honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, as the Kings disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War, James stayed in Oxford, a Royalist stronghold. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, in 1648, he escaped from the Palace, aided by Joseph Bampfield, and from there he went to The Hague in disguise. When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed Jamess older brother as Charles II of England, Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and consequently fled to France, like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and later against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he ventures himself, in the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, in consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turennes army. James quarrelled with his brother over the choice of Spain over France. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace, James, doubtful of his brothers chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. Ultimately, he declined the position, by the year the situation in England had changed. After Richard Cromwells resignation as Lord Protector in 1659 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, although James was the heir presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering childrenJames II of England – Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1684
40. Live and Let Die (novel) – Live and Let Die is the second novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series of stories, and is set in London, the US and Jamaica. It was first published in the UK by Jonathan Cape on 5 April 1954, Fleming wrote the novel at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica before his first book, Casino Royale, was published, much of the background came from Flemings travel in the US and knowledge of Jamaica. Bond becomes involved in the US through Mr Bigs smuggling of 17th-century gold coins from British territories in the Caribbean, as with Casino Royale, Live and Let Die was broadly well received by the critics. The initial print run of 7,500 copies quickly sold out, US sales, when the novel was released there a year later, were much slower. Major plot elements from the novel were incorporated into the Bond films For Your Eyes Only in 1981. The British Secret Service agent James Bond is sent by his superior, M, to New York City to investigate Mr Big, real name Buonaparte Ignace Gallia. These gold coins have been turning up in Harlem and Florida and are suspected of being part of a treasure that was buried in Jamaica by the pirate Sir Henry Morgan, in New York Bond meets up with his counterpart in the CIA, Felix Leiter. The two visit some of Mr Bigs nightclubs in Harlem, but are captured, Bond is interrogated by Mr Big, who uses his fortune-telling employee, Solitaire, to determine if Bond is telling the truth. Solitaire lies to Mr Big, supporting Bonds cover story, Mr Big decides to release Bond and Leiter, and has his henchman Tee-Hee Johnson break one of Bonds fingers. On leaving, Bond kills Tee-Hee and several more of Mr Bigs men, while Leiter is released with minimal physical harm by a gang member, sympathetic because of a shared appreciation of jazz. Solitaire later leaves Mr Big and contacts Bond, the travel by train to St. Petersburg, Florida. While Bond and Leiter are scouting one of Mr Bigs warehouses used for storing exotic fish, Bond finds him in their safe house with a note pinned to his chest He disagreed with something that ate him. Bond then investigates the warehouse himself and discovers that Mr Big is smuggling gold coins by hiding them in the bottom of tanks holding poisonous tropical fish, which he is bringing into the US. He is attacked in the warehouse by the Robber, another of Mr Bigs men, during the resultant gunfight, Bond outwits the Robber and causes him to fall into the shark tank. Bond continues his mission in Jamaica, where he meets a fisherman, Quarrel, and John Strangways. Quarrel gives Bond training in scuba diving in the local waters, Bond swims through shark- and barracuda-infested waters to Mr Bigs island and manages to plant a limpet mine on the hull of his yacht before being captured once again by Mr Big. Bond and Solitaire are saved when the mine explodes seconds before they are dragged over the reef. Between January and March 1952 the journalist Ian Fleming wrote Casino Royale, his first novel, Fleming conducted research for Live and Let Die, and completed the novel before Casino Royale was published in January 1953, four months before his second book was publishedLive and Let Die (novel) – First edition cover, published by Jonathan Cape
41. 1991 Perfect Storm – The initial area of low pressure developed off Atlantic Canada on October 29. Forced southward by a ridge to its north, it reached its intensity as a large. The storm lashed the east coast of the United States with high waves and coastal flooding before turning to the southwest, moving over warmer waters, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone before becoming a tropical storm. It executed a loop off the Mid-Atlantic states and turned toward the northeast and it later received the name the Perfect Storm after a conversation between Boston National Weather Service forecaster Robert Case and author Sebastian Junger. The system was the hurricane and final tropical cyclone in the 1991 Atlantic hurricane season. The tropical system weakened, striking Nova Scotia as a storm before dissipating. Damage from the storm totaled over $200 million and the toll was thirteen. Most of the damage occurred while the storm was extratropical, after waves up to 30 feet struck the coastline from Canada to Florida, in Massachusetts, where damage was heaviest, over 100 homes were destroyed or severely damaged. To the north, more than 100 homes were affected in Maine, more than 38,000 people were left without power, and along the coast high waves inundated roads and buildings. In portions of New England, the damage was worse than that caused by Hurricane Bob two months earlier, aside from tidal flooding along rivers, the storms effects were primarily concentrated along the coast. A buoy off the coast of Nova Scotia reported a height of 100.7 feet. In the middle of the storm, Andrea Gail sank, killing her crew of six and inspiring the book, and later movie, The Perfect Storm. Off the shore of New Yorks Long Island, an Air National Guard helicopter ran out of fuel and crashed, four members of its crew were rescued, two people died after their boat sank off Staten Island. High waves swept two people to their deaths, one in Rhode Island and one in Puerto Rico, the Perfect Storm originated from a cold front that exited the east coast of the United States. On October 28, the front spawned a low to the east of Nova Scotia. Around that time, a ridge extended from the Appalachian Mountains northeastward to Greenland, the blocking ridge forced the extratropical low to track toward the southeast and later to the west. Hurricane Grace was swept aloft by its front into the warm conveyor belt circulation of the deep cyclone on October 29. The cyclone significantly strengthened as a result of the temperature contrast between the air to the northwest and the warmth and humidity from the remnants of Hurricane Grace1991 Perfect Storm – The tropical storm making landfall west of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
42. Statue of Liberty – The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, the statue was dedicated on October 28,1886. The Statue of Liberty is a female figure representing Libertas. She holds a torch above her head, and in her left arm carries a tabula ansata inscribed July 4,1776, a broken chain lies at her feet. The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, due to the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue, Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions. The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened due to lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World started a drive for donations to complete the project attracted more than 120,000 contributors. The statue was constructed in France, shipped overseas in crates, the statues completion was marked by New Yorks first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War, public access to the balcony surrounding the torch has been barred for safety reasons since 1916. The project is traced to a conversation between Édouard René de Laboulaye, a staunch abolitionist and Frédéric Bartholdi, a sculptor. The National Park Service, in a 2000 report, however, deemed this a legend traced to an 1885 fundraising pamphlet, in order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. Laboulaye hoped that by calling attention to the recent achievements of the United States, according to sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who later recounted the story, Laboulayes comment was not intended as a proposal, but it inspired Bartholdi. Given the repressive nature of the regime of Napoleon III, Bartholdi took no action on the idea except to discuss it with Laboulaye. Sketches and models were made of the work, though it was never erected. There was a precedent for the Suez proposal, the Colossus of Rhodes. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet high, any large project was further delayed by the Franco-Prussian War, in which Bartholdi served as a major of militia. In the war, Napoleon III was captured and deposed, Bartholdis home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians, and a more liberal republic was installed in FranceStatue of Liberty – Statue of Liberty
43. List of New York hurricanes – 84 tropical or subtropical cyclones have affected the state of New York since the 17th century. The state of New York is located along the East coast of the United States, the strongest of these storms was the 1938 New England Hurricane, which struck Long Island as a Category 3 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Killing more than 600 people, it was also the deadliest, Tropical cyclones have affected the state primarily in September but have also hit during every month of the hurricane season, June through November. Tropical cyclones rarely make landfall on the state, although it is common for remnants of cyclones to produce heavy rainfall. Between 1278 and 1438 — A major hurricane struck the modern-day New York/New Jersey area, august 25,1635 — A hurricane that is reported to have tracked parallel to the East Coast impacts New England and New York, although it remains unknown if any damage occurred. September 8,1667 — A severe storm is reported in Manhattan and is reported to be a continuation of a hurricane which affected the Mid-Atlantic. October 29,1693 — The Great Storm of 1693 causes severe damage on Long Island, September 23,1785 — Several large ships crash into Governors Island as a result of powerful waves which are reported to have been generated by a tropical cyclone. August 19,1788 — A hurricane strikes New York City or Long Island and is reported to have left the west side of the Battery laid in ruins after severe flooding occurs. October 9,1804 — Heavy snow falls in Eastern New York peaking at 30 inches as a hurricane tracks northward along the East Coast and becomes extratropical, as cold air fed into the system. September 5,1815 — A hurricane tracks over North Carolina, September 24,1815 — Several hundred trees fall and the majority of the fruit was stripped off apple trees just prior to harvesting time after a hurricane makes landfall on Long Island. September 16,1816 — A possible hurricane strikes New York City, august 9,1817 — A tropical storm produces heavy rainfall in New York City and Long Island. September 3,1821 — The 1821 Norfolk and Long Island hurricane results in damage on Long Island and is accompanied by storm surge of 13 feet. High wind causes a ship to crash on Long Island killing 17 people, June 4,1825 — A hurricane moves off the East Coast and tracks south of New York causing several ship wrecks, and killing seven people. August 27,1827 — High tides are reported in New York City which are caused by a hurricane offshore, august 1,1830 – A hurricane passes to the east of New York and produces gale-force winds to New York City and Long Island. October 4,1841 — Gale–force winds affect New York City as a hurricane tracks north along the East Coast of the United States, damage is estimated at $2 million. October 13,1846 — The Great Havana Hurricane of 1846 tracks inland, October 6,1849 — Severe structural damage occurs in New York City and Long Island with the passage of a hurricane to the east. July 19,1850 — A hurricane destroys a Coney Island bath house and causes heavy rain and this storm destroyed the ship Elizabeth off Fire Island and drowned American transcendentalist Margaret Fuller. August 24,1850 — A storm that is reported to be a hurricane affects New York, September 9,1854 — A hurricane brushes the East Coast from Florida to New England causing rain on Long IslandList of New York hurricanes – Storm surge from the 1938 New England hurricane
44. Lou Gehrig Memorial Award – The Lou Gehrig Memorial Award is given annually to a Major League Baseball player who best exhibits the character and integrity of Lou Gehrig, both on the field and off it. The award was created by the Phi Delta Theta fraternity in honor of Gehrig and it was first presented in 1955. The awards purpose is to recognize a players exemplary contributions in both his community and philanthropy and it is the only MLB award conferred by a fraternity. Twenty-four winners of the Lou Gehrig Memorial Award are members of the National Baseball Hall of Fame, the inaugural winner was Alvin Dark. Mike Timlin won the award in 2007 for his efforts in raising awareness and finding a cure for ALS, winners of the Lou Gehrig Memorial Award have undertaken a variety of different causes. Many winners, including Rick Sutcliffe, Barry Larkin, Mark McGwire, Todd Stottlemyre and Derek Jeter, roberto Clemente Award Players Choice Awards Branch Rickey Award Baseball awards List of Major League Baseball awards General SpecificLou Gehrig Memorial Award – Lou Gehrig, the namesake of the award
45. Armageddon (2008) – Armageddon was a professional-wrestling pay-per-view event produced by the World Wrestling Entertainment promotion and presented by Ubisofts Prince of Persia. It took place on December 14,2008, at the HSBC Arena in Buffalo and it featured professional wrestlers and other talent from all WWEs three brands, Raw, SmackDown, and ECW. The ninth and final event within the Armageddon chronology, it featured on its card seven professional wrestling matches, during the SmackDown main event, Jeff Hardy defeated Triple H and WWE Champion Edge in a Triple Threat match to win the championship. The Raw main event featured the World Heavyweight Championship contested in a wrestling match. Armageddon helped WWE earn US$15.9 million in revenue from pay-per-view events, when the 2008 event was released on DVD it reached a peak position of second on Billboards DVD Sales Chart. The professional wrestling section of the Canadian Online Explorer website rated the event a perfect 10 out of 10. The event featured wrestlers from WWEs Raw, SmackDown, and ECW brands—a storyline division in which WWE employees are assigned to the program of the same name. At Survivor Series, Jeff Hardy was out of action after being unconscious in the stairwell of his Boston hotel earlier in the morning. In result, Hardy was removed from the WWE Championship match, leaving Triple H, Edge entered the ring and viciously speared Triple H. Next, Hardy surprisingly ran into the ring and attacked Edge. Hardy then grabbed a chair, returned to the ring. As Hardy was about to nail Edge with the chair, Edge countered by spearing Hardy then capitalized, by covering Triple H for the win, in the first contest, Hardy defeated The Brian Kendrick in 12,13. Kozlov fought in the encounter against Matt Hardy, but failed to defeat him in under 12,13. In the last match, Triple H defeated Shelton Benjamin at the time,12,13. In result of the tie, neither man was announced as the contender for the championship, the next week on SmackDown, the WWE board of directors had decided Edge would have to defend the title against both Triple H and Hardy at Armageddon. John Cena and Chris Jericho were involved in the rivalry on the Raw brand over the World Heavyweight Championship. At WWEs November Survivor Series, Cena returned to the WWE after a neck injury. On the November 24 episode of Raw, Jericho defeated Randy Orton, later that night, Chris Jericho attempted to steal Cenas thunder, claiming that he plans on winning back the title at Armageddon. After Jericho once again stated his intention to beat Cena at Armageddon and continued to belittle the WWE Universe and he continued to brutalize Jericho, throwing him against the announce table, bludgeoning him with the steel stairs and locking him into an STFArmageddon (2008) – Promotional poster featuring Chris Jericho
46. Battles of Saratoga – The Battles of Saratoga marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War. Burgoyne fought two battles to break out. They took place eighteen days apart on the ground,9 miles south of Saratoga. Trapped by superior American forces, and with no relief in sight, Burgoyne retreated to Saratoga and his surrender, says historian Edmund Morgan, was a great turning point of the war because it won for Americans the foreign assistance which was the last element needed for victory. Burgoynes strategy to divide New England from the colonies had started well. He won a tactical victory over General Horatio Gates and the Continental Army in the September 19 Battle of Freemans Farm at the cost of significant casualties. His gains were erased when he attacked the Americans in the October 7 Battle of Bemis Heights. Burgoyne was therefore compelled to retreat, and his army was surrounded by the much larger American force at Saratoga and this battle also resulted in Spain joining France in the war against Britain. The first battle, on September 19, began when Burgoyne moved some of his troops in an attempt to flank the entrenched American position on Bemis Heights, Benedict Arnold, anticipating the maneuver, placed significant forces in his way. While Burgoyne did gain control of Freemans Farm, it came at the cost of significant casualties, skirmishing continued in the days following the battle, while Burgoyne waited in the hope that reinforcements would arrive from New York City. Militia forces continued to arrive, swelling the size of the American army, disputes within the American camp led Gates to strip Arnold of his command. Burgoyne attacked Bemis Heights again on October 7 after it became apparent he would not receive relieving aid in time, when the American Revolutionary War approached the two-year point, the British changed their plans. Giving up on the rebellious New England colonies, they decided to split the Thirteen Colonies and isolate New England from what the British believed to be the more loyal middle, the British command devised a grand plan to divide the colonies via a three-way pincer movement in 1777. The northern pincer was to proceed southward from Montreal, and the three forces were to meet in the vicinity of Albany, New York, severing New England from the other colonies. In June 1777 British General John Burgoyne, known as Gentleman Johnny for his manners, after his early capture of Fort Ticonderoga, his campaign had become bogged down in difficulties. Elements of the army had reached the upper Hudson as early as the end of July, one attempt to alleviate these difficulties failed when nearly 1,000 men were killed or captured at the August 16 Battle of Bennington. Furthermore, news reached Burgoyne on August 28 that St. Legers expedition down the Mohawk River valley had turned back after the failed Siege of Fort Stanwix. Faced with the need to reach defensible winter quarters, which would require either retreat back to Ticonderoga or advance to Albany, consequent to this decision he made two further crucial decisionsBattles of Saratoga – Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull, 1822; This painting hangs in the United States Capitol Rotunda.
47. Jessie Bonstelle – Laura Justine Jessie Bonstelle was an American theater director, actress, and drama company manager. Encouraged by her mother, she sang and performed in the theater from an age, she went on to become a famous leading lady. Later she became a director, managing many stock companies, directing Broadway productions, in 1925 she founded her own theater in Detroit. Reorganized in 1928 as the Detroit Civic Theatre, it was one of Americas first civic theaters and she has been described as one of the pioneering women stage directors in the early twentieth century. Bonstelle was born to Helen and Joseph Bonesteel on her fathers farm near the town of Greece, New York and her exact date of birth is unknown, and she kept it a secret, but it was sometime in November 1869 –1871. Originally named Bonesteel, later in life she changed it to Bonstelle after, according to legend, bonstelles mother, who herself had wanted to be an actress, home-schooled her in reading, writing, singing, dancing, and even in reciting Shakespeare. Jessies first public performance was singing songs in church at the age of two years. Helen gave her daughter a passion for acting by taking her to theaters in nearby Rochester. Around the age of ten Jessie auditioned for critic Thomas Keane, and with his encouragement she left on tour with a production of Bertha, the Beautiful Sewing Machine Girl, after returning home from California she briefly studied at Nazareth Academy, a convent school in Rochester. In 1886 she returned to the stage, working for local opera house owner Edward D, Stair and touring in his productions. After the death of her parents in 1890, Bonstelle went to New York City, in 1892 she worked as an understudy and chorus member in Augustin Dalys company, but the season left her exhausted. However, in 1893 she married the actor Alexander Hamilton Stuart, happily married, together they worked in Philadelphias Forepaugh Stock Company for two years, before moving to Rochester, where Bonstelle played various roles and became an established leading lady. She was the lady of Philadelphias Standard Stock Company during the 1898–99 season. Stuart died in 1911, Bonstelle would never remarry, Bonstelle performed in three productions on Broadway, including Elizabeth Jordans The Lady from Oklahoma, which Bonstelle herself produced in 1913. Her acting received mixed or poor reception from New York Times critics, in 1899, while playing with the Biancke Sisters, Bonstelle produced Heimat by Hermann Sudermann. This was its first performance in the United States, and only the second in English, later she received a letter from Sudermann in which he thanked her for performing his work. Her career as a manager and director began around 1900 when Jacob J. Shubert offered her the management of a company in Rochester. This company, the Lyceum stock company, based at Rochesters Lyceum Theater, included prominent actors and future stars, such as Orrin Johnson, Margaret WycherlyJessie Bonstelle – Bonstelle in The Great Question (1908)
48. William Burnet (colonial administrator) – William Burnet was a British civil servant and colonial administrator who served as governor of New York and New Jersey and Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Born into a position of privilege, Burnet was well educated, tutored among others by Isaac Newton and his tenure in New Jersey was without major controversies, although he set a precedent there for accepting what were effectively bribes in exchange for his assent to legislation. His New York rule was marked by an increase in political divisions between land owners and merchants, after the death of King George I, King George II appointed Burnet governor of New Hampshire and Massachusetts. William Burnet was born in The Hague, a city of the Dutch Republic. He was the first child of Mary Burnet and Gilbert Burnet, there were six younger children, of whom four survived infancy. Later in 1688 William led an army across the English Channel in the Glorious Revolution, Burnets father gave the coronation sermon, was later elevated to Bishop of Salisbury, and was an ongoing influence in the English court during King Williams reign. He fell out of favour when Queen Anne took the throne in 1702, all of them were devoted to Gilbert, the best of fathers. On Gilberts death in 1715 William inherited one third of the estate, Burnet was an excellent but undisciplined scholar. He entered Oxford at the age of 13, but was dismissed for disciplinary reasons and his later education came from private tutoring, and he was ultimately admitted to the bar. In 1712 he married Mary, the daughter of George Stanhope and they had one child, a boy, before she died in 1717. Burnets rarefied education brought him a lifelong interest in scientific and mathematical pursuits and he was proposed for membership in the Royal Society by Isaac Newton in 1705, and was enrolled as a fellow in February 1705/6. He was acquainted with the mathematician Gottfried Leibniz, and was a correspondent on a wide array of scientific subjects with Philadelphia merchant. He reported to the Royal Society observations of the Grindelwald Glacier in Switzerland, observations he made of eclipses of the moons of Jupiter while he was governor of New York were used to more precisely determine New York Citys longitude. During his tenure in New York he was starved for intellectual discourse, he briefly met a young Benjamin Franklin. Like his teacher Isaac Newton, Burnet also wrote on religious subjects, in this work he put forward a Millennialist argument that Jesus Christ would return to Earth in 1790, based on his numerological interpretation of the Book of Daniel. Burnets connections to the court procured for him an appointment as the Comptroller of Customs in Great Britain and he also invested heavily in the South Sea Company, whose collapse in 1720 led him to consider more lucrative positions in the North American colonies. Hunter and Burnet were both well-connected to the Whig government then in power, so an exchange of their offices was readily approved, Burnets tenure as New Jersey governor was marked by disputes over the issuance of bills of credit and the granting of a permanent salary. Bills of credit, in addition to providing funding for the provinces expenses, issuance of large quantities of such bills had an inflationary tendency to devalue them relative to the pound sterlingWilliam Burnet (colonial administrator) – Portrait by John Watson
49. Chyna – Joan Marie Laurer, also known by her ring name Chyna, was an American professional wrestler, glamour model, pornographic film actress, and bodybuilder. Chyna first rose to prominence in the World Wrestling Federation in 1997, a founding member of the stable D-Generation X as the promotions first female enforcer, she held the WWF Intercontinental Championship twice and the WWF Womens Championship once. She was also the first woman to participate in the Royal Rumble and King of the Ring events, after leaving the WWF in 2001, Chyna wrestled sporadically, with New Japan Pro Wrestling in 2002 and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling in 2011. Outside of wrestling, Chyna appeared in Playboy magazine twice, as well as television shows. She starred in a further five pornographic titles, including AVNs 2012 Best Celebrity Sex Tape, Laurer was born in Rochester, New York on December 27,1969. She had two siblings, Kathy and Sonny. After her parents divorced when she was four years old. From 1973 to 1983, she, her siblings and her mother moved several times, as a child, Laurer learned to play both the violin and cello. She later said that in seventh grade she was kissed by a much older teacher who worked at her school. At age thirteen, while attending Penfield High School, she began purging after she ate and she left home at age sixteen after her mother tried to force her into a drug rehabilitation facility, going instead to live with her biological father. That same year, she began working out, and because her muscles were so strong. She finished her last year of school in Spain. She attended the University of Tampa, graduating in 1992 with a major in Spanish Literature, during college, she also studied French and German and later stated during this time she was raped by two men after getting drunk at a party. She also was a member of the ROTC and she originally wanted to use her knowledge of foreign languages to work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation or Drug Enforcement Administration. Subsequently, she joined the Peace Corps and was assigned to Guatemala, after returning from abroad, Laurer held several different jobs, a cocktail waitress in a strip club, singer in a band, and a 900-number chat line worker. In her mid-to-late 20s, while living in the Florida Keys, on the way to her first flight, she was in a car accident and spent four days in the hospital. After recovering from the accident, Laurers sister Kathy helped her get a job selling beepers, after college, Laurer began to regularly enter fitness competitions. In 1996, Laurer competed in the New York City regional level of the Fitness America competition, because of her large size compared to the other women, she usually finished in last placeChyna – Joanie Laurer at the 2007 Scream Awards
50. Fellows v. Blacksmith – Fellows v. Blacksmith,60 U. S.366, is a United States Supreme Court decision involving Native American law. In other words, the government retained the discretion not to enforce such treaties. At the same time, the Court held that enrolled treaties are conclusively valid, Fellows was one of several encounters of the Taney Court with the aboriginal title. It was the first litigation of aboriginal title in the United States in the Court by an indigenous plaintiff since Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. According to a contemporary New York Times article, The questions involved are of great magnitude, in Fellows, the court found its first opportunity to consider the power of the federal government over Indian lands in New York. Following the precedents of the Marshall Court, Fellows was decided at a time when the government was dealing with Indian tribes as if they were semi-sovereign nations. The plaintiffs lawyer John H. Martindale also represented the interests of the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians in three cases in the New York state courts. The third such case, New York ex rel, Cutler v. Dibble, also reached the Supreme Court, which held that state nonintercourse acts are not preempted by the Commerce Clause, the federal Nonintercourse Act, or federal treaties. Ely S. Parker, one of the administrators of the Blacksmith estate, went on to draft the surrender at Appomattox, the Marshall Court had repeatedly taken up the issue of aboriginal title in the United States. However, with the exception of Cherokee Nation v, the uniform rule of these cases, enunciated most clearly in Johnson v. MIntosh, was that non-Indians could not acquire valid land title from such private purchases. However, the purchase at issue in Fellows, the Treaty of Buffalo Creek, had been ratified by the federal government, at the end of his opinion in Fletcher v. Peck, Marshall had stated that ejectment could not be obtained against the holder of aboriginal title. The Taney Court, in Marsh v, in the oral arguments of that case, Cherokee Nation had been cited as authority for the argument that Indians cannot sue on their aboriginal title in court of the United States. The plaintiffs in Fellows had sued under the cause of action of trespass. The compact was approved by the Congress of the Confederation on October 8,1787, oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham acquired the right of pre-emption to the lands at issue in Fellows v. Blacksmith from Massachusetts in 1788 as part of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. However, Phelps and Gorham only consummated the right of pre-emption for a tract east of the Genesee River in 1788, Phelps and Gorham defaulted on their payments to Massachusetts in 1790, causing the pre-emption rights to return to the state. Massachusetts then conveyed the pre-emption rights to Samuel Ogden on behalf of Robert Morris on May 12,1791. Morris retained the right to the Morris Reserve for himself. The Holland Land Company consummated much of its right in the Treaty of Big TreeFellows v. Blacksmith – The Holland Land Office
51. Tina Fey – Elizabeth Stamatina Tina Fey is an American actress, comedian, writer, and producer. She is also known for writing and co-starring in the film Mean Girls, as well as appearing in such films as Baby Mama, Date Night, Muppets Most Wanted. Fey broke into comedy as a player in the Chicago-based improvisational comedy group The Second City. She then joined SNL as a writer, later becoming head writer, in 2004, she co-starred in and wrote the screenplay for Mean Girls, which was adapted from the 2002 self-help book Queen Bees and Wannabes. After leaving SNL in 2006, she created the television series 30 Rock for Broadway Video, in the series, Fey portrays the head writer of a fictional sketch comedy series. In 2008, she starred in the comedy film Baby Mama, Fey next appeared in the 2010 comedy film Date Night and the animated film Megamind. In 2015, she created and produced the television series Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, originally for NBC and her other films include Sisters and Whiskey Tango Foxtrot. Fey has received nine Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, five Screen Actors Guild Awards, and four Writers Guild of America Awards and her autobiography Bossypants topped The New York Times Best Seller list for five weeks. In 2008, the Associated Press gave Fey the AP Entertainer of the Year award for her portrayal of Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin in a guest appearance on SNL. In 2010, Fey was awarded the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, on January 13,2013, Fey hosted the 70th Golden Globe Awards with her long-time friend and fellow comedian, Amy Poehler, to critical acclaim. The duo hosted again the two years, generating the highest ratings for the annual ceremony in a decade and receiving similar acclaim. Fey was born in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, an inner ring suburb of Philadelphia and her mother, Zenobia Jeanne, is a brokerage employee. Her father, Donald Henry Fey, was a university grant proposal-writer and she has a brother, Peter, who is eight years older. Feys mother, who was born in Piraeus, is the daughter of Greek immigrants, Vasiliki Kourelakou, Feys maternal grandmother, left Petrina on her own, arriving in the United States in February 1921. According to a genealogical DNA test arranged by the television series Finding Your Roots, Feys ancestry is 94% European, 3% Middle Eastern, Fey was exposed to comedy early, I remember my parents sneaking me in to see Young Frankenstein. We would also watch Saturday Night Live, or Monty Python and my dad would let us stay up late to watch The Honeymooners. We were not allowed to watch The Flintstones though, my dad hated it because it ripped off The Honeymooners, I actually have a very low level of Flintstones knowledge for someone my age. At age 11, Fey read Joe Franklins Seventy Years of Great Film Comedians for a project about comedyTina Fey – Fey at the Muppets Most Wanted premiere in 2014.
