1. Politics – Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to exercising positions of governance -- organized control over a human community, particularly a state. Furthermore, politics is the study or practice within a given community as well as the interrelationship between communities. It is often said that politics is about power. A political system is a framework which defines political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. Formal Politics publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. That can still affect their daily lives. Informal Politics is understood as forming alliances, protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere". The word comes from the Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics also derives; politika means "affairs of the cities". The title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques"; it became "politics" in Modern English. The history of politics is reflected in the origin, economics of the institutions of government. The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare.Politics – Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart – Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.
2. Decision-making – This article deals with decision-making as analyzed in psychology. See also Decision theory. In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice; it may or may not prompt action. Decision-making is the process of choosing alternatives based on the preferences of the decision-Maker. Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. It is therefore a process which can be based on tacit knowledge. Cognitive: the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment. Normative: the analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision-making, or communicative rationality, the invariant choice it leads to. A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a finite set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria. Then the task might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision-maker when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task might be to determine the total priority of each alternative when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of multiple-criteria decision analysis. This leads to the formulation of a decision-making paradox. Logical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in a given area to make informed decisions.Decision-making – Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia.
3. Political power – In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people. The term "authority" is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. The exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings. In business, power is often expressed as being "downward". With downward power, a company's superior influences subordinates. When a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders. The use of power need not involve the threat of force. At one extreme, it closely resembles although some authors distinguish "influence" as a means by which power is used. One such example is soft power, as compared to hard power. The same individual may sometimes hold all these distinct powers in different role-relationships. The philosopher Michel Foucault saw power as a structural expression of "a strategic situation in a given social setting" that requires both constraint and enablement. A must draw on combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. Drawing on the wrong base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in A's own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, while not excluding minor categories. Further bases have since been adduced -- by Gareth Morgan in his 1986 book, Images of Organization.Political power – Sociology
4. Elections – An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes for regional and local government. This process is also used from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations. Electoral reform describes the process of improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of other statistics relating to elections. In Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja was typically a son of the previous raja. However, the gana members had the final say in his elections. The Pala Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains. Such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members. The leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a pot. To select the committee members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system.Elections – A ballot box
5. Legislature – The legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators. Each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; this is called a quorum. The members of a legislature usually represent political parties; the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs. The internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of political power they wield, compared to political players such as judiciaries, militaries, executives. Such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
6. Act of Independence of Lithuania – The Act was signed by all twenty representatives of the Council, chaired by Jonas Basanavičius. The path to the Act was complex because the German Empire exerted pressure on the Council to form an alliance. The Council had to carefully maneuver between the demands of the Lithuanian people. The immediate effects of the announcement of Lithuania's re-establishment of independence were limited. The text was distributed and printed illegally. Germans remained in control over Lithuania. The situation changed only when Germany lost I in the fall of 1918. The Council of Lithuania gained control over the territory of Lithuania. Independent Lithuania, although it would soon be battling the Wars of Independence, became a reality. While the Act's original document has been lost, its legacy continues. The laconic Act is the legal basis for the existence of modern Lithuania, both since 1990. The Act formulated the constitutional principles that were and still are followed by all Constitutions of Lithuania. The Act itself was a key element in the foundation of Lithuania's re-establishment of independence in 1990. Lithuania had a long tradition of statehood following the coronation of Mindaugas the King of Lithuania. After the last Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Lithuania was annexed by the Russian Empire.Act of Independence of Lithuania – The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of February 16, 1918
7. Council of Lithuania – The twenty men who composed the council at first were of different ages, social status, political affiliations. The council was entrusted to establish an independent Lithuanian state. On 16 the members of the council signed the Act of Independence of Lithuania and declared Lithuania an independent state based on democratic principles. 16 February is celebrated as Lithuania's State Restoration Day. The council managed to establish the proclamation of independence until the autumn of 1918. By the spring of 1919, the council had almost doubled in size. The council continued its efforts until the Constituent Assembly of Lithuania first met on 15 May 1920. After the last Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Lithuania had become part of the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, the Lithuanians attempted to restore their independence. The first realistic opportunity came about during World War I. In 1915, Germany occupied Lithuania as its troops marched towards Russia. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, opportunities for independence opened up. Germany, avoiding direct annexation, tried to find a middle path that would involve some kind of union with Germany. On 21 the attendees at the conference elected a 20-member Council of Lithuania to establish this resolution. They did permit the council to proceed.Council of Lithuania – The original 20 members of the council. Jonas Basanavičius is sitting in the center of the front row. Antanas Smetona is seated to his immediate right.
