1. Central Canada – Central Canada is a region consisting of Canadas two largest and most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec. Geographically, they are not at the centre of the country, due to their high populations, Ontario and Quebec have traditionally held a significant amount of political power in Canada, leading to some amount of resentment from other regions of the country. Before Confederation, the term Canada specifically referred to Central Canada, today, the term Central Canada is less often used than the names of the individual provinces. The longitudinal centre of Canada passes just east of Winnipeg, Manitoba, before Confederation, the region known as Canada was what is now called Central Canada. Southern Ontario was once called Upper Canada and later Canada West, both were made part of the United Province of Canada in 1841. Combined, the two provinces have approximately 20 million inhabitants which represents 62% of Canadas population and they are represented in the House of Commons of Canada by 199 Members of Parliament out of a total of 338Central Canada – Central Canada, defined politically
2. Quebec – Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically differentQuebec – The arrival of Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, on the site of Quebec City.
3. Manitoba – Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is one of the three provinces and Canadas fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited what is now Manitoba for thousands of years, in the late 17th century, fur traders arrived in the area when it was part of Ruperts Land and owned by the Hudsons Bay Company. In 1869, negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba led to an uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada. The rebellions resolution led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province, Manitobas capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is Canadas eighth-largest census metropolitan area. Winnipeg is the seat of government, home to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, four of the provinces five universities and all four of its professional sports teams are in Winnipeg. The name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Cree, the name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit, a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba. It may also be from the Assiniboine for Lake of the Prairie, the lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies. Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel also chose the name, and it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870 and it adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, and is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline. The Port of Churchill is Canadas only Arctic deep-water port and the shortest shipping route between North America and Asia, Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the worlds second-largest bay, Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Ruperts Land. It was a area of the Hudsons Bay Company, with many rivers. The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, Manitobas major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipegs east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg. This basins rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, major watercourses include the Red, Assiniboine, Nelson, Winnipeg, Hayes, Whiteshell and Churchill riversManitoba
4. Minnesota – Minnesota is a state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11,1858, the state has a large number of lakes, and is known by the slogan Land of 10,000 Lakes. Its official motto is LÉtoile du Nord, Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 21st most populous of the U. S. Minnesota is known for its progressive political orientation and its high rate of civic participation and voter turnout. Until European settlement, Minnesota was inhabited by the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe, in recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, and Latin America has broadened its historic demographic and cultural composition. Minnesotas standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneiska, Minneota, Minnetonka, Minnetrista, and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel. The state is part of the U. S. region known as the Upper Midwest and it shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, with 86,943 square miles, or approximately 2.25 percent of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has some of the Earths oldest rocks, gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean, the roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1, in more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the landscape of the state and sculpted its terrain. The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago and these glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock. This area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift, much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago and its bed created the fertile Red River valley, and its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling. Minnesota is geologically quiet today, it experiences earthquakes infrequently, the states high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, which is only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesotas northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed, precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic OceanMinnesota
5. Michigan – Michigan /ˈmɪʃᵻɡən/ is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area. Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit, Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula, to which the name Michigan was originally applied, is noted to be shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, the two peninsulas are connected by the Mackinac Bridge. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, as a result, it is one of the leading U. S. states for recreational boating. Michigan also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds, a person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline. What is now the state of Michigan was first settled by Native American tribes before being colonized by French explorers in the 17th century, the area was organized as part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Eventually, in 1805, the Michigan Territory was formed, which lasted until it was admitted into the Union on January 26,1837, the state of Michigan soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination. Though Michigan has come to develop an economy, it is widely known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry. When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires. The Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest, French voyageurs and coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlés expedition in 1622, the first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions, missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were received by the areas Indian populations, with relatively few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph, in 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present day city of Niles. The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent, cadillacs wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in the Michigan wilderness. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post, the Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same yearMichigan – Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm Lamprecht
6. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in AmericaPennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
7. New York – New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita. Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that yearNew York – British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.
8. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
9. Lake of the Woods – Lake of the Woods is a lake occupying parts of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba and the U. S. state of Minnesota. It separates a small area of Minnesota from the rest of the United States. The Northwest Angle and the town of Angle Township can only be reached from the rest of Minnesota by crossing the lake or by traveling through Canada, the Northwest Angle is the northernmost part of the contiguous United States. Its northwesternmost point served as a landmark in treaties defining the international border. Lake of the Woods is fed by the Rainy River, Shoal Lake, Kakagi Lake, the lake drains into the Winnipeg River and then into Lake Winnipeg. Ultimately, its outflow goes north through the Nelson River to Hudson Bay, Lake of the Woods is over 70 miles long and wide, and contains more than 14,552 islands and 65,000 miles of shoreline. It would amount to the longest coastline of any Canadian lake, Lake of the Woods is also the sixth largest freshwater lake located in the United States, after the five Great Lakes. There are also several hundred nesting pairs of eagles in this area. Lake of the Woods, a translation of the original French name lac des Bois, was so named from its wooded setting, however, it may have been a mistranslation of the Indian name. The earliest name we find the lake known by is that given by Verandrye in his journey in 1731 and he says it was called Lake Minitie or Des Bois. The former of these names, Minitie, seems to be Ojibway, the other name Lac des Bois, or Lake of the Woods, seems to have been a mis-translation of the Indian name by which the Lake was known. The construction of dams at the Lake of the Woods outlets in present-day Kenora in the late 19th century led to concerns over high, the federal governments of Canada and the United States referred the matter to the International Joint Commission in 1912. In 1917 the IJC recommended the creation of boards and the operating conditions they would apply to lake level management. The first of these boards, the Lake of the Woods Control Board, was established by Canadian Order-in-Council in 1919, in 1922 the Canada-Ontario-Manitoba Tripartite Agreement was signed by the respective governments. Initially only Canada and Ontario appointed members to the board as, at that time, in 1958, having gained control over its natural resources, Manitoba passed its own Lake of the Woods Control Board Act. That same year, Canada and Ontario amended their original versions of the acts, as a result of these legislative changes, the LWCB now has one member appointed by Canada, two appointed by Ontario, and one appointed by Manitoba. This treaty established the water level operating range on Lake of the Woods, defined the purpose and general mode of operation, and provided for two boards to control regulation. In cases where agreement could not be reached between Canadian and American members of the board, the disputed matter would be referred to the IJC for final decisionLake of the Woods – Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998
10. Great Lakes – Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the worlds surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles, and the volume is 5,439 cubic miles. Due to their sea-like characteristics the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas, Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes is bordered by the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the regions biodiversity, though the five lakes reside in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin. The lakes form a chain connecting the interior of North America to the Atlantic Ocean. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, the lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, and are studded with approximately 35,000 islands. There are also several smaller lakes, often called inland lakes. The surface area of the five primary lakes combined is roughly equal to the size of the United Kingdom, while the area of the entire basin is about the size of the UK. Lake Michigan is the one of the Great Lakes that is located entirely within the United States. The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Both Ontario and Michigan include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes, Ontario does not border Lake Michigan, New York and Wisconsins jurisdictions extend into two lakes, and the remaining states into one of the lakes. This designation, however, is not universal and those living on the shore of Lake Superior often refer to all the other lakes as the lower lakes, because they are farther south. This corresponds to thinking of Lakes Erie and Ontario as down south, vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered upbound even though they are sailing toward its effluent current. The Chicago River and Calumet River systems connect the Great Lakes Basin to the Mississippi River System through man-made alterations, the St. Marys River, including the Soo Locks, connects Lake Superior to Lake Huron. The Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan to Lake Huron, the St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair. The Detroit River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie, the Niagara River, including Niagara Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, the Saint Lawrence River connects Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which connects to the Atlantic OceanGreat Lakes – Satellite image of the Great Lakes, April 24, 2000, with lake names added
11. Lake Superior – Lake Superior is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the US state of Minnesota to the west and it is generally considered the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area. It is the worlds third-largest freshwater lake by volume and the largest by volume in North America, the Ojibwe call the lake gichi-gami, meaning be a great sea. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as Gitche Gumee in The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song, according to other sources the actual Ojibwe name is Ojibwe Gichigami or Anishinaabe Gichigami. The 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, the first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron during the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur. Properly translated, the expression means Upper Lake, that is, the lake was also called Lac Tracy by 17th century Jesuit missionaries. Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River, Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area, and the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. Lake Superior has an area of 31,700 square miles. It has a length of 350 statute miles and maximum breadth of 160 statute miles. Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms with a depth of 222.17 fathoms. Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles of water, there is enough water in Lake Superior to cover the entire land mass of North and South America to a depth of 30 centimetres. The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles, while the temperature of the surface of Lake Superior varies seasonally, the temperature below 110 fathoms is an almost constant 39 °F. This variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic, twice per year, however, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 °F from top to bottom, and the lake waters thoroughly mix. This feature makes the lake dimictic, because of its volume, Lake Superior has a retention time of 191 years. Annual storms on Lake Superior regularly feature wave heights of over 20 feet, waves well over 30 feet have been recorded. The lake is fed by over 200 rivers, the largest include the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River, there are rapids at the rivers upper end where the river bed has a relatively steep gradient. The Soo Locks were built to enable ships to bypass the rapids, the lakes average surface elevation is 600 feet above sea levelLake Superior – Landsat image
12. St. Clair River – The river is a significant component in the Great Lakes Waterway, with shipping channels permitting cargo vessels to travel between the upper and lower Great Lakes. The river, which consider a strait, flows in a southerly direction. It branches into several channels near its mouth at Lake St. Clair, the river is 40.5 miles long and drops 5 feet in elevation from Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair. The flow rate averages around 182,000 cubic feet per second, and this takes into account the combined drainage areas of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. In the 18th century, French voyageurs and coureurs des bois travelled on the river to trade with Native Americans and transport furs in canoes to major posts of French, European demand for American furs, especially beaver, was high until the 1830s. Ships built at Marine City, Michigan, during the mid-19th century carried immigrants up the river on their way to new homes in the American West, lumber harvested on The Thumb of Michigan was shipped downriver as log rafts to Detroit. In the early 20th century, lake steamers carried passengers and traveled among the towns along the St. Clair and Detroit rivers. During the 20th century, freighters traveled throughout the Great Lakes transporting commodities such as ore from the Mesabi Range, copper. Iron was taken to Ashtabula, Ohio and other cities for processing and steel manufacture. The St. Clair River and its Lambton County tributaries in Ontario contributes 103,210 acres to the watershed, stag Island lies between Corunna, Ontario and Marysville, Michigan. Fawn Island is near Port Lambton, Ontario and Marine City, Walpole, Seaway, Bassett, Squirrel, Pottowatamie, St. Anne, Dickinson, Russell and Harsens islands are located where the St. Clair River flows into Lake St. Clair near Algonac, Michigan. These islands are part of the St. Clair Flats, the major river delta in the Great Lakes. Six of the islands in this delta are unceded territory that are part of the Walpole Island First Nations, whose members include Ojibwe, Potowatomi and they call this delta area Bkejwanong, meaning where the waters divide. Most of the watershed away from the river in Ontario and Michigan is used for agriculture, there were numerous sugar beet farms in the flatlands, and an annual beet market was held in Marine City, Michigan, for years at harvest time. Many of the 19th-century English immigrants to this came from Lincolnshire, England. A few forest and wetland areas have survived, although their area has declined significantly since European settlement, clearing, much of the shoreline on both sides of the St. Clair River is urbanized and heavily industrialized. Intensive development has occurred in and near the adjacent cities of Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario, the heaviest concentration of industry, including a large petrochemical complex, lies along the Ontario shore south of Sarnia. Several communities along the St. Clair rely on the river as their source of drinking waterSt. Clair River – Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair (center), as well as St. Clair River connecting it to Lake Huron (to the North) and Detroit River connecting it to Lake Erie (to the South)
13. Lake Ontario – Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Ontario, Canadas most populous province, was named for the lake, in the Wyandot language, ontarío means “Lake of Shining Waters”. Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie, the last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area and it is the 14th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake has a shoreline that is 712 miles long. As the last lake in the Great Lakes hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level,326 feet lower than its neighbor upstream. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its width is 53 statute miles. The lakes average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lakes primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels both within the year and among years. These water level fluctuations are a part of lake ecology. The lake also has an important freshwater fishery, although it has negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors, mostly near Prince Edward County, Ontario, perhaps the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour. Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presquile Bay, the bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park. These sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species. Presquile, on the shore of Lake Ontario, is particularly significant in this regard. The lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age, the action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had approximately the same orientation as todays basin. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet and this stage is known as Lake IroquoisLake Ontario – Looking east across Lake Ontario to Toronto
14. Cornwall, Ontario – Cornwall is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada, and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. Andrews and Avonmore to the north, and Glen Walter, Martintown, Apple Hill, Williamstown, and Lancaster to the east. It is named after the English Duchy of Cornwall, the Citys coat of arms is based on that of the duchy with its colours reversed and the addition of a royal tressure and its largest industries include logistics distribution and call centres. Aboriginal peoples have lived in and around the area of present-day Cornwall for millennia, the first serious European settlement was established in 1784 by United Empire Loyalists primarily from New York. Disbanded soldiers and their families began to settle at the site of Cornwall and they were led by Lieutenant-Colonel Sir John Johnson and were soldiers from the First Battalion Kings Royal Regiment of New York and a contingent of the 84th Royal Highland Emigrants. Following the success of rebellious colonists in the American Revolution, the United Empire Loyalists migrated to Canada, the British government helped them settle there in reward for their loyalty and compensation for their losses in the United States. They founded a settlement on the formerly called Pointe Maligne by French colonists and renamed it Royal Settlement #2. The construction of the Cornwall Canal between 1834 and 1842 accelerated the development into a regional and industrial economic capital for a growing hinterland of towns. Canal and lock construction in the late 1800s and early 1900s brought work international business, the Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School received heavy damage from masonry work falling through the roof of the gymnasium. Situated west of Cornwall along the St. Lawrence River were several smaller communities, Eastern Ontario has always been a highway or corridor through which people moved, a corridor used by migration and conquest. Prior to European colonization, the Mohawks and Six Nations Iroquois settled and raided through the St. Lawrence valley, the French and British fought over the waterway and, after the American revolution in 1812–14, it became a battleground between Americans and Canadians. Formally founded to be a new home for refugees, it remained a home for refugees, early settlement of the region is largely undocumented although oral histories and early accounts suggest that settlers, traders and farmers existed in the area long before formal recognition. The post-contact regional population was a mixture of French Canadian, Ojibwe and these different groups mixed and integrated over time with family names and histories reflecting a blending of different backgrounds that was typical of Eastern Ontario. Smaller but nevertheless impressive contributions in the region were made by everyone from Jewish traders, craftsmen and merchants, Eastern European refugees, many of these stories go unreported. A good example is that of John Baker who died in Cornwall in 1871 at the age of 93. Born in Lower Canada, he was said to be the last Canadian born into slavery, most of these former slaves settled and integrated into the same communities where they were freed. By 1833, all slaves in the British Empire were free, John Baker, the last slave to be born into slavery in Canada, died in Cornwall. Cornwall and the area, originally called Royal Settlement #2Cornwall, Ontario – Pitt Street, downtown Cornwall