52. Hamilton Fish – Hamilton Fish, was an American statesman and politician who served as the 16th Governor of New York, a United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. Fish is recognized as the pillar of the Grant Administration and considered one of the best U. S, Secretaries of State by scholars, known for his judiciousness and efforts towards reform and diplomatic moderation. Fish settled the controversial Alabama Claims with Great Britain through his development of the concept of international arbitration, Fish kept the United States out of war with Spain over Cuban independence by coolly handling the volatile Virginius Incident. In 1875, Fish initiated the process that would lead to Hawaiian statehood. He also organized a conference and treaty in Washington D. C. between South American countries and Spain. Fish worked with James Milton Turner, Americas first African American consul, President Grant said he trusted Fish the most for political advice. Fish came from a prominent wealthy New York family and attended Columbia College of Columbia University, upon graduation, Fish passed the bar, worked as New Yorks commissioner of deeds, and ran unsuccessfully for New York State Assembly as a Whig candidate in 1834. After his marriage, Fish returned to New York politics in 1843 and was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, Fish ran for New Yorks Lieutenant Governor in 1846. He was defeated by a Democratic Anti-Rent Party contender, when the office was vacated in 1847, Fish ran and was elected Lieutenant Governor. In 1848 Fish ran and was elected Governor of New York, in 1851, Fish was elected U. S. Senator for the state of New York, serving one term, Fish gained valuable experience serving on the U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. During the 1850s Fish became a Republican after the Whig party dissolved, in terms of the slavery issue, Fish was a moderate, having disapproved of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the expansion of slavery. After traveling to Europe, Fish returned to America and supported Abraham Lincoln as the Republican candidate for President in 1860, Fish returned to his law practice after the Civil War, and was thought to have retired from political life. When Ulysses S. Grant was elected President in 1868, he appointed Fish as U. S. Secretary of State in 1869, Fish took on the State Department with vigor, reorganized the office, and established civil service reform. During his 8-year tenure, Fish had to contend with Cuban belligerency, the settlement of the Alabama claims, Canada–US border disputes, Fish implemented the new concept of international arbitration, where disputes between countries were settled by negotiations, rather than military conflicts. Fish was involved in a feud between Senator Charles Sumner and President Grant in the latters unsuccessful efforts to annex the Dominican Republic. Fish organized an expedition in an unsuccessful attempt to open trade with Korea in 1871. Leaving office and politics in 1877, Fish returned to private life, Fishs male descendants would later serve in the U. S. House of Representatives for three generationsHamilton Fish – Hamilton Fish
53. Siege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777) – The 1777 Siege of Fort Ticonderoga occurred between 2 and 6 July 1777 at Fort Ticonderoga, near the southern end of Lake Champlain in the state of New York. Lieutenant General John Burgoynes 8, 000-man army occupied high ground above the fort and these movements precipitated the occupying Continental Army, an under-strength force of 3,000 under the command of General Arthur St. Clair, to withdraw from Ticonderoga and the surrounding defences. Some gunfire was exchanged, and there were casualties, but there was no formal siege. Burgoynes army occupied Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, the fortifications on the Vermont side of the lake. Advance units pursued the retreating Americans, General St. Clair and his superior, General Philip Schuyler, were vilified by Congress. Both were eventually exonerated in courts martial, but their careers were adversely affected, Schuyler had already lost his command to Horatio Gates by the time of the court martial, and St. Clair held no more field commands for the remainder of the war. In September 1775, early in the American Revolutionary War, the American Continental Army embarked on an invasion of Quebec, the invasion ended in disaster in July 1776, with the army chased back to Fort Ticonderoga by a large British army that arrived in Quebec in May 1776. A small Continental Navy fleet on Lake Champlain was defeated in the October 1776 Battle of Valcour Island, the delay required by the British to build their fleet on Lake Champlain caused General Guy Carleton to hold off on attempting an assault on Ticonderoga in 1776. His British Army troops consisted of the 9th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 47th, 53rd and 62nd regiments, the light infantry and flank companies formed the armys advance force, and were commanded by Brigadier General Simon Fraser. The remaining regulars, under the leadership of Major General William Phillips, formed the wing of the army. His forces consisted of the Rhetz, Riedesel, Specht, Barner, most of these forces had arrived in 1776, and many participated in the campaign that drove the American army out of Quebec. The total size of Burgoynes regular army was about 7,000, in addition to the regulars, there were about 800 Indians, and a relatively small number of Canadiens and Loyalists, who acted primarily as scouts and screening reconnaissance. The army was accompanied by more than 1,000 civilians, including a pregnant woman. Including these non-military personnel, the number of people in Burgoynes army was more than 10,000. Burgoyne and General Carlton recited the troops at Fort Saint-Jean, near the end of Lake Champlain. By 21 June, the carrying the army was on the lake. While en route, Burgoyne authored a proclamation to the Americans, written in the turgid, pompous style for which he was well-known, American forces had occupied the forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point since they captured them in May 1775 from a small garrison. In 1776 and 1777, they undertook significant efforts to improve the defenses surrounding Ticonderoga, a peninsula on the east side of the lake, renamed Mount Independence, was heavily fortifiedSiege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777) – Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Mount Defiance
54. James Franco – James Edward Franco is an American actor and filmmaker known for his work in both comedic and dramatic films and TV shows. For his role in 127 Hours, Franco was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor and he also portrayed the title character in the TV biographical film James Dean, for which he won a Golden Globe Award. He had recurring roles on the soap opera General Hospital and sitcom Angie Tribeca and he will star in the David Simon-created HBO drama The Deuce in 2017. Franco volunteers for the Art of Elysium charity, and has taught film classes at New York University, the University of Southern California, UCLA, Studio 4. Franco was born in Palo Alto, California and his mother, Betsy Lou, is a writer and occasional actress, and his father, Douglas Eugene Doug Franco, ran a Silicon Valley business. The two met as students at Stanford University, Francos father was of Portuguese and Swedish descent. Francos mother is Jewish, from a family of Russian Jewish ancestry and his maternal grandfather, Daniel, had changed the family surname from Verovitz to Verne some time after 1940. Francos paternal grandmother, Marjorie Franco, is an author of young adult books. Francos maternal grandmother, Mitzie Verne, owned the Verne Art Gallery, a prominent art gallery in Cleveland, Francos family upbringing was academic, liberal, and largely secular. He grew up in California with his two brothers, Tom and Dave, a math whiz, Franco interned at Lockheed Martin. He was often encouraged by his father to get good grades and he graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1996, where he acted in plays. This led to him attending CSSSA in 1998 for theatre, in his high school years, Franco was arrested for underage drinking, graffiti, and for being a part of a group that stole designer fragrances from department stores and sold them to classmates. These arrests led to his becoming a ward of the state. Facing the possibility of juvenile hall, Franco was given a chance by the judge. I was uncomfortable in my own skin, I changed my ways just in time to get good grades, he recalled of his troubles with the law. Although the idea of becoming a marine zoologist interested him, Franco had always wanted to become an actor. Franco instead chose to take acting lessons with Robert Carnegie at the Playhouse West, around this time, Franco took up a late-night job at McDonalds to support himself because his parents refused to do so. He was a vegetarian until working there, while working at the establishment, he would practice accents on customers, an experience he remembered nostalgically in a 2015 Washington Post editorialJames Franco – Franco at a ceremony to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on March 8, 2013
55. Milton Friedman – Friedmans challenges to what he later called naive Keynesian theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and he theorized that there existed a natural rate of unemployment, and argued that employment above this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was, in the run, vertical at the natural rate. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as monetarism, and argued that a steady and his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation influenced government policies, especially during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserves response to the financial crisis of 2007–08. Friedman was an advisor to Republican U. S. President Ronald Reagan and his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating U. S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment and his support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, later renamed EdChoice. His books and essays have had influence, including in former communist states. Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31,1912 and his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary. They both worked as dry goods merchants, shortly after Miltons birth, the family relocated to Rahway, New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident, a talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics, during his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago, Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933. He was strongly influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, and it was at Chicago that Friedman met his future wife, economist Rose Director. During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University and he was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, who was then working on Theory and Measurement of Demand. That year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler, foreshadowing his later ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued. During 1935, he work for the National Resources Committee. Ideas from this later became a part of his Theory of the Consumption FunctionMilton Friedman – Friedman in 2004
56. Klaus Fuchs – While at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Fuchs was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first nuclear weapons, and later, early models of the hydrogen bomb. He was expelled from the SPD in 1932, and joined the Communist Party of Germany, after the Second World War broke out in Europe, he was interned on the Isle of Man, and later in Canada. After he returned to Britain in 1941, he became an assistant to Rudolf Peierls, in 1943, Fuchs and Peierls went to Columbia University, in New York City, to work on the Manhattan Project. In August 1944 Fuchs joined the Theoretical Physics Division at the Los Alamos Laboratory and his chief area of expertise was the problem of implosion, necessary for the development of the plutonium bomb. After the war he returned to the UK and worked at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as head of the Theoretical Physics Division, in January 1950, Fuchs confessed that he was a spy. He was sentenced to fourteen years imprisonment and stripped of his British citizenship and he was later appointed deputy director of the Institute for Nuclear Research in Rossendorf, where he served until he retired in 1979. Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs was born in Rüsselsheim, Grand Duchy of Hesse, on 29 December 1911, the third of four children of a Lutheran pastor, Emil Fuchs, Fuchs was always known by his last given name, Klaus. He had an older brother Gerhard, an older sister Elisabeth, the family moved to Eisenach, where Fuchs attended the gymnasium, and took his Abitur. At school, Fuchs and his siblings were taunted over his fathers political views. They became known as the red foxes, Fuchs being the German word for fox, Fuchs entered the University of Leipzig in 1930, where his father was a professor of theology. Fuhs continued his studies in mathematics and physics at the university, in October 1931, his mother committed suicide by drinking hydrochloric acid. The family later discovered that his grandmother had also taken her own life. However, when the Communist Party of Germany ran its own candidate, Ernst Thälmann, Fuchs offered to speak for him and that year Fuchs and all three of his siblings joined the KPD. Fuchs and his brother Gerhard were active speakers at public meetings, at one such gathering, Fuchs was beaten up and thrown into the river. When Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, Fuchs decided to leave Kiel and he enrolled at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin. On 28 February, he took a train to Berlin for a KPD meeting there. On the train, he read about the Reichstag fire in a newspaper, Fuchs correctly assumed that opposition parties would be blamed for the fire, and quietly removed his hammer and sickle lapel pin. The KPD meeting in Berlin was held in secret, fellow party members urged him to continue his studies in another countryKlaus Fuchs – Police photograph of Klaus Fuchs ca. 1940
57. Kirsten Gillibrand – Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand is an American politician and the junior United States Senator from New York, in office since 2009. Previously, she served in the United States House of Representatives and she is a member of the Democratic Party. In December 2008, President-elect Barack Obama nominated Hillary Clinton as Secretary of State, after two months and many potential names considered, Governor David Paterson appointed Gillibrand to fill the seat. Gillibrand was required to run in an election in 2010. She was re-elected to a full term in 2012 with 72% of the vote. Kirsten Gillibrand was born in Albany, New York, on December 9,1966, both her parents are attorneys, and her father has also worked as a lobbyist. Her parents divorced in the late 1980s, Gillibrand has an older brother, Douglas Rutnik, and a younger sister, Erin Rutnik Tschantret. She has English, Austrian, Scottish, German, and Irish ancestry, during her childhood and college years, Gillibrand used the nickname Tina. She began using her name of Kirsten a few years after law school. In 1984 she graduated from Emma Willard School, a high school in Troy, New York. Gillibrand majored in Asian Studies, studying in both Beijing and Taiwan, while in Beijing, she studied and lived with Connie Britton. Gillibrand graduated magna cum laude in 1988, while at Dartmouth, she was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. During college, Gillibrand interned at Republican U. S, Gillibrand received her J. D. from UCLA School of Law and passed the bar exam in 1991. In 1991, Gillibrand joined the Manhattan-based law firm of Davis Polk & Wardwell as an associate, in 1992, she took a leave from Davis Polk to serve as a law clerk to Judge Roger Miner on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Albany. She became an associate while working on Philip Morris litigation. While working at Davis Polk, Gillibrand became involved in—and later the leader of—the Womens Leadership Forum and it was such a challenge to the women in the room. And it really hit me, Shes talking to me, following her time at Davis Polk, Gillibrand served as Special Counsel to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Andrew Cuomo during the last year of the Clinton administration. Gillibrand worked on HUDs Labor Initiative and its New Markets Initiative, as well as on TAPs Young Leaders of the American Democracy, and strengthening Davis–Bacon Act enforcementKirsten Gillibrand – Gillibrand in 2010
58. Glenwood Generating Station – Glenwood Generating Station is a power station in Glenwood Landing, New York owned by National Grid plc. It is mainly known for being the site of an architecturally significant 1920s brick power station. Two smaller generators constructed in 2002 remain in operation, Station 2 was constructed in the 1920s and considered significant as a rare surviving example of early 20th-century industrial architecture. It was designed in an industrial Beaux-Arts style, with arched windows. It was constructed with Flemish bond brickwork and decorative limestone elements and it was also constructed to minimize noise and ash pollution. Buildings with such architectural detail were usually found in urban areas, given the buildings poor condition after three decades of disuse, the excessive cost of making the building structurally sound prevented any plans to retain or renovate it. The first facility on the site was Station 1, constructed in 1906 and expanded during World War I, the Station 2 building was constructed from 1928 to 1931 by the Nassau Power and Light Company, a predecessor of the Long Island Lighting Company. The extra generating capacity was needed due to a increase in Long Islands electricity demand from 1910 to 1925. The expansion also reflected LILCOs then-novel philosophy of using few centralized power plants interconnected by transmission lines, in 1936 it was described as the key electric generating plant of the Long Island system, and its control room managed LILCOs entire system. In 1939 it was upgraded to burn coal and oil, and in 1946 natural gas capability was added. In 1942, a 3-hour power outage caused by testing of new distribution circuits affected seven major factories producing material for World War II. These included the Grumman plant in Bethpage and the Republic Aviation plant in Farmingdale, local hospitals and Mitchel Field were able to continue operating under auxiliary power. Although sabotage was not suspected, it caused the colonel in charge of protection for Nassau County to request that the Army guard the power station. The two units of Station 3 became operational in 1952 and 1954 and it was the first turbine generator mounted on an open deck in the Northeastern United States. An identical unit was constructed in Far Rockaway, Queens in 1953, the pair of turbines produced 79 MW, just under an 80 MW threshold that would have triggered a full regulatory and environmental review. The new turbines were completed by May 2002, and were the first of the ten to enter operation, as a result of the 1998 deal, LIPA had an option to purchase KeySpans power plants outright before December 2005. KeySpan was acquired by National Grid in 2007, Station 3s utilization decreased from 43 percent in 2001 to 11.2 percent in 2005. As of 2009, the station was used as a peaking power plant operating in the summerGlenwood Generating Station – Glenwood Generating Station in 2011, viewed from Bar Beach across Hempstead Harbor. The brick building at left is Station 2, while the two yellow smokestacks at right are part of Station 3. Both buildings were demolished in 2013 and 2014.
59. Mike Gravel – Maurice Robert Mike Gravel is an American politician who was a Democratic United States Senator from Alaska from 1969 to 1981 and a candidate in the 2008 U. S. presidential election. He moved to Alaska in the late 1950s, becoming a real estate developer and he served in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1963 to 1966 and also became Speaker of the Alaska House. Gravel was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1968 and he was re-elected to the Senate in 1974, but gradually alienated most of his Alaskan constituencies and his bid for a third term was defeated in a primary election in 1980. Gravel returned to business ventures and went through difficult times, suffering corporate and he has been a quixotic advocate of direct democracy and the National Initiative. In 2006, Gravel began a run for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States to promote those ideas. In March 2008, he announced that he was switching to the Libertarian Party to compete for its presidential nomination, at the Libertarian National Convention of 2008 he failed on both counts, and he announced that his political electoral career had ended. He subsequently became an executive for a products company and continued to speak out on various political issues including Democratic Party politics. Gravel was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, one of five born to French-Canadian immigrant parents, Alphonse. His parents were part of the Quebec diaspora, and he was raised in a working-class neighborhood during the Great Depression, calling him Mike from an early age, his father valued work above all else, while his mother stressed to him the importance of education. Gravel was educated in schools as a Roman Catholic. There he struggled – due to what he said was undiagnosed dyslexia – and was left back in third grade. He completed elementary school in 1945 and his class voted him most charming personality, a summer job as a soda jerk led to Gravel handing out campaign fliers for local candidates on behalf of his boss, Gravel was immediately impressed with the awesomeness of political office. Gravel then boarded at Assumption Preparatory School in Worcester, Massachusetts, then an English teacher, the Assumptionist Edgar Bourque, gave him personal attention, improving Gravels language skills and instructing him in public speaking. Gravels grades improved measurably in his year, and he graduated in 1949. He has a sister, Marguerite, who became a Holy Cross nun and he studied for one year at Assumption College, a Catholic school in Worcester, then transferred for his sophomore year to American International College in Springfield. Journalist I. F. Stone and philosopher Bertrand Russell strongly influenced Gravel in their willingness to challenge assumptions and oppose social convention and political authority. Around May 1951, Gravel saw that he was about to be drafted, after basic training and counterintelligence school at Fort Holabird in Maryland and in South Carolina, he went to Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning, Georgia. There he had a time moving around the country, conducting surveillance operations on civiliansMike Gravel – Mike Gravel
60. Mallory Hagan – Mallory Hytes Hagan is an American actress, model and beauty queen who won Miss America 2013 and Miss New York 2012. She was also Miss New York City 2012, Miss Manhattan 2011, Miss Brooklyn 2010, and she is a native of Alabama, where she had been runner-up in the Miss Alabamas Outstanding Teen Program, and a non-finalist talent winner at Miss Alabama. She won the Miss America competition on a platform of child abuse awareness. She also gave a response on the issue of gun control in which she opposed fighting violence with violence. She moved to New York after her first year of college at Auburn University, Hagan is from Opelika, Alabama and is a 2007 graduate of Opelika High School. She was influenced by her years spent with a mother who ran a dance studio in the Auburn-Opelika area. Her grandmother had run a studio in Tennessee, where Hagan was born. She is a student at Auburn University, where she spent a year studying biomedical science. She was also a member of the sorority Pi Beta Phi Alabama Gamma chapter and she moved to the Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood in Brooklyn in October 2008. At the time of her arrival, she had $1000 and a dream of beauty pageant success, several sources stated that Hagan was a Park Slope resident when she won Miss America. The Wall Street Journal ran a correction, corroborated by The New York Times, Hagan had lived in six different Brooklyn neighborhoods between her arrival in 2008 and her Miss America victory in 2013, including Sunset Park and Williamsburg. At FIT, she was a part of the Presidential Honors Program and her three placements in the Miss New York competition provided her with sufficient scholarship monies to pay for her entire FIT tuition. She trained several different methods to prepare for the pageant and her trainers included Richard Talens of social fitness network Fitocracy, Sohee Lee, and Mark Fisher of Mark Fisher Fitness. One of her training elements was also CrossFit exercise programs, Hagan won Miss Brooklyn on March 28,2010. Her prior pageant experience has been reported to include runner-up placements in the Miss Alabamas Outstanding Teen, however, Hagan stated that in the Miss Alabama 2008 competition, which was her only attempt at that title, I did get a non-finalist talent award. She competed in Miss Alabamas Outstanding Teen from the ages of 13 to 17, Hagan was the first runner-up in both of the Miss New York 2010 and Miss New York 2011 pageants. She then went on to win the title of Miss New York 2012, during Hagans reign as Miss New York 2012, her platform was child sexual abuse awareness and prevention. Her contest bio stated that Hagan has chosen to honor the women in her family who have been victims of abuse by sharing their personal storiesMallory Hagan – Hagan in the 2013 Show Us Your Shoes parade in Atlantic City, NJ
61. Lauryn Hill – Lauryn Noelle Hill is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. She is best known for being a member of the Fugees and for her acclaimed solo album The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill. Raised mostly in South Orange, New Jersey, Hill began singing with her family during her childhood. In high school, Hill was approached by Pras Michel to start a band and they renamed themselves the Fugees and released the albums Blunted on Reality and the Grammy Award-winning The Score. Hills tumultuous romantic relationship with Jean led to the split of the band in 1997, the Miseducation of Lauryn Hill remains Hills only solo studio album. It received massive critical acclaim, showcasing a representation of life and relationships, the album debuted at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200 and has sold approximately eight million copies there. It included the singles Doo Wop, Ex-Factor, and Everything Is Everything, at the 41st Grammy Awards, the record earned her five awards, including Album of the Year and Best New Artist. During this time she won numerous awards and became a common sight on the cover of magazines. Soon afterward, Hill dropped out of the eye, dissatisfied with the music industry. Her last full-length recording, the live album MTV Unplugged No. 2.0, sharply divided critics and sold poorly compared to her first album, Hills subsequent activity, which includes the release of a few songs and occasional festival appearances, has been sporadic and erratic. Her behavior has sometimes caused audience dissatisfaction, a reunion with her former group did not last long and her music, as well as a series of public statements she has issued, has become critical of pop culture and societal institutions. Hill has six children, five of whom are with Rohan Marley, in 2012, she pleaded guilty to tax evasion for failure to pay federal income taxes, and in 2013, served a three-month prison sentence. Lauryn Noelle Hill was born on May 26,1975, in East Orange, New Jersey to English teacher Valerie Hill and computer and she has one older brother named Malaney. Her Baptist family moved to New York and Newark for short periods until settling in South Orange and she had a middle-class upbringing, knowing both many white Jewish families and many black ones. Future actor Zach Braff lived in the neighborhood, and she attended his Bar Mitzvah, Hill has said of her musically oriented family, there were so many records, so much music constantly being played. My mother played piano, my father sang, and we were surrounded in music. Her father sang in nightclubs and at weddingsLauryn Hill – Hill performing at RBC Royal Bank Bluesfest, in Ottawa, 2012
62. Caitlyn Jenner – Caitlyn Marie Jenner, formerly known as Bruce Jenner, is an American television personality and retired Olympic gold medal-winning decathlete. Jenner was a football player for the Graceland Yellowjackets before incurring a knee injury that required surgery. Coach L. D. Weldon, who had coached Olympic decathlete Jack Parker, after intense training, Jenner won the 1976 Olympics decathlon event at the Montreal Olympic Games, gaining fame as an all-American hero. Jenner set a third world record while winning the Olympics. The winner of the Olympic decathlon is traditionally given the title of worlds greatest athlete. With that stature, Jenner subsequently established a career in television, film, writing, auto racing, business, Jenner has six children from marriages to wives Chrystie Crownover, Linda Thompson, and Kris Jenner. Previously identifying publicly as male, Jenner revealed her identity as a woman in April 2015. Her name and gender change became official on September 25,2015 and she has been called the most famous openly transgender woman in the world. From 2015 to 2016, Jenner starred in the reality television series I Am Cait, Caitlyn Marie Jenner was born William Bruce Jenner on October 28,1949, in Mount Kisco, New York, to Esther Ruth and William Hugh Jenner. She has two sisters, Lisa and Pam and her younger brother, Burt, was killed in a car accident in Canton, Connecticut on November 30,1976, shortly after Jenners success at the Olympic Games. As a young child, Jenner was diagnosed with dyslexia, Jenner earned a football scholarship and attended Graceland College in Lamoni, Iowa, but was forced to stop playing football because of a knee injury. Recognizing Jenners potential, Graceland track coach L. D. Weldon encouraged Jenner to switch to the decathlon, in 1970, Jenner placed fifth while debuting in the decathlon at the Drake Relays in Des Moines, Iowa. Jenner graduated from Graceland College in 1973 with a degree in physical education, all Olympic events and medals are for mens events and prior to her public gender transition. At the 1972 U. S. Olympic trials in Eugene, Oregon, Jenner was in place in the mens decathlon, behind Steve Gough. Needing to make up a 19-second gap on Gough in the mens 1500 metres, Jenner qualified for the Olympic team by running a fast final lap, Video on YouTube @25,58 This prompted the Eugene Register-Guard to ask, Whos Jenner. Following the Olympic Trials, Jenner finished in place in the decathlon at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. By watching Soviet Mykola Avilov win the event, Jenner was inspired to start a training regimen. For the first time, I knew what I wanted out of life and that was it, I literally started training that night at midnight, running through the streets of Munich, Germany, training for the GamesCaitlyn Jenner – Jenner at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games prior to her gender transition
63. George McTurnan Kahin – George McTurnan Kahin was an American historian and political scientist. He was one of the experts on Southeast Asia and a critic of United States involvement in the Vietnam War. After completing his dissertation, which is considered a classic on Indonesian history. At Cornell, he became the director of its Southeast Asia Program, Kahins incomplete memoir was published posthumously in 2003. George McTurnan Kahin was born on January 25,1918, in Baltimore, Maryland and he received a B. S. in history from Harvard University in 1940. Kahin married Margaret Baker in 1942, but the marriage ended in divorce, however, the operation was canceled after it was determined that U. S. forces would bypass the Indies after the Potsdam Conference. As a result, his unit was sent to the European theater and he earned the rank of sergeant before leaving the Army. Kahins interest in Southeast Asia developed during this period, and he learned to speak Indonesian, Kahin returned after the war to complete his M. A. from Stanford University, which he received in 1946. His thesis was titled The Political Position of the Chinese in Indonesia and he continued to pursue of his interest in Southeast Asia, going to Indonesia in 1948 to conduct research during the Indonesian National Revolution. During his work, he was arrested by Dutch colonial authorities, Kahin received a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University in 1951. His dissertation, titled Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia, is considered a classic on Indonesian history, in 1951, Kahin became an assistant professor of government at Cornell University. He received tenure and was promoted to professor in 1954. He became the director of Cornells Southeast Asia Program in 1961, Kahin also founded the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project in 1954 and served as its director until his retirement in 1988. Between 1962 and 1963, he became a Fulbright professor at London University, Kahin was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The university was divided between proponents of the inclusion of the principles of justice in course instruction and advocates of academic freedom for the faculty. This clash affected the Department of Government, where Kahin and a number of defending academic freedom resided. Many of these professors had considered leaving the university due to the administrations policies promoting racial justice, the following week, the Department of Government organized a teach-in on academic freedom, and Kahin was invited to speak at the event by department chair Peter Sharfman. Historian Walter LaFeber would later remember his remarks as the most eloquent speech about academic freedom I have ever encountered anywhere up to time or since that timeGeorge McTurnan Kahin – Kahin as a visiting professor at Monash University in 1971
64. Marcellus Formation – The Marcellus Formation is a Middle Devonian age unit of marine sedimentary rock found in eastern North America. Named for an outcrop near the village of Marcellus, New York, in the United States. Stratigraphically, the Marcellus is the lowest unit of the Devonian age Hamilton Group, although black shale is the dominant lithology, it also contains lighter shales and interbedded limestone layers due to sea level variation during its deposition almost 400 million years ago. The black shale was deposited in deep water devoid of oxygen. Most fossils are contained in the members, and the fossil record in these layers provides important paleontological insights on faunal turnovers. The black shales also contain iron ore that was used in the economic development of the region. The fissile shales are also eroded, presenting additional civil. The Marcellus Formation is a black shale that may contain limestone beds and its sedimentary structure, or bedding, is moderately well developed. Like most shales, it tends to split easily along the bedding plane, lighter colored shales in the upper portion of the formation tend to split into small thin-edged fragments after exposure. These fragments may have rust stains from exposure of pyrite to air, fresh exposures of the pyriteiferous shale may develop the secondary mineralization of orange limonite, and the pale yellow efflorescence or bloom of sulfur, associated with acid rock drainage. Pyrite is especially abundant near the base, and the contacts of limestones. The Marcellus also contains uranium, and the decay of the uranium-238 makes it a source rock for radioactive radon gas. The more organic-rich black shales can be bituminous, but are too old to contain bituminous coal formed from land plants, to the west the formation may produce liquid petroleum, further northt heating during deeper burial more than 240 million years ago cracked this oil into gas. The Marcellus is found throughout the Allegheny Plateau region of the northern Appalachian Basin of North America, the Marcellus bedrock in eastern Pennsylvania extends across the Delaware River into extreme western New Jersey. It also exists in the subsurface of a portion of Kentucky. Below Lake Erie, it can be crossing the border into Canada. The Marcellus appears in outcrops along the margin of the formation in central New York. There, the two joint planes in the Marcellus are nearly at right angles, each making cracks in the formation that run perpendicular to the bedding plane and these joints form smooth nearly vertical cliffs, and the intersecting joint planes form projecting corners in the rock facesMarcellus Formation – Marcellus shale exposure above Marcellus, N.Y. The vertical joints create sheer cliff faces.
