1. Provinces and territories of Canada – Canadas geography is divided into administrative divisions known as provinces and territories that are responsible for delivery of sub-national governance. Over its history, Canadas international borders have changed several times, the ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was originally a French colony, the three territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon, which govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. Together, the provinces and territories make up the worlds second-largest country by area, the powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, the territories are not sovereign, but simply part of the federal realm, and have a commissioner who represents the federal government. Notes, There are three territories in Canada, unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, the following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Prior to Confederation, Ontario and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada, over the following years, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were added as provinces. The Hudsons Bay Company controlled large swathes of western Canada referred to as Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory until 1870, subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The remaining Arctic islands were transferred by Britain to Canada in 1880,1898 saw the Yukon Territory, later renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1,1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba were expanded northward, Manitobas to the 60° parallel, Ontarios to Hudson Bay, in 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a period of economic crisis. In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador, in 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbias northwestern boundary. This was one of two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the portion of The North, while Nunavut is in the east. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2 in land area and they are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposesProvinces and territories of Canada – " O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada features arms of the Canadian provinces and territories (1965)
2. Central Canada – Central Canada is a region consisting of Canadas two largest and most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec. Geographically, they are not at the centre of the country, due to their high populations, Ontario and Quebec have traditionally held a significant amount of political power in Canada, leading to some amount of resentment from other regions of the country. Before Confederation, the term Canada specifically referred to Central Canada, today, the term Central Canada is less often used than the names of the individual provinces. The longitudinal centre of Canada passes just east of Winnipeg, Manitoba, before Confederation, the region known as Canada was what is now called Central Canada. Southern Ontario was once called Upper Canada and later Canada West, both were made part of the United Province of Canada in 1841. Combined, the two provinces have approximately 20 million inhabitants which represents 62% of Canadas population and they are represented in the House of Commons of Canada by 199 Members of Parliament out of a total of 338Central Canada – Central Canada, defined politically
3. Quebec – Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada. These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically differentQuebec – The arrival of Samuel de Champlain, the father of New France, on the site of Quebec City.
4. Northwest Territories – The Northwest Territories is a territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately 1,144,000 km2 and its estimated population as of 2016 is 44,291. Yellowknife became the capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission. The Northwest Territories are bordered by Canadas two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the south. The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the era to indicate where it lay in relation to Ruperts Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory, in Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, beautiful land. There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut, one proposal was Denendeh, as advocated by the former premier Stephen Kakfwi, among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory Bob – began as a prank, in the end a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name Northwest Territories. This name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canadas north-central and it possibly meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has an area of 1,183,085 km2. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island and its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north, the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with highs in the mid teens Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C, extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, in the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, and lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C, thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are extremely rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower, the Territory has a fairly dry climate due to the mountains in the westNorthwest Territories – Ice road on Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, 2009
5. Michigan – Michigan /ˈmɪʃᵻɡən/ is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area. Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit, Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula, to which the name Michigan was originally applied, is noted to be shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, the two peninsulas are connected by the Mackinac Bridge. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, as a result, it is one of the leading U. S. states for recreational boating. Michigan also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds, a person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline. What is now the state of Michigan was first settled by Native American tribes before being colonized by French explorers in the 17th century, the area was organized as part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Eventually, in 1805, the Michigan Territory was formed, which lasted until it was admitted into the Union on January 26,1837, the state of Michigan soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination. Though Michigan has come to develop an economy, it is widely known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry. When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires. The Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest, French voyageurs and coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlés expedition in 1622, the first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions, missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were received by the areas Indian populations, with relatively few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph, in 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present day city of Niles. The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent, cadillacs wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in the Michigan wilderness. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post, the Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same yearMichigan – Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm Lamprecht
6. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in AmericaPennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
7. Lake Erie – Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the thirteenth-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes, at its deepest point Lake Erie is 210 feet deep. Lake Eries northern shore is bounded by the Canadian province of Ontario, with the U. S. states of Ohio, Pennsylvania and these jurisdictions divide the surface area of the lake by water boundaries. The lake was named by the Erie people, a Native Americans people who lived along its southern shore and that Iroquoian tribe called it Erige because of its unpredictable and sometimes violently dangerous nature. It is a matter of whether the lake was named after the tribe. Situated below Lake Huron, Eries primary inlet is the Detroit River, Lake Erie has a mean elevation of 571 feet above sea level. It has an area of 9,990 square miles with a length of 241 statute miles. The warm summer of 1999 caused lake temperatures to come close to the 85 °F limit necessary to keep the plants cool, also because of its shallowness, and in spite of being the warmest lake in the summer, it is also the first to freeze in the winter. The waves build very quickly, according to other accounts, after being trapped for an hour-and-a-half, Baker was back on dry land, exhausted and battered but alive. This area is known as the thunderstorm capital of Canada with breathtaking lightning displays. Lake Erie is primarily fed by the Detroit River and drains via the Niagara River, navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Other major contributors to Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky River, the Buffalo River, the drainage basin covers 30,140 square miles. Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Several islands are found in the end of the lake, these belong to Ohio except for Pelee Island and eight neighboring islands. Major cities along Lake Erie include Buffalo, Erie, Pennsylvania, Toledo, Ohio, Islands tend to be located in the western side of the lake and total 31 in number. The island-village of Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island attracts young crowds who sometimes wear red hats and are prone to break off cartwheels in the park. Pelee Island is the largest of Eries islands, accessible by ferry from Leamington, Ontario and Sandusky, songbirds migrate to Pelee in spring, and monarch butterflies stop over during the fall. Lake Erie has a retention time of 2.6 yearsLake Erie – Lake Erie on January 9, 2014
8. New York – New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita. Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that yearNew York – British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.
9. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
10. Lake of the Woods – Lake of the Woods is a lake occupying parts of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba and the U. S. state of Minnesota. It separates a small area of Minnesota from the rest of the United States. The Northwest Angle and the town of Angle Township can only be reached from the rest of Minnesota by crossing the lake or by traveling through Canada, the Northwest Angle is the northernmost part of the contiguous United States. Its northwesternmost point served as a landmark in treaties defining the international border. Lake of the Woods is fed by the Rainy River, Shoal Lake, Kakagi Lake, the lake drains into the Winnipeg River and then into Lake Winnipeg. Ultimately, its outflow goes north through the Nelson River to Hudson Bay, Lake of the Woods is over 70 miles long and wide, and contains more than 14,552 islands and 65,000 miles of shoreline. It would amount to the longest coastline of any Canadian lake, Lake of the Woods is also the sixth largest freshwater lake located in the United States, after the five Great Lakes. There are also several hundred nesting pairs of eagles in this area. Lake of the Woods, a translation of the original French name lac des Bois, was so named from its wooded setting, however, it may have been a mistranslation of the Indian name. The earliest name we find the lake known by is that given by Verandrye in his journey in 1731 and he says it was called Lake Minitie or Des Bois. The former of these names, Minitie, seems to be Ojibway, the other name Lac des Bois, or Lake of the Woods, seems to have been a mis-translation of the Indian name by which the Lake was known. The construction of dams at the Lake of the Woods outlets in present-day Kenora in the late 19th century led to concerns over high, the federal governments of Canada and the United States referred the matter to the International Joint Commission in 1912. In 1917 the IJC recommended the creation of boards and the operating conditions they would apply to lake level management. The first of these boards, the Lake of the Woods Control Board, was established by Canadian Order-in-Council in 1919, in 1922 the Canada-Ontario-Manitoba Tripartite Agreement was signed by the respective governments. Initially only Canada and Ontario appointed members to the board as, at that time, in 1958, having gained control over its natural resources, Manitoba passed its own Lake of the Woods Control Board Act. That same year, Canada and Ontario amended their original versions of the acts, as a result of these legislative changes, the LWCB now has one member appointed by Canada, two appointed by Ontario, and one appointed by Manitoba. This treaty established the water level operating range on Lake of the Woods, defined the purpose and general mode of operation, and provided for two boards to control regulation. In cases where agreement could not be reached between Canadian and American members of the board, the disputed matter would be referred to the IJC for final decisionLake of the Woods – Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998
11. Great Lakes – Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the worlds surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles, and the volume is 5,439 cubic miles. Due to their sea-like characteristics the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas, Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes is bordered by the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the regions biodiversity, though the five lakes reside in separate basins, they form a single, naturally interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin. The lakes form a chain connecting the interior of North America to the Atlantic Ocean. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, the lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, and are studded with approximately 35,000 islands. There are also several smaller lakes, often called inland lakes. The surface area of the five primary lakes combined is roughly equal to the size of the United Kingdom, while the area of the entire basin is about the size of the UK. Lake Michigan is the one of the Great Lakes that is located entirely within the United States. The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Both Ontario and Michigan include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes, Ontario does not border Lake Michigan, New York and Wisconsins jurisdictions extend into two lakes, and the remaining states into one of the lakes. This designation, however, is not universal and those living on the shore of Lake Superior often refer to all the other lakes as the lower lakes, because they are farther south. This corresponds to thinking of Lakes Erie and Ontario as down south, vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered upbound even though they are sailing toward its effluent current. The Chicago River and Calumet River systems connect the Great Lakes Basin to the Mississippi River System through man-made alterations, the St. Marys River, including the Soo Locks, connects Lake Superior to Lake Huron. The Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan to Lake Huron, the St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair. The Detroit River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie, the Niagara River, including Niagara Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, the Saint Lawrence River connects Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which connects to the Atlantic OceanGreat Lakes – Satellite image of the Great Lakes, April 24, 2000, with lake names added
12. St. Clair River – The river is a significant component in the Great Lakes Waterway, with shipping channels permitting cargo vessels to travel between the upper and lower Great Lakes. The river, which consider a strait, flows in a southerly direction. It branches into several channels near its mouth at Lake St. Clair, the river is 40.5 miles long and drops 5 feet in elevation from Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair. The flow rate averages around 182,000 cubic feet per second, and this takes into account the combined drainage areas of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. In the 18th century, French voyageurs and coureurs des bois travelled on the river to trade with Native Americans and transport furs in canoes to major posts of French, European demand for American furs, especially beaver, was high until the 1830s. Ships built at Marine City, Michigan, during the mid-19th century carried immigrants up the river on their way to new homes in the American West, lumber harvested on The Thumb of Michigan was shipped downriver as log rafts to Detroit. In the early 20th century, lake steamers carried passengers and traveled among the towns along the St. Clair and Detroit rivers. During the 20th century, freighters traveled throughout the Great Lakes transporting commodities such as ore from the Mesabi Range, copper. Iron was taken to Ashtabula, Ohio and other cities for processing and steel manufacture. The St. Clair River and its Lambton County tributaries in Ontario contributes 103,210 acres to the watershed, stag Island lies between Corunna, Ontario and Marysville, Michigan. Fawn Island is near Port Lambton, Ontario and Marine City, Walpole, Seaway, Bassett, Squirrel, Pottowatamie, St. Anne, Dickinson, Russell and Harsens islands are located where the St. Clair River flows into Lake St. Clair near Algonac, Michigan. These islands are part of the St. Clair Flats, the major river delta in the Great Lakes. Six of the islands in this delta are unceded territory that are part of the Walpole Island First Nations, whose members include Ojibwe, Potowatomi and they call this delta area Bkejwanong, meaning where the waters divide. Most of the watershed away from the river in Ontario and Michigan is used for agriculture, there were numerous sugar beet farms in the flatlands, and an annual beet market was held in Marine City, Michigan, for years at harvest time. Many of the 19th-century English immigrants to this came from Lincolnshire, England. A few forest and wetland areas have survived, although their area has declined significantly since European settlement, clearing, much of the shoreline on both sides of the St. Clair River is urbanized and heavily industrialized. Intensive development has occurred in and near the adjacent cities of Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario, the heaviest concentration of industry, including a large petrochemical complex, lies along the Ontario shore south of Sarnia. Several communities along the St. Clair rely on the river as their source of drinking waterSt. Clair River – Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair (center), as well as St. Clair River connecting it to Lake Huron (to the North) and Detroit River connecting it to Lake Erie (to the South)
13. Lake St. Clair – Lake St. Clair is a freshwater lake that lies between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. state of Michigan. It was named after Clare of Assisi, on whose feast day it was navigated and christened by French Catholic explorers in 1679. It is part of the Great Lakes system, and along with the St. Clair River and Detroit River and this lake is situated about 6 miles northeast of the downtown areas of Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario. Lake Saint Clair measures about 22.5 nautical miles north to south. Its total surface area is about 430 square miles and this is a rather shallow lake for its size, with an average depth of about 11 feet, and a maximum natural depth of 21.3 feet. However, it is 27 feet deep in the channel which has been dredged for lake freighter passage. The lake is fed by the St. Clair River, which flows southwards from Lake Huron and has a river delta where it enters Lake Saint Clair. This is the largest delta of the Great Lakes System, also, the Thames River and Sydenham River flow into Lake Saint Clair from Southwestern Ontario, and the Clinton River and Pine River flows into it from Michigan. The outflow from Lake Saint Clair flows from its southwestern end into the Detroit River, the tarry time of the water in Lake St. If water flows through the channel, which is maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. This lake is part of the Great Lakes System, because it is 17 times smaller in area than Lake Ontario, it is rarely included in the listings of the Great Lakes but is sometimes referred to as the sixth Great Lake. There are isolated proposals for its recognition as a Great Lake. First Nations/Native Americans used the lake as part of their navigation of the Great Lakes. The Mississaugas called present-day Lake St. Clair Waawiyaataan, the whirlpool, the Mississaugas established a village near the lake in the latter part of the 17th century. Early French mapmakers had identified the lake by a variety of French and Iroquois names, including Lac des Eaux de Mer, Lac Ganatchio, a variety of Native names were associated with sweetness, as the lake was freshwater as opposed to saltwater. These included Otsiketa, Kandequio or Kandekio, Oiatinatchiketo, and Oiatinonchikebo, similarly, the Iroquois called present-day Lake Huron, The Grand Lake of the Sweet Sea This association was conveyed on French maps as Mer Douce and Dutch maps as the Latin Mare Dulce. On August 12,1679, the French explorer René Robert Cavelier and he named the body of water Lac Sainte-Claire as the expedition discovered it on the feast day of Saint Clare of Assisi. The historian on the voyage, Louis Hennepin, recorded that the Iroquois called the lake Otseketa, as early as 1710, the English identified the lake on their maps as Saint ClareLake St. Clair – Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair (center), as well as St. Clair River connecting it with Lake Huron and the Detroit River connecting it to Lake Erie
14. Northern Ontario – Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario, the other primary region being Southern Ontario. Most of Northern Ontario is situated on the Canadian Shield, a vast rocky plateau, the climate is characterized by extremes of temperature, extremely cold in winter and hot in summer. The principal industries are mining, forestry, and hydroelectricity, for some purposes, Northern Ontario is further subdivided into Northeastern and Northwestern Ontario. When the region is divided in this way, the three westernmost districts constitute Northwestern Ontario and the other districts constitute Northeastern Ontario, Northeastern Ontario contains two thirds of Northern Ontarios population. In the early 20th century, Northern Ontario was often called New Ontario, the provinces boundaries were provisionally expanded northward and westward in 1874, while the Lake of the Woods region remained subject to a boundary dispute between Ontario and Manitoba. This region was established as the District of Patricia, but was merged into the Kenora District in 1927. The Province of Canada began creating districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with the establishment of Algoma District. These districts had no function, they were created for the provision of judicial. Nipissing had no seat until 1895. Up until that date, registry office and higher court services were available at Pembroke in Renfrew County, Nipissing Stipendiary Magistrate and land registrar William Doran established his residence at North Bay in 1885. Following the hotly contested district town election in 1895, North Bay earned the right to become the seat in the new Provisional District of Nipissing. After the creation of the province of Ontario in 1867, the first district to be established was Thunder Bay in 1871 which until then had formed part of Algoma District. The Ontario government was reluctant to establish new districts in the north, Ontarios right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada Act,1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. By 1899 there were seven districts, Algoma, Manitoulin, Muskoka, Nipissing, Parry Sound, Rainy River. Five more northern districts were created between 1907 and 1922, Cochrane, Kenora, Sudbury, Temiskaming and Patricia, the Patricia District was then merged into the Kenora District in 1927. Districts are too sparsely populated to maintain a county government system, for example, districts have provincially maintained secondary highways instead of county roads. Geographically, the districts in Northern Ontario are Rainy River, Kenora, Thunder Bay, Cochrane, Timiskaming, Algoma, Sudbury, Nipissing andManitoulin. As well, for administrative purposes, the districts of Muskoka, the federal government continues to retain both more southerly districts in the service area of FedNorNorthern Ontario – North Bay is often considered to be the "Gateway" to Northern Ontario
15. Toronto – Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, Toronto is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot, Iroquois, and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is well known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning place where trees stand in the water. This refers to the end of what is now Lake Simcoe. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759. During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the warToronto – From top left: Downtown Toronto featuring the CN Tower and Financial District from the Toronto Harbour, City Hall, the Ontario Legislative Building, Casa Loma, Prince Edward Viaduct, and the Scarborough Bluffs
16. Ontario Government – The Government of Ontario, or more formally Her Majestys Government of Ontario, is the provincial government of the province of Ontario, Canada. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act,1867, the civil service that manages and delivers government policies, programs, and services is called the Ontario Public Service. The province of Ontario is governed by a legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. The provinces head of government, known as the Premier of Ontario is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor, the Premier, invariably the leader of a political party represented in the Legislative Assembly, selects members of the Cabinet, who are also appointed by the Lieutenant Governor. The Premier has usually been the leader of the party holding the largest number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, due to the location of the Ontario Legislative Building on the grounds of Queens Park, the Ontario government is frequently referred to by the metonym Queens Park. The Ontario Public Service was named one of Canadas Top 100 Employers by Macleans newsmagazine in 2009, the Lieutenant Governor is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada. The legislative powers in the lie with the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. The premier and other ministers in the Cabinet are also members of, and responsible to, for the 2013-2014 fiscal year, the Ontario government planned to spend C$127,600,000,000, including a deficit of C$11,700,000,000. As of March 31,2014 the total Ontario debt stood at $295.80 billionOntario Government – The Ontario Government Buildings, in downtown Toronto, contain the head offices of several provincial ministries.
