1. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
2. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of OrangeNew York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
3. New Jersey – New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. New Jersey lies entirely within the statistical areas of New York City. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, in the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. New Jersey was the site of decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities such as Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as rivers, swamps. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact, scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey. The Lenape society was divided into clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign, Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf and they first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey, the Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of ownership was not recognized by the Lenape. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen, peter Minuits purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and it was from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the states inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrantsNew Jersey – The New Jersey Botanical Garden at Skylands in Ringwood State Park, Passaic and Bergen Counties
4. Rhode Island – Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Rhode Island is the smallest in area, the eighth least populous, and its official name is also the longest of any state in the Union. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the state also shares a short maritime border with New York. It boycotted the 1787 convention that drew up the United States Constitution, on May 29,1790, Rhode Island became the 13th and last state to ratify the Constitution. Rhode Islands official nickname is The Ocean State, a reference to the fact that the state has several large bays, Rhode Island covers 1,214 square miles, of which 1,045 square miles are land. Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States, the official name of the state is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which is derived from the merger of four settlements. Rhode Island is now commonly called Aquidneck Island, the largest of several islands in Narragansett Bay, Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence. This was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick, hence the plural Providence Plantations and it is unclear how Aquidneck Island came to be known as Rhode Island, although there are two popular theories. Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524, subsequent European explorers were unable to precisely identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who later colonized the area assumed that it was Aquidneck. A second theory concerns the fact that Adriaen Block passed by Aquidneck during his expeditions in the 1610s, historians have theorized that this reddish appearance resulted from either red autumn foliage or red clay on portions of the shore. The earliest documented use of the name Rhode Island for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams, the name was officially applied to the island in 1644 with these words, Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island. The name Isle of Rodes is used in a document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island Red Island, Williams was a theologian forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a proprietary colony. Providence referred to the concept of providence, and plantation was an English term for a colony. State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is the longest official name of any state in the Union, advocates for excising plantation asserted that the word specifically referred to the British colonial practice of establishing settlements which disenfranchised native people. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was simply an archaic English synonym for colony, the referendum election was held on November 2,2010, and the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. It shares a maritime border with New York State between Block Island and Long IslandRhode Island – Verrazzano Monument, Providence, Rhode Island.
5. Native Americans in the United States – In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes, bands, and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast AsiansNative Americans in the United States – Pushmataha
6. French people – The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, indeed, the country has long valued its openness, tolerance and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area then became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would later develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France. With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the processFrench people – Louis XIV of France "The Sun-King"
7. Fort Orange – Fort Orange was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland, the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site. It was built in 1624 as a replacement for Fort Nassau, which had built on nearby Castle Island and served as a trading post until 1617 or 1618. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch House of Orange-Nassau, after conquest of the region by the English, they soon abandoned Fort Orange in favor of a new fort, Fort Frederick, constructed in 1676. In 1624, a ship with 30 Protestant Walloons landed in New Netherland,18 of the men were sent to the location near present-day Albany, the Walloons were later recalled south to settle New Amsterdam. A1628 publication on the population of New Netherland stated that there are no families at Fort Orange and they keep five or six and twenty persons, traders, there. The Dutch party was ambushed and three men were killed approximately a mile from the fort, roughly where Lincoln Park and Delaware Avenue are sited today, whereas later settlement would be through the purchase of land from the Native Americans, the Dutch built Fort Orange without any consent. They continued to hold it only through the goodwill of the Mahican, and this land patent was interpreted by van Rensselaer as including Fort Orange and the settlement that had begun outside its walls. He began purchasing and acquiring title to the lands from the Mahican, in 1630, Gillis Hoosett purchased in van Rensselaers name the lands to the south and north of the fort from the natives. Later in 1630 the first permanent Dutch settlers and farmers came to Fort Orange and settled on the outskirts of the fort, their village was first called the Fuyck and later Beverwyck. In 1634 the commander of Fort Orange ordered Harmen Meyndertsz van den Bogaert west into the Mohawk Valley and Indian country, the trip lasted six weeks and took Bogaert and his men through a number of Mohawk villages and into Oneida villages, at least 100 miles from the fort. This journey was recorded in van den Bogaerts daily journal which is titled, A Journey into Mohawk and Oneida Country. In the 1640s a French Jesuit priest and missionary, Isaac Jogues, described Fort Orange as a little fort. built of stakes. In 1648, dispute arose between agents of the Dutch West India Company and agents of the patroon over control of Fort Orange, several confrontations arose over the status of the fort and the rights of settlers around it. Stuyvesant at first ordered all buildings within cannon shot of the fort to be destroyed, in response, the patroons agent, Commander van Schlechtenhorst, decided to expand settlement to within pistol shot of Fort Orange. After the yearly freshets had damaged much of the fort, the West India Company decided to reconstruct the fort using stone. In response, van Schlechtenhorst declared it illegal for anyone to quarry stone within Rensselaerswyck for the fort or for anyone to sell the material to the forts commander, all material for the fort had to be shipped in from outside the colony. In 1651, Stuyvesant declared the jurisdiction of the fort to extend 600 paces around the fort, thereby severing it from Rensselaerswyck, he appointed Johannes Dyckman as commissary of Fort Orange. By the end of the 1650s, the fort was in disrepair again, in 1663 smallpox raged in Fort Orange, killing one person a day, which was a large percentage given the small population in the fortFort Orange – Map of Castle Island and Fort Orange in 1629
8. American Revolutionary War – From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences. Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper handAmerican Revolutionary War – Clockwise from top left: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis after the Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Trenton, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Guilford Court House
9. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various statesUnited States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
10. Florida – Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet. Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near StFlorida – St. Augustine is the oldest city in the U.S., established in 1565 by Spain.
11. County (US) – In the United States, an administrative or political sub-division of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term county is used in 48 U. S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes, most counties have subdivisions which may include municipalities and unincorporated areas. Others have no divisions, or may serve as a singular consolidated city-county. Some municipalities are in multiple counties, New York City is uniquely partitioned into multiple counties/boroughs, the U. S. federal government uses the term county equivalent to describe non-county administrative or statistical areas that are comparable to counties. Alaskas Unorganized Borough is divided into 11 census areas that are equivalent to counties. As of 2013, the United States has 3,007 counties and 137 county equivalents for a total of 3,144 counties, the number of counties per state ranges from the 3 counties of Delaware to the 254 counties of Texas. Counties have significant governmental functions in all states except Rhode Island and Connecticut, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has removed most government functions from eight of its 14 counties. The county with the largest population, Los Angeles County, counties were among the earliest units of local government established in the Thirteen Colonies that would become the United States. Virginia created the first counties in order to ease the workload in Jamestown. Americas oldest intact county court records can be found at Eastville, Virginia, in Northampton County, maryland established its first county, St. Marys, in 1637, and Massachusetts followed in 1643. When independence came, the framers of the Constitution did not provide for local governments, rather, they left the matter to the states. Subsequently, early state constitutions generally conceptualized county government as an arm of the state, in some states, these powers are partly or mostly devolved to the counties smaller divisions usually called townships, though in New York, New England and Wisconsin they are called towns. The county may or may not be able to override its townships on certain matters, the newest county in the United States is the city and county of Broomfield, Colorado, established in 2001 as a consolidated city-county. The newest county-equivalents are the Alaskan boroughs of Skagway established in 2007, Wrangell established in 2008, there are 40 consolidated city-counties in the U. S. Similarly, some of Alaskas boroughs have merged with their principal cities creating unified city-boroughs. Some such consolidations and mergers have created cities that rank among the geographically largest cities in the world, see also, #County names, regarding Louisiana. Independent cities, These are cities that legally belong to no county, Washington, D. C. outside the jurisdiction of any state, has a special status. The city of Washington comprises the entirety of the District of Columbia, when founded in 1801, the District consisted of two counties and three cities. In 1846, Alexandria County – including the then–City of Alexandria – was given back to Virginia, in 1871, the three remaining entities – the City of Washington, Georgetown City, and Washington County – were merged into a consolidated government by an act of CongressCounty (US) – A highway sign designating the border between Nicholas and Greenbrier counties in West Virginia along a secondary road.
12. David Soares – P. David Soares is the Albany County, N. Y. District Attorney. Soares was the youngest of the six children of Lucas and Lidia Soares, when he was six years old his family moved to Pawtucket, Rhode Island. At an early age, Davids parents instilled in him the value of family, education, hard work, although David grew up in a rough neighborhood, loving friends and a strong community surrounded him. Neighbors kept an eye on one anothers children and were quick to lend a hand and this upbringing encouraged David to believe in the goodness and potential of all people if given the proper guidance. His parents emphasis on education provided a motivation for Davids future goals in life. He received a Bachelors Degree in communications from Cornell University and later graduated from Albany Law School, Soares now resides in the Town of Bethlehem with his wife and three children. Soares worked his way through Albany Law School as an intern for the Albany International Airport Authority and he also worked with the Albany Law School AIDS law clinic for prisoners legal services. Upon graduation, he was hired as an assistant district attorney by then-DA Sol Greenberg, having handled thousands of cases in Albany County City Courts as an Assistant District Attorney, David witnessed the failings of the criminal justices system first hand. In 2004, David sought office to ensure Justice for Albany County residents and on January 1,2005, on November 2,2004, Soares was elected as Albany County District Attorney. This prediction, however, failed to materialize when Soares won by a landslide, Soares victory was called one of the most stunning upsets in New York political history. The New York Times noted the unusual nature of that upset the day that almost all incumbents won easy re-election. Former DA Clyne, who lost to current DA Soares by a landslide in the 2004 Democratic primaries, initially contemplated opposing his successor for re-election, Cusick was able to get enough signatures to put himself in the ballot list. He once again opposed DA Soares in the November 2008 election, in November 2008, Soares won re-election by a landslide, 73% to 27%, with a 50,000 vote margin. November 2008 election for district attorney P. David Soares,80,441 votes, or 73% Roger J. Cusick received 31,996 votes, Attorney Lee Kindlon announced his plans to challenge Soares in a Democratic Party primary in 2012. Soares was endorsed for re-election by the Albany Times Union, Soares won the primary on September 13,2012, by an unofficial count of 14,498 to 10,1432. There was speculation in early 2007 in the local and national media that Soares might run for re-election as District Attorney, or for higher office, Soares was featured in Vibe Magazine, in which interview he discussed his goals and hopes for his career. However, Soares opted to run for re-election in 2008 instead and his drug policy reform position has been disputed by at least one defense lawyer, while some members of Albany police and others consider Soares as soft on drug crimes. He has been criticized for his prosecution of defendants from Florida for selling steroids to residents of Albany County, some feel the criticism is politically motivated, and his supporters and independent pundits applaud Soaress progressive approach to criminal prosecution in Albany CountyDavid Soares – David Soares
13. Major League Baseball – Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, president, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast mediaMajor League Baseball – MLB headquarters at 245 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, USA
14. Willis Stephens – Willis “Will” Stephens Jr. was a politician that represented the 99th District in the New York State Assembly. After serving in the Assembly for twelve years, Stephens was defeated in the September 2006 primary by Assemblyman Greg Ball and he was one of only three Republicans in the Assembly to be endorsed by Planned Parenthood. Stephens, his wife, Ginny, and their three children reside in Brewster, New York, Stephens is a member of the law firm of Stephens and Charbonneau, in Brewster, New York. He was awarded a Juris Doctor degree from St. Johns University school of Law in 1980, Stephens served on the Ways and Means, Rules, and the Judiciary Committees. While serving as a member of the Assembly Ethics Committee, Stephens was cited by watchdog groups after using campaign contributions for personal expenses, Stephens was also criticized heavily for not returning campaign contributions from indicted Connecticut trash magnate James Galante. Due to New Yorks electoral fusion system, the Assemblyman had vowed to remain in the race on the Conservative, ultimately, Stephens decided to withdraw from the race altogether, instead taking a nomination for Supreme Court Justice in Queens. In June 2005, Stephens sent an email to a discussion group and he thought the message was going to Beth Coursen, an aide in his Assembly district office. Instead he sent his reply to all subscribers, referring to them as pontificating idiots, the discussion group, called Brewster10509, has a web site describing what the list is for. Members are free to post anything that has to do with government, education, community organizations and a host of things related to Brewster. After realizing his mistake, he issued an apology to the users of the board to which he said, In fact. Text of Stephens email Stephens e-mail also included what some consider to be offensive remarks directed towards his intended recipient. If it is really hot tomorrow you are welcome to come for a swim, Assemblyman Stephens apologized publicly to the members of the group as well as the entire district.5 million no-bid garbage contract by the town board on Stephens recommendation. Assemblyman Stephens refused to provide a copy of the secret memo recommending that Galantes contract be renewed for a record $1 and its not subject to the New York Freedom of Information Law. It would be up to the town, not, whether to release the memo, according to the Danbury News-Times, Willis H. Stephens, Jr. has received millions of tax dollars in aggregate payments as Southeasts municipal counsel for more than ten yearsWillis Stephens – Willis Stephens Jr.
15. New York State Assembly – The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature. The Assembly is composed of 150 members representing a number of districts. Assembly members serve two-year terms without term limits, the Assembly convenes at the State Capitol in Albany. The Speaker of the Assembly presides over the Assembly, the Speaker is elected by the Majority Conference followed by confirmation of the full Assembly through the passage of an Assembly Resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker also has the leadership position. The minority leader is elected by party caucus, the majority leader of the Assembly is selected by, and serves at the pleasure of, the Speaker. The current Speaker is Democrat Carl Heastie of the 83rd Assembly District, the Majority Leader is Joseph Morelle of the 136th Assembly District. The Minority Leader is Republican Brian Kolb of the 131st Assembly District, the Assembly is dominated by the Democrats, who currently hold a 62-seat supermajority in the chamber. The Democrats have controlled the Assembly since 1975, †Elected in a special election Prominent past Assembly members include U. S. Senator Chuck Schumer, U. S. presidents Millard Fillmore and Theodore Roosevelt, U. S. vice presidents Aaron Burr and George Clinton, and New York governors George Pataki and Al SmithNew York State Assembly
16. Mahopac, New York – Mahopac is a hamlet in the town of Carmel in Putnam County, New York. An suburb some 47 miles north of New York City, Mahopac is located on US Route 6 on the southern central border with Westchester County. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,369, Mahopac and Mahopac Falls have played central roles in the history of Putnam County. Originally inhabited by the Wappinger Native Americans, an Algonquian tribe, during the French and Indian War, Wappingers throughout Putnam County traveled north to Massachusetts to fight for the British. When the Crown refused to return their land after the war, most Wappingers abandoned the area, farmers and their families migrated to Mahopac from as far away as Cape Cod and rented land from the Philipse family. Wheelwrights and blacksmiths set up shops to assist the tenant farmers, although no battles were fought in Mahopac during the American Revolution, the area was strategically important due to its location. With troop encampments in nearby Patterson, Yorktown, West Point, soldiers were stationed in Mahopac Falls to guard the Red Mills, an important center for grinding grain and storing flour for the American troops. Upon Colonial victory in the Revolution, the Tory-sympathizing Philipse family lost its claim to the land, after the incorporation of Putnam County in 1812 the Mahopac area grew steadily. By the middle-19th century the hamlet had become a resort community. The New York Central Railroad brought vacationers north from New York City to Croton Falls, hotels would often have competing races of decorated horse-drawn coaches bringing passengers from the train to Lake Mahopac. After the Civil War a direct rail spur was laid, creating boom times for the village, the locale remained primarily a summer resort until after World War II, when nearby highways such as the Taconic State and Saw Mill River parkways began to make travel by automobile convenient. With the passing of the last passenger service to Mahopac in 1959, the hamlet of Mahopac encircles a picturesque 587-acre lake, from which it draws its name. The lake contains three islands, Fairy, Petra, and Canopus, all privately owned, boating, fishing and other water sports are permitted on the lake. Slips and support services are provided by two marinas, besides Lake Mahopac, other lakes within the Mahopac CDP include Kirk Lake, Lake Casse, Lake Secor, Teakettle Spout Lake, and Long Pond. Mahopac has a 33, 000-square-foot library, featuring multiple reading rooms overlooking Lake Mahopac, abundant computers, the library is host to many public events including adult education, technology instruction, and yoga classes. The Carmel Historical Society Museum in the Old Town Hall on McAlpin Avenue features many fascinating area artifacts, Mahopac has had several motion pictures filmed on location. Among them are scenes from the 1982 comedy film Tootsie, an exterior shot is used in which the Mahopac Farm Playhouse exterior was converted to read SYRACUSE FARM PLAYHOUSE. The property, which at times has been host to markets and antique shows, was originally a dairy farmMahopac, New York
17. Putnam Lake, New York – Putnam Lake is a hamlet and census-designated place in the eastern part of the town of Patterson in Putnam County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,844, Putnam Lake is adjacent to the Connecticut border, which is crossed by a number of local streets. The community surrounds a lake, which is also called Putnam Lake, Putnam Lake is located at 41°28′10″N 73°32′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 4.3 square miles, of which 3.9 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles. As of the 2010 census, there were 3,844 people,1,407 households, the population density was 997.0 per square mile. There were 1,427 housing units at a density of 369. 1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 78. 7% Non-Hispanic white,13. 8% Hispanic or Latino,3. 5% African American,1. 6% Asian,0. 2% Native American,0. 03% Pacific Islander, and. 3% other races. 2. 20% of the population were of two or more races,24. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the family size was 3.22. In the CDP, the percent of the population 16 years and over was 78. 3%,18 years and over 75%,21 years and over 71. 8%,62 years and over 13. 9%, the median age was 40.4 years. The population is split 50. 6% male and 49. 4% female, in 2000 the median income for a household in the CDP was $62,695, and the median income for a family was $70,156. Males had an income of $50,532 versus $31,694 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,114, about 1. 7% of families and 2. 0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2. 2% of those under age 18 and 2. 8% of those age 65 or over. Up until the end of World War I, Putnam Lake was a rural hamlet called Valleyville. Morlock Brook was dammed, flooding the area of Valleyville, creating the 200-acre lake. The area around Putnam Lake was divided into 11,000 plots, each 20 by 100 feet, which were to be occupied by summer cottages, general stores, restaurants, gas stations, dance pavilions, and taverns. The New York Daily Mirror first published advertisements for the community in 1931, some 2000 homes were built by 1932, which made Putnam Lake the most densely populated community in Patterson, if only for the summer. Some families made Putnam Lake their year-round residence, and a house was constructed where the Veterans of Foreign Wars building now stands on Fairfield DrivePutnam Lake, New York
18. Pawling (town), New York – Pawling is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. The population was 8,463 at the 2010 census, the town is named after Catherine Pauling, the daughter of Henry Beekman, who held the second largest land patent in the county. A misprint caused the U to change to a W and the name stuck, the Town of Pawling is in the southeast part of the county. The town has a village of Pawling, a part of the town was involved in a boundary problem involving New York and Connecticut. A section of the town, located in the Oblong, It was settled by Nathan Birdsall and his wife Jane Langdon, they were the first pioneer settlers of Quaker Hill, Dutchess and he was a native of Long Island and was born about 1700 of Quaker parents. He was one of the surveyors of the area and picked his home site during the survey, Nathan purchased his land from the Great Nine Partners Patent, and prior to moving his family there, he erected a log house and barn, probably around 1720. The next settler was Benjamin Ferris, a Quaker preacher, Quaker Meeting House is still standing today, and open for visitors. George Washington established his headquarters at the John Kane House in the town for two months in 1778, the town was founded in 1788, but part of the town was used to form the neighboring Town of Dover in 1807. The oldest public course in the United States, the Dutcher Golf Course, also is in Pawling. The Pawling Corporation is headquartered there, according to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 45.0 square miles, of which 44.2 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water. The eastern and western section of the towns are high and hilly, with the Great Swamp and Harlem Valley in the middle, where the village of Pawling is located. The highest elevation in town is Observatory Hill, at 1,332 feet above sea level, most of the population of Pawling is concentrated in the valley, traversed by NY22 and Metro-North Railroads Harlem Line. The south town line is the border of Putnam County, New York, to the west lies the town of Beekman, with Dover to the north. Baker Corner – A hamlet east of Hurd Corners, holmes – A hamlet in the southwest part of the town. Hurd Corners – A hamlet north of Pawling village, Quaker Hill – A hamlet near the east town line, northeast of Pawling village. Pawling – The Village of Pawling, west Pawling – A hamlet on Route 55, northwest of Pawling village. Whaley Lake – A lake by the west town line, woodinville – A hamlet west of Pawling village. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,521 people,2,823 households, the population density was 170.2 people per square milePawling (town), New York – View of Harlem Valley from Appalachian Trail in Pawling
19. St. John's University (New York City) – St. Johns University is a private, Roman Catholic, research university located in New York City, United States. Founded by the Congregation of the Mission in 1870, the school was located in the neighborhood of Bedford–Stuyvesant in the borough of Brooklyn. Beginning in the 1950s, the school was relocated to its current location to Utopia Parkway in Hillcrest, St. Johns also has campuses in Staten Island and Manhattan in New York City, overseas in Rome, Italy, and a graduate center in Oakdale, New York. A campus in Paris opened in the Spring of 2009, the school is named after Saint John the Baptist. St. Johns is organized into five schools and six graduate schools. As of 2011, the university has a total of 15,720 undergraduate students and 5,634 graduate students, St. Johns offers more than 100 bachelors, masters, and doctoral degree programs. St. St. Johns Vincentian values stem from the ideals and works of St Vincent de Paul, following the Vincentian tradition, the university seeks to provide an education that encourages greater involvement in social justice, charity and service. St. Johns University was founded as the College of St. John the Baptist at 75 Lewis Avenue, in Bedford-Stuyvesant, the foundations of the first building were laid in the summer of 1868, and the building was opened for educational purposes September 5,1871. Beginning with the law school in 1925, St. Johns started founding other schools, in 1954, St. Johns broke ground on a new campus in Jamaica, Queens, on the former site of the Hillcrest Golf Club. The following year, the school of the university, St. Johns College. The high school, now St. Johns Prep, took over its former buildings, the last of the schools to relocate to Queens would move there in 1972, bringing an end to the Downtown Brooklyn campus of the university. The university received praise from Time Magazine in 1962 for being a Catholic university that accepted Jews with low household income, later St. Johns was the defendant in a lawsuit by Donald Scheiber for discrimination after being removed because he was Jewish. The court ruled against St. Johns University in this lawsuit, Time also ranked St. Johns as good−small on a list of the nations Catholic universities in 1962. The St. Johns University strike of 1966-1967 was a protest by faculty at the university began on January 4,1966. The strike began after 31 faculty members were dismissed in the fall of 1965 without due process, the tension of that year was noted in Time Magazine stating, cademically, has never ranked high among Catholic schools, in troubles, it outdoes them all. The strike ended without any reinstatements, but led to the unionization of public college faculty in the New York City area. In 1970 arbitrators ruled that the university had not acted improperly, classes began in the fall of 1971, combining the original Notre Dame College with the former Brooklyn campus of St. Johns, offering undergraduate degrees in liberal arts, business and education. In 1990 the tuition and fees at St. Johns was less than half of that at schools like NYU, St. Thy Children here today, galore, Old St. JohnsSt. John's University (New York City) – St. Augustine Hall located at St. John's University's Queens campus
20. 1932 Winter Olympics – The 1932 Winter Olympics, officially known as the III Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event in the United States, held in Lake Placid, New York. The games opened on February 4 and closed on February 15 and it was the first of four Winter Olympics held in the United States, Lake Placid hosted again in 1980. The games were awarded to Lake Placid in part by the efforts of Godfrey Dewey, head of the Lake Placid Club and son of Melvil Dewey, California also had a bid for the 1932 Winter Games. William May Garland, president of the California X Olympiad Association, wanted the games to place in in Wrightwood and Big Pines. The worlds largest ski jump at the time was constructed in Big Pines for the event, the Games were opened by Franklin D. Roosevelt, then the Governor of New York. He was elected President of the United States nine months later, sonja Henie won the second of three consecutive Olympic gold medals in figure skating. She also won gold in 1928 and 1936, eddie Eagan became the only Olympian to win gold medals at both the summer and winter games in different sports. He won gold in boxing in the 1920 Antwerp summer games, the bobsleigh race was held two days after the games closing ceremonies due to unseasonably warm weather in the region the week prior. The USA won the medal tally with a total of 12 medals, medals were awarded in 14 events contested in 4 sports. Bobsleigh Ice hockey Skating Figure skating Speed skating Nordic skiing Cross-country skiing Nordic combined Ski jumping The Games also included events in three demonstration sports, curling Sled dog race Speed skating These were the last Winter Olympics without alpine skiing, which was added in 1936. Alpine skiing held its 1932 World Championships during the Olympics, February 4–6 in Cortina dAmpezzo, athletes from 17 nations competed in these Games, down from 25 nations at the previous Games in 1928. Argentina, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands,1932 Summer Olympics Olympic Games celebrated in the United States 1904 Summer Olympics – St. Olympic. org. III Olympic Winter Games Lake Placid 1932,1932 The official report, Lake Placid Olympic Authority The program of the 1932 Lake Placid Winter Olympics1932 Winter Olympics – A WPA poster, advertising the bobsled run
21. New Paltz (village), New York – New Paltz is a village in Ulster County located in the U. S. state of New York. It is about 80 miles north of New York City and 70 miles south of Albany, the population was 6,818 at the 2010 census. The Village of New Paltz is located within the Town of New Paltz, New Paltz is also home to the State University of New York at New Paltz, founded in 1828. Mannheim was a town of the Palatinate, at the time a center of Protestantism. The settlers lived in Wiltwyck and in 1677 purchased a patent for the surrounding present day New Paltz from a Lenape tribe known as the Esopus. The people of Mannheim use a form of the name Pfalz without the f. Records of the New Paltz Reformed Church, which was formed in 1683, show the name of the settlement was first expressed not in German, nor in English, but in French, Nouveau Palatinat. The community was governed by a kind of called the Duzine. That form of government continued well past the time of the American Revolution, the farms were grouped principally around the heights west and east of the Wallkill River. The commercial center serving the agricultural base was located on the east shore of the Wallkill River, the street is now known as Huguenot Street. The church, which was used as a school, was located here. Many of the buildings stand today, as a living museum community. Population slowly spread from the Wallkill up along the now known as North Front Street. In the nineteenth century, development continued along what is now Main Street, the secession of the Town of Lloyd and parts of Shawangunk, Esopus, and Gardiner, between 1843 and 1853, reduced New Paltz to its present size. In 1887, the Village of New Paltz was incorporated within a town of the same name, higher education has been one of the main concerns of the community since the 1830s, with facilities on Huguenot Street and North Front Streets. Late in the century, the college was built in the area of Plattekill Avenue and Manheim Boulevard. The Wallkill Valley Railroad reached New Paltz by 1870, and provided service through the town until 1937. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 1.8 square milesNew Paltz (village), New York – Buildings on Main Street downtown
22. New York State Route 32 – New York State Route 32 is a north–south state highway that extends for 176.73 miles through the Hudson Valley and Capital District regions of the U. S. state of New York. It is a surface road for nearly its entire length, with few divided. From Harriman to Albany, it is parallel to Interstate 87 and U. S. Route 9W. NY32 begins at NY17 on the outskirts of the New York metropolitan area in Woodbury just outside Harriman, in between, the road passes through the cities of Newburgh, Kingston, Albany, Cohoes, and Glens Falls. Outside of the cities, it views of the Hudson Highlands, Shawangunk Ridge, Catskill Mountains, and, during an overlap with US4 north of Albany. The roads now making up the highway were part of several privately maintained turnpikes. Once part of the former NY58, it has been NY32 since 1930, only one of three letter-suffixed spur routes remains. Maintenance of NY32 is split between the New York State Department of Transportation and the departments of several different jurisdictions. Within the cities of Newburgh and Watervliet, the route is entirely city-maintained, in four other cities—Albany, Cohoes, Glens Falls, and Kingston—NY32 is mostly locally maintained. The piece of the route in the city of Mechanicville, meanwhile, is city-maintained north of Frances Street, one last locally maintained section exists in the Albany suburb of Bethlehem, where the route is county-maintained between Feura Bush Road and the Delmar Bypass. This section is co-signed as County Route 52, which continues northwest of NY32 to a junction with NY140 near Slingerlands. Route 32 begins where NY17 leaves the Quickway overpass west of the New York State Thruway toll barrier, to the east is Woodbury Common Premium Outlets, across from Central Valley Elementary School of the Monroe–Woodbury Central School District. Beyond the mall, site of major traffic jams, NY32 descends into downtown Central Valley. 2 miles north is another of the Town of Woodburys hamlets, beyond the Rushmore Memorial Library at the north end of the hamlet the road bends slightly east upon reaching the southeastern foot of Orange Countys highest peak, Schunemunk Mountain. Shortly after Highland Mills, the Port Jervis Line, operated by Metro-North Railroad, after crossing over Woodbury Creek and under the Thruway, NY32 runs along the eastern side of the narrow valley between Schunemunk and the Hudson Highlands. This section of highway runs through wooded terrain as it leaves Woodbury for Cornwall. Just north of Mountainville and the end of Schunemunk, the road crosses Moodna Creek downstream from the Woodbury Creek confluence. The intersection with Angola Road 0.25 miles to the south was once the beginning of the former NY307, across the creek from CR107 is Orrs Mills Road, another county road that leads to Storm King Art CenterNew York State Route 32 – NY 32 begins here in Woodbury.
23. Alpha Phi Alpha – Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. is the first African-American, intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity. It was initially a literary and social club organized in the 1905–1906 school year at Cornell University, in Ithaca. The group later evolved into a fraternity with a date of December 4,1906. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza and its aims are Manly deeds, Scholarship, and Love For All Mankind, and its motto is First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All. Its archives are preserved at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, chapters were chartered at Howard University and Virginia Union University in 1907. The fraternity has over 290,000 members and has open to men of all races since 1940. Currently, there are more than 730 active chapters in the Americas, Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, Alpha Phi Alpha is a social organization with a service organization mission and provided leadership and service during the Great Depression, World Wars, and Civil Rights Movement. The fraternity addresses social issues such as apartheid, AIDS, urban housing, and other economic, cultural, and political issues of interest to people of color. National Programs and Initiatives of the Fraternity include A Voteless People Is a Hopeless People, My Brothers Keeper, Go To High School, Go To College, Project Alpha, and the World Policy Council. It also conducts philanthropic programming initiatives with the March of Dimes, Head Start, the Boy Scouts of America, members of this prestigious Fraternity include many Historical Civil Rights Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. NAACP Founder W. E. B. Du Bois, Frederick Douglass, and Dick Gregory, Alpha Phi Alpha was directly responsible for the conception, funding, and construction of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial next to the National Mall in Washington D. C. Poindexter organized a group of students for literary discussion and social functions at Cornell University, the group initially consisted of 15 students and included females. The initial study group consisted of 14 students and these students included four from Washington, D. C. - Robert Ogle, Fred Morgan Phillip, Fannie Holland, there were also four men and a woman from New York State, George Kelley, Arthur Callis, James Thomas, Gordon Jones, and Paul Ray. From West Virginia came Eugene Kinckle Jones and Mary Vassar, Vertner Tandy came from Kentucky, and G. H. Chapman was from Florida. The group met every two weeks at 421 North Albany Street, where Poindexter roomed, Poindexter was stated to have a relationship with the other students of the group that was more faculty to student than peer-to-peer, given that he was the secretary of a professor at Cornell. In December 1905, Poindexter organized a meeting of students which included Murray, Ogle, Phillips, Chapman, Kelley, Callis, Tandy, and George Tompkins. Robert Ogle had seen an article in the Chicago Defender magazine about a Negro fraternity at Ohio State University called Pi Gamma Omicron, Pi Gamma Omicron inspired Ogle to try to transform the literary society into a fraternityAlpha Phi Alpha
24. Hurricane Floyd – Hurricane Floyd was a very powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane which struck the east coast of the United States. It was the named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the third largest evacuation in US history when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached and it was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength ever recorded. Floyd was once forecast to strike Florida, but turned away, instead, Floyd struck The Bahamas at peak strength, causing heavy damage. It then paralleled the East Coast of the United States, causing massive evacuations, the hurricane produced torrential rainfall in Eastern North Carolina, adding more rain to an area hit by Hurricane Dennis just weeks earlier. The rains caused flooding over a period of several weeks. In total, Floyd was responsible for 57 fatalities and $6.9 billion in damage, due to the destruction, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Floyd. Floyd originated as a wave that exited the coast of Africa on September 2. At this point, the National Hurricane Center designated it as Tropical Depression Eight, a strong ridge of high pressure to its north forced the developing tropical cyclone westward over warmer waters, allowing it to strengthen to Tropical Storm Floyd on September 8. Although a large storm, Floyd initially lacked a well-defined inner core, on September 10 it organized enough to reach hurricane status, and Floyd approached major hurricane strength on September 11 while north of the Leeward Islands. The central Atlantic upper tropospheric trough, along with a low in the eastern Caribbean Sea, produced vertical wind shear over the hurricane. One contributor to the intensification was the high heat content along the storms path. The new, larger eyewall contracted slightly, and the hurricane briefly re-intensified to Category 4 status, a strong mid- to upper-level trough eroded the western portion of the high-pressure ridge, steering Floyd to the northwest. It paralleled the eastern Florida coast 110 miles off shore, and steadily weakened because of entrainment of dry air and upper-level shear. The storm remained extremely large, however, at its peak, tropical storm-force winds spanned a diameter of 580 mi, Floyd accelerated to the north and northeast, and weakened greatly to a Category 2 hurricane. It made landfall in Cape Fear, North Carolina with winds of 105 mph on September 16, after crossing over North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, it briefly re-entered the western Atlantic Ocean before reaching Long Island on September 17. The storm gradually lost its characteristics due to an approaching frontal zone. The extratropical storm continued to the northeast, and after passing over the Canadian Maritimes, although Floyds track prediction was above average while out at sea, the forecasts as it approached the coastline were merely average compared to forecasts from the previous ten yearsHurricane Floyd – Hurricane Floyd near peak intensity at 12:59 UTC September 14, 1999.