65. Meigs Raid – Six Loyalists were killed and 90 captured while the Americans suffered no casualties. The raid was made in response to a successful British raid on Danbury, the battle marked the first American victory in the state of New York after New York City and Long Island had fallen in the British campaign for the city in 1776. The American Revolutionary War was a success for the British in 1776. After being forced to abandon Boston, they captured New York City, in the spring of 1777 Lieutenant General William Howe launched raiding expeditions against Continental Army and local militia storage depots near the city. A successful raid against Peekskill, New York in March prompted him to organize a more ambitious expedition to raid a depot in Danbury, Connecticut. The Connecticut militia had mobilized, and over the two days skirmished with the British as they marched back to their ships, most notably on April 27 at Ridgefield. General Samuel Holden Parsons, leading Connecticuts defenses, decided to organize an act of reprisal, an opportunity arose when they learned that a British foraging expedition had landed at Sag Harbor, Long Island. The town was well-situated for providing supplies to the Royal Navy, the forage expedition consisted of 12 smaller boats protected by a schooner mounting 12 guns, the small boats were manned by crews totalling about 40 men. Sag Harbor was at the time garrisoned by 70 men from the Loyalist battalion of Lieutenant Colonel Stephen DeLancey, the detachment was under the command of Captain James Raymond. Parsons gave command of the expedition to Colonel Return Jonathan Meigs, according to Parsons report to General Washington, they assembled a force totalling 234 men at New Haven from several regiments, and rowed in 13 whaleboats from New Haven to Guilford on May 21. Only 170 made the crossing to the vicinity of Southold, New York, Meigs learned that most of the British forces in the area had been ordered to march to New York City, and that only the small force of Loyalists was left at Sag Harbor. He had his men portage 11 of the whaleboats across the North Fork to the bay, by midnight they had crossed the bay and landed about 4 miles from the harbor. Meigs formed his men up and marched to the harbor, arriving about 2 am, Meigs divided his force in two. One detachment stormed the earthworks, while the other went to the harbor, the land attack was conducted in silence with fixed bayonets and only one shot was said to have been fired. The schooner opened fire on the attackers as they burned the boats, twelve boats were destroyed, and the raiders took 53 prisoners at the earth works and another 37 at the wharf, suffering no casualties in the process. The prisoners were taken back to Connecticut, Long Islands Loyalist communities organized their own response to the raid. In May 1779, nine Loyalists crossed the sound and captured Connecticut militia general Gold Selleck Silliman at his home, Connecticut Patriots captured a judge on Long Island in November 1779, who they exchanged for General Silliman in May 1780. Parsons organized another expedition across Long Island Sound in August 1777 and this one, against a Loyalist outpost at Setauket, was unsuccessfulMeigs Raid – The "Old Burial Ground", which adjoins the Whaler's Church on Meeting House Hill, was a site of battle in the raid
66. Mirabito Outdoor Classic – It was the first outdoor game in the history of the AHL as well as the first outdoor minor league hockey game. Syracuse won the game 2–1 with the help of goaltender Kevin Lalande, who stopped 36 of the 37 Binghamton shots, and Alexandre Picard, who scored the first outdoor goal in AHL history. The game was played in front of a then AHL record crowd of 21,508, on a rink constructed at the New York State Fairgrounds on a dirt auto racing track. Crunch owner, Howard Dolgon, pursued the ideal of having his team in an outdoor game, in part because of his success in putting on the event, Dolgon was awarded the James C. Hendy Memorial Award as the AHLs outstanding executive, following the success of the Mirabito Outdoor Classic other AHL Outdoor Classics were held by other AHL teams. In late November 2009 Syracuse Crunch owner, Howard Dolgon began attempts to have an American Hockey League outdoor game for his franchise, cost estimates for hosting the game were close to $1 million. Unlike the National Hockey Leagues Winter Classic, the league did not run the event, the high cost of hosting was a reason for other franchises not pursuing outdoor games prior. Dolgon originally wanted the game to be played at Alliance Bank Stadium in Syracuse, a proposal for the county to put in $350,000 was voted down by a 16–2 margin. After the proposal was denied, Dolgon thought the project was dead, Schumer later stated his encouragement stemmed from the opportunity for the event to be a national event focused on Upstate and Central New York. With the game moving forward, Dolgon managed to recruit corporate sponsors to help alleviate the cost. The Crunch received $350,000 from several sponsors, including Mirabito Energy Products which lent its name to the events title, Mirabito decided to sponsor the event because they were opening stores in the Central New York area and wanted to establish their brand name. New York Governor David Paterson secured a $75,000 grant from the Empire State Development Corporation, even with the additional funding the Crunch still needed to pay upwards of $550,000. The rink was built on the fairgrounds in front of a 15, 000-seat permanent grandstand on an auto racing track. With demands for over the 15,000 seats occupancy of the grandstands, since there was no scoreboards on or near the track Syracuse rented two large video screens to show the score, time remaining, penalty times, and other information. The installation of the temporary rink cost an estimated $400,000 and took a month, as plans moved forward the decision was made not just to play the game but make it an event celebrating New York hockey history. For the game the Crunch played their rivals the Binghamton Senators. The days before the local youth hockey teams played on the ice. The fairgrounds also featured VIP tents, fan zones, bands, the game was the first outdoor game in the 74-year history of the AHL and the first minor league hockey outdoor gameMirabito Outdoor Classic – Mirabito Outdoor Classic
67. Montauk Point land claim – As recommended by the Appellate Divisions opinion, the second suit, Johnson v. Long Island R. R. Co. was brought in the name of Eugene M. Johnson, a citizen and tribal member. The New York Court of Appeals disavowed the previous dicta of the Appellate Division, the tribe failed in its efforts to convince the federal government to pass legislation enabling the tribe to bring the claim in federal court. In 1906, the state passed a statute enabling the tribe to sue, reaching the merits, the New York courts held that the tribe no longer existed and that the transactions were valid. Since the litigation, the Montauks have failed in their efforts to obtain compensation from the federal and state government, and much of the land in question has come to be held by public parks. Circa 1875, the Montauk tribe began renting out Montauk Point for pasturage through the Proprietors Company, the company took possession of the grazing allotments, and paid the tribe an annuity. Circa 1880, the shareholders of the company disagreed over whether the lands should continue to be leased, in 1878, Robert M. Grinnell sued Edward M. Baker et al. for partition and division of the allotments. In Grinnell v. Baker, the court ordered the lands sold at auction, with the proceeds distributed equally among the non-Indian lessees. The auction took place at the home of Jehial Parsons, arthur W. Benson bought the 11,000 acres at auction for $151,000 in 1879. In turn, Benson sold 5,000 acres of the land to the Long Island Rail Road for $600,000, Benson hired Nathaniel Dominey to negotiate the removal of the Montauks still living on the reservation. At a later, Senate Sub-Committee hearing, Dominey testified that eight Indians remained on the reservation at the time, including, future Chief Wyandank Pharaoh, his mother, and two of her brothers. Later, Dominey experienced a change of heart and cooperated with the Montauks in their claim, Dominey testified that he compensated Wyandank Pharaohs mother with a $100 semi-annual annuity and two houses, to be inherited by Pharaoh, $80 each to her two brothers, and $10 to Wyandank. Montauk Point was purchased by Corbin and Pratt in 1895, on October 30,1895, Chief Wyandank Pharaoh returned from a research trip to Brooklyn and Washington, D. C. to gather evidence to pursue a claim. Pharaoh declared his intentions to undertake a trip on the disputed land. Chief Wyandank Pharaoh, on behalf of the tribe, filed suit, for proof of tribal status, the tribe cited a partition action decided by Judge Dykman and the 1890 United States Census. The complaint valued the land at approximately $300,000, on June 5,1897, Judge Wilmot Moses Smith of the New York Supreme Court set a hearing date for June 19 in Patchogue to hear the oral arguments for the defendants demurrer. The matter was transferred to Judge Samuel T. Maddox in Brooklyn, Judge Maddox granted the demurrer, dismissing the action but allowing the tribe to re-plead if they paid costs. The Montauks, represented by ex-judge George M. Curtis, filed a notice of appeal on December 22,1897, before the Appellate Division, the Montauks case was argued by Leman B. Treadwell, with Francis M. Morrison also on the brief, alfred A. Gardner argued on behalf of the LIRR, with William J. Kelly on the briefMontauk Point land claim – Stephen Talkhouse
68. Grandma Moses – Anna Mary Robertson Moses, known by her nickname Grandma Moses, was a renowned American folk artist. She began painting in earnest at the age of 78 and is cited as an example of an individual who successfully began a career in the arts at an advanced age. Her works have shown and sold in the United States and abroad and have been marketed on greeting cards. Moses paintings are displayed in the collections of many museums, the Sugaring Off was sold for US $1.2 million in 2006. Moses has appeared on covers, television, and in a documentary of her life. She wrote an autobiography, won awards and was awarded two honorary doctoral degrees. The New York Times said of her, The simple realism, nostalgic atmosphere and luminous color with which Grandma Moses portrayed simple farm life and she was able to capture the excitement of winters first snow, Thanksgiving preparations and the new, young green of oncoming spring. In person, Grandma Moses charmed wherever she went, a tiny, lively woman with mischievous gray eyes and a quick wit, she could be sharp-tongued with a sycophant and stern with an errant grandchild. Starting at 12 years of age and for a total of 15 years, one of her employers noticed her appreciation for their prints made by Currier and Ives, and they supplied her with art materials to create drawings. Moses and her husband began their life in Virginia, where they worked on farms. In 1905 they returned to the Northeastern United States and settled in Eagle Bridge, the couple had ten children, five of whom survived infancy. She expressed an interest in art throughout her life, including embroidery of pictures with yarn, Anna Mary Robertson was born in Greenwich, New York on September 7,1860, she was the third of ten children born to Margaret Shanahan Robertson and Russell King Robertson. She was raised with four sisters and five brothers and her father ran a flax mill and was a farmer. As a child, Moses attended a school for a short period of time. That school is now the Bennington Museum in Vermont, which has the largest collection of her works in the United States. She was inspired to paint by taking art lessons at school. Moses first painted as a child, using lemon and grape juice to make colors for her landscapes, other natural materials that she used to create works of art included ground ochre, grass, flour paste, slack lime and sawdust. At 12 years of age, she left home and began to work for a neighboring family. She continued to house, cook and sew for wealthy families for 15 yearsGrandma Moses – Grandma Moses, 1953
69. USS New York (BB-34) – USS New York was a United States Navy battleship, the lead ship of her class. Named for New York State, she was designed as the first ship to carry the 14-inch /45-caliber gun. Entering service in 1914, she was part of the U. S. Navy force which was sent to reinforce the British Grand Fleet in the North Sea near the end of World War I. Following the war, she was sent on a litany of training exercises and cruises in both the Atlantic and the Pacific, and saw several overhauls to increase her armament, aircraft handling and armor. She entered the Neutrality Patrol at the beginning of World War II and she saw her first combat against coastal artillery during Operation Torch around Casablanca in North Africa, and later became a training ship. Late in the war, she moved to the Pacific, and provided gunfire support for the invasion of Iwo Jima. Returning to Pearl Harbor for repairs until the end of the war and she survived both explosions and the effects of radiation on the ship were studied for several years. She was eventually sunk as a target in 1948 and she received three battle stars for her service. New York was the first of two planned New York-class battleships, though construction on her began after her sister, Texas and she was ordered in fiscal year 1911 as the first class of battleship in the United States Navy to carry the 14-inch/45-caliber gun. She had a displacement of 27,000 long tons. She was 573 ft in length overall,565 ft at the waterline, and had a beam of 95 ft 6 in and a draft of 28 ft 6 in. She was powered by 14 Babcock & Wilcox boilers driving two dual-acting vertical triple expansion reciprocating steam engines, with 28,000 shp, with a speed of 21 kn. She had a range of 7,060 nautical miles at 10 kn, armor on New York consisted of a belt from 10 to 12 in thick. Her lower casemate had between 9 and 11 in of armor, and her upper casemate had 6 in of armor. Deck armor was 2 in thick, and turret armor was 14 in on the face,4 in on the top,2 inches on the sides, armor on her barbettes was between 10 and 12 inches. Her conning tower was protected by 12 inches of armor, with 4 inches of armor on its top and her armament consisted of ten 14-inch/45-caliber guns, arrayed in five double mounts designated 1,2,3,4, and 5. As constructed, these turrets had an elevation of 15 degrees, the class was the last to feature a turret mounted amidships. As built, she also carried twenty-one 5-inch /51-caliber guns, primarily for defense against destroyers, the ship was not designed with anti-aircraft defense in mind, but two 3-inch /50 caliber AA guns were added in 1918USS New York (BB-34) – New York underway
70. The New York Times – The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B. Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
71. New York-class battleship – The New York class of battleship was a class of ships designed and constructed by the United States Navy between 1908 and 1914. The two ships of the class, New York and Texas, each saw extensive service beginning in the occupation of Veracruz, World War I, and World War II. The class also suffered several deficiencies such as a lack of weaponry and armor layout. Because of these deficiencies, both ships saw several extensive overhauls over the course of their careers which greatly changed their profiles, both ships undertook numerous training exercises and overhauls during the interwar era, and joined the Neutrality Patrol at the beginning of World War II. Outmoded by more advanced battleships in service, both served primarily as convoy escorts and naval artillery during the war. New York supported Operation Torch in North Africa, undertook convoy patrols and training in the Atlantic, and supported the Battle of Iwo Jima, Texas supported Operation Torch, Operation Overlord, the bombardment of Cherbourg, Operation Dragoon and the battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. The New York class was the fifth of 11 separate classes planned by the United States Navy between 1906 and 1919, a total of 29 battleships and 6 battlecruisers, virtually the entire American battle line was being designed from pre-dreadnought experience and observation of foreign designs. There was debate at the time as to whether the Florida-class battleships, laid down in 1909 and these would become the Wyoming class. The class is referred to as the New York class. As designed, the ships had a displacement of 27,000 long tons. They were 573 ft in length overall,565 ft at the waterline, and had a beam of 95 ft 6 in, the ships underwent significant changes and increases in armor and armament over their operational lives. Following her fourth and final refit in 1943, New York increased her displacement to 29,340 long tons standard and 34,000 long tons full-load. The final refit for Texas came in 1945, after which she displaced 29,500 long tons standard and 32,000 long tons at full load, as designed, the ships had a crew complement consisting of 1,042 officers and enlisted men. By 1945, Texas was carrying 1,723 officers and enlisted men with the addition of crews for additional weapons as well as a new complement of Marines. The main battery of the class consisted of ten 14-inch/45 caliber guns, arrayed in five 2-gun turrets designated 1,2,3,4, and 5, the class was the last to feature a turret mounted amidships. In 1910 the US Navys Bureau of Ordnance had successfully designed and tested its 14-inch naval gun, the gun proved to have remarkable accuracy and uniformity of pattern. The New York class was the class of US dreadnought battleship design created, and work had already started on the sixth design. By 1910 no US dreadnought class battleship had yet hit the water, virtually the entire US Navy battle line was being designed by drawing on experience from pre-dreadnought designs or from observation of foreign battleship designsNew York-class battleship – USS New York, the lead ship of the class, shortly after entering service in 1915.
72. Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. – Among his other accomplishments are helping to found the United States Department of Energys Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab. Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. was born in Washington, D. C and he was raised as an Army brat, frequently moving from post to post, and lived in France for a time when his father was Liaison Officer with the Direction dArtillerie and Assistant Military Attaché. This allowed him to skip a couple of grades along the way, so that he graduated from Leavenworth High School in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, Ramseys parents hoped that he would go to West Point, but at 15, he was too young to be admitted. He was awarded a scholarship to Kansas University, but in 1930 his father was posted to Governors Island, Ramsey therefore entered Columbia University in 1931, and began studying engineering. He became interested in mathematics, and switched to this as his academic major, by the time he received his B. A. from Columbia in 1935, he had become interested in physics. J. At Cambridge, he took the tripos in order to study quantum mechanics, soon after Ramsey arrived at Columbia, Rabi invented molecular beam resonance spectroscopy, for which he was awarded the Nobel prize in physics in 1944. Ramsey was part of Rabis team that also included Jerome Kellogg, Polykarp Kusch, Sidney Millman, Ramsey worked with them on the first experiments making use of the new technique, and shared with Rabi and Zacharias in the discovery that the deuteron was a magnetic quadrupole. This meant that the nucleus was not spherical, as had been thought. He received his Ph. D. in physics from Columbia in 1940, in 1940, he married Elinor Jameson of Brooklyn, New York, and accepted a teaching position at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. The two expected to spend the rest of their lives there, but World War II intervened and this device, which promised to revolutionize radar, demolished any thoughts the Americans had entertained about their technological leadership. Alfred Lee Loomis of the National Defense Research Committee established the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop this technology, Ramsey was one of the scientists recruited by Rabi for this work. Initially, Ramsey was in Rabis magnetron group, when Rabi became a division head, Ramsey became the group leader. The role of the group was to develop the magnetron to permit a reduction in wavelength from 150 centimetres to 10 centimetres, and then to 3 centimetres or X-Band. Microwave radar promised to be small, lighter and more efficient than older types, Ramseys group started with the produced by Oliphants team in Britain. The Radiation Laboratory produced the designs, which were prototyped by Raytheon, in June 1941, Ramsey travelled to Britain, where he met with Oliphant, and the two exchanged ideas. He brought back some British components which were incorporated into the final design, a night fighter aircraft, the Northrop P-61 Black Widow, was designed around the new radar. In 1943, Ramsey was approached by Robert Oppenheimer and Robert Bacher, Ramsey agreed to do so, but the intervention of the Project director, Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves Jr. was necessary in order to prise him away from the Secretary of Wars office. A compromise was agreed to, whereby Ramsey remained on the payroll of the Secretary of War, the first thing he had to do was determine the characteristics of the aircraft that would be usedNorman Foster Ramsey Jr. – Norman F. Ramsey
73. Murray Rothbard – Rothbard was the founder and leading theoretician of anarcho-capitalism, a staunch advocate of historical revisionism, and a central figure in the twentieth-century American libertarian movement. He wrote over twenty books on theory, revisionist history, economics. He called fractional-reserve banking a form of fraud and opposed central banking and he categorically opposed all military, political, and economic interventionism in the affairs of other nations. According to his protégé Hans-Hermann Hoppe, There would be no anarcho-capitalist movement to speak of without Rothbard, Rothbard was a heterodox political economist. Economist Jeffrey Herbener, who calls Rothbard his friend and intellectual mentor, Rothbard rejected mainstream economic methodologies and instead embraced the praxeology of his most important intellectual precursor, Ludwig von Mises. To promote his economic and political ideas, Rothbard joined Llewellyn H. Lew Rockwell, Jr. Murray Rothbards parents were David and Rae Rothbard, Jewish immigrants to the U. S. from Poland and Russia, respectively. Rothbard was born in the Bronx, but the family moved to an apartment on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, where he attended Birch Wathen, a private school on the Upper East Side. Rothbard later stated that he much preferred Birch Wathen to the debasing, Rothbard wrote of having grown up as a right-winger among friends and neighbors who were communists or fellow-travelers. Ll socialism seemed to me monstrously coercive and abhorrent and he attended Columbia University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics in 1945 and, eleven years later, his PhD in economics in 1956. The delay in receiving his PhD was due in part to conflict with his advisor, Joseph Dorfman, Burns was a longtime friend of the Rothbard family and their neighbor at their Manhattan apartment building. It was only after Burns went on leave from the Columbia faculty to head President Eisenhowers Council of Economic Advisors that Rothbards thesis was accepted and he received his doctorate. Rothbard later stated that all of his students there were extreme leftists. Rothbard attracted the attention of the William Volker Fund, a group that provided financial backing to promote various right-wing ideologies in the 1950s, for ten years, Rothbard was paid a retainer by the Volker Fund, which designated him a senior analyst. As Rothbard continued his work, he enlarged the project, the result was Rothbards book Man, Economy, and State, published in 1962. Upon its publication, Mises praised Rothbards work effusively, in 1953, in New York City, he married JoAnn Schumacher, whom he called Joey. JoAnn was his editor and an adviser, as well as hostess of his Rothbard Salon. They enjoyed a loving marriage, and Rothbard often called her the indispensable framework behind his life, according to Joey, patronage from the Volker Fund allowed Rothbard to work from home as a freelance theorist and pundit for the first fifteen years of their marriage. The Fund collapsed in 1962, leading Rothbard to seek employment from various New York academic institutions and he was offered a part-time position teaching economics to the engineering students of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in 1966, at age 40Murray Rothbard – Murray N. Rothbard
74. Peter Sarsgaard – John Peter Sarsgaard is an American actor. He landed his first feature role in the movie Dead Man Walking in 1995 and he then appeared in the 1998 independent films Another Day in Paradise and Desert Blue. That same year, Sarsgaard received a role in The Man in the Iron Mask, playing Raoul. Sarsgaard later achieved recognition when he was cast in Boys Dont Cry as John Lotter. He landed his first leading role in the 2001 film The Center of the World, the following year, he played supporting roles in Empire, The Salton Sea, and K-19, The Widowmaker. Sarsgaard has also appeared in Off-Broadway productions including Kingdom of Earth, Laura Dennis, in September 2008, he made his Broadway debut as Boris Alexeyevich Trigorin in The Seagull. Sarsgaard appeared in the production of Uncle Vanya in January 2009. Sarsgaard is married to actress Maggie Gyllenhaal, Sarsgaard was born at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, the son of Judy Lea and John Dale Sarsgard. His father was an Air Force engineer and later worked for Monsanto and his surname originates in Denmark, where two of his paternal great-great-grandparents were born. Sarsgaard was raised a Roman Catholic and served as an altar boy and his family moved more than 12 times during his childhood, following his fathers job. At the age of 7, Sarsgaard originally wanted to become a soccer player, after suffering several bad concussions while playing soccer, he gave up the sport and became interested in writing and theater. Sarsgaard attended Fairfield College Preparatory School, a private Jesuit boys school in Connecticut, while at WUSTL, Sarsgaard began performing in plays in an offshoot of New Yorks Actors Studio, His first role was as the servant Laurent in Molières Tartuffe. In 1993, he graduated with a degree in history and moved to New York and he appeared in his first film role in Dead Man Walking, where he was cast as a murdered teenager, killed by Sean Penns character. He received his role in the 1998 film The Man in the Iron Mask, where he played Raoul. The film uses characters from Alexandre Dumas dArtagnan Romances, and is loosely adapted from some plot elements of The Vicomte de Bragelonne. The film received ambivalent reviews, but was a success at the box office, in 1999, Sarsgaard earned critical recognition in Kimberly Peirces Boys Dont Cry, where he was cast as notorious killer John Lotter. The film is based on the story of Brandon Teena. Boys Don’t Cry received overwhelmingly positive acclaim from critics, and his performance was well receivedPeter Sarsgaard – Sarsgaard in St. Louis, Missouri, 2007
75. Richard Henry Savage – Richard Henry Savage was an American military officer and author who wrote more than 40 books of adventure and mystery, based loosely on his own experiences. Savages eloquent, witty, dashing and daring life may have been the inspiration for the novel character Doc Savage. In his youth in San Francisco, Savage studied engineering and law, after a few years of surveying work with the Army Corps of Engineers, Savage went to Rome as an envoy following which he sailed to Egypt to serve a stint with the Egyptian Army. Returning home, Savage was assigned to border disputes between the U. S. and Mexico, and he performed railroad survey work in Texas. In Washington D. C. he courted and married a noblewoman from Germany. Savage returned to San Francisco with his wife to stay for ten years, raising a daughter and he served at the rank of colonel in the California National Guard, and took part in the social activity of the city. During a period of anti-Chinese race riots, Savage stood up for law and order, Savage traveled to many exotic lands but in 1890 he was struck with jungle fever in Honduras. While recuperating in New York state he wrote his first book, Savage lived primarily in New York City, and was involved in lawsuits, especially against his New York publisher regarding unpaid royalties. When the Spanish–American War broke out, Savage volunteered to lead men in battle, instead, he was given command of an engineering unit which then built a complete base in Havana. Returning to New York, he wrote books and corresponded with his wife who traveled often to the Russian Empire to visit their daughter and her Russian husband. Four years after mustering out of the Army, Savage was knocked down and mortally wounded at the age of 57 by a horse and carriage on the streets of New York. Savage was born in Utica, New York, the son of Jane Moorhead Ewart and Richard Savage, the 1848 finding of gold in California, prompted Savages father to join the California Gold Rush in 1850. Savage and the rest of his family left New York in 1851 to join his father and they arrived in San Francisco in February 1852. While the younger Savage was in school, his father helped discover the silver deposits of the Comstock Lode. Savage finished high school at age 15 and began to study law with U. S, later, he studied with the law firm Halleck, Peachy & Billings, while partner Henry Halleck was back East serving as major general in the Union Army. At the start of the American Civil War Savage joined the Union Army, through government connections, Savages father gained for Savage an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1864. Rather, he took his place with the September students, in 1868, Savage graduated sixth in his class of 55 at West Point, and was assigned as brevet second lieutenant with the Army Corps of Engineers at Yerba Buena Island in San Francisco Bay. Savage took part in work on the Indian reservations of Round Valley in Northern CaliforniaRichard Henry Savage – Richard Henry Savage
76. Seneca Falls Convention – The Seneca Falls Convention was the first womens rights convention. It advertised itself as a convention to discuss the social, civil, held in Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over July 19–20,1848. Attracting widespread attention, it was followed by other womens rights conventions, including the Rochester Womens Rights Convention in Rochester, New York. In 1850 the first in a series of annual National Womens Rights Conventions met in Worcester, female Quakers local to the area organized the meeting along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who was not a Quaker. They planned the event during a visit to the area by Philadelphia-based Lucretia Mott, Mott, a Quaker, was famous for her oratorical ability, which was rare during an era in which women were often not allowed to speak in public. The meeting comprised six sessions including a lecture on law, a humorous presentation, exactly 100 of approximately 300 attendees signed the document, mostly women. Stanton considered the Seneca Falls Convention to be the beginning of the womens movement, an opinion that was echoed in the History of Woman Suffrage. By the time of the National Womens Rights Convention of 1851 and these conventions became annual events until the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. In the decades leading up to 1848, a number of women began to push against restrictions imposed upon them by society. A few men aided in this effort, in 1831, Reverend Charles Grandison Finney began allowing women to pray aloud in gatherings of men and women. The Second Great Awakening was challenging womens traditional roles in religion, recalling the era in 1870, Paulina Wright Davis set Finneys decision as the beginning of the American womens reform movement. Starting in 1832, abolitionist and journalist William Lloyd Garrison organized anti-slavery associations which encouraged the participation of women. Garrisons ideas were not welcomed by a majority of abolitionists. A few women began to gain fame as writers and speakers on the subject of abolition, in the 1830s, Lydia Maria Child wrote to encourage women to write a will, and Frances Wright wrote books on womens rights and social reform. Although these women lectured primarily on the evils of slavery, the fact that a woman was speaking in public was itself a noteworthy stand for the cause of womens rights. Ernestine Rose began lecturing in 1836 to groups of women on the subject of the Science of Government which included the enfranchisement of women. In London, the proposal was rebuffed after a day of debate. Mott and Stanton became friends in London and on the return voyage, in 1842 Thomas MClintock and his wife Mary Ann became founding members of the Western New York Anti-Slavery Society and helped write its constitutionSeneca Falls Convention – This mahogany tea table was used on July 16, 1848, to compose much of the first draft of the Declaration of Sentiments.
77. Cy Seymour – James Bentley Cy Seymour was an American center fielder and pitcher in Major League Baseball. From 1896 through 1913, Seymour played for the New York Giants, Baltimore Orioles, Cincinnati Reds, primarily a center fielder, Seymour retired with 1,724 hits and a lifetime batting average of.303. He was a pitcher for his first five seasons, ending his MLB career with a 61–56 win–loss record, only Babe Ruth retired with more combined wins and hits. Seymour is the Reds career leader in batting average and holds the Reds single-season record for batting average, Seymour played semi-professional baseball in Plattsburgh, New York, receiving a monthly salary of $1,000. He began his career in minor league baseball with Springfield Ponies of the Class-A Eastern League. Seymour signed with the New York Giants of the National League during the 1896 season, a sometimes wild pitcher, The New York Times described him as having a $10,000 arm and a $00,000 head. Seymour set a MLB record with three errors in one inning, a record tied by Tommy John. However, he pitched to an 18–14 win–loss record in 1897, with a 3.37 earned run average, while recording 149 strikeouts, good for second in the NL. In 1898, he won 25 games, had a 3.18 ERA, during the season, Seymour pitched three games in two days against the Baltimore Orioles. Orioles manager John McGraw later said that Seymour deserved the title of Iron Man more than Joe McGinnity. Seymour held out from the Giants for the first month of the 1899 season in a dispute, eventually signing for $2,000. He finished second in the NL in strikeouts with 142, Seymour was briefly demoted to the minor leagues after walking 11 batters in a victory against the St. Louis Perfectos on June 7,1900. Due to injuries and the ineffectiveness of the Giants outfielders, the team began to play Seymour in the outfield, Seymour last pitched for the Giants that season, at which point he converted into an outfielder full-time due to injury from throwing the screwball. With the formation of the American League as a competitor to the NL, McGraw, remembering Seymours toughness in previous seasons, signed Seymour to his team, the Baltimore Orioles, before the 1901 season. Seymour batted.303 with the Orioles that year, by 1902, the franchise began to fall into significant debt. Joe Kelley, star player for the Orioles and son-in-law of part-owner John Mahon, unable to afford that debt, Mahon purchased shares of the team from Kelley and player-manager McGraw, who had resigned from the team and signed with the Giants. With this, Mahon became the majority shareholder, on July 17,1902, Mahon sold his interest in the Orioles to Andrew Freedman, principal owner of the Giants, and John T. Brush, principal owner of the Cincinnati Reds, also of the NL. That day, Freedman and Brush released Seymour, McGraw, Kelley, McGinnity, Roger Bresnahan, Jack Cronin, and Dan McGann from their Oriole contractsCy Seymour – Cy Seymour
78. Henry Taube – FRSC was a Canadian-born American chemist noted for having been awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in the mechanisms of electron-transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. He was the second Canadian-born chemist to win the Nobel Prize, Taube completed his undergraduate and Masters degrees at the University of Saskatchewan, and his Ph. D from the University of California, Berkeley. After finishing graduate school, Taube worked at Cornell University, the University of Chicago and his research focused on redox reactions, transition metals and the use of isotopically labeled compounds to follow reactions. He had over 600 publications including one book, and had mentored over 200 students during his career, Taube and his wife Mary had three children, his son Karl is an anthropologist at the University of California Riverside. At 12, Taube left his hometown and moved to Regina to attend Luther College where he completed high school, after graduating, Taube stayed at Luther College and worked as laboratory assistant for Paul Liefeld, allowing him to take first year university classes. Taube attended the University of Saskatchewan, receiving his B. Sc. in 1935 and his thesis advisor at the University of Saskatchewan was John Spinks. While at the University of Saskatchewan, Taube studied with Gerhard Herzberg and he moved to University of California, Berkeley, where he completed his Ph. D studies in 1940. His Ph. D mentor was William Bray, taubes graduate research focused on the photodecomposition of chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in solution. After completing his education, Taube remained in the United States and he initially wanted to return to Canada to work, but did not receive a response when he applied for jobs at the major Canadian universities. From Berkeley, he served as an instructor and assistant professor at Cornell University until 1946, during World War II, Taube served on the National Defense Research Committee. Taube spent time at the University of Chicago as an assistant professor, associate professor and he served as chair of the chemistry department in Chicago from 1956–59, but did not enjoy administrative work. He became a Professor Emeritus at Stanford in 1986, but he continued to research until 2001. In addition to his duties, Taube also served as a consultant at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1956 until the 1970s. Taubes initial research at Cornell University focused on the areas he studied as a graduate student, oxidizing agents containing oxygen and halogens. He used isotopically labeled oxygen-18 and radioactive chlorine to study these reactions and he was recognized by the American Chemical Society in 1955 for his isotope studies. Taubes interest in chemistry was sparked when he was chosen to develop a course on advanced inorganic chemistry while at the University of Chicago. He was unable to find information in the textbooks available at the time. Taube realized that his work on the substitution of carbon in organic reactions could be related to inorganic complexes, in 1952, Taube published a key paper relating the rates of chemical reactions to electronic structure in Chemical ReviewsHenry Taube – Henry Taube
79. Jamaal Westerman – Jamaal Akeem Westerman is an American football defensive lineman for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League. He was signed by the New York Jets as a free agent in 2009. He played college football at Rutgers and was named to the Second–team All–Big East team two times, Westerman played high school football in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, at St. Thomas Aquinas High School before moving to Brampton, Ontario and attending Notre Dame Secondary School. He has also been a member of the Miami Dolphins, Arizona Cardinals, Indianapolis Colts, Buffalo Bills, Pittsburgh Steelers, Westerman was born in Brooklyn, New York, on February 21,1985. He and his moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, where Westerman began his high school career at St. Thomas Aquinas High School. Following his freshman season, he moved, this time to Brampton, Ontario, Westerman started every year he was there and led both the team and league in tackles and sacks. After graduating from Notre Dame in 2004 he was considered a prospect by Rivals. com. Rutgers, Boise State and Central Michigan all recruited him and all offered him scholarships and he eventually accepted Rutgers scholarship offer. Westerman received three offers from National Collegiate Athletic Association colleges before accepting one from Rutgers. After redshirting in 2004, Westerman made an impression on the Rutgers coaching staff after recording six tackles in two games to begin 2005. In the Cincinnati game, Westerman recorded a sack on quarterback Dustin Grutza which forced a fumble, before the 2006 season, Westerman was involved in a car accident with teammates Willie Foster and Corey Hyman. Westerman and Foster were uninjured while Hyman required two stitches in his forehead, on September 29, against South Florida, Westerman sacked quarterback Matt Grothe for a five-yard loss. After the month of September, Westerman had eight tackles and two and a half sacks, through eight games, Westerman was the team leader in sacks with six. Against Connecticut, Westerman blocked a punt and recovered a fumble by Connecticut quarterback D. J. Hernandez, both the punt and fumble recovery were returned for a touchdown. Westerman also recorded two and a half sacks in the game, by the final game in the season, Westerman and defensive end William Beckford had a combined 59 tackles,16 tackles for a loss with 10 sacks. In the Texas Bowl against the Kansas State Wildcats, Westerman sacked quarterback Josh Freeman twice, during spring practice, Westerman and two other starter defensive linemen missed the annual intersquad scrimmage due to injuries. In Rutgers 59–0 win over Norfolk State, Westerman recorded one sack on quarterback Casey Hansen, against Syracuse and South Florida, Westerman recorded two sacks which gave him six for the season. Following the season, Westerman and Rutgers earned a bid to play in the International Bowl against Ball State, the game was played in his hometown of TorontoJamaal Westerman – Westerman with the New York Jets
80. Chien-Shiung Wu – Chien-Shiung Wu was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project, where she helped develop the process for separating uranium metal into uranium-235 and she is best known for conducting the Wu experiment, which contradicted the hypothetical law of conservation of parity. This discovery resulted in her colleagues Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen-Ning Yang winning the 1957 Nobel Prize in physics and her expertise in experimental physics evoked comparisons to Marie Curie. Her nicknames include the First Lady of Physics, the Chinese Madame Curie, Chien-Shiung Wu was born in the town of Liuhe in Taicang, Jiangsu province, China, on May 31,1912, the second of three children of Wu Zhong-Yi and Fan Fu-Hua. Accordingly, she had a brother, Chien-Ying, and a younger brother. Wu and her father were close and he encouraged her interests passionately, creating an environment where she was surrounded by books, magazines. Wu received her school education at Ming De School, a school for girls founded by her father. She left her hometown in 1923 at the age of 11 to go to the Suzhou Womens Normal School No.2 and this was a boarding school with classes for teacher training as well as for regular high school. Admission to teacher training was more competitive, as it did not charge for tuition or board, although her family could have afforded to pay, Wu chose the more competitive option, and was ranked ninth among around 10,000 applicants. In 1929 Wu graduated at the top of her class, and was admitted to the National Central University in Nanjing, according to the governmental regulations of the time, teacher-training college students wanting to move on to the universities needed to serve as schoolteachers for one year. In Wus case, this was only nominally enforced and she went to teach at the Public School in Shanghai, the president of which at the time was the philosopher Hu Shih, whose class she took. From 1930 to 1934, Wu studied at the National Central University, first in mathematics and she became involved in student politics. Relations between China and Japan were tense at this time, and students were urging the government to take a line with Japan. That being the case, she was not to neglect her studies. She led protests that included a sit-in at the Presidential Palace in Nanjing, for two years after graduation, she did graduate-level study in physics and worked as an assistant at the Zhejiang University. She became a researcher at the Institute of Physics of the Academia Sinica and her supervisor was Professor Gu Jing-Wei, who had earned her PhD abroad at the University of Michigan, and encouraged Wu to do the same. Wu was accepted by the University of Michigan, and her uncle, Wu Zhou-Zhi and she embarked for the United States with a female friend, Dong Ruo-Fen, a chemist from Taicang, on the SS President Hoover in August 1936. Her parents and uncle saw her off and she would never see her parents againChien-Shiung Wu – Chien-Shiung Wu in 1958 at Columbia University
81. 16-inch gun M1895 – The 16-inch coastal defense gun M1895 was a large artillery piece installed to defend major American seaports. Only one was built and it was installed in Fort Grant on the Pacific side of the Panama Canal Zone and it was operated by the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps. Under President Grover Clevelands administration in 1885, the Board of Fortifications under William C, Endicott was ordered to investigate the value and state of the United States coastal defenses. Endicott found that America had fallen behind and that new technology made many forts. The 1886 report recommended a $127-million construction program of breech-loading cannons, mortars, floating batteries, New fortifications built in the following decades as a result of this report were called Endicott Period fortifications. Finding a need for long range weaponry, the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps ordered a 16-inch gun, the massive artillery piece was designated the M1895 and was completed in 1902, only one was built. At 284,000 pounds it weighed more than any gun that had ever been created up to that point, the 32-wheel train car alone weighed 192,420 pounds. The 56-foot long gun could launch a 2, 400-pound shell 21 miles, the weapon was shipped from the Watervliet Arsenal to Watertown Arsenal in Watertown, Massachusetts to be packed for shipment to the Panama Canal Zone. It was installed on an M1912 disappearing carriage in Fort Grant on the Pacific side of the canal in 1915, the muzzle section was later preserved and displayed at the Watervliet Arsenal museum, which closed in 2013. The new 16 inch Coastal cannon of the United States of America, American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Third Edition. Plans dropped for revamped Watervliet Arsenal Museum, description of 8,10,12,14, and 16-inch Seacoast Guns. Largest Single Piece of Ordance ever made Being Shipped By Uncle Sam To Protect Panama Canal, archived from the original on 2015. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06, archived from the original on 2015. Description of Seacoast Guns 8,10,12,14, 16-inch FortWiki FortWiki gun type list Coast Defense Study Group16-inch gun M1895 – Crowds in New York watch the shipment of the 16-inch coastal defense gun M1895, January 1915
82. Agudas Achim Synagogue – Agudas Achim Synagogue, formally known as Congregation Agudas Achim, is located on Rock Avenue in Livingston Manor, New York, United States. It is a wooden building erected in the 1920s to serve the growing Jewish community in that area of the Catskills. It served the summer population of Jews from the New York area who vacationed at family resorts in the region. The congregation was founded as an unofficially Orthodox group that consisted of a group of local Jews. The synagogue was built two years later and it combines features of Eastern European synagogues, reflecting the national origin of its founding Ashkenazi Jews, with some elements of historic Protestant Christian churches found in the area. Some features were adapted from other contemporary synagogues in Sullivan County. With a congregation of retired residents or people with second homes in the area, the building remains architecturally intact from the period of its construction. In 1998 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the synagogue is located a few blocks from downtown Livingston Manor on the west side of Rock Avenue, the former route of state highway NY17. It is at the crest of a rise between the Little Beaver Kill and Willowemoc Creek, the two streams that converge at the unincorporated hamlet. The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial uses, a small copse of trees is located behind the synagogue, a wooded hill is to the east, behind the houses on Wright Street. The building is a frame building on a raised, parged. It is sided in stucco with small bits of inlaid glass. The gabled roof is shingled in asphalt, on the east facade is a two-story central projecting entrance pavilion with steep concrete steps leading up to a porch with gabled roof and AGUDAS ACHIM in large letters in its entablature. It is topped by an ell with hipped roof, pierced by short square turrets with pyramidal roofs on either side. In its facade is a circular window with a Star of David. On either side are smaller windows with Stars of David. Above it is a louvered vent in the gable field. The front pavilion is echoed on the west with a smaller one holding the Torah ark, a brick chimney pierces the roof above on the south side of the crestAgudas Achim Synagogue – South profile and east elevation, 2008
83. Appollo (dog) – Appollo was a search and rescue dog who served with the K-9 unit of the New York Police Department. He was awarded the Dickin Medal, the equivalent of the Victoria Cross, in recognition of the work done by all search. Appollo and his handler were working at the World Trade Center site soon after the attacks, Appollo was a German Shepherd born around 1992, who was in service with the K-9 unit of the New York Police Department. In 1994, he graduated from the NYPD Canine Special Operations Division, Appollo passed Type-II training in Florida in 1997, and Type-I in Indianapolis in 1999. He was also part of the first NYPD K-9 team to them for Urban Search. Appollo and his handler Peter Davis also worked in the Dominican Republic after a hurricane, Appollo and his handler, Peter Davis, were called in to assist with the rescue operations after the September 11 terror attacks. They arrived at the World Trade Center site fifteen minutes after the attack, making Appollo the first search, at one point, Appollo was almost killed by flames and falling debris. However, he survived, having been drenched after falling into a pool of water just before this incident, Appollo started working again as soon as Davis had brushed the debris off him. He received the award along with guide dogs Roselle and Salty, the citation for the award was as follows, For tireless courage in the service of humanity during the search and rescue operations in New York and Washington on and after 11 September 2001. Faithful to words of command and undaunted by the task, the dogs work, Appollo received the American Kennel Club Ace award in 2001. He was also honoured for his work at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show of 2002, in which he, list of individual dogs PDSA Dickin Medal, including Roll of Honor PDFAppollo (dog) – A search and rescue dog at the World Trade Center site after the attacks.