15. Southern Ontario – Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario. It is the most densely populated and southernmost region in Canada, situated south of Algonquin Park, it covers between 14 and 15% of the province, depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts. The region is home to one-third of Canadas population, Southern Ontario differs greatly from Northern Ontario, in that it has a larger population, different climate, and different culture than its northern counterpart. It is broken into smaller subregions, including Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Southern Ontario is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, which extends northeast into Quebec. Southern Ontario can be distinguished from Northern Ontario because it is far more densely populated and contains the majority of the cities, major roads. Northern Ontario, in contrast, contains natural resources and remote wilderness. Although it has no coastline, the region has an abundance of freshwater coastlines on three Great Lakes, as well as smaller lakes such as Lake Simcoe and Lake St. Clair. It is a vineyard region and producer of Canadian wines. Territorial Southern Ontario was explored and colonized by the French in the 17th century, Southern Ontario was where a large portion of the battles took place during the War of 1812, and was a major destination for escaping slaves using the underground railroad. Following the enactment of Prohibition in the United States in 1919, Southern Ontario is home to over 94%, or 12.1 million, of Ontarios total population of 12.9 million people, compared to approximately 750,000 in Northern Ontario. For thousands of years, Ontario has been home to aboriginal communities. Over 200,000 aboriginal Canadians live in Southern Ontario today, Southern Ontario was colonized by the French and the British. Since the late 20th century, many immigrants have come from Asia, the region is one of the top destinations for immigrants worldwide, particularly the Greater Toronto Area. The area has a manufacturing sector. Since the mid-2000s, Ontario has produced more vehicles per year than the state of Michigan, in a cross-border definition, a swath of Southern Ontario could be considered a part of the Rust Belt. Factory closings because of restructuring, globalization have for the past few decades taken their toll. This is most evident in the southern tier cities which have large automobile or associated industrial bases, such as Windsor, London, St. Thomas. Still affected by these factors but to an extent is Hamilton, the centre of steel production, and SarniaSouthern Ontario – Toronto, ON
16. Toronto – Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, Toronto is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot, Iroquois, and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is well known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning place where trees stand in the water. This refers to the end of what is now Lake Simcoe. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759. During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the warToronto – From top left: Downtown Toronto featuring the CN Tower and Financial District from the Toronto Harbour, City Hall, the Ontario Legislative Building, Casa Loma, Prince Edward Viaduct, and the Scarborough Bluffs
17. Ontario – Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city, Ottawa, and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regionsOntario – Algonquin Provincial Park, Cache Lake
18. Timeline of Ontario history – Ontario came into being as a province of Canada in 1867 but historians use the term to cover its entire history. This article also covers the history of the territory Ontario now occupies, for a complete list of the premiers of Ontario, see List of Ontario premiers. 10,000 BC Early Palaeolithic peoples lived in the woodlands of Southwestern Ontario with mastodons. People living in this period, referred to by archeologists as Early Palaeoindian. People living in this period are referred to by archeologists as Late Palaeoindian 8,000 -800 BCE During the Archaic Period. People living in the forests of Southwestern Ontario, hunted a wide variety of woodland animals. Deer and fish were important to their survival, larger trade networks were established, extending as far as the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard. Tools now included, nets, weirs, bows, arrows, People also fashioned copper into beads and bracelets. 900 BCE to 1610 CE During the Woodland Era, pottery was first created, in the middle years, two distinct cultural groups emerged, Princess Point, and Riviere au Vase. 600-800 CE Ontario Haudenosaunee Tradition Princess Point culture began focusing on horticulture—specifically the Three Sisters —forming a complex matrilineal society, before Europeans traveled to North America, first nations people, mostly Algonquian and Iroquoian, shared the land where Ontario is now located. 1610–1612– exploration of what is now southern Ontario by Étienne Brûlé1611 – Henry Hudson visits Hudson Bay,1615 – Samuel de Champlain visits Lake Huron, after which French missionaries establish outposts in the region. 1639 - Founding of Saint Mary Among the Huron, the first inland French settlement in North America, the settlement was destroyed in 1649 by its builders when Huron area was conquered by Iroquois. 1640 - Native population is estimated by the French to be 80,000 in what is now a part of southern Ontario. Around the same time, another movement of the Mississaugas from the north shores of Lake Huron and Manitoulin Island to the Kawartha Lakes. 1668 - Father Marquette founds Sault Ste, marie, noteworthy as the oldest surviving permanent European settlement in both Ontario and neighbouring Michigan. 1670 – The Hudsons Bay Company is granted a British royal charter to conduct the Indian Trade in the 3.9 million square kilometer territory named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine known as Rupert Land and this area includes much of what is now Northern Ontario and represents approx. 1/3 of the size of Canada. 1673–establishment 1763– Britain wins the Seven Years War and takes control of the future Ontario 1768- Guy Carleton commissioned Captain GeneralTimeline of Ontario history
19. Hockey Hall of Fame – The Hockey Hall of Fame is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Dedicated to the history of ice hockey, it is a museum and it holds exhibits about players, teams, National Hockey League records, memorabilia and NHL trophies, including the Stanley Cup. Founded in Kingston, Ontario, the Hockey Hall of Fame was established in 1943 under the leadership of James T. Sutherland, the first class of honoured members was inducted in 1945, before the Hall of Fame had a permanent location. It moved to Toronto in 1958 after the NHL withdrew its support for the International Hockey Hall of Fame in Kingston and its first permanent building opened at Exhibition Place in 1961. In 1993, the hall was relocated to a former Bank of Montreal building in Downtown Toronto, an 18-person committee of players, coaches and others meets annually in June to select new honourees, who are inducted as players, builders or on-ice officials. In 2010, a subcategory was established for female players, the builders category includes coaches, general managers, commentators, team owners and others who have helped build the game. As of 2016,271 players,105 builders and 16 on-ice officials have been inducted into the Hall of Fame, the Hall of Fame has been criticized for focusing mainly on players from the National Hockey League and largely ignoring players from other North American and international leagues. The Hockey Hall of Fame was established through the efforts of James T. Sutherland, Sutherland sought to establish it in Kingston, Ontario as he believed that the city was the birthplace of hockey. In 1943, the NHL and CAHA reached an agreement that a Hall of Fame would be established in Kingston, originally called the International Hockey Hall of Fame, its mandate was to honour great hockey players and to raise funds for a permanent location. The first nine honoured members were inducted on April 30,1945, although the Hall of Fame still did not have a permanent home. The first board of governors consisted of Red Dutton, Art Ross, Frank Sargent, Lester Patrick, Abbie E. H. Coo, Wes McKnight, Basil E. OMeara, J. P. Fitzgerald and W. A. Hewitt. Kingston lost its most influential advocate as permanent site of the Hockey Hall of Fame when Sutherland died in 1955, by 1958, the Hockey Hall of Fame had still not raised sufficient funds to construct a permanent building in Kingston. Clarence Campbell, then President of the NHL, grew tired of waiting for the construction to begin and withdrew the NHLs support to situate the hall in Kingston. The temporary Hockey Hall of Fame opened as an exhibit within the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame in August 1958, due to the success of the exhibit, NHL and CNE decided that a permanent home in the Exhibition Place was needed. The NHL agreed to fund the building of the new facility on the grounds of Exhibition Place. The first permanent Hockey Hall of Fame, which shared a building with the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, was opened on August 26,1961, over 750,000 people visited the Hall in its inaugural year. Admission to the Hockey Hall of Fame was free until 1980, by 1986, the Hall of Fame was running out of room in its existing facilities and the Board of Directors decided that a new home was needed. The Hall vacated the Exhibition Place building in 1992, and its half was taken over by the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, the building was eventually demolished — a portion of the buildings facade was preserved as an entrance to BMO Field stadiumHockey Hall of Fame – The Hockey Hall of Fame is located at the corner of Front and Yonge Streets in downtown Toronto. The same building also houses the IIHF Hall of Fame.
20. French language – French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages, French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues doïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to Frances past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, a French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is a language in 29 countries, most of which are members of la francophonie. As of 2015, 40% of the population is in Europe, 35% in sub-Saharan Africa, 15% in North Africa and the Middle East, 8% in the Americas. French is the fourth-most widely spoken mother tongue in the European Union, 1/5 of Europeans who do not have French as a mother tongue speak French as a second language. As a result of French and Belgian colonialism from the 17th and 18th century onward, French was introduced to new territories in the Americas, Africa, most second-language speakers reside in Francophone Africa, in particular Gabon, Algeria, Mauritius, Senegal and Ivory Coast. In 2015, French was estimated to have 77 to 110 million native speakers, approximately 274 million people are able to speak the language. The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie estimates 700 million by 2050, in 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked French the third most useful language for business, after English and Standard Mandarin Chinese. Under the Constitution of France, French has been the language of the Republic since 1992. France mandates the use of French in official government publications, public education except in specific cases, French is one of the four official languages of Switzerland and is spoken in the western part of Switzerland called Romandie, of which Geneva is the largest city. French is the language of about 23% of the Swiss population. French is also a language of Luxembourg, Monaco, and Aosta Valley, while French dialects remain spoken by minorities on the Channel Islands. A plurality of the worlds French-speaking population lives in Africa and this number does not include the people living in non-Francophone African countries who have learned French as a foreign language. Due to the rise of French in Africa, the total French-speaking population worldwide is expected to reach 700 million people in 2050, French is the fastest growing language on the continent. French is mostly a language in Africa, but it has become a first language in some urban areas, such as the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Libreville. There is not a single African French, but multiple forms that diverged through contact with various indigenous African languages, sub-Saharan Africa is the region where the French language is most likely to expand, because of the expansion of education and rapid population growthFrench language – The "arrêt" signs (French for "stop") are used in Canada while the international stop, which is also a valid French word, is used in France as well as other French-speaking countries and regions.
21. History of ice hockey – Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponents net to score points. Ice hockey teams usually consist of six each, one goaltender. A fast-paced, physical sport, ice hockey is most popular in areas of North America, Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada, where the game enjoys immense popularity. In North America, the National Hockey League is the highest level for mens hockey, the Kontinental Hockey League is the highest league in Russia and much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the governing body for international ice hockey. The IIHF manages international tournaments and maintains the IIHF World Ranking, worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 74 countries. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules were developed, such as shinny and ice polo. The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey began in the 1880s, and professional ice hockey originated around 1900. The Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion, in international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in mens competition at the Olympics, in the annual Ice Hockey World Championships,177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. In Russia and the Ukraine, where hockey can also refer to bandy, the name hockey has no clear origin. The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word hockey when he translated the proclamation in 1720, the 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called hokie—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves. A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage. According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word derives from the Scots Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his caman or hurley is always called a puck. Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times, in Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the closely related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on a surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age. It was played with a curved bat, a wooden or leather ballHistory of ice hockey – The San Jose Sharks (teal) attempt to prevent the Anaheim Ducks (white) from scoring a goal during the 2007–08 NHL season.
22. Stanley Cup – The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League playoff winner. The first Cup was awarded in 1893 to Montreal HC, and subsequent winners from 1893 to 1914 were determined by challenge games, Professional teams first became eligible to challenge for the Stanley Cup in 1906. After a series of mergers and folds, it was established as the de facto championship trophy of the NHL in 1926. There are actually three Stanley Cups, the bowl of the Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup, the authenticated Presentation Cup. The NHL has maintained control over both the trophy itself and its associated trademarks. Nevertheless, the NHL does not actually own the trophy, the original bowl was made of silver and is 18.5 centimetres in height and 29 centimetres in diameter. The current Stanley Cup, topped with a copy of the bowl, is made of a silver and nickel alloy, it has a height of 89.54 centimetres. Unlike the trophies awarded by the major professional sports leagues of North America. Originally, the winners kept it until a new champion was crowned, currently, winning teams get the Stanley Cup during the summer and a limited number of days during the season. It is unusual among trophies to include winning members names, every year since 1924, a select portion of the winning players, coaches, management, and club staff names are engraved on its bands. However, there is not enough room to include all the players and non-players, initially a new band added each year, though this caused the trophy to grow in size, earning the nickname Stovepipe Cup. In 1958 the modern one-piece Cup was designed with a barrel which could contain 13 winning teams per band. To prevent the Stanley Cup from growing, when the band is full, the oldest band is removed and preserved in the Hockey Hall of Fame. It has been referred to as The Cup, Lord Stanleys Cup, The Holy Grail, the Stanley Cup is surrounded by numerous legends and traditions, the oldest of which is the celebratory drinking of champagne out of the cup by the winning team. Since the 1914–15 season, the Cup has been won a combined 100 times by 18 active NHL teams, prior to that, the challenge cup was held by nine different teams. The Montreal Canadiens have won the Cup a record 24 times and are the most recent Canadian-based team to win the cup, the Stanley Cup was not awarded in 1919 because of a Spanish flu epidemic, and in 2005, as a consequence of the 2004–05 NHL lockout. After the Lord Stanley of Preston was appointed by Queen Victoria as Governor General of Canada on June 11,1888, he, Stanley was first exposed to the game at Montreals 1889 Winter Carnival, where he saw the Montreal Victorias play the Montreal Hockey Club. The Montreal Gazette reported that he expressed his delight with the game of hockeyStanley Cup – Stanley Cup
23. Exhibition Place – Exhibition Place is a publicly owned mixed-use district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located by the shoreline of Lake Ontario, just west of downtown. The 197-acre site includes exhibit, trade, and banquet centres, theatre and music buildings, monuments, parkland, sports facilities, and a number of civic, provincial, and national historic sites. The districts facilities are used year-round for exhibitions, trade shows, public and private functions, from mid-August through Labour Day each year, the Canadian National Exhibition, from which the name Exhibition Place is derived, is held on the grounds. During the CNE, Exhibition Place encompasses 260 acres, expanding to include nearby parks, the CNE uses the buildings for exhibits on agriculture, food, arts and crafts, government and trade displays. For entertainment, the CNE provides a midway of rides and games, music concerts at the Bandshell, featured shows at the Ricoh Coliseum, and the Canadian International Air Show. The fair is one of the largest and most successful of its kind in North America, the buildings on the site date from the 1700s to recent years. Five buildings on the site, were designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1988, the grounds have seen a mix of protection for heritage buildings along with new development. The site was set aside for military purposes and gradually given over to exhibition purposes. Exhibition Place is a site located length-wise along the north shoreline of Lake Ontario to the west of downtown Toronto. The site is flat ground sloping down gently to the shoreline. It was originally forested land, and was cleared for military use, sections east of Stanley Barracks and south were filled in the early part of the 20th Century. Today, the district is mostly paved, with an area of remaining in its western section. There is an open paved area in the southern central section, which is used for parking. The site has a variety of buildings, open spaces. The eastern entrance to Exhibition Place is marked by the large ceremonial Princes Gates, named for Edward, Prince of Wales, and his brother, Prince George, the roads are all named after Canadian provinces and territories except for Princes Boulevard which is the main street east-west. Several of the roads are used for the annual Honda Indy Toronto car race, south of the grounds is Ontario Place, a theme park built in 1971 on landfill in Lake Ontario, and operated by the government of Ontario. The site also has a history of sports facilities on the site, starting with an equestrian track. The grandstand eventually was converted for use by music concerts, major league baseball and football teams, the newest sports facility to be built is the soccer-specific stadium, BMO FieldExhibition Place – The Princes' Gates in 2015
24. Niagara Falls – They form the southern end of the Niagara Gorge. From largest to smallest, the three waterfalls are the Horseshoe Falls, the American Falls and the Bridal Veil Falls, the Horseshoe Falls lies on the border of the United States and Canada with the American Falls entirely on the American side, separated by Goat Island. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls are also on the American side, the international boundary line was originally drawn through Horseshoe Falls in 1819, but the boundary has long been in dispute due to natural erosion and construction. Located on the Niagara River, which drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, Horseshoe Falls is the most powerful waterfall in North America, as measured by vertical height and flow rate. The falls are 17 miles north-northwest of Buffalo, New York, while not exceptionally high, the Niagara Falls are very wide. More than six cubic feet of water falls over the crest line every minute in high flow. The Niagara Falls are famed both for their beauty and as a source of hydroelectric power. Balancing recreational, commercial, and industrial uses has been a challenge for the stewards of the falls since the 19th century. The Horseshoe Falls drop about 188 feet, while the height of the American Falls varies between 70 and 100 feet because of the presence of giant boulders at its base. The larger Horseshoe Falls are about 2,600 feet wide, the distance between the American extremity of the Niagara Falls and the Canadian extremity is 3,409 feet. The volume of water approaching the falls during peak season may sometimes be as much as 225,000 cubic feet per second. The average annual rate is 85,000 cubic feet per second. Since the flow is a function of the Lake Erie water elevation. This is accomplished by employing a weir – the International Control Dam – with movable gates upstream from the Horseshoe Falls. The falls flow is further halved at night, and, during the low tourist season in the winter, water diversion is regulated by the 1950 Niagara Treaty and is administered by the International Niagara Board of Control. The current rate of erosion is approximately 1 foot per year and it is estimated that 50,000 years from now, even at this reduced rate of erosion, the remaining 20 miles to Lake Erie will have been undermined and the falls will cease to exist. The features that became Niagara Falls were created by the Wisconsin glaciation about 10,000 years ago, the same forces also created the North American Great Lakes and the Niagara River. All were dug by an ice sheet that drove through the area, deepening some river channels to form lakesNiagara Falls – Niagara Falls