25. Mariah Carey – Mariah Carey is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. In 1990, Carey rose to fame with the release of Vision of Love from her eponymous debut album, the album produced four chart-topping singles in the US and began what would become a string of commercially successful albums which solidified the singer as Columbias highest selling act. Carey and Boyz II Men spent a record sixteen weeks atop the Billboard Hot 100 in 1995–1996 with One Sweet Day, following a contentious divorce from Sony Music head Tommy Mottola, Carey adopted a new image and traversed towards hip hop with the release of Butterfly. In 1998, she was honored as the worlds best-selling recording artist of the 1990s at the World Music Awards, Carey parted with Columbia in 2000, and signed a record-breaking $100 million recording contract with Virgin Records America. In the weeks prior to the release of her film Glitter and its soundtrack in 2001. The project was received and led to a general decline in the singers career. Careys recording contract was out for $50 million by Virgin. After a relatively unsuccessful period, she returned to the top of music charts with The Emancipation of Mimi, Carey once again ventured into film with a well-received supporting role in Precious, and was awarded the Breakthrough Performance Award at the Palm Springs International Film Festival. Throughout her career, Carey has sold more than 200 million records worldwide, according to the RIAA, she is the third-best-selling female artist in the United States, with 63.5 million certified albums. With the release of Touch My Body, Carey gained her 18th number-one single in the United States, in 2012, the singer was ranked second on VH1s list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music. Mariah Carey was born in Huntington, New York, to Patricia and her mother is of Irish descent, while her father had African-American and Afro-Venezuelan ancestry. The surname Carey was adopted by her Venezuelan grandfather, Francisco Núñez, Patricia was an occasional opera singer and vocal coach before she met Alfred in 1960. As he began earning a living as an engineer, the couple married later that year. After their elopement, Patricias family disowned her for marrying a black man, Carey later explained that she felt neglected by her maternal family while growing up, which affected her greatly. In the years between the births of Careys older sister Alison and herself, the Carey family struggled within the community due to their ethnicity, Careys name was derived from the song They Call the Wind Maria, originally from the 1951 Broadway musical Paint Your Wagon. When Carey was three, her parents divorced, after their separation, Alison moved in with her father, while the other two children, Mariah and brother Morgan, remained with their mother. Carey grew apart from her father and would stop seeing him altogether. By age four, she recalled that she had begun to sneak the radio under her covers at night, during elementary school, she excelled in subjects that she enjoyed, such as music, art, and literature, but did not find interest in othersMariah Carey – Carey performing on Good Morning America in May 2013
26. New York State Route 28 – New York State Route 28 is a state highway extending for 281.69 miles in the shape of a C between the Hudson Valley city of Kingston and southern Warren County in the U. S. state of New York. Along the way, it intersects several major routes, including Interstate 88, U. S. Route 20, the southern terminus of NY28 is at NY32 in Kingston and the northern terminus is at US9 in Warrensburg. In Kingston, NY28 is co-designated as Interstate 587 from its terminus at NY32 to the roundabout linking it to the Thruway. NY28 was originally assigned in 1924 to an alignment extending from Colliersville in the south to Utica in the north via Ilion. From Colliersville to Cooperstown, the highway followed its current routing, north of Cooperstown, the route was extended south to Kingston and north to Warrensburg as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York. At the same time, NY28 was realigned between Cooperstown and Mohawk to follow its modern routing, other than minor realignments in Kingston, Oneonta, and Oneida County, NY28 has remained the same to this day. NY 28s southern terminus is with NY32 in the city of Kingston, the route heads north, then northwest on Colonel Chandler Drive, a four-lane limited-access highway. The roadway is designated and signed as I-587, which begins at NY32 as well. Although Colonel Chandler Drive is built to Interstate Highway standards, it has no intermediary interchanges, after crossing over the Esopus Creek into Ulster, I-587 terminates at a roundabout that links I-587 and NY28 to the New York State Thruway at exit 19. West of I-87, the crosses the Blue Line of Catskill Park. Not long afterward, the highway meets US209 by way of a cloverleaf interchange, past US209, the highway enters a rural area as it heads northwest into the center of the state park. Near the eastern tip of the Ashokan Reservoir, in the town of Kingston, West of NY 28A, NY28 continues towards the north and west along the northern edge of the reservoir. In West Hurley, the route intersects the terminus of NY375. It proceeds along the reservoir to its end in the town of Olive community of Boiceville. At Phoenicia, the largest settlement since Kingston, NY214 reaches its terminus at the highway. Past Phoenicia, the slopes become steeper as the road and creek curve around Panther Mountain, one of the Catskill High Peaks. At Allaben, the Shandaken Tunnel crosses under the road, bringing water from Schoharie Reservoir into the creek. The road and creek start bending to the south to the hamlet of Shandaken, as NY28 continues trending southwest, the valley becomes less developedNew York State Route 28 – Mount Tremper
27. New York State Route 174 – New York State Route 174 is a state highway in Onondaga County, located in Central New York, in the United States. The highway is 16.7 miles long and passes through rural regions. Route 174 begins at an intersection with NY41 in Borodino and it heads generally northward for most of its length, except for short distances in the villages of Marcellus and Camillus. The route ends at a junction with NY5 west of Camillus, Route 174 is located along a large mapped sedimentary bedrock unit, known as the Marcellus Formation. The formation is named for an outcrop found near the town of Marcellus, New York, the road was first constructed in the early 19th century following the path of Nine Mile Creek, which connected several early settlements in Central New York. The northern half of the route, between the villages of Marcellus and Camillus, was improved as a plank road in 1855 by a private corporation that collected tolls from travelers on the road. The state took over the maintenance of the road by the beginning of the 20th century, the former plank road and an extension south to Otisco Lake and southwest to Skaneateles Lake was first designated as Route 174 in the 1930 state highway renumbering. Since then, several minor realignments have been made in the areas of the villages of Marcellus and Camillus to accommodate newly built bypasses. NY174 begins its 16-mile route through Onondaga County at an intersection with NY41 in the hamlet of Borodino, the road heads north, passing to the east of Hardscrabble Point, to an intersection with Eibert Road where it turns east. The highway then heads eastward for about a mile to a turn along the shore of Otisco Lake and it follows the shoreline of the lake northward into the town of Marcellus, soon entering the hamlet of Marietta. North of Marietta, the narrows into the Nine Mile Creek. Within the town of Marcellus, NY174 intersects and becomes concurrent with U. S. Route 20 for about 0.3 miles until Sevier Road, NY174 continues north along Sevier Road, still paralleling the creek, towards the village of Marcellus. South of the line, NY175 joins NY174. The two roads go around the southeast border of the village, passing by the county park, Route 175 turns to the east while NY174 turns to the west along the West Seneca Turnpike, entering the village of Marcellus. NY174 passes through the center then turns north along North Street and heads out of the village. After Marcellus, the land around the route becomes more developed residential areas becoming more common. About 0. 3-mile north of Marcellus, NY174 crosses Nine Mile Creek, the bridge itself is designated as NY 174X, the road continues north, still paralleling the Nine Mile Creek, into the town of Camillus. In Bennetts Corners, NY174 intersects with Forward Road, a road to NY321New York State Route 174 – NY 174's southern terminus at NY 41
28. Dick Rifenburg – Richard Gale Dick Rifenburg was an American football player and a pioneering television broadcaster for the forerunner to WIVB-TV in Buffalo. He played college football for the University of Michigan Wolverines in 1944 and he was a consensus selection at end on the 1948 College Football All-America Team. Rifenburg played professionally in the National Football League with the Detroit Lions for one season in 1950, after retiring from football he settled in Buffalo and became a sports broadcaster. He worked as a commentator and as a play-by-play announcer for the Buffalo Bulls. He hosted various television and radio shows and was eventually inducted into the Buffalo Broadcasters Hall of Fame. In college, he led the Big Ten Conference in single season receptions during his senior year and he had also been a Michigan High School Athletic Association state champion in both basketball and track and field. His college career was interrupted by World War II service, Rifenburg was born in Petoskey, Michigan, and raised in Kalamazoo, Michigan before his family moved to Saginaw, Michigan. Rifenburg was an athlete at Saginaws Arthur Hill High School in football, basketball. In 1943, Michigan canceled boys high school tournaments in all due to World War II. In 1944, he led Arthur Hill High to the MHSAA Class A high school championship, scoring 24 points, including 17 in the second half. Rifenburg was also the champion in 1944 in both the shot put 46 feet 11 inches and high jump 5 feet 8.5 inches. Rifenburg was named All State in football, basketball and track and it is ironic that Rifenburg was born in Petoskey, Michigan in 1926 for several reasons. Ted Petoskey preceded Rifenburg as an All-American end on the University of Michigan football team, Petoskey had excelled as a representative of Saginaw County in MHSAA competition. Petoskey posted significant football accomplishments in 1926 making 1926 a significant year for himself as well, achieving All-American status as an end at Michigan would be Rifenburgs next step after excelling in MHSAA competition. In the fall of 1944, Rifenburg enrolled at the University of Michigan, Rifenburg has laid claim to that rating. A loose-limbed 180-pound freshman from Saginaw, Mich, rifenberg is being boomed as the Big Tens next freshman sensation. As a freshman, he caught two passes in his first college football game against Iowa. 4 Freshman End Dick Rifenburg caught passes and ran for both Michigan touchdowns, Rifenburgs college career was interrupted by World War II service in the United States Navy, but after missing the 1945 season, he returned to play for the Wolverines from 1946 to 1948Dick Rifenburg – Rifenburg from 1950 Michiganensian
29. Empire State – The U. S. State of New York has been known by many nicknames, most notably as the Empire State, adopted as late as the 19th century. This nickname has been incorporated into the names of state buildings and events. However, the origin of the term remains unclear, there are several theories on the origin of the name. Two of them involve George Washington, one credits aggressive trade routes, the origin of the term has puzzled many historians, as American writer Paul Eldridge put it, Who was the merry wag who crowned the State. New York would certainly raise a monument to his memory, but he made his grandiose gesture, the source of the term Empire State is uncertain. It has been attributed to the wealth and resources. Two possible stories involve Americas first president George Washington, the first refers to an April 10,1785 letter to New York City Mayor James Duane in which Washington called New York the Seat of the Empire. Alexander Flicks History of New York State claims that the title was used as early as 1819 and he does not provide any source for this claim. Further, Flick adds that the term was universally acknowledged and accepted by the time that the Erie Canal was completed in 1825, in a later work, Flick and coauthor John Jacob Anderson claim that New York is well called the Empire State. Not only because of the vastness of its resources, but because it so conspicuously illustrates the power of law-abiding liberty among the people. He claims that, by 1820, it was clear that Empire State was in wide use, the 1940 Guide to the Empire State included the following quotation. it would gratify the people of New York if they could discover who first dared that spacious adjective. New York is widely known by the nickname Empire State, manhattans Empire State Building opened in 1931 and was the worlds tallest building until the completion of the north tower of the World Trade Center in 1970. Following the September 11 attacks, the Empire State Building once again became the tallest building in Manhattan until One World Trade Center claimed the title in April 2012, the main offices of state government are located at the Empire State Plaza in Albany, the state capital. Its most iconic structure is the Erastus Corning Tower, the tallest building in New York outside of New York City, the nickname has also been used for train routes. The Empire State Express of the New York Central Railroad was established in 1891, SUNY Empire State College was established in 1971 in Saratoga Springs and makes use of the name. The Empire State Games were established in 1978 as an Olympic-style competition for athletes from New York. Additionally, the term Empire State has been included on New York State license plates since 2001, in 2009, Jay-Z and Alicia Keys released the 5x-platinum single Empire State of Mind. History of New York List of U. S. state nicknames American imperialismEmpire State – One theory credits George Washington with coining the term "Empire State".
30. Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame – The Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame is a museum in Goshen, New York. The museum collects and preserves the history of racing and serves as a hall of fame for The American Standardbred horse. Orange County is the birthplace of Hambletonian 10, the ancestor of all American Standardbred horses, established in 1838, the neighboring half-mile Historic Track is a National Historic Landmark, the oldest harness horse track still in use in the United States. Stables still operate on the grounds and races are held annually, the museum opened in 1951, during Goshens Hambletonian Stake era. The half-timber building that houses the museum was built as a stable in 1913 and it houses artwork by famous equine artists and racing memorabilia dating back to the start of trotting. The museum also maintains a library with more than 4,000 books. The Hall of Fame is contained within the museum, the Hall of Fame inducts nominees under several categories, divided between those for horses and those for humans, including drivers, owners, and trainers. The three main categories are Living Persons, Living Horses, and Immortals, winners from each category are inducted on Hall of Fame Day, the first Sunday of each July. All members with more than 10 years of membership are eligible to vote, winners receive a ring, and a statuette of each inductee is added to the Hall of Fame. The museum maintains a committee which compiles a list of five nominees per year to be voted on by all museum members. All horses are required to have been drug-free during their careers, there is a category for race horses, another for stallions, and another for broodmares, each with its own criteria. Winners receive a plaque in the Hall of Fame, and a replica is presented to the current owner of each horse, Museum members in good standing nominate people and horses who are deceased more than 3 years. The nominations are reviewed by a committee, recommendations are made to the board of trustees, inductees include horses such as Greyhound and Victory Song and drivers such as Thomas S. Berry Del Cameron, Jim Dennis, Gladys F. Harriman and Gene Riegle. Inductees are trainers, owners, breeders, industry executives, artists, writers, Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame home page Hambletonian Society home pageHarness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame – Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame
31. Lafayette Square, Buffalo – Lafayette Square is a park in the center of downtown Buffalo, Erie County, New York, United States that hosts a Civil War monument. The block, which was square, is lined by many of the citys tallest buildings. The square was named for General Lafayette, who visited Buffalo in 1825, the square was part of the original urban plan for the city as laid out by Joseph Ellicott in 1804. Its eastern edge has long been defined by important civic structures, first, presidential history was made in Lafayette Square when former United States President Martin Van Buren received the Free Soil Party nomination for the 1848 election. President-elect Abraham Lincoln also spoke at the square, today, the square offers a clear view of Buffalo City Hall, an Art Deco building three blocks to the west. A granite Civil War monument, titled Soldiers and Sailors, gives a vertical and ceremonial definition to the space. Conceived by Mrs. Horatio Seymour, the dedication ceremony was attended by Grover Cleveland. Until 2011, Lafayette Square hosted the annual Thursday at the Square summer concert series and is occasionally the site of rallies, Lafayette Square is one of three squares laid out in Joseph Ellicotts city plan. The square is located three blocks east of Niagara Square and is the second most important space in downtown Buffalo, buildings flanking the square include the Liberty Building, the Main Court Building,10 Lafayette Square, the Rand Building, and the Buffalo & Erie County Public Library. The corner north of the current library and northeast of the square hosted the Buffalo Savings Bank building that was demolished in 1922. Lafayette Square is served by several Metro Bus routes and the Lafayette Square rapid transit station of Buffalos Metro Rail system. In 2003, Lafayette Square became the site of the first free municipal wifi hotspot in the city, the square once was surrounded by an iron fence that was no longer present by 1905. By the 1860s, the square was a wooded park. In 1876-7, trees lined the square along main street were removed. Lafayette Square was the last park in the heart of the city, the original parklike square was originally viewed by urban planners as an impediment to crosstown traffic. The square has since been redeveloped a few times and is now more of a thoroughfare than a park, in 1920, the square circumscribed a vehicular circle with the monument in the center surrounded by sidewalks and grass. Bronze bas-reliefs encircle the column above the statues, the female figure is an allegorical figure representing the Union. By the time of the 1979 report for the Mayors Committee on the Arts and Cultural Affairs, the dedication on the west side honors those who laid down their lives in the war to maintain the union for the cause of their country and of mankindLafayette Square, Buffalo – Soldiers and Sailors, the monument at Lafayette Square
32. Port of Albany-Rensselaer – The Port of Albany–Rensselaer, widely known as the Port of Albany, is a port of entry in the United States with facilities on both sides of the Hudson River in Albany and Rensselaer, New York. Private and public facilities have existed in both cities since the 17th century, with an increase in shipping after the Albany Basin. The ports modern name did not come into use until 1925. It included the largest grain elevator in the world at the time, today the grain elevator is the largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River, the port has the tallest harbor crane in the state of New York. The port has rail connections with the Albany Port Railroad, which allows for connections with CSXT and it is near several interstates and the New York State Canal System. The port features several tourist attractions as well, such as the USS Slater, the Port of Albany consists of roughly 236 acres, including about 202 acres in Albany and 34 acres in Rensselaer. It is 124 nautical miles north of New York Harbor, from New York Harbor to the Federal Dam three miles north of Albany, the Hudson River is an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean. The Hudson has a deep shipping channel 400 feet across, and at Albany the river is 700 feet across with a maximum 31 feet saltwater draft. The port is at sea level, since the founding of Albany in 1624 as a trading post, shipping has been important to its growth and prosperity. Furs, timber, and farm produce were important exports while European people, the Dongan Charter, which established Albany as a city, made Albany the exclusive market town in the upper Hudson River Valley. From its beginning, the port consisted of hastily built docks built every spring and destroyed every winter by erosion, flooding, ice, three city-owned docks were established in 1766, the northern and southern ones later being expanded into wharves. Many historically significant ships used Albany as their home port, the Experiment left Albany in 1785 to become the second American ship to sail to China. In 1809 Robert Fultons Clermont became the first commercially viable steamboat when it left Albany, in 1825 a 4, 300-foot long and 80-foot wide pier was constructed 250 feet from, and perpendicular to, Albanys shoreline. Along with two bridges the pier enclosed roughly 32 acres of the Hudson River as the Albany Basin, the construction of the pier and bridges cost $119,980. The basin was located where the Erie Canal, constructed between 1818 and 1825, met the Hudson River, the basin could accommodate 1,000 canal boats and 50 steamboat moorings. In 1860 Albany, along with nearby Watervliet and Troy, was the largest lumber market in the state, the Maiden Lane Bridge was constructed in 1871 over the basin to connect Albany with the east side of the river, it was open to railroad traffic only. The Albany Port District was established in 1925 under New York law Chapter 192 and this was only four years after the interstate compact that created the Port of New York Authority. In 1932 Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt unveiled a modern port to replace the infrastructure of the Albany BasinPort of Albany-Rensselaer – View of Port of Albany–Rensselaer from the Corning Tower
33. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey – This 1, 500-square-mile port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York, the agency has its own 1, 600-member Port Authority Police Department. The Port of New York and New Jersey comprised the main point of embarkation for U. S. troops and supplies sent to Europe during World War I, the solution was the 1921 creation of the Port Authority under the supervision of the governors of the two states. By issuing its own bonds, it was independent of either state. It became one of the agencies of the metropolitan area for large-scale projects. In the early years of the 20th century, there were disputes between the states of New Jersey and New York over rail freights and boundaries. At the time, rail lines terminated on the New Jersey side of the harbor, while shipping was centered on Manhattan. Freight had to be shipped across the Hudson River in barges, the Harbor Development Commission, a joint advisory board set-up in 1917, recommended that a bi-state authority be established to oversee efficient economic development of the port district. The Port of New York Authority was established on April 30,1921 and this was the first such agency in the United States, created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts. The idea for the Port Authority was conceived during the Progressive Era, with the Port Authority at a distance from political pressures, it was able to carry longer-term infrastructure projects irrespective of the election cycles and in a more efficient manner. In 1972 it was renamed the Port Authority of New York, throughout its history, there have been concerns about democratic accountability, or lack thereof at the Port Authority. The Port District is irregularly shaped but comprises a 1, 500-square-mile area roughly within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty, at the beginning of the 20th century, there were no road bridge or tunnel crossings between the two states. The initial tunnel crossings were completed privately by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in 1908 and 1909, under an independent agency, the Holland Tunnel was opened in 1927, with some planning and construction pre-dating the Port Authority. With the rise in traffic, there was demand for more Hudson River crossings. Using its ability to issue bonds and collect revenue, the Port Authority has built, early projects included bridges across the Arthur Kill, which separates Staten Island from New Jersey. The Goethals Bridge, named chief engineer of the Panama Canal Commission General George Washington Goethals, connected Elizabeth, New Jersey and Howland Hook. At the south end of Arthur Kill, the Outerbridge Crossing was built and named after the Port Authoritys first chairman, construction of both bridges was completed in 1928. The Bayonne Bridge, opened in 1931, was built across the Kill van Kull, connecting Staten Island with Bayonne, the bridge was completed in October 1931, ahead of schedule and well under the estimated costsPort Authority of New York and New Jersey – Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority
34. 2009 International Bowl – The 2009 International Bowl was a postseason college football bowl game between the Connecticut Huskies and the Buffalo Bulls at the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, on January 3,2009. The game was the final contest of the 2008 NCAA Division I-Football Bowl Subdivision football season for teams, and ended in a 38–20 victory for Connecticut. UConn represented the Big East Conference in the game, Buffalo entered as the Mid-American Conference champion, Connecticut was selected as a participant in the 2009 International Bowl following a 7–5 regular season where they won their first five games, only to lose five of their last seven contests. Facing the Huskies were the Buffalo Bulls with a season record of 8–5. 12 and undefeated Ball State in the 2008 MAC Championship Game, pre-game media coverage focused on the legacy of the 1958 Buffalo Bulls, the first team from the university to be invited to a bowl game. When told that the two African-American members of the team would not be allowed to play because of segregation, the elected to refuse the bowl bid. Buffalo would not play in a bowl until this game,50 years later, the game began at 12,00 PM EST. UConn would close the gap to 20–17 by halftime, and take the lead for good late in the quarter off a 4-yard touchdown pass from quarterback Tyler Lorenzen to tight end Steve Brouse. UConn junior running back Donald Brown was named player of the game and he finished with 261 rushing yards and one touchdown, his 2,083 rushing yards for the 2008 season was best in the NCAA. Following the game, Brown declared his eligibility for the 2009 NFL Draft, three other UConn players were drafted in the second round. The International Bowl had contracts with the Big East and Mid-American Conferences that allowed them to one team from each conference to participate in their annual game. By virtue of being the Big East champion Cincinnati was awarded an automatic Bowl Championship Series berth, the Meineke Car Care Bowl, which had the third selection, picked West Virginia. There were three remaining bowl-eligible Big East teams, Connecticut, Rutgers, and South Florida, additionally, the St. Petersburg Bowl, in its inaugural year, sought to have local team South Florida play in their game to drive local attendance. Therefore, the teams were apportioned among the bowls as follows, South Florida to the St. Petersburg Bowl, Rutgers to the PapaJohns. com Bowl, on December 7,2008, UConn formally accepted the bowl invitation, the third in their history. Buffalo accepted an invitation to the International Bowl following their victory over then-undefeated Ball State in the 2008 MAC Championship Game, the game marked the first bowl for the Bulls after their first MAC Championship since moving to Division I-A and joining the MAC in 1999. The Bulls and Huskies had been frequent opponents during the decade as both programs made the transition from Division I-AA to Division I-A. The two teams played each other in six seasons from 1999 to 2005, with Connecticut winning five of the six contents. The 2005 game, won by UConn 38–0, was the most recent meeting between the two teams, overall, the Huskies and Bulls had played each other 16 times since their first meeting in 1939, with Connecticut holding a 12–4 advantage in the all-time series2009 International Bowl – Toronto, home of the International Bowl
35. American Airlines Flight 11 – American Airlines Flight 11 was a domestic passenger flight that was hijacked by five al-Qaeda members on September 11,2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. Mohamed Atta deliberately crashed the plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing all 92 people aboard and an unknown number in the buildings impact zone. Fifteen minutes into the flight, the injured at least three people, forcibly breached the cockpit, and overpowered the captain and first officer. Atta, a member and licensed commercial pilot, took over the controls. Air-traffic controllers noticed the flight was in distress when the crew was no longer responding and they realized the flight had been hijacked when Mohamed Attas announcements for passengers were transmitted to air traffic control. On board, flight attendants Amy Sweeney and Betty Ong contacted American Airlines, the aircraft crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 08,46,40 local time. Countless people in the streets of New York City witnessed the strike, documentary film maker Jules Naudet captured the only known footage of the initial impact from start to finish. Before the hijacking was confirmed, news began to report on the incident. The impact and subsequent fire caused the North Tower to collapse 102 minutes after the crash, during the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified dozens of remains from Flight 11 victims, but many body fragments could not be identified. The American Airlines Flight 11 aircraft was a Boeing 767-223ER delivered in 1987, the capacity of the aircraft was 158 passengers, but the September 11 flight carried 81 passengers and 11 crew members. This was a load at 58.2 percent capacity. All 92 people on board were killed, including David Angell, his wife Lynn Angell, and actress Berry Berenson, family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane had been scheduled to be on the flight but arrived at the airport late. Actor Mark Wahlberg was also scheduled to be on the flight, actress Leighanne Littrell, wife of Backstreet Boys singer Brian Littrell, had also previously been booked on the flight, but like Wahlberg, changed her plans at the last minute. Mohamed Atta, the ringleader of the attacks, and a fellow hijacker, Abdulaziz al-Omari and they boarded Colgan Air Flight 5930, which was scheduled to depart at 06,00 from Portland, Maine, and fly to Boston. Both hijackers had first class tickets with a flight to Los Angeles. When they checked in, the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System selected Atta for extra luggage scrutiny, the flight from Portland departed on time and arrived in Boston at 06,45. Three other hijackers, Waleed al-Shehri, Wail al-Shehri, and Satam al-Suqami, arrived at Logan Airport at 06,45, having left their rental car in the airport parking facility. At 06,52, Marwan al-Shehhi, the pilot of United Airlines Flight 175American Airlines Flight 11 – N334AA, the aircraft involved, taxiing at Manchester Airport on April 8, 2001, five months before the attacks.
36. Chester A. Arthur – Chester Alan Arthur was an American attorney and politician who served as the 21st President of the United States, he succeeded James A. Garfield upon the latters assassination. At the outset, Arthur struggled to overcome a slightly negative reputation and he succeeded by embracing the cause of civil service reform. His advocacy for, and subsequent enforcement of, the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was the centerpiece of his administration, Arthur was born in Fairfield, Vermont, grew up in upstate New York, and practiced law in New York City. He served as general in the New York Militia during the American Civil War. Following the war, he devoted time to Republican politics. In 1878, the new president, Rutherford B, Hayes, fired Arthur as part of a plan to reform the federal patronage system in New York. When Garfield won the Republican nomination for president in 1880, Arthur, after just half a year as vice president, Arthur found himself in the executive mansion due to the assassination of his predecessor. To the surprise of reformers, Arthur took up the cause of reform and he signed the Pendleton Act into law and strongly enforced its provisions. He gained praise for his veto of a Rivers and Harbors Act that would have appropriated federal funds in a manner he thought excessive. He presided over the rebirth of the United States Navy, but was criticized for failing to alleviate the federal budget surplus, suffering from poor health, Arthur made only a limited effort to secure the Republican Partys nomination in 1884, he retired at the close of his term. Journalist Alexander McClure later wrote, No man ever entered the Presidency so profoundly and widely distrusted as Chester Alan Arthur, more generally respected, alike by political friend and foe. The New York World summed up Arthurs presidency at his death in 1886, No duty was neglected in his administration, mark Twain wrote of him, t would be hard indeed to better President Arthurs administration. Over the 20th and 21st centuries, however, Arthurs reputation mostly faded among the public, Chester Alan Arthur was born October 5,1829, in Fairfield, Vermont. Arthurs mother, Malvina Stone, was born in Vermont, the daughter of George Washington Stone, malvinas family was primarily of English and Welsh descent, and her grandfather, Uriah Stone, fought in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. His father, William Arthur, was born in Dreen, Cullybackey, County Antrim, Ireland, he graduated college in Belfast. Arthurs mother met his father while William Arthur was teaching at a school in Dunham, Quebec, the two married in Dunham on April 12,1821, soon after meeting. After their first child, Regina, was born, the Arthurs moved to Vermont and they quickly moved from Burlington to Jericho, and finally to Waterville, as William received positions teaching at different schools. William Arthur became an outspoken abolitionist, which made him unpopular with members of his congregationsChester A. Arthur – Chester Alan Arthur
37. Tropical Storm Barry (2007) – Tropical Storm Barry was a rapidly forming tropical cyclone that made landfall on Florida, United States, in early June 2007. The second named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Barry developed from a trough of low pressure in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico on June 1. It tracked rapidly northeastward, reaching winds of 60 mph before weakening and making landfall near Tampa Bay as a tropical depression. Barry quickly lost tropical characteristics after wind shear removed much of the convection, the extratropical remnants tracked up the East Coast of the United States, and were absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone on June 5. The precursor trough produced heavy rainfall across the western Caribbean Sea, outer rainbands in Pinar del Río Province injured three people and damaged 55 houses. In Florida, Barry dropped a moderate amount of precipitation across the drought-ridden state, the rain caused some flooding and wet roads, which led to two indirect traffic fatalities. Rough seas killed one Florida surfer in Pinellas County, in Florida and Georgia, the precipitation assisted firefighters in combating severe wildfires. Overall damage from the storm was minor, by late on May 29, a weak trough over the Yucatán Peninsula produced a small area of convection over the Yucatán Channel. Convection increased in association with the trough, and the day a broad envelop of cyclonic turning developed within the system. By May 30, the moisture from the trough extended from Nicaragua through the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, with the greatest area of convection near Cuba. A westward moving tropical wave spawned an area of low pressure on May 30. The low moved north-northeastward, and gradually became better organized despite high amounts of wind shear. Operationally, it was not classified until eleven hours later, the depression developed a large area of squalls, and organized enough to warrant a Hurricane Hunters flight into the area. The plane reported flight level winds of 60 mph and a pressure of 1000 mbar near the increasingly well-defined low-level circulation, embedded within the southwesterly flow ahead of an approaching mid-level trough, it tracked quickly northward, and early on June 2 attained peak winds of 60 mph. The center became elongated and weakened as it accelerated northeastward, and at 1400 UTC on June 2 Barry made landfall near Tampa, Florida, as a weakening tropical depression. As it continued inland, it rapidly lost tropical characteristics, the extratropical remnants strengthened as the system continued northeastward, and on June 3 it moved ashore along South Carolina. Spiral bands developed to the north of the system as it moved up the coast, the passage of the storm resulted in an increased threat for rip currents, with officials recommending that swimmers stay out of the water until the storm leaves the area. A tornado watch was posted for the southern portion of the stateTropical Storm Barry (2007) – Tropical Storm Barry shortly after being classified
38. Briarcliff Manor, New York – Briarcliff Manor /ˈbraɪərklɪf/ is a suburban village in Westchester County, New York, around 30 miles north of New York City. It is on 5.9 square miles of land on the east bank of the Hudson River, geographically shared by the towns of Mount Pleasant, Briarcliff Manor includes the communities of Scarborough and Chilmark, and is served by the Scarborough station of the Metro-North Railroads Hudson Line. A section of the village, including buildings and homes covering 376 acres, is part of the Scarborough Historic District and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The village motto is A Village between Two Rivers, reflecting Briarcliff Manors location between the Hudson and Pocantico Rivers, although the Pocantico is the primary boundary between Mount Pleasant and Ossining, since its incorporation the village has spread into Mount Pleasant. In the precolonial era, the area was inhabited by a band of the Wappinger tribes of Native Americans. In the early 19th century, the area was known as Whitsons Corners, Walter William Law moved to the area and purchased lands during the 1890s. Law developed the village, establishing schools, churches, parks, Briarcliff Manor was incorporated as a village in 1902, and celebrated its centennial on November 21,2002. The village has grown from 331 people when established to 7,867 in the 2010 census, Briarcliff Manor was historically known for its wealthy estate-owning families, including the Vanderbilts, Astors, and Rockefellers. It still remains primarily residential and its population is still considered affluent by U. S. standards and it has about 180 acres of recreational facilities and parks, all accessible to the public. The village has seven Christian churches for various denominations and two synagogues, the oldest church is Saint Marys Episcopal Church, built in 1851. Briarcliff Manor has a local government, with departments including police, fire, recreation. It has a low rate, a 2012 study found it had the second-lowest in the state. In the New York State Legislature it is split between the New York State Assemblys 95th and 92nd districts, and the New York Senates 38th and 40th districts, in Congress the village is in New Yorks 17th District. Briarcliff Manors original settlement was known as Whitsons Corners for brothers John H. Richard, and Reuben Whitson, Whitsons Corners was named after the corner of Pleasantville and South State Roads, where John H. Whitsons house, the Crossways, stood from 1820 until the 1940s. The Briarcliff Congregational Churchs parish house currently stands at its former location, the neighboring community of Scarborough was known as Weskora until it was renamed in 1864, after resident William Kemeys ancestral hometown in Yorkshire. After the community was incorporated into Briarcliff Manor in 1906, the New York Central, soon afterward, attributed to the neighborhoods pride over their name, that sign was thrown into the Hudson River and replaced with the original Scarborough sign. Briarcliff Manor derives from Brier Cliff, a compound of the English words brier, the name originated in Ireland as that of the family home of John David Ogilby, a professor of ecclesiastical history at the General Theological Seminary. Ogilby had named his New York summer home Brier Cliff after his home in IrelandBriarcliff Manor, New York – Village symbol
39. Millard Fillmore – Millard Fillmore was the 13th President of the United States, the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House. A former congressman from New York, Fillmore was elected the nations 12th Vice President in 1848 and he was instrumental in getting the Compromise of 1850 passed, a bargain that led to a brief truce in the battle over slavery. He failed to win the Whig nomination for president in 1852, he gained the endorsement of the nativist Know Nothing Party four years later, Fillmore was born into poverty in the Finger Lakes area of New York state, his parents were tenant farmers during his formative years. He rose from poverty through study, and became a lawyer though he had formal schooling. He became prominent in the Buffalo area as an attorney and politician, was elected to the New York Assembly in 1828, and to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1832. Fillmore was a candidate for Speaker of the House when the Whigs took control of the chamber in 1841. Fillmore received the Whig vice presidential nomination in 1848 as Taylors running mate, and he was largely ignored by Taylor, including the dispensing of patronage in New York, on which Taylor consulted Weed and Seward. As vice president, Fillmore presided over debates in the Senate as Congress decided whether to allow slavery in the Mexican Cession. Fillmore supported Henry Clays Omnibus Bill though Taylor did not, after President Taylor died in July 1850, Fillmore dismissed the cabinet and changed the administrations policy. The new president exerted pressure to gain the passage of the Compromise, in foreign policy, Fillmore supported U. S. Navy expeditions to open trade in Japan, opposed French designs on Hawaii, and was embarrassed by Narciso Lópezs filibuster expeditions to Cuba. He sought election to a term in 1852, but was passed over by the Whigs in favor of Winfield Scott. As the Whig Party broke up after Fillmores presidency, many of Fillmores conservative wing joined the Know Nothings, in his 1856 candidacy as that partys nominee, Fillmore had little to say about immigration, instead focusing on the preservation of the Union, and won only Maryland. In his retirement, Fillmore was active in civic endeavors. He helped to found the University of Buffalo, serving as its first chancellor, during the American Civil War, Fillmore denounced secession and agreed that the Union must be maintained by force if necessary, but was critical of the war policies of Abraham Lincoln. After peace was restored, he supported the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson, obscure today, Fillmore has been praised by some for his foreign policy, but he is criticized by others for his enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act and for his association with the Know Nothings. Millard Fillmore was born in a log cabin, on a farm in what is now Moravia, Cayuga County, in the Finger Lakes region of New York state and his parents were Phoebe and Nathaniel Fillmore. He was the second of eight children and the oldest son, Nathaniel Fillmore Sr. was a member of the Green Mountain Boys, and served as an ensign and first lieutenant during the American Revolution. In 1767, Nathaniel Fillmore Sr. married Hepzibah Wood, the mother of Nathaniel Fillmore and grandmother of Millard FillmoreMillard Fillmore – Millard Fillmore
40. Anne Hutchinson – Anne Hutchinson was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters. Hutchinson was born in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, the daughter of Francis Marbury and she lived in London as a young adult, and there married her old friend from home William Hutchinson. The couple moved back to Alford where they began following dynamic preacher John Cotton in the port of Boston. Cotton was compelled to emigrate in 1633, and the Hutchinsons followed a year later with their 11 children, Anne was a midwife and very helpful to those needing her assistance, as well as forthcoming with her personal religious understandings. Soon she was hosting women at her weekly, providing commentary on recent sermons. These meetings became so popular that she began offering meetings for men as well, as a follower of Cotton, she espoused a covenant of grace, while accusing all of the local ministers of preaching a covenant of works. This was followed by a March 1638 church trial in which she was excommunicated, after her husbands death a few years later, threats of Massachusetts taking over Rhode Island compelled Hutchinson to move totally outside the reach of Boston into the lands of the Dutch. Tensions were high at the time with the Siwanoy Indian tribe, in August 1643, Hutchinson, six of her children, and other household members were massacred by Siwanoys during Kiefts War. The only survivor was her nine year-old daughter Susanna, who was taken captive, Hutchinson is a key figure in the development of religious freedom in Englands American colonies and the history of women in ministry, challenging the authority of the ministers. She is honored by Massachusetts with a State House monument calling her a courageous exponent of civil liberty and she has been called the most famous—or infamous—English woman in colonial American history. Anne Hutchinson was born Anne Marbury in Alford, Lincolnshire, England, and baptised there on 20 July 1591 and her father was an Anglican cleric in London with strong Puritan leanings, who felt strongly that clergy should be well educated and clashed with his superiors on this issue. Marburys repeated challenges to the Anglican authorities led to his censure, in 1578, he was given a public trial, of which he made a transcript from memory during a period of house arrest. He later used this transcript to educate and amuse his children, he being the hero, for his conviction of heresy, Marbury spent two years in Marshalsea Prison on the south side of the River Thames across from London. In 1580, at the age of 25, he was released and was considered sufficiently reformed to preach and teach and he moved to the remote market town of Alford in Lincolnshire, about 140 miles north of London. About this time, Marbury married his first wife Elizabeth Moore, within a year of his first wifes death, Marbury married Bridget Dryden, about ten years younger than he and from a prominent Northampton family. Bridgets brother Erasmus was the grandfather of John Dryden, the famous playwright, Anne was the third of 15 children born to this marriage,12 of whom survived early childhood. Education at that time was almost exclusively offered to boys and men, One possible reason why Marbury taught his daughters may have been that six of his first seven children were girlsAnne Hutchinson – Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey
41. Live and Let Die (novel) – Live and Let Die is the second novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series of stories, and is set in London, the US and Jamaica. It was first published in the UK by Jonathan Cape on 5 April 1954, Fleming wrote the novel at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica before his first book, Casino Royale, was published, much of the background came from Flemings travel in the US and knowledge of Jamaica. Bond becomes involved in the US through Mr Bigs smuggling of 17th-century gold coins from British territories in the Caribbean, as with Casino Royale, Live and Let Die was broadly well received by the critics. The initial print run of 7,500 copies quickly sold out, US sales, when the novel was released there a year later, were much slower. Major plot elements from the novel were incorporated into the Bond films For Your Eyes Only in 1981. The British Secret Service agent James Bond is sent by his superior, M, to New York City to investigate Mr Big, real name Buonaparte Ignace Gallia. These gold coins have been turning up in Harlem and Florida and are suspected of being part of a treasure that was buried in Jamaica by the pirate Sir Henry Morgan, in New York Bond meets up with his counterpart in the CIA, Felix Leiter. The two visit some of Mr Bigs nightclubs in Harlem, but are captured, Bond is interrogated by Mr Big, who uses his fortune-telling employee, Solitaire, to determine if Bond is telling the truth. Solitaire lies to Mr Big, supporting Bonds cover story, Mr Big decides to release Bond and Leiter, and has his henchman Tee-Hee Johnson break one of Bonds fingers. On leaving, Bond kills Tee-Hee and several more of Mr Bigs men, while Leiter is released with minimal physical harm by a gang member, sympathetic because of a shared appreciation of jazz. Solitaire later leaves Mr Big and contacts Bond, the travel by train to St. Petersburg, Florida. While Bond and Leiter are scouting one of Mr Bigs warehouses used for storing exotic fish, Bond finds him in their safe house with a note pinned to his chest He disagreed with something that ate him. Bond then investigates the warehouse himself and discovers that Mr Big is smuggling gold coins by hiding them in the bottom of tanks holding poisonous tropical fish, which he is bringing into the US. He is attacked in the warehouse by the Robber, another of Mr Bigs men, during the resultant gunfight, Bond outwits the Robber and causes him to fall into the shark tank. Bond continues his mission in Jamaica, where he meets a fisherman, Quarrel, and John Strangways. Quarrel gives Bond training in scuba diving in the local waters, Bond swims through shark- and barracuda-infested waters to Mr Bigs island and manages to plant a limpet mine on the hull of his yacht before being captured once again by Mr Big. Bond and Solitaire are saved when the mine explodes seconds before they are dragged over the reef. Between January and March 1952 the journalist Ian Fleming wrote Casino Royale, his first novel, Fleming conducted research for Live and Let Die, and completed the novel before Casino Royale was published in January 1953, four months before his second book was publishedLive and Let Die (novel) – First edition cover, published by Jonathan Cape
42. 1991 Perfect Storm – The initial area of low pressure developed off Atlantic Canada on October 29. Forced southward by a ridge to its north, it reached its intensity as a large. The storm lashed the east coast of the United States with high waves and coastal flooding before turning to the southwest, moving over warmer waters, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone before becoming a tropical storm. It executed a loop off the Mid-Atlantic states and turned toward the northeast and it later received the name the Perfect Storm after a conversation between Boston National Weather Service forecaster Robert Case and author Sebastian Junger. The system was the hurricane and final tropical cyclone in the 1991 Atlantic hurricane season. The tropical system weakened, striking Nova Scotia as a storm before dissipating. Damage from the storm totaled over $200 million and the toll was thirteen. Most of the damage occurred while the storm was extratropical, after waves up to 30 feet struck the coastline from Canada to Florida, in Massachusetts, where damage was heaviest, over 100 homes were destroyed or severely damaged. To the north, more than 100 homes were affected in Maine, more than 38,000 people were left without power, and along the coast high waves inundated roads and buildings. In portions of New England, the damage was worse than that caused by Hurricane Bob two months earlier, aside from tidal flooding along rivers, the storms effects were primarily concentrated along the coast. A buoy off the coast of Nova Scotia reported a height of 100.7 feet. In the middle of the storm, Andrea Gail sank, killing her crew of six and inspiring the book, and later movie, The Perfect Storm. Off the shore of New Yorks Long Island, an Air National Guard helicopter ran out of fuel and crashed, four members of its crew were rescued, two people died after their boat sank off Staten Island. High waves swept two people to their deaths, one in Rhode Island and one in Puerto Rico, the Perfect Storm originated from a cold front that exited the east coast of the United States. On October 28, the front spawned a low to the east of Nova Scotia. Around that time, a ridge extended from the Appalachian Mountains northeastward to Greenland, the blocking ridge forced the extratropical low to track toward the southeast and later to the west. Hurricane Grace was swept aloft by its front into the warm conveyor belt circulation of the deep cyclone on October 29. The cyclone significantly strengthened as a result of the temperature contrast between the air to the northwest and the warmth and humidity from the remnants of Hurricane Grace1991 Perfect Storm – The tropical storm making landfall west of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
43. William H. Seward – William Henry Seward was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. Seward was born in southeastern New York, where his father was a farmer and he was educated as a lawyer and moved to the Central New York town of Auburn. Seward was elected to the New York State Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason, four years later, he became the gubernatorial nominee of the Whig Party. Though he was not successful in that race, Seward was elected governor in 1838, during this period, he signed several laws that advanced the rights and opportunities for black residents, as well as guaranteeing fugitive slaves jury trials in the state. The legislation protected abolitionists, and he used his position to intervene in cases of freed black people who were enslaved in the South, after several years of practicing law in Auburn, he was elected by the state legislature to the U. S. Senate in 1849. Sewards strong stances and provocative words against slavery brought him hatred in the South and he was re-elected to the Senate in 1855, and soon joined the nascent Republican Party, becoming one of its leading figures. As the 1860 presidential election approached, he was regarded as the candidate for the Republican nomination. Although devastated by his loss, he campaigned for Lincoln, who was elected and appointed him Secretary of State, Seward did his best to stop the southern states from seceding, once that failed, he devoted himself wholeheartedly to the Union cause. His firm stance against foreign intervention in the Civil War helped deter Britain and France from entering the conflict and he was one of the targets of the 1865 assassination plot that killed Lincoln, and was seriously wounded by conspirator Lewis Powell. Seward remained loyally at his post through the presidency of Andrew Johnson, during which he negotiated the Alaska purchase in 1867 and his contemporary Carl Schurz described Seward as one of those spirits who sometimes will go ahead of public opinion instead of tamely following its footprints. Seward was born in on May 16,1801 in the community of Florida, New York. He was the son of Samuel Sweezy Seward and his wife Mary Seward. Samuel Seward was a landowner and slaveholder in New York State. Florida was located some 60 miles north of New York City, west of the Hudson River, Young Seward attended school there, and also in the nearby county seat of Goshen. He was a student who enjoyed his studies. In later years, one of the family slaves would relate that instead of running away from school to go home. At the age of 15, Henry—he was known by his name as a boy—was sent to Union College in Schenectady. Admitted to the class, Seward was an outstanding student and was elected to Phi Beta KappaWilliam H. Seward – William H. Seward
44. Harriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War. She later helped abolitionist John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child. Early in life, she suffered a head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave. The injury caused dizziness, pain, and spells of hypersomnia and she was a devout Christian and experienced strange visions and vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God. In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman never lost a passenger. After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America, when the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry. After the war, she retired to the home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York. She was active in the suffrage movement until illness overtook her. After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American courage, on April 20,2016, the U. S. Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill. Tubman was born Araminta Minty Ross to slave parents, Harriet Green and Ben Ross, Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess. Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who became Marys second husband, as with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of Aramintas birth is known, and historians differ as to the best estimate. Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820. In her Civil War widows pension records, Tubman claimed she was born in 1820,1822, and 1825, an indication, perhaps, that she had only a general idea of when she was born. Modesty, Tubmans maternal grandmother, arrived in the United States on a ship from Africa. As a child, Tubman was told that she was of Ashanti lineage and her mother Rit was a cook for the Brodess family. Her father Ben was a woodsman who managed the timber work on Thompsons plantationHarriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman circa 1885
45. United States Military Academy – It sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River,50 miles north of New York City. It is one of the four U. S. military service academies, the entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites, buildings, and monuments. The majority of the campuss Norman-style buildings are constructed from gray, the campus is a popular tourist destination complete with a large visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a member of Congress or Delegate/Resident Commissioner in the case of Washington, puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands. Other nomination sources include the President and Vice President of the United States, students are officers-in-training and are referred to as cadets or collectively as the United States Corps of Cadets. Tuition for cadets is fully funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation, approximately 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating. Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that a cadet will not lie, cheat, steal, the academy bases a cadets leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance, academics, physical, and military. Most graduates are commissioned as lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries, since 1959, cadets have also been eligible to cross-commission, or request a commission in one of the other armed services, provided that they meet that services eligibility standards. Every year, a small number of cadets do this. The academys traditions have influenced other institutions because of its age and it was the first American college to have an accredited civil-engineering program and the first to have class rings, and its technical curriculum was a model for later engineering schools. West Points student body has a rank structure and lexicon. All cadets reside on campus and dine together en masse on weekdays for breakfast, the academy fields fifteen mens and nine womens National Collegiate Athletic Association sports teams. Cadets compete in one sport every fall, winter, and spring season at the intramural, club and its football team was a national power in the early and mid-20th century, winning three national championships. The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778, between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses. While the fortifications at West Point were known as Fort Arnold during the war, as commander, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, after Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton. With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance, Cadets underwent training in artillery and engineering studies at the garrison since 1794. In 1801, shortly after his inauguration as president, Thomas Jefferson directed that plans be set in motion to establish at West Point the United States Military Academy and he selected Jonathan Williams to serve as its first superintendentUnited States Military Academy – West Point fortifications 1780
46. Battle of Oriskany – An American party trying to relieve the siege of Fort Stanwix was ambushed by a party of Loyalists and allies of several Native American tribes. The Loyalist and Indian force ambushed Herkimers force in a valley about six miles east of Fort Stanwix, near the present-day village of Oriskany. During the battle, Herkimer was mortally wounded, the battle cost the Patriots approximately 450 casualties, while the Loyalists and Indians lost approximately 150 dead and wounded. There were also internal divisions among the Oneida, some of whom went to Canada as allies of the British, the site is known in oral histories of the Iroquois nations as A Place of Great Sadness. The site has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and is marked by a monument at the Oriskany Battlefield State Historic Site. In June 1777, the British Army, under the command of General Gentleman Johnny Burgoyne, Burgoynes objective was to split New England from the other colonies by gaining control of New Yorks Hudson Valley. They traveled up the Saint Lawrence River and along the shore of Lake Ontario to the Oswego River and they began to besiege Fort Stanwix, a Continental Army post guarding the portage. Warned by friendly Oneidas on July 30 that the British were just four days from Fort Stanwix, the force raised totaled 800 from the Tryon County militia, it was composed primarily of poorly trained farmers, who were chiefly of Palatine German descent. Setting out on August 4, the column camped near the Oneida village of Oriska on August 5 and that evening, Herkimer sent three men toward the fort with messages for the forts commander, Colonel Peter Gansevoort. Gansevoort was to signal the receipt of the message with three shots, and then sortie to meet the approaching column. Due to difficulties in penetrating the British lines, these couriers did not deliver the message until late the next morning, although many of the Indians were armed with muskets, some were not, and only carried tomahawk and spear. On the morning of August 6, Herkimer held a war council, since his force had not yet heard the expected signal from the fort, he wanted to wait. However, his captains pressed him to continue, accusing Herkimer of being a Tory because his brother was serving under St. Leger, stung by these accusations, Herkimer ordered the column to march on toward Stanwix. About six miles from the fort, the road dipped more than fifty feet into a marshy ravine, Sayenqueraghta and Cornplanter, two Seneca war chiefs, chose this place to set up an ambush. While the Kings Royal Yorkers waited behind a rise, the Indians concealed themselves on both sides of the ravine. The plan was for the Yorkers to stop the head of the column, at about 10 am, Herkimers column, with Herkimer on horseback near the front, descended into the ravine, crossed the stream, and began ascending the other side. Contrary to the plan, the Indians lying in wait near the rear of the column, apparently unable to contain themselves any longer, opened fire, leading the 1st Regiment, Colonel Ebenezer Cox was shot off his horse and killed in the first volley. Herkimer turned his horse to see the action, and was shortly thereafter struck by a ballBattle of Oriskany – Herkimer at the Battle of Oriskany Painting by F.C. Yohn, c. 1901, now in the public library in Utica, New York.