17. Wyandot people – By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandots settled in the large area from the north shores of most of present-day Lake Ontario, northwards up to Georgian Bay. They were located in the part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois, today the Wyandot have a First Nations reserve in Quebec, Canada. They also have three major settlements in the United States, two of which have independently governed, federally recognized tribes, due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages. Early theories placed Huron origin in the St. Lawrence Valley, with some arguing for a presence near Montreal, in 1975 and 1978, archeologists excavated a large 15th-century Huron village, now called the Draper Site, in Pickering, Ontario near Lake Ontario. In 2003 a larger village was discovered five kilometres away in Whitchurch-Stouffville, the sites each were surrounded by a palisade, as was typical of Iroquoian cultures. The Mantle Site had more than 70 multi-family longhouses, subsequently they moved from there to their historic territory on Georgian Bay, where they were encountered by Champlain in 1615. In the early 17th century, this Iroquoian people called themselves the Wendat, the Wendat historic territory was bordered on three sides, by the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. Early French explorers referred to these natives as the Huron, either from the French huron, according to tradition, French sailors thought that the bristly hairstyle of Wendat warriors resembled that of a boar. However, these negative etymological meanings conflict with the bon Iroquois attitude held by the French fur traders and explorers, an alternate etymology is from the Algonquin words ronon, or Irri-ronon. It was pronounced Hirri-ronon by the French, eventually shortened to Hirr-on, other etymological possibilities come from the Algonquin words ka-ron or tu-ron. The Wendat were not a tribe, but a confederacy of four or more tribes with mutually intelligible languages, according to tradition, this Wendat Confederacy was initiated by the Attignawantans and the Attigneenongnahacs, who made their alliance in the 15th century. They were joined by the Arendarhonons about 1590, and the Tahontaenrats around 1610, a fifth group, the Ataronchronons, may not have attained full membership in the confederacy, and may have been a division of the Attignawantan. The largest Wendat settlement, and capital of the confederacy, was located at Ossossane, near modern-day Elmvale and they called their traditional territory Wendake. Closely related to the people of the Huron Confederacy were the Tionontate and they lived further south and were divided into two groups, the Deer and the Wolves. Considering that they formed the nucleus of the later known as the Wyandot. Tuberculosis was endemic among the Huron, aggravated by the close, despite this, the Huron on the whole were healthy, the Jesuits wrote that the Huron effectively employed natural remedies and were more healthy than we. The earliest written accounts of the Huron were made by the French, news of the Europeans reached the Huron, particularly when Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River in the early 17th centuryWyandot people – Huron-Plume group – Spencerwood, Quebec City, 1880
18. Hurricane Hazel – Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed at least 400 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina, as a Category 4 hurricane. After causing 95 fatalities in the US, Hazel struck Canada as a storm, raising the death toll by 81 people. As a result of the death toll and the damage caused by Hazel. In Haiti, Hazel destroyed 40% of the trees and 50% of the cacao crop. The hurricane made landfall in the Carolinas, and destroyed most waterfront dwellings near its point of impact, from North Carolina, it traveled north along the Atlantic coast. Hazel affected Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, when it was over Pennsylvania, Hazel consolidated with a cold front, and turned northwest towards Canada. When it hit Ontario as a storm, rivers and streams in and around Toronto overflowed their banks. As a result, many areas located in the local floodplains. In Canada alone, over C$135 million of damage was incurred, Hazel had traveled 1,100 km over land, but while approaching Canada, it had merged with an existing powerful cold front. The storm stalled over the Greater Toronto Area, and although it was now extratropical, to help with the cleanup,800 members of the military were summoned, and a Hurricane Relief Fund was established that distributed $5.1 million in aid. On October 5, a wave with tropical-storm force winds was approaching the Lesser Antilles. Due to the potential for storm formation, a Hurricane Hunters plane flew from San Juan. When the plane reached the system, they observed a tropical cyclone about 30 mi east of the island of Grenada with winds estimated at 100 mph, the United States Weather Bureau promptly classified the system as Hurricane Hazel. The Atlantic hurricane reanalysis later assessed that Hazel developed at 06,00 UTC on October 5 about 220 mi east of Grenada. Although the Hurricane Hunters observed hurricane-force winds, the storm had a small eye 5 mi in diameter and a central barometric pressure of 1,002 mbar. The 100 mph winds were therefore revised downward to 65 mph late on October 5, at the same time, Hazel made landfall on Grenada with winds of 75 mph. After entering the Caribbean Sea, Hazel continued to present a small eye, the winds gradually increased as the storm moved westward, parallel to the northern Venezuela coastHurricane Hazel – The Weston Golf Club was left submerged after the Humber River burst its banks during Hurricane Hazel in Toronto.
19. Haiti – Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic, the region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain discovered the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic, when Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or Asia. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade, the island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the portion of the island being ceded to France. The development of plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years, and apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all the first leaders of government were former slaves. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas, Henri Christophe – former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I – built it to withstand a possible foreign attack. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas, most recently, in February 2004, a coup détat originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, the name Haïti comes from the indigenous Taíno language which was the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, land of high mountains. The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti, is a mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is often disregarded, the name Haïti was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. The Taíno name for the island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America, genetic studies show they were related to the Yanomami of the Amazon Basin. They also originated in Central and South America, after migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of organization was led by a cacique, or chief. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests, Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country. These have become symbols of Haiti and tourist attractionsHaiti – Burning of the town of Cap-Français
20. South Carolina – South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee, Yuchi, and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba. These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn, peas and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years later the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston. Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representationSouth Carolina – Released in 2000
21. Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale – To be classified as a hurricane, a tropical cyclone must have maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph. The highest classification in the scale, Category 5, is reserved for storms with winds exceeding 156 mph, the classifications can provide some indication of the potential damage and flooding a hurricane will cause upon landfall. Officially, the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale is used only to describe hurricanes forming in the Atlantic Ocean, other areas use different scales to label these storms, which are called cyclones or typhoons, depending on the area. In 1967 Robert Simpson became the director of the National Hurricane Center, during 1968 Robert spoke to Herbert Saffir about work that he had just completed for the United Nations, about damage to structures that was expected by winds of different strengths. The scale was developed in 1971 by civil engineer Herbert Saffir and meteorologist Robert Simpson, the scale was introduced to the general public in 1973, and saw widespread use after Neil Frank replaced Simpson at the helm of the NHC in 1974. The initial scale was developed by Saffir, a structural engineer, while performing the study, Saffir realized there was no simple scale for describing the likely effects of a hurricane. Mirroring the utility of the Richter magnitude scale in describing earthquakes, Saffir gave the scale to the NHC, and Simpson added the effects of storm surge and flooding. In 2009, the NHC made moves to eliminate pressure and storm surge ranges from the categories, transforming it into a wind scale. The new scale became operational on May 15,2010, in 2012, the NHC expanded the windspeed range for Category 4 by 1 mph in both directions, to 130–156 mph, with corresponding changes in the other units, instead of 131–155 mph. The NHC and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center assign tropical cyclone intensities in 5 knot increments, so an intensity of 115 knots is rated Category 4, but the conversion to miles per hour would round down to 130 mph, making it appear to be a Category 3 storm. Likewise, an intensity of 135 knots is 250.02 km/h, to resolve these issues, the NHC had been obliged to incorrectly report storms with wind speeds of 115 kn as 135 mph, and 135 kn as 245 km/h. The change in definition allows storms of 115 kn to be rounded down to 130 mph, and storms of 135 kn to be correctly reported as 250 km/h. Since the NHC had previously rounded incorrectly to keep storms in Category 4 in each unit of measure, the new scale became operational on May 15,2012. The scale separates hurricanes into five different categories based on wind, the U. S. National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as major hurricanes, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons of 150 mph or greater as super typhoons. Central pressure and storm surge values are approximate and often dependent on other factors, such as the size of the storm, intensity of example hurricanes is from both the time of landfall and the maximum intensity. As a result, it is not uncommon for a pressure to be higher or lower than expected for a specific category. Generally, large storms with large radii of maximum winds have the lowest pressures relative to its intensity. Poorly attached roof shingles or tiles can blow off, coastal flooding and pier damage are often associated with Category 1 stormsSaffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale – Hurricane Barbara in 2013 making landfall.
22. Waterfall – A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of an iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed in the course of a river. At these times the channel is narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, as the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream, often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one, eventually, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. Waterfalls normally form in an area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat. Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed, a river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls, young Wrote Waterfalls, form and process this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists. Ledge waterfall, Water descends vertically over a cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. Block/Sheet. Classical, Ledge waterfalls where fall height is equal to stream width. Curtain, Ledge waterfalls which descend over a larger than the width of falling water streamWaterfall – Angel Falls in Venezuela is the world's tallest at 979 m (3,212 ft).
23. Buffalo, New York – Buffalo is a city in western New York state and the county seat of Erie County, on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. As of 2014, Buffalo is New York states 2nd-most populous city after New York City, the metropolitan area has a population of 1.13 million. After an economic downturn in the half of the 20th century, Buffalos economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, technology, biomedical engineering. Residents of Buffalo are called Buffalonians, the citys nicknames include The Queen City, The Nickel City and The City of Good Neighbors. The city of Buffalo received its name from a creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to Buffalo Creek in his journal of 1764, there are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. In 1804, as principal agent opening the area for the Holland Land Company, Joseph Ellicott, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes similar to the street system he used in the nations capital. Although Ellicott named the settlement New Amsterdam, the name did not catch on, during the War of 1812, on December 30,1813, Buffalo was burned by British forces. The George Coit House 1818 and Samuel Schenck House 1823 are currently the oldest houses within the limits of the City of Buffalo, on October 26,1825, the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400, the Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement, Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom. During the 1840s, Buffalos port continued to develop, both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo. Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor, in 1843, the worlds first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. Darts Elevator enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, by 1850, the citys population was 81,000. At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River, the city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. It was also part of the revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow. President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6,1901, McKinley died in the city eight days later and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion as the 26th President of the United States. The Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially working class menBuffalo, New York
24. Twin cities (geographical proximity) – Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres that are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time, losing most of their mutual buffer zone. For example, South San Francisco is not considered a city with San Francisco. However, cities considered twinned by proximity do not necessarily match demographically, economically, in many historical cases, cities that grew into each others space lost their individual identities, and the border or barrier originally separating them became almost irrelevant. In China, the three ancient cities of Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang, separated by the junction of the Yangtze, twin cities may share an airport into whose airport codes are integrated the component initials e. g. DFW, LBA, MSP and CAK. In other cases twin cities can be divided by an international border and it also includes a fifth member, East Moline, Illinois. The Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area in Alabama is locally referred to as the Quad Cities, with Florence, Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, formerly, when Muscle Shoals was a mere village, this region was known a Tri-Cities, Alabama. Actually, they are all incorporated as towns except for Florence, the Quad Cities of Minnesota consist of Virginia, Eveleth, Gilbert, and Mountain Iron. The cities of Pullman, Washington, Moscow, Idaho, Clarkston, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho have marketed themselves as Quad Cities. Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, has, as of 2013, grown out so much that small towns by this giant city, Wuhan in China consists of the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang in Hubei Province. Islamabad, the city of Pakistan, has been expanded to include smaller towns including Rawat in its territory. Bangkok, the capital and largest city of Thailand, was created in 1971, Fukuoka in Japan, a city of 1.4 million people, formerly the twin cities of Hakata and Fukuoka until the late 19th century. Saitama in Japan, a city of 1.2 million people, created in 2001 by the merger of the cities of Urawa, Omiya, Yono, Urawa and Omiya could formerly have been considered twin cities. Kitakyushu in Japan, a city of 900,000 people, created in 1963 by the merger of Yahata, Kokura, Moji, Wakamatsu, Yahata and Kokura had formerly been major cities in their own right. The cities of Saigon and Cholon merged in 1931 to form a city named Saigon-Cholon, in 1956, the name Cholon was dropped. London grew from its cores in the City of London and the City of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages within neighbouring counties, budapest is the amalgamation of Buda, Pest and Óbuda. Stoke-on-Trent was created in 1910 from the towns of Burslem, Hanley, Tunstall, Longton, Fenton and Stoke, neighbouring Newcastle-under-Lyme remains a separate town. Eindhoven merged with five neighbouring municipalities into the new Groot-Eindhoven in 1920, the prefix Groot- was later dropped. Madrid evolved by absorption of other towns Richmond in central Virginia Cleveland in Ohio Minneapolis, St. Anthony was a twin city to Minneapolis in the two cities youthTwin cities (geographical proximity) – Cross-border example of twin cities: Plaza Internacional of the Frontera de la Paz. On the left, Santana do Livramento (Brazil); on the right, Rivera (Uruguay).