25. Niagara River – The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States, there are differing theories as to the origin of the rivers name. According to George R. Stewart, it comes from the name of an Iroquois town called Ongniaahra, the river, which is occasionally described as a strait, is about 58 kilometres long and includes Niagara Falls in its course. The falls have moved approximately 11 kilometres upstream from the Niagara Escarpment in the last 12,000 years, today, the diversion of the river for electrical generation has significantly reduced the rate of erosion. Power plants on the river include the Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Power Stations on the Canadian side, together, they generate 4.4 gigawatts of electricity. The International Control Works, built in 1954, regulates the river flow, ships on the Great Lakes use the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, on the Canadian side of the river, to bypass Niagara Falls. The total drop in elevation along the river is 99 metres, the Niagara Gorge extends downstream from the Falls and includes the Niagara Whirlpool and another section of rapids. The Niagara River also features two large islands and numerous smaller islands, grand Island and Navy Island, the two largest islands, are on the American and Canadian sides of the river, respectively. Goat Island and the tiny Luna Island split Niagara Falls into its three sections, the Horseshoe Falls, Bridal Veil Falls, and American Falls, unity Island lies further upstream, alongside the city of Buffalo. The Niagara River and its tributaries, Tonawanda Creek and the Welland River, formed part of the last section of the Erie Canal, after leaving Lockport, New York, the Erie Canal proceeds southwest until it enters Tonawanda Creek. The Welland Canals used the Welland River as a connection to the Niagara River south of the falls, allowing traffic to safely re-enter the Niagara River. The Niagara River and Falls have been known outside of North America since the late 17th century, when Father Louis Hennepin and he wrote about his travels in A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America. The Niagara River was the site of the earliest recorded railway in America and it was an inclined wooden tramway built by John Montresor, a British military engineer, in 1764. Called The Cradles and The Old Lewiston Incline, it featured loaded carts pulled up wooden rails by rope and it facilitated the movement of goods over the Niagara Escarpment in present-day Lewiston, New York. Several battles occurred along the Niagara River, which was defended by Fort George and Fort Niagara at the mouth of the river. These forts were important during the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Queenston Heights took place near the river in the War of 1812. The river was an important route to liberation before the American Civil War, the Freedom Crossing Monument stands on the bank of the river in Lewiston to commemorate the courage of the escaping slaves and the local volunteers who helped them secretly cross the river. In the 1880s, the Niagara River became the first waterway in North America harnessed for large-scale generation of hydroelectricityNiagara River – Satellite image of the Niagara River. Flowing from Lake Erie in the south (bottom of image) to Lake Ontario in the north, the river passes around Grand Island before going over Niagara Falls, after which it narrows in the Niagara Gorge. Two hydropower reservoirs are visible just before the river widens after exiting the gorge. The Welland Canal is visible on the far left side of this image. (Source: NASA Visible Earth)
26. Twin cities (geographical proximity) – Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone. For example, South San Francisco is not considered a city with San Francisco. However, cities considered twinned by proximity do not necessarily match demographically, economically, in many historical cases, cities that grew into each others space lost their individual identities, and the border or barrier originally separating them became almost irrelevant. In China, the three ancient cities of Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang, separated by the junction of the Yangtze, twin cities may share an airport into whose airport codes are integrated the component initials e. g. DFW, LBA, MSP and CAK. In other cases twin cities can be divided by an international border and it also includes a fifth member, East Moline, Illinois. The Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area in Alabama is locally referred to as the Quad Cities, with Florence, Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere village, this region was known a Tri-Cities, Alabama. Actually, they are all incorporated as towns except for Florence, the Quad Cities of Minnesota consist of Virginia, Eveleth, Gilbert, and Mountain Iron. The cities of Pullman, Washington, Moscow, Idaho, Clarkston, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho have marketed themselves as Quad Cities. Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, has, as of 2013, grown out so much that small towns by this giant city, Wuhan in China consists of the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang in Hubei Province. Islamabad, the city of Pakistan, has been expanded to include smaller towns including Rawat in its territory. Bangkok, the capital and largest city of Thailand, was created in 1971, Fukuoka in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin cities of Hakata and Fukuoka until the late 19th century. Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, Urawa and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities. Kitakyushu in Japan, a city of 900,000 people, created in 1963 by the merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, Yahata and Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right. The cities of Saigon and Cholon merged in 1931 to form a city named Saigon-Cholon, in 1956, the name Cholon was dropped. London grew from its cores in the City of London and the City of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages within neighbouring counties, budapest is the amalgamation of Buda, Pest and Óbuda. Stoke-on-Trent was created in 1910 from the towns of Burslem, Hanley, Tunstall, Longton, Fenton and Stoke, neighbouring Newcastle-under-Lyme remains a separate town. Eindhoven merged with five neighbouring municipalities into the new Groot-Eindhoven in 1920, the prefix Groot- was later dropped. Madrid evolved by absorption of other towns Richmond in central Virginia Cleveland in Ohio Minneapolis, St. Anthony was a twin city to Minneapolis in the two cities youthTwin cities (geographical proximity) – Cross-border example of twin cities: Plaza Internacional of the Frontera de la Paz. On the left, Santana do Livramento (Brazil); on the right, Rivera (Uruguay).
27. Niagara Falls, Ontario – Niagara Falls is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the bank of the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario. The municipality was incorporated on 12 June 1903, across the Niagara River is Niagara Falls, New York. The city is dominated by the Niagara Falls, a set of three large waterfalls on the Niagara River. The American and Horseshoe falls can be best seen from the Canadian side of the river, the natural spectacle attracts millions of tourists yearly. This area, which stretches along the Niagara Parkway and tourist promenade, is concentrated at the brink of the falls. Further to the north or south, golf courses are operated alongside historic sites from the War of 1812 and this area was long part of the Iroquois Confederacy territory, five powerful First Nations mostly along the southern edge of the Great Lakes. The Niagara Falls area has had some European settlement since the 17th century, louis Hennepin, a French priest and missionary, is regarded as the first European to visit the area in the 1670s. French colonists settled mostly in Lower Canada, beginning near the Atlantic, loyalist Robert Land received 200 acres and was one of the first people of European descent to settle in the Niagara Region. He moved to nearby Hamilton three years due to the relentless noise of falls. Tourism started in the early 19th century and has been a part of the local economy since that time. The falls became known as a wonder, in part to their being featured in paintings by prominent American artists of the 19th century such as Albert Bierstadt. Such works were reproduced as lithographs, becoming widely distributed, in addition, Niagara Falls markets itself as a honeymoon destination, it is the self-proclaimed honeymoon capital of the world. In 1856, the Town of Clifton was incorporated, the name of the town was changed to Niagara Falls in 1881. In 1882, the community of Drummondville was incorporated as the village of Niagara Falls, the village was referred to as Niagara Falls South to differentiate it from the town. In 1904, the town and village amalgamated to form the City of Niagara Falls, in 1882, Irish author Oscar Wilde visited Niagara Falls after lecturing in Buffalo during a lecture tour of North America. He stayed at the Prospect House in Niagara Falls, New York, an Internment camp was set up at The Armoury in Niagara Falls from December 1914 to August 1918. In 1953, the American actress Marilyn Monroe filmed Niagara here and this was a major event for the cityNiagara Falls, Ontario – Skyline of Niagara Falls, Ontario
28. Hydroelectric power – Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is also a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936Hydroelectric power – The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power producing facilitiy of any kind.
29. Dalton McGuinty – Dalton James Patrick McGuinty, Jr. is a Canadian retired politician who served as the 24th Premier of Ontario from 2003 to 2013. He was the first Liberal leader to win two majority governments since Mitchell Hepburn nearly 70 years earlier, in 2011, he became the first Liberal premier to secure a third consecutive term since Oliver Mowat, after his party was re-elected in that years provincial election. He studied science at university but ended up taking a law degree and his father was a professor and served as a provincial politician from 1987 to 1990. In 1990, his father suffered an attack while shovelling snow. A provincial election was called for later that year and McGuinty decided to run in his fathers place and he was elected as a Liberal Member of Provincial Parliament in an election in which the Liberal government was defeated unexpectedly by the opposition Ontario New Democratic Party. He served in opposition for the five years. In 1995 he was re-elected but remained in opposition since the Progressive Conservatives won the election, the leader of the party, Lyn McLeod, was blamed for the loss as most polls pointed to a Liberal win. McLeod resigned as leader in 1996 and McGuinty put his name forward for the leadership election. Although Gerrard Kennedy was the front-runner in the race, McGuinty who came fourth on the first ballot ended up winning the leadership on the fifth ballot, McGuinty lost the 1999 election but won a resounding majority in 2003 when Ontario turned against the governing Tories. From 2003 to 2007, McGuintys government increased spending for health and he won another majority in 2007 against new PC leader John Tory. Although McGuinty suffered in the polls, his opponent mis-stepped badly by promoting a policy of funding for private religious schools. McGuintys second term was deeply affected by the 2008 financial crisis which saw government revenues plummet, in addition a scandal developed around a new scheme to update health care records called eHealth Ontario. Just prior to the 2011 election another controversy developed around the construction of gas powered electrical plants that were opposed by local residents. The gas plants happened to be located in key Liberal ridings and just before the election, the cost to cancel the projects was close to $1 billion and the move was seen as pandering to the electorate in a few electoral districts. These issues dogged McGuinty through the election campaign, the Liberals won but were reduced to a minority. In the new government, the PCs under leader Tim Hudak were the party with NDP leader Andrea Horwath holding the balance of power. McGuinty continued as premier for two years but the continuing gas plant issue refused to go away. He prorogued the legislature early in October 2012 and stepped down as premier and he was replaced by Kathleen Wynne in February 2013 and he resigned his own seat in June 2013Dalton McGuinty – Dalton McGuinty
30. Roman Catholic – The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church or the Universal Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.28 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history, headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the churchs doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed and the Apostles Creed. Its central administration is located in Vatican City, enclaved within Rome, the Catholic Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments. It teaches that it is the one church founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christs apostles. The Catholic Church maintains that the doctrine on faith and morals that it declares as definitive is infallible. The Latin Church, the Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders. Among the sacraments, the one is the Eucharist, celebrated liturgically in the Mass. The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body, the Catholic Church practises closed communion, with only baptised members in a state of grace ordinarily permitted to receive the Eucharist. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Catholic Church as Queen of Heaven and is honoured in numerous Marian devotions. The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, science, art and culture, Catholic spiritual teaching includes spreading the Gospel while Catholic social teaching emphasises support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world, from the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticised for its doctrines on sexuality, its refusal to ordain women and its handling of sexual abuse cases. Catholic was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century, the first known use of the phrase the catholic church occurred in the letter from Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans, written about 110 AD. In the Catechetical Discourses of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, the name Catholic Church was used to distinguish it from other groups that call themselves the church. The use of the adjective Roman to describe the Church as governed especially by the Bishop of Rome became more widespread after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Early Middle Ages. Catholic Church is the name used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church follows an episcopal polity, led by bishops who have received the sacrament of Holy Orders who are given formal jurisdictions of governance within the church. Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, in parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both, additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship servicesRoman Catholic – Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
31. Provinces in Canada – Canadas geography is divided into administrative divisions known as provinces and territories that are responsible for delivery of sub-national governance. Over its history, Canadas international borders have changed several times, the ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was originally a French colony, the three territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon, which govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. Together, the provinces and territories make up the worlds second-largest country by area, the powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, the territories are not sovereign, but simply part of the federal realm, and have a commissioner who represents the federal government. Notes, There are three territories in Canada, unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, the following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Prior to Confederation, Ontario and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada, over the following years, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were added as provinces. The Hudsons Bay Company controlled large swathes of western Canada referred to as Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory until 1870, subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The remaining Arctic islands were transferred by Britain to Canada in 1880,1898 saw the Yukon Territory, later renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1,1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba were expanded northward, Manitobas to the 60° parallel, Ontarios to Hudson Bay, in 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a period of economic crisis. In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador, in 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbias northwestern boundary. This was one of two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the portion of The North, while Nunavut is in the east. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2 in land area and they are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposesProvinces in Canada – " O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada features arms of the Canadian provinces and territories (1965)
32. Algonquin Provincial Park – Algonquin Provincial Park is a provincial park located between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River in Southern Ontario, Canada, mostly within the Unorganized South Part of Nipissing District. Established in 1893, it is the oldest provincial park in Canada, additions since its creation have increased the park to its current size of about 7,653 square kilometres. For comparison purposes, this is one and a half times the size of Prince Edward Island or about a quarter of the size of Belgium. The park is contiguous with several smaller, administratively separate provincial parks that protect important rivers in the area, resulting in a larger total protected area. Its size, combined with its proximity to the urban centres of Toronto and Ottawa, makes Algonquin one of the most popular provincial parks in the province. Highway 60 runs through the south of the park, while the Trans-Canada Highway bypasses it to the north, over 2,400 lakes and 1,200 kilometres of streams and rivers are located within the park. Some notable examples include Canoe Lake and the Petawawa, Nipissing, Amable du Fond, Madawaska and these were formed by the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age. The park is considered part of the border between Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario, the park is in an area of transition between northern coniferous forest and southern deciduous forest. This unique mixture of forest types, and the variety of environments in the park, allows the park to support an uncommon diversity of plant. It is also an important site for wildlife research, Algonquin Park is the only designated park within the province of Ontario to allow industrial logging to take place within its borders. In the 19th century, the industry harvested the large white pine and red pine trees to produce lumber for domestic and American markets. The loggers were followed by numbers of homesteaders and farmers. Even at that time, however, the beauty was recognized by nature preservationists. To manage these conflicting interests, the Ontario Government appointed a commission to inquire into and report on the matter. The act to establish Algonquin Park was drawn up in 1892 by this five member Royal Commission, made up of Alexander Kirkwood, James Dickson, Archibald Blue, Robert Phipps, and Aubrey White. The commissioners remarked in their report, the experience of older countries had shown that the wholesale. Only licenses to cut pine would be issued, the commissioners had recommended that when the hardwood was mature, it too should be cut. Researchers believe that smoke from a forest fire in Algonquin Park was responsible for New Englands Dark Day of May 19,1780 and this is based on investigations into scar marks which are left in the growth rings of trees that survive forest firesAlgonquin Provincial Park – Autumn scene in Algonquin Park
33. Government of Ontario – The Government of Ontario, or more formally Her Majestys Government of Ontario, is the provincial government of the province of Ontario, Canada. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act,1867, the civil service that manages and delivers government policies, programs, and services is called the Ontario Public Service. The province of Ontario is governed by a legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. The provinces head of government, known as the Premier of Ontario is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor, the Premier, invariably the leader of a political party represented in the Legislative Assembly, selects members of the Cabinet, who are also appointed by the Lieutenant Governor. The Premier has usually been the leader of the party holding the largest number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, due to the location of the Ontario Legislative Building on the grounds of Queens Park, the Ontario government is frequently referred to by the metonym Queens Park. The Ontario Public Service was named one of Canadas Top 100 Employers by Macleans newsmagazine in 2009, the Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada. The legislative powers in the lie with the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. The premier and other ministers in the Cabinet are also members of, and responsible to, for the 2013-2014 fiscal year, the Ontario government planned to spend C$127,600,000,000, including a deficit of C$11,700,000,000. As of March 31,2014 the total Ontario debt stood at $295.80 billionGovernment of Ontario – The Ontario Government Buildings, in downtown Toronto, contain the head offices of several provincial ministries.