84. Congregation B'nai Israel Synagogue – Congregation Bnai Israel Synagogue is located on Wagner Avenue in Fleischmanns, New York, United States. It is a building dating to the 1920s, built two years after local farmers founded the congregation. Originally an Orthodox synagogue, it has since become Conservative and it is the only synagogue in the Catskills with an exposed truss roof. In 2002, the synagogue was added to the National Register of Historic Places, after an effort by Bernard Rosenberg. Congregation Bnai Israel Synagogue is the synagogue in Delaware County to be listed. The neighborhood is residential, with many old boardinghouses from the late 19th. Behind the houses across the street the ground slopes up to the NY28 state highway, to the west is the park created by Julius Fleischmann, son of Charles, after whom the village, originally called Griffin Corner, were renamed. Behind the synagogue, to its north, a grove of trees surrounds the rear of the building, buffering it from the Bush Kill. As a consequence of being on the flood plain, the synagogues lot is flat and grassy. The building itself is a one-and-a-half-story three-by-five-bay frame structure on a block foundation. It is sided in clapboard and topped by a roof with overhanging eaves supported by brackets. Along the south and side elevations the bays are divided by pilasters with Doric capitals supporting an architrave with wide frieze. On the south facade the windows are in deep molded lancet arch frames, below the sashes the eight panes are filled with colored glass, above them they have a Star of David design filled with yellow glass surrounded by blue. Larger versions of design are in the circular windows at each gable end. A set of steps leads up to the main entrance. Inside, a vestibule, with a kitchen on the side. It has a window to the kitchen on a rear wall that replicates the sanctuarys original rear wall. Another set of doors leads into the sanctuary, which occupies the rear third of the buildingCongregation B'nai Israel Synagogue – South elevation and partial west profile, 2008
85. James Bond (American football) – James Donald Jim Bond, Jr. was an American football player and coach. He played college football at the University of Pittsburgh from 1915 to 1920, with his career being interrupted by military service and he also played in the National Football League for the Brooklyn Lions in 1926. He coached college football at Centre College, the University of Buffalo, Canisius College, Bond was born in Painesville, Ohio, and grew up in the Morningside neighborhood in Pittsburgh. He attended Central High School in Pittsburgh, where he competed for the football, baseball. In 1914, Bond enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh and played football as a reserve guard in 1915 and 1916 for the Pittsburgh Panthers under head coach Glenn Scobey Pop Warner. His college career was interrupted by service during World War I. He was assigned to Camp Gordon, where he played for the football team. He was subsequently deployed with the 82nd Infantry Division to France where he was wounded and gassed at the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, after several months recuperating, Bond returned to Pitt in August 1919. The Pittsburgh Press reported on Bonds return as follows, Jim Bond. is another hero of the world war and he has entirely recovered from his wound, and will be with the Panthers this fall. After the 1919 Pitt-West Virginia game, one sports columnist wrote, Pop Warner did not have to waste time in making a guard out of Bond. He played for Pitts varsity football teams in 1919 and 1920, Bond began his coaching career as an assistant coach under Charley Moran at Centre College in 1922. Centres 1922 team finished with an 8-2 record, including victories over Clemson, Ole Miss, Virginia Tech, Louisville, Kentucky, and South Carolina, after only one year at Centre, Bond was hired as the head coach of the University of Buffalo football team. In his one season at Buffalo, the 1923 Bisons compiled a 2–5–1 record, in the spring of 1926, Bond retired from coaching and returned to Pittsburgh. In the fall of 1926, Bond played one season of football as a guard for the Brooklyn Lions of the National Football League. He started two games for the Lions, Bond was later employed by a refining company in Pittsburgh. He also worked as an umpire and served as an official of the Pittsburgh Umpires Association. At the time of the 1930 U. S. Census, Bond was living in Pittsburgh, as of April 1942, Bond was living in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and was employed by the Atlantic Refining Company. List of Brooklyn Lions players James Bond at the College Football Data WarehouseJames Bond (American football) – James Bond
86. Nina Starr Braunwald – Nina Starr Braunwald was an American thoracic surgeon and medical researcher who was among the first women to perform open-heart surgery. She was also the first woman to be certified by the American Board of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nina Starr was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1928. She received her baccalaureate and medical degrees from New York University, in 1952 she married Eugene Braunwald, her classmate in college and medical school and also a cardiovascular researcher, with whom she had three daughters. She joined the NIH National Heart Institute in nearby Bethesda, Maryland and she was a Staff Surgeon at the National Heart Institute until 1965, and then was named Deputy Chief of the Clinic of Surgery, a position she held until 1968. Braunwald designed and fabricated experimental artificial mitral valve prostheses, implanting them in dogs at the National Heart Institutes surgical clinic in 1959, on 11 March 1960, the first successful human implant followed, in a 44-year-old woman with mitral regurgitation. She then developed a mechanical valve, which was implanted into thousands of patients during the late 1960s. In the 1960s, articles in Life and Time magazines described her as one of Americas young movers and shakers, Braunwald moved to the University of California, San Diego along with her husband, who was appointed Chief of Medicine while she was appointed Associate Professor of Surgery. She followed her husband again, in 1972, to the Boston area. Braunwald published more than 110 peer-reviewed articles in leading journals such as Circulation, The New England Journal of Medicine, the award includes two years of research funding support and is given annually to a promising young woman academic cardiac surgeon. Similarly, the Association of Women Surgeons provides an annual Nina Starr Braunwald Award to a leader who has demonstrated exceptional support of a role for women in academic surgery. Braunwald reportedly struggled for opportunities after leaving Morrows department at the NIH. As a mother of three children, she balanced family responsibilities with the hefty demands of cardiac surgery, yet she did manage to pursue her hobbies of painting, sculpture, and horseback riding, and greatly enjoyed spending time with her grandchildren. Colleagues described her as pioneering, determined, yet gentle and this article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domainNina Starr Braunwald – Nina Starr Braunwald
87. C. Burton Hotel – The C. Burton Hotel, also known as the Sycamore House, is located on NY55 a mile west of Grahamsville, New York, United States. It is a wooden Greek Revival structure dating to 1851, in its later years it was used as a house and a medical office, currently it is unoccupied. In 2005 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places, as it currently stands the building is a rectangular two-story six-by-two-bay structure on a stone foundation. Its front facade is centered on a porch, with large fluted Doric columns. A broad gabled roof is covered in metal cladding, and round-arched louver windows are near the top at either end, the rear features a polygonal bay with two entrance doors. The building is sided in clapboard, the roofline is marked by a deep molded cornice with returns and a wide entablature. Three French doors give entrance from the front porch to the interior. The large entrance hall has a set of stairs lead to the ballroom upstairs. Many areas, particularly in the portion of the building, also have their original finishes and trim. The buildings seamless and symmetrical appearance belies its original construction and expansion, C. Burton originally built the small southern section as a roadside tavern in 1851. Starting in 1898, the Grahamsville Fair was held on the land behind the hotel, boosting annual visitation. Early in the new century, the first of two doctors began using it as a residence and office while continuing to put up guests as well, under the names Sycamore House and Hawthorne House. From 1938 until 1953 or 1954, it was owned by Dr. Karl H. Messinger, the upper floor was the familys living quarters, including the ballroom which served as the living/dining room. The north extension was rented as a two storey apartment, the flooring he used was marble from tombstones abandoned when the Rondout Reservoir was flooded. They were laid face down in red grout, except for one at the entrance which was engraved Home At Last. In 1994 those owners in turn sold to another family, which has been trying to restore the house while living elsewhere, the hotels implementation of the Greek Revival style, and its size, is unusually sophisticated for a rural commercial building far from any major city then. National Register of Historic Places listings in Sullivan County, New York National Register of Historic PlacesC. Burton Hotel – C. Burton Hotel
88. John Calhoun (publisher) – John Calhoun was an American publisher and politician from New York. Originally a student of carpentry, Calhoun learned the trade in his hometown of Watertown. After hearing about Chicago from a local, he moved there in 1833, Calhoun established the first paper in Chicago, the Chicago Democrat, which was first issued on November 26,1833. Calhoun held a monopoly on the trade in Chicago until 1835, later in his life, Calhoun served a number of city and county political positions, including a seat on the Chicago City Council. John Calhoun was born in Watertown, New York, on April 14,1808 and he apprenticed as a carpenter, his fathers profession. When he was sixteen, Calhoun took a job in the office of W. Woodward. Over the next five years, Calhoun learned the printing trade, when he was twenty-one, Calhoun left for Albany to work for the Starr & Little type foundry, then left weeks later for Troy, before returning to his position with the Watertown Freeman. In the summer of 1831, Calhoun established his own printing office in partnership with Woodward, perley Keyes convinced Calhoun to expand the operation, and the Watertown Eagle was founded. However, it provided too much of a challenger for Calhoun, and it was sold to Alvin Hunt. Watertown resident Harlow Kimball visited Chicago in 1833 and inspired Calhoun to seek out the city, Calhoun shipped his hand press, type, and paper to Chicago and established an office on the southwest corner of South Water and Clark Streets. An ardent supporter of President Andrew Jackson, Calhoun named his new paper, the first in the emerging town, the first issue appeared on November 26,1833, and had 147 subscribers. The weekly newspaper was printed in a six-column, four-page format, in May 1834, it was named the official paper of the town of Chicago and was responsible for printing new ordinances. The office was moved in November 1834 to a room above the Jones & King hardware store, the newspaper was forced to largely cease printing from January 1 to May 20,1835, due to a paper shortage, although it did produce two issues during that period. The monopoly of the Democrat ended in 1835 when T. O. Davis established The American, to fight this competitor, Calhoun hired James Curtiss as a new editor. Daniel Brainard was also associated with editing the paper at some point in early years. By May 1836 Calhoun had lost interest in the paper and attempted to sell it to a group of local Democrats, the paper was enlarged in August 1836. The last issue was published on November 16,1836, and afterwards the paper was sold to Isaac Hill, in 1837, Calhoun was appointed Cook County Treasurer, serving through 1838. The position was renamed Cook County Collector that year, and Calhoun was appointed each year through 1841, Calhoun was elected to the Chicago City Council in 1841, serving through 1842John Calhoun (publisher) – John Calhoun
89. Jerome Case – Jerome Increase Case was an early American manufacturer of threshing machines. Case Company which has gone through many mergers and name changes to todays Case Corporation and he was a mayor of Racine, Wisconsin, and a member of the Wisconsin State Senate. Jerome Increase Case was born December 11,1819, in Williamstown in Oswego County and his father was Caleb Case and mother Deborah Jackson. He was one of seven children, through his mother he claimed to be related to Andrew Jackson. His father sold some primitive ground hog machines that helped speed up the separation of grain after it was harvested, in 1840, Jerome started a small business threshing his neighbors crops with the horse-powered devices. In the summer of 1842, he bought six of the machines on credit, on his way north to Rochester, Wisconsin he sold five and kept one for his own business. Through the winter he worked on improvements to the thresher, by May 1844 the new model which did a better job of fully separating the grain was working. Since Rochester did not have water available, he moved to Racine. He first manufactured the machines in a shop in Racine. A new vibrator process introduced in 1852 was so successful he was selling throughout Illinois, Indiana, by 1855 the plant covered several acres, including a private boat dock on Lake Michigan. In 1856 he was elected mayor of Racine, declined the re-nomination the next year and he often financed the machines with high interest rates. This worked until the panic of 1857 and unreliable state-issued paper money caused many customers to default, Case accepted animals, supplies, and land instead of cash. At the start of the American Civil War, farmers would often walk away from their debts to enlist, the labor shortage combined with increased demand for food resulted in a growing business in the 1860s. Erskine, Robert H. Baker and Stephen Bull became partners when J. I. Case Company was officially organized in 1863, Case was elected to the Wisconsin State Senate in 1865 and served one two-year term. Also in 1865 he happened to meet up with a company of the 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment returning from the war and he adopted the mascot of the regiment, an eagle named Old Abe, as company symbol. In 1871 he was a founder of Manufacturers National Bank of Racine and he was an early investor in the Northwestern Life Insurance Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1876 he started another company to make plows, licensing the center draft technology from Ebenezer G. Whiting. Initially called Case, Whitney & Company, when he became owner in 1878 it became the J. I. Case Plow CompanyJerome Case – Jerome Increase Case
90. Samuel Northrup Castle – Samuel Northrup Castle was a businessman and politician in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Samuel Northrup Castle was born August 12,1808 in Cazenovia and his middle name is sometimes spelled Northrop. His father was Samuel Castle whose mother was Eunice Northrup, and he became a bank teller in Cleveland, Ohio. On December 14,1836 the Castles sailed from Boston on the Mary Frazier, juliette Montague and Amos Starr Cooke were on the same ship, the eighth company of missionaries from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions which arrived on April 9,1837. Castle was a layman who managed the affairs of the mission. The Castles were assigned a house built for Reverend Ephriam Weston Clark near Kawaiahaʻo Church. He lived there the rest of his life, some of the houses in this complex have been restored and became the Mission Houses Museum. His first wife Angeline died March 5,1841 after having one daughter Mary Tenney Castle, born May 9,1838 who married Edward Griffin Hitchcock April 11,1862. Hitchcock was son of missionaries Harvey Rexford Hitchcock and Rebecca Howard, born in Lahaina on Maui in 1837, served as Marshal of the Republic of Hawaii and their grandson was all-American football player Harvey Rexford Hitchcock, Jr. Castle returned to the United States and married Mary Tenney, the sister of his first wife, on November 13,1842 in West Exeter and they were both daughters of Levi Tenney who served in the War of 1812 and Mary Ann Kingsbury. The Castles returned to Hawaii in March 1843 and he was a member of the board of trustees of Punahou School when it was incorporated on June 6,1849. He served as treasurer for forty years and he was the only original trustee alive for the 50th anniversary celebration in 1891. In 1851 he resigned from the mission and founded the firm Castle & Cooke with Cooke, the partnership papers were signed June 2,1851. Initially they ran a store in Honolulu, and continued to help the missions with financial matters through the Hawaiian Evangelical Association. Agents were hired in New York and San Francisco, joseph Ballard Atherton joined as clerk in 1858 and rose to become partner by 1865. During the 1860s Castle & Cooke expanded into the business of selling sugar from the number of sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. One of the first was Haʻikū Sugar Company on Maui, Haʻikū was later managed by children of missionaries Henry Perrine Baldwin and Samuel T. Alexander who formed their own partnership Alexander & Baldwin. These were two of the known as the Big Five who dominated the economy of the Territory of Hawaii through the 20th centturySamuel Northrup Castle – Circa 1878
91. Burr Caswell – Burr Caswell was an American frontiersman, being the first white man to occupy any part of Mason County, Michigan, arriving in 1845. He built the first framed house, courthouse and jail in Mason County and was the first Coroner, Probate Judge and he was the progenitor of a prominent Mason County family. He was the first white man to take a farm from the American government in the wilds of Mason County and he constructed the countys first frame building. It is the only surviving landmark of Mason County’s earliest history, and he served as the countys first, Coroner, Probate Judge and Surveyor. Caswell was born at Glens Falls, New York, in 1807 with the name of Aaron Burr although he always went by just the name Burr. As a young man Caswell learned cabinet trade skills and he practiced this business for several years in Glens Falls. In 1827, he married Hannah Green and they were married in Glens Falls where they remained for a few years. Caswell and his family made several changes in the next few years like many of the early settlers. They even went to Mississippi and were employed on the river boats, in 1842, Caswell and his family moved to Barrington Station, Lake County, Illinois. Here he bought a farm where he lived for three years, Caswell by himself then in 1845 went to Pere Marquette Township in Mason County, Michigan, for a while. His nearest neighbor was some 30 miles to the north, Manistee, there he spent most of his time fishing at Duck Lake. He was there to 1847 and then returned to Illinois and got his family of six, the children were Mary, George, Helen, and Edgar. When arriving they realized the entrance channel to shore was too shallow for the ship so they came ashore in its yawl and they threw their animals overboard, which had to fend for themselves to get ashore. They lived in wilderness and rugged terrain. Caswell got along well with the local Michigan Ottawa Indians and he learned their customs and religion. Caswell built a two story frame house in 1849 out of old driftwood. It was the first frame structure in Mason County which still stands at White Pine Village very near its location as the Mason County Historical Societys outdoor museums centerpiece. In 1868, he was a delegate to the Republican party convention, an 1882 book titled History of Manistee, Mason, and Oceana Counties says, He continually worked at improving his farm while working in the lumber industryBurr Caswell – Burr Caswell
92. Cayuga Indian Nation of New York v. Pataki – Applying the U. S. Supreme Courts recent ruling in City of Sherrill v. The ruling was the culmination of a litigation in the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York before Judge Neal Peters McCurn. This precedent has effectively ended the viability of all aboriginal title litigation in the Second Circuit, since the ruling, no tribal plaintiff has overcome the laches defense in a land claim in the Second Circuit. Four dissenting Supreme Court justices had previously adopted the view of the Second Circuit in County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State, there, the following year, a class of defendant land owners was certified. In 1983, the Cayuga survived the motion to dismiss. McCurns ruling preceded the U. S. Supreme Courts ruling in County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State, in 1987, McCurn ruled on the motions for summary judgement. In 1990, he ruled both the 1795 and 1807 conveyances violated the Nonintercourse Act, and were thus invalid. In 1991, interpreted the reservation terminology in the relevant treaty to also implicate that Act, McCurn also rejected the laches defense, on which the Second Circuit would eventually overturn his ruling. In response to the assertion of sovereign immunity as a defense, the federal government moved to intervene in the lawsuit. Having established liability, the litigation turned to the remedy, in 1999, McCurn ruled on the appropriate method to calculate damages. The court rejected the arguments that damages should be limited to the fair market value of the land at the time of the transaction. That same year, the court rejected ejectment as a remedy, thus ensuring that the Cayuga would be unable to recover possession of the lands, the court also determined that joint and several liability would be inappropriate, and thus that the defendants would require separate trials. Preparing for trial, the court threw out the real estate expert and approved the governments real estate expert. He also clarified his prior ruling, to note that testimony on laches would be permitted inasmuch as it related to pre-judgement interest.42, the court also denied the defendants post-trial motions, but stayed the collection of the judgement pending appeal. The Second Circuit reversed, and entered judgement for the defendants, Judge José A. Cabranes authored the panel opinion, joined by Rosemary S. Pooler. Parsing the Sherrill decision, the court concluded that the dispositive factor there was the nature of the claim itself. The court concluded that the District Court had monetized the ejectment remedy, accordingly, we conclude that possessory land claims of this type are subject to the equitable considerations discussed in Sherrill. The court justified this holding with reference to the sui generis nature of aboriginal title, insofar as the Cayugas claim in the instant case is unquestionably a possessory land claim, it is subject to lachesCayuga Indian Nation of New York v. Pataki – Judge José A. Cabranes, the author of Cayuga
93. John Clapp (baseball) – Clapp, who predominately played as a catcher, also played as an outfielder. Over his career, Clapp compiled a batting average of.283 with 459 runs scored,713 hits,92 doubles,35 triples,7 home runs. Over 1,188 games played, Clapp struck out 51 times, although the majority of his career was spent in the major leagues, Clapp also played two seasons of minor league baseball. He made his MLB debut at the age of 21 and was listed as standing 5 feet 7 inches and his brother, Aaron Clapp, also played one season of MLB for the Troy Trojans. John Edgar Clapp was born on July 17,1851, in Ithaca, in 1872, Clapp began his professional career with the Middletown Mansfields of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players. Over 19 games played, Clapp batted.278 with one home run, after the team folded, Clapp joined the Philadelphia Athletics. His single home run tied him for the team-lead along with Wes Fisler, Cherokee Fisher, and Tim Murnane. Next season, in 1874, Clapp led the NA in at bats per home run, his on-base percentage was a career-high, while the Athletics finished the season 33–22, third in the NA, under manager Dick McBride. In his final year with the club, Clapp batted.264 with 77 hits and 39 RBI and his putout total was second in the NA among catchers. In 1876, Clapp joined the St. Louis Brown Stockings of the National League and he finished the year tied for the team lead in games played and hits, while he led the NL in putouts as a catcher, with 333. Next season, Clapp batted a career high.318, while his on-base percentage, in the field, Clapp committed 40 errors as a catcher, second highest in the NL to Lew Browns 49. After leaving the team, Clapp joined the Indianapolis Blues, where he served as a player-manager for the 1878 season. Playing primarily in the outfield, Clapp was tied for the MLB lead in games played along with Indianapolis teammates Silver Flint, Russ McKelvy, Orator Shafer, after his one-year stint with the Blues, Clapp joined the Buffalo Bisons. Playing in 70 games, Clapp managed the team to a 46–32 record, on June 25 of that year, Clapp ended a streak of 212 consecutive games played, serving primarily as a catcher. In 1880, now playing and managing for the Cincinnati Reds, Clapp played in a total of 80 games, Clapp reported him to the Chicago police, which led to Woodruffs arrest. In 1882, after leading the NL in walks, Clapp made his debut for the New York Metropolitans of the League Alliance. In 1883, his last MLB season, Clapp played for, Clapp, then 34, spent his final professional season with the St. Paul Apostles, where he batted.180 with 11 hits and a double. After retiring from baseball, Clapp served as a sergeant in his hometown of IthacaJohn Clapp (baseball) – John Clapp
94. Cobblestone architecture – Cobblestone architecture refers to the use of cobblestones embedded in mortar as method for erecting walls on houses and commercial buildings. Evidence of the use of cobblestones in building has found in the ruins of Hierakonpolis in Egypt. Houses were built of mud brick set on foundations and cobblestone architecture may have been used on a monumental scale to erect public administrative centers or palaces. Those structures are now collapsed into mounds of stone, other areas just have unsplit cobbles on the outside of the wall, sometimes also carefully graded and arranged for a decorative effect. Cobblestone architecture was developed in the northeastern United States, especially antebellum western New York state, masons that built the Erie Canal during 1817-1825 started building cobblestone structures about the time the canal was finished. The stones used in the construction were typically of a rounded shape deposited in the area by glaciers, immigrants spread the style to other parts of the country, including an area of Wisconsin. Historians estimate that at least 75 percent, and possibly more than 90 percent, of American cobblestone buildings can be found within 70–75 miles of Rochester, New York. The style was prominent between 1835 and about 1860, around 900 cobblestone buildings were constructed in New York state before the American Civil War, after the war, construction slowed, there were only two post-Civil War cobblestone structures known by author Noble. About 700 cobblestone homes remain in the Rochester area, the Town Hall in Westport, Connecticut, built in 1908, is unusual for including cobblestone exterior surface within a Classical Revival style design. Paris, Ontario is referred to as the capital of Canada due to a significant number of cobblestone buildings. This mode of construction was introduced to the community when Levi Boughton, in true cobblestone architecture the whole wall consists of rows of cobblestones embedded in a lime mortar. The exterior surface may especially carefully constructed for decorative effect with cobbles matched by size, in Wisconsin most buildings seem to have only the exterior surfaces in pure cobblestone work, as a decorative finish for a rubble core. English medieval walls often contain a mixture of cobbles, rubble and re-used brick, some cobblestone architecture shows consistent matching in the size of the stones used, shape, and color. This method of construction has been referred to as a form of folk art, Cobblestone architecture is featured in many houses and farmhouses but also in churches, stores and town halls. List of cobblestone buildings Life and Times in Gasport, New York, Cobblestone Houses Around GasportCobblestone architecture – The Cobblestone Schoolhouse is part of the Cobblestone Historic District, in the hamlet of Childs, New York.