25. Niagara Falls, Ontario – Niagara Falls is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the bank of the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario. The municipality was incorporated on 12 June 1903, across the Niagara River is Niagara Falls, New York. The city is dominated by the Niagara Falls, a set of three large waterfalls on the Niagara River. The American and Horseshoe falls can be best seen from the Canadian side of the river, the natural spectacle attracts millions of tourists yearly. This area, which stretches along the Niagara Parkway and tourist promenade, is concentrated at the brink of the falls. Further to the north or south, golf courses are operated alongside historic sites from the War of 1812 and this area was long part of the Iroquois Confederacy territory, five powerful First Nations mostly along the southern edge of the Great Lakes. The Niagara Falls area has had some European settlement since the 17th century, louis Hennepin, a French priest and missionary, is regarded as the first European to visit the area in the 1670s. French colonists settled mostly in Lower Canada, beginning near the Atlantic, loyalist Robert Land received 200 acres and was one of the first people of European descent to settle in the Niagara Region. He moved to nearby Hamilton three years due to the relentless noise of falls. Tourism started in the early 19th century and has been a part of the local economy since that time. The falls became known as a wonder, in part to their being featured in paintings by prominent American artists of the 19th century such as Albert Bierstadt. Such works were reproduced as lithographs, becoming widely distributed, in addition, Niagara Falls markets itself as a honeymoon destination, it is the self-proclaimed honeymoon capital of the world. In 1856, the Town of Clifton was incorporated, the name of the town was changed to Niagara Falls in 1881. In 1882, the community of Drummondville was incorporated as the village of Niagara Falls, the village was referred to as Niagara Falls South to differentiate it from the town. In 1904, the town and village amalgamated to form the City of Niagara Falls, in 1882, Irish author Oscar Wilde visited Niagara Falls after lecturing in Buffalo during a lecture tour of North America. He stayed at the Prospect House in Niagara Falls, New York, an Internment camp was set up at The Armoury in Niagara Falls from December 1914 to August 1918. In 1953, the American actress Marilyn Monroe filmed Niagara here and this was a major event for the cityNiagara Falls, Ontario – Skyline of Niagara Falls, Ontario
26. Hydroelectric power – Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is also a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936Hydroelectric power – The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power producing facilitiy of any kind.
27. Premier of Ontario – The Premier of Ontario is the first minister of the Crown for the Canadian province of Ontario. The premier is appointed as the head of government by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and presides over the Executive Council. The Executive Council Act stipulates that the leader of the government party is known as the Premier, the current Premier of Ontario is Kathleen Wynne, she was sworn in on February 11,2013, and became Ontarios first female premier and Canadas first openly gay premier. The longest serving premier is Sir Oliver Mowat, who was in office from 1872 to 1896, Ontarios first premier was John Sandfield MacdonaldPremier of Ontario – Incumbent Kathleen Wynne since February 11, 2013
28. Roman Catholic – The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church or the Universal Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.28 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history, headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the churchs doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed and the Apostles Creed. Its central administration is located in Vatican City, enclaved within Rome, the Catholic Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments. It teaches that it is the one church founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christs apostles. The Catholic Church maintains that the doctrine on faith and morals that it declares as definitive is infallible. The Latin Church, the Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as such as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders. Among the sacraments, the one is the Eucharist, celebrated liturgically in the Mass. The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread and wine become the body, the Catholic Church practises closed communion, with only baptised members in a state of grace ordinarily permitted to receive the Eucharist. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Catholic Church as Queen of Heaven and is honoured in numerous Marian devotions. The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, science, art and culture, Catholic spiritual teaching includes spreading the Gospel while Catholic social teaching emphasises support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world, from the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticised for its doctrines on sexuality, its refusal to ordain women and its handling of sexual abuse cases. Catholic was first used to describe the church in the early 2nd century, the first known use of the phrase the catholic church occurred in the letter from Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans, written about 110 AD. In the Catechetical Discourses of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, the name Catholic Church was used to distinguish it from other groups that call themselves the church. The use of the adjective Roman to describe the Church as governed especially by the Bishop of Rome became more widespread after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Early Middle Ages. Catholic Church is the name used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church follows an episcopal polity, led by bishops who have received the sacrament of Holy Orders who are given formal jurisdictions of governance within the church. Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, in parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop. Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both, additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship servicesRoman Catholic – Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
29. Royal Military College of Canada – The Royal Military College of Canada, commonly abbreviated as RMCC or RMC, is the military college of the Canadian Armed Forces, and is a degree-granting university training military officers. RMC was established in 1876 and is the only institution in Canada with degree-granting powers. The Royal Military College of Canada Degrees Act,1959 empowers the college to confer degrees in arts, science, programs are offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels both on campus as well as through the Colleges distance learning programme via the Division of Continuing Studies. Located on Point Frederick, a 41-hectare peninsula in Kingston, Ontario, the college is a blend of older, historic buildings, as well as more academic, athletic. Officer cadets of the Royal Military College of Canada are trained in what are known as the four pillars of academics, officership, athletics, and bilingualism. RMC provides programs and courses of education and professional development to meet the needs of the Canadian Armed Forces. Those able to gain admission to this institution will belong to a community of peers that encourages alumni prosperity. For most students under the ROTP, education is free and a salary is paid which meets incidentals. The courses are offered both on site and by learning in both official languages, English and French. After graduation, Officers are to two months of service for each subsidized month of education. RMC offers 19 undergraduate programs in Arts, Science and Engineering, RMC offers 34 graduate studies opportunities, including 14 doctorates. All undergraduate students are required to complete the curriculum, which is designed to provide a balanced liberal arts, science. The Core Curriculum consists of Economics, Psychology, Mathematics, English, Calculus, Military history of Canada, Chemistry, Canadian History, Engineering and Management was offered, 1972–1995. Engineering Physics was offered 1975–1995 and Fuels and Materials Engineering were offered 1982–1991, engineers provide support to deployed operations and domestic installations. RMC was the first college in Canada to train engineers, Physics, Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics and Space Science are offered by the Faculty of Science. The science programs are relevant to occupations in both the Canadian Armed Forces and the civilian sector, students pursuing a Bachelor of Arts gain practical communication and critical thinking skills as well as specialized, hands-on experience in their chosen field. English, French, Economics, Political Science, History, Business Administration, Military theory, Military strategy studies, Military Psychology and Leadership are offered by the Faculty of Arts. Tuition fees at the undergraduate level vary from $2,780 – $3,710 for Canadian undergraduate students, the tuition fees for international students vary from $8,750 – $9,000 for undergraduate students and $6,200 – $6,700 for graduate studentsRoyal Military College of Canada
30. Geography of Ontario – Ontario is located in East/Central Canada, bordered by the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and James Bay. It is Canadas second largest province in land area. Ontario also shares borders with the U. S. Lawrence and Niagara rivers and it is also located north of Ohio and Erie, Pennsylvania, across Lake Erie. There are approximately 250,000 lakes and over 100,000 kilometres of rivers in the province, almost 94% of the population is concentrated within Southern Ontario, where the population was over 12,100,000 in the 2006 census. The Golden Horseshoe is the most populous part of Southern Ontario with a population of 8,102,163, Ontario is the most populous province in Canada. Southern Ontario is one of the most dense regions in the country, the north is vast and sparse compared to the south. Ottawa is located in Ontario bordering Quebec, located within the Golden Horseshoe, Toronto is the capital of Ontario, the financial centre of Canada, and the countrys most populous city. Ontario is the second-most urbanized province after British Columbia, with 85. 9% of the living in urban areas. To its north is the Boreal Shield, the largest provincial ecozone, extending from south-central Ontario to cover most of northern Ontario, the Northwestern Ontario portion of this area is part of the Midwestern Canadian Shield forests ecoregion of boreal forest that spreads west through Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The plains that cover the heartland of Ontario are a transitional ecozone characterized by features in the south. This extends the range of the northern coast of Ontario with Hudson Bay and James Bay. The waters of the two bays are in the Arctic Archipelago Marine ecozone, forming its southern, subarctic extent, Ontario, owing to its size, has diverse geology that varies in structure, age, and lithology. About 61% of the province is covered by the Canadian Shield and these rocks contain large mineral deposits that are vital to the economy of northern Ontario. The shield can further be divided into three sections and this region is more than 2.5 billion years old and is composed of felsic intrusive rocks. In the northernmost parts of the Superior Province, the geology of the region is dominated by granite and it makes up about 20% of the Canadian Shield in Ontario. These rocks were metamorphosed between 990 million years ago and 1.08 billion years ago, the third region, known as the Southern province which is a narrow region from Sault Ste. Marie to Kirkland Lake, is made of rocks dating 1.8 to 2.4 billion years ago. The Hudson Bay lowlands, located north of the Canadian Shield, are made of sedimentary rocks from the Silurian PeriodGeography of Ontario – Geography of Ontario
31. Economy of Ontario – The economy of Ontario is rich and diversified. Ontario is the largest economy in Canada, with a GDP nearly twice that of neighbouring Quebec, though manufacturing plays an important role in Ontarios economy, it is the service sector that takes up 76. 9%. Ontarios public debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to reach 40. 3% in fiscal year 2016-2017, Ontario is the most populous province of Canada, with a population of approximately 13.5 million permanent residents in 2013. It is Canadas leading manufacturing province, accounting for 46% of the manufacturing GDP in 2012, inflation is at 1. 0% as of July 2013, and the unemployment rate is at 7. 5%. In 2012, the ratings agency Moodys downgraded the credit rating from an AA1 negative outlook to an AA2 stable outlook in April 2012. In 2013, Ontarios main international exports were motor vehicles and parts, precious metals and stones, mechanical equipment, electrical machinery, Ontarios main international imports were motor vehicles parts and accessories, mechanical equipment, electrical machinery, precious metals & stones and plastic products. Ontario was the leading state/province for attracting foreign investment in North America in 2013. This accounted for more than one-tenth of all FDI in North America and it was also the 4th biggest state for outward FDI, recording $7. 74bn. As of 2016, Ontario has surpassed Alberta to become the provincial economy in Canada. As a result of the Jay Treaty in 1793, the fur trade spread to the Northwest,6000 bushels of wheat were bought at Kingston in 1799, and flour was sold in Montreal and Toronto in 1800. The American Revolution, French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars greatly stimulated the burgeoning trade in Ontario. The St. Lawrence became a route as other regions lacked the waterways. Between 1864 and 1866,400 million board feet of British North American lumber passed through New York, further industrial growth were encouraged by the war period. Statistics Canada indicates that the population in 2001 was 186,085 which is a steep −15. 9% decline from 1991s 221,230 farm population. Though urban farm population isnt dropping as fast as the rural, urban farm population dropped by 10%, the 2001 Census of Agriculture indicates that the number of farms has declined sharply between 1996 and 2001, continuing a long-term trend. The 2001 Census of Agriculture counted 59,728 farms in Ontario, a 11. 5% decline since 1996, and higher than the national average. Even though the number of farms are rapidly decreasing in Ontario, at 59,728, Alberta comes second with 53,652, and Newfoundland & Labrador has the fewest with 643 farms. Ontario’s farms nationwide have declined slightly over the past two decades, in 1981, Ontario accounted for 26% of the national totalEconomy of Ontario – The Toronto-Dominion Centre in Toronto
32. History of Ontario – The History of Ontario covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Before the arrival of Europeans, the region was inhabited both by Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes, a French explorer Étienne Brûlé explored part of the area in 1610–12. Permanent French settlement was hampered by their hostilities with the Iroquois five leagues, the British established trading posts on Hudson Bay in the late 17th century and began a struggle for domination of Ontario. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War by awarding nearly all of Frances North American possessions to Britain, the region was annexed to Quebec in 1774. The first European settlements were in 1782–1784 when 5,000 American loyalists entered what is now Ontario following the American Revolution, from 1783 to 1796, Britain granted them 200 acres of land and other items with which to rebuild their lives. John Graves Simcoe was appointed Upper Canadas first Lieutenant-Governor in 1793, American troops in the War of 1812 invaded Upper Canada across the Niagara River and the Detroit River but were defeated and pushed back by British forces, local militia and Native American forces. The Americans gained control of Lake Erie at the Battle of Lake Erie, the British had to flee on foot, and the American William Henry Harrison caught up and decisively defeated them at the Battle of the Thames. The Americans also killed Tecumseh, leader of the anti-American First Nations military force, during the Battle of York Americans occupied the Town of York in 1813. After losing their general Zebulon Pike and having a time holding the town. After the War of 1812, relative stability allowed for increasing numbers of immigrants to arrive from Britain and this deliberate immigration shift was encouraged by the colonial leaders. However, many arriving newcomers from Europe found frontier life difficult, population growth far exceeded emigration in the decades that would follow. Canal projects and a new network of plank roads spurred greater trade within the colony and with the United States, Ontarios numerous waterways aided travel and transportation into the interior and supplied water power for development. Canals were capital-intensive infrastructure projects that facilitated trade, the Oswego Canal, built in New York 1825–1829, was a vital commercial link in the Great Lakes–Atlantic seaway. It linked into Ontarios Welland Canal in 1829, the newly fashioned Oswego–Welland line offered an alternative route to the St. Lawrence River and Europe, as opposed to the Erie Canal which terminated in New York City. Opponents called it the Family Compact, but its members avoided the term, in the religious sphere, a key leader was John Strachan, the Anglican bishop of Toronto. Strachan was opposed by Methodist leader Egerton Ryerson, the Family Compact consisted of English gentry who arrived before 1800, and the sons of United Empire Loyalists, who were exiles who fled the American revolution. The term family was metaphorical, for they generally were not related by blood or marriage, there were no elections and the leadership controlled appointments, so local officials were generally allies of the leaders. The Family Compact looked for the model to Britain, where landed aristocrats held powerHistory of Ontario – A poster from 1878 encouraging immigration to Ontario
