1. Eiffel Tower – The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres on each side. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second-tallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887.Eiffel Tower – The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ de Mars
2. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
3. Seine River – The Seine is a 777-kilometre long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It is navigable by ocean-going vessels far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur. The Seine rises of Dijon. The source has been owned since 1864. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. Oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial riverboats can use the river to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges. The river is only 24 metres above level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. 105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.Seine River – The Seine in Paris
4. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
5. 1828 – As of the start of 1828, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 4 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac succeeds the Comte de Villèle as Prime Minister of France. January 22 – Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington succeeds Lord Goderich as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. February 19 – The Boston Society for Medical Improvement is established in the United States. Armenians from Persian Azerbaijan are to be resettled in the Caucasus. April 11 – Bahía Blanca is founded. April 20 – French explorer René Caillié becomes the first non-Muslim to enter Timbuktu and later return alive. April 26 – Treaty of Commerce and Navigation signed between Brazil and Denmark, establishing diplomatic relations between the two countries. May 26 – Supposedly feral child Kaspar Hauser is discovered in Nuremberg, Germany. June 3 – Gran Colombia–Peru War: President Simón Bolívar declares war on Peru. June 23 – King Miguel I of Portugal overthrows his niece Queen Maria II, beginning the Liberal Wars. A typhoon kills approximately 10,000 people in Kyūshū, Japan. August 11 – William Corder is hanged at Bury St Edmunds, England, for the murder of Maria Marten at the Red Barn a year ago. August 27 – South America: Brazil and Argentina recognize the independence of Uruguay. Simón Bolívar declares dictator of Gran Colombia.1828 – Jean Henri Dunant
6. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
7. Art gallery – An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection. The term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art. However, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. Contemporary gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are often found clustered together in large urban centers. Contemporary art galleries are usually open to the general public without charge; however, some are semi-private. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales; from 25% to 50% is typical. There are also collective galleries. Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, though this is considered distasteful in some international art markets. Galleries often hang solo shows. Curators often create group shows that say group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly. A gallery's definition can also include the artist space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process.Art gallery – The Louvre in Paris, France, is one of the world's largest museums and the most visited art museum in the world.
8. Museum – More local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving specialists to serving the general public. The goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums and children's museums. The city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" is pluralized as "museums". The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens. However, Pausanias gives another place called "Museum," namely a small hill to the Akropolis. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve, display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. The purpose can also depend on one's point of view. To a professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism. Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the diffusion of knowledge." Museums of natural history in the 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order.Museum – The Louvre Museum in Paris (France), one of the largest and most famous museums in the world.
9. Theatre – The performers may communicate this experience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, dance. Elements of art, such as painted stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of musical theatre. There are the art forms of ballet, opera and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated. Participation in the city-state's many festivals -- and attendance as an audience member in particular -- was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and architecture. Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, the satyr play. The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into capable of seating 10,000 -- 20,000 people. The stage consisted of a floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, clear delivery were paramount. Each might play several parts.Theatre – Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, in 1899
10. Urban area – An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are categorized as cities, towns, suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The world's urban population in 1950 of just million has increased since. This was the first time that the majority of the world's population lived in a city. In 2014 there were billion people living on the planet, of which the urban population comprised billion. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. Urban areas are measured for various purposes, including analyzing population density and urban sprawl. What is urban? There is no doubt that the deepest layer of that bedrock is economic. In every age, people have chosen to live in urban areas not because of their climates or landmarks or cultural attractions, but because they offer jobs. ... It was economic opportunity that brought people to Milwaukee, it is economic opportunity that keeps them there. I define cities as concentrations of people animated by concentrations of capital. More simply put, money is the root of all cities.Urban area – Greater Tokyo Area, the world's most populous urban area, with about 35 million people.