34. Census divisions of Ontario – The census divisions of Ontario are used by Statistics Canada to aggregate census data. With two exceptions, they correspond to Ontarios first-level administrative divisions, of which there are three types, single-tier municipalities, upper-tier municipalities, and districts. These differ primarily in the services that they provide to their residents and they may comprise smaller municipalities or other types of administrative divisions, which are generally treated as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada. In some cases, a census division may retain its name even if it changes government type. For instance, Oxford County, Haldimand County, Norfolk County and Prince Edward County are no counties, Oxford is a regional municipality. Several census divisions in Ontario have significantly changed their borders or been discontinued entirely, the following is a list of census divisions of Ontario and their population counts from the 2011 census conducted by Statistics Canada. A single-tier municipality is a division which is governed by one municipal administration, with neither a county nor regional government above it. A single-tier municipality is either a regional municipality or a former county. With the exception of Greater Sudbury, single-tier municipalities are found only in Southern Ontario, a single-tier municipality which is predominantly urban in nature may also be informally referred to as a megacity. Single-tier municipalities of this type were created where a regional municipality consisted of a single dominant urban centre. Regions are typically more urbanized than counties, Regional municipalities are found only in Southern Ontario. Current regional municipalities in Ontario, with regional seats listed in brackets, although Oxford County and the District Municipality of Muskoka are not called regions, they are defined as regional municipalities under Part 1, Section 1 of the Ontario Municipal Act,2001. Between 1998 and 2001, four municipalities that were dominated by a single city were amalgamated and are now single-tier municipalities. In 1998, the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto became the amalgamated City of Toronto, at the same time, the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk was split into Haldimand County and Norfolk County. Counties have fewer responsibilities than regions, as the municipalities within the counties typically provide the majority of municipal services to their residents. The responsibilities of county governments are limited to the following, maintenance and construction of rural arterial roads, health and social services. Counties are only found in Southern Ontario, counties may also include separated municipalities, communities that are considered part of the county for census purposes but are not administratively connected to the county. Some districts may have District Social Service Administration Boards, which are designed to certain social servicesCensus divisions of Ontario – Ontario's 49 census divisions by type
35. Music of Ontario – As the Canadian province with the largest population, Ontario has a particularly prominent role in Canadian music. Hamilton, Ottawa, Kingston and Guelph have also been important centres for Canadian music, in classical music, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, and the National Arts Centre Orchestra are two of the most renowned orchestras in the world. Many smaller Ontario cities have orchestras of their own as well, the Canadian Opera Company, also based in Toronto, is the countrys largest and most influential producer of opera productions. Other institutions in the include the Royal Conservatory of Music, MuchMusic, and concert venues such as Roy Thomson Hall, Massey Hall. Record labels in the province include MapleMusic, DROG Records, Duke Street, Sonic Unyon, Three Gut, Zunior, Linus Entertainment, the largest music school in Ontario outside of Toronto is the Durham School of Music, a music school in Ajax, Ontario. For a list of musicians and musical groups from Ontario, please see List of Ontario musiciansMusic of Ontario – Government
36. Province of Canada – The United Province of Canada, or the Province of Canada, or the United Canadas was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham in the Report on the Affairs of British North America following the Rebellions of 1837–38, in the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837–1838, unification of the two Canadas was driven by two factors. Firstly, Upper Canada was near bankruptcy because it lacked stable tax revenues, and secondly, unification was an attempt to swamp the French vote by giving each of the former provinces the same number of parliamentary seats, despite the larger population of Lower Canada. Although Durhams report had called for the Union of the Canadas and for Responsible Government, the new government was to be led by an appointed Governor General accountable only to the British Crown and the Kings Ministers. Responsible Government was not to be achieved until the second LaFontaine-Baldwin ministry in 1849, the Province of Canada ceased to exist at Canadian Confederation on July 1,1867, when it was redivided into the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Upper Canada was primarily English-speaking, whereas Lower Canada was primarily French-speaking, the Province of Canada was divided into two parts, Canada East and Canada West. Canada East was what became of the colony of Lower Canada after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the province of Quebec after confederation, Canada West was what became of the former colony of Upper Canada after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the province of Ontario after confederation, the location of the capital city of the Province of Canada changed six times in its 26-year history. The first capital was in Kingston, the capital moved to Montreal until rioters, spurred by a series of incendiary articles published in The Gazette, protested the Rebellion Losses Bill and burned down Montreals parliament buildings. It moved to Quebec City from 1852 to 1856, then Toronto for one year before returning to Quebec City from 1859-1866, in 1857, Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada, initiating construction of Canadas first parliament buildings, on Parliament Hill. The first stage of construction was completed in 1865, just in time to host the final session of the last parliament of the Province of Canada before Confederation. The Governor General remained the head of the administration of the colony, appointed by the British state. He was aided by the Executive Council and the Legislative Council, the Executive Council aided in administration, and the Legislative Council reviewed legislation produced by the elected Legislative Assembly. Sydenham came from a family of timber merchants, and was an expert in finance. He was promised a barony if he could implement the union of the Canadas, and introduce a new form of municipal government. Sydenham was a Whig who believed in government, not responsible government. In order to implement his plan, he utilized widespread electoral violence through the Orange Order, Bagot was appointed after the unexpected death of Thomson, with the explicit instructions to resist calls for Responsible GovernmentProvince of Canada – Charles Poulett Thomson
37. Eastern Ontario – Eastern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River. It shares water boundaries with Quebec to the north and New York State to the east and south, some sources may also include Hastings, Prince Edward, and sometimes even Northumberland in the definition of Eastern Ontario, but others classify them as Central Ontario. The region may also be referred to as Southeastern Ontario to differentiate it from the Northern Ontario secondary region of Northeastern Ontario, french explorers and fur traders were the first recorded Europeans to pass through this region. Samuel de Champlain, explorer, traversed the Ottawa River in 1615 on his way westward to the Great Lakes, the largest city in the region is the city of Ottawa, capital of Canada, which accounts for roughly 60% of Eastern Ontarios population. Kingston, itself once capital of the Province of Canada, is the major city in the region outside of the National Capital Region. Much of the remainder of the region relies on agriculture and tourism, heavier reliance on recreation and tourism exists in the more rugged Renfrew county in the northwest of Eastern Ontario. The Loyalist influence has a presence in the counties of Lennox and Addington, Leeds and Grenville, Frontenac, Lanark, Hastings, in Ottawa, Prescott and Russell, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, and Renfrew, Eastern Ontario is home to the largest Franco-Ontarian community within Ontario. Extensive immigration by Scottish Highlanders from the Highland land clearances also took place around the time of the United Empire Loyalist migration, after the Loyalist period, more waves of Highland emigration came primarily from Inverness-shire, Scotland to seek a better quality of life. The majority of these Scottish immigrants settled in the specific Highland community Glengarry County, large numbers of Irish Catholics, mainly from Cork and surrounding counties also settled in the area in the decades following the War of 1812, the majority of them in or near present-day Ottawa. Many arrived through government backed immigration schemes to settle unoccupied lands, along with the Franco-Ontarians in particular, they made up the majority of canal builders on the large Rideau Canal project and were heavily employed in the areas extensive lumber industry. Through the last century, newer immigrant groups have added to the cultural mix, there are still a large number of Francophones in Eastern Ontario, especially in Prescott and Russell United Counties. The climate of Eastern Ontario is humid continental with large seasonal variation, snow and ice are dominant during the winter season. Ottawa receives close to 250 cm of snowfall over a winter and snow usually remains on the ground for a couple of months. Winters are long and celebrated in Eastern Ontario, the average temperature in January is −6 °C. In recent years, there seems to be a trend towards snow free periods, however, in the winter months of 2008, there were records levels of snow fall. Ice storms are also common, especially on lower terrain if compared with other parts of the country. One such large storm caused vast power outages and affected the local economy, winters are more severe and longer along the Ottawa River, particularly in higher terrain of Renfrew County than further south along the Upper St. Lawrence River shoreline. Summers are fairly warm and humid in the Ottawa and St. Lawrence valleys, the average July maximum temperature is 27 °CEastern Ontario – Downtown Ottawa
38. Southwestern Ontario – Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario, centered on the city of London. To the east, on land, Southwestern Ontario is bounded by Central Ontario, the region had a population of 2,504,878 in 2011. Apart from London, other towns and cities in the area of Southwestern Ontario include Chatham, Ingersoll, Sarnia, St. Thomas, Tillsonburg, Windsor. Outside the core of Southwestern Ontario, cities located on or near the Grand River are also considered to be part of the extended Golden Horseshoe region that surrounds western Lake Ontario and they include Brantford, Cambridge, Guelph, Kitchener, and Waterloo. Two subregions are recognisable with Southwestern Ontario, the Bruce Peninsula and Georgian Bay shoreline, including Owen Sound and the Blue Mountains, are also part of the Georgian Triangle. Cities and towns located more immediately north of London, including Stratford, Goderich, Wingham, Mount Forest, Southwestern Ontario was first settled by Europeans in the early 18th century, when it was part of the Royal Province of New France. One of the oldest continuous settlements in the region is Windsor, late in the 20th century the Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo area became the populous metropolitan area in southwestern Ontario. Southwestern Ontario is an agricultural region whose chief crops are tobacco, sweet corn, soybean, winter wheat, canola. Dairy and beef farming, breeding and training of standardbred horses and wine growing and its climate is among the mildest in Canada. Although brief periods of winter can be severe, summers are hot, a large section of Southwestern Ontario was part of the Talbot Settlement, and the region has benefited from the settlement’s facilitation of agriculture and of trade in general. Its economy is tied in with that of the midwestern United States. Auto manufacturing and parts, agriculture and hi-tech industries are key components of the region’s economy, like other parts of southern Canada, the region brings warm or hot summers with normal thunderstorm occurrences. Some of these storms are severe, with damaging winds, hail and tornadoes all possible during peak season, the most likely areas for these kinds of weather events is within the Windsor - London corridor and north up to about Huron County. Winters are cold with snowfall in the south towards Essex County. London receives approximately 30% more snowfall than Windsor, owing to its position to Lake Huron. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of this area has a continental climate. Brant County Chatham–Kent Haldimand County Norfolk County City of Brantford City of Guelph City of London Town of St. Marys City of StSouthwestern Ontario – London, Ontario
39. Bruce County – Bruce County, located in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, is named for James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, sixth Governor General of the Province of Canada. The Bruce name is linked to the Bruce Trail and the Bruce Peninsula. The best way to describe the Bruce is geographically and it has three distinct areas all featuring unique attributes. The Peninsula is part of the Niagara Escarpment and is known for its views, rock formations, cliffs. The Lakeshore includes nearly a hundred kilometers of water and soft sandy beaches. It was originally part of the Huron District, which was constituted as the United Counties of Huron, Perth, the County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time, and was separated from the United Counties in 1853. The United Counties was dissolved in 1867, with the subsequent separation of Bruce County, the County of Bruce is governed by a council consisting of a warden and mayors of the area municipalities. County council meetings are held in the Bruce County Administration building in Walkerton, the function of the Business to Bruce Program is to support business development, business recruitment and business enhancement. Explore the Bruce, a tourism sub-brand of Bruce County, markets, explore the Bruce runs the annual Adventure Passport program. This program is a Bruce County-wide scavenger hunt that takes participants off the track in Bruce County. It takes place from May 1st until October 31st each year and families, couples, in 2015, the Adventure Passport program was presented with a Tourism Marketing Campaign Award at the Ontario Tourism Summit in TorontoBruce County – Bruce County Museum and Archives
40. Dufferin County – Dufferin County is a county and census division of the province of Ontario, Canada. The county seat is Orangeville, and the current Warden is Laura Ryan, the Current Chief Administrative Officer is Sonya Pritchard. Dufferin covers an area of 1,486.31 square kilometres, the county gets its name from Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, who was Governor General of Canada between 1872-1878. A portion of Dufferin’s economy still depends on agriculture but tourism is becoming important as the county takes a more positive role in attracting visitors. Dufferin County is the highest plateau immediately west of Georgian Bay, four rivers — Saugeen, Grand, Credit and Nottawasaga — take their rise in Dufferin or in adjacent townships and drain through the county. The county is a lofty table-land that is about 1,700 feet above sea-level, a continuation of the Caledon Mountains skirts the eastern side of the county. The highest peaks, however, are no match for the Blue Mountains north of Dufferin or the Caledon Mountains on the south, the County of Dufferin, sits on the fringe of the Greater Toronto Area, about 100 kilometres northwest of Toronto. It is largely a rural county with three urban settlement areas, namely Grand Valley, Orangeville and Shelburne, the Town of Orangeville, the county seat, is situated on the southern border of the county and is the largest urban centre, with just over half the population. Although Orangeville dominates in terms of population, in area it is very small, historic populations, Population in 2001,51,013 Population in 1996,45,657 Upper Grand District School Board operates secular Anglophone public schools. The Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board operates Anglophone Catholic public schools, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates secular Francophone schools serving the area. The Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud operates Catholic Francophone schools serving the area, Dufferin County is part of the Hills of Headwaters Tourism Association and Central Counties of Ontario, two tourism related associations. List of municipalities in Ontario List of Ontario Census Divisions List of townships in Ontario Southern Ontario Dufferin County The Changing Shape of Ontario, Map of Dufferin County in 1951Dufferin County – Location of Dufferin County
41. Elgin County – Elgin County is a county of the Canadian province of Ontario with a 2016 population of 50,069. Its largest population centres are Aylmer, Port Stanley and Belmont, the county seat is St. Thomas, which is separated from the county but within its geographic boundary. Thomas is geographically within the boundaries of Elgin County and part of the Elgin census division, originally Elgin County was once part of Suffolk County. Elgin County was organized as a county in 1851 and named after Lord Elgin. Elgin County has an area of 440,320 acres Aldborough Township 75,197 acres, in the early days it had a forest of oak, chestnut and black walnut. It was first settled in 1804, Organized in 1810 and became part of Elgin County in 1851. It was named from Bayham Abbey in Kent, England, dunwich Township 69,592 acres First settled in 1803. During the War of 1812 only twelve families lived in the township, in 1817 a company of Selkirks Highlander settled in the Township The Township is named after a town in Suffolk, England. Malahide Township 69,181 acres Organized in 1810, named for Malahide Castle in Ireland, the Township was first settled in 1810. 30,560 acres Although surveyed in 1798, it was not settled until 1826 and this township was part of Middlesex County until 1851. Southwold Township 72,898 acres Opened for settlement in 1797, named for an English town in Suffolk. Surveyed in 1792 and settled in 1810Elgin County – Location of Elgin County