33. Province of Canada – The United Province of Canada, or the Province of Canada, or the United Canadas was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham in the Report on the Affairs of British North America following the Rebellions of 1837–38, in the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837–1838, unification of the two Canadas was driven by two factors. Firstly, Upper Canada was near bankruptcy because it lacked stable tax revenues, and secondly, unification was an attempt to swamp the French vote by giving each of the former provinces the same number of parliamentary seats, despite the larger population of Lower Canada. Although Durhams report had called for the Union of the Canadas and for Responsible Government, the new government was to be led by an appointed Governor General accountable only to the British Crown and the Kings Ministers. Responsible Government was not to be achieved until the second LaFontaine-Baldwin ministry in 1849, the Province of Canada ceased to exist at Canadian Confederation on July 1,1867, when it was redivided into the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Upper Canada was primarily English-speaking, whereas Lower Canada was primarily French-speaking, the Province of Canada was divided into two parts, Canada East and Canada West. Canada East was what became of the colony of Lower Canada after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the province of Quebec after confederation, Canada West was what became of the former colony of Upper Canada after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the province of Ontario after confederation, the location of the capital city of the Province of Canada changed six times in its 26-year history. The first capital was in Kingston, the capital moved to Montreal until rioters, spurred by a series of incendiary articles published in The Gazette, protested the Rebellion Losses Bill and burned down Montreals parliament buildings. It moved to Quebec City from 1852 to 1856, then Toronto for one year before returning to Quebec City from 1859-1866, in 1857, Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the permanent capital of the Province of Canada, initiating construction of Canadas first parliament buildings, on Parliament Hill. The first stage of construction was completed in 1865, just in time to host the final session of the last parliament of the Province of Canada before Confederation. The Governor General remained the head of the administration of the colony, appointed by the British state. He was aided by the Executive Council and the Legislative Council, the Executive Council aided in administration, and the Legislative Council reviewed legislation produced by the elected Legislative Assembly. Sydenham came from a family of timber merchants, and was an expert in finance. He was promised a barony if he could implement the union of the Canadas, and introduce a new form of municipal government. Sydenham was a Whig who believed in government, not responsible government. In order to implement his plan, he utilized widespread electoral violence through the Orange Order, Bagot was appointed after the unexpected death of Thomson, with the explicit instructions to resist calls for Responsible GovernmentProvince of Canada – Charles Poulett Thomson
34. Central Ontario – Central Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario which lies between Georgian Bay and the eastern end of Lake Ontario.5 million. Central Ontario is located within Southern Ontario, parry Sound, but not Muskoka, is now classed administratively with an extended Northern Ontario region by the provincial government for reasons similar to those at the federal level. The southern portion of the region is densely populated than the northern portion, as this area is closer to the GTA and hosts cities such as Barrie, Peterborough. All three cities serve as regional centres, Barrie and Peterborough having strong ties to the Greater Toronto Area. Barrie in particular has a population as a result of the GTAs northern encroachment and has benefited economically from its key position in close proximity to Toronto. Both Barrie and Peterborough are also located in the Greater Golden Horseshoe region, the Canadian Shield runs over the northern part of Central Ontario, a recreational area with a much increased summer-time population, including the wilderness of Algonquin Provincial Park. Bypassing many rapids, this waterway is used by pleasure boaters and anglers during the summer months. Along the northern edge of Central Ontario, are some of the highest elevations in Southern Ontario and these highlands are known as the Opeongo Hills, and they stretch into portions of Eastern Ontario as well. The climate of this area is a Humid continental climate with seasonal variation moderated somewhat by the Great Lakes. Summers are warm and humid but are shorter than further south with generally cooler nights, winters are cold with significant snowfalls, some snowbelt areas receive an average of over 300 cm per year. Severe summer storms are also commonplace, particularly in Simcoe County which for Ontario has a high prevalence and was the site of the infamous Barrie Tornado in 1985Central Ontario – Lake Simcoe
35. Southwestern Ontario – Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario, centered on the city of London. To the east, on land, Southwestern Ontario is bounded by Central Ontario, the region had a population of 2,504,878 in 2011. Apart from London, other towns and cities in the area of Southwestern Ontario include Chatham, Ingersoll, Sarnia, St. Thomas, Tillsonburg, Windsor. Outside the core of Southwestern Ontario, cities located on or near the Grand River are also considered to be part of the extended Golden Horseshoe region that surrounds western Lake Ontario and they include Brantford, Cambridge, Guelph, Kitchener, and Waterloo. Two subregions are recognisable with Southwestern Ontario, the Bruce Peninsula and Georgian Bay shoreline, including Owen Sound and the Blue Mountains, are also part of the Georgian Triangle. Cities and towns located more immediately north of London, including Stratford, Goderich, Wingham, Mount Forest, Southwestern Ontario was first settled by Europeans in the early 18th century, when it was part of the Royal Province of New France. One of the oldest continuous settlements in the region is Windsor, late in the 20th century the Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo area became the populous metropolitan area in southwestern Ontario. Southwestern Ontario is an agricultural region whose chief crops are tobacco, sweet corn, soybean, winter wheat, canola. Dairy and beef farming, breeding and training of standardbred horses and wine growing and its climate is among the mildest in Canada. Although brief periods of winter can be severe, summers are hot, a large section of Southwestern Ontario was part of the Talbot Settlement, and the region has benefited from the settlement’s facilitation of agriculture and of trade in general. Its economy is tied in with that of the midwestern United States. Auto manufacturing and parts, agriculture and hi-tech industries are key components of the region’s economy, like other parts of southern Canada, the region brings warm or hot summers with normal thunderstorm occurrences. Some of these storms are severe, with damaging winds, hail and tornadoes all possible during peak season, the most likely areas for these kinds of weather events is within the Windsor - London corridor and north up to about Huron County. Winters are cold with snowfall in the south towards Essex County. London receives approximately 30% more snowfall than Windsor, owing to its position to Lake Huron. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of this area has a continental climate. Brant County Chatham–Kent Haldimand County Norfolk County City of Brantford City of Guelph City of London Town of St. Marys City of StSouthwestern Ontario – London, Ontario
36. Northeastern Ontario – Northeastern Ontario is a secondary region of Northern Ontario which lies north and east of Lakes Superior and Huron. Northeastern Ontario consists of the districts of Algoma, Sudbury, Cochrane, Timiskaming, Nipissing, for some purposes, Parry Sound District and Muskoka District Municipality are treated as part of Northeastern Ontario although they are geographically in Central Ontario. These two divisions are coloured in green on the map, Northeastern Ontario and Northwestern Ontario may also be grouped together as Northern Ontario.2 per cent in the northwest. They are Greater Sudbury, Sault Ste, marie, North Bay, Timmins, Elliot Lake and Temiskaming Shores. List of Ontario provincial parks in Northeastern OntarioNortheastern Ontario – ██ Core area ██ Extended area
37. Northwestern Ontario – Northwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Northern Ontario which lies north and west of Lake Superior, and west of Hudson Bay and James Bay. It includes most of subarctic Ontario and its western boundary is the Canadian province of Manitoba, which disputed Ontarios claim to the western part of the region. Ontarios right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884, for some purposes, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario are treated as separate regions, while for other purposes they are grouped together as Northern Ontario. Northwestern Ontario consists of the districts of Kenora, Rainy River and Thunder Bay, major communities in the region include Thunder Bay, Kenora, Dryden, Fort Frances, Sioux Lookout, Greenstone, Red Lake, Marathon, and Atikokan. There are also several dozen First Nations in Northwestern Ontario, Northwestern Ontario is divided between the Eastern Time Zone and the Central Time Zone. Northwestern Ontario is the provinces most sparsely populated region —54 per cent of the entire population lives in the Thunder Bay census metropolitan area alone. Aside from the city of Thunder Bay, Kenora is the other municipality in the entire region with a population of greater than 10,000 people. Northwestern Ontarians tend to lean left politically, mainly due to the history and influence of unions, a growing environmental ethic. At the federal level, Northwestern Ontario is represented by Liberal MPs Bob Nault in the Kenora District, Don Rusnak in Thunder Bay—Rainy River, provincially, NDP Sarah Campbell represents Kenora—Rainy River while Liberals Bill Mauro and Michael Gravelle represent Thunder Bay—Atikokan and Thunder Bay—Superior North respectively. In 2005, some residents of the region expressed dissatisfaction at the level of attention paid to the region by the provincial government, Northern Ontario Northeastern Ontario Gateway to Northwestern Ontario HistoryNorthwestern Ontario – Kenora
38. Bruce County – Bruce County, located in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, is named for James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, sixth Governor General of the Province of Canada. The Bruce name is linked to the Bruce Trail and the Bruce Peninsula. The best way to describe the Bruce is geographically and it has three distinct areas all featuring unique attributes. The Peninsula is part of the Niagara Escarpment and is known for its views, rock formations, cliffs. The Lakeshore includes nearly a hundred kilometers of water and soft sandy beaches. It was originally part of the Huron District, which was constituted as the United Counties of Huron, Perth, the County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time, and was separated from the United Counties in 1853. The United Counties was dissolved in 1867, with the subsequent separation of Bruce County, the County of Bruce is governed by a council consisting of a warden and mayors of the area municipalities. County council meetings are held in the Bruce County Administration building in Walkerton, the function of the Business to Bruce Program is to support business development, business recruitment and business enhancement. Explore the Bruce, a tourism sub-brand of Bruce County, markets, explore the Bruce runs the annual Adventure Passport program. This program is a Bruce County-wide scavenger hunt that takes participants off the track in Bruce County. It takes place from May 1st until October 31st each year and families, couples, in 2015, the Adventure Passport program was presented with a Tourism Marketing Campaign Award at the Ontario Tourism Summit in TorontoBruce County – Bruce County Museum and Archives
39. Frontenac County, Ontario – Frontenac County is a county and census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is located in the portion of Southern Ontario. The city of Kingston is in the Frontenac census division, but is separated from the County of Frontenac, politically, the County of Frontenac is an upper tier municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario. The management unit became a county again in 2003, County Council includes two representatives from each township. The mayor of South Frontenac receives a vote, making it an eight member. Children attend schools part of the Limestone District School Board, based in the City of Kingston, the figures below are for the Frontenac census division, which combines Frontenac County and Kingston. County of a Thousand Lakes, The History of the County of Frontenac, ross, Alec & John De Visser. Erin ON, Boston Mills Press,2009, meacham, J. H. Illustrated Historical Atlas of Frontenac, Lennox, and Addington Counties. Toronto,1878, reprint ed. Belleville, Mika,1971, Ontario, Canada Frontenac Maps, County GIS Web Mapping Directions for Our FutureFrontenac County, Ontario – Location of Frontenac County
40. Haliburton County – Haliburton is a county of Ontario, Canada, known as a tourist and cottage area in Central Ontario for its scenery and for its resident artists. Minden Hills is the county seat, Haliburton County and the village of Haliburton are named after Thomas Chandler Haliburton, author, statesman, and the first chairman of the Canadian Land and Emigration Company. The county borders Algonquin Park on the north, Haliburton County is dubbed the Haliburton Highlands. Haliburton County is spotted with many rivers and lakes, included endorheic lakes fueled by natural springs, the ratio of properties occupied in the summer months, to properties occupied year-round is about 3 to 1. Years ago it catered to hundreds staying on site during the summer months and it closed permanently around 2009 -2010, and has only recently been purchased by Gary Bouwmeister, owner of Bouwmeister Landscaping. The creative economy is alive and well in Haliburton, the county is serviced by two hospitals, one in Haliburton and one in Minden. Both are administrated by Haliburton Highlands Health Services, Haliburton County is part of the Trillium Lakelands District School Board. Elementary Minden Hills Archie Stouffer Elementary School - Grades K-8 Dysart et al, stuart W. Baker Elementary School - French Immersion, Grades K-3 J. Peters ACHS College School - Boys Catholic Elementary School The Haliburton Highlands is home to a thriving arts community. The county is dotted by galleries, both public and private, offering events, programs and workshops to the public, artists’ studios can be found in almost every community, many offering public demonstrations, small galleries, and classes. There are murals and public sculptures in the downtowns of most communities, the county is home to the renowned Haliburton Sculpture Forest, a unique outdoor collection of sculptures by Canadian and international artists. The Highlands are also home to the renowned Haliburton School of The Art + Design of Fleming College, students come from across Canada as well as internationally to immerse themselves in the unique art offerings of the Haliburton Campus. HSAD also offers over 300 courses in the Spring-Summer program which attracts nearly 3000 students of all ages to the area during the tourism season. Many local artists are involved in the school as part-time faculty, the Haliburton Campus also offers a post-graduate certificate in Expressive Arts. The Campus also has an emphasis on education and offers certificates in Sustainable Building and Construction. The Renovation program revitalized the Haliburton Highlands Museum, many buildings throughout the county are designated heritage sites by the province, and many others undergoing preservation through the interests of the public. The performing arts also receive much attention, Haliburton Highlands Secondary School has strong drama and music programs, showcasing their talents throughout the year to the public. As well, the Highlands Summer Festival presents an array of theatre offerings throughout the summer, showcasing the talents of local and seasonally local actors. Numerous indie bands perform throughout the county, with open mic events being held at a number of establishments, Haliburton is also home to the Creative Business IncubatorHaliburton County – Haliburton village
41. Hastings County – Hastings County is located in the province of Ontario, Canada. It is The Cheese Capital of Canada, geographically, it is located on the border of Eastern Ontario and Central Ontario. Hastings County is the second largest county in Ontario, the county seat is Belleville, which is independent of Hastings County. The first boundaries of Hastings County were established 1792 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, the southern boundary was the Bay of Quinte, the eastern boundary was Lennox County and the western boundary ran from the Trent River to the Ottawa River, in a triangular shape. The County consisted of Sidney, Thurlow, Rawdon, Huntingdon, the area was named for Francis Rawdon-Hastings. Three new townships, Elzevir, Madoc and Marmora were created in 1821 and on Monday, the largest prize paid was to Captain Daniel Ostrom of Sydney at $20 and Ruliff Purdy of Sidney received the most prizes totaling $106.50. While in this time agriculture was the most important industry in Hastings County, prominent citizens of Hastings County and Ameliasburgh Township unsuccessfully petitioned the provincial government for district status during 1817,1818,1823 and 1825. Belleville was named the countys District Town, from 1839 until 1849, Hastings County was renamed Victoria District after Queen Victoria. By 1841 the district had access to local courts but no government was in place. On February 8,1842 the Victoria Districts first council met under warden William Hutton, during much of this time roads and bridges were the most important issues the council dealt with. Edward Fidlar became the first warden of Hastings County with their first meeting on January 28,1850, by this time the Hastings County Council was also interested in education and the building of the railroad. On October 27,1856 the first railroad arrived in Belleville. In August 1866, discovery of gold at Eldorado, near Madoc, according to Barnes, gold has been found in twenty-seven locations spread over nine townships. The railroads and 170 miles of gravel roads opened these areas to settlement by 1880. In 1889 the Belleville Waterworks was created as a private company, in 1911, Hastings County was the first in the province to appoint a reforestation committee, which was instrumental in passing laws around county forests. Postal service began in the area in 1913, the figures below are for the Hastings census division, which combines Hastings County, Belleville and Quinte West, along with the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory. Previously Hastings County Board of Education operated public schools, there are 5 EMS stations in Hastings County with Hastings-Quinte EMS HQ located in Belleville, OntarioHastings County – The northern portion of Hastings County is characterized by the rugged landscape of the Madawaska Highlands.