47. Battle of Long Island – The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights. It was fought on August 27,1776 and was the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War to take place after the United States declared its independence on July 4,1776. It was a victory for the British Army and the beginning of a campaign that gave them control of the strategically important city of New York. In terms of troop deployment and fighting, it was the largest battle of the entire war, Washington understood that the citys harbor would provide an excellent base for the British Navy during the campaign, so he established defenses there and waited for the British to attack. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guan Heights, unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, resulting in twenty percent losses through casualties and captures, the remainder of the army retreated to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania. In the first stage of the war, the British Army was trapped in the city of Boston and they abandoned it on March 17, setting sail to Halifax. Washington then began to transfer regiments to New York City which he believed the British would next attack because of its strategic importance. Washington left Boston on April 4, arrived at New York on April 13, Washington had sent his second in command Charles Lee ahead to New York the previous February to establish the citys defenses. Lee remained in New York City until March, when the Continental Congress sent him to South Carolina, troops were in limited supply, so Washington found the defenses incomplete, but Lee had concluded that it would be impossible to hold the city with the British commanding the sea. He reasoned that the defenses should be located with the ability to inflict casualties upon the British if any move was made to take. Barricades and redoubts were established in and around the city, Lee also saw that the immediate area was cleared of Loyalists. Washington began moving troops to Brooklyn in early May, and there were several thousand of them there in a short time. Three more forts were under construction on the side of the East River to support Fort Stirling. These new fortifications were Fort Putnam, Fort Greene, and Fort Box and they lay from north to south, with Fort Putnam farthest to the north, Greene slightly to the southwest, and Box slightly farther southwest. Each of these structures was surrounded by a large ditch, all connected by a line of entrenchments. Fort Defiance was also being constructed at this time, located farther southwest, past Fort Box, hulks were sunk at strategic locations to deter the British from entering the East River and other waterwaysBattle of Long Island – The Delaware Regiment at the Battle of Long Island.
48. Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont – Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont, known as The Lord Coote between 1683–89, was a member of the English Parliament and a colonial governor. Born in Ireland, he was a supporter of William and Mary. In 1695 he was given commissions as governor of the provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, and New Hampshire and he did not arrive in the New World until 1698, and spent most of his tenure as governor in New York. He spent a little over a year in Massachusetts, and only two weeks in New Hampshire, frontier issues were also in the forefront during his time in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, where lumber and security from the Abenaki threat dominated his tenure. He was a financial sponsor of William Kidd, whose privateering was later deemed to have descended into piracy. Bellomont engineered the arrest of Kidd in Boston, and had him returned to England, where he was tried, convicted, Richard Coote was born in Ireland in 1636. He was the son, but the first to survive infancy, of Richard Coote, third son of Sir Charles Coote, 1st Baronet. His father was created Baron Coote of Coloony in 1660, little is recorded of his early years. In 1677 he is known to have killed a man in a duel for the affections of a young lady and he did not marry her, however, and in 1680 he married Catherine, the daughter of Bridges Nanfan and the eventual heir to Birtsmorton Court in Worcestershire. Following the accession of the pro-Catholic James II to the English throne, Coote, because of the familys record of service to Charles II, his absence from court eventually drew the kings attention, and he was summoned back to court in 1687. He was one of the first to join William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 that brought William and he was rewarded for this loyalty with an appointment as Treasurer to the Queen in 1689, a post he held until 1694. It also drew attention in the Irish Parliament. That body, still under the influence of James, attainted him, as a result of this, William on 2 November 1689 created him Earl of Bellomont, and granted him over 77,000 acres of forfeited Irish lands. The land grant was controversial in Parliament, and was eventually rescinded by William. He was also rewarded with the governorship of County Leitrim, Bellomont was Member of Parliament for Droitwich from 1688 to 1695. In the 1690s he became involved in the attempts by Jacob Leislers son to clear his fathers name, Leisler had been a leading force in the New York rebellion against the Dominion of New England established by King James. Upon the arrival of Henry Sloughter as governor of New York, Leisler was arrested, tried, and executed for treason, Leislers son Jacob Jr. traveled to England to argue the case for restoration of the family properties. Bellomont sat on the Parliamentary committee that examined the evidence, and he strongly stated his view that Leisler and son-in-law Jacob Milborne had been barbarously murdered by Sloughters actions in a letter to Massachusetts colonial agent Increase MatherRichard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont – Engraved portrait of the earl, c. 1888
49. Wellington R. Burt – Wellington R. Burt was a wealthy lumber baron from Saginaw, Michigan. At the time of his death, his wealth was estimated to be between $40 and $90 million, for a time in the early 1900s, Burt ranked as one of the eight wealthiest men in America. He was best known for his mills and timber holdings. Burt was a politician, holding the offices of Mayor of East Saginaw, in his final years, he lived alone in a mansion with his servants. Estranged from friends and family and nicknamed The Lone Pine of Michigan, Burt had an unusual will, as bizarre but as finely-wrought as any in U. S. court annals. It contained a spite clause conceived by Burt to avenge a family feud, the conditions of the will were met in 2010 after the 1989 death of his last grandchild. In May 2011, twelve of Burts descendants finally received the estate, Burts legacy today is mixed, seen as a vindictive old man, a generous benefactor of the city of Saginaw and a famously wealthy American entrepreneur. Burt was born on August 26,1831 in the town of Pike, near Rochester, New York, the ninth of thirteen siblings and his father was Luther Burt and his mother Florinda Horton Burt. The Burts were poor farmers who came from an old New England line, tracing back to Henry Burt, the Burt lineage included William Austin Burt, who was a notable Michigan surveyor described as the father of the typewriter. At the age of seven, he moved with his parents to Jackson County, Michigan, Michigan was then only a few years old and Burts subsequent life and career as a first generation Michigander was often identified with the growth and progress of the new state. In 1843, when Wellington was 12, his father Luther died, under the guidance of his mother, he became the farms manager and entered into the struggle incident to pioneer life. He attended two years of one at Albion College and one at Michigan Central College. At the age of 22, he decided to see the world and obtained work as a sailor abroad on freighters in Australia, Central and South America and he would recall Australia as his favorite foreign country. When he returned home in 1857 at age 26, he found a timber industry in Michigan. He took a job earning $13 a month at the Pine River lumber camp near St. Louis, Michigan and he was tall, strong and knew how to give orders. Using savings, he started his own company in 1858. In 1867, he founded the community of Melbourne on the Saginaw River near Zilwaukee, Michigan, by 1870, Melbourne was among the largest and most complete mills in the world, but in 1876, it was destroyed by a fire of unknown origin. In addition to his various timber and iron mine holdings, Burt made his fortune in the industry, in railroads and in foreign bondsWellington R. Burt – Wellington R. Burt
50. Chyna – Joan Marie Laurer, also known by her ring name Chyna, was an American professional wrestler, glamour model, pornographic film actress, and bodybuilder. Chyna first rose to prominence in the World Wrestling Federation in 1997, a founding member of the stable D-Generation X as the promotions first female enforcer, she held the WWF Intercontinental Championship twice and the WWF Womens Championship once. She was also the first woman to participate in the Royal Rumble and King of the Ring events, after leaving the WWF in 2001, Chyna wrestled sporadically, with New Japan Pro Wrestling in 2002 and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling in 2011. Outside of wrestling, Chyna appeared in Playboy magazine twice, as well as television shows. She starred in a further five pornographic titles, including AVNs 2012 Best Celebrity Sex Tape, Laurer was born in Rochester, New York on December 27,1969. She had two siblings, Kathy and Sonny. After her parents divorced when she was four years old. From 1973 to 1983, she, her siblings and her mother moved several times, as a child, Laurer learned to play both the violin and cello. She later said that in seventh grade she was kissed by a much older teacher who worked at her school. At age thirteen, while attending Penfield High School, she began purging after she ate and she left home at age sixteen after her mother tried to force her into a drug rehabilitation facility, going instead to live with her biological father. That same year, she began working out, and because her muscles were so strong. She finished her last year of school in Spain. She attended the University of Tampa, graduating in 1992 with a major in Spanish Literature, during college, she also studied French and German and later stated during this time she was raped by two men after getting drunk at a party. She also was a member of the ROTC and she originally wanted to use her knowledge of foreign languages to work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation or Drug Enforcement Administration. Subsequently, she joined the Peace Corps and was assigned to Guatemala, after returning from abroad, Laurer held several different jobs, a cocktail waitress in a strip club, singer in a band, and a 900-number chat line worker. In her mid-to-late 20s, while living in the Florida Keys, on the way to her first flight, she was in a car accident and spent four days in the hospital. After recovering from the accident, Laurers sister Kathy helped her get a job selling beepers, after college, Laurer began to regularly enter fitness competitions. In 1996, Laurer competed in the New York City regional level of the Fitness America competition, because of her large size compared to the other women, she usually finished in last placeChyna – Joanie Laurer at the 2007 Scream Awards
51. Bill Clinton – William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the Presidency he was the 40th Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, before that, he served as Arkansas Attorney General from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideogically a New Democrat, Clinton is married to Hillary Clinton, who served as United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013 and U. S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and served the Democratic nominee for President in 2016, Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham both earned degrees from Yale Law School, where they met and began dating. As Governor of Arkansas, Clinton overhauled the states education system, Clinton was elected President of the United States in 1992, defeating incumbent George H. W. Bush. At age 46, he was the third-youngest president and the first from the Baby Boomer generation, Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history and signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement. After failing to pass health care reform, the Democratic House was ousted when the Republican Party won control of the Congress in 1994. Two years later, in 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second term, Clinton passed welfare reform and the State Childrens Health Insurance Program, providing health coverage for millions of children. Clinton was acquitted by the U. S. Senate in 1999, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus between the years 1998 and 2000, the last three years of Clintons presidency. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. President since World War II, since then, Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes, such as the prevention of AIDS, in 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. In 2009, Clinton was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti, since leaving office, Clinton has been rated highly in public opinion polls of U. S. Presidents. Clinton was born on August 19,1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas and he was the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4,1943, but this later proved to be bigamous. Soon after their son was born, his mother traveled to New Orleans to study nursing, leaving her son in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the Southern United States was segregated racially, in 1950, Bills mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks. The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950, although he immediately assumed use of his stepfathers surname, it was not until Clinton turned fifteen that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. Johns Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School—where he was a student leader, avid readerBill Clinton – Bill Clinton
52. Fellows v. Blacksmith – Fellows v. Blacksmith,60 U. S.366, is a United States Supreme Court decision involving Native American law. In other words, the government retained the discretion not to enforce such treaties. At the same time, the Court held that enrolled treaties are conclusively valid, Fellows was one of several encounters of the Taney Court with the aboriginal title. It was the first litigation of aboriginal title in the United States in the Court by an indigenous plaintiff since Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. According to a contemporary New York Times article, The questions involved are of great magnitude, in Fellows, the court found its first opportunity to consider the power of the federal government over Indian lands in New York. Following the precedents of the Marshall Court, Fellows was decided at a time when the government was dealing with Indian tribes as if they were semi-sovereign nations. The plaintiffs lawyer John H. Martindale also represented the interests of the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians in three cases in the New York state courts. The third such case, New York ex rel, Cutler v. Dibble, also reached the Supreme Court, which held that state nonintercourse acts are not preempted by the Commerce Clause, the federal Nonintercourse Act, or federal treaties. Ely S. Parker, one of the administrators of the Blacksmith estate, went on to draft the surrender at Appomattox, the Marshall Court had repeatedly taken up the issue of aboriginal title in the United States. However, with the exception of Cherokee Nation v, the uniform rule of these cases, enunciated most clearly in Johnson v. MIntosh, was that non-Indians could not acquire valid land title from such private purchases. However, the purchase at issue in Fellows, the Treaty of Buffalo Creek, had been ratified by the federal government, at the end of his opinion in Fletcher v. Peck, Marshall had stated that ejectment could not be obtained against the holder of aboriginal title. The Taney Court, in Marsh v, in the oral arguments of that case, Cherokee Nation had been cited as authority for the argument that Indians cannot sue on their aboriginal title in court of the United States. The plaintiffs in Fellows had sued under the cause of action of trespass. The compact was approved by the Congress of the Confederation on October 8,1787, oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham acquired the right of pre-emption to the lands at issue in Fellows v. Blacksmith from Massachusetts in 1788 as part of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. However, Phelps and Gorham only consummated the right of pre-emption for a tract east of the Genesee River in 1788, Phelps and Gorham defaulted on their payments to Massachusetts in 1790, causing the pre-emption rights to return to the state. Massachusetts then conveyed the pre-emption rights to Samuel Ogden on behalf of Robert Morris on May 12,1791. Morris retained the right to the Morris Reserve for himself. The Holland Land Company consummated much of its right in the Treaty of Big TreeFellows v. Blacksmith – The Holland Land Office
53. Bob Ferguson (infielder) – Robert Vavasour Ferguson was an American infielder, league official, manager and umpire in the early days of baseball, playing both before and after baseball became a professional sport. In addition to playing and managing, he served as president of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players from 1872 through 1875, the sports first entirely professional league. His character and unquestioned honesty were highly regarded during a period in history where the games reputation was badly damaged by gamblers and rowdy behavior by players. However, his bad temper and stubbornness were traits that created trouble for him at times during his career and his nickname, Death to Flying Things, was derived from his greatness as a defensive player. A native of Brooklyn, Ferguson played for two of New Yorks earliest semi-professional clubs in the late 1860s and early 1870s, the Atlantics and this win brought to an end the Red Stockings 81 consecutive game winning streak. He is credited with being the first player to bat from both sides of home plate, known as switch-hitting, but the practice was not popular at first. Among the explanations for this, it is claimed that, due to his personality, in 1871, Ferguson took over the Mutual team as the player-manager. In 33 games, he batted.241, while the finished with a 16–17 record. As manager, Ferguson insisted upon implicit obedience from his men, for the 1872 season, Ferguson re-joined his Atlantics team, which was now a member of the National Association as well, and he would stay there through the 1874 season. In 1872, he was elected by the players to be the president of the National Association, an office he held through the 1875 season, the last season of the Association. On September 1,1872, Ferguson arranged a game for Al Thake, a 22-year-old left fielder for the Atlantics. The old Brooklyn Atlantics and Members of the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings played against each other in the benefit game. While serving as an umpire during a game between the Baltimore Canaries and Mutuals on July 24,1873, Ferguson received continuous, loud. Ferguson and Hicks got into an altercation at the conclusion of the game, Ferguson required a police escort to leave the playing field, and Hicks refused to press charges and the two reconciled afterwards. During the final season of the Association, he played and managed the Hartford Dark Blues, when the Association dissolved, his Hartford team was accepted into the National League for its inaugural season in 1876, and Ferguson became a League Director. As a league official, he was involved in a decision that season. The case involved Jim Devlin, pitcher for the Louisville Grays, Devlin wanted to be released from his contract, claiming that Louisville had failed to fulfill the terms of his contract. Surrounding Devlin were rumors that he took money from gamblers to throw games, Ferguson, along with fellow league directors, ruled in favor of the Grays Vice-President Charles Chase, and Devlin was ordered to remain with the GraysBob Ferguson (infielder) – Bob Ferguson
54. Tina Fey – Elizabeth Stamatina Tina Fey is an American actress, comedian, writer, and producer. She is also known for writing and co-starring in the film Mean Girls, as well as appearing in such films as Baby Mama, Date Night, Muppets Most Wanted. Fey broke into comedy as a player in the Chicago-based improvisational comedy group The Second City. She then joined SNL as a writer, later becoming head writer, in 2004, she co-starred in and wrote the screenplay for Mean Girls, which was adapted from the 2002 self-help book Queen Bees and Wannabes. After leaving SNL in 2006, she created the television series 30 Rock for Broadway Video, in the series, Fey portrays the head writer of a fictional sketch comedy series. In 2008, she starred in the comedy film Baby Mama, Fey next appeared in the 2010 comedy film Date Night and the animated film Megamind. In 2015, she created and produced the television series Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, originally for NBC and her other films include Sisters and Whiskey Tango Foxtrot. Fey has received nine Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, five Screen Actors Guild Awards, and four Writers Guild of America Awards and her autobiography Bossypants topped The New York Times Best Seller list for five weeks. In 2008, the Associated Press gave Fey the AP Entertainer of the Year award for her portrayal of Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin in a guest appearance on SNL. In 2010, Fey was awarded the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, on January 13,2013, Fey hosted the 70th Golden Globe Awards with her long-time friend and fellow comedian, Amy Poehler, to critical acclaim. The duo hosted again the two years, generating the highest ratings for the annual ceremony in a decade and receiving similar acclaim. Fey was born in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, an inner ring suburb of Philadelphia and her mother, Zenobia Jeanne, is a brokerage employee. Her father, Donald Henry Fey, was a university grant proposal-writer and she has a brother, Peter, who is eight years older. Feys mother, who was born in Piraeus, is the daughter of Greek immigrants, Vasiliki Kourelakou, Feys maternal grandmother, left Petrina on her own, arriving in the United States in February 1921. According to a genealogical DNA test arranged by the television series Finding Your Roots, Feys ancestry is 94% European, 3% Middle Eastern, Fey was exposed to comedy early, I remember my parents sneaking me in to see Young Frankenstein. We would also watch Saturday Night Live, or Monty Python and my dad would let us stay up late to watch The Honeymooners. We were not allowed to watch The Flintstones though, my dad hated it because it ripped off The Honeymooners, I actually have a very low level of Flintstones knowledge for someone my age. At age 11, Fey read Joe Franklins Seventy Years of Great Film Comedians for a project about comedyTina Fey – Fey at the Muppets Most Wanted premiere in 2014.
55. Hamilton Fish – Hamilton Fish, was an American statesman and politician who served as the 16th Governor of New York, a United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. Fish is recognized as the pillar of the Grant Administration and considered one of the best U. S, Secretaries of State by scholars, known for his judiciousness and efforts towards reform and diplomatic moderation. Fish settled the controversial Alabama Claims with Great Britain through his development of the concept of international arbitration, Fish kept the United States out of war with Spain over Cuban independence by coolly handling the volatile Virginius Incident. In 1875, Fish initiated the process that would lead to Hawaiian statehood. He also organized a conference and treaty in Washington D. C. between South American countries and Spain. Fish worked with James Milton Turner, Americas first African American consul, President Grant said he trusted Fish the most for political advice. Fish came from a prominent wealthy New York family and attended Columbia College of Columbia University, upon graduation, Fish passed the bar, worked as New Yorks commissioner of deeds, and ran unsuccessfully for New York State Assembly as a Whig candidate in 1834. After his marriage, Fish returned to New York politics in 1843 and was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, Fish ran for New Yorks Lieutenant Governor in 1846. He was defeated by a Democratic Anti-Rent Party contender, when the office was vacated in 1847, Fish ran and was elected Lieutenant Governor. In 1848 Fish ran and was elected Governor of New York, in 1851, Fish was elected U. S. Senator for the state of New York, serving one term, Fish gained valuable experience serving on the U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. During the 1850s Fish became a Republican after the Whig party dissolved, in terms of the slavery issue, Fish was a moderate, having disapproved of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the expansion of slavery. After traveling to Europe, Fish returned to America and supported Abraham Lincoln as the Republican candidate for President in 1860, Fish returned to his law practice after the Civil War, and was thought to have retired from political life. When Ulysses S. Grant was elected President in 1868, he appointed Fish as U. S. Secretary of State in 1869, Fish took on the State Department with vigor, reorganized the office, and established civil service reform. During his 8-year tenure, Fish had to contend with Cuban belligerency, the settlement of the Alabama claims, Canada–US border disputes, Fish implemented the new concept of international arbitration, where disputes between countries were settled by negotiations, rather than military conflicts. Fish was involved in a feud between Senator Charles Sumner and President Grant in the latters unsuccessful efforts to annex the Dominican Republic. Fish organized an expedition in an unsuccessful attempt to open trade with Korea in 1871. Leaving office and politics in 1877, Fish returned to private life, Fishs male descendants would later serve in the U. S. House of Representatives for three generationsHamilton Fish – Hamilton Fish
56. Siege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777) – The 1777 Siege of Fort Ticonderoga occurred between 2 and 6 July 1777 at Fort Ticonderoga, near the southern end of Lake Champlain in the state of New York. Lieutenant General John Burgoynes 8, 000-man army occupied high ground above the fort and these movements precipitated the occupying Continental Army, an under-strength force of 3,000 under the command of General Arthur St. Clair, to withdraw from Ticonderoga and the surrounding defences. Some gunfire was exchanged, and there were casualties, but there was no formal siege. Burgoynes army occupied Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, the fortifications on the Vermont side of the lake. Advance units pursued the retreating Americans, General St. Clair and his superior, General Philip Schuyler, were vilified by Congress. Both were eventually exonerated in courts martial, but their careers were adversely affected, Schuyler had already lost his command to Horatio Gates by the time of the court martial, and St. Clair held no more field commands for the remainder of the war. In September 1775, early in the American Revolutionary War, the American Continental Army embarked on an invasion of Quebec, the invasion ended in disaster in July 1776, with the army chased back to Fort Ticonderoga by a large British army that arrived in Quebec in May 1776. A small Continental Navy fleet on Lake Champlain was defeated in the October 1776 Battle of Valcour Island, the delay required by the British to build their fleet on Lake Champlain caused General Guy Carleton to hold off on attempting an assault on Ticonderoga in 1776. His British Army troops consisted of the 9th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 47th, 53rd and 62nd regiments, the light infantry and flank companies formed the armys advance force, and were commanded by Brigadier General Simon Fraser. The remaining regulars, under the leadership of Major General William Phillips, formed the wing of the army. His forces consisted of the Rhetz, Riedesel, Specht, Barner, most of these forces had arrived in 1776, and many participated in the campaign that drove the American army out of Quebec. The total size of Burgoynes regular army was about 7,000, in addition to the regulars, there were about 800 Indians, and a relatively small number of Canadiens and Loyalists, who acted primarily as scouts and screening reconnaissance. The army was accompanied by more than 1,000 civilians, including a pregnant woman. Including these non-military personnel, the number of people in Burgoynes army was more than 10,000. Burgoyne and General Carlton recited the troops at Fort Saint-Jean, near the end of Lake Champlain. By 21 June, the carrying the army was on the lake. While en route, Burgoyne authored a proclamation to the Americans, written in the turgid, pompous style for which he was well-known, American forces had occupied the forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point since they captured them in May 1775 from a small garrison. In 1776 and 1777, they undertook significant efforts to improve the defenses surrounding Ticonderoga, a peninsula on the east side of the lake, renamed Mount Independence, was heavily fortifiedSiege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777) – Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Mount Defiance
57. George McTurnan Kahin – George McTurnan Kahin was an American historian and political scientist. He was one of the experts on Southeast Asia and a critic of United States involvement in the Vietnam War. After completing his dissertation, which is considered a classic on Indonesian history. At Cornell, he became the director of its Southeast Asia Program, Kahins incomplete memoir was published posthumously in 2003. George McTurnan Kahin was born on January 25,1918, in Baltimore, Maryland and he received a B. S. in history from Harvard University in 1940. Kahin married Margaret Baker in 1942, but the marriage ended in divorce, however, the operation was canceled after it was determined that U. S. forces would bypass the Indies after the Potsdam Conference. As a result, his unit was sent to the European theater and he earned the rank of sergeant before leaving the Army. Kahins interest in Southeast Asia developed during this period, and he learned to speak Indonesian, Kahin returned after the war to complete his M. A. from Stanford University, which he received in 1946. His thesis was titled The Political Position of the Chinese in Indonesia and he continued to pursue of his interest in Southeast Asia, going to Indonesia in 1948 to conduct research during the Indonesian National Revolution. During his work, he was arrested by Dutch colonial authorities, Kahin received a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University in 1951. His dissertation, titled Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia, is considered a classic on Indonesian history, in 1951, Kahin became an assistant professor of government at Cornell University. He received tenure and was promoted to professor in 1954. He became the director of Cornells Southeast Asia Program in 1961, Kahin also founded the Cornell Modern Indonesia Project in 1954 and served as its director until his retirement in 1988. Between 1962 and 1963, he became a Fulbright professor at London University, Kahin was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The university was divided between proponents of the inclusion of the principles of justice in course instruction and advocates of academic freedom for the faculty. This clash affected the Department of Government, where Kahin and a number of defending academic freedom resided. Many of these professors had considered leaving the university due to the administrations policies promoting racial justice, the following week, the Department of Government organized a teach-in on academic freedom, and Kahin was invited to speak at the event by department chair Peter Sharfman. Historian Walter LaFeber would later remember his remarks as the most eloquent speech about academic freedom I have ever encountered anywhere up to time or since that timeGeorge McTurnan Kahin – Kahin as a visiting professor at Monash University in 1971
58. Joyce Kilmer – Joyce Kilmer was an American writer and poet mainly remembered for a short poem titled Trees, which was published in the collection Trees and Other Poems in 1914. While most of his works are unknown, a select few of his poems remain popular and are published frequently in anthologies. Many writers, including notably Ogden Nash, have parodied Kilmers work and he enlisted in the New York National Guard and was deployed to France with the 69th Infantry Regiment in 1917. He was killed by a bullet at the Second Battle of the Marne in 1918 at the age of 31. He was married to Aline Murray, also a poet and author. He was named Alfred Joyce Kilmer after two priests at Christ Church in New Brunswick, Alfred R. Taylor, the curate, and the Rev. Dr. Elisha Brooks Joyce, Christ Church is the oldest Episcopal parish in New Brunswick and the Kilmer family were parishioners. Rector Joyce, who served the parish from 1883 to 1916, baptised the young Kilmer, who remained an Episcopalian until his 1913 conversion to Catholicism. Kilmers birthplace in New Brunswick, where the Kilmer family lived from 1886 to 1892, is still standing, Kilmer entered Rutgers College Grammar School in 1895 at the age of 8. During his years at the Grammar School, Kilmer was editor-in-chief of the paper, the Argo. He won the first Lane Classical Prize, for oratory, despite his difficulties with Greek and mathematics, he stood at the head of his class in preparatory school. After graduating from Rutgers College Grammar School in 1904, he continued his education at Rutgers College from 1904 to 1906, at Rutgers, Kilmer was associate editor of the Targum, the campus newspaper, and a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity. However, he was unable to complete the curriculums rigorous mathematics requirement and was asked to repeat his sophomore year, under pressure from his mother, Kilmer transferred to Columbia University in New York City. At Columbia, Kilmer was vice-president of the Philolexian Society, associate editor of Columbia Spectator and he completed his Bachelor of Arts degree and graduated from Columbia on May 23,1908. Shortly after graduation, on June 9,1908, he married Aline Murray, in the autumn of 1908, Kilmer was employed teaching Latin at Morristown High School in Morristown, New Jersey. At this time, he began to submit essays to Red Cross Notes, Kilmer also wrote book reviews for The Literary Digest, Town & Country, The Nation, and The New York Times. By June 1909, Kilmer had abandoned any aspirations to continue teaching and relocated to New York City, from 1909 to 1912, Kilmer was employed by Funk and Wagnalls, which was preparing an edition of The Standard Dictionary that would be published in 1912. According to Hillis, Kilmers job was to define ordinary words assigned to him at five cents for each word defined. This was a job at one would ordinarily earn ten to twelve dollars a weekJoyce Kilmer – Signature
59. Lucky and Squash – Lucky and Squash is an 2012 American childrens book written by Jeanne Birdsall and illustrated with watercolor paintings by Jane Dyer published by Harper. The two eponymous characters are based on Birdsalls and Dyers actual dogs, Cagney and Scuppers, a Boston Terrier. Lucky and Squash received generally positive reviews, a School Library Journal article praises Birdsalls writing, describing the story as funny, sweet, heartwarming, and suspenseful. A Booklist reviewer compares the dog characters to Pyramus and Thisbe, lovers in Ovids Metamorphoses who, frustrated by being separated by a wall. An article in Kirkus Reviews calls the illustrations charming and says that they have all the details that are Dyers signature touch. Lucky and Squash is a book by Jeanne Birdsall, author of Floras Very Windy Day. It is illustrated with paintings by Jane Dyer, illustrator of more than fifty books, Lucky. The book is appropriate for children between the ages of 3 and 7, the eponymous characters are dogs, Lucky being a brave Lhasa Apso and Squash being a smart Boston Terrier. They are based on two dogs who knew each other since they were puppies and often played together, Cagney, Birdsalls Boston Terrier. Lucky and Squash are neighbors separated by a fence that prevents them from playing together, luckys owner, Mr. Bernard, and Squashs owner, Miss Violet, are both single and have never spoken to each other because they are so shy. Lucky and Squash escape from their respective yards three days in a row and go on adventures, the owners do meet and fall in love. An article in Kirkus Reviews suggests that Lucky and Squash is similar to a tale in its narrative structure, language. This reviewer summarizes Lucky and Squash as a gentle, entertaining story, good for dog lovers and romantics alike. Beier especially praises the climactic scene of the capture by the bear. She calls the dog characters endearing and writes, This title will be a hit at storytime or in a one-on-one setting, connie Fletcher of Booklist also gives the book a positive review, comparing the two eponymous characters to Pyramus and Thisbe, two lovers in Ovids poem Metamorphoses. The Publishers Weekly reviewer is critical of Dyers illustrations, arguing that they do not provide the two dogs with sufficiently differing personalities, other reviews of the books illustrations were positive. The Ultimate Girls Movie Survival Guide, What to Rent, Who to Watch, How to DealLucky and Squash – Cover
60. James C. Marshall – Brigadier General James Creel Marshall was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who was initially in charge of the Manhattan Project to build an atomic bomb during World War II. A member of the June 1918 class of the United States Military Academy at West Point that graduated early due to World War I, between the wars he worked on engineering projects in the United States and the Panama Canal Zone. In January 1942, shortly after the United States entered World War II, he became District Engineer of the Syracuse District, in June 1942, Marshall was placed in charge of the Manhattan Project, then known as the Laboratory Development of Substitute Materials. Although superseded as head of the project by Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. in September, he was Manhattan District engineer from 13 August 1942 to 13 August 1943. In November 1943 he became Assistant Chief of Staff of the United States Army Services of Supply in the Southwest Pacific Area, serving in Australia, New Guinea and the Philippines. Marshall left the Army in 1947, and moved to Riverside, Connecticut and he later joined Koppers, building a coal loading facility in Turkey, and worked on mining projects in Africa. He was Commissioner of Highways in Minnesota from 1961 to 1965, James Creel Marshall was born in Plattsburg, Missouri, on 14 October 1897, the son of Walter Scott Marshall and his wife Cora Sutphen née Creel. He was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1915 and his classmates included Hugh John Casey and Lucius D. Clay. He was posted to Camp A. A. Humphreys from 8 to 15 July 1918, while there, he married Mabel Estelle Wolff from Brooklyn. They had two children, Beryl, born in 1919, and Robert Creel, born in 1921, on 24 August 1918, Marshall joined the 8th Engineers at Fort Bliss, Texas. He returned to Camp A. A. Humphreys as a student officer from 10 February 1919 to 12 June 1919, young officers like Marshall who had not served overseas during the war were sent on battlefield tours. From 20 June to 30 August 1919, he toured the battlefields of World War I, visiting Britain, France, Belgium and Germany, after service at Camp A. A. On 25 June 1922 he became Assistant District Engineer of the 2nd District, like many of his fellow officers, Marshall was reduced to his substantive rank of first lieutenant on 18 November 1922. On 4 August 1923 he took charge of the Engineer Office of the 3rd New York District, located in Fort Hancock and he then served in the Panama Canal Zone as a company commander in the 11th Engineers from 9 April 1926 to 14 June 1928. He became an instructor in the Department of Engineering at West Point on 24 August 1928 and he was posted to Fort Belvoir, Virginia, on 10 August 1932, where he was promoted to captain again on 1 June 1933. There followed duty in the Office of the Chief Of Engineers in Washington, DC, as Assistant Chief of the River, Marshall attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, from 11 September 1939 to 3 February 1940. He then became executive officer of the 1st Engineers, with the outbreak of World War II in Europe, promotion accelerated, and he was promoted to major on 1 March 1940. He became District Engineer of the Binghampton District on 25 May 1940, on 31 January 1942, he became District Engineer of the Syracuse District, which covered New York and part of Pennsylvania, with the rank of colonel from 1 February 1942James C. Marshall – James Creel Marshall
61. Montauk Point land claim – As recommended by the Appellate Divisions opinion, the second suit, Johnson v. Long Island R. R. Co. was brought in the name of Eugene M. Johnson, a citizen and tribal member. The New York Court of Appeals disavowed the previous dicta of the Appellate Division, the tribe failed in its efforts to convince the federal government to pass legislation enabling the tribe to bring the claim in federal court. In 1906, the state passed a statute enabling the tribe to sue, reaching the merits, the New York courts held that the tribe no longer existed and that the transactions were valid. Since the litigation, the Montauks have failed in their efforts to obtain compensation from the federal and state government, and much of the land in question has come to be held by public parks. Circa 1875, the Montauk tribe began renting out Montauk Point for pasturage through the Proprietors Company, the company took possession of the grazing allotments, and paid the tribe an annuity. Circa 1880, the shareholders of the company disagreed over whether the lands should continue to be leased, in 1878, Robert M. Grinnell sued Edward M. Baker et al. for partition and division of the allotments. In Grinnell v. Baker, the court ordered the lands sold at auction, with the proceeds distributed equally among the non-Indian lessees. The auction took place at the home of Jehial Parsons, arthur W. Benson bought the 11,000 acres at auction for $151,000 in 1879. In turn, Benson sold 5,000 acres of the land to the Long Island Rail Road for $600,000, Benson hired Nathaniel Dominey to negotiate the removal of the Montauks still living on the reservation. At a later, Senate Sub-Committee hearing, Dominey testified that eight Indians remained on the reservation at the time, including, future Chief Wyandank Pharaoh, his mother, and two of her brothers. Later, Dominey experienced a change of heart and cooperated with the Montauks in their claim, Dominey testified that he compensated Wyandank Pharaohs mother with a $100 semi-annual annuity and two houses, to be inherited by Pharaoh, $80 each to her two brothers, and $10 to Wyandank. Montauk Point was purchased by Corbin and Pratt in 1895, on October 30,1895, Chief Wyandank Pharaoh returned from a research trip to Brooklyn and Washington, D. C. to gather evidence to pursue a claim. Pharaoh declared his intentions to undertake a trip on the disputed land. Chief Wyandank Pharaoh, on behalf of the tribe, filed suit, for proof of tribal status, the tribe cited a partition action decided by Judge Dykman and the 1890 United States Census. The complaint valued the land at approximately $300,000, on June 5,1897, Judge Wilmot Moses Smith of the New York Supreme Court set a hearing date for June 19 in Patchogue to hear the oral arguments for the defendants demurrer. The matter was transferred to Judge Samuel T. Maddox in Brooklyn, Judge Maddox granted the demurrer, dismissing the action but allowing the tribe to re-plead if they paid costs. The Montauks, represented by ex-judge George M. Curtis, filed a notice of appeal on December 22,1897, before the Appellate Division, the Montauks case was argued by Leman B. Treadwell, with Francis M. Morrison also on the brief, alfred A. Gardner argued on behalf of the LIRR, with William J. Kelly on the briefMontauk Point land claim – Stephen Talkhouse
62. Michael P. Murphy – Michael Patrick Murph Murphy was a United States Navy SEAL officer who was awarded the U. S. militarys highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions during the War in Afghanistan. He was the first member of the U. S. Navy to receive the award since the Vietnam War and his other posthumous awards include the Silver Star Medal and the Purple Heart. Michael Murphy was born and raised in Suffolk County, New York and he graduated from Pennsylvania State University with honors and dual degrees in political science and psychology. After college he accepted a commission in the United States Navy, after participating in several War on Terrorism missions, he was killed on June 28,2005, after his team was compromised and surrounded by Taliban forces near Asadabad, Afghanistan. A United States Navy destroyer and several civilian and military buildings have been named in his honor, Murphy was born on May 7,1976 in Smithtown, New York to Irish American parents Maureen and Daniel Murphy, a former assistant Suffolk County district attorney. He attended Saxton Middle School, where he played soccer and pee-wee football. In high school, he continued playing sports, and took a job as a lifeguard at the Brookhaven town beach in Lake Ronkonkoma. He returned to the job every summer throughout his college years, Murphy was known to his friends as Murph, and he was known as The Protector in his high school years. He also protected a man who was homeless, who was being attacked while collecting cans and he chased away the attackers and helped the man pick up his cans. In 1994, Murphy graduated from Patchogue-Medford High School and left home to attend The Pennsylvania State University and he graduated from Penn State in 1998, with degrees in both political science and psychology. Murphy was engaged to be married with the ceremony scheduled for November 2005, after graduating from Penn State, Murphy was accepted to several law schools, but decided to attend SEAL mentoring sessions at the United States Merchant Marine Academy. In September 2000, he accepted an appointment to the U. S. Navys Officer Candidate School in Pensacola, upon graduation from BUD/S, he attended the United States Army Airborne School, SEAL Qualification Training and SEAL Delivery Vehicle school. Murphy earned his SEAL Trident and checked on board SDV Team ONE in Pearl Harbor, in October 2002, he deployed with Foxtrot Platoon to Jordan as the liaison officer for Exercise Early Victor. Following his tour with SDVT-1, Murphy was assigned to Special Operations Command Central in Florida, after returning from Qatar, he was deployed to Djibouti to assist in the operational planning of future SDV missions. The war began on October 7,2001 with the response of the United States and United Kingdom to the September 11 attacks in New York City and Arlington, Virginia. In early 2005, Murphy was assigned to SEAL Delivery Vehicle Team ONE as officer in charge of Alpha Platoon, Operation Red Wings was a counter-insurgent mission in Kunar province, Afghanistan, involving four members of the United States Navy SEALs. Prior to a helicopter being shot down in 2011, it was both the largest loss of life for American forces since the invasion began and the largest loss for the SEALs since the Vietnam War. Marcus Luttrell was the only surviving American sailor from the squad, he was protected by local villagers, the team was dropped off by helicopter in a remote, mountainous area east of Asadabad in Kunar Province, near the Pakistan borderMichael P. Murphy – Michael P. Murphy
63. New York Jets – The New York Jets are a professional American football team located in the New York metropolitan area. The Jets compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues American Football Conference East division. The team is headquartered in Florham Park, New Jersey, in a unique arrangement for the league, the Jets share MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey with the New York Giants. The franchise is legally and corporately registered as New York Jets, the team was founded in 1959 as the Titans of New York, an original member of the American Football League, later, the franchise joined the NFL in the AFL–NFL merger in 1970. The team began to play in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, under new ownership, the current name was adopted in 1963 and the franchise moved to Shea Stadium in 1964 and then to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in 1984. Since 1968, the Jets have appeared in the playoffs 13 times, however, the Jets have never returned to the Super Bowl, making them one of three NFL teams to win their lone Super Bowl appearance, along with the New Orleans Saints and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. The teams training facility, Atlantic Health Jets Training Center, which opened in 2008, is located in Florham Park, the first organizational meeting of the American Football League took place on August 14,1959. Wismer was granted the franchise later dubbed the Titans of New York as Wismer explained. He secured the Titans home field at the decrepit Polo Grounds, by 1962, the debt continued to mount for Wismer, forcing the AFL to assume the costs of the team until seasons end. A five-man syndicate, headed by Sonny Werblin, saved the team from certain bankruptcy, Werblin renamed the team the New York Jets since the team would play in Shea Stadium near LaGuardia Airport. The new name was intended to reflect the approach of his team. The Jets owners hired Weeb Ewbank as the manager and head coach. The early 1990s saw New York struggling, after firing coach Bruce Coslet, owner Leon Hess hired Pete Carroll who struggled to a 6–10 record and was promptly fired at the end of the season. Thereafter, Rich Kotite was selected to lead the team to victory, Kotite stepped down at the end of his second season forcing the Jets to search for a new head coach. Hess lured then-disgruntled New England Patriots head coach Bill Parcells to New York in 1997, Parcells led the team back to relevance and coached them to the AFC Championship Game in 1998. Hess died in 1999 while the team, plagued by injuries, produced an eight win record, the franchise obtained a new owner in Woody Johnson in 2000. Additionally, through the 2000s the Jets visited the five times. Rex Ryan was hired in January 2009, Ryan led the team to back-to-back AFC Championship appearances during his first two years but the team never made the playoffs again during his tenureNew York Jets – Shea Stadium, 1964.