95. Cobblestone Farmhouse at 1229 Birdsey Road – Cobblestone Farmhouse at 1229 Birdsey Road is a farmhouse in the town of Junius, New York, in Seneca County, New York. It is significant as a example of cobblestone architecture, in a vernacular Greek Revival style. North of the house, there is also a large barn believed to date to the late 19th century and this property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 6,2008. It is the property listed as a featured property of the week in a program of the National Park Service that began in July,2008. The house is thought to have built in the 1830s or 1840s. The walls of the structure are made with rounded field stones between limestone quoins that both decorate and stabilize the walls. The multi-colored field cobbles are held in place with limestone mortared V joints, the quoins are twelve inches high, and there are three to four courses of cobblestones for each quoin. The house is laid out two windows on either side of a central entrance. The one-story porch outside the front door has Victorian details under a hip roof, the Greek Revival features of the entrance include square pilasters and half side-lights. The builder and/or architect is not known, cobblestone architecture was developed in New York State to a high degree. A survey identified 660 cobblestone structures in 21 New York counties, there may be approximately 300 elsewhere in the United States, concentrated in Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Vermont. The barn on the property is constructed of wood siding attached vertically to the frame and it is itself significant as a typical example of late 19th century barn construction. The property is located on Birdsey Road, a county road, directly adjacent to the New York State Thruway. The town of Junius remains largely rural in character, the 12-acre property is what remains of the original 100-acre farmstead. The topography is flat, and the land mostly clearedCobblestone Farmhouse at 1229 Birdsey Road – Cobblestone Farmhouse at 1229 Birdsey Road
96. Cornell Big Red football – It is one of the oldest and most storied football programs in the nation. The team has attained five national championships and has had seven players inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, in 1869, the first intramural football on the Cornell campus took place, although it did not resemble the modern sport and there were 40 players per side. In 1874, the university president and founder, Andrew Dickson White, disallowed a team of Cornell students from traveling to Cleveland, White said, I refuse to let 40 of our boys travel 400 miles merely to agitate a bag of wind. On November 12,1887, Cornell played its first intercollegiate game against Union College, the following year, the Cornellians record their first win by beating Palmyra, 26–0, and went on to finish the season with a 4–2 record. In 1889, Cornell played the University of Michigan in Buffalo, NY, in 1892, Glenn Pop Warner first played the game and the Cornellians finished the season having posted a 10–1 mark under Father of Cornell football Carl Johanson. Two years later Warner rose to become the team captain, after college, Warner began his coaching career and returned to Cornell in 1897. That year, he led the team to a 5–3–1 record, the following season, Cornell compiled a 10–2 record. Warner then moved on to coach the Carlisle Indians football team, in 1901, under first-year coach Ray Starbuck, the Cornellians outscored their opponents 324–38 and won 11 games for the only time in school history. Pop Warner returned as coach from 1904 to 1906, during which time his teams posted a 21–8 record. Cornell began playing Ivy League rival Penn in 1893 and they have played 122 times since, in every year except 1918, making this game the 5th most played college football contest in the nation. In 1915, Cornell won all nine of its games and they handed Harvard their first loss in 50 consecutive games, 10–0. Gil Dobie took over as coach in 1920. In his first season, the Cornellians posted a 6–2 record, Cornell was awarded the national championship for each of those three seasons by at least one selector. In those seasons, Cornell outscored its opponents,1,051 points to 71, Cornell defeated Penn State, 21–6, in 1938 to begin a school record unbeaten streak of 16 games. The Big Red compiled an 8–0 record in 1939 for its national championship. The possibility of a Rose Bowl invitation that season was rebuffed by the university administration, the unbeaten streak came to an end in 1940 with the infamous Fifth Down Game. After the game, Cornell voluntarily forfeited to Dartmouth when review of film showed the Big Red had inadvertently used five downs, the ESPN College Football Encyclopedia named the game, and Cornells honorable concession, the second greatest moment in college football history. In 1951, Cornell beat defending Big Ten and Rose Bowl champion Michigan, between 1969 and 1971, running back Ed Marinaro broke numerous NCAA records with a career total of 1,881 yards and 24 touchdownsCornell Big Red football – The 1904 team coached by Warner (not pictured).
97. Cornell Paper – The study was written by Benedict Anderson and Ruth McVey, with the help of Frederick Bunnell, using information from various Indonesian news sources. At the time of writing, the three were members of Cornell Universitys network of students and scholars on Southeast Asia. In their work, Anderson and McVey theorized that neither the Communist Party of Indonesia nor President Sukarno took part in organizing the operation, instead, they became the victims. S. By the end of the week, the movement had been crushed by forces of Major General Suharto. Several alternatives to their theory were presented and disputed, including the official government account that the PKI had masterminded the coup attempt. Although the paper was intended to be confidential, information on its existence was eventually leaked in a March 5,1966. Cornell turned down requests to access the paper, and its contents became subject to misinterpretation, since its publication, the Cornell Paper has been subject to further analysis and revision. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Untung Syamsuri of the Tjakrabirawa, the Presidential Guard and it also claimed to have President Sukarno under its protection. Using Cornells collection of national and provincial Indonesian newspapers and by listening to broadcasts from the country, Anderson and McVey began writing their findings. A very tentative 162-page summary and analysis of the events was completed on January 10,1966, according to Anderson, the report places emphasis on two aspects of Indonesian politics previously unexplored by scholars of the country. The first aspect is the involvement of the Indonesian military in transforming itself from a decentralized. The volatility of the military had previously contributed to internal and national crises. The study also develops a political perspective that analyzes the frequently antagonistic interaction between the metropolitan elite of the capital city and more isolated provincial capitals. Anderson acknowledged that he and McVey placed a considerable amount of attention on events in Central Java at the expense of other provinces as well as the capital city. Additionally, they lacked an understanding of the politics of the Indonesian National Police. In his view, Andersons and McVeys work contains a number of important insights, though both were deeply involved, it was after the coup plans were well under way. They were more the victims than the initiators of events, the PKI was entangled before it knew what was happening, Soekarno mistakenly attempted to take advantage of the situation created by the deaths of six of his top Generals. The actual originators of the coup are to be not in DjakartaCornell Paper – Headquarters of Radio Republik Indonesia in Jakarta today
98. Abraham Curry – Abraham Van Santvoord Curry is considered the founding father of Carson City, Nevada. A native of the state of New York, he traveled to the West Coast during the California Gold Rush and settled in Nevadas Eagle Valley, Curry served as an assemblyman of the Nevada Territorial Legislature from 1862 to 1863 and was a territorial senator from 1863 to 1864. He was also the first superintendent of the Carson City Mint, Curry donated 10 acres of land for the site of the Nevada State Capitol, for which the state prison quarry provided the stone for its construction. Curry spent the years of his life building facilities for the Virginia. Though he had achieved prominence in Nevada, his claimed that he had only one dollar in his pocket when he died in 1873. Abraham Van Santvoord Curry was born on February 19,1815 in the hamlet of South Trenton and he was the first son of Campbell Curry and Elvira Skinner Curry, who were married in South Trenton. On August 1,1835, Curry married Mary Ann Cowen and their first child and only son, Charles A. Curry, was born on June 10,1836. After a year in Ogdensburg, the family moved several times and settled in Portage, the Currys later had six daughters. By 1852, Curry was working in Cleveland, Ohio as a commercial merchant, after his daughters, Elvira and Jane, were each married, Curry and his son Charles took a steamship from New York City that sailed around Cape Horn to San Francisco between 1854 and 1855. In 1856, the two were in the town of Red Dog, where Curry opened a bowling alley. He met future business partners Benjamin F. Green, John J. Musser, Currys $1000 offer to buy a corner lot on which build a store in Genoa was refused for being insufficient. After finding real estate in Genoa to be expensive, Curry moved on to the sparsely inhabited Eagle Valley. Curry partnered with Musser and Proctor to purchase the Eagle Ranch trading post and 865 acres of the valley for a down payment of $300 in coins out of a total sale price of $1,000. Musser and Proctor, who were attorneys, worked to carve a separate territory from Utah, while Curry promoted the newly founded Carson City. Curry set aside and donated 10 acres of land for the site of the Nevada State Capitol, in July 1859, Musser became president and Proctor became vice-president of the constitutional convention to establish the Territory of Nevada. Curry served as the delegate from Eagle Valley, in 1859, the discovery of the Comstock Lode east of Carson City was made public, bringing tens of thousands of miners into the area. In 1861, Curry built a 100-foot stone hotel on top of springs about two miles east of the city center. A large wooden eagle was placed on the top of the hotel, in 1862, the Nevada Territorial Legislature leased the Warm Springs Hotel from Curry to hold meetings and detain prisonersAbraham Curry – Abraham Curry House
99. Charles P. Daly – Charles Patrick Daly was a member of the New York State Assembly, Chief Justice of the New York Court of Common Pleas, president of the American Geographical Society, and an author of several books. The Daly ancestors were the ODalys of County Galway, Ireland, in 1814, two years before Dalys birth, his parents immigrated to the U. S. from Omagh, County Tyrone, Ireland. Daly was born in New York, New York, USA and his father, Michael, had been a master carpenter in Ireland, but in New York City, he worked as the manager of a hotel on Broadway. His mother, Elizabeth, died when Daly was age three, Daly attended private school in his early years. Upon his fathers death, Daly was unwilling to rely on a widowed stepmother, leading him to leave school and he worked first as a clerk in Savannah, Georgia, before becoming a cabin boy on a trading ship. During his three years as a sailor, he was present at the 1830 capture of Algiers, when he returned to New York in 1832, he became a mechanical trade apprentice for a quill manufacturer. He also joined The New York Literary Society where he learned how to debate and this led to him becoming a law student and he was admitted to practice law in 1839. In 1843, Daly was elected to the New York State Assembly, while in office, he staunchly supported the establishment of Central Park against considerable opposition. The following year, Judge William Inglis term on the New York Court of Common Pleas expired, on a recommendation of Governor William Marcy, Governor William Bouck appointed Daly to the Court, beginning his term May 1844. When the position changed from a one to an elected one in 1847, Daly ran for election and won. One of his most notable cases dealt with the Astor Place Riot involving William Charles Macready at the Astor Place Theatre and he served on the court for six consecutive terms, retiring December 30,1885 because of the constitutional age limit. Ten years later, the Court of Common Pleas was abolished, for fifteen years, starting in 1860, he lectured on law at Columbia Law School. In 1867, Daly was a member of the New York Constitutional Convention, after leaving the bench, he became a partner in the firm of Daly, Hoyt and Mason. As a member, and then president of the AGS, Daly was influential in supporting Arctic expeditions, Daly, a bibliophile, had a personal collection of more than 12,000 volumes. He donated 700 of his books to the AGS on his 75th birthday and during his tenure as President. He was an member of the Royal Geographical Society of London, England, the Berlin Geographical Society. In London in 1895, he was a speaker at the 6th International Geographical Congress, Daly met Maria Lydig in 1855. Born in 1824, Maria was the daughter of Philip Mesier Lydig, Philip Lydig was the last holder of the land that subsequently became the Bronx Park, the park now contains the New York Botanical GardenCharles P. Daly – Charles Patrick Daly
100. John Watts de Peyster – For his son, see John Watts de Peyster Jr. John Watts de Peyster, Sr. was an author on the art of war, philanthropist, and the Adjutant General of New York. He served in the New York State Militia during the Mexican–American War, De Peyster was born in Manhattan into a wealthy old New York City family. His father was Frederic de Peyster, a wealthy New York City lawyer, investor and he was a first cousin of Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny. His great great grandfather was Abraham de Peyster, an early Mayor of New York City, whose brother was Johannes de Peyster and his grandfather was a nephew of Arent DePeyster. He studied law at Columbia University, although he did not graduate on account of his poor health and he had become an invalid at a young age due to a heart affliction he developed during service as a volunteer fireman. De Peyster was heavily involved as a firefighter with the No.5 Hose Carriage during his collegiate years, including a major fire in 1836. Despite these physical difficulties, he was described by some as feisty and he later received the degree of M. A. from Columbia College, LL. D. from Nebraska College, and Ph. D. by Franklin & Marshall College. He was one of the organizers of the New York City Police Department and he spent his entire career in the New York State Militia, being promoted to brigadier general in 1851. He served as state Judge Advocate General and eventually Adjutant General and he traveled through Europe extensively as a military observer, and implemented many reforms that modernized the militia for the upcoming conflict. He was met with little interest after New York had already filled its national recruitment quota of 75,000 men, each of his three sons served in the conflict in the Union Army. The eldest, John Watts de Peyster, Jr and these contributions were translated and copied into foreign military journals, including Correards renowned Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer. Such tactics were put into practice by generals including John Buford and were adopted worldwide. He was appointed a major general in 1866 by a special act of the state legislature. His elevation to major general was the first such honor bestowed by the State of New York and he was a close friend of Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles, commander of the Union III Corps. General de Peyster wrote biographies of III Corps Generals Andrew A. Humphreys and Gershom Mott during the war, and wrote highly of Bufords celebrated usage of light cavalry. After the Civil War, de Peyster was elected as a 3rd Class Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States in recognition of his efforts to support the Union during the war. General de Peyster was known as the largest developer in the village of Tivoli, New York, in 1892 he replaced a wooden Methodist church with a brick structure that stands today. He also refurbished an old school into a school for girlsJohn Watts de Peyster – Major General de Peyster
101. Deaths of Phillip Esposito and Louis Allen – The fragging deaths of Phillip Esposito and Louis Allen occurred on June 7,2005, at Forward Operating Base Danger in Tikrit, Iraq. Military investigators determined that the mine was placed in the window and detonated to kill Esposito. Martinez, who was in the unit, was charged with two counts of premeditated murder. In the court martial, Martinez was acquitted on December 4,2008 at Fort Bragg, in April 2005, Sergeant Hasan Karim Akbar was convicted on charges of premeditated murder and sentenced to death for the first incident, which took place in March 2003 in Kuwait. Due to the sentence, as of August 2013, his case is still proceeding through automatic appeals, Esposito was the company commander and had been stationed in Iraq about six months. Allen was the new operations officer, he had arrived in the unit just four days before. At 10 p. m. a M18A1 Claymore mine placed next to the window of Espositos office exploded, blasting 700 steel ball bearings into the office space, seconds later, several grenades exploded in the vicinity of Espositos office. The two injured officers were rushed to a hospital at Forward Operating Base Speicher, both died early June 8,2005, from serious internal injuries suffered in the first explosion. Philip Esposito, a manager for Smith Barney in Manhattan, lived in Suffern, New York with his wife. He was a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, more than 500 people attended his funeral on June 16,2005 after his body was returned home. Louis Allen, a physics and earth sciences teacher in Tuxedo, New York, lived in Milford, Pennsylvania with his wife. Military investigators initially thought that the two officers were killed by an insurgent mortar or rocket attack, when they determined that the blast was deliberately caused by a hand-placed explosive device, they began looking for suspects. Learning that Staff Sergeant Alberto B, Martinez,37, had made numerous threats against Esposito, and based on their investigation, they arrested and charged him with two counts of premeditated murder. This happened the week in June that Esposito and Allen were buried in their home towns. From Schaghticoke, New York near Troy, Martinez is married with two children and he had joined the National Guard in 1990 and been assigned to Iraq in 2004. He was serving as the sergeant of the unit headed by Esposito. Esposito and Martinez had come into conflict before arriving in Tikrit in April 2004, Martinez was later described in court as a poorly disciplined and foul-mouthed guardsman who needed a special waiver to qualify for duty. Witnesses testified that Martinez could not account for hundreds of thousands of dollars in missing equipment, Esposito eventually restricted Martinez from going into the supply area without an escortDeaths of Phillip Esposito and Louis Allen – A temporary memorial to Phillip Esposito and Louis Allen erected in Tikrit shortly after their deaths
102. Charles Dinsmoor – Charles Dinsmoor was an American inventor and lawyer. Dinsmoors ancestors came from Ireland, however are from Scottish descent, Dinsmoor was born at Alabama Center in Alabama, New York on September 19,1834. Dinsmoors family genealogy can be traced back to the first person in his history to arrive in America. John came to America in 1719 from Londonderry, Ireland and is the fifth generation ancestor to the subject of this sketch and he originally settled in Windham, New Hampshire. Among the ancestors of Dinsmoor are Samuel Dinsmoor, who was a governor of New Hampshire, Samuel Dinsmoor, Jr. was also a governor of New Hampshire. Robert Dinsmoor, brother to Samuel Dinsmoor Sr. was a well known Scottish poet of New England that called himself the Rustic Bard, Dinsmoor was the president of the Adams Express Company. Colonel Silas Dinsmoor was famous as an Indian agent, a son of Samuel Jr. was George, the father of this sketch. Dinsmoor received an education in the local common schools of Elk township in Warren County. Much of his time was spent helping support the family living in meager circumstances. At sixteen Dinsmoor left home and became a student at the academies at Warren, Smethport. He was also a student at Randolph, New York, Dinsmoor was in the printing business for about eleven years in the same cities. The printing was associated with teaching and attending school, during the last three of this time he was editor of the Warren Ledger at Warren, Pennsylvania. When Dinsmoor was twenty-two he attended Randolph Academy for a year, here studied law for six months at the offices of Weeden & Henderson. Dinsmoor then continued his law studies under B. W. Lacy in 1858 and he was admitted to the bar of Warren County, Pennsylvania September 18,1859. Dinsmoor was appointed assistant United States marshal in 1860, one of Dinsmoor’s duties was taking the 1860 census for the northern half of Warren county. Dinsmoor was elected justice of the peace for Warren County in 1861 and was reelected for fifteen years. He also practiced law during time, in 1876 he voluntarily retired from the office. Dinsmoor has been elected to positions in government, from being a town clerk to a chief burgessCharles Dinsmoor – modern-day continuous track vehicle
103. Pedro Espada Jr. – Pedro Espada Jr. is a federal prison inmate and former Democratic member of the New York Senate for the 33rd Senate District. A former New York Senate majority leader, Espada was convicted on charges in May,2012. After his return to the Democratic caucus on July 9,2009, dogged by scandals, Espada was defeated by Gustavo Rivera on September 14,2010, in a primary election in his bid to retain his State Senate seat,32. 66% to Riveras 62. 21%. He was indicted on six counts of embezzlement and theft on December 14,2010. Espada was born in Coamo, Puerto Rico in 1953 and moved with his family to New York City at the age of five and his family settled in the Mott Haven section of the Bronx, where he attended the New York City Public Schools. He attended Fordham University, and graduated in 1975 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, in the late 1970s, Espada was a community organizer and educator in Harlem and the Lower East Side in Manhattan, and in the South Bronx. He established and served as president of the Comprehensive Community Development Corporation and was the director of the Soundview Health Center. The empty building that was to have been the clinic was leased by the group and $50,000 in federal grants was obtained, Espada was also endorsed by El Diario and The Amsterdam News, but received few endorsements from political figures. García won renomination with 60 percent of the vote to Espadas 27 percent, in the 1996 primary, the Bronx Democratic Party took the highly unusual step of running a candidate against the incumbent Democratic Senator, and successfully challenged Espadas petitions in court. Espada, having the Democratic line, won the election handily, in 2001, Espada ran for Bronx Borough President, but was defeated by Adolfo Carrion Jr. In 2002, Espada lost the Democratic nomination to City Councilman incumbent Ruben Diaz, Espada sought a new primary in court, but was denied. He then ran for his old seat on the Republican and Independence lines while remaining registered as a Democrat, Espada was re-elected to the Senate in 2008 for a seat in the 33rd District, succeeding Efrain Gonzalez. The 33rd District is in the Northwest Bronx, including the neighborhoods of Bedford Park, Fordham, Norwood, Espada was the first Latino to serve as Majority Leader. This position was given to him to resolve the June 2009 New York Senate coup orchestrated by Espada, then-Senator Hiram Monserrate. Monserrate was later removed from following a conviction for domestic abuse. Espada voted in favor of marriage legislation on December 2,2009. In a press release posted to his Senate web page, Espada emphasized that I remain a staunch, the switch was preceded by several weeks of private talks brokered by upstate billionaire Tom Golisano. In the early evening of July 9,2009, Espada switched his allegiance back with the Democratic Party, Espada lost his bid for re-election, but was later elected to represent the South Bronx in the State Senate again, even as he continued to maintain residence in MamaroneckPedro Espada Jr. – Pedro Espada, Jr.
104. John V. Farwell – John Villiers Farwell, Sr. was an American merchant and philanthropist from New York City. Moving to Chicago, Illinois at an age, he joined Wadsworth & Phelps. Later, he served as an Indian agent and had land holdings in Texas. He and his brother, Senator Charles B, Farwell, of Illinois, are the namesake of Farwell, Texas. John Villiers Farwell was born on July 29,1825 in Meads Creek, Steuben County and he was the brother of Charles B. Farwell, who would go on to become a United States Senator, when he was thirteen, his father moved the family to a farm in Ogle County, Illinois. Farwell attended Mount Morris Seminary and graduated in 1844, Farwell decided to head to Chicago, Illinois to seek employment. He worked in the office of the City Clerk of Chicago then joined the dry goods house of Hamilton & White as a bookkeeper, Farwell then took a position at Wadsworth & Phelps. Farwell trained several of Chicagos future prominent businessmen, including Marshall Field, Farwell married Abigail G. Taylor, the daughter of Ogle County farmer John G. Taylor, in 1851, but she died after two years. Farwell was named a partner in the firm, then known as Cooley, Cooley in 1854, they had three sons and a daughter. In 1863, Farwell was named partner of the firm following the retirement of E. S. Wadsworth. In 1864, the company was restyled Farwell, Field & Co. after Marshall Field, however, the next year, Field and Leiter left to join Potter Palmer in what would become Marshall Field & Co. Farwells dry goods house then known as John V. Farwell & Co. The company survived the 1871 Great Chicago Fire and was incorporated in 1891. Farwell was a leader in the history of the YMCA. He was named superintendent of Moodys Illinois Street Church in 1859 and he built the first church building for Moody on the corner of Illinois and Wells Streets in 1864. Farwell provided Moody with the financial backing needed to support the institution, Farwell was named a trustee of the Moody Bible Institute when it was founded in 1886. During the Civil War, Farwell was President of the Chicago Branch of the United States Christian Commission, a Republican, Farwell was a delegate from Illinois to the 1864 presidential election, supporting Abraham LincolnJohn V. Farwell – John Villiers Farwell, Sr.
105. Joan Feynman – Joan Feynman is an American astrophysicist. She has made important contributions to the study of solar particles and fields, sun-Earth relations. In particular, Feynman is known for developing an understanding of the origin of auroras and she is also known for creating a model that predicts the number of high-energy particles likely to hit a spacecraft over its lifetime, and for uncovering a method for predicting sun spot cycles. Feynman is the sister of physicist Richard Feynman. Feynman was raised in Far Rockaway section of Queens, New York City, along with her older brother and her parents were Lucille Feynman, a homemaker, and Melville Arthur Feynman, a businessman. Her family originated from Russia and Poland, both of her parents were Ashkenazi Jews, like her brother, Joan was an inquisitive child, and she exhibited an interest in understanding the natural world from an early age. Despite this, her brother Richard always encouraged her to be curious about the universe and it was he who originally introduced young Joan to auroras when, one night, he coaxed her out of bed to witness the northern lights flickering above an empty golf course near their home. Later, Feynman would find comfort in a book given to her by her brother. She became convinced that she could, in fact, study science, Feynman earned a bachelors degree from Oberlin College. She later attended Syracuse University, where she studied solid state theory in the department under Melvin Lax. During her graduate years, Feynman took a year off to live in Guatemala, Feynman eventually earned her doctorate in physics in 1958. Her thesis was on the absorption of infrared radiation in crystals of diamond-type lattice structure and she also completed postdoctoral work at Columbia University. Joan Feynman spent the bulk of her studying the interactions between the solar wind and the Earths magnetosphere. This was an important find because, although CMEs were known at the time, after her time at NASA Ames, Feynman moved on to a number of different research posts. Finally in 1985, Feynman accepted a position at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, as part of her research, Feynman made a critical discovery about the nature and cause of auroras. Feynman would also develop a new model for estimating the environmental hazards of the local space environment. Often, the commencement of such storms is coupled with an influx of dangerous protons. Feynmans model ultimately helped engineers determine the flux of particles that would affect a spacecraft over its functional lifetimeJoan Feynman – Joan Feynman
106. First Presbyterian Church (Batavia, New York) – The First Presbyterian Church in Batavia, New York, United States, is located at East Main and Liberty streets. It is a complex of several buildings. The main one, the sanctuary, is a limestone Gothic Revival structure built in the mid-19th century. Its congregation was the first church to be organized in Batavia, over the next century various improvements and expansions would be made, using later architectural styles, reflecting changing styles of American Protestant worship. This transition was completed with changes to the sanctuary in the mid-20th century and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The church occupies a 1. 2-acre parcel on the southeast corner of the intersection, a historic house separates the church property from another house of worship, First Baptist, to the east, with other old houses filling out the block to Swan Street. Another church, Resurrection Parish, is opposite, at the Summit Street Corner, west of the intersection are the commercial buildings of downtown Batavia. South of the church is another building, with parking lots in the interior of the block to the southeast. The main church building consists of three sections, now joined. At the north, set back from East Main, is the original church, a square bell tower pierces the wood-shingled low-pitched gabled roof. Just to the south, the lower Sunday school wing, also of limestone, has two cross-gables on its roof, a two-story hyphen connects it to the wood frame Memorial Service Building, a one-story structure topped by a high hipped roof with broad overhanging eaves. On the north facade, the church has corner buttresses. The entrances are heavy wooden lancet arched doors with beveled leaded glass panels set in angled reveals, colonettes at the outer edge gradually become convex moldings at the doors edge. Above the main entrance is a tripartite lancet-arch Gothic window topped by a quatrefoil in the gable field. The side entrance is separated by a buttress, topped with a square pinnacle above the roofline. There are four stages to the tower, all set off by smooth-finished belt courses. Its corner buttresses continue to the top, gradually changing from square to circular as they do, the stages are fenestrated, from top to bottom, with a single lancet arched window, double lancet-arched windows, a diamond panel and louvered Gothic window. The churchs side elevations have one window per bay separated by buttressesFirst Presbyterian Church (Batavia, New York) – North elevation and west profile of original church, 2009
107. Genesee County Courthouse Historic District – The Genesee County Courthouse Historic District is located at the junction of Main, West Main and Ellicott streets in downtown Batavia, New York, United States. It is an area with the county courthouse, a war memorial. Some were originally built for private purposes, in 1982 it was recognized as a historic district, one of two in the county, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The district is an irregularly shaped area on the north side of West Main. In the latter area, the triangular parcel between Main, Ellicott and Court Street, it includes the county courthouse and the county government building to its east, the Civil War memorial at the junction is also included. Across the street the buildings included, from west to east, are the county jail, the post office. To the south are other, modern government buildings and Tonawanda Creek, east of the district is the commercial core of Batavia. The district encompasses five government buildings and a monument, Batavia City Hall,10 West Main Street. George Brisbane, son of original settler James Brisbane, built this two-story brick Italianate-style mansion in 1853, after some alterations in 1876, the city acquired it from his descendants in 1917 and adapted it for its current use as city hall, without adversely affecting the original architecture. Genesee County Courthouse, Main and Ellicott Streets, built between 1841 and 1843, it is the oldest building in the district, the focal point of traffic reaching the city center from the west. It uses local limestone for its load-bearing walls, still used as the offices of the county manager, county attorney and the meeting place of the county legislature, it was listed on the Register in 1973. Genesee County Building #1, Court Street, the most recent building in the district is located on the site of the original courthouse, which burned down in 1918. A1955 addition made it T-shaped, renovations at the end of the 20th century made it disabled-accessible. Genesee County Sheriffs Office and Jail, West Main Street, poughkeepsie architect William J. Beardsley designed this two-story Victorian Gothic structure, completed in 1903. The turrets, brick and locally quarried Medina sandstone produce a small-scale fortress effect and it has remained in use by the sheriffs office since its construction, although other jail facilities have been built. Soldiers Monument, Main and Ellicott streets, a bronze eagle perches on a globe at the top of a 36-foot shaft on a 14-foot–square granite base surmounted by a globe above which a bronze eagle is perched with wings extended seven feet. Facing west is a statue of General Emory Upton and it was erected in 1919 to honor the areas Civil War veterans. Post Office,2 West Main Street and this five-bay Classical Revival brick building on a sandstone foundation was built in 1919, credited to Treasury Department Supervising Architect James WetmoreGenesee County Courthouse Historic District – Genesee County Courthouse Historic District
108. Billy Gilbert (baseball) – William Oliver Gilbert was an American professional baseball second baseman who played from the 1890s through 1912. Gilbert played in Major League Baseball from 1901 to 1909, for the Milwaukee Brewers, Baltimore Orioles, New York Giants, standing at just 5 feet 4 inches, Gilbert was a weak hitter but a good defensive second baseman. He did hit.313 in the 1905 World Series, which the Giants won and he pitched for the Lyons franchise and the Johnston/Palmyra Mormans in the New York State League in 1898. Now rated a Class-C league, Gilbert returned to the New York State League to play for the Utica Pent-Ups in 1899, the Milwaukee Brewers of the American League drafted Gilbert in 1900. They assigned him to the Syracuse Stars of the Class-A Eastern League for the season, Gilbert made his MLB debut with the Brewers in 1901. After the season, Baltimore Orioles player-manager John McGraw bought his contract from the Brewers prior to the 1902 season, McGraw jumped to the New York Giants of the National League during the 1902 season. He signed Gilbert to the Giants for the 1903 season and installed him as the starting second baseman. Not a highly regarded hitter, Gilbert contributed with his bat as the Giants defeated the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1905 World Series and he played with the Giants through the 1906 season. Down the stretch in 1906, McGraw replaced Gilbert with Sammy Strang, after the season, the Giants tried to assign Gilbert to the Newark Indians of the Class-A Eastern League. Not wanting to play in Newark, Gilbert refused to report, wanting to stay in the NL, Gilbert attempted to negotiate a contract with the Brooklyn Superbas. Unable to sign with Brooklyn, he contemplated signing with an outlaw team, instead, Gilbert played for the Trenton Tigers of the Class-B Tri-State League in 1907, and coached the Columbia Lions, the college baseball team of Columbia University. Gilbert returned to MLB in 1908 with the St. Louis Cardinals, after the Cardinals fired John McCloskey as their manager after the 1908 season, Gilbert was considered for the job. They instead acquired Roger Bresnahan and made him their player-manager and he made his final MLB appearance on June 27,1909, and served as a Cardinals scout during the remainder of the season. He was released by Cardinals manager Roger Bresnahan, a teammate with the Giants. Gilbert played for the Albany Senators of the now Class-B New York State League in 1910 and he served as player-manager for the Erie Sailors when they competed in the Class-C Ohio–Pennsylvania League in 1911 and the Class-B Central League in 1912. Gilbert stayed with Erie, competing in the Class-B Interstate League and he was fired after the season. Gilbert spent the few seasons managing independent teams in New York. Gilbert was hired to manage the Waterbury Brasscos in the Class-A Eastern League in 1921 and 1922 and he managed the Denver Bears of the Class-A Western League in 1923, and Pittsfield Hillies in the Eastern League in 1924Billy Gilbert (baseball) – Gilbert with the Giants in 1905
109. Guide Board Corners, New York – Guide Board Corners is a hamlet in the town of Caroline, New York in the United States. The location is situated at the intersection of Central Chapel Road, Grove School Road, and Seventy-Six Road. Although the United States Census does not have a listing for the population of Guide Board Corners, the education for the residents of the location go to either the schools in nearby Brooktondale, or into districts of other nearby cities/villages. The area around Caroline was first part of nearby Tioga County, New York, until 1817, when Tompkins County was created and took over the area, which included Guide Board Corners. The location got its name from early settlers in the town of Caroline due to the guide signs once located at the intersections of Seventy-six Road and Central Chapel Road. As with most of the town of Caroline, Guide Board Corners students are sent to either in Caroline itself. These other districts include Dryden, Candor, Ithaca, and Newark Valley, Guide Board Corners is accessible by several different roads leading from other parts of the town. The most major of these is Central Chapel Road, which runs north to south through the center of Guide Board Corners. This road provides access to Brooktondale and Slaterville, which are near New York State Route 79, Central Chapel Road, where it comes to the large intersection, was once part of New York State Route 330, which ran from Guide Board Corners to Besemer. Heading southward out of Guide Board Corners along Central Chapel Road brings you to Brearley Hill, the road leading west out of Guide Board Corners is Grove School Road, which heads westward, ending at an intersection with Bald Hill Road. Although the road only for a short distance, it has a history dating back to 1972. The road was closed due to flooding and damaged bridges. However, according to Tompkins County officials, the roads were generally awful all over, middaugh Road and NY79 were also closed off due to Agnes. The last major road in Guide Board Corners is the Seventy-six Road and this highway, part of County Route 115, heads from Speedsville and the Tioga County line all the way to Guide Board Corners. This section was built in 1804-1808 as 76 Road, often corrupted in popular speech to Old 76 Road, County Route 115 List of places in New York, G Town of Caroline, NY Town of Caroline Historian Energy Independent CarolineGuide Board Corners, New York – County Route 115 at the intersection with the Old 76 Road in Guide Board Corners. Before 1980, this was the southern terminus of NY 330
110. Radu Irimescu – Radu Irimescu was a Romanian businessman, politician, and diplomat. The son of an admiral, Irimescu joined the Romanian Navy and, being first in his class, was sent to Germany, admiral von Tirpitz himself held Irimescu in high esteem. He was then granted leave to attend courses at the Royal Technical College of Charlottenburg, during World War I, Major Irimescu served in the Romanian Air Forces and showed great skill as a pilot and as an organizer. He received a degree in engineering from Columbia University in 1920, after the war, Jean Chrissoveloni, a Bucharest banker, tasked Irimescu with organizing the Chrissoveloni Bank in New York City. At the time, it was the only Romanian banking institution in the United States, after it closed on April 1,1928, Irimescu, formerly agent and manager, stayed on for a time as its representative on Wall Street. Her leadership and influence in the affairs of the world are paramount today and her prosperity is well established and well deserved. Let us. express the wish for the continuous prosperity of the United States of America and that of the entire civilized world. Upon his return to Romania, Irimescu, an independent, was appointed director of the Gas, additionally, he served as interim Minister of War for a week in August–September 1937, in Gheorghe Tătărescus National Liberal Party cabinet. In 1938 Irimescu was appointed Minister to the United States and this drew some concern from the American Jewish Congress, as he had served in the recent Octavian Goga cabinet, which passed anti-Semitic legislation. Augustine Lonergan, Democratic Party Senator for Connecticut, forwarded these concerns to Secretary of State Cordell Hull. However, Hull reassured him, noting that as an expert, Irimescu had served in all cabinets since that of Vaida-Voevod, regardless of party. He also mentioned that Irimescu had an American wife, the new envoy arrived in the United States with his wife on April 7,1938, being greeted by a number of Romanians, including his brother Ştefan, active in the community. Upon his arrival he declared, As far as I know, junket, and the fact that in the end most of her dowagerish intrigues gained nothing for Rumania. The next month, an offended Irimescu asked in the magazine, to his observation that De mortuis nil nisi bonum, Times editors replied, De mortuis nil hokum. As might be expected for an ambassador, Irimescu expressed public support for the dictatorship established by King Carol II. On April 9,1943, Irimescu wrote a letter to The New York Times responding to criticism that Carol Davila, as evidence of his democratic ideals he presented the fact that he became an American citizen in November 1941. Regarding the ongoing war, he opined that Only a sincere cooperation of the democracies, Irimescu lived the rest of his life in the United States. In 1955, he was working for Floyd Odlums Atlas Corporation and that January, he attended a Motor Boat Show, buying a chrome-trimmed, 55-m. p. h. Coronado speedboat for about $5,500, ten minutes after the doors opened, rumanian Minister Trained in New York, The New York Times, August 28,1932Radu Irimescu – Radu Irimescu in Air Force uniform
111. Ithaca Discovery Trail – The Ithaca Discovery Trail is a collaboration among hands-on museums and the public library in Tompkins County, New York. Prior to the founding of the Discovery Trail, museums worked together informally on joint promotions, in 1999, the Ithaca Discovery Trail was established using a grant to fund a part-time coordinator. It was incorporated in 2007 and gained a Section 501 tax exemption in 2008, in 2005, the Discovery Trail began the Kids Discover the Trail. Project with the Ithaca Public Education Initiative and Ithaca City School District, KDT connects the eight ICSD elementary schools with the eight Discovery Trail institutions by providing curriculum-based field trips and instructional materials. About 2,900 students participate each year, the Discovery Trail cross-promotes the eight member institutions which form a 33-mile loop of exploration. The Discovery Trail also maintains a joint calendar of events, the Discovery Trail is funded by the Tompkins County Strategic Tourism Board and by member contributionsIthaca Discovery Trail – Johnson Art Museum
112. Kira Kazantsev – Kira Kazantsev is an American beauty pageant titleholder who won Miss America 2015 on September 14,2014. She is the third consecutive Miss America winner from New York and had won the title of Miss New York on May 24,2014 while serving as Miss City of New York and her talent was singing with cup percussion to Happy by Pharrell Williams. She is an advocate for women and is raising awareness about domestic violence with her platform Love Shouldnt Hurt. Kazantsev was born on July 20,1991 in San Francisco, California, to Russian immigrants who left Moscow in 1990 for the United States, making her a first-generation American. Kazantsev stated in a Miss New York video that she has lived in San Francisco, Chicago, Lexington, San Antonio and her father, George, is a general surgeon and her mother, Julia, is a real-estate broker. She has a brother, Boris, who is three years younger, at age 13, she reigned as Miss California Preteen while attending Walnut Creek Intermediate. At 16, she served as Miss California Jr and she graduated from Las Lomas High School in Walnut Creek where she served as student body president in 2009. She was also a member of the school varsity cheerleading squad. She attended Hofstra University with a major in political science, global studies. She chose Hofstra because of its proximity to New York City. During her time at Hofstra, she was in the honors college, Kazantsev competed in the Miss New York 2013 pageant as Miss Cosmopolitan. She placed in the Top 10, the following year, Kazantsev competed in the Miss New York 2014 pageant as Miss City of New York. She won the title of Miss New York 2014 and was crowned by Miss New York 2013 Amanda Mason, Kazantsev was one of the 52 competing delegates in the Miss America 2015 competition held in Atlantic City, New Jersey. She was crowned by outgoing Miss America 2014, Nina Davuluri and she was the third consecutive Miss New York to earn the title of Miss America. Her win made New York the first state to have a Miss America winner three years in a row, during the on-stage question portion of the contest, she was asked what issue women in the senate need to put on the forefront. Kazantsev stated that she felt military sexual assault needed attention and resources of women in congress and she noted that she was happy that female politicians were already doing so, and proud to be a constituent of one of these women. Apart from the title, Kira won a $50,000 scholarship provided in part by Joseph Ribkoff Inc. and the Miss America Organization to continue her education, which she intends to use towards law school. She is a graduate of Hofstra University with a major in Political Science, Global Studies and GeographyKira Kazantsev – Kazantsev at the USO World Spring Tour in March 2015
113. Edward Calvin Kendall – Edward Calvin Kendall was an American chemist. Kendall was a biochemist at the Graduate School of the Mayo Foundation at the time of the award and he received his education at Columbia University. After retiring from his job with the Mayo Foundation, Kendall joined the faculty at Princeton University, Kendall Elementary School, in Norwalk is named for him. Kendall was born in South Norwalk, Connecticut in 1886 and he attended Columbia University, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in 1908, a Master of Science degree in Chemistry in 1909, and a Ph. D. in Chemistry in 1910. After obtaining his Ph. D. his first job was in research for Parke, Davis and Company and he continued this research at St. Lukes Hospital in New York until 1914. He was appointed Head of the Biochemistry Section in the Graduate School of the Mayo Foundation, Kendall made several notable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. His most notable discovery was the isolation of thyroxine, although it was not the work he received the most accolades for, along with associates, Kendall was involved with the isolation of glutathione and determining its structure. The compound was eventually named cortisone and his Nobel lecture focused on the basic research that led to his award, and was titled The Development of Cortisone As a Therapeutic Agent. As of the 2010 awards, Kendall and Hench were the only Nobel Laureates to be affiliated with Mayo Clinic, kendalls career at Mayo ended in 1951, when he reached mandatory retirement age. He moved on to Princeton University, where he was a Visiting Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and he remained affiliated with Princeton until his death in 1972. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Kendall received other awards including the Lasker Award. Kendall married Rebecca Kennedy in 1915, and they had four children and he died in 1972 in Princeton, New Jersey. Edward Calvin Kendall Biography Photo portrait from 1950 The Lasker Foundation – Clinical Medical Research AwardEdward Calvin Kendall – Kendall in 1950.