42. Huron County, Ontario – Huron County is a county of the province of Ontario, Canada. It is located on the southeast shore of its namesake, Lake Huron, the county seat is Goderich, also the countys largest community. The population reported in the 2016 Census for this predominantly agricultural area with many villages, of the total population,7,628 reside in Goderich. What is now the county was originally the Huron District, which was constituted as the United Counties of Huron, Perth, the County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time, and was separated from the United Counties in 1853. The United Counties was dissolved in 1867, with the separation of Bruce County, the Huron County Council consists of fifteen members from the nine area municipalities to ensure that each is represented on this Council. Each year, a Warden is elected from the group, this individual chairs meetings, in 2017, the Reeve was Ben Van Diepenbeek from the Ashfield-Colborne-Wawanosh ward. Most of the population of the county resides in the Huron—Bruce, formerly Huron and Huron—Middlesex, the majority also reside in the Huron—Bruce formerly known as Huron and Huron—Middlesex. The Countys Official Plan addresses the issues, agriculture, community services, the economy, natural environment, extractive resources. Huron County comprises a single Statistics Canada census division, the population has been quite stable in recent yearsHuron County, Ontario – Entering Huron County on Highway 21
43. Lambton County – Lambton County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is bordered on the north by Lake Huron, which is drained by the St. Clair River, to the south is Lake Saint Clair and Chatham-Kent, another county in Ontario. Lambton Countys northeastern border follows the Ausable River and Parkhill Creek north until it reaches Lake Huron at the community of Grand Bend. The county seat is in the Town of Plympton-Wyoming, the largest city in Lambton County is Sarnia, which is located at the mouth of the St. Clair River. The two Blue Water Bridges cross the river at Sarnia, connecting it to Port Huron, Michigan, the bridges are one of the busiest border crossings between the two countries. The river is traversed by two passenger ferries further south, and a rail tunnel, also at Sarnia, runs underneath it. The CN rail tunnel accommodates double stacked rail cars, Lambton County started as a part of the District of Hesse. The district of Hesse included British territories west of Long Point, the district was later divided and renamed using English district names. Lambton was part of Kent county, in 1849 districts were abolished and the County of Lambton was formed. Lambton and Kent first shared the city of Sandwich. In 1852 the partnership was dissolved and Lambton become a full county and it is named in honour of the Earl of Durham who lived in Lambton Castle. City of Sarnia Municipality of Lambton Shores Town of Petrolia Town of Plympton–Wyoming Township of Brooke-Alvinston Township of Dawn-Euphemia Township of Enniskillen Township of St, total employment for Lambton County is 66,370. Of those,9,760 are employed in manufacturing,7,545 in retail trade,5,080 in accommodation and food services, petrochemical and refining is the largest manufacturing sector in Lambton Countys economy. Established during World War II, Sarnia and the area along the St. Clair River is home to a processing centre for oil from Alberta. Lambton County is the site of North Americas first drilled commercial oil well at Oil Springs in 1858, tourism is another important industry in Lambton County, especially along the lake and river. The part of Lambton County along Lake Huron known as Lambton Shores depends almost entirely upon the seasonal industries of tourism, Lambton County has 2,346 farms with a total of 592,793 acres. The largest single use of farmland in Lambton is crop production, over the last 20 years soybeans, wheat, and grain corn have accounted for over 80% of total area crop production in Lambton. The fourth and fifth leading crops are sugar beets and hay, oats, barley and mixed grains are also producedLambton County – An oil well near Sarnia
44. Perth County, Ontario – For the town in Lanark County, Ontario see Perth, Ontario. Perth County, in the Canadian province of Ontario, is located in Southwestern Ontario,100 kilometres west of Toronto and is large,2,218.46 square kilometers in size. The county seat is at Stratford, however, Stratford and the town of St. Marys, Ontario operate under their own municipal governments that are independent from the Countys government. The County, Townhships and independent entities enjoy a degree of collaboration and work together to growth the region as a leading location for industry. The Countys most recent Official Plan, excluding St. Marys, previously, each of the fourteen local municipalities in the County had a local Official Plan. The settlers were almost equal in number as to their origins, English, Irish, Scottish and they began arriving in the 1820s but the majority arrived in the 1830s and the 1840s. Most became farmers, and even today, the county is known for mixed farming, dairying and this area originally formed part of the Huron District, which was constituted as the United Counties of Huron, Perth and Bruce in 1850. The County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time and it had 11 original townships, Blanshard Township, area 45,952 acres. Opened in 1830 and named from Richard Blanshard, Director of the Canada Company, the township was opened for settlement in 1830 and named in honour of Robert Downie, M. P. one of the directors of the Canada Company. Named from Sir John Easthope, M. P, a Director of the Canada Company. Until 1843 the townships were one, opened in 1830 and named in honour of Rt. Hon. Edward Ellice, a Canadian-born director of the Canada Company and his father was managing director of the Hudsons Bay Company. Opened in 1849, although the first settlers, Samuel Boyd and George Code, came from the east, Lanark County, named in honour of Lady Elma Bruce, daughter of James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Governor-general of Canada. Opened in 1830 and named from John Fullarton, Director of the Canada Company, opened in 1830 and named in honour of William T. Hibbert, Director of the Canada Company. First settler was Thomas Fox who received 200 acres of land from the Company on the condition he open an inn for travelers on the Huron Road. Named in honour of Hart Logan, Director of the Canada Company and uncle of Sir William E. Logan, opened for settlement in 1845 and surveyed in 1850. Named in honour of Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, eldest brother of the Duke of Wellington, opened for settlement in 1849 and named in honour of Thomas, Baron Wallace, Vice-president of the British Board of Trade under Lord Goderich in 1820. In Downie, Ellice and Easthope Township, in 1831 William Sergeant was given a lot by the Canada Company on the condition that he open an innPerth County, Ontario – Location of Perth County
45. Peterborough County – Peterborough County is located in Southern Ontario, Canada. The county seat is Peterborough, which is independent of the county, the southern section of the county is mix of agriculture, urban and lakefront properties. The northern section of the county is sparsely populated wilderness with numerous rivers and lakes. The County contains the Lang Pioneer Village, and the Kawarthas are a major tourist region, the county was founded as the District of Colborne in 1838, centred on Peterborough, which became the County of Peterborough in 1850. In 1862, the County was redivided into Haliburton County, Peterborough County, the centre of the County was originally the courthouse, which is still considered an important historical site. The county was named in honor of Col. Peter Robinson, the route taken was by way of Port Hope, Rice Lake and the Otonabee River, the same route used by the first settlers that entered this region in 1818. The county was divided in these townships, Asphodel Township, Area,37,871 acres Opened in 1821. Belmont and Methuen Townships, Area 81,088 acres, Opened in 1823 but by 1842 had only 33 householders, Townships were mainly rock, lake and stream. Burleigh and Anstruther Townships, Taxable area,32,160 acres, First Post Office was called Burleigh. Separated from Dummer Township in 1865, Opened n 1862 and named from one of the title of the Duke of Buckingham Douro Township, area 34,446 acres. Opened in 1821 and named in honor of one of the battles in the Peninsula, Opened in 1821 and named in honor of William Dummer Powell, Chief Justice of Upper Canada. A Colony of immigrants came in 1831, of whom 150 were sent out by the Marquis of Bath, Opened in 1829 and named in honor of William Hare, Viscount Ennismore, M. P. For Cork who died in 1827, originally it was called Emily Gore. Galway and Cavendish Townships, Assessed Area 57,218 acres, Opened in 1857 and 1862 respectively. Opened in 1821 and named after Sir John Harvey, Deputy Adjutant General in Canada during the War of 1812, was part of Smith township until 1866. First settler were retired officers who come in 1832, but did not succeed, Opened in 1820 and named from the River. The word in Indian signifies a delta, settled in October 1819 by Allen Otty. The figures below are for the Peterborough census division, which combines Peterborough County, the City of Peterborough, statistics for Peterborough County—without Peterborough and the First Nations reserves—are, Land area,3,769.29 square kilometres Population,54,870 Density,14Peterborough County – Rural scene, Peterborough County, near Lakefield, Ontario
46. Renfrew County – Renfrew is a county in the Canadian province of Ontario. There are 17 municipalities in the county, the seat of county government is in Pembroke, a city that is politically independent of the county. In 2006, the county – along with Pembroke – was represented at the Canadian House of Commons as part of the riding of Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke, Renfrew County is known for its lakeside cottages and white-water rafting along the Ottawa River, and has more than 900 lakes. It is located in the subregion of Southern Ontario named Eastern Ontario, Renfrew County is also the largest county in terms of area in Ontario, ahead of Hastings County. At Wilno, Ontario Canadas Kashubian community celebrates their heritage, the county is home to CFB Petawawa and gives its name to The Lanark and Renfrew Scottish RegimentRenfrew County – The administration building of the county government
47. Wellington County, Ontario – Wellington County is a county located in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The County, which is made up of two towns and five townships, is rural in nature. However many of its residents commute to Guelph, Kitchener, Brampton, Mississauga, according to the 2016 Census, the population of the County, including the City of Guelph, was 222,726. In 1837 by Act of Parliament the new District of Wellington was formed, the District was named after Englands Duke of Wellington and initially included the counties of Wellington, Waterloo, Grey and parts of Dufferin. Opened in 1835, it was named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Community centres, Arthur, Kenilworth and Mount Forest. The name is an attempt to render in English the Indian un-ne-mo-sa, Community centres, Eden Mills and Rockwood. Erin, area 70,557 acres, opened in 1820, Community centres, Erin, Hillsburgh, Mimosa West Garafraxa, area 46,950 acres, name is believed to be from an Indian word meaning the place of panthers. Community centres, Fergus, Reading, Metz and Garafraxa Guelph Township, Opened on April 23,1827 by John Galt on behalf of the Canada Company. Opened in 1821 and named after the leader of the Reformation in Germany, Community centres, Monck, Stonywood, Damascus and Arthur. Opened in 1840 and named after a brother of the Duke of Wellington, Baron Maryborough, Community centres, Drayton, Moorefield and Rothsay. Minto, area 69,927 acres Opened in 1840 and named after the Earl of Minto, settled mainly between 1861 and 1875. Comummnity centres, Harriston, Palmerston, and Clifford, Nichol, area 26,996 acres One of the townships leased by Joseph Brant under power of attorney for the Indians of the Grand River region. The Township was granted to Hon. Thomas Clark on a lease of 999 years for 3,564, the Township was opened for settlement in 1822. Named in honour of Col Robert Nichol of Norfolk who distinguished himself in the War of 1812, Community centres, Elora, Fergus, Salem and Barnet. Peel, area 74,525 acres, Opened in 1835, settled mainly between 1850 and 1853. Community centres, Drayton, Glenallan, Goldstone and Alma, Pilkington, area 28,983 acres named in honour of Lieutenant Robert Pilkington who accompanied John Graves Simcoe to Upper Canada. Pilkington acquired 20,000 acres of land, Community Centre, Elora in Nichol Township. Puslinch, area 58,291 acres Named from Pushlinch in Devonshire, by January 1854, Wellington County became an individual entityWellington County, Ontario – Wellington County Museum in Fergus
48. Algoma District – Algoma District is a district and census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. The district seat has been Sault Ste, as the population grew and the northern and northwestern boundaries of Ontario were determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Algoma shrank. They rented a boxcar from the Algoma Central Railway to travel on excursions through this region, communities within these subdivisions are added in parentheses. Eastern white pine and occasional red pine dominate on the upper, steep south-facing slopes, white spruce, eastern white cedar, and balsam fir occupy the middle and lower slopes. A white spruce–balsam fir association, which includes white birch and black spruce, is prominent on the river terraces. Algoma Central Railway - Agawa Canyon Algoma University Fire Tower Lookout Fort St. Joseph National Historic Site High Falls of the Michipicoten River Mount Dufour Ski Resort Sault Ste, list of townships in Ontario Algoma Districts Historic Bridges Ontarios Algoma CountryAlgoma District – Location of Algoma District in Ontario
49. Cochrane District – Cochrane District, Ontario is a district and census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was created in 1921 from parts of Timiskaming and Thunder Bay districts, in 2011, the population was 81,122. The land area of district is 141,270.41 square kilometres, making it slightly smaller than the US State of Michigan. Ben Nevis Gardiner List of townships in OntarioCochrane District – Location of Cochrane District in Ontario
50. Kenora District – Kenora District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. It was created in 1907 from parts of Rainy River District, Kenora District also has the lowest population density of any of Ontarios census divisions, and it ranks 40th out of 50 by population. The district seat is the City of Kenora, the northern part, north of the Albany River and known sometimes as the Patricia Portion, became part of Ontario in 1912. It was originally designated as the separate Patricia District, but was added to the Kenora District in 1937, as with the other districts of Northern Ontario, Kenora District has no equivalent to the county or regional municipality level of government that exists in Southern Ontario. All government services in the district are provided by the local municipalities, by local services boards in some unincorporated communities. This is the southernmost point in the Northern Hemisphere reached by the line of continuous permafrost on any continent. The Kenora District is so large that it shares a border with both the contiguous United States and the Canadian Arctic waters, the only district in Canada to do so. The Kenora District contains the Sturgeon Lake Caldera, which is one of the worlds best preserved Neoarchean caldera complexes and is some 2.7 billion years old, the settlement of Gold Rock served 14 area mines. These included the Big Master, Laurentian, Detola and Elora, according to Barnes, Approximately 180,000 ounces of gold was won from 27 mines in the Kenora district from 1880 to 1976, with over 331 known gold occurrences. Most of the population of the district is concentrated in the south where some agriculture is possible. Traditional native activities such as hunting and fishing dominate the northern half of the district outside of the few mining settlements, a major mining exploration project is currently underway in the Ring of Fire region, centred on the districts isolated McFaulds Lake. Year-round air and summertime river transport are the means of reaching the most remote parts of the district. The major railroad lines between Toronto and British Columbia passes through the south of the district and this area was originally a separate division named Patricia District, but became part of Kenora District in 1937. Accordingly, the name Patricia Portion is still used to distinguish the area from the more populated southern portion of the district. List of Ontario Census Divisions List of townships in OntarioKenora District – Location of Kenora District in Ontario
51. Manitoulin District – Manitoulin District is a district in Northeastern Ontario within the Canadian province of Ontario. It was created in 1888 from part of Algoma District, the district seat is Gore Bay. It comprises Manitoulin Island primarily, as well as a number of islands surrounding it, such as Barrie, Cockburn. Previously it included the municipality of Killarney on the mainland, until this was transferred to Sudbury District in the late 1990s, the district has an area of 3,107.11 square kilometres, making it the smallest district in Ontario. It is located in the part of Lake Huron, separated from the mainland by the North Channel to the north. All services in the district are provided either by the municipalities or directly by the provincial government. Services are provided jointly with the Sudbury District from its seat in Espanola. Manitoulin Streams Improvement Association - A not for profit group that rehabilitates streams rivers, Manitoulin District is served by only one primary provincial highway, Highway 6. It exits the district in the Whitefish River First Nation, just south of Whitefish Falls, a number of secondary provincial highways, the equivalent in a district to a county or municipal road in Southern Ontario, serve the communities of Manitoulin IslandManitoulin District – Gore Bay
52. Rainy River District – Rainy River District is a district and census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is the division in Ontario that lies completely in the Central time zone. It is known for its fishing and its location on the USA border opposite International Falls, Minnesota and Baudette, in 2011, the population was 20,370. The land area is 15,484.83 square kilometres, List of Ontario Census Divisions Quetico Provincial Park Rainy River District Social Services Administration Board List of townships in OntarioRainy River District – Sunset in Quetico Provincial Park.