42. Essex County, Ontario – Essex County is the southernmost county and census division in Canada located in Southwestern Ontario. The administrative seat is the Town of Essex, the Township of Pelee is also a separate municipality and part of the Essex Census division. Essex County is largely composed of clay-based soils, with sandy soils along the beaches and shores, for the most part, Essex County is flat farmland, with some woodlots. There is a small 30–50 foot high ridge near Kingsville and Leamington in the part of the county, and large marshland near Hillman Marsh Conservation Area. The most built-up part of the county is the city of Windsor, excluding Windsor, Leamington is the most urbanized part of the county. It has a continental climate with four distinct seasons, with cold, wet winters with considerable amounts of snow. Early spring and late summer are the likeliest time for thunderstorm development, thunderstorms often break out every five to seven days during the spring and summer. Many storms are categorized as severe, often bringing small to significant-sized hail and strong, tornadoes can be likely with certain storms. Southwestern Ontario averages the most tornadoes in Canada, temperatures usually cool by mid to late October, making way for winter. Snowfall will usually start between mid-November and late-December, Essex was one of the first counties to be settled in Upper Canada, later to become Ontario, mostly by French people in the mid-18th century. Lower down the river, lands were occupied by people known as Wyandots or Hurons, around the Mission of Bois Blanc as its centre. The Mission was eventually abandoned and re-established closer to what became Sandwich Township, when farmers first arrived, they encountered difficulty in trying to clear the extremely thick forests that covered Essex County. The farmers grew to hate the trees, and chopped them down, starved them from nourishment by cutting deep gashes in the bark, and burned them to clear the way to get to the fertile soils underneath. The fires were so intense, that the reddish glow could be seen from Fort Chicago,300 miles away, Settlement continued southward along the river and was known as Petite Côte, which was a reference to the shorter length of river frontage compared to the Detroit/American side. Names such as LaSalle and Ojibway appeared, which continue to be in use, the first road in Ontario was laid out to connect the settlements, which is now over 200 years old and is known as Former Kings Highway 18. When river frontage along the Petite Côte was occupied, settlement began to extend toward Lake St. Clair and these communities still have a large francophone population. S. A. After the American Revolution, and the War of 1812, people continued to migrate north to the area, and coming from the east from Lake Ontario, settlers began to move eastward along the north shore of Lake Erie. Land was purchased from the Indians in the half of the current county, located in the four townships formerly known as Gosfield North and SouthEssex County, Ontario – Map of Essex County
43. Frontenac County, Ontario – Frontenac County is a county and census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is located in the portion of Southern Ontario. The city of Kingston is in the Frontenac census division, but is separated from the County of Frontenac, politically, the County of Frontenac is an upper tier municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario. The management unit became a county again in 2003, County Council includes two representatives from each township. The mayor of South Frontenac receives a vote, making it an eight member. Children attend schools part of the Limestone District School Board, based in the City of Kingston, the figures below are for the Frontenac census division, which combines Frontenac County and Kingston. County of a Thousand Lakes, The History of the County of Frontenac, ross, Alec & John De Visser. Erin ON, Boston Mills Press,2009, meacham, J. H. Illustrated Historical Atlas of Frontenac, Lennox, and Addington Counties. Toronto,1878, reprint ed. Belleville, Mika,1971, Ontario, Canada Frontenac Maps, County GIS Web Mapping Directions for Our FutureFrontenac County, Ontario – Location of Frontenac County
44. Hastings County – Hastings County is located in the province of Ontario, Canada. It is The Cheese Capital of Canada, geographically, it is located on the border of Eastern Ontario and Central Ontario. Hastings County is the second largest county in Ontario, the county seat is Belleville, which is independent of Hastings County. The first boundaries of Hastings County were established 1792 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, the southern boundary was the Bay of Quinte, the eastern boundary was Lennox County and the western boundary ran from the Trent River to the Ottawa River, in a triangular shape. The County consisted of Sidney, Thurlow, Rawdon, Huntingdon, the area was named for Francis Rawdon-Hastings. Three new townships, Elzevir, Madoc and Marmora were created in 1821 and on Monday, the largest prize paid was to Captain Daniel Ostrom of Sydney at $20 and Ruliff Purdy of Sidney received the most prizes totaling $106.50. While in this time agriculture was the most important industry in Hastings County, prominent citizens of Hastings County and Ameliasburgh Township unsuccessfully petitioned the provincial government for district status during 1817,1818,1823 and 1825. Belleville was named the countys District Town, from 1839 until 1849, Hastings County was renamed Victoria District after Queen Victoria. By 1841 the district had access to local courts but no government was in place. On February 8,1842 the Victoria Districts first council met under warden William Hutton, during much of this time roads and bridges were the most important issues the council dealt with. Edward Fidlar became the first warden of Hastings County with their first meeting on January 28,1850, by this time the Hastings County Council was also interested in education and the building of the railroad. On October 27,1856 the first railroad arrived in Belleville. In August 1866, discovery of gold at Eldorado, near Madoc, according to Barnes, gold has been found in twenty-seven locations spread over nine townships. The railroads and 170 miles of gravel roads opened these areas to settlement by 1880. In 1889 the Belleville Waterworks was created as a private company, in 1911, Hastings County was the first in the province to appoint a reforestation committee, which was instrumental in passing laws around county forests. Postal service began in the area in 1913, the figures below are for the Hastings census division, which combines Hastings County, Belleville and Quinte West, along with the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Previously Hastings County Board of Education operated public schools, there are 5 EMS stations in Hastings County with Hastings-Quinte EMS HQ located in Belleville, OntarioHastings County – The northern portion of Hastings County is characterized by the rugged landscape of the Madawaska Highlands.
45. Lambton County – Lambton County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is bordered on the north by Lake Huron, which is drained by the St. Clair River, to the south is Lake Saint Clair and Chatham-Kent, another county in Ontario. Lambton Countys northeastern border follows the Ausable River and Parkhill Creek north until it reaches Lake Huron at the community of Grand Bend. The county seat is in the Town of Plympton-Wyoming, the largest city in Lambton County is Sarnia, which is located at the mouth of the St. Clair River. The two Blue Water Bridges cross the river at Sarnia, connecting it to Port Huron, Michigan, the bridges are one of the busiest border crossings between the two countries. The river is traversed by two passenger ferries further south, and a rail tunnel, also at Sarnia, runs underneath it. The CN rail tunnel accommodates double stacked rail cars, Lambton County started as a part of the District of Hesse. The district of Hesse included British territories west of Long Point, the district was later divided and renamed using English district names. Lambton was part of Kent county, in 1849 districts were abolished and the County of Lambton was formed. Lambton and Kent first shared the city of Sandwich. In 1852 the partnership was dissolved and Lambton become a full county and it is named in honour of the Earl of Durham who lived in Lambton Castle. City of Sarnia Municipality of Lambton Shores Town of Petrolia Town of Plympton–Wyoming Township of Brooke-Alvinston Township of Dawn-Euphemia Township of Enniskillen Township of St, total employment for Lambton County is 66,370. Of those,9,760 are employed in manufacturing,7,545 in retail trade,5,080 in accommodation and food services, petrochemical and refining is the largest manufacturing sector in Lambton Countys economy. Established during World War II, Sarnia and the area along the St. Clair River is home to a processing centre for oil from Alberta. Lambton County is the site of North Americas first drilled commercial oil well at Oil Springs in 1858, tourism is another important industry in Lambton County, especially along the lake and river. The part of Lambton County along Lake Huron known as Lambton Shores depends almost entirely upon the seasonal industries of tourism, Lambton County has 2,346 farms with a total of 592,793 acres. The largest single use of farmland in Lambton is crop production, over the last 20 years soybeans, wheat, and grain corn have accounted for over 80% of total area crop production in Lambton. The fourth and fifth leading crops are sugar beets and hay, oats, barley and mixed grains are also producedLambton County – An oil well near Sarnia
46. Leeds and Grenville United Counties – The United Counties were formed by the administrative union of the historical counties of Leeds and Grenville in 1850. The figures below are for the Leeds and Grenville census division, which combines the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville with Brockville, Gananoque and Prescott. Historic populations, Population in 2001,96,606 Population in 1996,96,284 Ethnic make-up,97. 3% White 1. 2% Aboriginal 1. 5% other William Buell granted the land for construction of the Courthouse. It is set atop a hill rising from the Saint Lawrence River, a broad boulevard extends to the main street. The Brockville Courthouse, one of the oldest in Ontario, was erected in 1842, the original plan had been to build a courthouse in the township of Johnstown but the land there was too swampy for construction. Instead, the Courthouse was built in the township of Elizabethtown, the figure of Justice, a blind-folded woman holding the scales of justice, was carved by master carpenter William Holmes in 1844. This statue was named Sally Grant by Paul Glasford, the chair of the building committee, however, the statue was damaged by Hurricane Hazel and by 1956, the statue was rotting. The original statue is on display at the Westport museum, a replica carved by Robert Kerr of Smiths Falls was placed atop the Courthouse in 1982. List of municipalities in Ontario List of townships in Ontario Media related to Leeds and Grenville United Counties, Ontario at Wikimedia Commons The Recorder & Times - official website BrockNews. caLeeds and Grenville United Counties – Location of Leeds and Grenville United Counties
47. Peterborough County – Peterborough County is located in Southern Ontario, Canada. The county seat is Peterborough, which is independent of the county, the southern section of the county is mix of agriculture, urban and lakefront properties. The northern section of the county is sparsely populated wilderness with numerous rivers and lakes. The County contains the Lang Pioneer Village, and the Kawarthas are a major tourist region, the county was founded as the District of Colborne in 1838, centred on Peterborough, which became the County of Peterborough in 1850. In 1862, the County was redivided into Haliburton County, Peterborough County, the centre of the County was originally the courthouse, which is still considered an important historical site. The county was named in honor of Col. Peter Robinson, the route taken was by way of Port Hope, Rice Lake and the Otonabee River, the same route used by the first settlers that entered this region in 1818. The county was divided in these townships, Asphodel Township, Area,37,871 acres Opened in 1821. Belmont and Methuen Townships, Area 81,088 acres, Opened in 1823 but by 1842 had only 33 householders, Townships were mainly rock, lake and stream. Burleigh and Anstruther Townships, Taxable area,32,160 acres, First Post Office was called Burleigh. Separated from Dummer Township in 1865, Opened n 1862 and named from one of the title of the Duke of Buckingham Douro Township, area 34,446 acres. Opened in 1821 and named in honor of one of the battles in the Peninsula, Opened in 1821 and named in honor of William Dummer Powell, Chief Justice of Upper Canada. A Colony of immigrants came in 1831, of whom 150 were sent out by the Marquis of Bath, Opened in 1829 and named in honor of William Hare, Viscount Ennismore, M. P. For Cork who died in 1827, originally it was called Emily Gore. Galway and Cavendish Townships, Assessed Area 57,218 acres, Opened in 1857 and 1862 respectively. Opened in 1821 and named after Sir John Harvey, Deputy Adjutant General in Canada during the War of 1812, was part of Smith township until 1866. First settler were retired officers who come in 1832, but did not succeed, Opened in 1820 and named from the River. The word in Indian signifies a delta, settled in October 1819 by Allen Otty. The figures below are for the Peterborough census division, which combines Peterborough County, the City of Peterborough, statistics for Peterborough County—without Peterborough and the First Nations reserves—are, Land area,3,769.29 square kilometres Population,54,870 Density,14Peterborough County – Rural scene, Peterborough County, near Lakefield, Ontario
48. United Counties of Prescott and Russell – The United Counties of Prescott and Russell are consolidated counties located in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was created as a result of a merger between Russell County and Prescott County in 1820 and it is located in Eastern Ontario. According to Statistics Canada, the county has an area of 2,004.44 square kilometres. It is crossed by the South Nation River that connects the Larose Forest, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources has designated the Alfred Bog a provincially significant wetland and an Area of Natural and Scientific Interest. Species of interest include the palm warbler, northern pitcher-plant, pink ladys-slipper, cottongrass, bog elfin and bog copper butterflies and it also hosts one of the most southerly herds of moose. The bog is open to the public with a 272-metre boardwalk for nature walks, isidore Historic populations, Population in 1996,74,013 The median income for a household in the county is $52,664 and the median income for a family is $59,817. Males have an income of $35,984 versus $25,917 for females. Prescott and Russell has a large Franco-Ontarian population, and is the most francophone census division in Canada west of Quebec. In 2011 French was the mother tongue of 64. 2% of its residents. Responsibilities of the county government include social services, county roads, paramedic / ambulance services, the County also operates the Prescott-Russell Residence, a home for the aged in Hawkesbury. There are many public libraries located in the county, the largest is the Hawkesbury Public Library, which is located in Hawkesbury. There are two hospitals in Prescott-Russell, Hawkesbury and District General Hospital, in Hawkesbury, and the Glengarry Memorial Hospital, also, there is a medevac helicopter, in Ottawa, Ontario. The two hospitals have seen an increase in wait times due to an influx of patient from Quebec, the Government of Quebec has stalled efforts to build a second hospital in Western Quebec and it is not known when funding will be made available. Casselman, and The Nation Municipality, the communities being served, Rockland is also served by a commuter bus line operated by Leduc Bus Lines which offers 10-12 trips from the village to downtown Ottawa and Gatineau during rush-hour. The county is policed by the Ontario Provincial Police, there are two main police stations in Prescott and Russell, one in Embrun and one in Hawkesbury. In addition, there is a station in Rockland that acts as a satellite to the one in Embrun. OPP is charged of patrolling Highway 417United Counties of Prescott and Russell – County Court in L'Orignal
49. Renfrew County – Renfrew is a county in the Canadian province of Ontario. There are 17 municipalities in the county, the seat of county government is in Pembroke, a city that is politically independent of the county. In 2006, the county – along with Pembroke – was represented at the Canadian House of Commons as part of the riding of Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke, Renfrew County is known for its lakeside cottages and white-water rafting along the Ottawa River, and has more than 900 lakes. It is located in the subregion of Southern Ontario named Eastern Ontario, Renfrew County is also the largest county in terms of area in Ontario, ahead of Hastings County. At Wilno, Ontario Canadas Kashubian community celebrates their heritage, the county is home to CFB Petawawa and gives its name to The Lanark and Renfrew Scottish RegimentRenfrew County – The administration building of the county government
50. United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry – However, both Cornwall and Akwesasne form part of a larger census division named for the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. The municipalitys administrative office is located within Cornwall, the united counties border Quebec to the east and New York in the United States to the south. The sovereign Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne straddles both borders, thus including territory partly within the counties, Quebec and New York. The area along the Saint Lawrence River had been settled by indigenous peoples for thousands of years, about 2,000 years ago, the Point Peninsula Complex people built earthen mounds, such as those at Serpent Mounds Park and Camerons Point. They were gradually replaced about 1000–1300 CE by the Owasco people and they practiced a more settled form of agriculture. These people are believed to have developed into the Iroquoian-speaking people and they spoke Laurentian, practiced agriculture, and built fortified villages, such as those visited and described by explorer Jacques Cartier. They were a distinct from the Iroquois Five Nations based in present-day New York. Historians believe the Mohawk Iroquois pushed out or destroyed the St. Lawrence Iroquoians by 1600, in the 17th and early 18th century, some settled at Kahnawake, south of Montreal. Some 30 families of converted Mohawk who had lived at Kahnawake founded Akwesasne upriver in the late 1750s and it is now the largest Mohawk territory in Canada, with a population of about 12,000 people. The united counties comprises six of the original eight Royal Townships of Upper Canada, Lancaster, Charlottenburgh, Cornwall, Osnabruck, Williamsburgh and these six townships were divided into 12 a few years after their creation. The three counties were amalgamated to form the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. Ten communities in Cornwall and Osnabruck, known collectively as The Lost Villages, were abandoned, one community each in Williamsburgh and Matilda were relocated to higher ground. The 12 townships were amalgamated back into six, although along different boundaries from the original Royal Townships, with a land area of 3,247.32 km2, it had a population density of 20. 0/km2 in 2011. As a census division, the counties had a population of 111,164 living in 46,015 of its 48,290 total dwellings in 2011. With a land area of 3,308.84 km2 and these population and dwelling figures exclude those from the portion of the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne within the united counties as permission was not given to enumerate the Indian reserve in 2011. The head of Council is elected annually by election from Councils members. Eric Duncan, the Mayor of North Dundas, is the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas, most of the united counties, with the exception of North Glengarry, constitutes the federal and provincial electoral district of Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry. North Glengarry is part of the district of Glengarry—Prescott—RussellUnited Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry – Plaque to the SDG Highlanders heroes at ‘‘Juno Beach, Calvados, Normandy, France.