114. Lake Carmel (New York) – Lake Carmel is located in the Town of Kent, New York, United States. It takes its name from nearby Carmel, and in turn the community surrounding the lake and it was created by developers in the early 20th century by damming the Middle Branch of the Croton River. Due to increasing development around the lake, the city has helped the community improve its wastewater treatment. The lake is elongated in shape, longer along a north-south axis than it is wide, reflecting its artificial origins, there are two narrower inlets corresponding to the inflow streams at the north and northeast corners. A smaller inlet on the southwest corner bends slightly to the north, there are two inflow streams, neither named. The Middle Branch leaves the lake along its shore, to be impounded again two miles downstream. Smadbeck Avenue closely follows the shore near the northern and central sections of the lake. NY311 crosses the northern inlet on a short causeway just before reaching its southern terminus at Route 52. Several other local roads, including Terry Hill Road, cross the eastern inlet, interstate 84 is a mile to the northeast via Route 311, although the lake and the road cannot be seen from each other due to the intervening hills. Route 52 leads to Carmel a mile to the south, in the late 19th century, Putnam Countys lakes had become one of many places where city residents went on hot summer weekends. Brothers Warren and Arthur Smadbeck were developers who decided to create more and they bought failing farms in the area in 1928 and built the dam to create the lake. Around it they built small bungalows and cottages meant to be weekend or summer homes for middle-income families, eventually,5,400 homes were built in the three square miles around the lake, accounting for one-third of the towns housing stock. The original cottages were expanded and winterized for this purpose, as a result of the increasing, clustered development in the region, by 1999 the lake had attracted a large enough population of Canada geese to become a nuisance. Since they could not legally be hunted or shot due to the proximity of dwellings. It finally settled on rounding them up during molting season, when their ability to fly is limited, the meat was distributed to poor people as food. At that time it was only the second time that action had been taken by a community in the Northeast. Human-generated pollution of the lake and, by extension, New York Citys watershed, local communities resisted pressure from the city to install sewage treatment plants until the late 1990s, when more of those communities were relying on city water to handle their rapid development. In 2000 the city and the county reached a deal to build a plant to handle sewage from the homes around the lake whose original septic systems were failingLake Carmel (New York) – Lake from the junction of NY 52 and 311
115. The Lily (newspaper) – The Lily, the first U. S. newspaper edited by and for women, was published from 1849 to 1853 by Amelia Jenks Bloomer. She sold the newspaper to Mary Birdsall in 1854, while the newspaper was initially focused on temperance, the focus was soon broadened to the many issues of women’s rights activists in the 1850s. Initially the title page had the legend Published by a committee of ladies, the inaugural issue, January 1,1849, sets forth the philosophy and initial goals, It is WOMAN that speaks through the LILY. It is upon an important subject, too, that she comes before the public to be heard, Intemperance is the great foe to her peace and happiness. Amelia Bloomers initial interest was not in womens rights but in temperance, however the committee that originally proposed it lost interest and Bloomer felt that if she did not manage the paper then observers would assume that it had foundered because it was run by women. By 1850 the Lily was describing itself as DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS OF WOMEN and by 1852 as dedicated to Emancipation of Woman from Intemperance, Injustice, Prejudice, Bloomers involving of many editors and contributors helping one another became a model for later periodicals focused on womens suffrage. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Parker Pillsbury, The Womans Advocate, Bloomer herself wrote, The Lily was the first paper devoted to the interests of woman and, so far as I know, the first one owned, edited and published by a woman. The first issues were priced at 50 cents a year and published in Seneca Falls, increasingly in the early 1850s, the relationship of the temperance movement and the womens struggle for suffrage became more pronounced in the Lily. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a contributor, demanded in an article that women be included in the making of laws to restrict liquor sales, and to divorce intemperate men. Bloomer wrote that the way in which women can do anything effectually in this cause is through the ballot-box. The Lily rose from a circulation of 500 a month to 4000 a month, with some of the increase because of the dress reform controversy, in 1854 Amelia Bloomer sold the paper to Mary Birdsall because she was moving house. Bloomer continued as a corresponding editor, Birdsall had been an editor of the Indiana Farmer and in particular its women section. She was a supporter of Bloomers views and the newspaper provided a vehicle for her to continue her journalism, the newspaper continued to campaign for womens issues and temperance. It was published in Richmond, Indiana for some years and was distributed nationallyThe Lily (newspaper) – First issue of The Lily.
116. Machpelah Cemetery (Le Roy, New York) – Machpelah Cemetery is located on North Street in Le Roy, New York, United States. It was opened in the century and expanded since then. Graves from other, smaller burial grounds around Le Roy have been added and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007, one of two cemeteries in Genesee County with that distinction. It was originally built and laid out as a rural cemetery, the architect hired by the family to lay out the section was influenced by the City Beautiful movement, giving that area a more orderly cast. Woodwards monument, visible from the main entrance, is the most prominent of many notable graves in the cemetery. Other structures within include a chapel built around the same time. The markers exhibit a variety of materials, forms and styles of funerary art, veterans of every American war lie at Machpelah as well. The cemetery is located on a 24. 7-acre parcel near the boundary of the village of Le Roy. Its western boundary is the irregular, curving Oatka Creek, on the south is the large, empty factory that once manufactured Jell-O when it was all produced in Le Roy. To the east, across North Street, are houses, and residential property continues to the north, a wrought iron fence runs along the south and east sides. At the three entrances, and the southeast and northeast corners, are two limestone pillars topped with stone orbs. The southern third of the cemetery is generally flat, with roads radiating outward from the Woodward mausoleum near the southeast entrance. In the northern and central portions, the landscape becomes hillier, the roads there curve with the landscape. Throughout, the cemetery is planted with trees and shrubs from a variety of species. There are three buildings on the cemetery grounds, the most prominent is the mausoleum of Orator Francis Woodward, the Le Roy resident who built a personal fortune from buying the patent for Jell-O. It is a small stone Classical Revival structure in the middle of a circle with large planted myrtles at the end of the drive from the main entrance. The east elevation has four Doric columns in front of bronze doors, and its interior is paneled in marble. Interred there are Woodward, his wife Cora and their six children, to the south of the main drive is the smaller Lampson mausoleumMachpelah Cemetery (Le Roy, New York) – Woodward Mausoleum, east elevation, 2010
117. Mamakating Park Historic District – The Mamakating Park Historic District is located on the ridge north of Masten Lake on the highest ground in the Town of Mamakating, New York, United States. It is a Catskill vacation community, originally intended to be the much larger Sullivan County Club and these few elements show the essential ideas of the much larger original resort plan. In 1998 it was recognized as a district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is mostly wooded, with the middle of the horseshoe, where the hotel was located along with its still-extant tennis courts. A small rise near the end of the horseshoe is, at 1,648 feet above sea level. It includes 48 buildings, all but three of which date to the time of the original construction and are thus considered contributing properties to its historic character. The site of the hotel, and some of its dependencies such as a chapel. Some of the landscaping is still in place as well. Most of the houses are frame, built in styles typical of their era, such as the Shingle style. They are characterized by Late Victorian touches such as verandas, cross-gabling. The plan for what became Mamakating Park was laid out by William Henry Baldwin and its scale may have been inspired by Tuxedo Park, Americas first gated community, in neighboring Orange County. Like other mountain communities, the homes in the original plan were sited to take advantage of their natural location. The grid extended north and south along the ridge, with houses to have been built close to the street where the land dropped off sharply. That would have allowed them to take in the view to the Shawangunks over Wurtsboro in that direction, or the Catskills to the north and west. In 1893, the club bought 4,600 acres, including the lake, taking advantage of the views of the Shawangunk Ridge to the southeast. Demand was such that the members were soon able to increase their asking price to $125. But in 1897, delayed economic fallout from the Panic of 1893 finally led to the plans being shelved after the hotel and 20 lots near it had been developed. In 1902, after the Sullivan County Club was foreclosed on, a new group of calling itself the Mamakating Park Company bought the hotelMamakating Park Historic District – Mamakating Park Historic District
118. Laurence Mancuso – Laurence Mancuso was the founding abbot of the New Skete Eastern Orthodox monastic community in upstate New York. He was born Gabriel Richard Mancuso in Utica, New York in 1934, Mancuso was raised as a Catholic and joined the Byzantine Rite Franciscans in New Canaan, Connecticut 1957. He was ordained as a priest in December 1960 in Sybertsville, Mancuso founded the Monks of New Skete in 1966 with six other monks in a farmhouse in Cambridge, New York. They built a new monastery nearby a year later and started a farm with livestock, under his direction, the monks built a smokehouse and started selling farm produce under the name of New Skete Farms. The business also sold cheesecake made by the Nuns of New Skete who had joined the monks in 1969, a dog kennel in New Jersey donated a German shepherd dog to the monastery in 1969. It ran away and the monks acquired two others and started a program under the direction of another monk but with Mancusos approval. The puppies became highly popular and by 1998 there was a waiting list for puppies costing $1,000 each. Pet owners were also paying the monks to train the dogs, under Mancusos direction, the monks switched from being a Catholic order to an Orthodox order in 1979. He had been studying Eastern Orthodox theology for years before the conversion, Mancuso translated old Greek and Slavonic texts into English. He also converted church choral music into versions that could be sung by a few monks and he produced an English translation of psalms and published a collection of sermons called Notes from a Poor Monk. The monks of New Skete have written a number of books on dog training, how to Be Your Dogs Best Friend published in 1978 is in its 40th printing and The Art of Raising a Puppy from 1991 is in its 26th printing. Mancuso retired as an abbot in 2000 and went to live with his brother Norman Mancuso in Natick and he was suspended from priestly functions, for unpublicized reasons, in the fall of 2000. In 2005, the suspension was lifted and he died as a result of injuries sustained in a fall in June 2007Laurence Mancuso – New Skete Monastery
119. Massaro House – Massaro House is a private island residence inspired by designs of a never-constructed project conceived by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright and is named for its owner, Joseph Massaro. Instead, Wright designed a 1, 200-square-foot cottage for Chahroudi for the island, in 1996, Petre Island was purchased for $700,000 USD by Joseph Massaro, a sheet metal contractor. Though he had seen the original Wright drawings for the main home years earlier, Massaro received those renderings as part of the purchase of the island. Massaro sold his sheet metal business in 2000 to focus on the creation of the house, all that survived of the original Chahroudi commission were five Wright drawings, including a floor plan with ideas for built-in and stand-alone furniture, a building section, and three elevations. Massaro hired Thomas A. Heinz, an architect and Wright historian, Heinz employed 3D CAD/CAM computer software to model aspects of Wrights design not self-evident in the original renderings. His design also provided updated heating and cooling solutions that were not part of the original Wright concept, such as air conditioning and it was also determined to add chimney caps, which Wright characteristically demurred, for the home’s six fireplaces. In common with Fallingwater, the design does not merely accommodate. A 12-foot -high, 60-foot -long rock forms the exterior to the entry, again, like Fallingwaters signature terraces, the house features a cantilevered deck that stretches 25 feet over Lake Mahopac. Its 18-foot -high living area is illuminated with 26 triangular skylights, throughout the construction, Massaro was in conflict with the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, which was established by the architect in 1940 to conserve his intellectual property. Massaro told interviewers that the foundation requested $450,000 to render working drawings from Wrights sketches, after Massaro hired Heinz, the foundation filed a lawsuit, which ended in a settlement that limited Massaro to referring to the structure as being inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright. To date, the foundation refuses to recognize Massaro House as an official Frank Lloyd Wright creation. Philip Allsopp, the chief executive office, has stated, “It’s not a Frank Lloyd Wright house, because it hasn’t been certified by the foundation. ”Yet in the Los Angeles Times. “You hear these purists that talk about how no unbuilt Frank Lloyd Wright house should ever be built because Frank Lloyd Wright isn’t here anymore, “And then you take a look at this masterpiece of his – I’m sure Frank would rather have it built than not built at all. Critics concerns center on four details of Massaros house, desert masonry The so-called desert masonry, or decorative rubblestone, is a trademark of Wright, who embedded native rocks in the concrete supports of his homes. In most designs, the rocks are flush with the concrete, in Massaros home, they project from the surface. Thats not the way Wright intended, plain and simple, Wright historian William Allin Storrer said, to adhere to modern building codes, Massaro had to add 4 inches of Styrofoam insulation inside the support posts. This made it impossible to embed the odd-shaped granite stones he harvested from the island, Frank would have changed this, Massaro said. Flat vs. Domed skylights Wright purists argue that Massaros 26 skylights are domed, Massaro counters that flat skylights leakMassaro House – Massaro House, located on Petre Island in Lake Mahopac, New York
120. Masten-Quinn House – The Masten-Quinn House is located on First Street in the village of Wurtsboro, New York, United States. It is a wooden Greek Revival house built in two phases in the 1820s, the center of a farm that remained working until the mid-20th century, today it is one of the few remainders from the areas agricultural past as a canal town. Lawrence Masten, its builder and first owner, was able to take advantage of the nearby Delaware, in 2003 the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the first and only property in the village so far listed. The house sits on a lot, the remnant of the much larger original farm. Willsey Brook bounds it on the south, and the bed, now dry. The house itself is surrounded by trees, including a 175-year-old shagbark hickory tree to the southeast that has helped to date the houses construction. It is one and a half high, five bays long by two deep. It is sided in clapboard, with a gabled roof pierced by a fieldstone and brick chimney and shingled in asphalt, decorated with a wide frieze. The entire structure is supported by heavy timber framing, partially supported by a fieldstone foundation. A full-length veranda, with shed roof supported by wooden pillars. Two small shed-style wings project from the first story on the south side, the upper floor on the east face features eyebrow windows. The large chimney divides the interior into two main spaces, there is a large kitchen in the northern section, created by removing one wall, but otherwise the original floor plan remains intact. The flooring, too, is original wide planking, but very little original furnishing remains otherwise, there is a single outbuilding, a one-story frame gable-roofed structure originally used as a chicken coop. It was moved to the property when the farm was subdivided. It is considered a property to the National Register listing. Lawrence Mastens grandfather Johannes was an early Dutch settler in the narrow Basha Kill valley between the Shawangunk Ridge and Catskill Plateau, in his declining years he divided his holdings among his sons. Jacob Masten, Lawrences father, received some in the early 19th century, father transferred more to son in the 1830s, including the land on which he had already built his house, building the farm to a total of 100 acres. Masten and his wife Maria are believed to have built the first part of their homestead sometime after their marriage in 1821 and this was the southern block,25 by 17 feetMasten-Quinn House – Masten--Quinn House
121. Amby McConnell – Ambrose Moses McConnell was an American baseball second baseman who played four seasons in Major League Baseball. Nicknamed Midget due to his 5 feet 5 inches stature, he played for the Boston Red Sox and he batted left-handed but threw right-handed. McConnell played minor league baseball for three different teams until August 1907, when he signed for the Boston Red Sox and he died on May 20,1942 in Utica, New York. McConnell is most famous for hitting into the first unassisted triple play in Major League Baseball history on July 19,1909, McConnell was born on April 29,1883. Although his place of birth is unclear, he grew up in North Pownal, Vermont, McConnell attended Beloit College and made a living by working at the town mill for fifty hours a week. During his spare time, he would play baseball at a nearby field, as a result of his newfound fame, a team based in Dalton, Massachusetts offered McConnell $7.50 a week to play for them. McConnell accepted, even some of his new teammates were earning twice as much as he was. After the 1908 season, McConnell got married and eventually had two children, throughout his career, McConnell was known to have the odd hobby of collecting pins. When he was in the middle of a slump, he would scavenge the streets and pick up any pin he found. McConnell departed the Dalton team in 1902 and began to organized baseball for semi-pro teams in Rutland, Vermont. In 1904, he joined the Troy Trojans of the New York State League, over the next two years, he spent a season each at the Eastern Leagues Rochester Broncos and the Utica Pent-Ups, where his performance dipped. However, he rebounded in the 1907 season, where he batted.320 and this prompted the Boston Red Sox to purchase McConnells contract from the Grays at the end of the season in August. He made his league debut for the Red Sox on April 17,1908, at the age of 24. During his 1908 rookie season, McConnell had a successful year. He had the teams second-highest batting average and number of hits and he also set the Red Sox record for most stolen bases in a single-season by a rookie with 31, which stood until being broken by Jacoby Ellsbury on June 15,2008. Defensively, he committed the most errors among all second basemen in the American League with 38 and this was cited as one of the reasons why the Red Sox were erratic and inconsistent in their performance that season. Nevertheless, McConnell was voted the most popular Red Sox player of the season by the fans, beating out Cy Young and Tris Speaker in the process. McConnell achieved baseball history when he lined into the first unassisted triple play in Major League Baseball history on July 19,1909, in the second inning of the game, Heinie Wagner led off with an infield single and outfielder Jake Stahl reached base with a buntAmby McConnell – McConnell's 1911 baseball card
122. Richard Cunningham McCormick – Richard Cunningham McCormick, Jr. was an American politician, businessman, and journalist. McCormicks other accomplishments include service as a war correspondent during two different conflicts and creation of two Arizonan newspapers, McCormick was born on May 23,1832, in New York City to Richard Cunningham and Sarah Matilda McCormick. The senior McCormick was Secretary of the New York merchants exchange, the younger McCormick suffered from poor health and was educated at home by private tutors with the expectation he would attend Columbia University. Instead of enrolling in college, he became ill and was sent to Europe under the Victorian belief that travel had curative power, in 1854, while still in Europe, McCormick became a war correspondent reporting on the Crimean War. Upon his return he wrote two books, A Visit to the Camp Before Sevastopol in 1855 and St. Pauls to St. Sophia in 1860, at the age of 25, the redheaded McCormick went to work on Wall Street. Shortly thereafter he became the YMCAs corresponding secretary and edited Young Mens Magazine for two years, in 1860, at the request of William Cullen Bryant, he became editor of the New York Evening Post. At the start of American Civil War, McCormick went to the front lines as a war correspondent, politically, McCormick was elected a public school trustee for New Yorks 15th ward in 1858. This was followed by his becoming a member of the Republican State Committee in 1860, in 1862, McCormick made an unsuccessful run for United States House of Representatives. The same year he was appointed Chief Clerk for the Department of Agriculture, the first time was to Margaret Grifiths Hunt of Rahway, New Jersey, on September 27,1865. The couple had met aboard a steamboat bound for New York City from Panama earlier the same year, Margaret died on April 30,1867, while giving birth to a stillborn child. McCormicks second marriage was to Elizabeth Thurman, youngest daughter of Senator Allen G. Thurman, McCormick was nominated to be Secretary of Arizona Territory by President Lincoln on March 7,1863. Following confirmation, he journeyed with Governor Goodwins party to the newly formed territory, McCormick took his oath of office on December 29,1863, as part of the Navajo Springs ceremony that officially established Arizona Territory. As part of his duties, he designed the territorys first official seal. Outside his official duties, McCormick began the Arizona Miner with a Ramage press he had brought with him, the newspapers first edition was printed on March 9,1864, at Fort Whipple and began regular operations in Prescott on June 22,1864. McCormicks control of the newspaper aided his political career by ensuring he could always receive favorable press coverage, the paper also provided a forum for McCormick to share his thoughts with the people of Arizona. In 1868, following the capitals move to Tucson, McCormick sold his property in Prescott. His association with the Arizonian continued till October 1,1870, McCormicks response was to repossess the papers printing press and begin a new newspaper, the Arizona Citizen, on October 15,1870. During his service within the territory, and later as Territorial Delegate, to achieve their goals, the clique crossed traditional political divides of the day, with Northern Republican governors appointing Southern Democrats and Hispanics to governmental positionsRichard Cunningham McCormick – Richard Cunningham McCormick
123. Musa McKim – Musa McKim Guston, née McKim, was a painter and poet. Born in Oil City, Pennsylvania, McKim spent much of her youth in Panama, during the Great Depression, she worked under the Section of Fine Arts, painting murals in public buildings, including a Post Office building in Waverly, New York. She was the wife of New York School artist Philip Guston, in cooperation with him, she painted a mural in a United States Forest Service building in Laconia, New Hampshire, and panels which were placed aboard United States Maritime Commission ships. After her painting career, she wrote poetry, publishing her work in literary magazines. Along with her husband and daughter, she lived in Iowa City, Iowa and New York City, eventually settling in Woodstock, McKim studied at the Otis Art Institute. She worked as a painter under the Section of Fine Arts and she was commissioned to paint a mural for the Post Office branch building in Waverly, New York 1939. Entitled Spanish Hill and the Early Inhabitants of the Vicinity, the work depicts Native Americans as well as settlers to the region. The appearance of the settlers was based on members of McKims family, including her father, Frederick McKim and her mother, for her work, she was paid $650 by the Section of Fine Arts. According to Mayer, McKim disliked the mural, in 1941, she worked alongside her husband in the painting of two murals for the U. S. Forest Service building in Laconia, New Hampshire. Commissioned by the Section of Fine Arts, the murals are titled Pulp Wood Logging, the former, a logging scene, was executed by Philip, while the latter, depicting local wildlife, was painted by Musa. In a 1965 interview, Philip stated that Musa did several other murals for the Section of Fine Arts, after her painting career, she wrote poetry, her work was published in small literary journals, including Locus Solus. In 1982, her poetry was published alongside Philips artwork in the Summer edition of the The Harvard Advocate. Guston posed for her throughout his career for various works, including a 1944 painting entitled The Young Mother, for which she sat along with their daughter. Musa McKim was born on August 23,1908, in Oil City and she spent much of her young life in Panama, as her father Frederick was employed as a civil servant in the Canal Zone. He conducted anthropological studies of the indigenous Kuna people, in 1930, she met her future husband, abstract impressionist New York School painter Philip Guston while attending the Otis Art Institute. She later left the institute and returned to Panama and she sent a letter to the Stanley Rose Book Shop, a Hollywood gathering place of artists, inquiring as to the address of Phillip Goldstein. Fellow painter Herman Cherry gave the letter to Goldstein, he replied and they married on February 4,1937, in New York City Hall. The ceremony was witnessed by Sande McCoy, Pollocks half-brother, in 1940, they moved to the artist colony of Woodstock, New YorkMusa McKim – 'Wildlife in White Mountain,' painted by McKim in 1941. A companion mural was painted in the same location by her husband, Philip Guston
124. New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble – Cutler v. Dibble,62 U. S.366, was a companion case to the more well-known Fellows v. Blacksmith. At the time Fellows was decided, this case had reached the U. S. Supreme Court but had not yet been argued. Members of the Seneca tribe had obtained a writ from the New York courts, under New Yorks state nonintercourse act, expelling the Ogden Land Company and their grantees. The Treaty of Buffalo Creek provided for the removal of the Senecas to modern-day Kansas, the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians on the Tonawanda Reservation condemned the treaty, arguing that no sachem from their Band had signed. Prominent Seneca Ely S. Parker had retained lawyer John H. Martindale, the first two failed in the New York Supreme Court and New York Court of Appeals, respectively. The third, Fellows v. Blacksmith, prevailed in the Court of Appeals, in the fourth, New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble, a divided Court of Appeals had sided with the Seneca, the defendants claimed title from the Treaty of Buffalo creek and requested a jury trial. The county court sided with the Seneca and the proceedings were removed to the New York Supreme Court by certiorari, the U. S. Supreme Court granted a writ of error. Justice Robert Cooper Grier delivered the opinion of the unanimous Court, affirming the judgement of the New York Court of appeals and it is the dictate of a prudent and just policy. The power of a State to make regulations to preserve the peace of the community is absolute. The act is not contrary to the Constitution of the United States. The Tonawanda band is in possession of its reserve, and has hitherto refused to surrender it. This proceeding does not affect their title, the question of the validity of this treaty to bind the Tonawanda band is one to be decided, not by the courts, but by the political power which acted for and with the Indians. So far as the statute of New York is concerned, it requires that the Indians be in possession. They may invoke the aid of the statute against all white intruders, so long as they remain in the peaceable possession of their landsNew York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble – Justice Robert Cooper Grier delivered the judgement of the Court.