53. Regional Municipality of Durham – It has an area of approximately 2,500 square kilometres. The regional government is headquartered in Whitby, the southern portion of the region, on Lake Ontario is primarily suburban in nature, forming the eastern end of the 905 belt of suburbs around Toronto. The northern area comprises rural areas and small towns, west Rouge was transferred from Pickering over to Scarborough, Ontario prior to creation of Durham Region in 1974 and now part of Toronto. See Durham Regional Council The Region of Durham was established in 1974 as one of new regional governments in the Province of Ontario. In addition, the region was proposed to further east to include Hope Township and the town of Port Hope. Under the Köppen climate classification, the Durham Region has a continental climate. The regional government, within its area, has sole responsibility for the following. Durham Region is a centre of the Canadian automobile industry. Oshawa is the Canadian headquarters of General Motors and home of GMs largest plant in North America, in addition, the Canadian headquarters of Volkswagen is located in the region, BMW was located in the region until moving to Richmond Hill in 2010. The worldwide recession and spike in oil prices resulted in layoffs at GM beginning in 2008. This dramatically reduced employment levels at GM, and also resulted in significant employment losses and closures in the parts industry. While a number of models are produced in Oshawa, concerns remain about GMs long-term future as a manufacturer in Canada as no production is currently slated for Oshawa beyond 2016. Ontario Power Generation is also an employer in the region. Highway 407, a privately owned toll freeway, enters the south of Highway 7. This route travels generally parallel to Highway 7, ending at Durham Regional Road 33, Highway 412, part of the Highway 407E project, connects south to Highway 401 parallel and east of Durham Regional Road 23. By 2020 Highway 407 will run all the way to Highway 35/115 in the east, Highway 7 Highway 7A Highway 12 Highway 35 Highway 48 Highway 115 Highway 2 Highway 47 Note, This is the only region of the Greater Toronto Area where the Trans Canada Highway passes through. This is a holdover from the structure in which the area now forming Clarington was part of Durham County. Neither school board is a division of the regional governmentRegional Municipality of Durham – Map showing Durham Region's location in Ontario
54. Regional Municipality of Waterloo – The Regional Municipality of Waterloo is a regional municipality located in Southern Ontario, Canada. It consists of the cities of Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge, and the townships of Wellesley, Woolwich, Wilmot and it is often referred to as the Region of Waterloo or Waterloo Region. The region is 1,369 square kilometres in size and its seat of government is in Kitchener. The Regions population was 535,154 at the 2016 census, the Region was preceded by Waterloo County, Ontario, created in 1853 and dissolved in 1973. That entity consisted of five townships, Woolwich, Wellesley, Wilmot, Waterloo, during the 16th and 17th centuries, the area was inhabited by the Iroquoian speaking Attawandaron nation. After the invasion of the Six Nations into the Grand River Valley, any dispersed survivors were taken captive or escaped to other tribes such as the Mississaugas and were assimilated into that culture. There are no distinct Attawandarons today, the Iroquois settled in the lower Grand River Valley, and sold parts of the land which was part of Waterloo Township to Colonel Richard Beasley, a United Empire Loyalist. Another developer was William Dickson who, in 1816, came into possession of 90,000 acres of land along the Grand River that was later to make up North and South Dumfries Townships. William Dickson of Niagara purchased land in the township of North Dumfries and South Dumfries which would become much of what is now Cambridge, Ontario. It was Dicksons intention to divide the land into lots that would be sold primarily to the Scottish settlers that he hoped to attract to Canada. They chose the site where Mill Creek flows into the Grand River, the new settlement grew slowly but by 1825, though still very small, was the largest settlement in the area and was important enough to obtain a post office. Dickson decided that a new name was needed for the Post Office and consequently the settlement and he chose Galt in honour of the Scottish novelist and Commissioner of the Canada Company, the settlers resisted the introduction of the new name preferring the more familiar Shades Mills. However, after Galt visited Dickson in the settlement in 1827 the name Galt received more widespread acceptance, in its early days Galt was an agricultural community serving the needs of the farmers in the surrounding countryside. By the late 1830s, however, the settlement began to develop an industrial capacity, Galt was the largest and most important town in the area until the beginning of the 20th century when it was finally overtaken by Kitchener. Settlement of the what became the Township of Waterloo and later, Waterloo County, Ontario, among the first settlers, Joseph Schoerg and Samuel Betzner, Jr. Mennonites, arrived from Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Other settlers followed mostly from Pennsylvania typically by Conestoga wagons, the early group purchased land from Richard Beasley who had acquired it from the Six Nations. The first school was begun in 1802 near the village of Blair, the tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least 400 acres in size. The majority of the settlers before about 1830 were Mennonites from Pennsylvania and they were often called Pennsylvania Dutch although they were actually Deutsch, GermanRegional Municipality of Waterloo – Region of Waterloo Headquarters in Kitchener
55. Regional Municipality of York – The Regional Municipality of York, also called York Region, is a regional municipality in Southern Ontario, Canada, between Lake Simcoe and Toronto. It replaced the former York County in 1971, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area, the regional government is headquartered in Newmarket. The 2011 census population was 1,032,524, surpassing the mark of one million. At the Canada 2011 Census,53,989 residents inhabited rural areas in the municipality,67,551 resided in urban areas. Its growth rate of 15. 7% from 2006 to 2011 was the sixth highest amongst all census divisions in Canada, and the Government of Ontario expects its population to surpass 1.5 million residents by 2031. At a meeting in Richmond Hill on 6 May 1970, officials representing the municipalities of York County approved plans for the creation of a government entity to replace York County. The plan had been presented in 1969 by Darcy McKeough, the Ontario Minister of Municipal Affairs, the Regional Municipality of York was created by Act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1970, which took effect on January 1,1971. The eastern boundary of the new town of Markham was defined to be at Yonge Street, the townships of Georgina, North Gwillimbury, and Sutton were merged into the township of Georgina, and the East Gwillimbury neighbourhood of East Gwillimbury Heights was merged into Newmarket. The boundary between Aurora and Newmarket was defined to be St. Johns Sideroad, and Newmarkets northern boundary was defined to be Green Lane. The growth centres were each restricted to grow to a population of 25,000 by 2000. The municipal realignment merged 40% of East Gwillimburys population into Newmarket, the council of East Gwillimbury voted to amalgamate with Newmarket, but Newmarket council opposed the amalgamation. In the plan presented by McKeough, the councils of the towns of Newmarket, the internal municipal realignments resulted in some politicians residing in a new municipality from that which they represented at the time of realignment. York Region covers 1,762 square kilometres from Lake Simcoe in the north to the city of Toronto in the south and its eastern border is shared with Durham Region, to the west is Peel Region, and Simcoe County is to the northwest. A detailed map of the region showing its major roads, communities, York Regions landscape includes farmlands, wetlands and kettle lakes, the Oak Ridges Moraine and over 2,070 hectares of regional forest, in addition to the built-up areas of its municipalities. York Region is situated on a continental climate with warm summers. The region is governed by a known as York Regional Council. Wayne Emmerson, a mayor of Whitchurch-Stouffville, was elected to this office in December,2014. In October 2008, the York Regional Municipality was named one of Greater Torontos Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc, the economy of York Region is diverseRegional Municipality of York – The York Region Administrative Centre in Newmarket
56. List of municipalities in Ontario – Ontario is the most populous province in Canada with 12,851,821 residents as of 2011 and is third-largest in land area at 908,608 km2. Ontarios 444 municipalities cover only 7001170000000000000♠17% of the land mass yet are home to 7001990000000000000♠99% of its population. These municipalities provide local or regional municipal government services within either a single-tier or shared two-tier municipal structure, a municipality in Ontario is a geographic area whose inhabitants are incorporated according to the Municipal Act,2001. Ontarios three municipality types include upper and lower-tier municipalities within the structure and single-tier municipalities that are exempt from the two-tier structure. Single and lower-tier municipalities are grouped together as local municipalities, of Ontarios 444 municipalities,30 of them are upper-tier municipalities and 414 are local municipalities —241 lower-tier municipalities and 173 single-tier municipalities. The Municipal Act,2001 provides lower and single-tier municipalities with the authority to incorporate as cities, towns, villages, townships, there are no minimum population thresholds or other requirements for these municipal sub-types. A municipality can change its status to any of these so long as its name is not being used by another municipality. For upper-tier municipalities, the act provides them with the authority to incorporate as counties, regions and district municipalities. Ontarios largest municipality by population is the City of Toronto with 2,731,571 residents, the City of Ottawa, Canadas capital city, is the provinces second-most populous municipality with 934,243 residents. Ontarios smallest municipality by population is the Township of Cockburn Island with 0 residents, the first community to incorporate as a municipality in Ontario was Brockville in 1832. Ontarios Municipal Act,2001 defines upper-municipality as a municipality of which two or more lower-tier municipalities form part for municipal purposes. Ontario has 30 upper-tier municipalities that comprise multiple lower-tier municipalities, which have a population of 6,261,245. These upper-tier municipalities include 19 counties,3 united counties and 8 regional municipalities or regions, Ontarios Municipal Act,2001 defines local municipality as a single-tier municipality or a lower-tier municipality. Combined, Ontario has 414 local municipalities comprising 173 single-tier municipalities and 241 lower-tier municipalities, the 414 local municipalities have a total population of 13,357,197, a total land area of 155,653 km2 and an average population of 32,264. These totals represent 7001993000000000000♠99. 3% of Ontarios population and 7001171000000000000♠17. 1% of its land area, Ontarios Municipal Act,2001 defines single-municipality as a municipality, other than an upper-tier municipality, that does not form part of an upper-tier municipality for municipal purposes. All municipalities in northern Ontario are single-tier municipalities as upper-tier municipalities are not present, single-tier municipalities provide for all local government services. Ontario has 173 single-tier municipalities comprising 32 cities,23 municipalities,28 towns,85 townships, Ontarios Municipal Act,2001 defines lower-tier municipality as a municipality that forms part of an upper-tier municipality for municipal purposes. Ontario has 241 lower-tier municipalities comprising 19 cities,39 municipalities,62 towns,115 townships and 6 villages, within regions, they are responsible for providing certain local services that are not provided by the regional municipalityList of municipalities in Ontario – Toronto is Ontario's capital and most populous municipality.
57. County of Brant – For the provincial electoral district known as Brant County, see Brant. The County of Brant is a municipality in the Canadian province of Ontario. Despite its name, it is no longer a county by definition, the county has service offices in Burford, Paris and St. George. It is a rural municipality in Southern Ontario. The largest population centre is Paris, the County is bordered by the Region of Waterloo, the City of Hamilton, Haldimand County, Norfolk County, and Oxford County. The city of Brantford is independent of the County and has its own municipal government, the Brant census division, which includes Brantford and the Six Nations and New Credit reserves, along with the County of Brant, had a population of 134,808 in the 2016 census. In addition to Brantford, population centres in Brant are Paris, St. George, the area had previously been part of Wentworth & Oxford County. Brant County was formed in 1851 and originally consisted of, Brantford Township, the township was organized in 1840. First of the townships to have settlers. Surveyed in 1793, four families settled on the land before 1800, originally called the Townsend Gore, then the Burford Gore, but organized a separate municipality in 1850. The formal surrender of the township by the Indians did not take place until 1839, south Dumfries Township, Area 46,265 acres. In 1999, the county was reorganized and all its individual municipalities, as of December 31,1998, all of the original townships were still intact, except for the incorporation of the Town of Paris. Erected by the provincial and federal governments, historic plaques and monuments in Brant County indicate a long, the famed Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant and the Mohawk people of New York state served with the British during the American Revolution. In 1784, the Crown granted Joseph Brant and his followers a land treaty along the Grand River to replace what they had lost in New York State at the Sandusky Council after the Revolution. As chief of the tribes, Brant led his people to Upper Canada. Nearly a century later, the Joseph Brant Memorial would be erected in Burlington, Ontario in honour of Brant, in 1904 the chapel received Royal status by King Edward VII in memory of the longstanding alliance. Her Majestys Royal Chapel of the Mohawks is an important reminder of the agreements made with Queen Anne in 1710. It is still in use today as one of two royal Chapels in Canada and the oldest Protestant Church in the province, Joseph Brant and his son John Brant are buried hereCounty of Brant – Paris, Ontario
58. Brantford – Brantford is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada, founded on the Grand River. It is the seat of Brant County, but it is politically separate with a government independent of the county, Brantford is sometimes known as the Telephone City, former city resident Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone at his fathers home, the Bell Homestead. In 1876 he conducted the first long-distance telephone call, making it from Brantford to Paris, Brantford is also the birthplace of hockey player Wayne Gretzky, comedian Phil Hartman, as well as Group of Seven member Lawren Harris. Brantford is named after Joseph Brant, an important Mohawk chief during the American Revolutionary War and later, many of his and other First Nations citizens live on the neighbouring reserve of Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, the most populous reserve in Canada. This town, like the rest of their settlements, was destroyed when the Iroquois declared war in 1650 over the fur trade, in 1784, Captain Joseph Brant and the Six Nations Indians of the Iroquois Confederacy left New York State for Canada. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a land grant, referred to as the Haldimand Tract. The original Mohawk settlement was on the edge of the present-day city at a location favourable for landing canoes. Brants crossing of the river gave the name to the area. By 1847, European settlers began to further up the river at a ford in the Grand River. The Mohawk Chapel, built in the original Mohawk settlement, is Ontarios oldest Protestant church, Brantford was incorporated as a city in 1877. The history of the Brantford region from 1793 to 1920 is described at length in the book At The Forks of The Grand, decades later and particularly since the late 20th century, numerous scholarly and artistic works have explored the detrimental effects of the schools in destroying Native cultures. Healing the Legacy of the Residential Schools, a number of historic monuments have been erected within the city marking those events and Brantfords contributions to the Commonwealths defense of the realm. Her Majestys Royal Chapel of the Mohawks is located in Brantford and is an important reminder of the agreements made with Queen Anne in 1710. After the American Revolution, in 1784, Sir Frederick Haldimond granted the Six Nations their land treaty which was six miles on side of the river from the mouth to the source. Joseph Brant led a group of Six Nations members to new settlement called the Mohawk Village, the Mohawk Chapel was built in 1785 as a reminder of the original agreements made with the British. In 1904 the Mohawk Chapel received Royal status for the alliance between the British and Six Nations. He developed early improvements to it in 1876, as part of the invention and development of the telephone, Canadas first telephone factory was built here, and the city was called Brantford, The Telephone City. These buildings constituted one of the longest blocks of pre-Confederation architecture in Canada, included in the list of demolitions were one of Ontarios first grocery stores and an early 1890s office of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada, now Bell CanadaBrantford – Brantford
59. Chatham-Kent – Chatham-Kent is a single-tier municipality in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Mostly rural, its population centres are Chatham, Wallaceburg, Tilbury, Blenheim, Ridgetown, Wheatley, the current Municipality of Chatham-Kent was created in 1998 by the merger of Kent County and its municipalities. The former city of Chatham began as a dockyard in the 1790s. The town was named after the Earl of Chatham, William Pitt and it was built as a naval dockyard, a characteristic shared by Chatham, Kent, England. In England, the name Chatham came from the British root ceto, following the American Revolution and the Gnadenhutten Massacre, a group of Christian Munsee Indians settled in what is now Moraviantown. In the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames took place between Moraviantown and Thamesville on October 5,1813, during the 19th century, the area was part of the Underground Railroad. As a result, Chatham-Kent is now part of the African-Canadian Heritage Tour, uncle Toms Cabin Historic Site is a museum of the Dawn Settlement, established in 1841 by Josiah Henson near Dresden as refuge for the many slaves who escaped to Canada from the United States. John Brown, the abolitionist, planned his raid on the Harpers Ferry Virginia Arsenal in Chatham, the small village of North Buxton, part of the African Canadian Heritage Tour, also played an important role in the Underground Railroad. Kent County consisted of the townships of Camden, Chatham, Dover, Harwich, Howard, Orford, Raleigh, Romney, Tilbury East, in 1998 the County of Kent and the city of Chatham were amalgamated to form the Municipality of Chatham–Kent. Since then, bus service has begun to serve all of Chatham-Kent, starting in 2007, routes were set up to include the former towns of Wallaceburg and Dresden. Before 1998, each town had their own fire department and it then became the Chatham-Kent Fire Department upon amalgamation. The county also had separate police departments until 1998, the city of Chatham, as well as the towns of Wallaceburg, Dresden, and Tilbury, each had their own departments. The Chatham-Kent Police Service was formed on September 1,1998, Chatham Kent has many historic festivals throughout the year such as the Battle of Longwoods reenactment, which takes place on Labour Day weekend at Fairfield Museum on Longwoods road. Chatham Kent is also home to historic buildings which are part of an annual ghost tour offered each year at Halloween. The participants go on a walk of downtown while the guide informs them of various ghost stories tied to the local buildings in which they pass. Chatham Kent was a part of the Underground Railroad and as such hosts the Buxton Homecoming each September. This celebrates the black culture and the roots laid by early black settlers in the Buxton area. At 2,458 square kilometres, Chatham-Kent is the 12th largest municipality by area in Canada, over 44,000 of the 107,000 residents live in the former City of ChathamChatham-Kent – Thames River in Chatham