51. Districts – A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as districts vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, in Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are almost 400 districts in the country, electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were also used in several states as cadastral units for land titles, some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century, in Austria, a district is an administrative division normally encompassing several municipalities, roughly equivalent to the Landkreis in Germany. The administrative office of a district, the Bezirkshauptmannschaft, is headed by a Bezirkshauptmann, while there are matters of administrative law the municipalities themselves are in charge of, or where there are special bodies, the district is the basic unit of general administration in Austria. Officials on the level are not elected, but appointed by the state government. There are also independent cities in Austria and they are called Statutarstadt in Austrian administrative law. These urban districts do have the same tasks as a normal district, the State of Vienna, which is at the same time a municipality, is also subdivided in twenty-three districts, which, however, have a somewhat different function than in the rest of the country. Legally, the Magistratisches Bezirksamt is an office of the municipalitys administration. However, representatives on the level are elected, and they in turn elect the head of the district. Those representative bodies are supposed to serve as immediate contacts for the locals on the political, in practice, they have some power, e. g. concerning matters of traffic. Bangladeshi districts are administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh, originally, there were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts, each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali. In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts. The Belgian arrondissements, a level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewogDistricts – Satellite photograph of the District of Columbia.
52. Algoma District – Algoma District is a district and census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. The district seat has been Sault Ste, as the population grew and the northern and northwestern boundaries of Ontario were determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Algoma shrank. They rented a boxcar from the Algoma Central Railway to travel on excursions through this region, communities within these subdivisions are added in parentheses. Eastern white pine and occasional red pine dominate on the upper, steep south-facing slopes, white spruce, eastern white cedar, and balsam fir occupy the middle and lower slopes. A white spruce–balsam fir association, which includes white birch and black spruce, is prominent on the river terraces. Algoma Central Railway - Agawa Canyon Algoma University Fire Tower Lookout Fort St. Joseph National Historic Site High Falls of the Michipicoten River Mount Dufour Ski Resort Sault Ste, list of townships in Ontario Algoma Districts Historic Bridges Ontarios Algoma CountryAlgoma District – Location of Algoma District in Ontario
53. Parry Sound District – Parry Sound District is a census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. In 2011, the population was 42,162, the land area is 9,322.80 square kilometres, the population density was 4.5 per square kilometre. Although geographically in Southern Ontario, the Ontario and federal governments consider it part of Northern Ontario, in lieu of an upper tier of municipal administration, all government services in the district are provided either by the local municipalities or by the provincial government itself. Some communities which are not part of any incorporated municipality are served by local services boards, the district is also included in the service areas of FedNor and the Northern Ontario Heritage Fund. Accordingly, in most contexts the division is grouped with the Northern Ontario region instead of Southern Ontario, along with the neighbouring Muskoka and Haliburton regions, the Parry Sound District is considered part of Ontarios cottage country region. The district is divided into two subregions, West Parry Sound and East Parry Sound, the latter often referred to as the Almaguin Highlands. The headquarters for the district were housed in the town of Parry Sound and it was the central location for 21 fire tower lookouts, including the Parry Sound fire tower, which was erected in the same location as the modern lookout tower at 17 George Street. When a fire was spotted in the forest a towerman would get the degree bearings from his respective tower and this way a team of forest firefighters could be dispatched as soon as possible to get the fire under control. In 1969 there remained only 4 actively manned towers, Ardbeg, Go Home, Stormy Lake and these would all be phased out shortly after when aerial fire fighting techniques were employed in the 1970sParry Sound District – Location of Parry Sound District in Ontario
54. Sudbury District – The Sudbury District is a district in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was created in 1894 from townships of eastern Algoma District, the overwhelming majority of the district is unincorporated and part of Unorganized North Sudbury District. With the exception of Chapleau, all of the districts incorporated municipalities are found in the immediately surrounding the city of Greater Sudbury to the west, east. North of the Greater Sudbury area, the district is sparsely populated, politically, however, the district and the city are considered two distinct census divisions and two distinct jurisdictions for provincial government services. With the city included, the district would have had a population of 181,572 in the 2011 census, espanola French River Markstay-Warren St. Therefore, the table above does not include the data for the City of Greater Sudbury. The Ontario government is converting Highway 69 to a freeway, construction, and renumbering as Highway 400, are expected to be complete by 2021. The Sudbury District also has a number of provincial highways. They are important connections to the communities they serve, but are not significant routes for through trafficSudbury District – Location of Sudbury District in Ontario
55. Thunder Bay District – Thunder Bay District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. The district seat is Thunder Bay, in 2011, the population was 146,057. The land area is 103,719.51 square kilometres, most of the district is unincorporated and part of the Unorganized Thunder Bay District. Thunder Bay District was created in 1871 by provincial statute from the half of Algoma District. Its northern and western boundaries were uncertain until Ontarios right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, until about 1902 it was often called Algoma West from the name of the provincial constituency established in 1885. Historic populations, Population in 2001,150,860 Population in 1996,157,619 Arthur, Thunder Bay District, 1821-1892, A Collection of Documents. List of Ontario Census Divisions List of townships in OntarioThunder Bay District – The eponymous Thunder Bay
56. Timiskaming District – Timiskaming is a district and census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. The district was created in 1912 from parts of Algoma, Nipissing, in 1921, Cochrane District was created from parts of this district and parts of Thunder Bay District. The division had a population of 32,634 in the Canada 2011 Census, the land area is 13,299.92 square kilometres, the population density was 2.5 per square kilometre. The Coureur de bois explored and traded fur in what is now the Timiskaming District, along with portions of the neighbouring district, Cochrane, Timiskaming is represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario by John Vanthof. In the House of Commons of Canada, the district is divided between Nipissing—Timiskaming, represented by Anthony Rota, in the south, and Timmins—James Bay, represented by Charlie Angus, a very small portion of the district also belongs to the riding of Nickel Belt. List of townships in Ontario Tembrella. com Ontario Highway 11 Homepage - Timiskaming District Map of historic geographic townships in Timiskaming District Timiskaming Community Health NetworkTimiskaming District – Location of Timiskaming District in Ontario
57. Regional Municipality of Halton – The Regional Municipality of Halton, or Halton Region, is a regional municipality of Ontario, Canada, located in Southern Ontario in the southwest part of the Greater Toronto Area. It comprises the city of Burlington and the towns of Oakville, Milton, the regional councils headquarters are located in Oakville. The Town of Oakville and the City of Burlington are largely urban, Halton has been ranked by Macleans national crime ranking report as being the safest place to live in the Greater Toronto Area, and one of the top five in Canada. Halton Region experienced a growth rate of 17. 1% between 2001 and 2006, and 14. 2% between 2006 and 2011, giving it one of the highest growth rates in the country. Despite the unprecedented growth in development, agriculture and protected lands along the Niagara Escarpment are still the predominant land uses in the Region. The Regional Municipality of Halton was established on 1 January 1974 as the successor to the former Halton County by the Regional Municipality of Halton Act,1973, from 1 January 2003, it has been governed by the Municipal Act,2001. Until the 2000 municipal elections, the Chairman of the Regional Council had been appointed by the Ontario government, from that date, it has been an elective position. Joyce Savoline was the last appointed Chairman, and was elected and reelected as Chairman until her retirement from the position in 2006, the current Regional Chairman is Gary Carr. The Council consists of the elected Chairman, the mayors of the local municipalities, and regional councillors elected by wards from the local municipalitiesRegional Municipality of Halton – Rattlesnake Point, near Milton, Ontario.
58. District Municipality of Muskoka – The District Municipality of Muskoka, more generally referred to as the District of Muskoka or Muskoka, is a regional municipality located in Central Ontario, Canada. Muskoka extends from Georgian Bay in the west, to the tip of Lake Couchiching in the south. Located approximately a two-hour car drive north of Toronto, Muskoka spans 6,475 km2, Muskoka has some 1,600 lakes, making it a popular cottaging destination. This region, which, along with Haliburton, Kawartha Lakes, Muskoka is a scenic area sprinkled with picturesque villages and towns, farming communities, and lakeside vacation hotels and resorts near to golf courses, country clubs, and marinas. The regional government seat is Bracebridge and the largest population centre is Huntsville, the name of the municipality derives from a First Nations chief of the 1850s. Lake Muskoka was then the grounds of a band led by Chief Yellowhead or Mesqua Ukie. He was revered by the government, who built a home for him in Orillia where he lived until his death at the age of 95. Muskoka has 60,000 permanent residents, but an additional 100,000 seasonal property owners spend their summers in the every year. Many of the properties are large mansion-like summer estates, some of which have been passed down through families from generation to generation. Most of these properties can be found along the shores of Muskokas three major lakes, Lake Muskoka, Lake Rosseau, and Lake Joseph. The Muskoka region was ranked #1 for best trips of 2011 by National Geographic, also was among the best trips of 2012 by National Geographic. The soap opera Paradise Falls, about a fictitious cottage community, was partly on location here. Many summer camps are located in the region, to advantage of the lakes, which offer opportunities for canoeing, sailing, windsurfing, kayaking, waterskiing. The area provides a refuge from hot cities during the summer months, there are six municipalities in Muskoka, the towns of Bracebridge, Gravenhurst, and Huntsville, and the townships of Georgian Bay, Lake of Bays, and Muskoka Lakes. The Wahta Mohawk Territory and Moose Point 79 are also in the district, the animated TV show Total Drama Island was said to take place in an unspecified area in Muskoka, which aired on Teletoon. Geography drove history in the Muskoka region, studded with lakes and rocks, the good land offered an abundance of fishing, hunting, and trapping, but was poorly suited to farming. Largely the land of the Ojibwa people, European inhabitants ignored it while settling what they thought were the more promising area south of the Severn River. The Ojibwa leader associated with the area was Mesqua Ukie, for whom the land is believed named, the tribe lived south of the region, near present-day OrilliaDistrict Municipality of Muskoka – Peninsula Lake, near Huntsville in Muskoka
59. Regional Municipality of Niagara – The Regional Municipality of Niagara, also known as the Niagara Region, or colloquially Regional Niagara, is a regional municipality comprising twelve municipalities of Southern Ontario, Canada. The regional seat is in Thorold, the region occupies most of the Niagara Peninsula. Its eastern boundary is the Niagara River, which is also the border with the United States and it is bounded on the north by Lake Ontario and on the south by Lake Erie. Unique natural landscapes make the Niagara Region an important centre for agriculture, the most important agricultural enterprise in Niagara is viticulture, or winemaking. The Niagara Wine Route, which visitors to dozens of wineries, is a growing tourism draw while the internationally renowned Niagara Falls is one of Canadas major tourist attractions. Along with Shaw Festival, held annually in Niagara-on-the-Lake, and the Welland Canal, the Regional Municipality of Niagara receives up to 12 million visitors each yearRegional Municipality of Niagara – Location of Niagara within Ontario
60. Oxford County, Ontario – Oxford County is a regional municipality of the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Southwestern portion of the province. The regional seat is in Woodstock, Oxford County has functioned as a regional municipality since 2001, despite still containing the word county in its official title. It comprises a single Statistics Canada census division, four years later it became the Western District with the establishment of Norfolk County which included the territory of present-day Oxford County. In 1793, Abraham Canfield a United Empire Loyalist from Connecticut, in 1798, these lands were included into a new London District. The boundaries of Oxford county for most of its existence were established in 1850 with the implementation of the Baldwin Act, in 1855, Norwich Township in the countys southeast was divided into North and South townships to accommodate significant population levels in that area. Except for this adjustment, the boundaries within the county remained intact until the late 20th century. On 1 January 1975, major revisions to Oxford Countys structure took effect when the townships were reduced to the current five under an amalgamation, three urban municipalities also remained, namely Ingersoll, Tillsonburg and Woodstock. Todays county boundaries also show slight adjustments to include the areas of Tavistock in the north. Recently many townships opted to remove OCPS from service and now relies upon the OPP, OCPS has become the Woodstock Police Service and now only serves inside Woostock city limitsOxford County, Ontario – Old Order Mennonite Resident of Oxford County
61. Regional Municipality of Waterloo – The Regional Municipality of Waterloo is a regional municipality located in Southern Ontario, Canada. It consists of the cities of Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge, and the townships of Wellesley, Woolwich, Wilmot and it is often referred to as the Region of Waterloo or Waterloo Region. The region is 1,369 square kilometres in size and its seat of government is in Kitchener. The Regions population was 535,154 at the 2016 census, the Region was preceded by Waterloo County, Ontario, created in 1853 and dissolved in 1973. That entity consisted of five townships, Woolwich, Wellesley, Wilmot, Waterloo, during the 16th and 17th centuries, the area was inhabited by the Iroquoian speaking Attawandaron nation. After the invasion of the Six Nations into the Grand River Valley, any dispersed survivors were taken captive or escaped to other tribes such as the Mississaugas and were assimilated into that culture. There are no distinct Attawandarons today, the Iroquois settled in the lower Grand River Valley, and sold parts of the land which was part of Waterloo Township to Colonel Richard Beasley, a United Empire Loyalist. Another developer was William Dickson who, in 1816, came into possession of 90,000 acres of land along the Grand River that was later to make up North and South Dumfries Townships. William Dickson of Niagara purchased land in the township of North Dumfries and South Dumfries which would become much of what is now Cambridge, Ontario. It was Dicksons intention to divide the land into lots that would be sold primarily to the Scottish settlers that he hoped to attract to Canada. They chose the site where Mill Creek flows into the Grand River, the new settlement grew slowly but by 1825, though still very small, was the largest settlement in the area and was important enough to obtain a post office. Dickson decided that a new name was needed for the Post Office and consequently the settlement and he chose Galt in honour of the Scottish novelist and Commissioner of the Canada Company, the settlers resisted the introduction of the new name preferring the more familiar Shades Mills. However, after Galt visited Dickson in the settlement in 1827 the name Galt received more widespread acceptance, in its early days Galt was an agricultural community serving the needs of the farmers in the surrounding countryside. By the late 1830s, however, the settlement began to develop an industrial capacity, Galt was the largest and most important town in the area until the beginning of the 20th century when it was finally overtaken by Kitchener. Settlement of the what became the Township of Waterloo and later, Waterloo County, Ontario, among the first settlers, Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. Mennonites, arrived from Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Other settlers followed mostly from Pennsylvania typically by Conestoga wagons, the early group purchased land from Richard Beasley who had acquired it from the Six Nations. The first school was begun in 1802 near the village of Blair, the tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least 400 acres in size. The majority of the settlers before about 1830 were Mennonites from Pennsylvania and they were often called Pennsylvania Dutch although they were actually Deutsch, GermanRegional Municipality of Waterloo – Region of Waterloo Headquarters in Kitchener