125. New York lunar sample displays – The 4 moon rocks weigh about 0.05 grams total. They are encased in a plastic button the size of a coin which is mounted to a wooden board approximately one foot square on a small podium pedestal display. The display also has mounted on it a small New York state flag that had taken to the moon and back. The small podium plaque display was given to the people of the state of New York by President Richard Nixon, similar lunar sample displays were also distributed to all the other states of the United States and all the countries of the world. The basalt 70017 was collected by Apollo 17 astronauts Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan at the end of their third, once the lunar basalt 70017 was brought back to earth from the moon, the basalt moon rock was cut up into small fragments of approximately 1 gram. The specimen was encased in a ball and mounted on the wooden plaque along with the New York state flag which had been taken to the moon. The plaque was then distributed in 1973 by President Richard Nixon to the state of New York as he did that year to the other 49 states and this was done as a goodwill gesture to promote peace and harmony. The New York Apollo 17 goodwill moon rocks display is now located at the New York State Museum in secure storage. The 1 gram moon rock particle specimen in its Lucite ball has taken off, or came off. It is unknown why the Lucite ball is separated from the top of the lunar wooden display, the Lucite ball with the moon rock particle specimen is not in a public viewing area at this time. The whereabouts of the New York Apollo 11 goodwill moon rocks display is unknown. The New York State Museum also has no knowledge of its whereabouts, the Case of the Missing Moon Rocks. The Atavist/Amazon Digital Services, Inc. p.47, partial list of Apollo 11,12,14,15,16, and 17 sample locations, NASA Johnson Space CenterNew York lunar sample displays – Plaques on the California Apollo 11 lunar sample display, similar to the display in New York
126. Ohave Shalom Synagogue – Ohave Shalom Synagogue is located on Maurice Rose Street in Woodridge, New York, United States. It is a building erected in 1930 by a splinter group from what was then the villages only synagogue. Its interior is decorated with paintings on religious themes and they led to its listing on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. The synagogue is a five-by-three-bay one-story building on a raised basement and it is faced in decorative golden brick with quoins, banding and window trim. The front facade has a projecting portico with pedimented gable. In the tympanum is a round stained glass window. The main entrance runs the length of the front facade and it consists of slightly recessed triple pairs of wooden doors beneath a tripartite window. The enframements resemble stone and the windows have keystone lintels. Between the doors and windows, six decorative plaques frame a central scroll motif, above the windows are Stars of David. All but one of the bays has a stained-glass window. The front bay on either elevation has a window like the end bays on the facade, the rear elevation has nearly full-height projecting bays with gable roof, each containing a stained-glass window like the ones along the sides. There is also a small shed-roofed addition that serves as the Torah ark, the first floor is divided into a small lobby and the sanctuary, laid out in Orthodox tradition, with a central hexagonal bimah surrounded on three sides by wooden pews. A gallery that extends over the third provides seating for women. Both the ark platform and bimah are made of wood with turned posts, the ark is flanked with columns and topped with Lions of Judah holding the Ten Commandments. Above it the glass window has large sunbursts and Stars of David. Three decorative chandeliers hang from the barrel-vaulted ceiling, the paintings are not as extensive as they originally were, but cover several locations. Ohave Shalom combines features of traditional Eastern European synagogues and contemporary urban synagogue design, the former is reflected in the tripartite facade, meant to suggest the small corner towers of those synagogues. The latter is recalled by the form and Renaissance Revival designOhave Shalom Synagogue – South profile and west elevation, 2008
127. Old Poughkeepsie YMCA – The Old Poughkeepsie YMCA is on the west side of Market Street near the corner of Church Street in Poughkeepsie in New York, United States, across from the former New York State Armory. The organization, founded before the YMCA as the Young Mens Christian Union, had met at an office on Union Street. His gift also included an office building, since demolished. The New York City firm of Jackson & Rosencrans were the architects, in keeping with the style and era, the building features many ornamental touches, such as a molded cornice, quoins, denticulated frieze second-story balcony and domed first-floor windows. The center of the top balustrade has an elaborate cartouche, the interior likewise boasts sliding double doors, dark-stained woodwork and brick fireplaces It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The YMCA has since moved to different quarters a few blocks away, the building, now attached to newer structures on either side, houses some county government offices and a few private businessesOld Poughkeepsie YMCA – Old Poughkeepsie YMCA
128. Lou Raymond – Louis Anthony Lou Raymond was a professional baseball player. In a two-year professional career, Raymond, a second baseman, appeared in Major League Baseball during the 1919 season and he was officially listed as standing 5 feet 10 inches and weighing 187 pounds. Raymond was born Louis Anthony Raymondjack on December 11,1894, in Buffalo, Raymond began his professional play as a member of the International League, appearing for the Double-A Syracuse Stars, who later moved during the season and became the Hamilton Tigers. He also played a portion of the year for the Rochester Hustlers, managed in part by Patsy Donovan, Raymond posted a.293 batting average for the entire IL season, with 89 hits in 304 at-bats. Of his hits,17 went for extra bases—11 were doubles and 6 were triples, in 1919, Raymond advanced from the minor leagues to the majors, appearing with the Philadelphia Phillies, of Major League Baseballs National League. That season, the Phillies posted a 47–90 win–loss record, finishing 47 1⁄2 games behind the Cincinnati Reds, raymonds contribution to the team was a single hit, which came in his only major league game. On May 2, he made his debut against the New York Giants, replacing starter Possum Whitted at second base, with one hit in his short appearance, Raymond completed his major league career with a batting average of.500. Raymond died in Rochester on May 2,1979, Philadelphia Phillies all-time roster Cup of coffee Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-ReferenceLou Raymond – Patsy Donovan was one of Raymond's minor league managers in 1918.
129. Stanley Forman Reed – For the Indian newspaper editor and British politician, see Stanley Reed. Stanley Forman Reed was a noted American attorney who served as United States Solicitor General from 1935 to 1938 and he was the last Supreme Court Justice who did not graduate from law school to serve on the Supreme Court. Stanley Reed was born in the town of Minerva in Mason County, Kentucky, on the last day of 1884 to John. His father was a physician and a Protestant who adhered to no particular organized church. The Reeds and Formans traced their history to the earliest colonial period in America, Reed attended Kentucky Wesleyan College and received a B. A. degree in 1902. He then attended Yale University as an undergraduate, and obtained a second B. A. in 1906 and he studied law at the University of Virginia and Columbia University, but did not obtain a law degree. Reed married the former Winifred Elgin in May 1908, the couple had two sons, John A. and Stanley Jr. who both became attorneys. In 1909 he traveled to France and studied at the Sorbonne, after his studies in France, Reed returned to Kentucky. He was admitted to the bar in 1910 and established a practice in Maysville. He was elected to the Kentucky General Assembly in 1912 and served two two-year terms, after the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Reed joined the United States Army and was commissioned a lieutenant. When the war ended in 1918, Reed returned to his law practice. He represented the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway and the Kentucky Burley Tobacco Growers Association, Stanley Reed was very active in the Sons of the American Revolution and Sons of Colonial Wars, while his wife was a national officer in the Daughters of the American Revolution. The Reeds settled on a farm near Maysville, where Stanley Reed raised prize-winning Holstein cattle in his spare time, Reeds work for a number of large agricultural interests in Kentucky made him a nationally known authority on the law of agricultural cooperatives. It was this reputation which brought him to the attention of federal officials, Herbert Hoover had been elected President of the United States in November 1928, and took office in March 1929. But even then, the industry in the United States was heading for a depression. Unlike his predecessor, Hoover agreed to provide some support for agriculture. The act established and was administered by the Federal Farm Board, the crash of the stock market in late October 1929 led the Federal Farm Boards general counsel to resign. Although Reed was a Democrat, his reputation as a corporate agricultural lawyer led President Hoover to appoint him the new general counsel of the Federal Farm Board on November 7,1929, Reed served as general counsel until December 1932Stanley Forman Reed – Associate Justice Reed
130. David Wallis Reeves – David Wallis Reeves, also known as D. W. Reeves or Wally Reeves, was an American composer, cornetist, and bandleader. He developed the American march style, later made famous by the likes of John Philip Sousa, Sousa called Reeves The Father of Band Music in America, and stated he wished he himself had written Reeves Second Regiment Connecticut National Guard March. Charles Ives also borrowed from the Second Connecticut on four occasions, Reeves was born on February 14,1838, in Oswego, New York. In the early 1850s, he joined the Oswego band as a horn player, but soon moved to cornet. He occasionally performed with Jules Levy, another famous cornetist of the period, in 1871, he married Sarah Blanding. He joined the ensemble on February 17, and was elected its leader on April 9 and his initial compensation was $600 per year, plus the proceeds of one concert, in return for which he agreed to conduct the band on all occasions. He eventually added woodwinds to the formerly all-brass band, which known as Reeves American Band. It was known as one of the best marching bands in the country during his tenure, in 1892, he accepted the directorship of Patrick Gilmores Twenty-Second New York Regiment band after Gilmores death, but returned to the American Band after a year. Later in the 1890s, he served as a judge for the New York Volunteer Firemens Associations band competitions, in 1878, Reeves led a performance of H. M. S. Pinafore, using a boat for the stage, which Arthur Sullivan took note of, early in 1900, he contracted Brights disease. He died on March 8,1900, Sousa sent 200 roses in his memory. He was buried at Swan Point Cemetery with Masonic honors, by the time of his death in 1900, he had composed over 100 works. In 1926, a fountain was built as a memorial to Reeves in Roger Williams Park in ProvidenceDavid Wallis Reeves – David Wallis Reeves
131. Richmond Memorial Library – The Richmond Memorial Library is located on Ross Street in Batavia, New York, United States. It is an 1880s stone structure in the Richardsonian Romanesque style designed by Rochester architect James Goold Cutler and his design was strongly inspired by several libraries in Massachusetts that Richardson himself had recently built. It was commissioned by local philanthropist Mary E. Richmond, wife of Dean Richmond, in 1889, as a memorial to her youngest son, Dean Richmond and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The library is located on the west side of Ross Street approximately 200 feet north of East Main Street, the neighborhood, just east of the commercial core area of downtown Batavia, is predominantly residential, with some institutional structures. Resurrection Parish Catholic church is to the southwest and another brick building is to the northwest. Further to the northeast is one of Batavias schools, St. James Episcopal Church, the terrain is level and some mature trees grow in the front yards and along lot lines. The building itself consists of the building and a larger modern addition in its rear. The older section is a one-and-a-half-story L-shaped structure of sandstone in an ashlar pattern. Both sections have a steeply pitched gabled roof, with the main entrance pavilion, off-center to the north. At the northeast corner is a tower with conical top sheathed in copper. A chimney rises from the south end, steps lead up to the wide round segmental arch on low imposts, a particularly Richardsonian detail, which shelters the recessed main entrance. Inscribed in the stone above are ornate letters reading Richmond Memorial Library, above that are three small, narrow round-arched windows with some decorative stonework and a narrower, smaller window in the gable apex. Five deeply recessed windows with leaded glass transoms fill out the facade to the south end. The north gable has a set of round-arched windows in its apex. Inside, the reading room occupies most of the long wing, behind an arch at the south end is a fireplace. Oak wainscoting extends halfway to the ceiling, from which a chandelier hangs. Dean Richmond, Jr. died in his youth and his mother chose a piece of property near the family mansion as the site of a library to be built in his memory and donated to the city. She commissioned a design from James Goold Cutler, a builder and businessman who had invented the mail chute, Cutler consciously emulated several Romanesque libraries that had been built in recent years by Henry Hobson Richardson in the suburbs of BostonRichmond Memorial Library – Richmond Memorial Library
132. Rural Cemetery Act – The Rural Cemetery Act was a law passed by the New York Legislature on April 27,1847, that authorized commercial burial grounds in rural New York state. The law led to burial of human remains becoming a business for the first time, replacing the traditional practice of burying the dead in churchyards. One effect of the law was the development of a concentration of cemeteries along the border between the New York City boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. The law authorized nonprofit entities to establish cemeteries on rural land and sell burial plots, the Act was significant because it was made it easier to establish charitable corporations for rural cemeteries. This Act was part of the movement for general incorporation statutes. This facilitated the development of corporations, which were seen as assisting in the development of a cultivate and this was part of co-operation between the legislature and charitable corporations. Both churches and land speculators responded to the new law by purchasing land for cemeteries. The move to rural burial grounds was accelerated by public suspicion that contamination from graveyards had been a cause of the epidemics of cholera occurred in New York City in 1832 and 1849. In 1852 the Common Council of New York City passed a law prohibiting new burials in the city, the City of Brooklyn had passed a similar law in 1849. Calvary Cemetery, in Queens, which recorded its first burial in 1848, was created on land that the trustees of St. Patricks Cathedral had begun to buy up two years earlier. Cypress Hills Cemetery, on the Queens-Brooklyn boundary line, was the first nonreligious cemetery to be formed in Queens under the new law and its first burial also took place in 1848. Lutheran Cemetery traces its beginnings to 1852, when Frederick William Geissenhainer, in other parts of the state, rural cemeteries established after the passage of the Act included Oakwood Cemetery in Troy, founded in 1848, and Oakwood Cemetery in Syracuse, dedicated in 1859. Between 1854 to 1856, more than 15,000 bodies were exhumed from churchyards in Manhattan and Williamsburg, over the decades, Cypress Hills Cemetery alone is estimated to have reburied the remains of 35,000 people disinterred from their original burial sites in Manhattan. Often, unidentified bones were reburied in mass graves, during construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, which was started in 1870, bodies buried at Sands Street Methodist Church in Brooklyn were exhumed and moved to the Cemetery of the Evergreens. The New York City-area cemeteries established under the Rural Cemetery Act grew very large, as of the 1990s Calvary Cemetery held nearly three million graves. The Rural Cemetery Act led to Queens being a borough of cemeteries, Queens is home to 29 cemeteries holding more than five million graves and entombments, so that the dead population of the borough is more than twice the size of its live population. The large concentration of cemeteries on the border of Brooklyn and Queens is another effect of the law, as result,17 cemeteries straddle the border between Queens and Brooklyn. As with Queens, the population of Brooklyn is estimated to exceed its living populationRural Cemetery Act – Calvary Cemetery in Queens (Manhattan skyline in background) was one of the first new cemeteries established after passage of the Rural Cemetery Act.
133. St. James' Episcopal Church (Batavia, New York) – St. James Episcopal Church is located on East Main Street in Batavia, New York, United States. It is a stone Neo-Gothic structure built in the early 20th century and it was the first of 65 similar churches, most also in Western New York, designed by Robert North, a former choirboy at the church. It is the building to house the church, which dates to the early years of Batavias settlement a century before the churchs construction. In 2004 the church building, its rectory and a wall were listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Around the same time it faced a scandal surrounding the dismissal of its pastor, and it is currently trying to raise the money to restore its bell tower. The church complex is a 2. 8-acre parcel on the side of East Main. On the west are two older houses now serving as offices, to the east are houses. Across the street are several commercial buildings and their parking lots. To the north is a baseball diamond associated with one of the elementary schools. Richmond Memorial Library, also listed on the Register, is to the northeast, the church property is on a slight rise in the middle of an otherwise level area. There are three buildings on the site, between the drives and parking areas on the east and west, the church itself is in the center, with the rectory to its northeast and a storage building to its northeast. A stone retaining wall with steps in the middle sets off the lawn facing East Main on the south. All except the building are contributing properties to the Register listing. The church building itself has three sections, the main block, with the sanctuary, is a rectangular structure of sandstone laid in random ashlar sandstone with a steeply pitched gabled roof sheathed in blue and gray slate. It is dominated by the bell tower at the south end. Along both sides are stepped stone buttresses, all the Tudor Revival arched doors and stained glass windows have smooth finished limestone and cast stone surrounds. The large windows on the north and south sides have Decorated Gothic stone mullions, small windows are located in the clerestory. At the base of the tower is the wooden main entranceSt. James' Episcopal Church (Batavia, New York) – South elevation of bell tower, 2009
134. Salt industry in Syracuse, New York – The salt industry has a long history in and around Syracuse, New York. Jesuit missionaries visiting the region in 1654 were the first to report salty brine springs around the end of Salt Lake. The salt springs extended around much of Onondaga Lake, originating in the town of Salina and passing through Geddes and Liverpool to the mouth of Ninemile Creek, the majority of salt used in the United States in the 19th century came from Syracuse. Even today, Syracuse is sometimes known as the Salt City, a series of deep and shallow aquifer systems in the Onondaga Creek Valley provided the brine that stimulated early growth in the Syracuse area. Many settlers came to the region to mine the salt and earn a standard of living for their families. Thick layers of shale beneath the Syracuse area were formed over a period of 300 to 500 million years ago, on the East Coast of North America, two landmasses collided and formed a large mountain range. A large shallow depression to the west formed an inland sea, precipitation and runoff over millions of years gradually eroded the mountain range and sediment, in the form of mud, consolidated into thick layers of what later hardened into shale. The northern shore of the sea was situated in Tully. The salt was formed after evaporation from the shallowest areas left layers of evaporites or salts and these included calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, also known as common salt. During the Ice Age, the processes of glaciation followed by deglaciation eroded and reshaped the bedrock foundation that consists of limestone, shale, from there, it continues through Southern Ontario to Saginaw, Michigan, and extends as far west as Wisconsin and Iowa. Salt springs are one of three sources from which salt is obtained, rock salt, sea water and salt brine which is derived from springs, lakes, the salt springs of Onondaga Lake were well known to the Jesuit missionaries. Early in the 16th century a number of Spaniards traveled from Florida in order to examine a mysterious substance that covered the ground. On August 5,1654, Father Simon Le Moyne, a French Jesuit missionary, during his short stay, Le Moyne drank from a spring which the Onondagas believed to be tainted due to an evil spirit. Unlike the Onondagas who considered the salt springs evil, the French instead, by 1660, the Dutch at New Amsterdam and Fort Orange, Albany, New York, were in receipt of information that salt grew out of the ground, however, they refused to believe it. The British began to take an active interest in the land around Onondaga Lake in the early 18th century and they befriended the Onondagas by giving them guns, which were highly prized. British agent, Sir William Johnson, acquired 200,000 acres of land in the Mohawk country near present-day Johnstown, in 1751, Johnson heard that the French intended on securing a military post in the vicinity of the salt springs. He discussed the consequences of that action with the Onondagas and proposed that they grant him rights to all of Onondaga Lake, the Onondagas agreed and were paid £350 sterling. The deed made in 1773 by Sir William Johnson with the Onondaga chiefs was declared invalid in September 1788, as a result of the treaty, the area was designated by the State as the Onondaga Salt Springs ReservationSalt industry in Syracuse, New York – Salt sheds and solar evaporation method – c. 1908
135. Silver Lake Dam – Silver Lake Dam is located off Silver Lake Road, just outside the village of Woodridge, New York, United States. It was built in the 1840s to regulate Sandburg Creek, which provided water to the summit of the Delaware, in 2000 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The 85-acre body of water it created eventually became known as Silver Lake, in the early 21st century the village of Woodridge, which owns the dam, has been working to repair it due to a leak. As built, the dam is a structure, with large mortared slabs encasing a dry rubble interior. It is 176 feet long,5 feet wide along the top, there was a centrally located spillway 11 feet wide by 2 feet deep. Two 15-inch cast-iron waste pipes controlled by large gate valves in the top of the dam next to the spillway went through the bottom of the dam. The 1914 New York State Conservation Commission report that noted that also describes the dam as not markedly different from its design or material. At that time canal operations had ceased completely and the dam had become private property, the lake it created, referred to in the Conservation Commission report as Woods Lake, had become a major attraction for the new village of Woodridge and the Jewish summer resorts around it. Beaches developed at either end of the lake, and a few cottages were built along its shores, in 1999, water undermined some sections of the original dam and caused a breach, draining the lake to merely one-quarter its sizeSilver Lake Dam – Silver Lake Dam
136. Silver Lake (Woodridge, New York) – Silver Lake, one of three by that name in Sullivan County, New York, United States, is located just southeast of the village of Woodridge. It was created in the 1840s when Sandburg Creek was dammed to provide water for the summit, or highest-elevation, section of the Delaware and Hudson Canal. The lake is shaped, along a northwest-southeasterly axis roughly two-thirds of a mile long,85 acres in surface area when full. One bay on the side is crossed by the former right-of-way of the Orange & Western Railroad. The northwest end lies in the village of Woodridge, which has built a park along the lake around a beach that established itself in the early resort days. Another beach developed at the end, just north of the dam. There are some houses and businesses with lake frontage, but other than that its shores remain undeveloped, in 1999, water undermined some sections of the original dam and caused a breach, draining the lake to merely one-quarter its size. The village is in the process of building a treatment plant that will discharge into the lake along the south side just past its park. In 2006, the state Department of Environmental Conservation had obtained a consent decree requiring that the address the sewage spills that frequently occurred in heavy rains. It had been using a Town of Fallsburg plant some distance from the village, but that hadnt been enoughSilver Lake (Woodridge, New York) – View of lake from southeast end, near dam
137. Sol Spiegelman – Sol Spiegelman was an American molecular biologist. He developed the technique of nucleic acid hybridization, which helped to lay the groundwork for advances in recombinant DNA technology, Spiegelman was born and educated in New York City, and earned a bachelors degree in mathematics from the City College of New York in 1939. He began his studies at Columbia University in 1940, looking into cellular physiology. He completed his studies at Washington University in St. Louis where he also lectured in physics and applied mathematics. Public Health Service Fellow at the University of Minnesota, he joined the faculty of the University of Illinois, in 1962, he improved a technique that allowed the detection of specific RNA and DNA molecules in cells. In 1969 he became a professor of genetics and development at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons as well as director of the Institute of Cancer Research in 1969. In 1975, he was named University Professor and he investigated how cells form enzymes, DNA and RNA structures, virology and the molecular basis of cancer. He is credited with an experiment with self reproducing RNA structures called Spiegelmans Monster and he received the Lasker Award in 1974 for his 1965 work on Qβ RNA. In 1981 he received the Antonio Feltrinelli International prize in Biology for his contributions to molecular biology and he published more than 350 papers. Spiegelman worked on trying to establish that retroviruses cause human cancers, however, there were flaws in the theory. Spiegelman died in 1983 of pancreatic cancer just before the cause of AIDS was identified as a human retrovirus, Spiegelman Monster Sol Spiegelman Papers - National Library of Medicine finding aid The Sol Spiegelman Papers - Profiles in Science, National Library of MedicineSol Spiegelman – Sol Spiegelman
138. Justus Smith Stearns – Justus Smith Stearns was an American lumber baron and businessman. He was Michigans secretary of state in 1899 and 1900, Stearns was born in Pomfret, New York, April 10,1845. He had limited education, with common schooling at the district school of Chautauqua County. Stearns was trained as a chore boy as was usual at the time in the area. One of his duties was to milk twelve cows each day and his first exposure to the lumber business was in Pomfret at his fathers retail lumber business where he took on a passion for the industry. His parents moved from the Pomfret area to Erie, Pennsylvania, Stearns father was in the retail business there for about ten years. Stearns worked with his father there until 1867 when he moved to Conneaut, Stearns married Paulina Lyon on March 4,1868, at Conneaut. They had one child, Robert Lyon Stearns, born March 14,1872, because of a tight financial situation with a venture with his brother-in-law Captain E. B. Ward and influence of the lumbermen of the Lyon family, Stearns decided to move to Ludington, Michigan. Initially he was an working for his brother-in-law, Thomas R. Lyon. Stearns came to Michigan in 1876 and he first worked at sawmills in Big Rapids. This early Michigan venture did not prove successful, and he moved to Ludington. There, about 20 miles east of Ludington, he operated a sawmill on the line of the Pere Marquette Railroad. In 1882 Stearns built a house for the family at the corner of Washington Avenue and Fourth Street in Ludington at a cost of something over $6,000, a large sum for the time. In 1898 Stearns bought out the lumber operation of Thomas R. Lyon and formed Stearns Salt & Lumber Company. It soon became a company in Ludington with 50,000,000 board feet of lumber output annually and 300,000 barrels of salt yearly. He soon became one of the top businessmen in the state of Michigan, in 1893 he formed Flambeau Lumber Company in Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, with Fred Herrick. In 1894 he started Stearns Lumber Company in Odanah, Wisconsin, in Ludington he not only was in the lumber business, but was also in the salt business. Around 1890 his annual cut of the mills averaged 27,000,000 board feet yearly, in 1898 he manufactured 125,000,000 board feet of lumber and was the largest manufacturer of lumber in the state of MichiganJustus Smith Stearns – ca. 1885
139. James R. Tanner – James R. Tanner was an American soldier and civil servant. He is best known for having lost both his legs below the knee at the Second Battle of Bull Run and he later served as the United States Commissioner of Pensions, and helped reorganize and incorporate the American Red Cross. Tanner was born on a farm near Richmondville, New York and he worked on the farm most of the year and was educated in the local public schools, graduating from high school at the age of 16. He took courses at a school for a year. Tanner was just 17 years old when the American Civil War broke out in April 1861 and he enlisted in Company C of the 87th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and was quickly promoted to corporal. He saw action in the Peninsula Campaign, fighting at the Siege of Yorktown, the Battle of Williamsburg, the Battle of Seven Pines, the Seven Days Battles, and the Battle of Malvern Hill. He then saw action at the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, the Battle of Bristoe Station, the last time he saw action was at the Second Battle of Bull Run, August 28–30,1862. As Confederate artillery shelled his units position on August 30, shrapnel tore off his left foot, Union surgeons amputated both legs about 4 inches below the knee. With the Union army in retreat, Tanner was left behind to be cared for by a farmers family. He was captured by Confederate forces, paroled after 10 days, he spent several weeks recovering in Fairfax Seminary Hospital before being sent home to New York. He learned to walk with artificial limbs, Tanner won a position as deputy doorkeeper for the New York State Assembly, then worked in a variety of positions of increasing responsibility for the next few months. During this time, he learned stenography, in October 1864, Tanner won an appointment as a clerk and stenographer in the Ordnance Department in Washington, D. C. On April 14,1865, he was summoned to the Petersen House where Abraham Lincoln lay dying from an assassins bullet. During the night, Tanner took the testimony of eyewitnesses to the assassination, Tanner left the Ordnance Department in December 1865 and moved back to Richmondville, New York. He took a job as a clerk of a committee in the state legislature, lamont, and was admitted to the bar in 1869. He married Mero L. White, daughter of Alfred C, White of Jefferson, New York, in 1866. The couple had two sons and two daughters, very active in Republican politics, Tanner won a patronage position as a clerk in the New York Custom House in New York City in 1869. He was promoted to deputy customs collector and served for four years under Chester A. Arthur, Tanner ran for a seat in the New York State Assembly in 1871, but lost in what many considered were fraudulent electionsJames R. Tanner – James Tanner in 1895
140. Shannon Tavarez – Shannon Skye Tavarez was an American child actress and singer. She appeared in the Broadway theatre production of The Lion King by Walt Disney Theatrical, Tavarez was a resident of Bellerose, Queens, New York City, and attended P. S. Cambria Heights She was chosen to play the role of Nala after a cattle call audition in 2008 at the Apollo Theater and she became one of two girls who split the role, with each girl performing four shows weekly. Several months after debuting in the show in September 2009, she was forced to leave the production after being diagnosed with a form of leukemia. Unsuccessful in finding a bone marrow donor, Tavarez underwent an umbilical cord blood transplant in August 2010, on November 1,2010, Tavarez died at the age of 11 at Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, New York, due to acute myeloid leukemia. The lights at the Minskoff Theatre, where The Lion King was playing, were dimmed the night she died, in a statement released following her daughters death, Odiney Brown said that Shannons dream was to perform on stage, and that she did. A year after her death Shannons mother started Shannons S. H. A. R. E Foundation, in 2012 Odiney gave birth to her second daughter Sehai MaliaShannon Tavarez – Shannon Tavarez
141. Dummy Taylor – Luther Haden Dummy Taylor was a deaf-mute American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1900 to 1908. He played for the New York Giants and Cleveland Bronchos and was one of the key pitchers on the Giants National League championship teams of 1904 and 1905. In 1901, his first full season in the leagues, Taylor led the National League by pitching in 45 games. In 1904, he won 21 games for the Giants, and in 1906 his 2.20 ERA was the lowest on a staff that included Baseball Hall of Famers Christy Mathewson. Taylor was the only successful deaf pitcher in Major League Baseball and was regarded, along with Dummy Hoy, as a role model, in the 1900s, Taylor was reported to be the highest paid deaf person in the United States. In 2000, author Darryl Brock wrote the historical novel Havana Heat about Taylors experience in professional baseball, the book won the Dave Moore Award in 2000 as the most important baseball book published that year. Taylor was born in Oskaloosa, Kansas in 1875 and he was the son of Arnold B. Taylor, a farmer, and his wife, Emaline Taylor, at the time of the 1880 United States Census, Taylor was living in rural Jefferson County, Kansas with his parents, two older brothers, and two older sisters. Some accounts indicate Taylor was born deaf, however, at age four, Taylor was not listed as being deaf and dumb or otherwise handicapped in the familys U. S. Census record. By age 10, Taylor was living at the Kansas School For the Deaf in Olathe and he was listed in the 1885 Kansas State Census as a pupil at the Deaf and Dumb Institute. Taylor continued to live at the Kansas School for the Deaf through his school years. He was a pitcher for the baseball team and also participated in boxing. Interviewed in 1942, Taylor recalled he had dreams as a boy of becoming a great boxer, at the time of the 1895 Kansas State Census, Taylor was living in Olathe. After leaving the Kansas School for the Deaf, Taylor began playing baseball with a team in Nevada. He then played at Lincoln, Illinois, and with minor teams in Wabash, Crawfordsville, Danville and Terre Haute. In 1897, he played for a league team in Mattoon. He played for the Shreveport Tigers of the Southern League in 1898 and 1899, in 1900, Taylor began the season playing for Albany, New York. At the time of the U. S. Census in June 1900, Taylor was residing at a house in AlbanyDummy Taylor – Luther "Dummy" Taylor
142. Horace B. Willard – Horace Birney Willard was an American politician, physician, and businessman from New York City. A recipient of a scholarship, Willard attended Geneva Medical College then established a medical practice in Aztalan. Forced out of the due to poor health, Willard became engaged in several business dealings in nearby Fort Atkinson. Willard was an member of the state Republican Party and served a term in the Wisconsin State Assembly. Horace Birney Willard was born in Volney, New York on May 2,1825, after studying in the public schools, Willard worked as a teacher. He studied medicine under William B, coye in Gilbertsville, New York, then received a scholarship sponsored by the state. Willard attended the Geneva Medical College, graduating in 1849 and he set out west, settling in Aztalan, Wisconsin, to practice medicine. After seven years, he sold his practice due to failing health, after a year of travel, Willard settled in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, in 1857, again practicing medicine. Poor health caused Willard to finally abandon medicine in 1866, Willard remained in the county, settling in Fort Atkinson. There, Willard engaged in commercial pursuits. He co-founded the Northwestern Manufacturing Company and served as one of its first directors, Willard was also bookkeeper, secretary, and stockholder in the Foundry and Machining Company. In partnership with N. F. Hopkins and F. M. Vickery, present at its original state convention, Willard was an early member of the Republican Party in Wisconsin. He also helped to organize its chapter in Jefferson County, in 1860, Willard was nominated to the Wisconsin State Assembly. There, Willard advocated against sending delegates to the Peace Conference of 1861. He was re-nominated for the session, but declined to run. Willard instead took a position on the Jefferson County Board of Supervisors, later in his life, Willard was known for his independent political stances, supporting Horace Greeley and Samuel J. Tilden for President. He ran for mayor of Fort Atkinson in 1878, but was defeated and he briefly lived in the former George P. Marston House. Willard married Elizabeth S. Vickery on July 11,1849 and they had one daughter, Julia Adola, who married the son of Congressman Lucien BHorace B. Willard – Willard briefly lived in this house in Fort Atkinson.