60. Greater Sudbury – Greater Sudbury, commonly referred to as Sudbury, is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the largest city in Northern Ontario by population, with a population of 161,531 in the Canada 2016 Census, by land area, it is the largest city in Ontario and the seventh largest municipality by area in Canada. It is administratively a single-tier municipality, and thus not part of any district, county, Sudbury was founded following the discovery of nickel ore by Tom Flanagan, a Canadian Pacific Railway blacksmith in 1883, when the transcontinental railway was near completion. Greater Sudbury was formed in 2001 by merging the cities and towns of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury with several previously unincorporated geographic townships, the population resides in an urban core and many smaller communities scattered around 300 lakes and among hills of rock blackened by historical smelting activity. Sudbury was once a major centre and a world leader in nickel mining. Mining and related industries dominated the economy for much of the 20th century, the two major mining companies which shaped the history of Sudbury were Inco, now Vale Limited, which employed more than 25% of the population by the 1970s, and Falconbridge, now Glencore. Sudbury has since expanded from its economy to emerge as the major retail, economic, health. Sudbury is also home to a large Franco-Ontarian population that influences its arts, Sudbury has a humid continental climate with warm and often hot summers and long, cold, snowy winters. The Sudbury region was inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group as early as 9,000 years ago following the retreat of the last continental ice sheet. The land was first occupied by Europeans when the Jesuits established a mission called Sainte-Anne-des-Pins just before the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1883, the Sainte-Anne-des-Pins church played a prominent role in the development of Franco-Ontarian culture in the region. During construction of the railway in 1883, blasting and excavation revealed high concentrations of ore at Murray Mine on the edge of the Sudbury Basin. This discovery brought the first waves of European settlers, who arrived not only to reap the benefits of the mines, the community was named for Sudbury, Suffolk, in England, which was the hometown of Canadian Pacific Railway commissioner James Worthingtons wife. Sudbury was incorporated as a town in 1893, and its first mayor was Stephen Fournier, the construction of the railway allowed exploitation of these mineral resources as well as large-scale lumber extraction. Mining began to lumber as the primary industry as improvements to the areas transportation network, including trams, made it possible for workers to live in one community. Sudbury’s economy was dominated by the industry for much of the 20th century. Two major mining companies were created, Inco in 1902 and Falconbridge in 1928 and they became two of the city’s major employers and two of the worlds leading producers of nickel. Through the decades that followed, Sudburys economy went through boom, demand was high during the First World War when Sudbury-mined nickel was used extensively in the manufacturing of artillery in Sheffield, England. It bottomed out when the war ended and then again in the mid-1920s as peacetime uses for nickel began to developGreater Sudbury – From top left: Downtown Sudbury Skyline, Big Nickel, Bridge of Nations, Inco Superstack, Bell Park, and Science North
61. Haldimand County – Haldimand is a rural city-status single-tier municipality on the Niagara Peninsula in Southern Ontario, Canada, on the north shore of Lake Erie, and on the Grand River. Municipal offices are located in Cayuga, haldimands history has been closely associated with that of the neighbouring Norfolk County. Haldimand was first created as a county in 1800, from a portion of Norfolk and it was named after the governor of the Province of Quebec Sir Frederick Haldimand. In 1844 the land was surrendered by Six Nations to the Crown in an agreement that was signed by the vast majority of Chiefs in the Haldimand tract, see Norfolk County History for the period when Haldimand and Norfolk were governed as a single unit. The population centres in Haldimand are Caledonia, Dunnville, Hagersville, Jarvis, part of the Six Nations Reserve is within the geographic area of Haldimand County, but is independent of the county. Most of Haldimand is agricultural land, although heavy industry. The ghost towns of Cooks Station, Cranston, Dufferin, Erie, Indiana Lambs Corners, Lythmore, Sandusk, Upper, Haldimand County area 284,817 acres was formed from part of the land grant to the Six Nations in 1783. The County was purchased by treaty and opened for settlement in 1832. It was first settled by veterans of Butlers Rangers established there by Joseph Brant. A large number of Germans were among the first settlers, granted in 1794 by Joseph Brant to John Dochstader of Butlers Rangers. Purchased by Benjamin Canby in 1810 for 5,000, he named the village-site Canborough, Community centre, Canborough, Darling and it touches Dunnville Dunn, area 15,122 acres. Community centre, Dunnville Moulton, area 27,781 acres, landowner Henry John Boulton named the township from the Boulton family seat in England. Joseph Brant granted a 999 year lease of part of Oneida and Seneca townships to Henry Nelles, of Butlers Rangers and his sons, Robert, Abraham, William, Warner, Community centres were, Caledonia, Dufferin and Hagersville. Rainham, area 25,705 acres Community centres, Balmoral, Selkirk, Rainham Centre, Community centres, York and Caledonia Sherbrooke, area 5,098 acres, the smallest township in Ontario. Opened in 1825 and named from Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, a Governor-General of Canada, the Township was granted by the Indians to William Dickson as a professional fee. Community centres, Stromness and Port Maitland, Community centres were, Hagersville, Jarvis, Selkirk, Cheapside and Nanticoke. Note that a person can report more than one group, Fire services in the county is provided by the Haldimand County Fire Department which was created in 2001 following the separation of Haldimand and Norfolk. The department currently consists of 11 stations located throughout the countyHaldimand County – The Grand River Bridge, which carries Argyle St. over the Grand River in Caledonia.
62. Prince Edward County, Ontario – Prince Edward County is a single-tier municipality and a census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Long settled by peoples, the county has significant archeological sites. These include the LeVescounte Mounds of the Point Peninsula Complex people, the settlement for European-Canadians was facilitated when the county was created by Upper Canadas founding lieutenant-governor John Graves Simcoe on July 16,1792. It was named after Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent who was commander-in-chief of British North America, the county was originally composed of three townships named in honour of three of George IIIs daughters. For many years Prince Edward County has been associated with the wholly mainland Hastings County. Its longtime militia unit has been The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment and this noted nature author wrote And No Birds Sang, about his experiences with the Hasty Ps during the Second World Wars Italian Campaign. In 1998, all of the municipalities in Prince Edward County amalgamated to form a single-tier municipality as part of provincewide municipal restructuring. Each of the municipalities is now a ward. Prince Edward County is located in Southern Ontario on a large irregular headland or littoral at the end of Lake Ontario. This headland is surrounded on the north and east by the Bay of Quinte, as the Murray Canal now connects the bay to Lake Ontario across the only land connection, the county is technically an island. Murray Canal is crossed by 2 swing bridges, the single lane county road 64 bridge, Bay of Quinte is crossed by two, 2-lane bridges of about 850m length - one carrying Provincial Highway 62 near Belleville and the other about 24km east carrying Provincial Highway 49 near Deseronto. The lake effect from Lake Ontario results in heavier snowfall than in neighbouring counties, Prince Edward County is an island community encompassing approximately 1,000 square kilometres, with over 500 kilometres of shoreline with beaches and limestone rich soil. Despite the official name, Prince Edward is not a county by the standard Ontario definition — it is a municipal government with city status that handles all municipal services. Also in the summer is the renowned Jazz Festival which occurs in the month of August, some of Canadas most prolific jazz musicians gather in the county for this festival. Prince Edward County has become a vacation Mecca with Sandbanks Provincial Park, hotels, Motels, Bed & Breakfasts are abundant and mostly occupied during the summer months. In addition, many cottages are available such as those offered at Sandbanks Beach Resort, pECs main water attractions are its white, sand beaches. Together, Sandbanks Provincial Park, North Beach Provincial Park attract over 600,000 visitors yearly, the numerous campgrounds throughout the County also allow many tourists to enjoy watersports such as those offered through Westlake Wakeboarding School, kayaking, canoeing, tubing, and more. Beside the historic Crystal Palace is the County Youthpark and it provides a great location for people of all ages and interests to congregate, as a recent mini-documentary revealsPrince Edward County, Ontario – Indian Point of Cressy Point, easternmost point of Prince Edward County and entrance to the Bay of Quinte.
63. Belleville, Ontario – Belleville is a city located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in Southern Ontario, Canada, along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. It is the seat of Hastings County, but politically independent of it and it was renamed Belleville in honour of Lady Arabella Gore in 1816, after a visit to the settlement by Sir Francis Gore and his wife. Belleville became an important railway junction with the completion of the Grand Trunk Railway in 1855, in 1858 the iron bridge over the Moira River at Bridge Street became the first iron bridge in Hastings County. Bellevilles beautiful High Victorian Gothic city hall was built in 1872 to house the public market, the City Hall tower stands some 185 feet above street level. The Dixie Lee Fried Chicken chain and the Journeys End Corporation economy limited service hotel chain were both founded in the city, in 1998, the city was amalgamated with the surrounding Township of Thurlow to form an expanded City of Belleville as part of Ontario-wide municipal restructuring. The city also annexed portions of Quinte West to the west, Belleville is located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario between the cities of Quinte West to the west and Napanee to the east. Belleville is located in a zone which may be considered part of the Central Ontario or Eastern Ontario regions by different sources. Bellevilles climate has four distinct seasons, the Citys traditional continental climate is moderated by its location near Lake Ontario. The lake moderates temperature extremes, cooling hot summer days and warming cold days during the fall, as such, winter snowfall is somewhat limited due to the increased frequency of precipitation falling as rain during the winter months. In the summer months, severe thunderstorm activity is limited because of the non-favourable lake breeze conditions. The city, being located on the shore of Lake Ontario, is also in an unfavourable location for lake effect snow. One notable exception however, was in December 2010 when 14 cm of snow occurred in one day as a result of a band from Lake Ontario. The summer months do not typically experience exceedingly hot temperatures, however humidity levels can make daytime highs uncomfortable, summer rainfall is usually modest, and delivered by passing thunderstorms or warm fronts. Remnants of tropical systems do pass through on occasion towards summers end, the winter season is highly variable, with the record setting winter of 2007-08 experiencing near 270 cm of snow. Four years later, the winter of 2011-12 experienced only 60 cm of snow, winter temperatures are also highly variable, even in one season. Air masses change frequently, and while a few days may see above freezing temperatures at a time in January, autumn is usually mild, with an increase in precipitation starting in late September as conditions for fall storms develop. Recent years have had a tendency to bring almost snow free Novembers to the region, the highest temperature ever recorded in Belleville was 104 °F on 9 July 1936. The coldest temperature recorded was −39 °F on 9 February 1934Belleville, Ontario – Belleville skyline
64. Gananoque, Ontario – Gananoque is a town in the Leeds and Grenville area of Ontario, Canada. The Gananoque River flows through the town and the St. Lawrence River serves as the boundary of the town. The towns name is a name which means town on two rivers. The towns name rhymes with the place name Cataraqui, which appears in the Cataraqui River, the Little Cataraqui Creek, one way to remember its pronunciation is The right way, the wrong way, and the Gananoque. In eastern Ontario speech, the name is often abbreviated to Gan. Colonel Joel Stone, who served with Loyalist militia during the American Revolutionary War, land was granted to Col. Stone for use as a mill site. During the War of 1812, American forces raided the government depot in the town to disrupt the flow of British supplies between Kingston and Montreal, the stores seized consisted of half an ox, a few straw ticks, and a few blankets. The raiders seized the supplies they found and burned the depot, mrs. Stone reportedly protected her jewels from the invaders by hiding them in the flour at the mill. Within a month of the construction of the Gananoque Blockhouse was started. It had an octagonal log parapet containing five guns, the blockhouse was abandoned after the War of 1812 and given to a private landowner. Gananoque lies directly on three of Canadas busiest transportation routes, the four-lane Highway 401, the double-track Canadian National Railway main line, and it is also home to a rich provincial highway heritage, being home to the remaining stretch of Highway 2. It is the terminus of the Thousand Islands Parkway, and a short drive from the Thousand Islands Bridge. Gananoque is served by the Gananoque Airport for general aviation, in 1830, water was diverted near Newboro to the Cataraqui River as part of the Rideau Canal, sending this traffic instead to Kingston. A four-mile short line railroad once linked the main CN Rail tracks to the heart of the village, the Thousand Islands Railway terminated near the town hall. The current Chief of Police is Garry E. Harry W. Gananoque is referred to as the Gateway to the Thousand Islands, which lie next to it in the St. Lawrence River. The theatre company in Gananoque is The Thousand Islands Playhouse which operates two theatre spaces, The Springer Theatre, and the Firehall Theatre, attracting international attention since 1982. Town of Gananoque Town of Gananoque community web portal Ontarios Official Ultimate Fishing Town 1000 Islands Heritage Museum InGananoque OurGananoque, Mobile Friendly Business DirectoryGananoque, Ontario – King Street, the main road in Gananoque
65. London, Ontario – London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor. The city has a population of 383,822 according to the 2016 Canadian census, London is at the confluence of the Thames River, approximately halfway between Toronto, Ontario and Detroit, Michigan. The City of London is a municipality, politically separate from Middlesex County. London and the Thames were named in 1793 by John Graves Simcoe, the first European settlement was between 1801 and 1804 by Peter Hagerman. The village was founded in 1826 and incorporated in 1855, since then, London has grown to be the largest Southwestern Ontario municipality and Canadas 11th largest metropolitan area, having annexed many of the smaller communities that surrounded it. London is a centre of health care and education, being home to the University of Western Ontario, Fanshawe College. Londons university and hospitals are among its top ten employers, London lies at the junction of Highway 401 and 402, connecting it to Toronto, Windsor, and Sarnia. It also has an airport, train and bus station. Prior to European contact in the 18th century, the present site of London was occupied by several Neutral, Odawa, archaeological investigations in the region indicate that aboriginal people have resided in the area for at least the past 10,000 years. The current location of London was selected as the site of the capital of Upper Canada in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe. Simcoe intended to name the settlement Georgina, in honour of King George III, however, the choice of a capital site in the midst of extensive hardwood forests was rejected by Guy Carleton. In 1814, there was a skirmish during the War of 1812 in what is now southwest London at Reservoir Hill, the village of London, named after the English capital of London, was not founded until 1826, and not as the capital Simcoe envisioned. Rather, it was a seat for the area west of the actual capital. At the time, Crown and clergy reserves were receiving preference in the rest of Ontario, in 1832, the new settlement suffered an outbreak of cholera. London proved a centre of strong Tory support during the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, London was incorporated as a town in 1840. On 13 April 1845, fire destroyed much of London, which was at the time largely constructed of wooden buildings, one of the first casualties was the towns only fire engine. This fire burned nearly 30 acres of land destroying 150 buildings before burning itself out later the same day, one-fifth of London was destroyed and this was the provinces first million dollar fire. Sir John Carling, Tory MP for London, gave three events to explain the development of London in a 1901 speechLondon, Ontario – Downtown London skyline
66. Peterborough, Ontario – Peterborough /ˈpiːtərbɔːroʊ/ PEE-tər-bur-oh is a city on the Otonabee River in Central Ontario, Canada,125 kilometres northeast of Toronto and about 270 kilometers southwest of Ottawa. According to the 2016 Census, the population of the City of Peterborough was 81,032 and it presently has the 33rd largest CMA in Canada. The current mayor of Peterborough is Daryl Bennett, Peterborough is known as the gateway to the Kawarthas, cottage country, a large recreational region of the province. It is named in honour of Peter Robinson, an early Canadian politician who oversaw the first major immigration to the area, the city is the seat of Peterborough County. Peterboroughs nickname in the distant past was The Electric City as it was the first town in Canada to use electric streetlights. Electricity was one of the reasons Quaker Oats moved to the city, first Nations groups probably entered into the area across Bering Sea, through Alaska, millennia ago. Woodland Natives inhabited the area circa 1000 BCE –1000 CE, followed by Iroquois, two of the more prominent sites surviving from this time are the petroglyphs at Petroglyphs Provincial Park and Serpent Mounds. The petroglyphs are located northeast of Peterborough and are believed to have been carved by the Algonquin people between 900 and 1400 CE. The Serpent Mounds are located near Keene, approximately 30 km southeast of Peterborough in Otonabee-South Monaghan township, in 1818, Adam Scott settled on the west shore of the Otonabee River. The following year he began construction of a sawmill and gristmill, the mill was located at the foot of present-day King Street and was powered by water from Jackson Creek. The site has an Ojibway name Nogojiwanong which means the place at the end of the rapids, the year 1825 marked the arrival of Irish immigrants from the city of Cork to Scotts Plains. In 1822, the British Parliament had approved an experimental emigration plan to transport poor Irish Catholic families to Upper Canada. Peter Robinson, a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, Scotts Plains was renamed Peterborough in his honour. Robinson interviewed families and individual males to make the long voyage and these families had to meet specific criteria in order to be eligible for the voyage. The specifics required for Robinsons settlers were that they had to be Catholic, poor, males had to be less than forty-five years of age and in good health and families were unrelated. The majority of the Irish emigrants were chosen from Fermoy, North Cork, Robinson was urged by landlords to remove the pauper and undesirables. Most of them could read and write, thomas Poole, a nineteenth century writer, wrote that all 2024 passengers boarded nine ships in June 1825, with everything they owned, from Cork across the Atlantic Ocean to Quebec City. The journey took 30 days to cross the Atlantic and on board the ship they were provided with bunks, hard tack or ship biscuits were one of the many foods that were made to provide energy for the passengersPeterborough, Ontario – Peterborough