62. Regional Municipality of York – The Regional Municipality of York, also called York Region, is a regional municipality in Southern Ontario, Canada, between Lake Simcoe and Toronto. It replaced the former York County in 1971, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area, the regional government is headquartered in Newmarket. The 2011 census population was 1,032,524, surpassing the mark of one million. At the Canada 2011 Census,53,989 residents inhabited rural areas in the municipality,67,551 resided in urban areas. Its growth rate of 15. 7% from 2006 to 2011 was the sixth highest amongst all census divisions in Canada, and the Government of Ontario expects its population to surpass 1.5 million residents by 2031. At a meeting in Richmond Hill on 6 May 1970, officials representing the municipalities of York County approved plans for the creation of a government entity to replace York County. The plan had been presented in 1969 by Darcy McKeough, the Ontario Minister of Municipal Affairs, the Regional Municipality of York was created by Act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1970, which took effect on January 1,1971. The eastern boundary of the new town of Markham was defined to be at Yonge Street, the townships of Georgina, North Gwillimbury, and Sutton were merged into the township of Georgina, and the East Gwillimbury neighbourhood of East Gwillimbury Heights was merged into Newmarket. The boundary between Aurora and Newmarket was defined to be St. Johns Sideroad, and Newmarkets northern boundary was defined to be Green Lane. The growth centres were each restricted to grow to a population of 25,000 by 2000. The municipal realignment merged 40% of East Gwillimburys population into Newmarket, the council of East Gwillimbury voted to amalgamate with Newmarket, but Newmarket council opposed the amalgamation. In the plan presented by McKeough, the councils of the towns of Newmarket, the internal municipal realignments resulted in some politicians residing in a new municipality from that which they represented at the time of realignment. York Region covers 1,762 square kilometres from Lake Simcoe in the north to the city of Toronto in the south and its eastern border is shared with Durham Region, to the west is Peel Region, and Simcoe County is to the northwest. A detailed map of the region showing its major roads, communities, York Regions landscape includes farmlands, wetlands and kettle lakes, the Oak Ridges Moraine and over 2,070 hectares of regional forest, in addition to the built-up areas of its municipalities. York Region is situated on a continental climate with warm summers. The region is governed by a known as York Regional Council. Wayne Emmerson, a mayor of Whitchurch-Stouffville, was elected to this office in December,2014. In October 2008, the York Regional Municipality was named one of Greater Torontos Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc, the economy of York Region is diverseRegional Municipality of York – The York Region Administrative Centre in Newmarket
63. County of Brant – For the provincial electoral district known as Brant County, see Brant. The County of Brant is a municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario. Despite its name, it is no longer a county by definition, the county has service offices in Burford, Paris and St. George. It is a rural municipality in Southern Ontario. The largest population centre is Paris, the County is bordered by the Region of Waterloo, the City of Hamilton, Haldimand County, Norfolk County, and Oxford County. The city of Brantford is independent of the County and has its own municipal government, the Brant census division, which includes Brantford and the Six Nations and New Credit reserves, along with the County of Brant, had a population of 134,808 in the 2016 census. In addition to Brantford, population centres in Brant are Paris, St. George, the area had previously been part of Wentworth & Oxford County. Brant County was formed in 1851 and originally consisted of, Brantford Township, the township was organized in 1840. First of the townships to have settlers. Surveyed in 1793, four families settled on the land before 1800, originally called the Townsend Gore, then the Burford Gore, but organized a separate municipality in 1850. The formal surrender of the township by the Indians did not take place until 1839, south Dumfries Township, Area 46,265 acres. In 1999, the county was reorganized and all its individual municipalities, as of December 31,1998, all of the original townships were still intact, except for the incorporation of the Town of Paris. Erected by the provincial and federal governments, historic plaques and monuments in Brant County indicate a long, the famed Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant and the Mohawk people of New York state served with the British during the American Revolution. In 1784, the Crown granted Joseph Brant and his followers a land treaty along the Grand River to replace what they had lost in New York State at the Sandusky Council after the Revolution. As chief of the tribes, Brant led his people to Upper Canada. Nearly a century later, the Joseph Brant Memorial would be erected in Burlington, Ontario in honour of Brant, in 1904 the chapel received Royal status by King Edward VII in memory of the longstanding alliance. Her Majestys Royal Chapel of the Mohawks is an important reminder of the agreements made with Queen Anne in 1710. It is still in use today as one of two royal Chapels in Canada and the oldest Protestant Church in the province, Joseph Brant and his son John Brant are buried hereCounty of Brant – Paris, Ontario
64. Brantford – Brantford is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada, founded on the Grand River. It is the seat of Brant County, but it is politically separate with a government independent of the county, Brantford is sometimes known as the Telephone City, former city resident Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone at his fathers home, the Bell Homestead. In 1876 he conducted the first long-distance telephone call, making it from Brantford to Paris, Brantford is also the birthplace of hockey player Wayne Gretzky, comedian Phil Hartman, as well as Group of Seven member Lawren Harris. Brantford is named after Joseph Brant, an important Mohawk chief during the American Revolutionary War and later, many of his and other First Nations citizens live on the neighbouring reserve of Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, the most populous reserve in Canada. This town, like the rest of their settlements, was destroyed when the Iroquois declared war in 1650 over the fur trade, in 1784, Captain Joseph Brant and the Six Nations Indians of the Iroquois Confederacy left New York State for Canada. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a land grant, referred to as the Haldimand Tract. The original Mohawk settlement was on the edge of the present-day city at a location favourable for landing canoes. Brants crossing of the river gave the name to the area. By 1847, European settlers began to further up the river at a ford in the Grand River. The Mohawk Chapel, built in the original Mohawk settlement, is Ontarios oldest Protestant church, Brantford was incorporated as a city in 1877. The history of the Brantford region from 1793 to 1920 is described at length in the book At The Forks of The Grand, decades later and particularly since the late 20th century, numerous scholarly and artistic works have explored the detrimental effects of the schools in destroying Native cultures. Healing the Legacy of the Residential Schools, a number of historic monuments have been erected within the city marking those events and Brantfords contributions to the Commonwealths defense of the realm. Her Majestys Royal Chapel of the Mohawks is located in Brantford and is an important reminder of the agreements made with Queen Anne in 1710. After the American Revolution, in 1784, Sir Frederick Haldimond granted the Six Nations their land treaty which was six miles on side of the river from the mouth to the source. Joseph Brant led a group of Six Nations members to new settlement called the Mohawk Village, the Mohawk Chapel was built in 1785 as a reminder of the original agreements made with the British. In 1904 the Mohawk Chapel received Royal status for the alliance between the British and Six Nations. He developed early improvements to it in 1876, as part of the invention and development of the telephone, Canadas first telephone factory was built here, and the city was called Brantford, The Telephone City. These buildings constituted one of the longest blocks of pre-Confederation architecture in Canada, included in the list of demolitions were one of Ontarios first grocery stores and an early 1890s office of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada, now Bell CanadaBrantford – Brantford
65. Chatham-Kent – Chatham-Kent is a single-tier municipality in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Mostly rural, its population centres are Chatham, Wallaceburg, Tilbury, Blenheim, Ridgetown, Wheatley, the current Municipality of Chatham-Kent was created in 1998 by the merger of Kent County and its municipalities. The former city of Chatham began as a dockyard in the 1790s. The town was named after the Earl of Chatham, William Pitt and it was built as a naval dockyard, a characteristic shared by Chatham, Kent, England. In England, the name Chatham came from the British root ceto, following the American Revolution and the Gnadenhutten Massacre, a group of Christian Munsee Indians settled in what is now Moraviantown. In the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames took place between Moraviantown and Thamesville on October 5,1813, during the 19th century, the area was part of the Underground Railroad. As a result, Chatham-Kent is now part of the African-Canadian Heritage Tour, uncle Toms Cabin Historic Site is a museum of the Dawn Settlement, established in 1841 by Josiah Henson near Dresden as refuge for the many slaves who escaped to Canada from the United States. John Brown, the abolitionist, planned his raid on the Harpers Ferry Virginia Arsenal in Chatham, the small village of North Buxton, part of the African Canadian Heritage Tour, also played an important role in the Underground Railroad. Kent County consisted of the townships of Camden, Chatham, Dover, Harwich, Howard, Orford, Raleigh, Romney, Tilbury East, in 1998 the County of Kent and the city of Chatham were amalgamated to form the Municipality of Chatham–Kent. Since then, bus service has begun to serve all of Chatham-Kent, starting in 2007, routes were set up to include the former towns of Wallaceburg and Dresden. Before 1998, each town had their own fire department and it then became the Chatham-Kent Fire Department upon amalgamation. The county also had separate police departments until 1998, the city of Chatham, as well as the towns of Wallaceburg, Dresden, and Tilbury, each had their own departments. The Chatham-Kent Police Service was formed on September 1,1998, Chatham Kent has many historic festivals throughout the year such as the Battle of Longwoods reenactment, which takes place on Labour Day weekend at Fairfield Museum on Longwoods road. Chatham Kent is also home to historic buildings which are part of an annual ghost tour offered each year at Halloween. The participants go on a walk of downtown while the guide informs them of various ghost stories tied to the local buildings in which they pass. Chatham Kent was a part of the Underground Railroad and as such hosts the Buxton Homecoming each September. This celebrates the black culture and the roots laid by early black settlers in the Buxton area. At 2,458 square kilometres, Chatham-Kent is the 12th largest municipality by area in Canada, over 44,000 of the 107,000 residents live in the former City of ChathamChatham-Kent – Thames River in Chatham
66. Hamilton, Ontario – Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Residents of the old city are known as Hamiltonians, since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario. Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 94th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2015-16 and has a well-known medical school. Possibly because of its environment, numerous TV and film productions have been filmed in Hamilton, regulated by the Hamilton Film. A growing arts and culture community garnered media attention in 2006 when the Globe and Mail published an article called Go West, the article highlighted local art galleries, recording studios and independent film production. In pre-colonial times, the Neutral Indians used much of the land but were driven out by the Five Nations who were allied with the British against the Huron. A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road, which originally included King Street in the lower city. In 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists settled in Upper Canada, chiefly in Niagara, around the Bay of Quinte, and along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and Montreal. They were soon followed by many more Americans, some of not so much ardent loyalists but attracted nonetheless by the availability of inexpensive. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois loyal to Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario. The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton, when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand, nathaniel Hughson, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamiltons property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site, Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which later became the site of the town. As he had instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York during a session of the Legislative Assembly. Initially, this town was not the most important centre of the Gore District, a permanent jail was not constructed until 1832 when a cut-stone design was completed on one of the two squares created in 1816, Princes Square. Subsequently, the first police board and the limits were defined by statute on February 13,1833. Official City status was achieved on June 9,1846, by an act of Parliament,9 Victoria Chapter 73, the city had several interurban electric street railways and two inclines, all powered by the Cataract Power Co. Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, allan Skyway in 1958, and the first Tim Hortons store in 1964. Since then, many of the industries have moved or shut down operations and the economy has shifted more toward the service sector, such as transportation, educationHamilton, Ontario – Counter Clockwise from the Top: View of Downtown Hamilton from Sam Lawrence Park, Hamilton City Hall, Bayfront Park Harbour Front Trail, Historic Art Deco and Gothic Revival Pigott Building complex, Webster's Falls, Dundurn Castle
67. Belleville, Ontario – Belleville is a city located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in Southern Ontario, Canada, along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. It is the seat of Hastings County, but politically independent of it and it was renamed Belleville in honour of Lady Arabella Gore in 1816, after a visit to the settlement by Sir Francis Gore and his wife. Belleville became an important railway junction with the completion of the Grand Trunk Railway in 1855, in 1858 the iron bridge over the Moira River at Bridge Street became the first iron bridge in Hastings County. Bellevilles beautiful High Victorian Gothic city hall was built in 1872 to house the public market, the City Hall tower stands some 185 feet above street level. The Dixie Lee Fried Chicken chain and the Journeys End Corporation economy limited service hotel chain were both founded in the city, in 1998, the city was amalgamated with the surrounding Township of Thurlow to form an expanded City of Belleville as part of Ontario-wide municipal restructuring. The city also annexed portions of Quinte West to the west, Belleville is located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario between the cities of Quinte West to the west and Napanee to the east. Belleville is located in a zone which may be considered part of the Central Ontario or Eastern Ontario regions by different sources. Bellevilles climate has four distinct seasons, the Citys traditional continental climate is moderated by its location near Lake Ontario. The lake moderates temperature extremes, cooling hot summer days and warming cold days during the fall, as such, winter snowfall is somewhat limited due to the increased frequency of precipitation falling as rain during the winter months. In the summer months, severe thunderstorm activity is limited because of the non-favourable lake breeze conditions. The city, being located on the shore of Lake Ontario, is also in an unfavourable location for lake effect snow. One notable exception however, was in December 2010 when 14 cm of snow occurred in one day as a result of a band from Lake Ontario. The summer months do not typically experience exceedingly hot temperatures, however humidity levels can make daytime highs uncomfortable, summer rainfall is usually modest, and delivered by passing thunderstorms or warm fronts. Remnants of tropical systems do pass through on occasion towards summers end, the winter season is highly variable, with the record setting winter of 2007-08 experiencing near 270 cm of snow. Four years later, the winter of 2011-12 experienced only 60 cm of snow, winter temperatures are also highly variable, even in one season. Air masses change frequently, and while a few days may see above freezing temperatures at a time in January, autumn is usually mild, with an increase in precipitation starting in late September as conditions for fall storms develop. Recent years have had a tendency to bring almost snow free Novembers to the region, the highest temperature ever recorded in Belleville was 104 °F on 9 July 1936. The coldest temperature recorded was −39 °F on 9 February 1934Belleville, Ontario – Belleville skyline
68. Brockville – Brockville, formerly Elizabethtown, is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada in the Thousand Islands region. Although it is the seat of the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville and it is included with Leeds and Grenville for census purposes only. It is located 115 kilometres south of the capital of Ottawa. It is one of Ontarios oldest European-Canadian communities and is named after the British general Sir Isaac Brock, indigenous peoples lived along both sides of the St. Lawrence River for thousands of years. While the explorer Cartier recorded about 200 words in their Laurentian language, anthropologists believe they may have been driven out or defeated by the powerful Mohawk people of the Iroquois Confederacy, who by then reserved the St. Lawrence Valley as a hunting ground. This area of Ontario was first settled by English speakers in 1785 and they were later called United Empire Loyalists because of their continued allegiance to King George III. The struggle between Britain and the 13 American colonies occurred in the years 1776 to 1783, and seriously divided loyalties among people in some such as New York. In many areas traders and merchants, especially in the cities or the northern border regions, had stronger business ties. Many Loyalists chose to flee north to the British colony of Quebec, the first years were very harsh as they struggled on the frontier. Some exiles returned to the United States, the St. Lawrence River was named by French explorers in the 18th century to honour the martyred Roman Christian, Saint Laurentis. Loyalist to take up land in Brockville was William Buell Sr. an ensign disbanded from the Kings Rangers, residents commonly called the first settlement Buells Bay. Around 1810 government officials of Upper Canada designated the village as Elizabethtown, about 1812 leading residents of the village suggested that the village be renamed to differentiate it from the township of Elizabethtown. The commanding British General in Upper Canada and temporary administrator of the province was Major-General Isaac Brock and he was celebrated as the Hero and Saviour of Upper Canada because of his recent success in securing the surrender by Americans of Fort Detroit during the War of 1812. Perhaps to curry favour with Gen. Brock, certain leading citizens of the village, including Charles Jones and they began using this name in their correspondence and dealings with Isaac Brock. Gen. Brock was soon involved in battles on the Niagara Peninsula. On October 13,1812, he was wounded while leading troops up the heights near the village of Queenston. General Brock had learned of the honour being offered by the residents of Elizabethtown, provincial officials accepted the new name, which was soon commonly used by residents and visitors. In 1830 the population of Brockville exceeded the 1000 mark and this entitled it to be represented by its own elected member in the House of AssemblyBrockville – Statue of General Isaac Brock outside the courthouse in Downtown Brockville.