64. New York-class battleship – The New York class of battleship was a class of ships designed and constructed by the United States Navy between 1908 and 1914. The two ships of the class, New York and Texas, each saw extensive service beginning in the occupation of Veracruz, World War I, and World War II. The class also suffered several deficiencies such as a lack of weaponry and armor layout. Because of these deficiencies, both ships saw several extensive overhauls over the course of their careers which greatly changed their profiles, both ships undertook numerous training exercises and overhauls during the interwar era, and joined the Neutrality Patrol at the beginning of World War II. Outmoded by more advanced battleships in service, both served primarily as convoy escorts and naval artillery during the war. New York supported Operation Torch in North Africa, undertook convoy patrols and training in the Atlantic, and supported the Battle of Iwo Jima, Texas supported Operation Torch, Operation Overlord, the bombardment of Cherbourg, Operation Dragoon and the battles at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. The New York class was the fifth of 11 separate classes planned by the United States Navy between 1906 and 1919, a total of 29 battleships and 6 battlecruisers, virtually the entire American battle line was being designed from pre-dreadnought experience and observation of foreign designs. There was debate at the time as to whether the Florida-class battleships, laid down in 1909 and these would become the Wyoming class. The class is referred to as the New York class. As designed, the ships had a displacement of 27,000 long tons. They were 573 ft in length overall,565 ft at the waterline, and had a beam of 95 ft 6 in, the ships underwent significant changes and increases in armor and armament over their operational lives. Following her fourth and final refit in 1943, New York increased her displacement to 29,340 long tons standard and 34,000 long tons full-load. The final refit for Texas came in 1945, after which she displaced 29,500 long tons standard and 32,000 long tons at full load, as designed, the ships had a crew complement consisting of 1,042 officers and enlisted men. By 1945, Texas was carrying 1,723 officers and enlisted men with the addition of crews for additional weapons as well as a new complement of Marines. The main battery of the class consisted of ten 14-inch/45 caliber guns, arrayed in five 2-gun turrets designated 1,2,3,4, and 5, the class was the last to feature a turret mounted amidships. In 1910 the US Navys Bureau of Ordnance had successfully designed and tested its 14-inch naval gun, the gun proved to have remarkable accuracy and uniformity of pattern. The New York class was the class of US dreadnought battleship design created, and work had already started on the sixth design. By 1910 no US dreadnought class battleship had yet hit the water, virtually the entire US Navy battle line was being designed by drawing on experience from pre-dreadnought designs or from observation of foreign battleship designsNew York-class battleship – USS New York, the lead ship of the class, shortly after entering service in 1915.
65. Alton B. Parker – Alton Brooks Parker was an American judge, best known as the Conservative Democrat who lost the presidential election of 1904 to incumbent Theodore Roosevelt in a landslide. In 1904, he defeated liberal publisher William Randolph Hearst for the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States, in the general election, Parker opposed popular incumbent Republican President Theodore Roosevelt. After a disorganized and ineffective campaign, Parker was defeated by 336 electoral votes to 140 and he then returned to practicing law. He managed John A. Dixs successful 1910 campaign for Governor of New York, Parker was born in Cortland, New York, to John Brooks Parker, a farmer, and Harriet F. Stratton. Both of his parents were educated and encouraged his reading from an early age. At the age of 12 or 13, Parker watched his father serve as a juror and was so fascinated by the proceedings that he resolved to become a lawyer, however, he trained initially as a teacher and taught in Binghamton. There he became engaged to Mary Louise Schoonmaker, the daughter of a man who owned property near his school, Parker married Schoonmaker in 1872 and became a clerk at Schoonmaker & Hardenburgh, a legal firm at which one of her relatives was the senior partner. He then enrolled at Albany Law School of Union University, New York, after graduating with an LL. B. degree in 1873, he practiced law in Kingston until 1878 as the senior partner of the firm Parker & Kenyon. Parker also became active with the Democratic Party and was a supporter of future New York governor. During this time, Parker also became a protege of David B, Hill, managing Hills 1884 gubernatorial campaign, Hill won in a landslide. After his election, Hill appointed Parker to fill an 1885 vacancy on the New York Supreme Court created by the death of Justice Theodore R. Westbrook, in 1886, Parker was elected to his own fourteen-year term in the seat. Three years later, Parker became a judge when Hill appointed him to the newly formed Second Department of the Appellate Division. In November 1897, Parker successfully ran for the post of Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, as a judge, Parker was notable for independently researching each case that he heard. He was generally considered to be pro-labor and was a supporter of social reform legislation. The decision was unpopular in the press and led to the passage of a law by the New York State Legislature the following year. In the same year, Parker upheld the sentence given to convicted murderer Martha Place. During his time as Chief Judge, Parker and his wife sold their Kingston home and bought an estate in Esopus on the Hudson River, the couple had one daughter and one son, the latter of whom died young of tetanus. The 1904 Democratic National Convention was held in July in St. Louis, Missouri, then hosting the 1904 Worlds FairAlton B. Parker – Parker/Davis campaign poster
66. Henry B. Payne – Payne was an American politician from Ohio. Moving to Ohio from his native New York in 1833, he established himself in law. After serving in the Ohio Senate, Payne was elected to a term in the United States House of Representatives in 1874. In the House, he worked unsuccessfully for a compromise in the debate over whether all of the currency should be backed by gold. He was defeated for reelection, but served on the Electoral Commission that convened in early 1877 to resolve the dispute over the results of the 1876 presidential election. He ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1880, but lost to Winfield Scott Hancock and he was elected to the United States Senate in 1884. His election by the Ohio legislature was tainted with charges of bribery, in the Senate, he voted for moderate tariff reforms and against the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, but was otherwise a reliable Democratic vote. He did not run for reelection, and died in 1896, Henry Payne was born in Hamilton in Madison County, New York, in 1810, the son of Elisha and Esther Payne. Both of his parents were Connecticut natives who had moved to New York in the 1790s, Payne attended the common schools and graduated from Hamilton College in 1832. After graduation, Payne read law in the Canandaigua office of John C, spencer, a Whig politician and future Secretary of War. While working there, Payne became good friends with Stephen A. Douglas, the future United States Senator and 1860 Democratic presidential candidate, in 1833, Payne moved to Cleveland, Ohio, which was then a town of just 3000 people. Douglas preceded him there, but was ill, and Paynes first task on arrival in Ohio was to nurse his friend back to health and he continued to study law, this time under Sherlock J. Andrews and in 1834 was admitted to the bar. He opened his own practice the same year, forming a partnership with future United States federal judge Hiram V. Willson, the firm became successful quickly, and within ten years Payne and Willson was among the top firms in Ohio. Paynes law practice continued to be successful through the early 1840s, instead, he devoted his time to business affairs and local politics. He began to promote the extension of railroads into Cleveland, along with a few associates, Payne founded the Cleveland and Columbus Railroad in 1851, and served as its president. He also invested in other local railroads. He resigned the presidency in 1854, but the following year became president of a different railroad. That same year, Payne became one of Clevelands first water works commissioners and he also invested in real estate, and in 1888 arranged for the construction of the Perry-Payne Building in the present-day Warehouse DistrictHenry B. Payne – Henry B. Payne
67. Pond Eddy Bridge – It is accessible from NY97 in Lumberland on the New York side and two dead-end local roads, Flagstone Road and Rosa Road on the Pennsylvania side. The bridge was built in 1903 by the Oswego Bridge Company to replace an old bridge that had washed away in a flood earlier in the year. It connected the quarries in Pennsylvania to New York. The bridge remained intact for years and, in 1963. In 1998, it was nominated for the U. S. National Register of Historic Places for its engineering significance, over the years, the bridges condition has deteriorated, weakening its retaining strength. The National Bridge Inventory Survey categorizes its condition as Structurally Deficient, in 2005, the town of Narrowsburg passed a resolution calling on the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation to replace the bridge. There has also been a movement to save the bridge. The bluestone quarries are no active, but the bridge still serves as the only access to 26 homes on the Pennsylvania side. Because of the state of the bridge, planning for its replacement began in 1999, settlement around Pond Eddy was triggered by the Delaware and Hudson Canal, which was constructed in the 1820s. The Erie Railroad, on the Pennsylvania side, also contributed to the communitys growth, after Pond Eddy continued to grow in both states, local officials decided a bridge should be erected to connect the two communities. The new bridge would make it easier to ship bluestone, slate, in 1870, a new bridge was funded with taxpayers money and the Town of Lumberland in New York helped build the new Pond Eddy Bridge. The new bridge was a suspension bridge, similar to those used by John Augustus Roebling. James D. Decker, then the Sullivan County sheriff and former Lumberland town supervisor was hired to supervise the construction of the bridge and he lived so close to the bridge site that it was soon nicknamed Deckers Bridge. When finished, the new bridge was 521 feet long and 12 feet wide and it stood 31 feet above the water, higher than most bridges on the Delaware. Historians believe that from the beginning of the life, it was toll-free for Lumberland residents. Eventually the town leased the bridge out to individuals, who collected tolls indiscriminately. During times when bridge could not be leased, the town retained control, the tollhouse was later removed and sold. Originally, the settlement of Pond Eddy on the Pennsylvania side was named Flagstone, a new railroad station was created in Pond Eddy on the Pennsylvania sidePond Eddy Bridge – from the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware River.
68. Murray Rothbard – Rothbard was the founder and leading theoretician of anarcho-capitalism, a staunch advocate of historical revisionism, and a central figure in the twentieth-century American libertarian movement. He wrote over twenty books on theory, revisionist history, economics. He called fractional-reserve banking a form of fraud and opposed central banking and he categorically opposed all military, political, and economic interventionism in the affairs of other nations. According to his protégé Hans-Hermann Hoppe, There would be no anarcho-capitalist movement to speak of without Rothbard, Rothbard was a heterodox political economist. Economist Jeffrey Herbener, who calls Rothbard his friend and intellectual mentor, Rothbard rejected mainstream economic methodologies and instead embraced the praxeology of his most important intellectual precursor, Ludwig von Mises. To promote his economic and political ideas, Rothbard joined Llewellyn H. Lew Rockwell, Jr. Murray Rothbards parents were David and Rae Rothbard, Jewish immigrants to the U. S. from Poland and Russia, respectively. Rothbard was born in the Bronx, but the family moved to an apartment on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, where he attended Birch Wathen, a private school on the Upper East Side. Rothbard later stated that he much preferred Birch Wathen to the debasing, Rothbard wrote of having grown up as a right-winger among friends and neighbors who were communists or fellow-travelers. Ll socialism seemed to me monstrously coercive and abhorrent and he attended Columbia University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics in 1945 and, eleven years later, his PhD in economics in 1956. The delay in receiving his PhD was due in part to conflict with his advisor, Joseph Dorfman, Burns was a longtime friend of the Rothbard family and their neighbor at their Manhattan apartment building. It was only after Burns went on leave from the Columbia faculty to head President Eisenhowers Council of Economic Advisors that Rothbards thesis was accepted and he received his doctorate. Rothbard later stated that all of his students there were extreme leftists. Rothbard attracted the attention of the William Volker Fund, a group that provided financial backing to promote various right-wing ideologies in the 1950s, for ten years, Rothbard was paid a retainer by the Volker Fund, which designated him a senior analyst. As Rothbard continued his work, he enlarged the project, the result was Rothbards book Man, Economy, and State, published in 1962. Upon its publication, Mises praised Rothbards work effusively, in 1953, in New York City, he married JoAnn Schumacher, whom he called Joey. JoAnn was his editor and an adviser, as well as hostess of his Rothbard Salon. They enjoyed a loving marriage, and Rothbard often called her the indispensable framework behind his life, according to Joey, patronage from the Volker Fund allowed Rothbard to work from home as a freelance theorist and pundit for the first fifteen years of their marriage. The Fund collapsed in 1962, leading Rothbard to seek employment from various New York academic institutions and he was offered a part-time position teaching economics to the engineering students of Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in 1966, at age 40Murray Rothbard – Murray N. Rothbard
69. Salt (2010 film) – Salt is a 2010 American action thriller film directed by Phillip Noyce, written by Kurt Wimmer, and starring Angelina Jolie, Liev Schreiber, Daniel Olbrychski, August Diehl and Chiwetel Ejiofor. Jolie plays Evelyn Salt, who is accused of being a Russian sleeper agent, originally written with a male protagonist, with Tom Cruise initially secured for the lead, the script was ultimately rewritten by Brian Helgeland for Jolie. Filming took place on location in Washington, D. C. the New York City area, action scenes were primarily performed with practical stunts, computer-generated imagery being used mostly for creating digital environments. The film had a panel at the San Diego Comic-Con on July 22 and was released in North America on July 23,2010, the DVD and Blu-ray Disc were released December 21,2010, and featured two alternate cuts providing different endings for the film. Evelyn Salt is being tortured in a North Korean prison on suspicion of being an American spy and her boyfriend, arachnologist Mike Krause, generates so much publicity that the CIA is forced to arrange a prisoner exchange, despite the agencys policy against it. Salts CIA colleague Ted Winter greets Salt at the border, as they drive away, Mike proposes marriage, despite Salts admission that she is in fact a CIA operative. Two years later, on Salt and Mikes wedding anniversary, a Russian defector named Oleg Vasilyevich Orlov walks in to Salts office, Salt interrogates him, with Winter and CIA counterintelligence officer Darryl Peabody observing. Orlov reveals that KA-12 is named Evelyn Salt, and lie detectors confirm his entire story, Peabody orders Salt be detained, while Orlov kills two agents and escapes. In the confusion, Salt is able to escape from the building, running barefoot through the street, while the CIA is searching for her, she discovers that her husband was kidnapped. Later at the funeral, Salt appears to succeed in killing President Matveyev, Salt escapes again and heads to a barge where Orlov is hiding with other sleeper agents. In a series of flashbacks, Salt recalls growing up in the Soviet Union, on the barge, Orlov welcomes her back and has Mike killed in front of her. When Salt shows no reaction, Orlov is convinced she is loyal and she is to rendezvous with another KA who will help her assassinate the American president. She then meets with KA Shnaider, who uses his cover as a NATO liaison to get Salt into the White House, once inside, Shnaider launches a suicide attack to force agents to move the President to an underground bunker, accompanied by Winter. Salt follows them and manages to enter the bunker before it is sealed, the U. S. President learns that Russia has mobilized its nuclear arsenal in response to their presidents death. He orders American nuclear weapons readied in response, CIA Agent Winter suddenly kills everyone except the President and introduces himself as Nikolai Tarkovsky, another member of the KA. Winter incapacitates the President and begins aiming nuclear missiles at Mecca, Winter refuses her entry and reveals that Mikes kidnapping and her blown cover were his idea. Winter plans to place blame for the nuclear attacks on Salt. Salt breaks into the room before he can launch the missiles, the two wrestle for control of the nuclear football, with Salt aborting the missile strikes before being capturedSalt (2010 film) – Theatrical poster
70. Saratoga campaign – The primary thrust of the campaign was planned and initiated by General John Burgoyne. Commanding a main force of some 8,000 men, he moved south in June from Quebec, boated up Lake Champlain to middle New York, then marched over the divide and he initially skirmished there with the Patriot defenders with mixed results. The elaborate plans drawn up in London all failed, Colonel Barry St. Leger had been assigned to move east through the Mohawk River valley on Albany, New York, but was forced to retreat during the siege of Fort Stanwix after losing his Indian allies. A last-minute effort to reinforce Burgoyne from New York City was made in early October, the American victory was an enormous morale boost to the fledgling nation. More important, it convinced France to enter the war in alliance with the United States, openly providing money, soldiers, and munitions, as well as fighting a naval war worldwide against Britain. In December 1776 General John Burgoyne met with Lord Germain, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, on November 30,1776, Howe—the British commander-in-chief in North America—wrote to Germain, outlining an ambitious plan for the 1777 campaign. Howe said that if Germain sent him reinforcements, he could launch multiple offensives, including sending 10,000 men up the Hudson River to take Albany. Then, in the autumn, Howe could move south and capture the U. S. capital of Philadelphia, therefore, Howe decided that he would make the capture of Philadelphia the primary object of the 1777 campaign. Howe sent Germain this revised plan, which Germain received on February 23,1777, Burgoyne, seeking to command a major force, proposed to isolate New England by an invasion from Quebec into New York. This had already been attempted by General Carleton in 1776, although he had stopped short of a full-scale invasion due to the lateness of the season. Carleton was heavily criticized in London for not taking advantage of the American retreat from Quebec and this, combined with rival Henry Clintons failed attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina, placed Burgoyne in a good position to get command of the 1777 northern campaign. Burgoyne presented a plan to Lord Germain on February 28,1777, Germain approved it. Both expeditions would converge upon Albany, where they would link up with troops from Howes army marching up the Hudson, control of the Lake Champlain-Lake George-Hudson River route from Canada to New York City would cut off New England from the rest of the American colonies. The last part of Burgoynes proposal, the advance by Howe up the Hudson from New York City, Germain approved Burgoynes plan after having received Howes letter detailing his proposed offensive against Philadelphia. Historian Robert Ketchum believes that Burgoyne would probably have been aware of the problems that lay ahead had he been notified of the Philadelphia plan. Whether Germain, Howe, and Burgoyne had the same expectations about the degree to which Howe was supposed to support the invasion from Quebec is also unclear, what is clear is that Germain either left his generals with too much latitude, or without a clearly defined overall strategy. In March 1777 Germain had approved of Howes Philadelphia expedition and did not include any express orders for Howe to go to Albany. Yet Germain also sent Howe a copy of his instructions to Carleton which plainly stated that the army was to make a junction with Howes army at AlbanySaratoga campaign – Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull
71. Cy Seymour – James Bentley Cy Seymour was an American center fielder and pitcher in Major League Baseball. From 1896 through 1913, Seymour played for the New York Giants, Baltimore Orioles, Cincinnati Reds, primarily a center fielder, Seymour retired with 1,724 hits and a lifetime batting average of.303. He was a pitcher for his first five seasons, ending his MLB career with a 61–56 win–loss record, only Babe Ruth retired with more combined wins and hits. Seymour is the Reds career leader in batting average and holds the Reds single-season record for batting average, Seymour played semi-professional baseball in Plattsburgh, New York, receiving a monthly salary of $1,000. He began his career in minor league baseball with Springfield Ponies of the Class-A Eastern League. Seymour signed with the New York Giants of the National League during the 1896 season, a sometimes wild pitcher, The New York Times described him as having a $10,000 arm and a $00,000 head. Seymour set a MLB record with three errors in one inning, a record tied by Tommy John. However, he pitched to an 18–14 win–loss record in 1897, with a 3.37 earned run average, while recording 149 strikeouts, good for second in the NL. In 1898, he won 25 games, had a 3.18 ERA, during the season, Seymour pitched three games in two days against the Baltimore Orioles. Orioles manager John McGraw later said that Seymour deserved the title of Iron Man more than Joe McGinnity. Seymour held out from the Giants for the first month of the 1899 season in a dispute, eventually signing for $2,000. He finished second in the NL in strikeouts with 142, Seymour was briefly demoted to the minor leagues after walking 11 batters in a victory against the St. Louis Perfectos on June 7,1900. Due to injuries and the ineffectiveness of the Giants outfielders, the team began to play Seymour in the outfield, Seymour last pitched for the Giants that season, at which point he converted into an outfielder full-time due to injury from throwing the screwball. With the formation of the American League as a competitor to the NL, McGraw, remembering Seymours toughness in previous seasons, signed Seymour to his team, the Baltimore Orioles, before the 1901 season. Seymour batted.303 with the Orioles that year, by 1902, the franchise began to fall into significant debt. Joe Kelley, star player for the Orioles and son-in-law of part-owner John Mahon, unable to afford that debt, Mahon purchased shares of the team from Kelley and player-manager McGraw, who had resigned from the team and signed with the Giants. With this, Mahon became the majority shareholder, on July 17,1902, Mahon sold his interest in the Orioles to Andrew Freedman, principal owner of the Giants, and John T. Brush, principal owner of the Cincinnati Reds, also of the NL. That day, Freedman and Brush released Seymour, McGraw, Kelley, McGinnity, Roger Bresnahan, Jack Cronin, and Dan McGann from their Oriole contractsCy Seymour – Cy Seymour
72. Sonia Sotomayor – Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. She has the distinction of being its first justice of Hispanic heritage, the first Latina, its third female justice, Sotomayor, along with John Roberts and Elena Kagan, is one of the youngest justices on the Supreme Court. Sotomayor was born in The Bronx, New York City, to Puerto Rican-born parents and her father died when she was nine, and she was subsequently raised by her mother. Sotomayor graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1976 and received her J. D. from Yale Law School in 1979 and she was an advocate for the hiring of Latino faculty at both schools. She worked as an assistant district attorney in New York for four and she played an active role on the boards of directors for the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, the State of New York Mortgage Agency, and the New York City Campaign Finance Board. Sotomayor was nominated to the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George H. W. Bush in 1991, confirmation followed in 1992. In 1997, she was nominated by President Bill Clinton to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and her nomination was slowed by the Republican majority in the United States Senate, but she was eventually confirmed in 1998. On the Second Circuit, Sotomayor heard appeals in more than 3,000 cases, Sotomayor has taught at the New York University School of Law and Columbia Law School. In May 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Sotomayor to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice David Souter and her nomination was confirmed by the Senate in August 2009 by a vote of 68–31. Sotomayor has supported, while on the court, the liberal bloc of justices when they divide along the commonly perceived ideological lines. Sonia Maria Sotomayor was born in the New York City borough of The Bronx, the two left Puerto Rico separately, met, and married during World War II after Celina served in the Womens Army Corps. Juan Sotomayor had an education, did not speak English. Sonias younger brother, Juan Sotomayor, later became a physician and university professor in the Syracuse, New York, Sotomayor was raised a Catholic and grew up in Puerto Rican communities in the South Bronx and East Bronx, she self-identifies as a Nuyorican. The family lived in a South Bronx tenement before moving in 1957 to the well-maintained, racially and ethnically mixed and her relative proximity to Yankee Stadium led to her becoming a lifelong fan of the New York Yankees. The extended family got together frequently and regularly visited Puerto Rico during summers, Sonia grew up with an alcoholic father and a mother who was emotionally distant, she felt closest to her grandmother, who she later said gave her a source of protection and purpose. Sonia was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age seven, and her father died of heart problems at age 42, when she was nine years old. After this, she became fluent in English and she reflected in 1998, I was going to college and I was going to become an attorney, and I knew that when I was ten. Celina Sotomayor put great stress on the value of education, she bought the Encyclopædia Britannica for her children, for grammar school, Sotomayor attended Blessed Sacrament School in Soundview, where she was valedictorian and had a near-perfect attendance recordSonia Sotomayor – The Honorable Sonia Sotomayor
73. Telluride House – Founded in 1910 by American industrialist L. L. A fully residential intellectual society, the Telluride House takes as its pillars democratic self-governance, communal living, Nunn went on to found Deep Springs College in 1917. The Telluride Association founded and maintained other branches thereafter, two of which—at Cornell University and at the University of Michigan—are still active, the Association also runs free selective programs for high school students, including the Telluride Association Summer Program. In its more than a century of operation, the membership has included some of Cornells most notable alumni. Located in the universitys West Campus, the Telluride House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, lucien Lucius Nunn was an American industrialist and entrepreneur involved in the early electrification of the mining industry. In the Institute, Nunns students were trained in engineering and the liberal arts, upon completion of their institute program, the student workers were sent to various academic institutions on a scholarship from Nunn to further their education. Many of these went on to study at Cornell Universitys engineering programs. On Cornell Universitys campus in Ithaca, Nunn built the Telluride House as a residence for bright young men. The house started electing members from disciplines outside engineering within years of its founding, with a solely male membership for its first half century of existence, the house would start electing female members to its residential scholarship in the 1960s, starting with U. S. The Telluride House is located on Cornell Universitys West Campus, directly downhill from Willard Straight Hall and it has been described as an Arts and Crafts style mansion outfitted with expensive Mission style and Stickley furniture, with high ceilings and large windows overlooking sloping lawns. A 1980s project of the Telluride Association renovated the House and furnished it in accordance with its architectural style. A year later, it was placed on the register, james Atlas, New York Times Magazine editor, described the House in the early 1970s as a commune for philosophy students and dubbed Allan Bloom the Houses resident Socrates. Frances Perkins, the longest serving U. S. Secretary of Labor and the first woman appointed to the U. S. Cabinet, was elected to the house in 1960, where she resided until her death in 1965. Her time at the house was dubbed by one of her biographers as the happiest phase of her life, Perkins reportedly described her happiness at her invitation to the house to her friends saying, I felt like a bride on her wedding night. She was heavily involved in the houses self-governance process, attended weekly meetings, tended the house garden. Richard Feynman likewise held a view of the house and of his tenure as Telluride House Faculty Fellow. He enjoyed the convenience and said that it’s there that I did the fundamental work for which he won the Nobel Prize. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick met her husband Hal Sedgwick at the Telluride House, in her time at Cornell, women had only recently been allowed to join the Telluride House and it still had a predominantly male membershipTelluride House – Cornell Branch of the Telluride Association (Telluride House) in Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
74. Utica, New York – Utica is a city in the Mohawk Valley and the county seat of Oneida County, New York, United States. The tenth-most-populous city in New York, its population was 62,235 in the 2010 U. S. census, located on the Mohawk River at the foot of the Adirondack Mountains, Utica is approximately 90 miles northwest of Albany and 45 miles east of Syracuse. Formerly a river settlement inhabited by the Mohawk tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy, Utica attracted European-American settlers from New England during and after the American Revolution. In the 19th century, immigrants strengthened its position as a city between Albany and Syracuse on the Erie and Chenango Canals and the New York Central Railroad. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the citys infrastructure contributed to its success as a manufacturing center, Uticas 20th-century political corruption and organized crime gave it the nicknames Sin City, and later, the city that God forgot. Like other Rust Belt cities, Utica had a downturn beginning in the mid-20th century. Several theories exist about the history of the name Utica, prior to construction of the fort, the Mohawk, Onondaga and Oneida tribes had occupied this area south of the Great Lakes region as early as 4000 BC. The Mohawk were the largest and most powerful tribe in the part of the Mohawk Valley. Colonists had a fur trade with them, in exchange for firearms. The land housing Old Fort Schuyler was part of a 20, since the fort was located near several trails, its position—on a bend at a shallow portion of the Mohawk River—made it an important fording point. The Mohawk called the bend Unundadages, and the Mohawk word appears on the citys seal, during the American Revolution, border raids from British-allied Iroquois tribes harried the settlers on the frontier. George Washington ordered Sullivans Expedition, Rangers, to enter Central New York, more than 40 Iroquois villages were destroyed and their winter stores, causing starvation. In the aftermath of the war, numerous European-American settlers migrated into the state, in 1794 a state road, Genesee Road, was built from Utica west to the Genesee River. That year a contract was awarded to the Mohawk Turnpike and Bridge Company to extend the road northeast to Albany, the Seneca Turnpike was key to Uticas development, replacing a worn footpath with a paved road. The village became a rest and supply area along the Mohawk River for goods, the boundaries of the village of Utica were defined in an act passed by the New York State Legislature on April 3,1798. Utica expanded its borders in subsequent 1805 and 1817 charters, on April 5,1805, the villages eastern and western boundaries were expanded, and on April 7,1817, Utica separated from Whitestown on its west. After completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, the growth was stimulated again. The municipal charter was passed by the legislature on February 13,1832Utica, New York
75. Chien-Shiung Wu – Chien-Shiung Wu was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project, where she helped develop the process for separating uranium metal into uranium-235 and she is best known for conducting the Wu experiment, which contradicted the hypothetical law of conservation of parity. This discovery resulted in her colleagues Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen-Ning Yang winning the 1957 Nobel Prize in physics and her expertise in experimental physics evoked comparisons to Marie Curie. Her nicknames include the First Lady of Physics, the Chinese Madame Curie, Chien-Shiung Wu was born in the town of Liuhe in Taicang, Jiangsu province, China, on May 31,1912, the second of three children of Wu Zhong-Yi and Fan Fu-Hua. Accordingly, she had a brother, Chien-Ying, and a younger brother. Wu and her father were close and he encouraged her interests passionately, creating an environment where she was surrounded by books, magazines. Wu received her school education at Ming De School, a school for girls founded by her father. She left her hometown in 1923 at the age of 11 to go to the Suzhou Womens Normal School No.2 and this was a boarding school with classes for teacher training as well as for regular high school. Admission to teacher training was more competitive, as it did not charge for tuition or board, although her family could have afforded to pay, Wu chose the more competitive option, and was ranked ninth among around 10,000 applicants. In 1929 Wu graduated at the top of her class, and was admitted to the National Central University in Nanjing, according to the governmental regulations of the time, teacher-training college students wanting to move on to the universities needed to serve as schoolteachers for one year. In Wus case, this was only nominally enforced and she went to teach at the Public School in Shanghai, the president of which at the time was the philosopher Hu Shih, whose class she took. From 1930 to 1934, Wu studied at the National Central University, first in mathematics and she became involved in student politics. Relations between China and Japan were tense at this time, and students were urging the government to take a line with Japan. That being the case, she was not to neglect her studies. She led protests that included a sit-in at the Presidential Palace in Nanjing, for two years after graduation, she did graduate-level study in physics and worked as an assistant at the Zhejiang University. She became a researcher at the Institute of Physics of the Academia Sinica and her supervisor was Professor Gu Jing-Wei, who had earned her PhD abroad at the University of Michigan, and encouraged Wu to do the same. Wu was accepted by the University of Michigan, and her uncle, Wu Zhou-Zhi and she embarked for the United States with a female friend, Dong Ruo-Fen, a chemist from Taicang, on the SS President Hoover in August 1936. Her parents and uncle saw her off and she would never see her parents againChien-Shiung Wu – Chien-Shiung Wu in 1958 at Columbia University
76. Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium – The Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium was a tuberculosis sanatorium established in Saranac Lake, New York in 1885 by Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau. After Trudeaus death in 1915, the name was changed to the Trudeau Sanatorium. It was listed under the name on the National Register of Historic Places in 1995. Trudeau was born in 1848 in New York City to a family of physicians, during his late teens, his elder brother James contracted tuberculosis and Edward nursed him until his death three months later. At twenty, he enrolled in the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University and he was diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1873. Following conventional thinking of the times, he went to live in the Adirondack Mountains and he spent as much time as possible in the open and subsequently regained his health. In 1876 he moved to Saranac Lake and established a medical practice. In 1882, Trudeau read about Prussian Dr. Hermann Brehmers success treating tuberculosis with the rest cure in cold, following this example, Trudeau founded the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium in February,1885. The first patients were two sisters who had been factory workers in New York City and they were treated in a one-room cottage named Little Red, built for $350 on land donated by the guides and residents of the village. As the sanitorium grew, it would be supported at first by wealthy sportsmen that Trudeau had met at nearby Paul Smiths Hotel, early contributors included John W. Minturn, Anson Phelps Stokes, and Whitelaw Reid. While the sanitarium did not offer its services free-of-charge, it treated patients at less than cost. Many physicians and staff members served without pay, and in later years Trudeau commented that he had never been able to pay his staff adequately, like Trudeau himself, a number of physicians and nurses were themselves infected with tuberculosis. Patients included authors Allen Seager and Walker Percy, Canadian physician and medical innovator Norman Bethune, in time, far more patients would be drawn to the area than the Sanitarium could handle. Many patients were treated in the small, often family-run, cure cottages that developed in the area to meet the demand, the Trudeau Sanatorium closed in 1954, after the discovery of effective antibiotic treatments for tuberculosis. The property was sold by Trudeaus grandson, Dr. Francis B, Trudeau, Jr. to the American Management Association in 1957. A number of the buildings have been torn down, and many more have been badly renovated. They are not generally open to the public, but tours are offered by Historic Saranac Lake, bonafide, John A. Mary Hotaling, and Rachel D. BlivenNational Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation—Cure Industry Resources in the Village of Saranac Lake, Essex and Franklin Co. NY,1992 Cole, Elizabeth, Fifty Years at Trudeau Sanatorium, Saranac Lake, NY, at GoogleBooks Gallos, Phillip L. Cure Cottages of Saranac Lake, Historic Saranac Lake,1985, ISBN 0-9615159-0-2Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium – Trudeau Sanatorium
77. Dean Alfange – Born in the Ottoman Empire to two native Greek parents, Alfange remained involved in Greek-American organizations for much of his life, as well as activist Zionist groups. He was a prominent liberal legal commentator who supported the notion of judicial activism and he ran for a number of offices, including Governor of New York, where his candidacy split the liberal vote, allowing Thomas E. Dewey to win the governorship. He also ran for the United States House of Representatives, and he is well remembered for a short piece he wrote entitled either An Americans Creed or simply My Creed. The Creed espouses the ideas of self-reliance and freedom, Alfange was born Constantine Alflangi in Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire, to two ethnic Greek parents. His parents moved to New York in 1902, where they raised him in Utica and he graduated from Utica Free Academy in 1918, and joined the United States Army during World War I. After the war, he attended Hamilton College and graduated in 1922 with honors in philosophy and he received a juris doctor from Columbia University Law School and became a lawyer in Manhattan. He was married to Thalia Perry, with whom he had one child, Dean Alfange, Alfange died October 24,1989 in Manhattan from cancer. Alfange received his degree from Columbia University Law School, and was admitted to the American Bar Association in 1925 and he criticized the United States Supreme Court for its treatment of New Deal programs, urging they adopt a more progressive attitude towards the policies. He contended that the programs should not be evaluated solely on their legality and he supported Trumans notion of a Living Constitution. Later in his career, Alfange served as the Deputy New York State Attorney General. In 1940, Franklin Delano Roosevelt made Alfange chairman of the Democratic foreign-language speakers bureau of his election campaign. In 1941, he received the nomination for the United States Congress running out of the Upper East Side, then known as the Silk Stocking District, Alfange served as head of the American Labor Party for several years in the late 1930s. In 1942, he received the nomination for Governor of New York, mayor of New York City Fiorello La Guardia supported Alfange in this election. Alfange finishing in place with 409,047 votes, or about 17.7 percent of votes cast. Alfange led a walkout against the Labor Party in 1944 when pro and this walkout led to the formation of the Liberal Party of New York. Then Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller named Alfange head of the New York State Racing and Wagering Board in the early 1970s and he served until Hugh L. Carey abolished the board in 1975. Alfange served in a number of activist and ethnic organizations, including heading the American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association and he also served as president of La Guardia Memorial House, a settlement house, for more than 40 years. Alfange headed the Zionist organization Committee to Arm the Jewish State and he also served as the chairman of the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, a group that sought to rescue victims of the then ongoing HolocaustDean Alfange – Alfange in 1922
78. Charles Alston – Charles Henry Alston was an African-American painter, sculptor, illustrator, muralist and teacher who lived and worked in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem. Alston was active in the Harlem Renaissance, Alston was the first African-American supervisor for the Works Progress Administrations Federal Art Project, Alston designed and painted murals at the Harlem Hospital and the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Building. In 1990 Alstons bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. became the first image of an African American displayed at the White House. Charles Henry Alston was born on November 28,1907, in Charlotte, North Carolina, to Reverend Primus Priss Alston and Anna Elizabeth Miller Alston, only three survived past infancy, his sister Rousmaniere, and his brothers Wendell and Charles. He was described as a man, an African American who dedicated his skills to the furtherance of the black race. Reverend Alston met his wife when she was a student at his school, Charles was nicknamed Spinky by his father, and kept the nickname as an adult. In 1910, when Charles was three, his father died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage, locals described him in admiration as the Booker T. Washington of Charlotte. In 1913 Anna Alston married Harry Bearden, through the marriage, the future artist Romare Bearden became Charles’ cousin. The two Bearden families lived across the street from each other, the friendship between Romare and Charles would last a lifetime, as a child Alston was inspired by his older brother Wendells drawings of trains and cars, which the young artist copied. Charles also played with clay, creating a sculpture of North Carolina, as an adult he reflected on his memories of sculpting with clay as a child, I’d get buckets of it and put it through strainers and make things out of it. I think thats the first art experience I remember, making things and his mother was a skilled embroiderer and took up painting at the age of 75. His father was good at drawing, wooing Alstons mother with small sketches in the medians of letters he wrote her. In 1915 the family moved to New York, as many African-American families did during the Great Migration, Alstons step-father, Henry Bearden, left before his wife and children to secure a job overseeing elevator operations and the newsstand staff at the Bretton Hotel in the Upper West Side. The family lived in Harlem and was considered middle-class, during the Great Depression, the people of Harlem suffered economically. The stoic strength seen within the community was later expressed in Charles’ fine art, at Public School 179 in Manhattan, the boys artistic abilities were recognized and he was asked to draw all of the school posters during his years there. Alston graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was nominated for excellence and was the art editor of the schools magazine. He was a member of the Arista - National Honor Society and also studied drawing, in high school he was given his first oil paints and learned about his aunt Bessye Beardens art salons, which stars like Duke Ellington and Langston Hughes attended. After graduating in 1925, he attended Columbia University, turning down a scholarship to the Yale School of Fine Arts, Alston entered the pre-architectural program only to lose interest upon seeing the lack of success many African-American architects had in the fieldCharles Alston – Charles Alston in 1939