143. Lester S. Willson – He was married at Albany, New York, on March 2,1869, to Miss Emma D. Weeks, a native of Vermont. He died in Bozeman, Montana on January 26,1919, Lester Willson was born in Canton, New York on June 16,1839, the son of Ambrose and Julia Willson. He was one of seven children and had at least two brothers, Davis and George and his brother Davis would play a prominent role in Lesters later career as a businessman in Montana. He attended public schools in Canton and graduated from a prominent Academy before working as a clerk for two years and then volunteering for the Union Army in 1861 and he was offered a captaincy on the same day the adjutants commission was received, but declined. He was made captain August 2,1864, lieutenant-colonel October 1,1864, Willson left the regiment July 17,1865 as a colonel. On March 12,1867, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services under General Sherman, resulting in the fall of Atlanta, Georgia. During the winter of 1861-62, Willson participated in guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and campaigns in Virginia under generals Nathaniel Banks and he fought at the Battle of Antietam, September 17,1862. On May 5,1863, he was wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville Virginia. There Willson participated in the battles of Wauhatchie, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Peavine Creek, in 1864-65 he campaigned under General William Sherman and participated in the Chattanooga Campaign, the Atlanta Campaign, the Savannah Campaign and the Carolinas Campaign. As an aide, assistant inspector-general, and assistant adjutant-general, Willson was present at significant events during these campaigns, in Atlanta, his regiment, the 60th New York Volunteers share the honor of unfurling the union flag on top of the city hall with the 111th Pennsylvania Infantry. The regiment entered the city unopposed and met the mayor and a delegation of the City Council instead of troops, once Willson received the surrender his regiment quickly began providing protection to the citizens of Savannah from the mobs that had begun breaking into houses and plundering. Throughout the war Willson enjoyed the confidence of his superiors and on more than one occasion he was entrusted with intricate and dangerous duties by General Sherman. Major General George S. Greene credited him with being a most faithful and intelligent officer, at the close of the war Willson held the rank of lieutenant colonel. His successful service and close association with senior officers caused him to be appointed assistant quartermaster-general of the New York State Militia with the rank of colonel. Working alongside Lester was his cousin Charles Rich and army friend, in December,1865 after hearing a presentation on the western U. S. by then Speaker of the House of Representatives, Schuyler Colfax, Lester Willson got the wanderlust. He convinced his co-workers to that they should go to Montana, unfortunately, Lester could not leave his New York job unfinished and did not join Rich and Tuller until 1867. However, he did invest in the enterprise and enlisted the participation of his younger brother Davis to join Rich. After reaching Omaha, Nebraska in May 1866, Davis Willson, Rich and Tuller invested over $5000 in supplies, merchandise and transportation to embark on a journey to BozemanLester S. Willson – Lester Sebastion Willson, c. 1898
144. 2010 Heluva Good! Sour Cream Dips at the Glen – Sour Cream Dips at The Glen was a NASCAR Sprint Cup Series stock car race that was held on August 8,2010 at Watkins Glen International in Watkins Glen, New York. Contested over 90 laps, it was the race of the 2010 Sprint Cup Series season. The race was won by Juan Pablo Montoya, for the Earnhardt Ganassi Racing team, Kurt Busch finished second, and Marcos Ambrose, who started eleventh, clinched third. Conditions were sunny at the start of the race, pole position driver Carl Edwards maintained his lead on the first lap, but Jamie McMurray, who had started in the second position on the grid, took the lead before the fifth lap was over. Afterward, Montoya became the leader, and would lead to the race high of 74 laps. During the final twenty laps, Montoya maintained the lead after multiple cautions, on the final lap, Kurt Busch was gaining on Montoya, but Montoya maintained his position to win his first race of the season. There were five cautions and ten lead changes among five different drivers throughout the course of the race, Montoyas first win of the season and second in his career. The result moved him up two spots to nineteenth in the Drivers Championship,774 points behind of leader Kevin Harvick and thirty-five ahead of Martin Truex, Jr. Chevrolet maintained its lead in the Manufacturers Championship, twenty-seven points ahead of Toyota and fifty-six ahead of Ford, Watkins Glen International is one of two road courses to hold NASCAR races, the other being Infineon Raceway. Before the race, Kevin Harvick led the Drivers Championship with 3,080 points, and Jeff Gordon stood in second with 2,891 points. Denny Hamlin was third in the Drivers Championship with 2,820 points in a Toyota, Jimmie Johnson was fourth with 2,803 points, in the Manufacturers Championship, Chevrolet was leading with 149 points, twenty-two points ahead of their rival Toyota. Ford, with 99 points, was twelve ahead of Dodge in the battle for third. Two practice sessions were held before the Sunday race—both on Friday, the first session lasted 110 minutes, and the Friday afternoon session lasted 120 minutes. During the first practice session, Greg Biffle was the quickest with a time of 1,12.205, Denny Hamlin and Paul Menard followed in the second and third positions, but were ahead of Jeff Burton and Kurt Busch in fourth and fifth. In the Friday afternoon practice session, Biffle remained the quickest with a fastest lap time of 1,11.092, Juan Pablo Montoya followed in the second position, less than a second faster than Marcos Ambrose and Kurt Busch in third and fourth. Kevin Harvick was scored fifth quickest with a fastest lap time of 1,11.355, Tony Stewart, who won this race in 2009, only managed sixth. During qualifying, forty-six cars were entered, but only forty-three will be able to race because of NASCARs qualifying procedure, Carl Edwards clinched his fifth career pole position, with a time of 1,10.882. He was joined on the front row of the grid by Jamie McMurray, Montoya qualified third, A. J. Allmendinger took fourth, and Kurt Busch started fifth, after being scored fourth in the practice sessions2010 Heluva Good! Sour Cream Dips at the Glen – Carl Edwards, shown here in 2008, clinched his fifth career pole position with a time of 1:10.882
145. Kiss (band) – Kiss is an American hard rock group formed in New York City in January 1973 by Paul Stanley, Gene Simmons, Peter Criss, and Ace Frehley. The band has gone through several changes, with Stanley. The original and best-known lineup consisted of Stanley, Simmons, Frehley, with their make-up and costumes, they took on the personae of comic book-style characters, The Starchild, The Demon, The Spaceman or Space Ace, and The Catman. Due to creative differences, both Criss and Frehley had departed the group by 1982, in 1983, Kiss began performing without makeup and costumes, thinking that it was time to leave the makeup behind. The band accordingly experienced a commercial resurgence, and their music videos received regular airplay on MTV. Drummer Eric Carr, who had replaced Criss in 1980, died in 1991 of a type of heart cancer and was replaced by Eric Singer. In response to a wave of Kiss nostalgia in the mid-1990s, the band announced a reunion of the lineup in 1996. The resulting Alive/Worldwide Tour was commercially successful, Criss and Frehley have both since left the band again and have been replaced by Singer and Tommy Thayer, respectively. Kiss has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including 25 million RIAA-certified albums, on April 10,2014, Kiss was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Kiss traces their roots to Wicked Lester, a New York City-based rock band led by Gene Simmons and they recorded one album, which was shelved by Epic Records, and played a handful of live shows. Simmons and Stanley, feeling a new direction was needed, abandoned Wicked Lester in 1972. Simmons and Stanley met him in a nightclub where he was playing drums, after hearing Criss sing, they thought of him being in the band. Criss then auditioned for and later joined the new version of Wicked Lester, the trio focused on a much harder style of rock than Wicked Lester played. They also began experimenting with their image by wearing makeup and various outfits, in November 1972, the trio played a showcase for Epic Records A&R director Don Ellis, in an effort to secure a record deal. Although the performance went well, Ellis disliked the groups image, in early January 1973, the group added lead guitarist Ace Frehley. Frehley impressed the group with his first audition, although he showed up wearing two different colored sneakers, one red and one orange, a few weeks after Frehley joined, Wicked Lester changed their name to Kiss. Stanley came up with the name while he, Simmons and Criss were driving around New York City, Criss mentioned that he had been in a band called Lips, so Stanley said something to the effect of What about Kiss. Frehley created the logo, making the SS look like lightning boltsKiss (band) – Kiss playing at Hellfest 2013, during their Monster World Tour. From left to right: Gene Simmons, Paul Stanley, Eric Singer and Tommy Thayer
146. Andrew Dickson White – Andrew Dickson White was an American historian and educator, who was the cofounder of Cornell University and served as its first president for nearly two decades. He was known for expanding the scope of college curriculae, a politician, he had served as state senator in New York. He was later appointed as a US diplomat to Germany and Russia and he was born on November 7,1832 in Homer, New York, to Clara and Horace White. Clara was the daughter of Andrew Dickson, a New York State Assemblyman in 1832 and his wife, and Horace was the son of Asa White, a farmer from Massachusetts and their once-successful farm was ruined by a fire when Horace was 13. Despite little formal education and struggles with poverty after his family lost its farm, Horace White became a businessman, in 1839 he opened what became a successful bank in Syracuse. Horace and Clara White had two children, Andrew Dickson and his brother, Andrew was baptized in 1835 at the Calvary Episcopal Church on the town green in Homer. He married first, on September 27,1857, Mary Amanda Outwater, daughter of Peter Outwater and Lucia M. Phillips of Syracuse. Marys maternal grandmother Amanda Danforth, daughter of Asa Danforth, Jr. and wife of Elijah Phillips, Jr. was the first white child born in what would become Onondaga County, New York. After his wife died in 1887, White went on a tour and traveled in Europe with his close friend, Daniel Willard Fiske. After two years as a widower, in 1890, White married Helen Magill, the daughter of Edward Magill and she was the first woman in the United States to earn a Ph. D. Like her husband, Helen was a social scientist and educator, together, Helen and Andrew had one daughter, Karin White. One of Andrews cousins was Edwin White, who became an artist of the Luminism/Hudson River schools and his nephew was Horace White, governor of New York. Beginning in the fall of 1849, White enrolled as an undergraduate at Geneva College at the insistence of his father and he was inducted as member of Sigma Phi. In his autobiography, he recalled that he had felt that his time at Geneva was wasted by being at the small Episcopalian school, rather than continue wasting his time, White dropped out in 1850. After a period of estrangement, White persuaded his father to let him transfer to Yale College, at Yale, White was a classmate of Daniel Coit Gilman, who would later serve as first president of Johns Hopkins University. The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society and would remain close friends and they traveled together in Europe after graduation and served together on the Venezuela Boundary Commission. His roommate was Thomas Frederick Davies, Sr. who later became the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan. Alpha Sigma Phi inducted White as a member in 1850 and he served as editor of the fraternitys publication, White remained active in the fraternity for the rest of his life, founding the Cornell chapter and serving as the national president from 1913 to 1915Andrew Dickson White – White in 1885
147. Conservative Party of New York – The Conservative Party of New York State is a political party in the United States founded in 1962 and active in the State of New York. As of April 1,2016,159,355 voters were registered with the Conservative Party, a key consideration was New Yorks fusion voting, unusual among US states, which allows individual candidates to receive votes from more than one party. The Liberal Party of New York, founded in 1944, had earlier benefitted from this system, the Conservative Party founders wanted to balance the Liberal Partys influence. One early supporter was National Review founder William F. Buckley and he eventually served three terms before retiring. In the 2004 U. S. Senate election, the Conservative Party endorsed Marilyn OGrady to oppose Republican candidate Howard Mills, the Conservative Party platform addresses a range of fiscal and social issues. Rather than nominating its own candidates, the Conservative Party usually endorses the same candidates as the Republican Party and it withholds this support from the Republicans if it deems them too liberal. For example, the Conservative Party withheld its support from Republican Rudy Giulianis fusion campaigns with endorsement from the Liberal Party for New York City mayor in 1989,1993 and 1997. The decision not to endorse party-switching Syracuse state Senator Nancy Larraine Hoffmann cost the GOP that seat in the 2004 election and it also cross-endorsed such Democrats as Asms. Michael Cusick, Michael P. Kearns, and Robin Schimminger, former Manhattan District Attorney Frank Hogan, no Republican endorsed by the Conservative Party has won statewide office since 2002. Cain, Town Justice from Collins Thomas M. Best, Sr. Superintendent of Highways from Hamburg Remy Orffeo, Town Clerk from Orchard Park John Armitage, town councilman from LeRoy David Werth, Sr. London ran a strong campaign statewide and finished one point behind Rinfret. The party lobbied against Jeanine Pirros candidacy for the 2006 Senate election against Hillary Clinton, Pirro was a liberal Republican and was supported by Governor George Pataki and other GOP leaders who saw her as the only candidate who could compete against Clinton. Under pressure from the Conservative Party and factions within the GOP and she was defeated in that race by Andrew Cuomo. Most Conservative Party state and county leaders supported John Spencer, former mayor of Yonkers, while Spencer received the Republican nomination, he was defeated by Clinton in the general election. In the race for Governor, Conservative Party Chairman Michael Long endorsed John Faso, Faso also received the endorsements of county branches of the Conservative Party. Faso was the nominee of both the Republican and Conservative parties, but was defeated by Eliot Spitzer, the Conservative Party nominated Republican candidates John McCain and Sarah Palin for president and vice president in the 2008 election. The graph shows how it did throughout the state, the Conservative Party nominated Doug Hoffman for the special congressional election in the 23rd congressional district, an election won by the Democratic nominee, Bill Owens. On October 31,2009, Dede Scozzafava suspended her campaign, the final election results showed that Owens prevailed over Hoffman by a margin of 48. 3% to 46%Conservative Party of New York – James L. Buckley won a Senate seat in 1970 on the Conservative Party line with 38% of the vote. It has been the party's only statewide victory
148. New York Republican State Committee – The New York Republican State Committee established 1855, is an affiliate of the United States Republican Party. Its headquarters are in Albany, New York, the purpose of the committee is to nominate Republican candidates for election to New York state and federal political roles. It also formulates Republican Party policy on New York State issues, the New York Republican State Committee was established in 1855, one year after the founding of the Republican Party by William H. Seward and Thurlow Weed. Initially, the committee met every three years to plan the Republican National Convention and it occasionally met during the election campaigning periods, the establishment of the Republican Party in New York in the 1850s was a difficult task. At the time, the nativist American Party, was active, however, the committee presented nominees from a party with well-recognized members, a defined set of principles, stable, powerful, well-known leaders and a well established structure. The committees nominees were first successful in 1856 and this gave native New Yorkers more votes than immigrants. It was not until 1974 that the US Supreme Court deemed this clause unconstitutional and this created a turmoil in the politics of New York because the Republican party lost its hold on the state legislature. Since 1959, Nelson Rockefeller and George Pataki were the two major Republican governors of New York. Until 1911, the New York Republican State Committee nominated its candidates through a primary or caucus system and this system meant the average voter had very little input as to who would be their choice for the state and federal offices. This system was out of practice after the passing of the Direct Primary Law in 1911. The committee, like its national body, promotes agriculture as an industry to strengthen the economy via its flow on effect. It cites the benefits to employment, small business and the industry as well as development of arable land for marketing. Senator Andrew Lanza, the chairman of the Ethics Committee, sponsored the Public Integrity Reform Act of 2011 which was signed into law in the week of August 14,2011, the Act focuses on financial disclosure of businesses and lobbyists and penalties for non-compliance. The committee promotes PACE financing for the purchase of energy infrastructure by New York citizens. Up front costs may be diffused over many years, the committee supports the construction of a smart grid in New York to provide cost and efficiency benefits in the supply of power. The New York Republican State Committee encourages the use of shale in southern New York for extraction of natural gas. In 2008, Governor David Paterson approved the extension of the drilling area, the committee agreed with the passing of the bipartisan Job Creation and Retention Package on 19 January 2011, where concessions were given to small business employers. The committee proposed a cap on property tax excluding new propertiesNew York Republican State Committee – Theodore Roosevelt, Governor of New York (1899-1900), 26th President of the United States (1901-09)
149. Electoral reform in New York – Electoral reform in New York refers to efforts to change the voting and election laws in New York State. In 1936, voters in New York City adopted the single transferable vote method of proportional representation, in the election immediately preceding STVs adoption, the Democrats won 95. 3% of the seats on the Board of Aldermen with only 66. 5% of the vote. In 1941, proportional representation gave the Democrats 65. 5% of the seats on 64% of the vote, with the Republicans, the system has since been repealed. However, the Conservative Party and Liberal Party continue to participate in the system through electoral fusion. New York disenfranchises felons both while they are in prison and while they are on parole, the Sentencing Project favors restoring these rights. The legislation later succeeded in 2014 when New York joined the compact, a new party or independent candidate may gain ballot access for one election by collecting a set number of petition signatures for each office. A new party that wins 50,000 votes for governor is recognized statewide as a political party and this total can be and often is obtained through electoral fusion. A candidate seeking the nomination of a party to which she or he does not belong – e. g. for purposes of fusion – must be authorized by a relevant committee of the party, reformers would like to see the ballot access laws loosened. Electoral reform in the United States Fairvote New YorkElectoral reform in New York – Elections in New York
150. Allegany County, New York – Allegany County is a county in the southern tier of the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,946 and its name derives from a Delaware Indian word, applied by European-American settlers of Western New York State, to a trail that followed the Allegheny River and then used for the county. The county is bisected by the Genesee River, flowing north to its mouth on Lake Ontario, during the mid-nineteenth century, the Genesee Valley Canal was built to link southern markets to the Great Lakes and Mohawk River. The county was served by railroads, which soon superseded the canals in their capacity for carrying freight. Part of the Oil Springs Reservation, controlled by the Seneca Nation, is located in the county and this was for centuries the territory of the Seneca people, the westernmost nation of the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee, a confederacy of Iroquoian languages-speaking peoples. European-American permanent settlement did not take place until after the American Revolutionary War, New York State sold off the lands cheaply to attract new European-American settlers and agricultural development. Allegany County was created by the legislature on April 7,1806 when Genesee County. The first County Seat was established at Angelica, New York where it remained for half a century and it was later moved to Belmont, a village located along the Genesee River. On March 11,1808, the borders were adjusted so that 230 square miles of Steuben County passed to Allegany County and this established the current border between Genesee and Steuben counties, and reduced the size of Allegany County to 1,200 square miles. However, on April 13,1814, the half of Cattaraugus County was so attached and administered from Belmont. This attachment was ended on March 28,1817, with continued settlement through the mid-nineteenth century, the legislature periodically adjusted county borders as new counties were organized in western New York. On March 23,1857, Allegany County lost another 40 square miles to Livingston County, passing the Ossian, New York area to Livingston County, and establishing the current border between them. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,034 square miles. Allegany County is in the part of New York State. Allegany County does not lie along the Allegheny River, as its name would suggest, the highest point in the county is Alma Hill, with an elevation of 2,548 feet above sea level. This is the highest point in the state west of the Catskill Mountains, the highest point of Interstate 86 is located in the Town of West Almond with an elevation of 2,110 feet. This is also believed to be the highest point of any interstate in the New York, the southwestern part of the County flows into the Allegheny River that flows into the Ohio and then to the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico. In June 1972 the remnants of Hurricane Agnes stalled over the area, flooding took place in the valley communities of Wellsville, Belmont, Belfast and others in the countyAllegany County, New York – Location in the state of New York
151. Broome County, New York – Broome County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,600 and its county seat and largest city is Binghamton. The county was named in honor of John Broome, who was lieutenant governor in 1806 when Broome County was established, Broome County is part of the Binghamton, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area. The current county executive is Jason T. Garnar, Broome County is also home to Binghamton University, one of four university centers in the SUNY system. When counties were established in the Province of New York in 1683 and this was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3,1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, on March 12,1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State, the county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada, in 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County. In 1791, Tioga County split off from Montgomery County, along with Herkimer, Tioga County was at this time much larger than the present county and included the present Broome and Chemung Counties and parts of Chenango and Schuyler Counties. In 1798, Tioga County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Chemung County, in 1806, the present-day Broome County was split off from Tioga County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 716 square miles. Broome County is located in south-central New York, directly north of the border with Pennsylvania in a section of the called the Southern Tier. The Chenango River joins the Susquehanna River, which flows through the county, the western half of the county is hilly but has wide valleys that accommodate Binghamton and its suburbs. In the northern portion Interstate 81 takes advantage of another glacial valley, to the east, however, the terrain becomes much more rugged as the land tilts up to the Catskills. The highest elevation is a U. S. National Geodetic Survey benchmark known as Slawson atop a hill in the Town of Sanford. It is approximately 2087 feet above sea level, an area due east on the Delaware County line in Oquaga Creek State Park also lies within the same elevation contour line. The lowest point is 864 feet above sea level, along the Susquehanna at the Pennsylvania state line, the population density was 284 people per square mileBroome County, New York – Broome County Courthouse
152. Cattaraugus, New York – Cattaraugus is a village in Cattaraugus County, New York, United States. The population was 1,002 at the 2010 census, the village lies in the northeast part of the town of New Albion, north of Salamanca. Cattaraugus developed most after the arrival of the Erie Railroad in 1851, the village was incorporated in 1882. Its name derives from Cattaraugus Creek, the Cattaraugus Village Commercial Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Cattaraugus is located in the part of the town of New Albion at 42°19′48″N 78°51′56″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 1.1 square miles. NY Route 353 and the South Branch of Cattaraugus Creek pass through the village, Cattaraugus County Route 12, the only county route in the county to enter a village, enters the village from the northeast and terminates within the village. The village is primarily on a hillside, the southwestern portion of the village is on the highest ground. Only two of the streets run uphill from Route 353, Rumsey Street on the villages southern boundary. Since 2013, the Seneca Transit System has provided bus service to the village. The New York and Lake Erie Railroad terminates at a Setterstix plant in Cattaraugus after the portion of the railway southeast of Cattaraugus was decommissioned in the early 1990s, the right-of-way of the portion heading southeast from Cattaraugus is now the Pat McGee Trail, which was established in 2005. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,075 people,437 households, the population density was 959.6 people per square mile. There were 485 housing units at a density of 432.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98. 51% White,0. 56% Native American,0. 28% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 40% of the population. 30. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.07. In the village, the population was out with 28. 0% under the age of 18,7. 2% from 18 to 24,25. 8% from 25 to 44,23. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males, the median income for a household in the village was $30,664, and the median income for a family was $35,417Cattaraugus, New York – NY 353 through downtown Cattaraugus.
153. Chenango County, New York – Chenango County is a county located in the south-central section U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,477, the countys name originates from an Oneida word meaning large bull-thistle. This was long the territory of the Oneida people, one of the first Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee and they occupied the area until after the Revolutionary War, when they were forced off the land, although they had been allies of the patriot colonists. They were granted a reservation, which settlers continued to encroach on. When English colonists organized counties in 1683 in what is now New York and this was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. But, territories located to the west of present-day Pennsylvania were under effective French control as part of New France. Albany County was reduced in size on July 3,1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, on March 12,1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion. The area then designated as Tryon County has since organized as 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, the British colonial governor of New York, in the years prior to 1776, during the increasing tensions most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Fort Niagara on the Western Frontier. In 1784, following the treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War. He had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, the US residents replaced the name of the former British governor. In 1788 the Oneida Reservation was considerably reduced by what is known as Clintons Purchase, settlers from eastern New York and New England entered the area and started farming. In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County and it was the practice to establish a large geographic county and divide it as settlement increased. In 1791, Herkimer, Otsego and Tioga counties were organized from land separated from Montgomery County, Chenango County was formed on March 15,1798 from 1,610 square miles of Tioga and Herkimer counties. Its eastern border is formed by the Unadilla River, the land had been purchased the year before from the Oneida, who were forced into a smaller reservation to the north. On April 4,1804,70 square miles of Chenango County was partitioned to expand Oneida County, the communities of Waterville, on March 21,1806,650 square miles of Chenango County was partitioned to produce Madison County. This established the current borders of Chenango County, which have maintained to the early 21st centuryChenango County, New York – Chenango County Courthouse
154. Columbia County, New York – Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,096, the name comes from the Latin feminine form of the name of Christopher Columbus, which was at the time of the formation of the county a popular proposal for the name of the United States of America. Columbia County comprises the Hudson, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Albany-Schenectady. It is located on the east side of the Hudson River, at the time of European encounter, the area was occupied by the indigenous Mohican Indians. To the west of the river were the Mohawk and other four tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, the first known European exploration of Columbia County was in 1609, when Henry Hudson, an English explorer sailing for the Dutch, ventured up the Hudson River. An accident to his craft forced him to stop at what is now known as Columbia County, in 1612, the Dutch established trading posts and minor settlements, constructing New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. Fort Orange became a center of the fur trade with the Mohawk people, traders began to stop at midway points along the Hudson River, on their travels between New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. Small settlements arose along the river to supply the traders ships, in 1649, Dutch colonists purchased land near Claverack and in 1667, more land was purchased. As more Dutch arrived, the region slowly developed, in 1664, the English took over New Netherland and renamed it the Province of New York, they also renamed Fort Orange as Albany. He gained much larger grants from the government, for a total of 160,240 acres. He was made lord of the manor by the Crown, with all its perquisites, in 1710, he sold 6,000 acres of his property to Queen Anne of England for use as work camps and resettlement of Palatine German refugees. The Crown had supported their passage to New York, and they were to pay off the costs as indentured labor, some 1200 Palatine Germans were brought to Livingston Manor. New Yorks Governor Hunter had also helped with arrangements, the workers were to manufacture naval stores from the pine trees in the Catskill Mountains. They were promised land for resettlement after completing their terms of indenture and they were refugees from years of religious fighting along the border with France, as well as crop failures from a severe winter. Work camps were established on both sides of the Hudson River, the Germans quickly established Protestant churches at the heart of their community, which recorded their weddings, births and deaths, among the first vital records kept in the colony. In 1799, the boundary of Columbia County was moved southward to include that portion of Livingston Manor located in Dutchess County. In the nineteenth century, the Vermont Central Railway was constructed to the area and it provided transportation north towards Rutland and Burlington, Vermont, and south towards the major junction town of Chatham, New York, for travel to points west, south and east. Voters in Columbia County since the century have mostly elected Republicans to officeColumbia County, New York – First Columbia County Courthouse
155. Franklin County, New York – Franklin County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 51,599, the county is named in honor of American Founding Father Benjamin Franklin. Franklin County comprises the Malone, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, much of Franklin County is within the Adirondack Park. Its Canadian borders are the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, when counties were established in New York in 1683, the present Franklin County was part of Albany County. This was a county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory. This county was reduced in size on July 3,1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, on March 12,1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the pieces, Charlotte County, contained the eastern portion. In 1784, the name Charlotte County was changed to Washington County to honor George Washington, in 1788, Clinton County was split off from Washington County. This was a larger area than the present Clinton County. Franklin County is part of Macombs Purchase of 1791, in 1799, Clinton County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Essex County. In 1802, Clinton County was reduced in size by a part of Clinton, in 1808, Franklin County was split off from Clinton County. In the late 1800s, Franklin County was home to three of the largest resort hotels in the Adirondacks, Paul Smiths Hotel, Loon Lake House, the history of Franklin County is preserved at the Franklin Historical and Museum Society in Malone, New York. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,697 square miles. It is the fourth-largest county in New York by land area, Franklin County is in the northeastern part of New York State. The northern edge is the border with Canada, Clinton County - east Essex County - southeast Hamilton County - southwest St. The population density was 31 people per square mile, there were 23,936 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84. 03% White,6. 63% Black or African American,6. 20% Native American,0. 38% Asian,2. 07% from other races,4. 01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31. 0% were of French,13. 6% Irish,10. 6% American,9. 8% French Canadian,9. 2% English and 5. 4% German ancestry according to Census 2000Franklin County, New York – Lake Flower in Saranac Lake
156. Hamilton County, New York – Hamilton County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,836 and its county seat is Lake Pleasant. The county was created in 1816 and organized in 1847, Hamilton County is one of only two counties that lie entirely within the Adirondack Park. Because of its situation in the Adirondack Park, any development in the county is restricted by the New York State Constitution, there is no permanent traffic light in the county. T