11. Metropolitan area – As social, political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones closely bound to the center by employment or other commerce. These outlying zones may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles' metro area in the United States. In practice, the parameters in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, which requires urban contiguity. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with. The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines ` statistical divisions' as areas under the unifying influence of a major city. However, this definition has largely become obsolete with the conurbation of statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called'metropolitan regions'. Each State defines its own legislation for the creation, organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports. Their main purpose is to allow to all cities involved.Metropolitan area – Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina
12. GDP – Gross domestic product is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to make international comparisons. Total GDP can also be broken down into the relative contribution of each sector of the economy. Charles Davenant developed the method further in 1695. The modern concept of GDP was first developed in 1934. In this report, Kuznets warned as a measure of welfare. After the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, GDP became the main tool for measuring a country's economy. The switch from "GNP" to "GDP" in the US was in 1991, trailing behind most other nations. The history of the concept of GDP should be distinguished from the history of changes in ways of estimating it. GDP can be determined in three ways, all of which should, in principle, give the same result. They are the production approach, the expenditure approach. The most direct of the three is the approach, which sums the outputs of every class of enterprise to arrive at the total. This approach mirrors the OECD definition given above. Intermediate consumption from gross value to obtain the gross value added. Gross value added = gross value of output – value of intermediate consumption.GDP – A map of world economies by size of GDP (nominal) in USD, World Bank, 2014.
13. Politics of France – The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The nation declares itself to be an "indivisible, secular, social Republic". The political system of France consists of an executive branch, a judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the President of the Government. The Government consists of ministers. The Prime Minister is responsible to Parliament. Parliament comprises the Senate. Former presidents of the Republic also are members of the Council. The independent judiciary is based upon civil system which evolved from the Napoleonic codes. The French government includes various bodies that check abuses of power and independent agencies. France is a unitary state. However, the national government is prohibited from intruding into their normal operations. France was a founding member of Steel Community, later the European Union. As such, France has transferred part of its sovereignty to European institutions, as provided by its constitution. The French government therefore has to abide by European treaties, regulations.Politics of France – The National Assembly sits in the Palais Bourbon, by the Seine.
14. Tourism in France – France was visited by 84.7 million foreign tourists in 2013, making it the most popular tourist destination in the world. It is third from tourism due to briefer visits. 20 % more tourists spent less than half much as they did in the United States. Picturesque French villages of quality heritage are promoted through the association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France. The "Remarkable Gardens" label is a list of the over hundred gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture. This label is intended to promote remarkable gardens and parks. In 2012, tourism directly contributed EUR77.7 billion to French GDP, 30 % of which comes from international visitors and 70 % from domestic tourism spending. The total contribution of tourism represents 9.7 % of GDP and supports 2.9 million jobs in the country. Tourism contributes significantly to the balance of payments. The Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie is the biggest museum in Europe. Near Paris is the Palace of Versailles, the former palace of the kings of France, now a museum. A large part of Provence is designed as the 2013 European Capital of Culture. Provence hosts dozens of renowned historical sites like the Pont du Gard, the Palais des Papes in Avignon. Several cities also attracts a lot of tourists, like Aix-en-Provence, Marseille or Cassis, on the Mediterranean Sea coastline. France has many cities of cultural interest, some of them are classified by the French Ministry of Culture.Tourism in France – The Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy.
15. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. The five boroughs -- Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island -- were consolidated into a single city in 1898. New York served as the capital of the United States until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, environmental sustainability. Several sources have ranked the most photographed city in the world. The names of many of the city's bridges, parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. On, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. He named it "Nouvelle Angoulême". He returned to Spain in August.New York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
16. London – London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named Londinium. The City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile medieval boundaries. It has the fifth - or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world. London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic. London is the world's leading destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. A 2014 report placed it first in the world university rankings. According to the report London shares first position in technology readiness. In 2012, London became the only city to have hosted Olympic Games three times. More than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, accounting for 12.5 per cent of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. London was the world's most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.London – Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace and Central London skyline
17. Tokyo – Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, is both the capital and most populous city of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of the Japanese government. Tokyo includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. Tokyo Metropolis was formed from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. The metropolitan government also administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part with upwards of 37.8 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. The city hosts 51 of the highest number of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit. The city is also home to various television networks like Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo fourth in the Global Cities Index. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world.Tokyo – Clockwise from top: Nishi-Shinjuku, Rainbow Bridge, National Diet Building, Shibuya, Tokyo Skytree
18. Global city – Patrick Geddes also used the term "world city" later in 1915. More recently, the term has been described as being synonymous with a city's influence and'financial capital', with other factors becoming less relevant. Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities, the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included. The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks. The 2004 rankings acknowledged new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than cultural factors. The following is a general guide to the rankings: Alpha ++ cities are cities most integrated with the global economy. The two instances are London and New York City. Alpha + cities are advanced service niches for the global economy. Examples are Hong Kong, Sydney, Tokyo and Paris. Alpha and Alpha − cities are cities that link economic regions into the economy. Examples of alpha cities are Moscow. Beta level cities are cities that link economic regions into the economy. Examples of beta cities are Hyderabad, Rome, Luxembourg and Geneva. Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy. Examples are Ankara and Marseilles.Global city – London
19. Place de la Concorde – The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France. Measuring 8.64 hectares in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées. The place was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755 as a moat-skirted octagon between the Champs-Élysées to the east. Decorated with fountains, the area was named Place Louis XV to honor the king at that time. At the end, two magnificent identical stone buildings were constructed. Separated by the Royale, these structures remain among the best examples of Louis Quinze style architecture. Initially, the eastern building served as the French Naval Ministry. Shortly after its construction, the western building became the opulent home of the Duc d'Aumont. It was later purchased by the Comte de Crillon, whose family resided there until 1907. The famous luxury Hôtel de Crillon, which currently occupies the building, took its name from its previous owners. During the French Revolution the area renamed Place de la Révolution. It was here that King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. Under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, in 1826 the square was renamed Place Louis XVI.Place de la Concorde – Place de la Concorde as seen from the Eiffel Tower
20. Jacques Ange Gabriel – Ange-Jacques Gabriel was the most prominent French architect of his generation. Ange-Jacques Gabriel was born to a Parisian family of architects. He was made a member of the Académie d'architecture in 1728. His sober rationality in detail promoted the transition from Rococo to Neoclassicism. For forty years, Gabriel supplied all designs at Versailles. His Petit Trianon at Versailles is one of the gems of French Classicism. He died in 1716. Extension and transformations at the Château de Choisy, 1740–1777 Château de Compiègne, 1750 onwards The Pavillon du Butard, 1750 at La Celle-Saint-Cloud. The Architecture of the French Enlightenment, pp. 38–44. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520067394. Gallet, Michel; Bottineau, Yves. Les Gabriel. Paris: Picard. ISBN 9782708400863.Jacques Ange Gabriel – Ange Jacques Gabriel by Jean-Baptiste Greuze