79. Maitland Armstrong – David Maitland Armstrong was Charge dAffaires to the Papal States, American Consul in Rome, and Consul General in Rome. He was also an important stained-glass artist, Armstrong was born in Danskammer, Newburgh, New York in 1836 and educated at Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut from 1854. He was the youngest of four sons of Edward Armstrong, a prominent local farmer and his grandfather was Colonel William Armstrong, who came from Scotland with the British Army during the American Revolution. His grandfather was present at the Battle of Yorktown, as was his wifes grandfather, Colonel Nicholas Fish, in his memoirs, Maitland wonders if they ever met. His brothers were William Henry, Gouverneur, and John Armstrong, William Henry Armstrong lived at Gomez Mill House from 1835 to 1904, the earliest surviving Jewish residence in the US, and now a museum, with several of Maitland Armstrongs artworks on display. In the autumn of 1858, Maitland Armstrong sailed to Italy, arriving just before the new year, Armstrong was American Consul in Rome, 1869–71, Charge dAffaires to the Papal States 1869 and Consul General in Rome 1871–73. Armstrongs duties required him to make the acquaintance of as many Americans in Rome as possible, many were artists who became lifelong friends, such as Elihu Veder, Frederick Crowninshield, Charles C. Coleman, George Yewell, William Gedney Bunce, George Inness, Armstrong was appointed Director of American Fine Arts at the 1878 Paris Exposition Universelle. When it came to the hang, works were positioned according to merit with the best on the line and this engendered resentment from established artists who found their work placed further up the wall. At this time, former U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant was on a world tour. Armstrong was awarded the Légion dhonneur for his work on the Exposition, Armstrongs paintings were mainly of landscapes and picturesque country scenes. From the 1880s, Armstrong worked with his friends Louis C, in 1887 he formed his own firm, Maitland Armstrong and Co. of New York. Later, his daughter Helen Maitland Armstrong joined him in the business, works created included important installations at the Appellate Court Building in New York, Vanderbilts All Souls Church in Asheville, and the Church of the Ascension in New York. Armstrong was one of the foremost exponents of American-style opalescent stained glass during the American Renaissance or Gilded Age and he had already been influenced by classical art even before he arrived in Italy. One of his professors at college upbraided him for choosing to paint a copy of a Venus Rising From The Sea rather than studying William Whewells Elements of Morality as he should have done, Armstrong married Helen Neilson, a descendant of Peter Stuyvesant and a niece of Hamilton Fish. They had seven children, six of whom survived to adulthood, Helen Maitland Armstrong followed in her fathers footsteps in the family business. The other children were Marion Howard Armstrong, who married Alfred Edey, Noel Maitland Armstrong and he died at his home at 58 West Tenth Street, New York, which is now sometimes known as the D. Maitland Armstrong House. Armstrong purchased number 58 in 1890 and refurbished it, adding decorative flourishes in leaded stained glass, the Tenth Street Studio Building, was built at number 51 in 1858 for artists, and became the centre of artistic life in New York for the rest of that centuryMaitland Armstrong – David Maitland Armstrong
80. Congregation B'nai Israel Synagogue – Congregation Bnai Israel Synagogue is located on Wagner Avenue in Fleischmanns, New York, United States. It is a building dating to the 1920s, built two years after local farmers founded the congregation. Originally an Orthodox synagogue, it has since become Conservative and it is the only synagogue in the Catskills with an exposed truss roof. In 2002, the synagogue was added to the National Register of Historic Places, after an effort by Bernard Rosenberg. Congregation Bnai Israel Synagogue is the synagogue in Delaware County to be listed. The neighborhood is residential, with many old boardinghouses from the late 19th. Behind the houses across the street the ground slopes up to the NY28 state highway, to the west is the park created by Julius Fleischmann, son of Charles, after whom the village, originally called Griffin Corner, were renamed. Behind the synagogue, to its north, a grove of trees surrounds the rear of the building, buffering it from the Bush Kill. As a consequence of being on the flood plain, the synagogues lot is flat and grassy. The building itself is a one-and-a-half-story three-by-five-bay frame structure on a block foundation. It is sided in clapboard and topped by a roof with overhanging eaves supported by brackets. Along the south and side elevations the bays are divided by pilasters with Doric capitals supporting an architrave with wide frieze. On the south facade the windows are in deep molded lancet arch frames, below the sashes the eight panes are filled with colored glass, above them they have a Star of David design filled with yellow glass surrounded by blue. Larger versions of design are in the circular windows at each gable end. A set of steps leads up to the main entrance. Inside, a vestibule, with a kitchen on the side. It has a window to the kitchen on a rear wall that replicates the sanctuarys original rear wall. Another set of doors leads into the sanctuary, which occupies the rear third of the buildingCongregation B'nai Israel Synagogue – South elevation and partial west profile, 2008
81. Bill Barber (musician) – John William Barber, known as Bill Barber or Billy Barber, is considered by many to be the first person to play tuba in modern jazz. He is best known for his work with Miles Davis on albums such as Birth of the Cool, Sketches of Spain, Barber was born John William Barber in Hornell, New York, near Rochester, in 1920. He started playing tuba in high school and studied at the Juilliard School of Music, after graduating, he travelled west to Kansas City, Missouri, where he played with the Kansas City Philharmonic and various ballet and theatre orchestras. He joined the United States Army in 1942 and played in Pattons 7th army band for three years, Barber was one of the first tuba players to play in a modern jazz style, playing solos and participating in intricate ensemble pieces. Barber became a member of Miles Daviss nonet in 1949 in what became known as the Birth of the Cool recording sessions. Barber also played on John Coltranes album Africa/Brass, Barber completed a masters degree from the Manhattan School of Music and became an elementary school music teacher at Copiague, New York. He continued to play where possible including with the Goldman Band, in 1992, he recorded and toured with a nonet led by Gerry Mulligan, reworking material from Birth of the Cool. From 1998 to 2004 he was part of The Seatbelts, New York musicians who played the music of the Japanese anime Cowboy Bebop and he died of heart failure in June 2007 in Bronxville, New York. His granddaughter is filmmaker Stephanie BarberBill Barber (musician) – Billy Barber
82. Frank Barbour – Francis Edward Frank Barbour was an American football player, coach, and businessman. He played quarterback for the Yale University football team in 1890 and 1891 and helped lead the 1891 Yale team to a perfect 13–0 record and a national championship. He was the coach of the University of Michigan football team in 1892 and 1893. Barbour later had a business career. After spending 17 years with the New York Central Railroad, he joined the Beech-Nut Packing Company in 1910 and he remained with Beech-Nut for 38 years and served as chairman of the board from 1946 to 1948. Barbour was born in Bangor, Maine in 1870 and his father, William McLeod Barbour, was a minister who emigrated from Scotland to the United States in 1851, and became a professor of theology at Yale University. His mother was Eliza A. Barbour, a native of New York, at the time of the 1880 Census, Barbour was ten years old and residing in New Haven, Connecticut with his parents and four older siblings. Barbour attended the schools in New Haven, and subsequently enrolled at the Phillips Exeter Academy. He was the captain of Exeters football team in 1888, Barbour attended Yale University and graduated Ph. B. at Yales Sheffield Scientific School in 1892. While at Yale, he was the quarterback of the Yale Bulldogs football teams of 1890 and 1891, the 1891 Yale team was coached by Walter Camp and included College Football Hall of Fame inductees, Pudge Heffelfinger, Frank Hinkey, Josh Hartwell and Lee McClung. With Barbour as the quarterback, the 1891 team finished with a perfect 13–0 record. In November 1891, The New York Times wrote, Barbour has made great improvements since last year and he is cool, passes well and sure, uses his signals to good advantage and is an excellent player. He is considered a superior player to the Harvard quarterback. In 1892, Barbour was hired as the football coach at the University of Michigan. He was the second head football coach. In the three years before Barbours arrival, Michigan had played a total of 17 games, as the coach of the 1892 Michigan Wolverines football team, Barbour expanded the teams schedule to twelve games and took the team on its first extended road trip to the West. Over the course of a period from October 15 to 29,1892, Barbours team played five road games against Wisconsin, Minnesota, DePauw, Purdue. The 1892 team also defeated Chicago, 18–10, in a game played at Toledo, Ohio, Barbour returned the following year as the coach of the 1893 Michigan Wolverines football teamFrank Barbour – Frank Barbour
83. Theodore B. Basselin – Basselin was an American lumber magnate, best remembered for an endowed scholarship he created at the Theological College of the Catholic University of America. The Basselin scholarship has funded the education of many notable American churchmen. Basselin was born on March 24,1851 in Grostenchen, now Grostenquin and he emigrated to the United States at the age of three with his parents, Dominique Basselin and his mother, Anna Basselin. His father died when he was ten years old, and his mother raised him in the principles of business as he ran the general store. Basselin attended Niagara University, graduating at the age of twenty-two before returning to his town of Croghan, New York. He quickly accumulated a fortune in the trade, owning several thousands of acres of timberland. An innovation which contributed to his success was his practice of allowing felled hemlock logs to rot before stripping them of their bark for use in leather production and this allowed him to turn a waste product into a source of income. Basselin died at his home in Croghan on April 21,1914 from Brights disease, Basselin died a millionaire, and left a generous will. He gave each of his two cousins, his living relatives, $100,000 each. He left money to support his nurse, housekeeper, and barn man for the rest of their lives and he was especially generous to the Roman Catholic Church, leaving $100,000 to the Order of Friars Minor in Croghan for the creation of a college in the town. One hundred and ten thousand dollars went to erect Basselin Hall, Basselin is also remembered as one of the most influential citizens of Croghan, New York. His mansion and family still stand as landmarks in the town today. Theological Colleges Basselin Program The Basselin Foundation of the Catholic University of AmericaTheodore B. Basselin – Theodore B. Basselin
84. Bluff Point Light – It is now part of Adirondack State Park and operated as a museum by the Clinton County Historical Association, an affiliate of the Adirondack Coast Cultural Alliance. Bluff Point Light, for which the United States Congress approved $15,000 in funding in 1870, with a base of blue limestone, the grounds also include a wooden shed, a cistern and a privy. For almost sixty years, the lighthouse and its fifth order Frensel lens guided ships through the channel between Valcour Island and New York State. In an unusual position for a woman at that time, Herwerths wife Mary was given command of the lighthouse, in 1930, the lighthouse ceased operation when a steel tower with an automated light was built to the south of the lighthouse, rendering the lighthouse obsolete. The lighthouse remained unlit until 2002 when the United States Coast Guard lit it in August 2002, after the lighthouse was taken out of service, it was purchased by a dentist from Massachusetts who used it as a summer residence. Since that time, the Clinton County Historical Association worked to restore the lighthouse, in 1999, the Association was given an Adirondack Architectural Heritage Award for their stewardship of the lighthouse. Great Lakes Lighthouses, American and Canadian, A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes Lighthouses, U. S. Coast Guard Aids to Navigation, A Historical Bibliography. United States Coast Guard Historians Office, Great Lakes Lighthouses Encyclopedia Hardback ISBN 1-55046-399-3 The Bluff Point Lighthouse at Valcour IslandBluff Point Light – Bluff Point Lighthouse
85. Anne Lynch Botta – Anne Charlotte Lynch Botta was an American poet, writer, teacher and socialite whose home was the central gathering place of the literary elite of her era. She was born Anne Charlotte Lynch in Bennington, Vermont and her father was Patrick Lynch, of Dublin, Ireland, who took part in the United Irishmen Rebellion of 1798. For this, he was imprisoned and then banished from Ireland, Patrick Lynch and Charlotte Gray married in 1812. Along with their daughter Anne, they had a son, Thomas Rawson Lynch, lynchs father died in 1819, shipwrecked off the coast of Puerto Principe, in the West Indies. After the death of her father, the moved to Hartford, Connecticut. When she was sixteen she was sent to the Albany Female Academy and she moved to Providence, Rhode Island with her mother in 1838, where she continued to teach. In 1841, she compiled and edited The Rhode Island Book and she also began to invite these writers to her home for her evening receptions. It was said in 1843, that the very best literary society of Providence could be found in the parlor of Miss Lynch, in 1845, Lynch met the famed actress Fanny Kemble, who became very attached to her and introduced her to a wider circle of literary friends. In the same year she moved to Manhattan with her mother, in New York, she also continued her literary receptions which she held every Saturday evening. It was at one of these receptions that she introduced the unknown Edgar Allan Poe to the society of New York. In 1848, her book Poems by Anne C, Lynch, was published by George P. Putnam. Edgar Allan Poe said of her, She is chivalric, self-sacrificing, equal to any fate, capable even of martyrdom and she has a hobby, and this is, the idea of duty. Lynch traveled to Europe in 1853, where she met Vincenzo Botta, Mrs. Botta told an intimate friend of her marriage, it satisfied her judgement, pleased her fancy, and, above all, filled her heart. For many years she was a well-known and popular leader in society and she hosted intellectual gatherings, seemly without the least bit of effort or pretension, at her home on West 37th Street. Unlike other salons, which had more to do with seeing and being seen by the society of New York, her receptions provided a creative space in which artists could meet. It was said of her salons that no one was either neglected or treated like a celebrity, and every one went away feeling stimulated, refreshed and her friend Kate Sanborn started her literary lecturing career at these receptions. Said a Boston writer, It was not so much what Mrs. Botta did for literature with her own pen, as what she helped others to do, that will make her name a part of the literary history of the country. In 1860, Mrs. Botta published the Handbook of Universal Literature and she wrote, This work was begun many years ago, as a literary exercise, to meet the personal requirements of the writerAnne Lynch Botta – Painting of Anne C. Lynch Botta, c. 1847
86. Bonaventure Broderick – While restored to the Curia, Broderick died before he became a diocesan ordinary. Bonaventure Broderick was born in Hartford, Connecticut and he was the son of John Harris Broderick and Margaret Healy. Broderick completed his seminary studies at St. Charles College in Ellicott City. The bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford sent him to the Pontifical Athenaeum S. Apollinare of Propaganda Fide while a seminarian at the North American College, in 1897, Broderick earned his PhD. He also earned a Doctor of Theology at the same college, on July 25,1896, Broderick was ordained a priest for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford by then Bishop Francesco di Paola Cassetta, who was the Patriarch of Jerusalem and Viceregent of Rome. Broderick returned to the diocese and was assigned as a pastor in West Hartford, from 1898 to 1900, he was a faculty member at St. Thomas Seminary at Hartford, Connecticut. When his former Italian instructor, Bishop Donato Sbarretti was appointed as the ordinary of the Archdiocese of San Cristóbal de la Habana, on June 25,1900, Broderick became the administrator of St. Francis de Sales Church in Cuba. He would later become the administrator of San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary, on May 20,1902, Broderick represented the Catholic Church recognizing the establishment of the Republic of Cuba. While in Cuba, Broderick had to settle claims against the United States government because of damage done to property during the Spanish–American War. There were rumors his brother was involved with a government contract to install a system in Havana. Bonaventure Broderick sued his brother, David A. Broderick, in a Hartford, Connecticut superior court over some Cuba contracts and it was unclear why his superiors were angry with Broderick. On September 7,1903, Broderick was appointed as the Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of San Cristóbal de la Habana, on October 28,1903 he was consecrated as the Coadjutor Bishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana. His Principal Consecrator was Archbishop Placide Louis Chapelle with Archbishop Francisco de Paula Barnada y Aguilar as the Principal Co-Consecrator, on March 1,1905, Broderick resigned as the Coadjutor Bishop due to a misunderstanding with Pope Pius X and the Vatican over the collection of some funds. In November 1939, the Vatican asked Spellman to rehabilate Broderick, Broderick resumed his public role as a bishop and was made a chaplain of a hospital in Riverdale, New York. On November 18,1943, Broderick died with the title of Coadjutor Bishop Emeritus of the San Cristóbal de la Habana ArchdioceseBonaventure Broderick – Styles of Bonaventure Broderick
87. Josephine Brown – Elizabeth Josephine Brown was the daughter and biographer of escaped African-American slave William Wells Brown and his first wife Elizabeth Schooner. Josephines account, Biography of an American Bondman, by His Daughter, was published in Boston by R. F. Wallcut in 1856. It was long believed to be the first biography written by an African American woman, but is now known to have predated by Susan Pauls Memoir of James Jackson. Biography of an American Bondman draws heavily on and generally parallels William Wells Browns own account of his life, Narrative of William W. Brown, A Fugitive Slave. However, Josephine was forthcoming about details of abuse and mistreatment which Wells Browns account does not include and she also expands the account to include Browns life in Europe. Josephines father, William Wells Brown, was one of seven children born in slavery to Elizabeth, born in 1814, William was acknowledged as the son of George W. Higgins, a relative of Browns owner. In 1834, Brown escaped to the north and settled in Cleveland, there he married his first wife Elizabeth Schooner of Scipio Center, Seneca County, Ohio who was of mixed African-American and Native American ancestry. Two daughters were born to the Browns while they lived in Cleveland and their first daughter, born in 1835, died while still a baby. Their second daughter, Clarissa, was born in the spring of 1836 and that summer, the Browns moved to Buffalo, New York. The Brown family were back in Buffalo in time for the 1840 Federal Census. Another daughter, Henrietta Helen, was born in 1842 and died in 1844, in 1845, the Browns moved to Farmington, New York. Wells Brown and his Elizabeth Schooner separated in 1847 and he retained custody of his daughters, and moved to Boston. While he traveled as an abolitionist and lecturer, Clarissa and Josephine attended boarding school, living at 21 Seventh Street in New Bedford, there they were pupils of well-known abolitionist, Nathan Johnson. In 1849, Wells Brown was invited to attend the International Peace Congress in Paris, following passage of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, Brown decided to remain, lecturing and writing. In 1851 Clarissa and Josephine joined Wells Brown briefly in London, before being placed at a school in Calais. In 1852, the returned to London, training at the Home. During this time, Josephine may have worked with her father in support of abolition, joining him on his lecture tours. In December 1853, Josephine passed her qualifying examinations, and accepted a position as mistress of the East Plumstead School in WoolwichJosephine Brown – Title page of Biography of an American Bondman, by His Daughter
88. C. Burton Hotel – The C. Burton Hotel, also known as the Sycamore House, is located on NY55 a mile west of Grahamsville, New York, United States. It is a wooden Greek Revival structure dating to 1851, in its later years it was used as a house and a medical office, currently it is unoccupied. In 2005 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places, as it currently stands the building is a rectangular two-story six-by-two-bay structure on a stone foundation. Its front facade is centered on a porch, with large fluted Doric columns. A broad gabled roof is covered in metal cladding, and round-arched louver windows are near the top at either end, the rear features a polygonal bay with two entrance doors. The building is sided in clapboard, the roofline is marked by a deep molded cornice with returns and a wide entablature. Three French doors give entrance from the front porch to the interior. The large entrance hall has a set of stairs lead to the ballroom upstairs. Many areas, particularly in the portion of the building, also have their original finishes and trim. The buildings seamless and symmetrical appearance belies its original construction and expansion, C. Burton originally built the small southern section as a roadside tavern in 1851. Starting in 1898, the Grahamsville Fair was held on the land behind the hotel, boosting annual visitation. Early in the new century, the first of two doctors began using it as a residence and office while continuing to put up guests as well, under the names Sycamore House and Hawthorne House. From 1938 until 1953 or 1954, it was owned by Dr. Karl H. Messinger, the upper floor was the familys living quarters, including the ballroom which served as the living/dining room. The north extension was rented as a two storey apartment, the flooring he used was marble from tombstones abandoned when the Rondout Reservoir was flooded. They were laid face down in red grout, except for one at the entrance which was engraved Home At Last. In 1994 those owners in turn sold to another family, which has been trying to restore the house while living elsewhere, the hotels implementation of the Greek Revival style, and its size, is unusually sophisticated for a rural commercial building far from any major city then. National Register of Historic Places listings in Sullivan County, New York National Register of Historic PlacesC. Burton Hotel – C. Burton Hotel
89. Callicoon Bridge – It is a multi-girder structure of steel and concrete built in the early 1960s to replace an older bridge built in 1899. As a result, the length of the bridges seven spans is almost a thousand feet. It is the longest bridge on the Upper Delaware, the Callicoon Bridge uses the multi-girder design, with steel stringers supported by concrete piers and abutments. Traffic crosses on an asphalt deck 25 feet wide, enough to one lane in each direction as well as a concrete sidewalk. The bridge has seven spans of roughly equal length, making it a total of 966 feet long and this makes it the longest bridge on the Upper Delaware. The Delaware here runs through a narrow, heavily wooded valley with hills rising as high as almost 700 feet above it. The bridge crosses the river from New York to Pennsylvania in a northeast-to-southwest direction, half of the bridges span crosses an extensive flood plain on the New York side resulting from the confluence of the Delaware and Callicoon Creek immediately downstream. There are also large islands within New Yorks side immediately upstream, half the bridges span is over the flood plain land, most of it is on the New York side of the state line. The New York approach goes through the hamlet of Callicoon. In Pennsylvania several homes in Damascus Township line the roads facing the river, along with one church, at Bridge Street a sign tells traffic to turn south again for the bridge. From northbound Route 97, vehicles bound for the bridge are directed onto Upper Main Street, County Route 133A, opposite the intersection with St. Josephs Seminary Road. After it turns just prior to reaching the tracks, a short spur goes over a grade crossing to Route 133. On southbound 97, a sign directs Pennsylvania-bound drivers to bear off the road at Fremont Street, the end of Route 133. Access is much simpler from the Pennsylvania side, as the community there is smaller, Callicoon and River form a three-way intersection just south of the Callicoon Bridge, the roadway on the Pennsylvania side is designated as unsigned SR1020. First settled by Europeans in the 1750s, Callicoon first grew as a community a decade later. At that time the loggers strapped their product to wooden rafts, the journey usually took a week, one particularly daring rafter, Elias Mitchell, made the trip in a mere two days by traveling nonstop. Later, mills were established at Phillipsburg, New Jersey and Easton, Pennsylvania and it grew in population, and by 1875 the local lumber industry reached its peak, with over 3,000 rafts leaving the village for markets and mills downriver. Tanneries set up shop, drawn by the abundant Eastern Hemlock in the woods on both sides of the river, and a paper mill flourished until it burned down in 1879, the residents soon grew frustrated with having to travel downriver to Cochecton to crossCallicoon Bridge – Bridge from New York side in 2013
90. Ollie Carnegie – Oliver Angelo Ollie Carnegie was an Italian American professional baseball player whose playing career spanned 15 seasons. In 1,539 career games played, Carnegie batted.309 with 1665 hits,302 doubles,48 triples and 297 home runs, Carnegie also managed the Class-D Jamestown Falcons in 1944. Officially a player-manager since he also played 96 games that season, in 1921, Carnegie started playing professional baseball. He later left the circuit to play in a semi-professional baseball league based in Allegheny County. Over those years, Carnegie played for teams representing Dormont, Pennsylvania, McKeesport, Pennsylvania, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, Pitcairn, Pennsylvania, the Pittsburgh Press, who covered the league, nicknamed Carnegie the Bambino and described him as the sandlot Babe Ruth. Carnegie returned to baseball in 1931 after accepting a contract with the Hazleton Mountaineers. The Buffalo Bisons purchased Carnegie from the Hazleton Mountaineers in 1931 and this would be the beginning of a tenure that would last 12 nonconsecutive seasons. Carnegie is the Bisons career record holder in hits, home runs, runs batted in and he also holds the Bisons single-season record in home runs with 42. Carnegie led the International League in home runs in 1938 and 1939, Carnegie has won multiple accolades during his career and after. In 1938, he won the Most Valuable Player in the International League, Carnegie was the career International League leader in home runs with 258, until Mike Hessman hit his 259th on June 30,2014. He is the leader in runs batted in for the International League. He was also a member of the International League Hall of Fame. Carnegie is also a Greater Buffalo Sports Hall of Fame member, amongst many fans and professionals, Carnegie is widely renowned as one of the best Buffalo baseball players ever. On June 29,1899, Oliver Angelo Ollie Carnegie was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Benjamin and Rose Carnegie, Carnegie was offered professional contracts by the Pittsburgh Pirates and Washington Senators in 1920 and 1921, respectively, but declined both times. He officially started his baseball career in 1922 at the age of 23 with the Class-B Flint Vehicles of the Michigan–Ontario League. In seven games that season, Carnegie batted.219 with seven hits, one double, a case of appendicitis forced Carnegie to quit baseball for the next several years. Carnegie returned to baseball in 1928, when he joined the Dormont, the team was a member of the Allegheny County semi-professional baseball league. On June 5,1927, he was batting.456 with eight doubles, fellow teammates of the Dormont team included former Major League Baseball players Frank Mills and Ed BarneyOllie Carnegie – Ollie Carnegie
91. Cayuga Nature Center – The Cayuga Nature Center is an educational institution addressing nature and environmental issues. It is located on the west side of Lake Cayuga in Tompkins County, CNC traces back to the Cayuga Preventorium, which was a tuberculosis sanitarium founded in 1914. As tuberculosis cases diminished, the Preventorium turned to cardiac cases, in the 1930s, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest T. Paine donated 75 acres of land at the current CNC site to serve children recuperating from cardiac, in 1939, the Works Progress Administration built the 10,000 sq ft main building on the site. The Preventorium closed during World War II, and after the war, decades later, the Board of Cooperative Educational Services used the site for outdoor education programs. Based on the success of the program, BOCES, Onondaga Nature Centers, Inc. the CNC was incorporated in 1981. CNC experienced funding difficulties, and in January 2011, CNC, CNC offers classes and camps focusing on nature appreciation and environmental issues. Programs are available for all ages from kindergarten to adult and cover subjects as varied as maple sugaring, classes typically feature six weekly one-hour sessions. Day camps are held in winter, spring, and summer, CNC also offers TEAM Challenge, a rope climbing / rope bridge course. Visitors can view a six-story tree house, a butterfly garden, a turtle pond. The lodge is heated by a furnace designed and installed as a Cornell engineering student project. Thirty animals are kept in captivity as a zoological collection, the center includes a 120-acre campus with five miles of hiking trails three miles south of Taughannock Falls State Park on the west shore of Lake Cayuga. CNC is a part of the Ithaca Discovery TrailCayuga Nature Center – Cayuga Nature Center
92. John Clapp (baseball) – Clapp, who predominately played as a catcher, also played as an outfielder. Over his career, Clapp compiled a batting average of.283 with 459 runs scored,713 hits,92 doubles,35 triples,7 home runs. Over 1,188 games played, Clapp struck out 51 times, although the majority of his career was spent in the major leagues, Clapp also played two seasons of minor league baseball. He made his MLB debut at the age of 21 and was listed as standing 5 feet 7 inches and his brother, Aaron Clapp, also played one season of MLB for the Troy Trojans. John Edgar Clapp was born on July 17,1851, in Ithaca, in 1872, Clapp began his professional career with the Middletown Mansfields of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players. Over 19 games played, Clapp batted.278 with one home run, after the team folded, Clapp joined the Philadelphia Athletics. His single home run tied him for the team-lead along with Wes Fisler, Cherokee Fisher, and Tim Murnane. Next season, in 1874, Clapp led the NA in at bats per home run, his on-base percentage was a career-high, while the Athletics finished the season 33–22, third in the NA, under manager Dick McBride. In his final year with the club, Clapp batted.264 with 77 hits and 39 RBI and his putout total was second in the NA among catchers. In 1876, Clapp joined the St. Louis Brown Stockings of the National League and he finished the year tied for the team lead in games played and hits, while he led the NL in putouts as a catcher, with 333. Next season, Clapp batted a career high.318, while his on-base percentage, in the field, Clapp committed 40 errors as a catcher, second highest in the NL to Lew Browns 49. After leaving the team, Clapp joined the Indianapolis Blues, where he served as a player-manager for the 1878 season. Playing primarily in the outfield, Clapp was tied for the MLB lead in games played along with Indianapolis teammates Silver Flint, Russ McKelvy, Orator Shafer, after his one-year stint with the Blues, Clapp joined the Buffalo Bisons. Playing in 70 games, Clapp managed the team to a 46–32 record, on June 25 of that year, Clapp ended a streak of 212 consecutive games played, serving primarily as a catcher. In 1880, now playing and managing for the Cincinnati Reds, Clapp played in a total of 80 games, Clapp reported him to the Chicago police, which led to Woodruffs arrest. In 1882, after leading the NL in walks, Clapp made his debut for the New York Metropolitans of the League Alliance. In 1883, his last MLB season, Clapp played for, Clapp, then 34, spent his final professional season with the St. Paul Apostles, where he batted.180 with 11 hits and a double. After retiring from baseball, Clapp served as a sergeant in his hometown of IthacaJohn Clapp (baseball) – John Clapp
93. Isaac Collins (printer) – Isaac Collins was a printer, publisher, bookseller and merchant of the early American period. He published the New Jersey Gazette and New Jersey Almanac and he is noted for his 1791 bible, the first family bible published in America. Collins was born in Centerville, Delaware, on February 16,1746 and he was the descendant of English immigrants that died early in their lives. His father was Charles Collins, a cooper from Bristol, England. When Collinss father immigrated to American he debarked at New Castle, Delaware, Collins father became a farmer in that area near the Pennsylvania border and married Sarah Hammond, an English immigrant from Chester County, Pennsylvania. Collins had a sister who never married and was his only sibling and they were close throughout their lives. Collins had his schooling at the Center Meeting House in Centerville and at Friends school in Wilmington. His upbringing was among the local Quakers, who had a type of religion called Inner Light, Collins and his sister listened to religious works of authors like Robert Barclay, William Penn, and Isaac Pennington - if they followed the traditions of the local Quakers. Collinss father had married again in 1760, since Collinss birth mother had died sometime before this date, shortly after this, his father died and his stepmother remarried and moved to another neighborhood. At this time Collins was put under the guardianship of her brother, John Hammond and he became indentured under the printer James Adams of Franklin and Hall in 1761 to work as a journeyman in the printer trade for five years. Since Adams was his master he furnished Collins with not only printing skills but was obligated to furnish him in basic schooling in such subjects as reading, writing. Adams let go of Collins in early 1766 due to an economic slowdown, Collins completed his last year of the 5 year indenture with William Rind, a printer of the Virginia Gazette in Williamsburg. He was twenty-one years old in 1767 when he finished his apprenticeship, Collins soon after his birthday moved to Philadelphia to start work as a journeyman printer. He obtained work with William Goddard in the Spring of 1767, Collins was accepted as a member of the Philadelphia Monthly Meeting in 1770. In this year he formed a partnership with Joseph Crukshank. Collins decided to do some exploratory trips to Burlington, New Jersey and he decided to move there and became a resident printer, however kept his citizenship ties to Philadelphia. Collins succeeded James Parker as New Jerseys official government printer to King George III, in that city he started publishing the New Jersey Almanac in 1771 and printed it for twenty-six years continually each year thereafter. He starting publishing the New Jersey Gazette in 1777 being the states first regular newspaper, Collins moved his printing equipment and family to Trenton, New Jersey in 1778 and continued to publish the New Jersey GazetteIsaac Collins (printer) – Engraving portrait of Collins at 60 years of age by John Wesley Jarvis, 1806
94. John Schuyler Crosby – John Schuyler Crosby was an American military officer who served as United States Consul in Florence, Italy and as the fifth Governor of Montana Territory. Crosby was born to Clarkson F. Crosby and Angelica Schuyler in Albany and he attended City University of New York, but left school before graduation to take a tour of South America, Pacific Islands, East Indies, and China. He was a descendant of General and U. S. Senator from New York State Philip Schuyler and the grandson of William Floyd. At the beginning to the American Civil War he joined the Union Army and and his initial service was with the Army of the Potomac and he earned promotion to first lieutenant in August 1861. In 1862, Crosby was transferred to the Department of the Gulf and following the battles of Fort Bisland, Irish Bend, from 1863 until 1865, he served as assistant adjutant general under General Banks. During the Red River Campaign, Crosby earned a letter of thanks from President Abraham Lincoln for carrying dispatches through enemy territory to Admiral Farragut, following the capture of Mobile, Alabama, Crosby transferred to become assistant inspector general under General Philip Sheridan. Following the war, Crosby remained on Sheridans staff as aide-de-camp, in this capacity he served along the Rio Grande during the French occupation of Mexico and during Sheridans and Custers campaigns during the Indian Wars. During his military service he was brevetted four times for gallantry, Crosby resigned from the army on January 1,1871 as a brevet lieutenant colonel. After leaving the military, Crosby went to work as an engineer building breakwaters. During this time he found the Westchester Polo Club and, in 1875. On July 20,1876, Crosby was with Vice-Commodore William T, garner of the New York Yacht Club on the Mohawk when a sudden squall overturned the yacht. He was later presented a medal for his efforts to save lives during the event. Crosby was appointed Consul for the United States delegation in Florence, while at this posting, he assisted the local government in the capture and prosecution of a group of forgers. For his assistance, on June 29,1881, Crosby was awarded the Order of the Crown of Italy, Crosby was nominated to become Governor of Montana Territory by President Chester A. Arthur. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on August 4,1882, upon his arrival, Crosby indicated his commitment to the territory by making over US$20,000 of investments within Montana. Despite this level of dedication, the Republican governor still managed to antagonize the territorys Democratic majority through liberal use of his veto power. The most important example of his use was through the blocking of a bill authorizing the establishment of a system of cattle inspectionsJohn Schuyler Crosby – J. S. Crosby
95. Abraham Curry – Abraham Van Santvoord Curry is considered the founding father of Carson City, Nevada. A native of the state of New York, he traveled to the West Coast during the California Gold Rush and settled in Nevadas Eagle Valley, Curry served as an assemblyman of the Nevada Territorial Legislature from 1862 to 1863 and was a territorial senator from 1863 to 1864. He was also the first superintendent of the Carson City Mint, Curry donated 10 acres of land for the site of the Nevada State Capitol, for which the state prison quarry provided the stone for its construction. Curry spent the years of his life building facilities for the Virginia. Though he had achieved prominence in Nevada, his claimed that he had only one dollar in his pocket when he died in 1873. Abraham Van Santvoord Curry was born on February 19,1815 in the hamlet of South Trenton and he was the first son of Campbell Curry and Elvira Skinner Curry, who were married in South Trenton. On August 1,1835, Curry married Mary Ann Cowen and their first child and only son, Charles A. Curry, was born on June 10,1836. After a year in Ogdensburg, the family moved several times and settled in Portage, the Currys later had six daughters. By 1852, Curry was working in Cleveland, Ohio as a commercial merchant, after his daughters, Elvira and Jane, were each married, Curry and his son Charles took a steamship from New York City that sailed around Cape Horn to San Francisco between 1854 and 1855. In 1856, the two were in the town of Red Dog, where Curry opened a bowling alley. He met future business partners Benjamin F. Green, John J. Musser, Currys $1000 offer to buy a corner lot on which build a store in Genoa was refused for being insufficient. After finding real estate in Genoa to be expensive, Curry moved on to the sparsely inhabited Eagle Valley. Curry partnered with Musser and Proctor to purchase the Eagle Ranch trading post and 865 acres of the valley for a down payment of $300 in coins out of a total sale price of $1,000. Musser and Proctor, who were attorneys, worked to carve a separate territory from Utah, while Curry promoted the newly founded Carson City. Curry set aside and donated 10 acres of land for the site of the Nevada State Capitol, in July 1859, Musser became president and Proctor became vice-president of the constitutional convention to establish the Territory of Nevada. Curry served as the delegate from Eagle Valley, in 1859, the discovery of the Comstock Lode east of Carson City was made public, bringing tens of thousands of miners into the area. In 1861, Curry built a 100-foot stone hotel on top of springs about two miles east of the city center. A large wooden eagle was placed on the top of the hotel, in 1862, the Nevada Territorial Legislature leased the Warm Springs Hotel from Curry to hold meetings and detain prisonersAbraham Curry – Abraham Curry House
96. Harrison H. Dodd – Harrison Horton Dodd was a founder of the 1860s-era OSL, a paramilitary secret society which was a continuation and/or extension of the KGC. The basic goal of members of the OSL was to thwart the war efforts of the Union military forces, harrison Horton Dodd was born in Brownville, New York. In his early life he moved to Toledo, Ohio. He moved to Indianapolis, Indiana the next year, establishing himself as a printer and an active participant for the Democratic Party. During the first year of the war, when Democrats were sometimes forced to take oaths of allegiance, Dodd advertised to start Marion Dragoons, however, the company never actually formed. By all accounts he was the most important Copperhead in Indianapolis, in 1863 a speech given by Dodd at Rensselaer, Indiana convinced a Methodist preacher that Dodd was a traitor. The local provost marshal without the authority to do so arrested Dodd, local Democrats threatened a riot, and Dodd was freed with a promise that he would stop any such riot from occurring. On August 20,1864 Dodds offices were raided by the Union military, several of his co-conspirators, such as William A. Bowles, were arrested. Dodd managed to capture and escaped into Canada. Dodd was convicted of treason by a commission, and sentenced to be hanged. President Andrew Johnson commuted the sentence to imprisonment on May 31,1865. Later that year on December 17 the U. S, returning from Canada after the trials, Dodd served several terms as mayor of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin as a Republican, joining the party of his wartime enemies Morton and Lincoln. Dark Lanterns, Secret Political Societies, Conspiracies and Treason Trials in the Civil WarHarrison H. Dodd – People
97. Herm Doscher – He also served as a regular umpire in both early major leagues, the NL and American Association. His son Jack was a major league pitcher for several years, Jack Doscher was the first son of a major leaguer to also play in the majors. Born in New York City, Doscher began his career in the National Association with the 1872 Brooklyn Atlantics as a right fielder. He only played in six games that year, but batted.360 and he didnt play in the Association in 1874, but did return for the 1875 season when he played in 22 games, all at third base, for the Washington Nationals. He didnt hit well, and was only able to play in the minor leagues for the next few seasons. One of his stops was with the London Tecumsehs in 1877 and he reached the National League again in 1879, when he joined the Troy Trojans. He appeared in 25 games in 1882, ending his playing career, in 1882, he accepted a temporary job as a scout with Cleveland, even though he had signed a contract with the Detroit Wolverines for the 1883 season. The Cleveland directors had him expelled from the league for embezzelment and it was later proven in NYC court that the original contract was never signed by Detroit, voiding the original contract. He was unanimously reinstated in 1886, and returned to umpiring in the American Association in 1887, known as a colorful, but a no-nonsense, hardline player, he was a natural to the umpiring profession. Once quoted as saying Ive got to play ring master, school teacher, poppa and momma and his full-time return as an umpire lasted just three season,1887,1888 and 1890, but his officiating career was not without notable occurrences. He was involved in two no-hitters, one occurred on August 19,1880, when he was the umpire for Larry Corcorans no-hitter, the other was Adonis Terrys no-hitter on May 27,1888, Terrys second career no-hitter. It was Doschers only forfeit on record as an umpire, Doschers occupations in subsequent years include work as a scout, the discovery of future Hall of Famer Willie Keeler is attributed to him. Doscher died in Buffalo, New York at the age of 81, career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference RetrosheetHerm Doscher – Herm Doscher