67. Prescott, Ontario – Prescott, Ontario is a small town on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville, Canada. In 2011, the town had a population of 4284, the Ogdensburg-Prescott International Bridge,5 kilometres east of Prescott at Johnstown, connects the town with Ogdensburg, New York. The town is about an hour from both Ottawa and Kingston, the town was founded in the early 19th century by Edward Jessup, a Loyalist soldier during the American Revolution, who named the village after a former Governor-in-Chief, Robert Prescott. Prior to 1834, the town was a part of Augusta township, however in year the town became a police village. The land here was ideal for settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries as it was situated between Montreal and Kingston along the St. Lawrence River at the head of the rapids. In the mid-to-late 1600s, the French occupied the area surrounding what was to become Prescott, the first known location of a French settlement was a trading post in 1673 located east of Prescott in what is now Johnstown. The fort was built to protect their newly established trading posts from British invasion and it is unclear when or why this fort fell into disuse, however Fort de La Présentation was built in close proximity in 1749 which could have been built to replace la Galette. The French left the area after the Battle of the Thousand Islands, in 1760, the Battle of the Thousand Islands took place near present-day Prescott, Ontario. By 1760, tensions were high between the British and the French who both intended to settle the area located around Prescott, the French began building another fort, slightly east of Prescott on what is presently known as Chimney Island called Fort de Levis. The French forts were no match for the British, when the Battle of the Thousand Islands finally took place in August 1760, the British had 11,000 troops to the French’s 300 men. Despite of this, the French managed to back the British for a little over a week. When the French ran out of ammunition on August 24,1760 they surrendered to the British troops, Fort de Levis was renamed Fort Oswegatchie by the British, and was later used in the Revolutionary War. The island on which this fort stood was submerged during the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway, in and around 1775 during the Revolutionary War, America was politically divided. Many American’s were unsatisfied with British rule and sought their independence and those who sided with the British or who remained neutral were considered to be rebels or traitors known as Loyalists, and this opposition was met with violence. As tensions escalated, the Loyalists were forced from their homes, the British attempted to negotiate and failed. Edward Jessup, born in Stamford, Connecticut in 1735, forfeited 500,000 acres of property near Albany, during the war, he founded the Jessup’s Loyal Rangers who served the British. It is this group of soldiers who first settled Prescott and the surrounding townships after disbanding at the end of the war around 1783, for his loyalty and service, Jessup was awarded extensive lands from the Crown. In 1810, Jessup surveyed a townsite on top of his land, the current location of Prescott, the townsite was one square mile in sizePrescott, Ontario – Prescott
68. Quinte West – Quinte West is a city, geographically located in but administratively separated from Hastings County, in Southern Ontario, Canada. It is located on the end of the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario. The Lake Ontario terminus of the Trent–Severn Waterway is located in the municipality, Quinte West was formed through the amalgamation of the city of Trenton, the village of Frankford and the townships of Murray and Sidney on January 1,1998. Trenton is the largest community and serves as the administrative and commercial centre, Frankford was first settled by Europeans in the 1820s when settler Abel Scott built a grist mill along the Trent River. The settlement went under a number of names, including Scotts Mills, Cold Creek, the settlement was named Frankford after Sir Francis Bond Head, the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. Frankford was incorporated as a village in 1920, Quinte West is home to 8 Wing Trenton, the Canadian Armed Forces primary air transportation hub. Many of Canadian military operations in Afghanistan are carried out from this base and it also serves as the areas biggest employer. 8 Wing CFB Trenton is the largest Air Base for the Royal Canadian Air Force and is available for flights for passenger and cargo uses. There is a Canada Border Services Agency office located on site for international flights, Quinte businesses can use 8 Wing CFB Trenton as a convenient way to access customers, head office officials, suppliers and other business contacts. In May 2010, Quinte West formally welcomed Toronto-based Metro Paper Industries Tissue Group set up a facility of converted paper products at Quinte West. Earlier, this facility was operated by Pepsi Quaker Oats which was shut down. Quinte West is also home to Nestle Canada Inc, Canadian Blast Freezers, Trenton Cold Storage Group, Deca Cables Inc. Quality Custom Blending, Research Casting International, Saputo Foods, the Ontario Provincial Police are the local law enforcement authority. The current mayor of the city is Jim Harrison, the population of Quinte West is largely Christian, although a small Jewish community exists in Quinte West and the surrounding area, with a synagogue operating in neighbouring Belleville. There is also a small Muslim community, again, with the mosque in Belleville. P, Quinte West is served by 1 EMS station by Hastings-Quinte EMS in Trenton, OntarioQuinte West – Dundas Street in Trenton
69. Windsor, Ontario – Windsor is a city in Ontario and the southernmost city in Canada. It is located on the shore of the Detroit River, directly across the river from Detroit. Windsor is a contributor to Canadas automotive industry and has a storied history. Prior to European exploration and settlement, the Windsor area was inhabited by the First Nations, a French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749. It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal, the area was first named la Petite Côte. Later it was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle, Windsors French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, Pelissier, François, Pierre, Langlois, Marentette, and Lauzon. The current street system of Windsor reflects the Canadien method of land division. Today, the street name often indicates the name of the family that at one time farmed the land where the street is now located. The street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions, there is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area, particularly in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1794, after the American Revolution, the settlement of Sandwich was founded and it was later renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England. The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsors west side is home to some of the oldest buildings in the city, including Mackenzie Hall, today, this building functions as a community centre. The oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792 and it is owned by Ontario Heritage Trust and houses government offices. The François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsors Community Museum, Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, and also served as a theatre for the Patriot War, later that year. Windsor was established as a village in 1854, then became a town in 1858, the Windsor Police Service was established on July 1,1867. A fire consumed much of Windsors downtown core on October 12,1871, Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities in their own right until 1935. They are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor, Ford City was officially incorporated as a village in 1912, it became a town in 1915, and a city in 1929. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890, Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status. It was incorporated as a town in 1858 and these three towns were annexed by Windsor in 1935Windsor, Ontario – Images from top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Windsor skyline, Ambassador Bridge, Charlie Brooks Memorial Peace Fountain, Dillon Hall at University of Windsor, and Caesars Windsor.
70. Nova Scotia – Nova Scotia is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces which form Atlantic Canada. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton, as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is the second most-densely populated province in Canada with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, Nova Scotia means New Scotland in Latin and is the recognized English language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the province is called Alba Nuadh, which simply means New Scotland. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island, the provinces mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean, Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are rich on the Bay of Fundys shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundys shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous age fossils, wassons Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic and Jurassic age fossils. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone, since the province is almost surrounded by the sea, the climate is closer to maritime than to continental climate. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental – still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotia climate is in ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe. This is in spite of Nova Scotia being some fifteen parallels south, areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder. The province includes regions of the Mikmaq nation of Mikmaki, the Mikmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, the British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French, present-day New Brunswick then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. The British changed the name of the capital from Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, in 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population were removed in the Expulsion of the AcadiansNova Scotia – Fort Edward – The oldest blockhouse in North America (1750).
71. New Brunswick – New Brunswick is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally bilingual province. In the Canada 2016 Census, Statistics Canada estimated the population to have been 747,101, down very slightly from 751,171 in 2011. The majority of the population is English-speaking of Anglo and Celtic heritage and it was created as a result of the partitioning of the British colony of Nova Scotia in 1784 and was originally named New Ireland with the capital to be in Saint John. The name was replaced with New Brunswick by King George II. The provincial flag features a ship superimposed on a background with a yellow lion passant guardant on red pennon above it. The province is named for the city of Braunschweig, known in English and Low German as Brunswick, located in modern-day Lower Saxony in northern Germany. The then-colony was named in 1784 to honour the reigning British monarch, George III, the original First Nations inhabitants of New Brunswick were members of three distinct tribes. The largest tribe was the Mikmaq, and they occupied the eastern and they were responsible for the Augustine Mound, a burial ground built about 800 BCE near Metepnákiaq. The western portion of the province was the home of the Wolastoqiyik people. The smaller Passamaquoddy tribe occupied lands in the southwest of the province. The next French contact was in 1604, when a party led by Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain set up camp for the winter on St. Croix Island, the colony relocated the following year across the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, Nova Scotia. The whole maritime region was at that time claimed by France and was designated as the colony of Acadia, one of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 was the surrender of Acadia to Queen Anne. The bulk of the Acadian population thus found themselves residing in the new British colony of Nova Scotia, the remainder of Acadia was only lightly populated and poorly defended. The Maliseet from their headquarters at Meductic on the Saint John River, participated in guerilla raids and battles against New England during Father Rales War. About 1750, to protect his interests in New France, Louis XV caused three forts to be built along the Isthmus of Chignecto and this caused what is known to historians as Father Le Loutres War. During the French and Indian War, the British completed their displacement of the Acadians over all of present-day New Brunswick, Fort Beauséjour, Fort Menagoueche and Fort Gaspareaux were captured by a British force commanded by Lt. Col. Robert Monckton in 1755. Inside Fort Beauséjour, the British forces found not only French regular troops, Governor Charles Lawrence of Nova Scotia used the discovery of Acadian civilians helping in the defence of the fort to order the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia. The Acadians of the recently captured Beaubassin and Petitcodiac regions were included in the expulsion order, other actions in the war included British expeditions up the Saint John River in the St. John River CampaignNew Brunswick – The Coming of the Loyalists, painting by Henry Sandham showing a romanticised view of the Loyalists' arrival in New Brunswick.
72. Prince Edward Island – Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, as well as several much smaller islands. It is one of the three Maritime Provinces and is the smallest province in land area and population. It is the only jurisdiction of North America outside the Caribbean to have no mainland territory. The backbone of the economy is farming, it produces 25% of Canadas potatoes, historically, PEI is one of Canadas older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and French surnames being dominant to this day. According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 140,204 residents and it is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 kilometres east of Quebec City. It consists of the island and 231 minor islands. Altogether, the province has a land area of 5,685.73 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size, slightly larger than the U. S. state of Delaware and it is the 104th-largest island in the world and Canadas 23rd-largest island. The island is named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the son of King George III. Prince Edward has been called Father of the Canadian Crown, Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait, the island has two urban areas. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, as with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by rias. Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves, under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning, in areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control. The islands lush landscape has a bearing on its economy. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables, today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture, industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm propertiesPrince Edward Island – 1834 Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, after W. Beechey's portrait
73. Alberta – Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1,2015, it is Canadas fourth-most populous province and its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1,1905, the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. About 290 km south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton centre Albertas two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Canmore, Drumheller, Jasper, Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Victoria, Queen of Canada, and Albert, Prince Consort. Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were also named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth largest province after Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. To the south, the borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana. The province extends 1,223 km north to south and 660 km east to west at its maximum width, with the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes used for swimming, fishing, there are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca, the largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s. The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, Albertas capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly city in Canada, and serves as a gateway. The region, with its proximity to Canadas largest oil fields, has most of western Canadas oil refinery capacity, Calgary is located approximately 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the served as a means to populate the province in its early yearsAlberta – Welcome to Alberta sign traveling from east to west
74. Newfoundland and Labrador – Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the countrys Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, in 2013, the provinces population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the population lives on the island of Newfoundland. The province is Canadas most linguistically homogeneous, with 97. 6% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2006 census, historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken, Newfoundland and Labradors capital and largest city, St. Johns, is Canadas 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the provinces population. St. Johns is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction and it became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31,1949, as Newfoundland. On December 6,2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the official name to Newfoundland. The name Newfoundland is a translation of the Portuguese Terra Nova, the influence of early Portuguese exploration is also reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located at the corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two divisions, Labrador, which is a large area of mainland Canada, and Newfoundland. The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands, each side is about 400 km long, and its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N, Labrador is an irregular shape, the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, most of Labradors southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labradors extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a border with Nunavut. Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4. 06% of Canadas area, Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland, gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundlands west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains, the north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the provinceNewfoundland and Labrador – Churchill Falls in Labrador
75. Yukon – Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canadas three federal territories. The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukons only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory, though officially bilingual, the Yukon Government also recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukons Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada, most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate, notable rivers include the Yukon River, after which the territory was named, as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White and Tatshenshini rivers. Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human occupation in North America. The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon, the volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U. S. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks, European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive and this drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea and its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canadas highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territorys southwest, Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukons southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north, other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast, notable widespread tree species within Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the growing season and severe climate. The capital, Whitehorse, is also the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population, the second largest is Dawson City, which was the capital until 1952Yukon – Downtown Whitehorse along the Yukon River
76. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014