21. 1755 – As of the start of 1755, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 25 – Moscow University is established. February 13 – The kingdom of Mataram on Java is divided in two, creating the sultanate of Yogyakarta and the sunanate of Surakarta. February 20 – General Braddock lands in Virginia to take command of the British forces against the French in North America. April 2 – A naval fleet led by Commodore William James of the East India Company captures Tulaji Angre's fortress Suvarnadurg from the Marathas. April 15 – A Dictionary of the English Language is published by Samuel Johnson. During the battle, British General Edward Braddock is mortally wounded. Colonel George Washington survives. In 1998, in 2002 a portion is given to the South African government. July 25 – The decision to deport the Acadians is made during meetings of the Nova Scotia Council meeting in Halifax. Contrary to popular belief, no Acadians are sent to Louisiana. Those sent to Virginia are then sent on to Liverpool, Bristol, Southampton and Penryn in England. In 1758 all of the civilian population of Isle Royal and Isle St. Jean are repatriated to France. Among them were several thousand Acadians who had escaped the deportation by fleeing into those areas. Few Acadians successfully escape the deportation and do so only by fleeing into some of the northern sections of present day New Brunswick.1755 – August 15: Acadians
22. Tuileries Gardens – The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre Museum and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris. In the 20th century, it was the place where Parisians celebrated, met, relaxed. Since the 13th century this area was occupied by workshops, called tuileries, making tiles for the roofs of buildings. Some of land had been acquired early in the 16th century by King Francois I. Catherine acquired more land and began to build a new palace and garden on the site. The Tuileries was the largest and most beautiful garden in Paris at the time. King Henry III was forced to flee Paris in 1588, the gardens fell into disrepair. The area between the former moat of Charles V was turned with a large fountain in the center. Though Henry IV never lived in the Tuilieries Palace, continually under reconstruction, he did use the gardens for relaxation and exercise. At the death of Louis XIII, age nine became the new owner of the Tuileries Gardens. It became his enormous playground - he used it for hunting, he kept a menagerie of animals. On the side of the gardens, Marie de Medicis established a school of riding, a covered manege for exercising horses. When the court were absent from Paris, the gardens were turned into a spot for the nobility. In 1630 a former kennel at the west rampart of the garden were made into a flower-lined promenade and cabaret. In 1652 "La Grande Mademoiselle" was expelled from the garden for having supported the Fronde, against her cousin, the young Louis XIV.Tuileries Gardens – The Tuileries Garden, looking from the large round basin toward the Place de la Concorde and Arc de Triomphe
23. Jean-Baptiste Pigalle – Jean-Baptiste Pigalle was a French sculptor. Pigalle was born in the seventh child of a carpenter. Pigalle taught the sculptor Louis-Philippe Mouchy, who married his niece, who closely copied Pigalle's style. His name is most commonly known today because of the red-light district in Paris, located around the square of the same name. Pigalle died in Paris on 20 August 1785. Media related to Jean-Baptiste Pigalle at Wikimedia Commons Virtual Gallery Jean-Baptiste Pigalle in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census websiteJean-Baptiste Pigalle – Statue of Jean-Baptiste Pigalle on the Hôtel de Ville of Paris
24. Lothar (storm) – Lothar and Martin were violent European windstorms which swept across western and central Europe during a period of 36 hours in December 1999. The storms caused major damage in France, southern Germany, Italy. Throughout the affected region, damage was estimated at $9.9 billion. Both of these storms were benefitted from latent heat release through atmosphere-ocean exchange processes. 300 high-voltage transmission pylons were toppled. It was one of the greatest energy disruptions ever experienced by a developed country. December 1999 saw a series of heavy winter storms cross western Europe. In early December, Great Britain and Denmark were hit by Cyclone Anatol which caused severe damage in Denmark. A second storm then crossed December. This highly unstable situation saw an unusually straight and strong jet stream. Storm Martin then struck December 1999. At the end of January 2000 two damaging storms crossed Denmark and the northern part of Germany. According to some forecasts, the storm was predicted to pass through the United Kingdom, while others failed to predict significant intensification at all. The strong stream, the chief cause of the instability was well predicted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 9 days earlier. Consequently, the extent of the storm was only recognized in the early morning of 26 December, which resulted in shorter warning times in Switzerland.Lothar (storm) – Clearing damage in Angoulême 28 December 1999
25. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
26. Demographics of Paris – The city of Paris had a population of 2,241,346 people within its administrative city limits as of January 1, 2014. It is surrounded by urban area, the most populous urban area in the European Union. In 2011 the unité urbaine had a population of 10,516,110. Île-de-France covers 12,012 square kilometers, has its own regional council and president. It has 18.2 percent of the population of France. The city's loss reflected the experience of most other core cities in the developed world that have not expanded their boundaries. The principal factors in the process were a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. The city's loss was one of the most severe among international municipalities and the largest for any that had achieved more than 2,000,000 residents. Since then an influx of younger immigrants has contributed to the growth of the city. Paris is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. The most sparsely populated quarters are administration-focused arrondissements. Notes: Without the Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes. At present, Paris's real urbanisation, defined by the pôle urbain statistical area, covers an area about 27 times larger than the city itself. By law, French censuses do gather information concerning one's country of birth. At the 1999 census, 4.2 % of the population in Paris metropolitan area were the majority from Asia and Africa.Demographics of Paris – The Olympiades towers with the pagoda roof shopping centre, Chinatown, Paris