98. Galli-Curci Theatre – The Galli-Curci Theatre is located on Main Street in Margaretville, New York, United States. It is a building erected in the 1920s, now primarily used as a store. It was named after opera singer Amelita Galli-Curci, who lived near Margaretville and it was built by local entrepreneur Clarke Sanford to house two pioneering businesses in the region, a car dealership and silent movie theater and offices of the Catskill Mountain News. Under later owners, it continued to show movies until 1985 and it was modified afterwards for reuse as an antique store, but has remained mostly intact from its period of cinematic use. In 2006 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the neighborhood is heavily developed, with the intersection, the villages center, flanked by many three-story mixed-use buildings of a late-19th/early-20th century vintage. To the north the neighborhood becomes residential, the building is in two sections,50 feet wide by 142 feet deep. The shorter front section, with the space and theater entrance, is a two-story brick structure on a poured concrete foundation. On the second story are paired windows framed by brick lintels and bluestone sills topped by a decorative panel of brick. The center parapet on the roof has a large wooden GALLI-CURCI THEATRE sign. The auditorium section at the rear is built of concrete faced in stucco. Its roof slopes gently from front to back at the grade as the floor inside. A brick chimney rises from the section of the EPDM rubber roof. The tops of two wooden trusses, added later to shore up the building, are visible as well, inside the front block, the store space has its original flooring and pressed-metal ceiling. The upstairs apartment, once office space, has its own original flooring, two double doors with half-moon glass panels, similar to those leading into the store, lead into the theater at the end of the recessed entryway under the marquee. A narrow carpeted entryway slopes up to the auditorium, there, a wooden level floor, built for retail purposes after the theater was shut down, remains. Two of the original wooden standee walls set off the lobby in the rear, the ceiling is of plain plaster, with fluorescent fixtures replacing the original lighting. Successful upon its inception, the theatre suffered from changes in the national and local economies after World War II and it struggled to adapt, but stayed in business as a movie theater under different owners until the mid-1980s. After a period of reuse as a store, it may be restored to its original useGalli-Curci Theatre – Galli-Curci Theatre
99. Eleanor Gates – Eleanor Gates was an American playwright who created seven plays that were staged on Broadway. Her best known work was the play The Poor Little Rich Girl, Gates separated from Frederick Moore when they found out they were not legally married. Eleanor Gates was born on 26 September 1875 in Shakopee, Minnesota and she later described her early life in her novel The Biography of a Prairie Girl. Gates married another playwright, Richard Walton Tully, in 1901 after they had completed their studies at the University of California, in Berkeley. Gates had worked initially as a writer for a newspaper in San Francisco, in 1907, one of her novels was illustrated by Arthur Rackham. Her best known work was the play The Poor Little Rich Girl, Tully divorced her in 1914 citing desertion, which Gates admitted. Before Gatess divorce had been finalized, she married another divorcé, Frederick Ferdinand Moore, in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1916, they separated when they both realized that they were not legally married. At the time they said they intended to remarry when it could be arranged. Moore later created Book Dealers Weekly, at the beginning of 1915, Gates founded the Liberty Feature Film Company, which was said by Motion Picture News to be the only film company to be owned and managed by women. The company was led by the wife of an Alaskan businessman, in the year that it existed the company created several two reeler films. The first film, produced in 1917, was The Poor Little Rich Girl, Shirley Temple starred in the 1936 remake of the same name. The new film had two million dollars by the end of 1939. Gates died on 7 March 1951 in Los Angeles County General HospitalEleanor Gates – Eleanor Gates
100. Louis John Gill – Louis John Gill was a San Diego-based architect and the nephew and one-time business partner of another famous San Diego architect, Irving Gill. The San Diego Historical Society calls Louis Gill one of San Diegos greatest architects, Louis J. Gill grew up in Syracuse, New York and graduated from Syracuse University in 1911. He immediately moved to San Diego and went to work at his uncles firm as a draftsman. In 1914 his uncle took him on as a partner and their partnership, known as Gill and Gill, Architects, lasted five years. As his uncles associate, Louis contributed to the design of notable buildings including La Jolla Womans Club. In 1919, he and his uncle dissolved their partnership and Louis struck out on his own, Louis had been taking on individual projects even before leaving the partnership. In 1916, the year of its founding, he was named to be the architect for the San Diego Zoo. He designed the buildings and enclosures for the Zoo and remained on the Zoos executive staff for more than 20 years, designing and remodeling multiple buildings. In 1933, within hours of the 1933 Long Beach earthquake, the results of his careful analysis of structural failures during the earthquake formed the basis for much of the subsequent California earthquake code legislation. Those standards are now used in other places throughout the world. Gill was a co-founder of the San Diego Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and he served on the California State Board of Architectural Examiners for more than 20 years, including two terms as president. He and his wife lived in San Diegos Mission Hills neighborhood until July 1969 and he died there on August 19,1969. Louis Gills works include, Dr. Mitchell Art Gallery in Coronado Hardware,1937, bird cage, then the largest bird cage in the world. His collected papers are housed in the University of California, Santa Barbaras Art, photos of Louis John Gill at the Journal of San Diego HistoryLouis John Gill – St. James by the Sea, La Jolla
101. The Girl on the Train (2016 film) – The Girl on the Train is a 2016 American mystery thriller drama film directed by Tate Taylor and written by Erin Cressida Wilson, based on Paula Hawkins 2015 debut novel of the same name. Principal photography began on November 4,2015 in New York City and it premiered in London on September 20,2016 and was theatrically released in the United States on October 7,2016. Rachel Watson is an alcoholic who shares an apartment with her friend Cathy and spends her days commuting aimlessly on a train after losing her job. From the train she observes the activities of her husband, Tom Watson, his new wife, Anna Watson, and a couple who live nearby, Scott and Megan Hipwell. She continues to watch Tom, Anna, and their newborn daughter Evie, unknown to her, Megan has been working as a nanny for Anna, but has suddenly resigned. During one train journey, Rachel spots Megan kissing a stranger on her balcony, after a drinking binge, Rachel leaves the train to confront Megan, only to black out and awaken hours later at her apartment, injured. Rachel suspects a fellow-passenger of following her off the train and sees him in flashbacks to that evening but cannot piece her memories together. Hearing that Scott is asking the public to help him find his wife, Rachel goes to see him, pretending to be a friend of Megans, from a photograph, she identifies Dr Kamal Abdic, Megans psychiatrist, as the man on the balcony. It gradually becomes apparent that Scott is aggressive and controlling, while Megan is prone to dishonesty and sex addiction, fears becoming pregnant, and has frequent therapy sessions with Abdic. In one of her last sessions, she tells him that she had a girl when in her teens. Believing Abdic to be the key to Megans disappearance, Rachel schedules an appointment with him, revealing the history of her marriage, later, at a bar, she recognizes the man who followed her from the train, and confronts him. He claims to have found Rachel lying in a tunnel on his home, he tried to help her up. Rachel returns to the tunnel and recalls seeing Megan shouting at her before she was injured, meanwhile, Anna becomes suspicious of Tom after Sgt. Riley suggests that he is encouraging Rachels behavior by keeping in touch with her, Anna attempts to hack into Toms computer, and in the process she finds a secret phone with several voice messages to another woman Tom is having an affair with. Megan is found dead and forensics determine she was pregnant, Scott confronts Rachel, in the process revealing that he assaulted Megan prior to her death. Rachel realizes that Tom planted false memories in her head on several occasions following a drinking binge, Anna finds out that Tom was exchanging phone calls with Megan. Rachel realizes that Megan had confided in Abdic about her pregnancy, after leaving the train that day, Rachel caught Tom meeting Megan and shouted at her, mistaking her for Anna. Tom attacked Rachel before returning to Megan, who told him about the baby, fearing that their affair would be exposed, Tom murdered MeganThe Girl on the Train (2016 film)
102. Graham Mountain (New York) – Graham Mountain is the seventh highest of the Catskill High Peaks and the highest privately owned mountain in the range. It is located in the town of Hardenburgh, New York, in the early 1960s a relay station was built there for Instructional Television, a predecessor to todays Public Broadcasting Service. The relay station was abandoned after a few years and its ruins can be seen from the slopes, Graham is within the Catskill Park. Only part of it is in the state-owned Forest Preserve, the summit and the most common access route are owned by descendants of railroad magnate Jay Gould, a native of the region. Despite being private property requiring permission to enter and cross, it is a popular hike, Graham is near the eastern end of the range beginning at Barkaboom Mountain in Delaware County in the west and centered around the lengthy Mill Brook Ridge. A ridge with two summits known unofficially as East and West Schoolhouse mountains connects Graham with Balsam Lake Mountain, between Graham and Doubletop, the Catskills highest trailless peak, to the east is a steep and deep col 900 feet below the summits on either side. The slopes of the mountain on the north and south alternate between steep hollows carved out by creeks and gentler hollows between them, the largest is Drury Hollow on the north, drained by an unnamed brook that rises far down the slopes. Flatiron Brook to the northeast drains a narrower, unnamed valley, the northwest slopes form the southern wall of Turner Hollow, also drained by an unnamed brook. All three are tributaries of Dry Brook, itself a tributary of the East Branch of the Delaware River. Since Dry Brook drains into the East Branch above Pepacton Reservoir, the southern slopes are gentler, draining to the higher plateau around the headwaters of the Beaver Kill, which itself rises just south of the Doubletop col. Gulf of Mexico Brook drains a valley on the southwest. The Beaver Kill also, eventually, drains into the East Branch at East Branch, below the reservoir, Grahams L-shaped summit ridge is narrow, with its spurs pointing northwest and southwest. The United States Geological Survey benchmark indicating the mountains 3, 868-foot height of land is at the northwest end, the southwest end descends gently to 3,660 feet before dropping off more steeply into the Doubletop col. The north slopes and most of the summit are within a tract of land purchased by George Jay Gould I, the son of Jay Gould. Known as Furlow Lodge, it still is owned by the Gould descendants, the south slopes, up to almost 3,500 feet on the summit ridges southwest spur, are publicly owned Forest Preserve in the Big Indian-Beaverkill Range Wilderness Area. Most of Grahams slopes, given their high elevation, are covered in northern hardwood forest of beech, birch. Unlike the other peaks in the range, first-growth forest begins well above 3,000 feet, the summit itself is covered with a pygmy forest, unique in the Catskills, with its black cherry and mountain ashes barely taller than average human height. Balsam fir, which dominates the summits of both Doubletop and Balsam Lake mountains to either side of Graham, is found in stands on the slopes below the summit of GrahamGraham Mountain (New York) – Graham from west on old jeep trail to Balsam Lake Mountain fire tower
103. Seth Green (pisciculture) – Seth Green was an American pioneer in fish farming. He established the first fish hatchery in the United States in the Town of Caledonia and he was a successful commercial fisherman, operating a large and profitable fish and game market in Rochester, New York. Seth Greens pioneering efforts to raise fish stocks and restore fish populations for sporting purposes established a standard of aquaculture recognized internationally and he is commonly referred to as the Father of fish culture in North America. Seth Green was born in Rochester, New York, the son of farmer Adonijah Green and wife and he had one brother and two sisters. He grew up as an outdoor enthusiast in the village of Carthage along the Genesee River near Rochester learning fishing skills from his father. His formal schooling was limited to finishing fifth or sixth grade at a local Carthage district school, when the financial Panic of 1837 severely impacted the economy of Carthage, he left home and decided to take up commercial fishing along the Genesee River. In 1848 he married a local Rochester girl Helen Cooke and they established a fish and game market in downtown Rochester which he operated with his brother and partner, Monroe Green. By 1857 the market employed more than 100 people and it was one of the largest and most prosperous fish markets in the region. To supply his market Green traveled the shores of Lake Ontario over the years for fish and he and his fishermen survived many storms and hardships on Lake Ontario to supply the market with from 0.5 to 3 short tons daily. Based on his own observations, ancient writings on culture and his own experimentation along the Genesee River. In 1864 he located a small hatchery in Caledonia, New York along a spring creek, Greens hatchery was the first in the Western Hemisphere. He kept his methods secret for years while successfully and profitably raising Atlantic salmon. Later, he expanded his techniques to other species, including shad, rainbow, in 1867–1869 he experimented and pioneered methods to successfully propagate American shad in the Connecticut River near Holyoke, Massachusetts. Restocking the river with shad fry, resulted in an 1870 harvest that was 60% larger than the largest ever recorded in 1811. From an early age, Seth Green recognized that fish were not a resource and over harvest would easily deplete rivers, lakes. In 1868, working with like-minded New York sportsmen, especially Robert B. Roosevelt and ex-governor Horatio Seymour, between 1868 and 1875, the commission established a regular stocking program in the states rivers and lakes, being supplied by Seth Greens hatchery in Caledonia. During this period, Seth Green sold the hatchery to A. S, in 1870, Green resigned his position as fish commissioner and the governor appointed him Superintendent of Fisheries. In 1875, the state bought the Caledonia hatchery and it remains as a fish hatchery in New York to this daySeth Green (pisciculture) – Seth Green from his work Trout Culture (1870)
104. Edward Joseph Hanna – Edward Joseph Hanna was an American clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of San Francisco from 1915 to 1935, Edward Hanna was born in Rochester, New York, to Edward and Anne Hanna, who were Irish immigrants. The eldest of six children, he had two brothers and three sisters, one of whom died in infancy, in 1867, at age seven, he began his education at Public School No.2 in his native city. The following year, he was sent to St. Patricks School and he entered Rochester Free Academy in 1875, and graduated as valedictorian in 1879. He there befriended his classmate, Walter Rauschenbusch, a future Baptist theologian and he and Rauschenbusch were two of the nineteen founding brothers of Pi Phi Fraternity at the academy in 1878. At the commencement ceremony, he delivered an oration on Irish political leader Daniel OConnell. Deciding to embrace the state, Hanna was sent by Bishop Bernard John McQuaid to study at the Pontifical North American College. His professor at the Propaganda, Benedetto Lorenzelli, selected him, on May 30,1885, Hanna was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Giulio Lenti at the Basilica of St. John Lateran. Pope Leo XIII was so impressed with his acumen that he conferred a Doctor of Sacred Theology degree without the need for an oral examination in 1886. He was a professor at St. Bernards Seminary from 1893 to 1912, on October 22,1912, he was named by Pope Pius X auxiliary bishop for the Archdiocese of San Francisco and titular bishop of Titiopolis. He was ordained to the episcopate on December 4,1912, following the death of Archbishop Patrick William Riordan on December 27,1914. Pope Benedict XV named Hanna the third Archbishop of San Francisco on June 1,1915, Hanna had a close friendship with San Francisco Mayor James Rolph, Jr. The archbishop and Sunny Jim were seen at many civic functions, Edward J. Hanna would support Rolph in his run for governor in 1930. Governor Rolph died in office June 2,1934, nine months later, as archbishop, Hanna was often tasked with helping resolve labor disputes. In 1921, he was named chairman of San Franciscos Wage Arbitration Boards, governor James Rolph appointed Hanna as the chairman of a state mediation board to resolve the 1933 cotton strike in Corcoran, California. During the 1934 West Coast waterfront strike, President Franklin Roosevelt named Archbishop Hanna chairman of the National Longshoremens Board, the board was tasked with resolving the strike by mediating between the International Longshoremens Association, the International Seamen’s Union, and their employers. In 1923 his portrait was painted three-quarters seated by the Swiss-born American portrait painter Adolfo Müller-Ury shortly afterwards being exhibited at Gumps, Hanna was key to the founding of St. Josephs Seminary in Mountain View, California, and it was considered the jewel of his accomplishments. As chairman, he was responsible for coordinating the American bishops lobbying efforts and response to the domestic, Archbishop Hanna retired March 2,1935, due to ill health and advancing ageEdward Joseph Hanna – Hanna's vault at Holy Cross
105. Hughie Hearne – Hugh Joseph Hearne was a catcher in Major League Baseball. He played for the Brooklyn Superbas from 1901 to 1903, Hearne stood at 5 ft 8 in and weighed 182 lbs. Hughie Hearne started playing baseball as early as 1896 and was with the New York State Leagues Albany Senators from 1899 to 1901, in 1901, he started off hot at the plate and batted.380 to lead the entire league by 30 points. He was then acquired by the Brooklyn Superbas, Hearne made his major league debut on August 29 and spent the next two years with Brooklyn as a part-time catcher. In 1902, he played in a career-high 66 MLB games, in 1903, while batting.281 again, he was traded to the Baltimore Orioles of the Eastern League. He played his last major league game on July 2, Hearne spent 1903 to 1909 with Baltimore. In 1905, he hit.302, the season other than 1901 in which he would top the.300 mark. In 1907, he was reported to be wearing shin guards similar to those that had been worn by Roger Bresnahan before and this piece of equipment was rarely used in baseball at the time. After batting.250 in 1909, Hearne was sold to the Newark Indians for US$500 and he played in a career-high 94 minor league games in 1910 before retiring from professional baseball. Hughie Hearne was born in Troy, New York, Hearne died in 1932, at the age of 59, in Troy, New York. He was buried in St. Mary Cemetery, career statistics and player information from Baseball-ReferenceHughie Hearne – Hughie Hearne
106. Webb Horton House – The Webb Horton House, is an ornate 40-room mansion in Middletown, New York, United States, designed by local architect Frank Lindsey. Built 1902-1906 as a residence, since the late 1940s it has been part of the campus of SUNY Orange. This building is now known as Morrison Hall, after the last private owner, a nearby service complex has also been kept and is used for classrooms and other college functions. The mansion is an extravagant combination of styles and materials that has altered very little during its ownership. In 1990 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the house sits on a low hilltop on South Street between East Conkling and Grand View avenues in the southwest quadrant of the city. It has a view to the southeast, the five-acre lot that was originally the mansion property is now part of the college campus, but it still has its original curvilinear road and path system as well as four contributing outbuildings. On the north of the house is its original 1. 7-acre lawn and that lawn now serves as the colleges main quad. The college campus surrounds the house on three sides, with a modern building called Hudson Hall immediately to the east. A 6½-foot–high stone and iron fence, ornamented with scrolls and the initials WH on the gate, screens the house from South Street. Large, mature trees grow around the house, the neighborhood around the campus is residential. The house has load-bearing walls sided in rock-faced marble tied into its steel frame and it is 118 feet long and 80 feet wide. Three-story towers rise on the front and rear facades, there are four separate sections to the front facade. At the south corner, the three bays form a porch on the first story. On the two above, each bay has a pair of windows separated by a Corinthian pier, the conical roof has three dormers, each gabled, decorated with marble in a shell motif and topped with a finial. They contain one window flanked by pilasters, the porch continues onto the main facades two bays. On the first floor, the bay serves as the main entrance. It is topped with a carved cartouche consisting of the WH monogram, ribbons, fruits, the door is flanked with marble panels carved with vases, foliage and bellflowers. The windows have a Corinthian column at each side and egg-and-dart molded lintels, the porch is floored in a pale gray mosaic with a darker gray borderWebb Horton House – Webb Horton House
107. Sumner Howard – Howard was born on May 7,1835 to Waldo and Mary Howard in Brockport, New York. In the year following his birth, his family moved to Flint and he was educated in public schools. At age fifteen, Howard began working in newspaper offices, first at the Genesee Democrat. When he was 19, Howard began reading law at a law office. Soon after, he enrolled at the State and National Law School in Poughkeepsie, New York, following graduation, Howard returned to Michigan and became a defense attorney. His first big case was the acquittal by reason of insanity of Joshua Solomon Johnson, as a result of his courtroom performance, Howard gained a reputation as one of the states best trial lawyers of his day. Howard married Lucy R. Mason in 1857, the union produced a daughter, May, and an adopted son, Frank. Running on the Democratic ticket, Howard was elected Genesee County prosecutor in 1858, with the outbreak of the American Civil War, Howard volunteered for the infantry and was commissioned a second lieutenant in July 1861. For the majority of the war, he was assigned recruiting duties, Howard was scheduled to become captain of a 100-man company that he had raised shortly before the Battle of Gettysburg, but an illness prevented him from assuming command. Howard resigned from military in September 1863 and returned to Flint, Howard ran for Genesee County prosecutor on the Republican ticket in 1864. He was re-elected and served three consecutive terms, Howard represented Flints third ward on the city council from 1866 till 1870. He served as a delegate to Michigans 1867 constitutional convention and advocated for prohibition during the proceedings, on March 30,1876, President Ulysses S. Grant nominated Howard to become United States Attorney for Utah Territory. In this role, Howard was the prosecutor of John Doyle Lee for his involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre, following Lees prosecution, Howard planned prosecutions of other Mormon leaders, including Brigham Young. After Young died, Howard felt his task in Utah was completed and submitted his resignation at the beginning of 1878 and he then returned to Michigan and private legal practice. Howard was a delegate to 1880 Republican National Convention, two years later he was elected to the Michigan House of Representatives. In the legislature, Howard was selected as Speaker of the House and was influential in the election of Thomas W. Palmer over Thomas W. Ferry for a seat in the United States Senate. He was selected as a delegate for the 1884 Republican National Convention, President Chester A. Arthur nominated Howard to become Chief Justice of the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court on March 18,1884. He had requested an appointment in Utah but was sent to ArizonaSumner Howard – Convis
108. Independent Democratic Conference – The IDC is led by Jeffrey D. Klein, and also includes David J. Valesky, David Carlucci, Diane Savino, Tony Avella, Jose Peralta, Jesse Hamilton, and Marisol Alcantara. Convicted felon and former Senator Malcolm Smith is a prominent former IDC member, Democrats lost control of the State Senate in the November 2010 elections, and removed Klein from his role as their chief election strategist. In 2011, Klein resigned as the Democrats deputy leader and formed the IDC with Valesky, Carlucci, brooklyn Senator Simcha Felder conferences with the GOP and cast his vote for a GOP leader, giving Republicans the majority and outright control of the chamber. The Democratic Party took control of the New York State Senate from the Republican Party in the November 2008 elections for the first time since 1964, controlling 32 out of the chambers 62 seats. However, four Democratic Senators, Pedro Espada Jr. Rubén Díaz Sr. Carl Kruger, in the new session, Espada and Monserrate voted against Smith as Majority Leader. Monserrate rejoined the Democrats, leaving a deadlocked 31-31 Senate, causing the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis. Jeffrey D. Klein, who became the Deputy Majority Leader after the 2008 elections, was charged with keeping Espada, Diaz, Kruger, following the leadership crisis, Republicans won control of the chamber in the November 2010 elections. In the fallout of the 2010 elections, Democrats replaced Klein as their chief strategist in December 2010, Klein stepped down as deputy minority leader in January 2011, citing disagreements with John L. Sampson, the Minority Leader of the State Senate. Skelos agreed to give the four members chairmanships of standing committees, Democratic Senators, including Ruth Hassell-Thompson, criticized Klein for leaving the campaign committee in debt and following his own personal ambitions. In the November 2012 elections, Democrats won the majority of seats in the State Senate, however, a week after the election, Simcha Felder, a newly elected Democrat, announced his intentions to caucus with the Republican Party. Klein struck a deal with Skelos to alternate who would preside over the chamber every two weeks, Tony Avella joined the IDC in February 2014. Due to pressure from Governor Andrew Cuomo and labor unions, Klein indicated in June 2014 that the IDC would rejoin the Democratic caucus after the November 2014 elections. Still, the IDC supported Betty Jean Grants unsuccessful primary challenge against Timothy M. Kennedy, Klein and Avella won their primaries. In the general election, Republicans won control of the Senate outright, during the 2015 session, the IDC successfully pushed the Republicans to include paid family leave and a $15 per hour minimum wage in the state budget. Klein also pushed for funding to the New York City Housing Authority. Klein indicated that recording would not change the IDC agreement with Republicans. Heading into the November 2016 elections, Klein would not commit to rejoining the Democrats, following the 2014 primary challenges, the IDC formed their own campaign committee through an agreement with the Independence Party of New York. After the elections, newly elected Senators Marisol Alcantara and Jesse Hamilton joined the IDC, in January, Jose Peralta joined the IDCIndependent Democratic Conference
109. Patrick Henry Jones – Patrick Henry Jones was an American lawyer, public servant and Postmaster of New York City during the mid-to late 19th century. In 1878, he was involved in the Alexander T. Stewart bodysnatching case when he was contacted by the kidnappers to act as an intermediary between themselves and the Stewart estate. When negotiations stalled between the Stewart familys lawyer Henry Hilton, he assisted Stewarts widow in negotiating for the return of her husbands body and he was one of ten Irish-Americans to become brigade commanders and one of four Irish born officers to become a divisional commander. Born in County Westmeath, Ireland on November 20,1830 and they settled on a farm in Cattaraugus County, New York where Jones would spend most of his childhood. Because of his background, he received only a limited education at the Union School in Ellicottville. In 1850, the 20-year-old Jones became involved in journalism and traveled as a correspondent throughout the Western States for a leading New York journal and he later became the local editor for the Buffalo Republic and one of the editors of the Buffalo Sentinel. Eventually, Jones decided to pursue a career in law and later studied under the firm of Addison Rice and he was admitted to the bar in 1856 and afterwards practiced law with Addison in Ellicottville as a full partner. By 1860, he had established himself as one of the most prominent lawyers in western New York. A lifelong Democrat, he became disillusioned by the support of Southern succession from the Union and, in May 1861. Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War, Jones readily joined the Union Army, on July 7,1861, he enlisted with the 37th New York Volunteers, popularly known as the Irish Rifles, under Colonel John H. McCunn. He was initially a private but quickly found himself elected to the rank of lieutenant by the men in the regiment. He was present at the First Battle of Bull Run, only two weeks after his enlistment, but saw no action as the unit was held in reserve. Jones displayed gallant conduct during his first years with the regiment and soon rose in rank to first lieutenant and adjutant on November 4,1861, and then major on January 21,1862. In May and June, he began suffering from malaria and was hospitalized in Washington and he was also briefly an officer to Major General Franz Sigel prior to the retirement of General Ambrose Burnside and the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac. Rice had founded the regiment and, within two months of its arrival in Northern Virginia, he turned over his command to Jones, the 154th was part of General Oliver O. The unit was present at Chattanooga during the assault on Missionary Ridge the next month, in April 1864, Jones took a brief leave of absence to recover his health. When the XI and XII Corps were combined to form the Major General William T, on May 8, he was seriously injured in a skirmish at Buzzards Roost when his horse fell off a cliff during the Battle of Rocky Face Ridge. He was cleared to return to duty a month later, however his surgeon recommended a change of climate and he resumed his command during the final weeks of the campaign and was present at the surrender of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston in March 1865Patrick Henry Jones – Patrick Henry Jones
110. Clayton Knight – Clayton Knight OBE was an American aviator during World War I. He was also an aviation artist and illustrator, and is known for being one of the founders of the Clayton Knight Committee, rochester, New York was Knights birthplace. He went to school at the Art Institute of Chicago under famous artists, Robert Henri and George Bellows, in early 1917, Knights career as an artist in New York City was flourishing. In 1917, Knight volunteered for the U. S. Army Signal Corps and he was most interested in becoming an aviator. Along with 150 other American pilots, Knight was shipped off to England for training during 1917, in total,2,500 pilots-in-training were transported to France and England. This was done to accelerate the pace of training and he started his training with the No.44 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, which was formed in Essex on July 24,1917. This particular squadron achieved its first triumph on January 28,1918, Knight also flew with the 206 squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, and subsequently, the Royal Air Force. He served with the British Second Army in France, on October 5,1918, Oberleutnant Harald Auffarth fired at Knights plane causing it to crash. Knight was flying a British Havilland 9 at the time and, although hurt, by the time the war ended, Knight was a prisoner of war at a German clinic. He was able to recuperate in a British ward, after his recovery, Knight continued his career as an aviation artist. He exhibited his artwork at Associated American Artists and it is possible that his acquisition of airplane art, which he started acquiring in 1928, may be the most extensive collection of airplane art. Knight became known for his illustrations in aviation books and he also illustrated for The New Yorker. Knight and his wife were also illustrators of books. He wrote and illustrated a few We Were There books, which were historical novels for children and this particular series was written as a fictional retelling of a historical event, featuring kids as the primary characters. He wrote and illustrated, We Were There. at the Normandy Invasion, We Were There. with the Lafayette Escadrille, and We Were There. at the Battle of Britain, both Knight and his wife were illustrators for the P. F. Volland Company, most known for publishing childrens books, Knights childrens book, The Non-Stop Stowaway, The Story of a Long Distance Flight was published under the Buzza Company imprint. Knight was living in Greenwich Village at the time and its mission was to bring Americans to Canada in order to prepare and fight for the Allies during the time of U. S. neutrality. The committee was funded by Homer Smith, and assisted by pro-war German émigrés, essentially it worked as a secret and illegal recruitment companyClayton Knight – An example of his work for \\ House & Garden \\ in 1922
111. William Little Lee – William Little Lee was an American lawyer who became the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for the Kingdom of Hawaii. William Little Lee was born February 25,1821 in Sandy Hill and his father was Colonel Stephen Lee and mother was Mary Little. He graduated from Norwich University in 1842 and he taught in a military school established by Alden Partridge in Portsmouth, Virginia, for one year, and then graduated from Harvard Law School. One of his teachers at Harvard was Joseph Story, who was sitting on the Supreme Court of the United States at the time. He practiced law in Troy, New York, but convinced his boyhood friend Charles Reed Bishop to travel with him to the Oregon Territory in February 1846 on the ship Henry. The ship was damaged while passing around Cape Horn, and needed to stop at the Hawaiian Islands for provisions, Lee was only the second person in Hawaii with any western-style law training. John Ricord had arrived just two years earlier, and was acting as Attorney General, Ricord convinced Lee to stay, and Bishop was given the job of sorting out the defunct Ladd & Co. which was also the center of a long-lasting legal dispute. A related land dispute by Richard Charlton had caused a British military occupation a few years called the Paulet Affair which was still being sorted out. On December 1,1846 he was appointed judge of the island of Oʻahu, Ricord left in 1847 and Lee had to finish drafting legislation to formalize the court system. Called the third organic act or act to Organize the Judiciary Department it was passed September 7,1847 activated January 10,1848. Starting in 1847 he became a member of a commission to quiet land titles led to legislation known as the Great Mahele which formalized fee simple ownership of real estate. On January 16,1848 he was named Chief Justice of the Superior Court, on March 11,1849 he married Catherine Newton, and became a boarder in Washington Place with John Owen Dominis and Dominis mother. Lee had proposed by letter, and they were married aboard the Leland by Rev. Samuel C, on August 12,1849, French admiral Louis Tromelin staged a French Invasion of Honolulu. On August 28 Lee and chief government minister Gerrit P. Judd went aboard the French ship for a peace conference. However, Tromelin continued to sack the city before sailing off with the kings yacht, Judd and two young princes were sent to Europe to negotiate treaties, stopping in the United States on the way. Judd advocated annexation by the United States to protect against further actions by British, Lee was more in favor of a simple treaty of Reciprocity. In 1851 Lee was elected to the House of Representatives in the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Lee helped draft the 1852 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii and a judiciary bill to implement its provisions. Lorrin Andrews and John Papa ʻĪʻī became associate justices and Lee chief justice of what was now called the Supreme Court, on December 15,1854 Kamehameha III died, his nephew took the throne as Kamehameha IVWilliam Little Lee – Lee on left, with Charles Reed Bishop in 1846
112. Marion Steam Shovel (Le Roy, New York) – The Marion Steam Shovel, also known as the Le Roy Steam Shovel, is a historic Model 91 steam shovel manufactured by the Marion Steam Shovel and Dredge Company of Marion, Ohio. It is located on Gulf Road in the Town of Le Roy, New York, no longer operational, it was moved to its current site in the mid-20th century. It is currently owned by the town, in 2008 it became the first steam shovel listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the only listing in the Town of Le Roy and the easternmost in Genesee County. The shovel is located on the side of Gulf Road. It is in a field behind a fence with locked gate, on the road there is space to pull vehicles over and look at it. The Register listing includes an area of about 0.1 acres, while the original decorations have largely faded off the side, in several places on the shovel the Marion name is cast and legible. The model number plates have been removed, but the patent plate is still in place, the shovel weighs 105 short tons. Its main section is the size of a boxcar,18 feet wide by 42 feet long, with an arched roof and siding of riveted sheet metal. A plate on its door bears the number 5304, an eight-foot coal bin was added to the rear after it was built. The section rests on two tracks, one pair out in front on a twenty-foot –wide outrigger, the other in the middle. The largest of the three engines is the hoisting engine and it is a double-cylinder horizontal type with a 12-inch bore and 16-inch stroke. In addition to powering the hoist, it provided locomotive power, about 50 feet of the hoist chain has been removed. Both of the engines have an 8-inch bore. The swing engine, attached to a chain around the swing circle, the other engine, the boom or crowd engine, raises and lowers the dipper. Due to its exposure to the weather, it is no longer in working condition, the other two, wholly inside the main section, were more protected from the elements and could be operated with compressed air. On the east end is the outrigger and it consists of two joined arms connected by gears and chains to the appropriate engines. At the end is the bucket, with a capacity of 2 1⁄2 cubic yards, beneath it is a small pile of rocks. The Marion Power Shovel Company came into being in the 1880s as a collaboration between a frustrated shovel operator turned inventor and an industrialist, the former, Henry Barnhart, designed a new shovel that he hoped would break down less frequently than existing modelsMarion Steam Shovel (Le Roy, New York) – Marion Steam Shovel
113. Masten-Quinn House – The Masten-Quinn House is located on First Street in the village of Wurtsboro, New York, United States. It is a wooden Greek Revival house built in two phases in the 1820s, the center of a farm that remained working until the mid-20th century, today it is one of the few remainders from the areas agricultural past as a canal town. Lawrence Masten, its builder and first owner, was able to take advantage of the nearby Delaware, in 2003 the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the first and only property in the village so far listed. The house sits on a lot, the remnant of the much larger original farm. Willsey Brook bounds it on the south, and the bed, now dry. The house itself is surrounded by trees, including a 175-year-old shagbark hickory tree to the southeast that has helped to date the houses construction. It is one and a half high, five bays long by two deep. It is sided in clapboard, with a gabled roof pierced by a fieldstone and brick chimney and shingled in asphalt, decorated with a wide frieze. The entire structure is supported by heavy timber framing, partially supported by a fieldstone foundation. A full-length veranda, with shed roof supported by wooden pillars. Two small shed-style wings project from the first story on the south side, the upper floor on the east face features eyebrow windows. The large chimney divides the interior into two main spaces, there is a large kitchen in the northern section, created by removing one wall, but otherwise the original floor plan remains intact. The flooring, too, is original wide planking, but very little original furnishing remains otherwise, there is a single outbuilding, a one-story frame gable-roofed structure originally used as a chicken coop. It was moved to the property when the farm was subdivided. It is considered a property to the National Register listing. Lawrence Mastens grandfather Johannes was an early Dutch settler in the narrow Basha Kill valley between the Shawangunk Ridge and Catskill Plateau, in his declining years he divided his holdings among his sons. Jacob Masten, Lawrences father, received some in the early 19th century, father transferred more to son in the 1830s, including the land on which he had already built his house, building the farm to a total of 100 acres. Masten and his wife Maria are believed to have built the first part of their homestead sometime after their marriage in 1821 and this was the southern block,25 by 17 feetMasten-Quinn House – Masten--Quinn House
114. Amby McConnell – Ambrose Moses McConnell was an American baseball second baseman who played four seasons in Major League Baseball. Nicknamed Midget due to his 5 feet 5 inches stature, he played for the Boston Red Sox and he batted left-handed but threw right-handed. McConnell played minor league baseball for three different teams until August 1907, when he signed for the Boston Red Sox and he died on May 20,1942 in Utica, New York. McConnell is most famous for hitting into the first unassisted triple play in Major League Baseball history on July 19,1909, McConnell was born on April 29,1883. Although his place of birth is unclear, he grew up in North Pownal, Vermont, McConnell attended Beloit College and made a living by working at the town mill for fifty hours a week. During his spare time, he would play baseball at a nearby field, as a result of his newfound fame, a team based in Dalton, Massachusetts offered McConnell $7.50 a week to play for them. McConnell accepted, even some of his new teammates were earning twice as much as he was. After the 1908 season, McConnell got married and eventually had two children, throughout his career, McConnell was known to have the odd hobby of collecting pins. When he was in the middle of a slump, he would scavenge the streets and pick up any pin he found. McConnell departed the Dalton team in 1902 and began to organized baseball for semi-pro teams in Rutland, Vermont. In 1904, he joined the Troy Trojans of the New York State League, over the next two years, he spent a season each at the Eastern Leagues Rochester Broncos and the Utica Pent-Ups, where his performance dipped. However, he rebounded in the 1907 season, where he batted.320 and this prompted the Boston Red Sox to purchase McConnells contract from the Grays at the end of the season in August. He made his league debut for the Red Sox on April 17,1908, at the age of 24. During his 1908 rookie season, McConnell had a successful year. He had the teams second-highest batting average and number of hits and he also set the Red Sox record for most stolen bases in a single-season by a rookie with 31, which stood until being broken by Jacoby Ellsbury on June 15,2008. Defensively, he committed the most errors among all second basemen in the American League with 38 and this was cited as one of the reasons why the Red Sox were erratic and inconsistent in their performance that season. Nevertheless, McConnell was voted the most popular Red Sox player of the season by the fans, beating out Cy Young and Tris Speaker in the process. McConnell achieved baseball history when he lined into the first unassisted triple play in Major League Baseball history on July 19,1909, in the second inning of the game, Heinie Wagner led off with an infield single and outfielder Jake Stahl reached base with a buntAmby McConnell – McConnell's 1911 baseball card