69. Gananoque, Ontario – Gananoque is a town in the Leeds and Grenville area of Ontario, Canada. The Gananoque River flows through the town and the St. Lawrence River serves as the boundary of the town. The towns name is a name which means town on two rivers. The towns name rhymes with the place name Cataraqui, which appears in the Cataraqui River, the Little Cataraqui Creek, one way to remember its pronunciation is The right way, the wrong way, and the Gananoque. In eastern Ontario speech, the name is often abbreviated to Gan. Colonel Joel Stone, who served with Loyalist militia during the American Revolutionary War, land was granted to Col. Stone for use as a mill site. During the War of 1812, American forces raided the government depot in the town to disrupt the flow of British supplies between Kingston and Montreal, the stores seized consisted of half an ox, a few straw ticks, and a few blankets. The raiders seized the supplies they found and burned the depot, mrs. Stone reportedly protected her jewels from the invaders by hiding them in the flour at the mill. Within a month of the construction of the Gananoque Blockhouse was started. It had an octagonal log parapet containing five guns, the blockhouse was abandoned after the War of 1812 and given to a private landowner. Gananoque lies directly on three of Canadas busiest transportation routes, the four-lane Highway 401, the double-track Canadian National Railway main line, and it is also home to a rich provincial highway heritage, being home to the remaining stretch of Highway 2. It is the terminus of the Thousand Islands Parkway, and a short drive from the Thousand Islands Bridge. Gananoque is served by the Gananoque Airport for general aviation, in 1830, water was diverted near Newboro to the Cataraqui River as part of the Rideau Canal, sending this traffic instead to Kingston. A four-mile short line railroad once linked the main CN Rail tracks to the heart of the village, the Thousand Islands Railway terminated near the town hall. The current Chief of Police is Garry E. Harry W. Gananoque is referred to as the Gateway to the Thousand Islands, which lie next to it in the St. Lawrence River. The theatre company in Gananoque is The Thousand Islands Playhouse which operates two theatre spaces, The Springer Theatre, and the Firehall Theatre, attracting international attention since 1982. Town of Gananoque Town of Gananoque community web portal Ontarios Official Ultimate Fishing Town 1000 Islands Heritage Museum InGananoque OurGananoque, Mobile Friendly Business DirectoryGananoque, Ontario – King Street, the main road in Gananoque
70. London, Ontario – London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city has a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census, London is at the confluence of the Thames River, approximately halfway between Toronto, Ontario and Detroit, Michigan. The City of London is a municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County. London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, the first European settlement was between 1801 and 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855, since then, London has grown to be the largest Southwestern Ontario municipality and Canadas 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it. London is a centre of health care and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario, Fanshawe College. Londons university and hospitals are among its top ten employers, London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto, Windsor, and Sarnia. It also has an airport, train and bus station. Prior to European contact in the 18th century, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral, Odawa, archaeological investigations in the region indicate that aboriginal people have resided in the area for at least the past 10,000 years. The current location of London was selected as the site of the capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. Simcoe intended to name the settlement Georgina, in honour of King George III, however, the choice of a capital site in the midst of extensive hardwood forests was rejected by Guy Carleton. In 1814, there was a skirmish during the War of 1812 in what is now southwest London at Reservoir Hill, the village of London, named after the English capital of London, was not founded until 1826, and not as the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was a seat for the area west of the actual capital. At the time, Crown and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario, in 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, London was incorporated as a town in 1840. On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, which was at the time largely constructed of wooden buildings, one of the first casualties was the towns only fire engine. This fire burned nearly 30 acres of land destroying 150 buildings before burning itself out later the same day, one-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the provinces first million dollar fire. Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speechLondon, Ontario – Downtown London skyline
71. Pembroke, Ontario – Pembroke is a city in Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada, at the confluence of the Muskrat River and the Ottawa River in the Ottawa Valley. Pembroke is the location of the headquarters of Renfrew County. It is one-hundred fifty kilometres northwest of Ottawa, the first European settler to the area now known as Pembroke was Daniel Fraser in 1823, who squatted on land that was discovered to have been granted to a man named Abel Ward. Ward later sold the land to Fraser, and nearby Fraser Street is named after the family, peter White, a veteran of the Royal Navy arrived in 1828, squatting beside Fraser on the land where Dairy Queen is now located. Other settlers followed, attracted by the lumbering operations of the area. Originally named Miramichi, Pembroke became a village in 1856. Pembroke is indirectly named after Sidney Herbert, First Admiralty Secretary from 1841 to 1845 and son of George Herbert, Pembroke was incorporated as a town in 1878 and as a city in 1971. It was named seat for Renfrew County in 1861 and this set the stage for construction shortly thereafter on the Renfrew County Courthouse, which was finished in 1867, and the arrival of many civil servants, much wealth and much construction. In the 20-year period following 1861, Pembroke basically became the city it is today in terms of layout and buildings, although many homes, a fire in 1918 destroyed much of Pembrokes downtown. From 2005 to 2007, the courthouse and jail were re-constructed into one building, visitors on weekdays can view original 1867 jail cells in the basement, and the original courtroom, complete with a huge replica of the original brass light fixture. County meetings were held here for many years, three hangings occurred at the indoor gallows inside the Courthouse, two in the 1870s and one in 1952. Other historic buildings survive in Pembroke include a historic synagogue. A fire in 1918 downtown destroyed many buildings, including the Pembroke Opera House, in 1898 Pembroke became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pembroke. Pembroke is the largest commercial centre between North Bay and Ottawa, historically, forestry and farming formed the backbone of the local economy and remain important today. Local timber products include lumber, plywood, veneer, hydro poles, other local manufacturing operations produce office furniture. CFB Petawawa in nearby Petawawa and Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in Chalk River are also regional employers, Chalk River Laboratories is being restructured to a GOCO Laboratory. The economy also benefits from tourism, aided partly by Pembrokes location on the Trans-Canada Highway, Pembroke is a gateway to natural adventures on the Petawawa and Ottawa Rivers, Algonquin Park and to world-class white water rafting a short distance to the southwest. Local attractions include 30 historic murals in the area depicting the history of the cityPembroke, Ontario – Pembroke City Hall and Muskrat River
72. Smiths Falls, Ontario – Smiths Falls is a town in Eastern Ontario, Canada, with a population of 8,978 according to the 2011 census. It is in the Census Division for Lanark County, but is separated from the county, the Rideau Canal waterway passes through the town, with four separate locks in three locations and a combined lift of over 15 metres. The towns name was sometimes alternatively spelled Smiths Falls or Smith Falls, the city is named after Thomas Smyth, a United Empire Loyalist who in 1786 was granted 400 acres in what is present-day Smiths Falls. The Heritage House Museum, also known as the Ward House, was designated under the Ontario Heritage Act in 1977, at the time of construction of the Rideau Canal a small settlement had been established around a mill operated by Abel Russell Ward, who had bought Smyths land. Colonel By ordered the removal of Wards mill to make way for the canal and he settled with Ward for £1,500, one of the largest claims made by mill owners on the canal. The disruption of industry caused by the building of the canal was only temporary, an article in Smiths Gazetteer in 1846 described the town as a flourishing little village pleasantly situated on the Rideau River and on the Canal, fourteen miles from Perth. A 36-foot drop in less than a quarter of a mile posed an obstacle to navigation at Smiths Falls, a natural depression to the south of the river was used to create a flight of three locks, known as Combined Lockstation today. The natural course of the river was dammed to create a basin upstream of the locks, at the upper end of the basin a fourth lock was constructed. A mile below the Combined Lockstation is a flight of two called the Old Slys Lockstation. This station is named for the settler at this location. A dam and waste weir control water levels upstream of the locks, defensible lockmasters houses were built at all three stations in Smiths Falls. The house at Old Slys was built in 1838 and the houses at Combined and Detached around 1842, only the house at Combined has a second storey, which was added late in the 19th century. The defensible lockmasters house at Detached Lockstation was torn down in 1894, in the 1850s the major railway companies were looking to build main trunk lines linking Toronto, Kingston and Montreal. The two major companies at the time, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Grand Trunk Railway, were competing for the easiest routes to lay track. At one point a third national railway, the Canadian Northern Railway, was also trying to squeeze itself into the busy Montréal-Ottawa-Toronto corridor. For a number of reasons, and also due to the proximity of the Rideau Canal. Each used a mix of existing rail lines and new construction to build their networks. CP purchased the 1859-era Brockville and Ottawa Railway, a line from Brockville-Smiths Falls-Sand Point/Arnprior with a branch Smiths Falls-Perth, CNoR built a 1914-era main line from Ottawa-Smiths Falls-SydenhamSmiths Falls, Ontario – Smiths Falls
73. St. Marys, Ontario – St. Marys is a town in southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is located at the junction of Thames River and Trout Creek, southwest of Stratford, surrounded by the Township of Perth South and located in Perth County, however, like Stratford, St. Marys operates under its own municipal government that is independent from the Countys government. Nonetheless, the three enjoy a large degree of collaboration and work together to growth the region as a leading location for industry. Census data published for Perth County by Statistics Canada includes St. Marys and most Perth County publications also do, at least in some sections of the document. The town is known by its nickname, The Stone Town, due to the abundance of limestone in the surrounding area, giving rise to a large number of limestone buildings. St. Marys Cement, a cement producer founded in the town, capitalized on this close feedstock. St. Marys is home to the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame and it is the burial place of Arthur Meighen, Canadas 9th Prime Minister. Timothy Eaton, who went on to one of Canadas greatest retailers, opened his first businesses in Canada in St. Marys and nearby Kirkton. In 1839 the Canada Company sent a surveyor to Blanshard Township in the Huron Tract to choose a site for a town on the Thames River which would later be named St. Marys. The first settlers arrived at the junction of the Thames River and Trout Creek, southwest of Stratford in the early 1840s, attracted by the areas natural resources. At the new site, the Thames River cascaded over a series of limestone ledges, providing the power to run the first pioneer mills and giving the community an early nickname. The Smiths Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes the settlement as follows, It was laid out in 1844, there is an excellent limestone quarry close to the village. Professions and Trades. —One grist mill, one saw mill, one physician and surgeon, the arrival of the Grand Trunk Railway in the late 1850s increased the growth, the community became a centre for milling, grain-trading and the manufacture of agriculture-related products. In 1854 the community was incorporated as a village and in 1863 as a town, however, it did not incorporate itself into Perth County. In the riverbed and along the banks, limestone was close to the surface, many 19th century limestone structures survive, churches, commercial blocks, and private homes. They have given St. Marys its current nickname, Stonetown, a plaque erected by the Government of Ontario provides additional details about the early days. When opening Blanshard Township for settlement in 1839, the Canada Company made an arrangement with Thomas Ingersoll, in 1841-43 he erected a sawmill and a grist-mill and in return obtained 337 acres of land in this vicinity. The mills formed the nucleus of a settlement named St. Marys, the first library was opened in 1857, it belonged to the local Mechanics Institute but had no permanent home and had to rent space where it couldSt. Marys, Ontario – St. Marys
74. Windsor, Ontario – Windsor is a city in Ontario and the southernmost city in Canada. It is located on the shore of the Detroit River, directly across the river from Detroit. Windsor is a contributor to Canadas automotive industry and has a storied history. Prior to European exploration and settlement, the Windsor area was inhabited by the First Nations, a French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749. It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal, the area was first named la Petite Côte. Later it was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle, Windsors French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, Pelissier, François, Pierre, Langlois, Marentette, and Lauzon. The current street system of Windsor reflects the Canadien method of land division. Today, the street name often indicates the name of the family that at one time farmed the land where the street is now located. The street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions, there is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area, particularly in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1794, after the American Revolution, the settlement of Sandwich was founded and it was later renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England. The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsors west side is home to some of the oldest buildings in the city, including Mackenzie Hall, today, this building functions as a community centre. The oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792 and it is owned by Ontario Heritage Trust and houses government offices. The François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsors Community Museum, Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, and also served as a theatre for the Patriot War, later that year. Windsor was established as a village in 1854, then became a town in 1858, the Windsor Police Service was established on July 1,1867. A fire consumed much of Windsors downtown core on October 12,1871, Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities in their own right until 1935. They are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor, Ford City was officially incorporated as a village in 1912, it became a town in 1915, and a city in 1929. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890, Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status. It was incorporated as a town in 1858 and these three towns were annexed by Windsor in 1935Windsor, Ontario – Images from top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Windsor skyline, Ambassador Bridge, Charlie Brooks Memorial Peace Fountain, Dillon Hall at University of Windsor, and Caesars Windsor.
75. Saskatchewan – Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in west-central Canada, the only province without natural borders. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres, nearly 10 percent of which is water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs. As of December 2013, Saskatchewans population was estimated at 1,114,170, residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the provinces largest city, Saskatoon, or the provincial capital, other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, North Battleford, and the border city Lloydminster. Saskatchewan is a province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters. As a result, its climate is continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province. Southern areas have very warm or hot summers, Midale and Yellow Grass near the U. S. border are tied for the highest ever recorded temperatures in Canada with 45 °C observed at both locations on July 5,1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C are possible even in the south during extreme cold snaps, Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups, and first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, in the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy, North Americas first social-democratic government was elected in 1944. The provinces economy is based on agriculture, mining, and energy, Saskatchewans current premier is Brad Wall and its lieutenant-governor is Vaughn Solomon Schofield. In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan. The First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the market for the tribes, they have acquired about 3,079 square kilometres. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas and its name derived from the Saskatchewan River. The river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy in the Cree language, as Saskatchewans borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is roughly a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes, additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program. S. States of Montana and North Dakota, Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces, the overwhelming majority of Saskatchewans population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel. Saskatchewan contains two natural regions, the Canadian Shield in the north and the Interior Plains in the southSaskatchewan – Henry Kelsey sees the buffalo on the western plains.
76. Yukon – Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canadas three federal territories. The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukons only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory, though officially bilingual, the Yukon Government also recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukons Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada, most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate, notable rivers include the Yukon River, after which the territory was named, as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White and Tatshenshini rivers. Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human occupation in North America. The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon, the volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U. S. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks, European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive and this drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea and its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canadas highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territorys southwest, Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukons southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north, other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast, notable widespread tree species within Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the growing season and severe climate. The capital, Whitehorse, is also the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population, the second largest is Dawson City, which was the capital until 1952Yukon – Downtown Whitehorse along the Yukon River
77. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014