115. Mianus River Gorge – The Mianus River Gorge is a 755-acre nature preserve jointly owned by The Nature Conservancy and the Mianus River Gorge Preserve. It is located in Bedford, New York, the first 60 acres were purchased by the Preserve, with help from the Conservancy, their first land preservation deal. It has grown over the years and is managed by the Preserve. In March 1964, it was designated a National Natural Landmark for its old growth climax hemlock forest and the gorge of the Mianus River. In 1954, Gloria and Anthony Anable reached out for help from The Nature Conservancy which pledged $7,500 to help purchase 60 acres of land in the gorge, in 1990,17 acres were donated as part of a development deal. In 2007, The Nature Conservancy purchased eight acres of adjacent wetlands to protect the gorge, the gorge is a periglacial formation, carved by streams as the glacier retreated. It contains several types of bedrock including Bedford Augen Gneiss, Hartland Schist, Precambrian and Cambrian gneiss, camerons Line passes through the preserve. The old Hobby Hill pegmatite quarry is located in the section of the preserve. The Havenmeyer Falls is also part of the preserve, in 2003, the Preserve began to manage its deer population via limited bow hunting. They did so to decrease the risk of excessive deer populations causing damage to the vegetation and they believed that very small scale reductions could effectively manage the population without adversely affecting neighboring populations due to the rose petal hypothesis of deer populations. There are numerous species of trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, the preserve is open from April to November,8,30 a. m. to 5 p. m. There are approximately five miles of well-marked hiking trails, list of National Natural Landmarks in New York Mianus River Gorge, Inc. The Nature Conservancy, Mianus River Gorge Preserve Trail mapMianus River Gorge – Entrance
116. Our Idiot Brother – Our Idiot Brother is a 2011 American comedy-drama film directed by Jesse Peretz and starring Paul Rudd, Elizabeth Banks, Zooey Deschanel, and Emily Mortimer. The film was co-produced by Anthony Bregman, Peter Saraf, and it premiered at the 2011 Sundance Film Festival and was given wide release on August 26,2011. The film received positive reviews, with critics praising the story and Rudds performance. Ned Rochlin is a farmer living with his girlfriend, Janet. Ned is then arrested on a charge of selling drugs, Ned has three sisters, Miranda is a journalist for Vanity Fair trying to get her first major article published. Though she has trouble finding a man to keep her interest, she, Natalie, is an independent, bisexual hipster living with her girlfriend, Cindy, and five other roommates. Liz, the oldest, is married to Dylan, a documentary filmmaker and their marriage is failing as Dylan shows no sexual or emotional interest in Liz. They also have control over their son River, which leaves him unhappy. When Ned is released from prison, he returns home to his girl and he finds that she is living with Billy, and no longer wishes to continue their relationship or allow him to work at the farm. Billy gives Ned a ride into town and tells him if he can scrape together $1000 for the first 2 months rent. Ned initially stays at his mothers house but a few days later shows up at Lizs place and he is put in Rivers room and told that he must help around the house and work with Dylan on his newest documentary about a Russian ballerina named Tatiana. The next day, Miranda reluctantly asks Ned to chauffeur while she interviews an important client, Miranda hopes to pry into her scandalous past, but is dismayed to learn of a legal agreement to only ask about charity work. Miranda tries to pretend Ned isnt there, but his friendliness charms Arabella and that night, Ned goes with Natalie to a self-help meeting with Natalies artist friend, Christian. Christian is attracted to Natalie but is dissuaded by her lesbian relationship until Ned informs him that she is bisexual, Christian and Natalie take a cab home and end up having sex. Ned goes back to working with Dylan, but is told to watch the car while Dylan conducts an interview with Tatiana. Hours later, Ned is told by an officer to move out of a tow zone. Running upstairs to get the keys he discovers Dylan naked with Tatiana, Dylan later says the only reason he was naked was to make Tatiana feel more comfortable while being naked, which Ned believes. The next night, Ned goes with Miranda to Arabellas benefit dinner and she explains the gossipy part of her life to Ned, who listens with interestOur Idiot Brother – Theatrical release poster
117. Thomas Paine Cottage – The Thomas Paine Cottage in New Rochelle, New York in the United States, was the home from 1802 to 1806 of Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense and Revolutionary War hero. Paine was buried near the cottage from his death in 1809 until his body was disinterred in 1819. It was one of a number of buildings located on the 300 acre farm given to Paine by the State of New York in 1784 and it was here in August 1805 that he wrote his last pamphlet, which was addressed to the citizens of Philadelphia on Constitutional Reform. The cottage has been owned by the New Rochelle and Huguenot Historical Association and has operated as a historic house museum since 1910. The cottage is open to the five days a week. There are several weekend events scheduled at the cottage throughout the year, in addition, the cottage hosts many local school field trips. It had 3,000 visitors in 2002, the cottage is a two-story wood-frame saltbox structure. It began as a simple building 16 feet wide and 31 feet deep, in 1804, an additional 18 by 23 feet wing with a porch was constructed. An exterior door and porch pillars in the Greek Revival style were added in about 1830, the main house has three rooms set one behind the other, the kitchen in front, a common room in the center and a bedroom in the rear. The wing to the right contains the parlor and there are four bedrooms on the second floor, the entrance door and the pillars of the porch on the wing are Greek Revival and were added about 1830. The current arrangement has rooms decorated in the late 18th and early 19th century style as well as exhibits pertaining to the history of New Rochelle, the local Siwanoy Indians, and the Huguenots. The front door to the cottage enters directly into its main room, the desk is said to have belonged to Jacques Flandreau, an early Huguenot settler of the town. Over the desk is an engraving from the celebrated painting at Versailles showing King Henry IV of France entering Paris through the unfinished Porte-Neuve on the morning of March 22,1594. The rear room on the first floor is known as the Paine Room, on Christmas Eve,1805, a gun was fired into this room in an attempt on Paines life. There are several interesting items in this room, there are two chairs used by Paine when he boarded at Bayeaus Tavern, almost directly across North Avenue. Another item is the set in the chimney. It was presented by Benjamin Franklin to Thomas Paine, and is one of the few real Franklin stoves in existence. Still another item is a warming pan which belonged to Mrs. Sarah Bache, daughter of Benjamin Franklin and wife of Richard Bache who was postmaster-general of the United States from 1776-1782Thomas Paine Cottage – The house's Franklin stove
118. Bemus Pierce – Bemus Pierce was an American football player and coach. He played as a guard in the 1890s and 1900s and he also played for the All-Syracuse team in 1902, the first indoor professional football team. Pierce served as the football coach at the University of Buffalo in 1899, at the Carlisle Indian School in 1906. Bemus Pierce, a member of the Seneca nation, was born on February 23 or 28,1873 on the Cattaraugus Reservation, Erie County and he married Annie Gesis, a fellow Carlisle student, also from Cattaraugus, in April 1899 in the local Episcopal Church. He attended the Carlisle Indian School where he played on the first great Carlisle football teams from 1894 to 1897, Pierce was a large player for the 1890s at six-feet, one and one-half inches, and 225 pounds. He was selected as captain of the Carlisle football teams of 1895,1896 and he also became Carlisles first All-American as a lineman in 1896. In an 1896 game between Carlisle and Illinois played in Chicago, Pierce returned three kick-offs for touchdowns, at Carlisle, Pierce was teammates with his brother Hawley Pierce. The two brothers, each weighing over 200 pounds, were both among the best players of their day. In 1906, The Washington Post declared them the greatest pair of brothers in the history of the sport, But the greatest pair of brother linesmen were the Indians. Bemus Pierce and Hawley Pierce were right guard and left tackle in the Carlisle line in the old days when the redskin booters of the prolate had everything in the country scared, two hundred pounds apiece they weighed, and they won games for their team in 97. Tackle back and guard back for a half was the Indian play. Bemus was captain of the team and one of the best men on the football has seen. He could measure and place his kicks accurately and every red knew where the ball was going before it soared, during a game against Penn, Pierce faced off against Alfred E. Bull. Bull and Pierce faced each other on the line throughout the game, and on a late in the game Pierce sent Bull to the ground. After the play, Pierce cried out to the Penn players, Pierce played with his brothers, Jerry and Hawley, on the same team. Bemus Pierce scaled nearly 225 pounds, but he was tall, despite his great bulk he was fast as a streak, and no line player of recent years has shown more real ability. Bemus in the opinion of Princeton and Harvard opponents, was one of the greatest linemen that ever stood on a football field, Foster Sanford agrees with this and Foster knows a lineman when he sees one. Pierce went on to professional football in the early years of the sportBemus Pierce – Bemus Pierce
119. Robert H. Pruyn – Robert Hewson Pruyn was an American lawyer, militia general, diplomat, and politician from Albany, New York. The Pruyn family of Albany, New York was one of the oldest and most esteemed Dutch families in New York, Pruyn graduated from The Albany Academy, and received Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees from Rutgers University. He studied law with Abraham Van Vechten, was admitted to the bar, Pruyn served as Albanys corporation counsel and was a member of the city council. Active in the militia, he was named Judge Advocate General in 1841, serving until 1846. A political ally and close friend to William Henry Seward, he was a Whig member of the New York State Assembly in 1848,1849,1850,1851,1852 and 1854. On January 30,1850, after Speaker Noble S. Elderkin left the Assembly to stay at home with his wife who was terminally ill and he was again Speaker in 1854. Governor Myron Clark appointed him Adjutant General of the New York National Guard, replacing John Watts de Peyster in 1855 and he achieved the rank of Brigadier General of the militia. Japan–United States relations had only recently been established with the visits by Commodore Perry in 1852 to 1854, pruyns crowning achievement was the successful negotiation following the Shimonoseki bombardment. He was considered successful in his dealings with the Shogun. He also signed an agreement to allow shipwrecked Japanese sailors to be repatriated and he was awarded an LL. D. from Williams College in 1865 and served on the board of trustees. He went on to become President of the National Commercial Bank and Trust of Albany, in 1866, he was the Conservative Union candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York. Pruyn, was prominent banker and one of the most influential leaders of the American toy industry and he died suddenly in 1882 in Albany. His remains are interred at Albany Rural Cemetery, frank Allaben Genealogical Company, New York,1908. Civil List and Forms of Government of the Colony State of New York, johnson, Rossiter, and Brown, John Howard. The twentieth-century biographical dictionary of notable Americans, the United States in Asia, A Historical Dictionary. ISBN 0-313-26788-X Seward, Frederick W. Autobiography of William H. Seward, when the Guns Roared, World Aspects of the American Civil War. The Early Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Japan, 1853-1865, the Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore,1917. ISBN 0-548-59476-7 American Council of Learned Societies, Robert H. Pruyn in Japan, 1862-1865Robert H. Pruyn – Robert H. Pruyn of Albany, New York. An Ambassador, militia General and Speaker of the New York State Assembly.
120. Queenston Formation – The Queenston Formation is a geological formation of Upper Ordovician age, which outcrops in Ontario, Canada and New York, United States. A typical outcrop of the formation is exposed at Bronte Creek just south of the Queen Elizabeth Way, the formation is a part of the Queenston Delta clastic wedge, formed as an erosional response to the Taconic Orogeny. Lithologically, the formation is dominated by red and grey shales with thin siltstone, limestone and sandstone interlayers, as materials, comprising the clastic wedge, become coarser in close proximity to the Taconic source rocks, siltstone and sandstone layers are predominant in New York. The formation is wedge-shaped, thick, and laterally extensive, outcropping from the Western New York to Cabot Head and it thins from southeast to northwest at around 0.6 metres per kilometre and has a dip of 3° to the south-southwest. The formation is the topmost Ordovician layer in Southern Ontario and is overlain by the Lower Silurian rocks of the Cataract Group. At its base it has a conformable contact with underlying beds of the Georgian Bay Formation in Southern Ontario, the Carlsbad Formation near Ottawa. The formation is composed primarily of red and grey hematitic, sandy, colouration is connected to post-depositional processes, red portions are the result of oxidation of iron-bearing minerals and green comes from reduction, possibly by acidic groundwater. The formation also contains thin layers of sandstone, bioclastic, argillaceous and silty limestone. Coarser layers become much thicker in New York, minor amounts of gypsum, in nodules and laminae, are found throughout. On the Manitoulin Island, the formation is dominated by limestone and dolostone, ichnofossils are more common, represented by Diplocraterion, Skolithos and Chondrites. Prior to lithification, the mud deposits had been frequently exposed subaerially and desiccated, as evidenced by the numerous mudcracks, the formation is composed of 14 facies, grouped into 4 facies associations, named A through D, corresponding to the specific depositional environments. Facies association A, composed mostly of grey shales, was deposited on a shelf, shallow enough to be affected by storms. Facies association B was deposited under variable conditions, ranging from subtidal to intertidal to supratidal. It is defined by red and dark grey shales, facies association C was deposited in the paralic setting and consists primarily of red shales. Facies association D, only found in New York, was deposited under fluvial conditions and it is dominated by sand, carried by braided rivers. Similar depositional environments are found at the Gulf of California. In New York, the sandstone beds are commercially producing reservoir rocks for natural gas. These beds are currently considered for geological CO2 storageQueenston Formation – Queenston Formation exposed at the Cheltenham Badlands.
121. David Wallis Reeves – David Wallis Reeves, also known as D. W. Reeves or Wally Reeves, was an American composer, cornetist, and bandleader. He developed the American march style, later made famous by the likes of John Philip Sousa, Sousa called Reeves The Father of Band Music in America, and stated he wished he himself had written Reeves Second Regiment Connecticut National Guard March. Charles Ives also borrowed from the Second Connecticut on four occasions, Reeves was born on February 14,1838, in Oswego, New York. In the early 1850s, he joined the Oswego band as a horn player, but soon moved to cornet. He occasionally performed with Jules Levy, another famous cornetist of the period, in 1871, he married Sarah Blanding. He joined the ensemble on February 17, and was elected its leader on April 9 and his initial compensation was $600 per year, plus the proceeds of one concert, in return for which he agreed to conduct the band on all occasions. He eventually added woodwinds to the formerly all-brass band, which known as Reeves American Band. It was known as one of the best marching bands in the country during his tenure, in 1892, he accepted the directorship of Patrick Gilmores Twenty-Second New York Regiment band after Gilmores death, but returned to the American Band after a year. Later in the 1890s, he served as a judge for the New York Volunteer Firemens Associations band competitions, in 1878, Reeves led a performance of H. M. S. Pinafore, using a boat for the stage, which Arthur Sullivan took note of, early in 1900, he contracted Brights disease. He died on March 8,1900, Sousa sent 200 roses in his memory. He was buried at Swan Point Cemetery with Masonic honors, by the time of his death in 1900, he had composed over 100 works. In 1926, a fountain was built as a memorial to Reeves in Roger Williams Park in ProvidenceDavid Wallis Reeves – David Wallis Reeves
122. William Harrison Rice – William Harrison Rice was a missionary teacher from the United States who traveled to the Hawaiian Islands and managed an early sugarcane plantation. William Harrison Rice was born on October 12,1813 in Oswego and his father was Joseph Rice and mother Sally Rice. On September 29,1840 he married Mary Sophia Hyde, who was born on October 11,1816 and her father was Jabez Backus Hyde, a missionary to the Seneca nation in western New York State near current-day Buffalo, New York, and mother was Jerusha Aiken Hyde. Reverend Hyde performed the wedding ceremony, also in this company were John Davis Paris, Elias Bond, and Daniel Dole. The Rice and Paris families were intending to proceed to Oregon Territory and their first posting after learning the Hawaiian language was the remote Wānanalua mission station in the Hana district, on the eastern coast of the island of Maui. Reverend Daniel Conde had founded the station in 1838, but was holding services in a traditional Hawaiian thatched building, the native Hawaiians were put to work building a stone building starting in 1842, which still stands. In 1844 the Rice family was transferred to become the first secular teachers at Punahou School that had been founded by Dole two years before in Honolulu, one of his first tasks was to have a house constructed for his family and some boarders, known as Rice Hall. He then supervised the building of a building now called Old School Hall from 1848 to 1851, since the plantation had suffered through extremes of storms and a drought, his pay was supplemented by shares in ownership of the company. The position also included a house called Koamalu, which shade of the Acacia koa tree. From 1856 to 1857 Rice engineered and supervised construction of the first irrigation system for sugarcane in the Hawaiian Islands and it took water from the wetter elevations of Kilohana Crater at 21°59′58″N 159°25′41″W, diverting the Hanamāʻulu Stream to solve the problem of uneven rainfall. It started as a simple ditch similar to scale projects that ancient Hawaiians had developed, eventually adding flumes. Rice made a trip to California in 1861, but died from tuberculosis in Līhuʻe on Kauaʻi on May 27,1862. His wife lived on until May 25,1911, continuing to be a benefactor, although he did not live to see it, the plantation shares became valuable as the demand for sugar increased due to the American Civil War and the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. In 1907 the original Rice Hall at Punahou was torn down and it was subsequently demolished in 1950, and the central open area of the campus is now called Rice Field. Daughter Hannah Maria Rice was born at Hana on February 17,1842, in 1861 married German Paul Isenberg, Isenberg took over managing the plantation in 1862, and then was partner in the company that became Amfac, Inc. with Heinrich Hackfeld. Daughter Emily Dole Rice was born May 10,1844, married Honolulu judge George de la Vergne in 1867, son William Hyde Rice was born July 23,1846, and became a politician, serving as the last Governor of Kauai. Mary Sophia Rice was born January 7,1849 and died September 5,1870, daughter Anna Charlotte Rice was born on September 5,1853, married businessman Charles Montague Cooke, founded the Honolulu Museum of Art, and died on August 8,1934. Their son was banker and politician Clarence Hyde Cooke, and great-grandson judge Alan Cooke Kay, other descendants include scientist Charles Montague Cooke, Jr. musician Francis Judd Cooke, and baseball player Steve CookeWilliam Harrison Rice – Circa 1856
123. Richmond Memorial Library – The Richmond Memorial Library is located on Ross Street in Batavia, New York, United States. It is an 1880s stone structure in the Richardsonian Romanesque style designed by Rochester architect James Goold Cutler and his design was strongly inspired by several libraries in Massachusetts that Richardson himself had recently built. It was commissioned by local philanthropist Mary E. Richmond, wife of Dean Richmond, in 1889, as a memorial to her youngest son, Dean Richmond and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The library is located on the west side of Ross Street approximately 200 feet north of East Main Street, the neighborhood, just east of the commercial core area of downtown Batavia, is predominantly residential, with some institutional structures. Resurrection Parish Catholic church is to the southwest and another brick building is to the northwest. Further to the northeast is one of Batavias schools, St. James Episcopal Church, the terrain is level and some mature trees grow in the front yards and along lot lines. The building itself consists of the building and a larger modern addition in its rear. The older section is a one-and-a-half-story L-shaped structure of sandstone in an ashlar pattern. Both sections have a steeply pitched gabled roof, with the main entrance pavilion, off-center to the north. At the northeast corner is a tower with conical top sheathed in copper. A chimney rises from the south end, steps lead up to the wide round segmental arch on low imposts, a particularly Richardsonian detail, which shelters the recessed main entrance. Inscribed in the stone above are ornate letters reading Richmond Memorial Library, above that are three small, narrow round-arched windows with some decorative stonework and a narrower, smaller window in the gable apex. Five deeply recessed windows with leaded glass transoms fill out the facade to the south end. The north gable has a set of round-arched windows in its apex. Inside, the reading room occupies most of the long wing, behind an arch at the south end is a fireplace. Oak wainscoting extends halfway to the ceiling, from which a chandelier hangs. Dean Richmond, Jr. died in his youth and his mother chose a piece of property near the family mansion as the site of a library to be built in his memory and donated to the city. She commissioned a design from James Goold Cutler, a builder and businessman who had invented the mail chute, Cutler consciously emulated several Romanesque libraries that had been built in recent years by Henry Hobson Richardson in the suburbs of BostonRichmond Memorial Library – Richmond Memorial Library
124. Rural Cemetery Act – The Rural Cemetery Act was a law passed by the New York Legislature on April 27,1847, that authorized commercial burial grounds in rural New York state. The law led to burial of human remains becoming a business for the first time, replacing the traditional practice of burying the dead in churchyards. One effect of the law was the development of a concentration of cemeteries along the border between the New York City boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. The law authorized nonprofit entities to establish cemeteries on rural land and sell burial plots, the Act was significant because it was made it easier to establish charitable corporations for rural cemeteries. This Act was part of the movement for general incorporation statutes. This facilitated the development of corporations, which were seen as assisting in the development of a cultivate and this was part of co-operation between the legislature and charitable corporations. Both churches and land speculators responded to the new law by purchasing land for cemeteries. The move to rural burial grounds was accelerated by public suspicion that contamination from graveyards had been a cause of the epidemics of cholera occurred in New York City in 1832 and 1849. In 1852 the Common Council of New York City passed a law prohibiting new burials in the city, the City of Brooklyn had passed a similar law in 1849. Calvary Cemetery, in Queens, which recorded its first burial in 1848, was created on land that the trustees of St. Patricks Cathedral had begun to buy up two years earlier. Cypress Hills Cemetery, on the Queens-Brooklyn boundary line, was the first nonreligious cemetery to be formed in Queens under the new law and its first burial also took place in 1848. Lutheran Cemetery traces its beginnings to 1852, when Frederick William Geissenhainer, in other parts of the state, rural cemeteries established after the passage of the Act included Oakwood Cemetery in Troy, founded in 1848, and Oakwood Cemetery in Syracuse, dedicated in 1859. Between 1854 to 1856, more than 15,000 bodies were exhumed from churchyards in Manhattan and Williamsburg, over the decades, Cypress Hills Cemetery alone is estimated to have reburied the remains of 35,000 people disinterred from their original burial sites in Manhattan. Often, unidentified bones were reburied in mass graves, during construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, which was started in 1870, bodies buried at Sands Street Methodist Church in Brooklyn were exhumed and moved to the Cemetery of the Evergreens. The New York City-area cemeteries established under the Rural Cemetery Act grew very large, as of the 1990s Calvary Cemetery held nearly three million graves. The Rural Cemetery Act led to Queens being a borough of cemeteries, Queens is home to 29 cemeteries holding more than five million graves and entombments, so that the dead population of the borough is more than twice the size of its live population. The large concentration of cemeteries on the border of Brooklyn and Queens is another effect of the law, as result,17 cemeteries straddle the border between Queens and Brooklyn. As with Queens, the population of Brooklyn is estimated to exceed its living populationRural Cemetery Act – Calvary Cemetery in Queens (Manhattan skyline in background) was one of the first new cemeteries established after passage of the Rural Cemetery Act.
125. Salt industry in Syracuse, New York – The salt industry has a long history in and around Syracuse, New York. Jesuit missionaries visiting the region in 1654 were the first to report salty brine springs around the end of Salt Lake. The salt springs extended around much of Onondaga Lake, originating in the town of Salina and passing through Geddes and Liverpool to the mouth of Ninemile Creek, the majority of salt used in the United States in the 19th century came from Syracuse. Even today, Syracuse is sometimes known as the Salt City, a series of deep and shallow aquifer systems in the Onondaga Creek Valley provided the brine that stimulated early growth in the Syracuse area. Many settlers came to the region to mine the salt and earn a standard of living for their families. Thick layers of shale beneath the Syracuse area were formed over a period of 300 to 500 million years ago, on the East Coast of North America, two landmasses collided and formed a large mountain range. A large shallow depression to the west formed an inland sea, precipitation and runoff over millions of years gradually eroded the mountain range and sediment, in the form of mud, consolidated into thick layers of what later hardened into shale. The northern shore of the sea was situated in Tully. The salt was formed after evaporation from the shallowest areas left layers of evaporites or salts and these included calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, also known as common salt. During the Ice Age, the processes of glaciation followed by deglaciation eroded and reshaped the bedrock foundation that consists of limestone, shale, from there, it continues through Southern Ontario to Saginaw, Michigan, and extends as far west as Wisconsin and Iowa. Salt springs are one of three sources from which salt is obtained, rock salt, sea water and salt brine which is derived from springs, lakes, the salt springs of Onondaga Lake were well known to the Jesuit missionaries. Early in the 16th century a number of Spaniards traveled from Florida in order to examine a mysterious substance that covered the ground. On August 5,1654, Father Simon Le Moyne, a French Jesuit missionary, during his short stay, Le Moyne drank from a spring which the Onondagas believed to be tainted due to an evil spirit. Unlike the Onondagas who considered the salt springs evil, the French instead, by 1660, the Dutch at New Amsterdam and Fort Orange, Albany, New York, were in receipt of information that salt grew out of the ground, however, they refused to believe it. The British began to take an active interest in the land around Onondaga Lake in the early 18th century and they befriended the Onondagas by giving them guns, which were highly prized. British agent, Sir William Johnson, acquired 200,000 acres of land in the Mohawk country near present-day Johnstown, in 1751, Johnson heard that the French intended on securing a military post in the vicinity of the salt springs. He discussed the consequences of that action with the Onondagas and proposed that they grant him rights to all of Onondaga Lake, the Onondagas agreed and were paid £350 sterling. The deed made in 1773 by Sir William Johnson with the Onondaga chiefs was declared invalid in September 1788, as a result of the treaty, the area was designated by the State as the Onondaga Salt Springs ReservationSalt industry in Syracuse, New York – Salt sheds and solar evaporation method – c. 1908
126. Clarence Seamans – Seamans was born June 5,1854 in Ilion, New York to Abner Clark Seamans and Caroline Matilda Williams. Seamans began work as a clerk at E. Remington and Sons, in 1875, he began a three year stint of overseeing a silver mine in Bingham Canyon, Utah. Upon returning to the state of New York, Seamans became a bookkeeper and salesman at Fairbanks & Company, Fairbanks had become the sole marketer of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, produced by Seamans former employer, E. Remington and Sons. After 1879, Seamans lived in Brooklyn with his wife Ida Gertrude Watson, in 1881, marketing of the typewriter returned to Remington. Seamans had been a star typewriter salesman and was retained and made manager of sales. The following year, Seamans partnered with Harry H. Benedict, a Remington director, and William O. Wyckoff, a Remington sales agent, to form the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. In 1886, Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict purchased the business from Remington and, in 1892, formed the Remington Standard Typewriter Company with Seamans as the treasurer. A year later, Seamans was made president of the Union Typewriter Company, Seamans presided over the acquisition of the Wahl Adding Machine Company, which made Union the worlds largest typewriter company. Seamans remained president until being elected to chairman of the board in 1913, during this time, Seamans held a director position at several trust companies and an insurance company. Seamans died at his home in Pigeon Cove, Massachusetts on May 30,1915Clarence Seamans – Clarence W. Seamans
127. Tony Sisti – Anthony J. Sisti was an American artist, art instructor and patron of the arts. In his youth, Sisti was also a Bantam Weight boxer, as an artist, Sisti was best known for his oil paintings, drawings, and murals. Sisti studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Florence and he then taught at the Art Institute of Buffalo before opening his own gallery in Buffalo, New York. Over the years, he painted portraits of important political. In 1981, the City of Buffalo named a park in his honor, Sisti was born in Greenwich Village in 1901. He moved to Buffalo when he was ten, as a young man, Sisti began boxing at a local gym. A year later, he won the New York State’s 1918 Golden Gloves bantamweight championship, at that point, he became a professional boxer. Over the next years, he boxed whenever he needed money. When he finally retired in 1930, he had fought 100 bouts, however, his real passion was art. From 1926 to 1931, Sisti studied visual arts at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Florence, during this period, he also traveled throughout Europe. He also accompanied Ernest Hemingway on a trip to the Congo, when he ran out of money, Sisti arranged a boxing match in Rome, winning enough money to finance his return to Buffalo. Later, he used the winnings from another fight to underwrite the cost a personal art show in New York City, Sisti joined the Art Institute of Buffalo as a member of the faculty in 1932. He taught painting and anatomy at the institute until 1938, during the mid-1930s, he also won several Works Projects Administration art commissions including a large oil painting called Circus and a mural at Buffalo’s City Hospital. Unfortunately, the no longer exists. In 1938, he opened his own art studio on Franklin Street in the Allentown area of Buffalo and he continued to teach art as well, flying to Manhattan every week to teach drawing at the New York School of Applied Design for Women. Over the years, Sisti became a member of the Allentown community. In 1958, he helped the Allentown neighborhood organize an art festival. Fifty years later, the Allentown Art Festival is still an annual event in BuffaloTony Sisti – Painter, art dealer, and patron of the arts
128. Skene Memorial Library – The Skene Memorial Library is located on Main Street in Fleischmanns, New York, United States. It is also used as the village hall, the frame building, combining elements of the Queen Anne and Shingle architectural styles, dates to the early 20th century. Its exterior incorporates aspects of train station architecture. It was built by the widow of prominent gynecologist Alexander Skene, who summered in the area, in addition to her own contributions and contributions from villagers, she raised money from Andrew Carnegie, making it one of the many Carnegie libraries. Later it was deeded to the village, in 2001 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The library currently features a collection of books on the Catskills, the library is on an 0. 9-acre lot on the north side of Main Street in Fleischmanns small downtown. The neighborhood is a mix of commercial and residential buildings, behind the lot is woodlands, rising slightly to a low hill behind a small parking lot. In front is a lawn with stone monuments to local war veterans. The building itself is an L-shaped one-story structure on a stone foundation sided in wood shingles, four narrow wood moldings run around the eave, lintel, sill and water table levels. The high hipped roofs are shingled in asbestos with broad overhanging eaves supported by brackets, stone chimneys rise from the west side and the east rear. At the center of the facade is a porch supported by Doric columns. The words SKENE MEMORIAL LIBRARY are on the entablature and its overhang is also supported by narrow brackets. Three wide stone steps with iron railings climb up to it, above the porch is an octagonal tower with round-arched windows in alternating facets above the roofline. Its top stage has louvered vents in all but the front facet and it is topped by a rounded roof with the same bracketed eaves. All windows are in pairs, with a pattern in the upper pane. A similar pattern is in the transoms on the two entrances, both on the north end of the rear. A modern wheelchair ramp goes up to these from the parking lot, the double wood and glass doors at the main entrance lead into a small vestibule where stairs provide access to the tower and cellar. From there doors open into the reading room, rectangular with an elliptical arched ceilingSkene Memorial Library – Skene Memorial Library
129. Erinn Smart – Erinn Smart is an American fencer who was a member of the United States Fencing Team at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where she competed in the womens individual and team foil events. Smart is 5 feet,7 inches tall, weighs 125 pounds, Smarts brother Keeth is also a nationally ranked competitive fencer who also started fencing with the Peter Westbrook Foundation. Smart was born in New York City, New York, before taking up fencing, she had taken ballet, ice skating, tennis and track. Her brother Keeth,18 months her senior, took up the six months later. Smart graduated from Brooklyn Technical High School, as a chemistry major and she attended Barnard College at Columbia University in Manhattan, graduating in 2001 with a degree in economics. She was recognized as an NCAA All-American at Columbia and she worked for Lord Abbett, a financial firm, following the 2004 Olympics. She is attending Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, Smart was the United States National Champion in 1998,2002,2004 and 2008, and was ranked 11th at the 2003 World Championships. Both Smarts won at the 2004 U. S, Smart was selected as an alternate for the United States team at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, but did not participate in competition. She outpointed sisters Iris and Felicia Zimmerman to earn a spot on the United States team at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, both Erinn and her brother Keeth were part of the United States team at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China. Both won silver medals in their team events, Fencing List of American foil fencers Athlete Profile, Erinn Smart Smart Helps Americans to Surprise SilverErinn Smart – 2004 Fencing Olympians from Peter Westbrook Foundation, Keeth Smart, Erinn Smart, Ivan Lee, and Kamara James (l-r)
130. Squaw Island (Canandaigua Lake) – Squaw Island is located at the north end of Canandaigua Lake, near the city of Canandaigua, New York, United States. It is one of two islands in the 11 Finger Lakes and it formed from the alluvial deposits of nearby Sucker Brook. Limestone from the brooks bedrock dissolved in its waters forms rare lime carbonate oncolites, known locally as water biscuits, rises in the lake level following the damming of Canandaigua Outlet have reduced the island to a small portion of its former land. The state and local activists have worked together to shore it up against erosion, the island is located roughly 500 feet south of the mouth of Sucker Brook and 600 feet southwest of the end of the docks at the north end of the lake in Canandaigua. Although both those locations are in the city, the island itself is outside its boundaries, in the town of Canandaigua. The surrounding waters, like much of the north end of the lake, are no deeper than 25 feet it is sometimes possible to wade to it from shore. It is roughly 145 feet long by 55 feet wide, for an area just under 8,000 square feet. Several mature deciduous trees grow on the island, the shoreline is marked by piles of flat stones. Its terrain is level, barely rising above the water level, a 10-short-ton granite boulder is located in the middle. Squaw Island began to form as a created by the interactions between the sediments carried in Sucker Brook and the counterclockwise currents along the lakeshore. The first humans known to have settled in the region, the ancestors of the Iroquois Native American tribes, did not live on the island, however, flint arrowheads and other artifacts found on the island suggest it was used for hunting waterfowl and perhaps deer. It may also have used as a staging area for Iroquois warriors in the area mobilizing against the Sullivan Expedition of 1779. It seems more likely that it emerged from the use as a hunting and fishing spot. There have been efforts to change it in the 21st century, as with other places with squaw in the name. In 1900, paleontologist John M. Clarke published a paper about the rare oncolites that had accumulated on the islands north shore. The disc-shaped white rocks, known locally as water biscuits, were light yet strong when wet, clarkes paper attracted the interest of Mary Clark Thompson, a Canandaigua native and daughter of former governor Myron H. Clark. The following year she had the large granite boulder moved to the center of the island, throughout the rest of the 20th century, Squaw Island would face threats greater than those that could be held at bay by making it a protected area. Damming of Canandaigua Outlet drove up the water level, leaving most of the two spits permanently underwaterSquaw Island (Canandaigua Lake) – Squaw Island from Canandaigua City Pier
131. Clyde Summers – Clyde Wilson Summers was an American lawyer and educator who is best known for his work in advocating more democratic procedures in labor unions. He was considered the leading expert on union democracy. What Louis Brandeis was to the field of law, Clyde Summers is to the field of union democracy. Summers, like Brandeis, provided the foundation for an important new field of law. Summers was born in Grass Range, Montana, on November 21,1918 and his parents were farmers, and the Summers family moved to Colorado, South Dakota, and Tecumseh, Nebraska, before settling in Winchester, Illinois, in 1929. His mother died that same year, Summers attended high school in Winchester, and entered the University of Illinois at the age of 16. He earned a Bachelor of Science in accounting in 1939 and a J. D. in 1942, while an undergraduate and law student, Summers became active in the Methodist Student Movement and became a believer in the social gospel. Summers brother had enlisted in the United States Army at the beginning of World War II, but Summers, opposed to the use of force, declared himself a conscientious objector. The Illinois State Bar Association admitted he was of moral character and exhibited excellent knowledge of the law. In a highly controversial but important decision, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the denial of admission to the bar in In re Summers,325 U. S.561, Summers later was admitted to the New York State Bar Association. He taught law at the University of Toledo from 1942 to 1945, while teaching at Toledo, he met and married Evelyn Wahlgren, a music teacher. They had two sons and two daughters, Summers earned a Master of Laws in 1946 and a Doctor of Science in law in 1952, both from Columbia University. He taught law at the University of Buffalo from 1949 to 1956, while at Buffalo, Summers was also employed by the United Auto Workers and United Steelworkers to teach labor law to union members, and represented union members in arbitration hearings. In the summer of 1949, the American Civil Liberties Union asked Summers to update the organizations 1943 report, the updated report was published in June 1952. He taught law at Yale Law School from 1956 to 1975 and he joined the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1975, where he was Jefferson B. He retired in 2005 at the age of 87, subsequently, Harriman established the Governors Committee on Improper Labor and Management Practices and appointed Summers chair. Summers and the committee drafted legislation which became the New York Labor. That same year, Summers drafted a bill of rights for members for the ACLUClyde Summers – Summers receiving an honorary doctorate at the Catholic University of Leuven in 1966
132. Gustaf Tenggren – Gustaf Adolf Tenggren was a Swedish-American illustrator. He is known for his Arthur Rackham-influenced fairy-tale style and use of silhouetted figures with caricatured faces, Gustaf Tenggren was born in 1896 in Magra parish, in Västra Götaland County, Sweden. In 1913 he received a scholarship to study painting at Valand, after his first exhibition in 1920, Tenggren left Sweden and moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in the United States, where his sister lived, and from there, in 1922, to New York City. By 1923, he was illustrating childrens book during the heyday of illustrated books by such as Arthur Rackham. In 1923, Tenggrens work appeared e. g. in new releases of Tanglewood Tales and A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys, as well as in The Christ Story for Boys and Girls by Abraham Rihbany. He later worked with such as Bambi and Pinocchio, as well as backgrounds and atmospheres of films such as The Ugly Duckling. Although his work for Disney was still in the Rackham fairy-tale illustration style, during these years his production increased, as did the marketability of his name with a stream of Tenggren books. After he moved to the United States in 1920, he never returned to Sweden again, Gustaf Tenggren died in 1970 at Dogfish Head in Southport, Maine. Although the name Gustaf Tenggren remains relatively unknown, his work is widely recognized, after his death, much of his non-Disney art was donated to the University of Minnesota to be included in the Kerlan Collection, a special library focusing on childrens literature. In memory of Gustaf Tenggren, a 9-meter bronze sculpture of Pinocchio, designed by the American pop artist Jim Dine, has been erected in downtown Borås, at the cost of SEK9.5 million, the Pinocchio sculpture was supposed to be paid for by private donations. The statue was erected on a pedestal at the beginning of AllégatanGustaf Tenggren – In Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Tenggren's presentation drawing depicts the major characteristics of each of the seven dwarfs.
133. John Tillman (lacrosse) – Tillman is an American lacrosse coach. He is currently the coach for the University of Maryland Terrapins mens lacrosse team. He previously served as the coach at Harvard University and as an assistant coach at the Naval Academy. A native of Corning, New York, Tillman served in the United States Navy as a fleet support officer and he attended college at Colgate University before transferring to Cornell University. Upon transferring, he changed his position from goalkeeper to defensive midfielder. Tillman earned a varsity letter with the Colgate Raiders in 1988 and he graduated from the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration in 1991. Tillman played professionally in the National Lacrosse League for the Baltimore Thunder from 1997 to 1999 and he also played at the amateur level for the Toyota Lacrosse Club, which won five consecutive Southern Division Championships and a world championship in 2000. After graduating from college, Tillman worked as an assistant coach at Ithaca College from 1992 to 1995, Tillman then moved to the United States Naval Academy, where he served as an assistant and formulated the offensive game plans for the Midshipmen. In 2002, he was promoted to the position of Head Assistant Coach, in each of those years, Navy also won both the Patriot League regular season and tournament championships. In 2004, Navy advanced to the NCAA tournament championship game before falling to Syracuse, in September 2007, Harvard University hired Tillman as the Crimsons head coach. In his first season, Harvard finished with a 6–8 record, in 2009, Inside Lacrosse magazine ranked Harvards incoming freshman class as the third-best in the nation. That year, the Crimson improved to an 8–5 record, including 3–3 in the Ivy League, in 2010, Harvard defeated sixth-ranked Princeton for the first time since 1990. The Crimson finished the season with a 6–6 record and he finished his tenure at Harvard with a 20–19 record. On June 15,2010, Inside Lacrosse and The Baltimore Sun reported that the University of Maryland had hired Tillman to replace head coach Dave Cottle. He was signed to a contract with a base salary of $150,000 per annum. Tillman stated that the contract was the deciding factor in taking the job. I think what it showed me was that the administration at Maryland believed in me, Tillman inherited an experienced squad with 17 seniors from one of the highest ranked 2007 recruiting classes. Rather than overhaul the team, Tillman made minor adjustments to terminology, during the postseason, Tillman remained in contact with his two predecessors at MarylandJohn Tillman (lacrosse) – Tillman as Navy assistant in 2007
134. United States Post Office (Canandaigua, New York) – Post Office in Canandaigua, New York, is located on North Main Street. It is a Classical Revival granite structure built in 1910 and expanded in 1938, local philanthropist Mary Clark Thompson, widow of banker Frederick Ferris Thompson, donated the land and paid for Boston-based Allen & Collens to design the new building. It is one of three post offices in the state built under the act, and the only one outside of New York City. In 1938 it was expanded with a story under the auspices of Louis Simon. At the time of its construction it was used as a federal courthouse. Three years after it was listed on the Register, the Postal Service moved out for larger quarters, the neighboring YMCA bought the post office building several years later. It has annexed it to its own building and built an extension to the west, the former post office building is located in the center of Canandaigua, on the west side of North Main between Atwater Place and Greig Terrace, on the corner with the former. To the south is Atwater Park, canandaiguas city hall, also a contributing property to the historic district, is opposite the park on the south, across West Street. Beyond it are the tracks, actively used by CSX Transportation for freight service. On the north is the now occupied by the local YMCA, separate from the post office building at the time of construction. Across North Main, a road with a narrow planted median strip at this point, is the Ontario County courthouse. Behind the post office is a lot, beyond which the railroad tracks curve, following the contour of the terrain. The building itself is a granite structure on a raised basement with a rear addition. A driveway is set on the side between the building and a sympathetic stone retaining wall. In the front is a flagpole and a walk, with a line of large shrubs setting off the driveway on the south. Its east facade has a central portico. Four round fluted Doric columns flanked by in antis Doric piers supporting a Doric entablature in which United States Post Office And Courthouse is engraved in the architrave and it is the center of a frieze with metopes ornamented with round panels. Above it is a cornice topped by an atticUnited States Post Office (Canandaigua, New York) – U.S. Post Office
135. United States Post Office (Le Roy, New York) – Post Office in Le Roy, New York, serves the 14482 ZIP Code, covering the village and town of Le Roy. It is a brick and stone building on Main Street erected in the late 1930s and its Colonial Revival design, featuring a hipped roof and limestone facing, is unique among post offices in the state as the only small one with a clock tower or limestone facing. This is a result of half of the construction being financed privately by a local benefactor, in 1989 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the only one in Genesee County so recognized independently. The post office is located at the northeast corner of Main and Mill streets, at the edge of downtown Le Roy. To its east a 25-foot stone retaining wall separates it from Oatka Creek, south and west are other commercial properties, a parking lot is located to the north. The lot slopes significantly enough due to the proximity of the creek, the building itself is an almost square one-story steel frame structure, five bays on the south, east and north and six on the west. In the center is a wooden cupola with a dome, illuminated electric clock. A wide stone chimney rises from the rear, in the center of the south façade is the recessed main entryway, flanked by metal lanterns. Above the doors are a large radiating fanlight and a hood supported by stone consoles. It is flanked by 12-over-12 double-hung wooden sash windows, at the end bays are recessed niches with small semicircular openings at the top. Above all the windows are carved panels depicting, in alternation, garlands, metal letters affixed above them, below the cornice, spell out UNITED STATES POST OFFICE with smaller letters saying LE ROY NEW YORK in the frieze above the doors. At the south end of the facades are double-recessed arched 20-over-15 sash windows on slightly projecting portions with carved medallions. Other windows on those facades are identical to the windows on the front. A wooden canopy shelters the loading dock at the rear, walled stone steps lead to the modern double metal-and-glass double doors at the main entrance. They open into a wooden vestibule, behind it is the L-shaped main lobby, occupying four of the front five bays and stretching around the southwest corner. The postmasters office is in the southeast corner and it retains many original finishes, from black and white checkerboard terrazzo flooring, black marble borders and baseboard and veined gray marble wainscoting to seven feet along the walls. Above is a wall and ceiling with molded cornice. The insides of the windows are recessed and decorated with beaded moldingUnited States Post Office (Le Roy, New York) – U.S. Post Office
136. Donald Van Slyke – Donald Dexter Van Slyke was a renowned Dutch American biochemist. His achievements included the publication of 317 journal articles and 5 books, as well as awards, among them the National Medal of Science. A non-SI unit of measurement for buffering activity, the slyke, is named after him, as is the Van Slyke determination, Van Slyke was born in Pike, New York on March 29,1883. He completed his BA in 1905 and PhD in 1907 both at the University of Michigan, his fathers alma mater and his PhD studies were performed under Moses Gomberg. Van Slyke took up a position at the Rockefeller Institute in 1907. Levene also arranged for him to one year in Berlin under Hermann Emil Fischer in 1911. His early work focused on determining the amino acid composition of proteins, a major achievement during this time was the discovery of the amino acid hydroxylysine. In 1914, Van Slyke was appointed chief chemist of the newly founded Rockefeller Institute Hospital and his work focused especially on the measurement of gas and electrolyte levels in tissues, for which he is considered to be one of the founders of modern quantitative blood chemistry. He is also considered by many to have first popularised the term clinical chemistry in his two-volume work Quantitative Clinical Chemistry, the two-volume work was widely accepted in the medical world as the Bible of quantitative clinical chemistry. During this period, he served as managing editor of the Journal of Biological Chemistry from 1914 to 1925. In 1948, approaching retirement age, Van Slyke took up a position as Deputy Director of Biology and he held this position briefly before moving back into research at Brookhaven, which he continued until his death in 1971Donald Van Slyke – Donald Van Slyke, during his time at Brookhaven National Laboratory
137. William Ward (American football) – William Douglas Ward was an American football player and coach, physician and surgeon. He played college football at Princeton University from 1893 to 1894 and was the coach of the University of Michigan football team in 1896 and he later became a physician and surgeon in Rochester, New York. He was a pioneer in surgical procedures to construct artificial vaginas. Ward was born in Rochester, New York in August 1874 and his grandfather, Levi Ward, was the mayor of Rochester. Wards mother, Mary Hawley Douglas, was also a native of New York and he had seven younger siblings born between 1879 and 1894. Ward attended preparatory school at St. Pauls School in Concord, Ward enrolled at Princeton University where he played football and baseball. He played at the halfback position for the Princeton Tigers football team in 1893. He scored the touchdown in Princetons 6–0 victory over Yale on Thanksgiving Day 1893. In December 1894, The New York Times wrote, Ward received a bachelor of degree from Princeton in 1895. He was voted the Best All-Round Man in the Class, the Best All-Round Athlete, the Most Awkward Man, after graduating from Princeton, Ward spent a year as a teacher in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. He also returned to Princeton during the fall of 1895 as an assistant coach for the Princeton football team. He later wrote, Teaching, somehow, did not satisfy me, in fact, in another piece, he noted that he tried for a year to instill Princeton ideas, along with a little knowledge into the heads of the younger generation. The work was pleasant and I was associated with some fine men, Ward attended the medical school at the University of Michigan from 1896 to 1897. He also served as the football coach for the 1896 Michigan Wolverines football team. He was assisted in coaching the team by William McCauley, Keene Fitzpatrick and he led the team to a 9–1 record, outscoring opponents 262 to 11. The final game of the season was a 7–6 loss to the University of Chicago at Chicago Coliseum, Ward later summarized his year at Michigan, He added that the medical program at Michigan was very good, and their laboratories especially fine. While at Michigan, he was elected into the fraternity of Psi Upsilon, with respect to fraternity life, Ward wrote, The boys were very good to me there and among other things elected me a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity. There was a set of boys in the chapter and I used to have my room at the chapter houseWilliam Ward (American football) – Ward, c. 1896
138. Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad (2001) – The Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad is a short-line railroad that operates freight trains in Western New York and Northwest Pennsylvania, United States. The company is controlled by the Livonia, Avon and Lakeville Railroad, the two lines cross at Olean. The WNY&P operates a system centered on Olean, where it operates the yard just west of the crossing of its two main lines. The Southern Tier Extension heads east to the Norfolk Southern Railways Southern Tier Line at Hornell and west to NS at Meadville, with a branch continuing to the Oil City area. The WNY&Ps segment of the Buffalo Line stretches north to Machias, a junction with the Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad, and south over Keating Summit to Driftwood, which the B&P and NS both serve. Other connections include the Canadian Pacific Railway at Hornell, B&P at Salamanca and Corry, New York and Lake Erie Railroad at Waterboro, NS retains overhead trackage rights and operates daily coal trains over the line from Southwestern Pennsylvania to Upstate New York and New England. WNY&P business on the Buffalo Line includes hauling coal from Emporium to a plant at Jamestown. The New York and Erie Railroad completed its line between Piermont and Dunkirk, New York via Hornell and Salamanca in 1851, the 1852 completion of the Hornell-Buffalo Buffalo and New York City Railroad turned the Hornell-Dunkirk line into a branch. The same company opened a branch from Meadville via Franklin to Oil City by 1866, except for a realignment east of Corry, built by the Columbus and Erie Railroad by 1908, the A&GW eventually became the main line of the Erie Railroad to Chicago. This June 1998 Memorandum of Understanding was memorialized in the Surface Transportation Boards record of Decision in July 1998. Except for a segment near the Buffalo Line crossing at Olean, which NS did not sub-lease to WNY&P. Looking to the west, the WNY&P acquired the Corry-Meadville line from the Northwest Pennsylvania Rail Authority in January 2002, for $1 and the cancellation of the authoritys $1.9 million debt. The authority had borrowed the money in the 1990s from NORPA, then a subsidiary of the Delaware Otsego Corporation, the WNY&P bought NORPA in 2001, allowing it to cancel the debt. At the same time as it acquired the line, the WNY&P replaced OCTL as operator, thanks to state and federal funding, the WNY&P began repairing the out-of-service parts of the line in August 2002, and by fall 2003 it had been sufficiently rehabilitated to allow full operations. This provided a bypass around Buffalo for freight including Upstate New York-, in December 2005, the WNY&P expanded further with the lease from NS of the ex-Erie Franklin Secondary and associated lines between Meadville and Rouseville, just north of Oil City. This connected the WNY&P directly to industries in the Franklin-Oil City area, the line north of Machias would be leased to the Buffalo and Pittsburgh Railroad, which then had trackage rights, and the remainder between Machias and Driftwood was to become a WNY&P operation. STERA acquired the line between Machias and the line in February 2007, appending this portion of the line to the arrangement specified in its June 1998 MOU with Norfolk Southern. STERA then leased the line between Machias and the line back to Norfolk Southern, which in turn sub-leased it to WNY&PWestern New York and Pennsylvania Railroad (2001) – Western New York and Pennsylvania Railroad
139. Horace B. Willard – Horace Birney Willard was an American politician, physician, and businessman from New York City. A recipient of a scholarship, Willard attended Geneva Medical College then established a medical practice in Aztalan. Forced out of the due to poor health, Willard became engaged in several business dealings in nearby Fort Atkinson. Willard was an member of the state Republican Party and served a term in the Wisconsin State Assembly. Horace Birney Willard was born in Volney, New York on May 2,1825, after studying in the public schools, Willard worked as a teacher. He studied medicine under William B, coye in Gilbertsville, New York, then received a scholarship sponsored by the state. Willard attended the Geneva Medical College, graduating in 1849 and he set out west, settling in Aztalan, Wisconsin, to practice medicine. After seven years, he sold his practice due to failing health, after a year of travel, Willard settled in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, in 1857, again practicing medicine. Poor health caused Willard to finally abandon medicine in 1866, Willard remained in the county, settling in Fort Atkinson. There, Willard engaged in commercial pursuits. He co-founded the Northwestern Manufacturing Company and served as one of its first directors, Willard was also bookkeeper, secretary, and stockholder in the Foundry and Machining Company. In partnership with N. F. Hopkins and F. M. Vickery, present at its original state convention, Willard was an early member of the Republican Party in Wisconsin. He also helped to organize its chapter in Jefferson County, in 1860, Willard was nominated to the Wisconsin State Assembly. There, Willard advocated against sending delegates to the Peace Conference of 1861. He was re-nominated for the session, but declined to run. Willard instead took a position on the Jefferson County Board of Supervisors, later in his life, Willard was known for his independent political stances, supporting Horace Greeley and Samuel J. Tilden for President. He ran for mayor of Fort Atkinson in 1878, but was defeated and he briefly lived in the former George P. Marston House. Willard married Elizabeth S. Vickery on July 11,1849 and they had one daughter, Julia Adola, who married the son of Congressman Lucien BHorace B. Willard – Willard briefly lived in this house in Fort Atkinson.
140. William E. Ward House – The William E. Ward House, known locally as Wards Castle, is located on Magnolia Drive, on the state line between Rye Brook, New York and Greenwich, Connecticut, United States. It is a concrete structure built in the 1870s. Ward, an engineer, built the house with his friend Robert Mook to demonstrate the viability of the material for building. It is the first reinforced concrete building in the United States and it was later purchased by Mort Walker, creator of the comic strip Beetle Bailey, who opened it as the Museum of Cartoon Art until 1992. The house is located in a neighborhood a short distance from where state highway NY 120A leaves the state line for a southwesterly heading into downtown Port Chester. Most of the houses 8-acre lot is located on the Connecticut side of the line, where it is open and slopes downward to the east. Because of this it is possible to see Long Island Sound from the house, a short driveway leads in from Magnolia Avenue on the Rye Brook side. The building itself is entirely of reinforced concrete, from the foundation to the mansard roof that caps the two-story main block. Wood was used only for door and window frames, a four-story machicolated tower with parapet rises from the southeast corner. Like the house it has imitation quoins on the corners of its two stories. A one-story wing projects to the west, a wraparound porch with round columns covers the south elevation of the main block. The eastern two-thirds and tower are in Connecticut, the western third, the mansard roof is pierced by classically inspired gabled dormer windows and two concrete chimneys, a third is on the west side. The roofline is marked by a modillioned cornice, on the north a two story service wing connects to a water tower, stylistically similar to the houses tower. Another small wing projects from the east, overlooking the parking area, the first floor has a central hallway with drawing room, reception room and dining room. A breakfast room and sun room are in the wing, another central hall on the second floor leads to three bedrooms and a library with decorative woodwork in an Elizabethan mode. Above it is a floor with bedrooms and storage space. The only other building on the property is the caretakers cottage and it is a two-story frame house built in the late 19th century and located in a grove of trees to the north of the main house, in New York. The period landscaping on the property includes a variety of ornamental trees, Ward worked in collaboration with architect Robert Mook over three years to build the houseWilliam E. Ward House – William E. Ward House
141. Josephine Silone Yates – She may have been the first black woman to hold a full professorship at any U. S. college or university. Yates was also significant in the African-American womens club movement and she was a correspondent for the Womans Era and wrote for other magazines as well. Josephine Silones birth is given variously as 1852, and as November 15,1859 and she was the second daughter of Alexander and Parthenia Reeve Silone. During her childhood, her family lived with her maternal grandfather and her mother taught her to read from the Bible. She started school at the age of six, and was advanced by her teachers. Josephines uncle, Rev. John Bunyan Reeve, was the pastor of the Lombard Street Central Church in Philadelphia, at the age of 11, she went to live with him so that she could attend the Institute for Colored Youth. There she was mentored by its director, Fanny Jackson Coppin, the next year, Rev. Reeve moved to Howard University, and Josephine went to live with her maternal aunt, Francis I. There she attended school and later Rogers High School. She was the black student at both, but was given respect and support by her teachers. Her science teacher considered her his brightest pupil and enabled her to do additional work in chemistry. She graduated as valedictorian of the Rogers High School class of 1877 and she was the first black student to graduate from Rogers High School. Silone chose to attend the Rhode Island State Normal School in Providence to become a teacher, rather than pursuing a university career and she graduated in 1879, with honors, the only black student in her class. She was the first African American certified to teach in the schools of Rhode Island and she later received a masters degree from the National University of Illinois. Josephine Silone was one of the first black teachers hired at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, president Inman Edward Page considered it essential to replace the previously white faculty with black teachers, as role models for the schools African-American students. The teachers lived on campus in the dormitories with the students, Josephine taught chemistry, elocution, and English literature. Josephine Silone Yates was clear about her purpose in teaching. In a 1904 essay, she wrote, The aim of all true education is to give to body and soul all the beauty, strength, in 1889, Josephine Silone married William Ward Yates. Many schools prohibited married women from teaching, and upon her marriage and she moved to Kansas City, Missouri, where her husband was the principal of Phillips SchoolJosephine Silone Yates – Josephine Silone Yates
142. Kiss (band) – Kiss is an American hard rock group formed in New York City in January 1973 by Paul Stanley, Gene Simmons, Peter Criss, and Ace Frehley. The band has gone through several changes, with Stanley. The original and best-known lineup consisted of Stanley, Simmons, Frehley, with their make-up and costumes, they took on the personae of comic book-style characters, The Starchild, The Demon, The Spaceman or Space Ace, and The Catman. Due to creative differences, both Criss and Frehley had departed the group by 1982, in 1983, Kiss began performing without makeup and costumes, thinking that it was time to leave the makeup behind. The band accordingly experienced a commercial resurgence, and their music videos received regular airplay on MTV. Drummer Eric Carr, who had replaced Criss in 1980, died in 1991 of a type of heart cancer and was replaced by Eric Singer. In response to a wave of Kiss nostalgia in the mid-1990s, the band announced a reunion of the lineup in 1996. The resulting Alive/Worldwide Tour was commercially successful, Criss and Frehley have both since left the band again and have been replaced by Singer and Tommy Thayer, respectively. Kiss has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including 25 million RIAA-certified albums, on April 10,2014, Kiss was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Kiss traces their roots to Wicked Lester, a New York City-based rock band led by Gene Simmons and they recorded one album, which was shelved by Epic Records, and played a handful of live shows. Simmons and Stanley, feeling a new direction was needed, abandoned Wicked Lester in 1972. Simmons and Stanley met him in a nightclub where he was playing drums, after hearing Criss sing, they thought of him being in the band. Criss then auditioned for and later joined the new version of Wicked Lester, the trio focused on a much harder style of rock than Wicked Lester played. They also began experimenting with their image by wearing makeup and various outfits, in November 1972, the trio played a showcase for Epic Records A&R director Don Ellis, in an effort to secure a record deal. Although the performance went well, Ellis disliked the groups image, in early January 1973, the group added lead guitarist Ace Frehley. Frehley impressed the group with his first audition, although he showed up wearing two different colored sneakers, one red and one orange, a few weeks after Frehley joined, Wicked Lester changed their name to Kiss. Stanley came up with the name while he, Simmons and Criss were driving around New York City, Criss mentioned that he had been in a band called Lips, so Stanley said something to the effect of What about Kiss. Frehley created the logo, making the SS look like lightning boltsKiss (band) – Kiss playing at Hellfest 2013, during their Monster World Tour. From left to right: Gene Simmons, Paul Stanley, Eric Singer and Tommy Thayer
143. Transportation in New York City – The transportation system of New York City is a network of complex infrastructural systems. New York City is also home to a bus system in each of the five boroughs. The history of New York Citys transportation system began with the Dutch port of Nieuw Amsterdam, elevated trains and subterranean transportation were introduced between 1867 and 1904. In 1904, the first subway line became operational, practical private automobiles brought an additional change for the city by around 1930, notably the 1927 Holland Tunnel. With automobiles gaining importance, the rise of Robert Moses was essential to creating New Yorks modern road infrastructure. Moses was the architect of all 416 miles of parkway, many important roads. New York City is distinguished from other U. S. cities for its low personal automobile ownership and its significant use of public transportation. New York City has, by far, the highest rate of public use of any American city. About one in three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nations rail riders live in New York City or its suburbs. New York is the city in the United States where over half of all households do not own a car. New York City also has the longest mean travel time for commuters among major U. S. cities, New York Citys uniquely high rate of public transit use makes it one of the most energy-efficient cities in the United States. Gasoline consumption in the city today is at the rate of the average in the 1920s. New York Citys high rate of transit use saved 1.8 billion US gallons of oil in 2006, New York saves half of all the oil saved by transit nationwide. The reduction in oil consumption meant 11.8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide pollution was kept out of the air, the New York City metro area was ranked by the Brookings Institution as the U. S. The citys transportation system, and the population density it makes possible, scientists at Columbia University examined data from 13,102 adults in the citys five boroughs and identified correlations between New Yorks built environment and public health. New Yorkers residing in densely populated, pedestrian-friendly areas have lower body mass index levels compared to other New Yorkers. 54% of households in New York City do not own a car, while the so-called car culture dominates in most American cities, mass transit has a defining influence on New York life. The subway is a location for politicians to meet voters during elections and is also a major venue for musiciansTransportation in New York City – An 1807 version of grid plan for Manhattan.
144. Politics of New York – Balancing the budget and same sex marriage have occupied much of the Politics of New York in the 21st century. For a long time, same-sex marriages were not allowed in NY, in May 2008, Governor David Paterson issued an affirmation that the state would recognize same-sex marriages performed elsewhere. In December 2009, the senate declined to pass a same-sex marriage bill, since 2004, the public pension systems of both the state and New York City allocate benefits in recognition of same-sex marriages performed outside New York. Former Governor Eliot Spitzer stated he would introduce legislation to legalize same-sex marriage, on April 27,2007 then-Governor Spitzer unveiled such a bill. Same-sex marriage was legalized in June 2011, from 1984 through 2004, no budget was passed on time. The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government, New York State receives 82 cents in services for every $1 it sends to Washington in taxes. The state ranks near the bottom, in 42nd place, in spending per tax dollar. For decades, it has been the practice for the state to pass legislation for some meritorious project. New York State has its counties pay a percentage of welfare costs than any other statePolitics of New York – New York
145. Liberal Party of New York – The Liberal Party of New York is a minor American political party that has been active only in the state of New York. Its platform supports a set of socially liberal policies, it supported the right to abortion, increased spending on education. ALP leaders like Dean Alfange helped lead a walkout to the Liberal Party, however, Willkies unexpected death later in 1944 left the Liberals without any truly national figures to lead the party. The Liberal Party was one of minor parties that fulfill a role almost unique to New York State politics. New York law allows electoral fusion – a candidate can be the nominee of multiple parties, several other states allow fusion, but only in New York is it commonly practiced. In fact, since each party is listed with its own line on New York ballots, by supporting agreeable candidates and threatening not to support disagreeable ones, the Liberal Party hoped to influence candidate selection by the major parties. Other currently active parties pursuing a strategy in New York include the Conservative Party. In 1960 the Liberal Party endorsed John F. Kennedy for president, on September 14,1960 he accepted the nomination, giving almost a 20-minute speech defending American Liberalism and his campaign. Here he also gave a quote about liberalism, stating Im proud to say Im a Liberal. While the Liberal Party generally endorsed Democratic candidates, this was not always the case, in 1977, after Mario Cuomo lost the Democratic nomination for mayor of New York to Ed Koch, the Liberal Party endorsed Cuomo, who proceeded to again lose narrowly in the general election. In the general election for Senator in 1980, it was assumed that Javits took Jewish votes away from Elizabeth Holtzman, the Liberal Party declined in influence following the 1980 election. Its 1998 candidate for governor, Lieutenant Governor Betsy McCaughey Ross, the party endorsed Hillary Clintons successful campaign for the United States Senate in 2000, but this did not revive its fortunes. In 1999, The New York Observer called it an ideologically bereft institution more interested in patronage than in policy. In 2009, Harding pleaded guilty to having accepted more than $800,000 in exchange for doing favors for Alan G. Hevesi. After the surge in Working Families Party voting, the Liberal Party failed to qualify for ballot status. As of 2010, the Working Families and Independence parties have ballot access. It has not fielded a candidate for governor in 2006,2010 or 2014, however, nothing came of these rumors. In 2006 for the first time since the early 1940s, there was no Liberal candidate for Governor, edward Culvert was the partys candidate for governor in 2010, but the party lacked the resources to get him onto the ballotLiberal Party of New York – Liberal Party of New York
146. Allegany County, New York – Allegany County is a county in the southern tier of the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,946 and its name derives from a Delaware Indian word, applied by European-American settlers of Western New York State, to a trail that followed the Allegheny River and then used for the county. The county is bisected by the Genesee River, flowing north to its mouth on Lake Ontario, during the mid-nineteenth century, the Genesee Valley Canal was built to link southern markets to the Great Lakes and Mohawk River. The county was served by railroads, which soon superseded the canals in their capacity for carrying freight. Part of the Oil Springs Reservation, controlled by the Seneca Nation, is located in the county and this was for centuries the territory of the Seneca people, the westernmost nation of the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee, a confederacy of Iroquoian languages-speaking peoples. European-American permanent settlement did not take place until after the American Revolutionary War, New York State sold off the lands cheaply to attract new European-American settlers and agricultural development. Allegany County was created by the legislature on April 7,1806 when Genesee County. The first County Seat was established at Angelica, New York where it remained for half a century and it was later moved to Belmont, a village located along the Genesee River. On March 11,1808, the borders were adjusted so that 230 square miles of Steuben County passed to Allegany County and this established the current border between Genesee and Steuben counties, and reduced the size of Allegany County to 1,200 square miles. However, on April 13,1814, the half of Cattaraugus County was so attached and administered from Belmont. This attachment was ended on March 28,1817, with continued settlement through the mid-nineteenth century, the legislature periodically adjusted county borders as new counties were organized in western New York. On March 23,1857, Allegany County lost another 40 square miles to Livingston County, passing the Ossian, New York area to Livingston County, and establishing the current border between them. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,034 square miles. Allegany County is in the part of New York State. Allegany County does not lie along the Allegheny River, as its name would suggest, the highest point in the county is Alma Hill, with an elevation of 2,548 feet above sea level. This is the highest point in the state west of the Catskill Mountains, the highest point of Interstate 86 is located in the Town of West Almond with an elevation of 2,110 feet. This is also believed to be the highest point of any interstate in the New York, the southwestern part of the County flows into the Allegheny River that flows into the Ohio and then to the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico. In June 1972 the remnants of Hurricane Agnes stalled over the area, flooding took place in the valley communities of Wellsville, Belmont, Belfast and others in the countyAllegany County, New York – Location in the state of New York
147. Bronx County, New York – The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, within the U. S. state of New York. Since 1914, the Bronx has had the boundaries as Bronx County, a county of New York. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a section in the west, closer to Manhattan. East and west street addresses are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattans Fifth Avenue, the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914, about a quarter of the Bronxs area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo in the boroughs north and center. These open spaces are situated primarily on land reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north. The name Bronx originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639, the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. This cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of both Latin music and hip hop. The Bronx, particularly the South Bronx, saw a decline in population, livable housing, and the quality of life in the late 1960s. Since then the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today, the Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck. It was divided by the Aquahung River, the origin of Jonas Bronck is contested. Some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, Sweden, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the now known as the Bronx and built a farm named Emmanus close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue. He leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem. He eventually accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which known as Broncks River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Broncks Land, the American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Broncks son or his younger brother. More recent research indicates that Pieter was probably Jonas nephew or cousin, the Bronx is referred to with the definite article as The Bronx, both legally and colloquially. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the Annexed District of The Bronx created in 1874 out of part of Westchester CountyBronx County, New York – Yankee Stadium (center) and the Grand Concourse to its left. To the right of the Stadium is its former site.
148. Chenango County, New York – Chenango County is a county located in the south-central section U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,477, the countys name originates from an Oneida word meaning large bull-thistle. This was long the territory of the Oneida people, one of the first Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee and they occupied the area until after the Revolutionary War, when they were forced off the land, although they had been allies of the patriot colonists. They were granted a reservation, which settlers continued to encroach on. When English colonists organized counties in 1683 in what is now New York and this was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. But, territories located to the west of present-day Pennsylvania were under effective French control as part of New France. Albany County was reduced in size on July 3,1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, on March 12,1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion. The area then designated as Tryon County has since organized as 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, the British colonial governor of New York, in the years prior to 1776, during the increasing tensions most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Fort Niagara on the Western Frontier. In 1784, following the treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War. He had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, the US residents replaced the name of the former British governor. In 1788 the Oneida Reservation was considerably reduced by what is known as Clintons Purchase, settlers from eastern New York and New England entered the area and started farming. In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County and it was the practice to establish a large geographic county and divide it as settlement increased. In 1791, Herkimer, Otsego and Tioga counties were organized from land separated from Montgomery County, Chenango County was formed on March 15,1798 from 1,610 square miles of Tioga and Herkimer counties. Its eastern border is formed by the Unadilla River, the land had been purchased the year before from the Oneida, who were forced into a smaller reservation to the north. On April 4,1804,70 square miles of Chenango County was partitioned to expand Oneida County, the communities of Waterville, on March 21,1806,650 square miles of Chenango County was partitioned to produce Madison County. This established the current borders of Chenango County, which have maintained to the early 21st centuryChenango County, New York – Chenango County Courthouse
149. Columbia County, New York – Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,096, the name comes from the Latin feminine form of the name of Christopher Columbus, which was at the time of the formation of the county a popular proposal for the name of the United States of America. Columbia County comprises the Hudson, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Albany-Schenectady. It is located on the east side of the Hudson River, at the time of European encounter, the area was occupied by the indigenous Mohican Indians. To the west of the river were the Mohawk and other four tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, the first known European exploration of Columbia County was in 1609, when Henry Hudson, an English explorer sailing for the Dutch, ventured up the Hudson River. An accident to his craft forced him to stop at what is now known as Columbia County, in 1612, the Dutch established trading posts and minor settlements, constructing New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. Fort Orange became a center of the fur trade with the Mohawk people, traders began to stop at midway points along the Hudson River, on their travels between New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. Small settlements arose along the river to supply the traders ships, in 1649, Dutch colonists purchased land near Claverack and in 1667, more land was purchased. As more Dutch arrived, the region slowly developed, in 1664, the English took over New Netherland and renamed it the Province of New York, they also renamed Fort Orange as Albany. He gained much larger grants from the government, for a total of 160,240 acres. He was made lord of the manor by the Crown, with all its perquisites, in 1710, he sold 6,000 acres of his property to Queen Anne of England for use as work camps and resettlement of Palatine German refugees. The Crown had supported their passage to New York, and they were to pay off the costs as indentured labor, some 1200 Palatine Germans were brought to Livingston Manor. New Yorks Governor Hunter had also helped with arrangements, the workers were to manufacture naval stores from the pine trees in the Catskill Mountains. They were promised land for resettlement after completing their terms of indenture and they were refugees from years of religious fighting along the border with France, as well as crop failures from a severe winter. Work camps were established on both sides of the Hudson River, the Germans quickly established Protestant churches at the heart of their community, which recorded their weddings, births and deaths, among the first vital records kept in the colony. In 1799, the boundary of Columbia County was moved southward to include that portion of Livingston Manor located in Dutchess County. In the nineteenth century, the Vermont Central Railway was constructed to the area and it provided transportation north towards Rutland and Burlington, Vermont, and south towards the major junction town of Chatham, New York, for travel to points west, south and east. Voters in Columbia County since the century have mostly elected Republicans to officeColumbia County, New York – First Columbia County Courthouse
150. Delaware County, New York – Delaware County is a county located in the US state of New York. As of 2010 the population was 47,980, the county is named after the Delaware River, which was named in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, appointed governor of Virginia in 1609. When counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present area of Delaware County was divided between Albany and Ulster Counties. Albany County was a county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory. This county was reduced in size on July 3,1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, on March 12,1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State, the county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada, in 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County. In 1791, Otsego was one of three counties that were split off from Montgomery, Delaware County was formed in 1797 by combining portions of Otsego and Ulster counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,467 square miles. It is the fifth-largest county in New York by land area, Delaware County is located in the southern part of the state, separated from the state of Pennsylvania by the Delaware River. It is east of Binghamton and southwest of Albany, the county contains part of the Catskill Mountains. The county is within a region called the Southern Tier of New York State, the highest point is an approximately 3, 520-foot summit of Bearpen Mountain along the Greene County line. The lowest point is along the Delaware River, the county is drained by the headwaters of the Delaware. It has a surface, and the soil in the valleys is exceedingly fertile. The Delaware and Susquehanna rivers are navigable by boats. The population density was 13/km², making it the least densely populated in the state outside of the Adirondacks, there were 28,952 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 44% White,1. 18% Black or African American,0. 31% Native American,0. 53% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 53% from other races, and 0. 99% from two or more racesDelaware County, New York – Delaware County Courthouse
151. Essex County, New York – Essex County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,370 and its county seat is the hamlet of Elizabethtown. Its name is from the English county of Essex, along with Hamilton County, Essex is entirely within the Adirondack Park. When counties were established in the state of New York in 1683 and this was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York state as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3,1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, on March 12,1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the pieces, Charlotte County, contained the eastern portion. In 1784, the name Charlotte County was changed to Washington County to honor George Washington, in 1788, Clinton County was split off from Washington County. This was a larger area than the present Clinton County. Essex County was split from Clinton County in 1799, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,916 square miles, of which 1,794 square miles is land and 122 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county in New York by land area, Essex County is in the northeastern part of New York state, just west of Vermont along the eastern boundary of the state. The eastern boundary of Essex County is Lake Champlain, which serves as the New York – Vermont border at an elevation of just under 100 feet, the highest natural point in New York, Mount Marcy at 5,344 feet, is in the town of Keene. The Ausable River forms a northern boundary for the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,851 people,15,028 households, the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 23,115 housing units at a density of 13 per square mile. Of the population,22. 0% were of French,16. 3% Irish,13. 0% English,8. 6% German,7. 1% American and 6. 2% Italian ancestry,95. 2% spoke English,2. 2% Spanish, and 1. 3% French as their first language. 28. 30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was out with 22. 80% under the age of 18,6. 90% from 18 to 24,29. 80% from 25 to 44,24. 50% from 45 to 64. The median age was 39 years, for every 100 females there were 107.60 malesEssex County, New York – Lake Placid
152. Fulton County, New York – Fulton County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,531, the county is named in honor of Robert Fulton, who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat. Fulton County comprises the Gloversville, NY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Albany-Schenectady, in 1838, Fulton County was split off from Montgomery, shortly after the Montgomery county seat was moved to Fonda, New York. The creation of Fulton County was engineered by Johnstown lawyer Daniel Cady, Fulton County was created on April 18,1838 by a partition of Montgomery County, resulting in a county with an area of 550 square miles. The old Tryon County courthouse, later the Montgomery County courthouse, became the Fulton County Courthouse, one adjustment has been made to the area of Fulton County. On April 6,1860,10 square miles on the border was transferred to Hamilton in the vicinity of Sacandaga Park. This resulted in the Fulton County that exists today, in the mid-18th century, Sir William Johnson, founder of Fort Johnson in Montgomery County and of Johnstown, arrived in what would become Fulton County. Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, was an Irish pioneer and army officer in colonial New York, and his homes, Fort Johnson and Johnson Hall are current New York State Historic Sites. Fulton County was also home to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a pioneer in Americas womens rights movement. Shortly after the American Revolutionary War, the manufacture of gloves, at one point, Johnstown and Gloversville were known as the worlds Glove and Leather capital. The largest rise in population and growth came as a result of the fruits of these businesses, many residents of Fulton County can trace their ancestry to the glove and leather trades. Today few glovers, tanners and leather dressers remain in the area, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 533 square miles, of which 495 square miles is land and 37 square miles is water. Fulton County is in the part of the state, northwest of Albany. Approximately 58% of the county is within the boundaries of Adirondack Park, the population density was 111 people per square mile. There were 27,787 housing units at a density of 56 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95. 99% White,1. 80% Black or African American,0. 19% Native American,0. 53% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 56% from other races, and 0. 91% from two or more races. 1. 61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17. 2% were of Italian,16. 4% German,13. 2% Irish,10. 0% English,8. 3% American,5. 8% French and 5. 7% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000Fulton County, New York – Fulton County Courthouse