8. Lithuania – Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in Northern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians are a Baltic people. Lithuanian, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by Baltic tribes. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed the Polish -- Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772–95, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied then by Nazi Germany. As the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, NATO. It is also part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries. The United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very human development" country.Lithuania – Trakai Island Castle
9. Democracy – Democracy is sometimes referred to as "rule of the majority". Democracy was originally conceived in Classical Greece, where political representatives were chosen by a jury from amongst the male citizens: rich and poor. While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system for example, excluded women from political participation. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, monarchic elements. Political rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy. Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are also present. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review. Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organisations. Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy.Democracy – A woman casts her vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.
10. Vilnius – Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015. Vilnius is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania well as of the Vilnius District Municipality. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz. The name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city has also been known throughout its history: Vilna was common in English. The most notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish: Belarusian: Вiльня, German: Wilna, Latvian: Viļņa, Russian: Вильнюс, Yiddish: ווילנע, Czech: Vilnius. An older Russian name was Вильна/Вильно, although Вильнюс is now used. The Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish, Hebrew. Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius. The neighborhoods of Vilnius also have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by ethnic groups in the area. Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with one of the castles of Mindaugas, crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. The first Franciscan Catholic church was built. According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest for its interpretation. The duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights.Vilnius – Top: Vilnius Old Town Middle left: Vilnius Cathedral Middle right: St. Anne's Church The 3rd row: Vilnius business district (Šnipiškės) The 4th row: Presidential Palace.
11. Vilnius Conference – It elected a twenty-member Council of Lithuania, entrusted with the mission of re-establishing an independent Lithuania. The Conference, hoping to express the will of the Lithuanian people, gave legal authority to its decisions. The Commonwealth ceased to exist in the late 18th century. Most of the Lithuanian territory was incorporated into the Russian Empire. During the course of World War I, the German Army soon entered the territory which comprised Lithuania. In 1915, the Germans organized a military administration known as Ober Ost. At first the Germans simply exploited Lithuania for the benefit of their effort. As the war progressed, it became evident that the two war that Germany was engaged in would necessitate a compromise peace with the Russian Empire. This necessitated a re-thinking of strategies concerning the occupied territories in the east. It declared that the military administration governing occupied territories would grant some semblance of autonomy to their populations. The plan was to form a network of formally independent states that would in fact be completely dependent on the so-called Mitteleuropa. A Vertrauensrat was authorized in May 1917; its membership was to consist in Lithuania. An organization that helped war victims and mobilized political activists, then entered into negotiations between the Lithuanians and the occupational authorities. The Committee demanded that the Germans agree to permit a national convention, elected directly by the people. The Organizing Committee of the Conference met between August 1 and August 4, 1917.Vilnius Conference – Presidium and secretariat of the Vilnius Conference. The hall was decorated with small two-color (red and green) flags (three are visible in the picture). This was one of the suggestions for the Flag of Lithuania. The delegates decided it was too dark and gloomy and eventually a yellow stripe was added.
12. German Empire – The German Empire consisted with most being ruled by royal families. This included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, one imperial territory. Although the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the Empire's territory, it played a lesser role. As Dwyer points out, Prussia's "political and influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron, railways. By 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in the united Germany became predominantly urban. Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became only to Britain's Royal Navy. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had only one ally – Austria-Hungary. They were later joined by Bulgaria to form the Central Powers or Quadruple Alliance. In the First World War, the war on the Western Front became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; it occupied Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.German Empire
13. Laconic phrase – A laconic phrase or laconism is a concise or terse statement, especially a blunt and elliptical rejoinder. A laconic phrase may be used for efficiency, for philosophical reasons, or to better deflate a pompous individual. The Spartans were especially famous for their dry, understated wit, now known as "laconic humor". This can be contrasted with "Attic wit" -- the refined, delicate humour of Sparta's chief rival Athens. Spartans focused less on the development of education, literature. Some view this as having contributed to the characteristically blunt Laconian speech. In general, however, Spartans were expected to stick to the point. Loquacity was seen as unbecoming of sensible, Spartan peers. A Spartan youth was reportedly liable to have his thumb bitten to a teacher's question. On another occasion, Lycurgus was reportedly asked the reason for the less-than-extravagant size of Sparta's sacrifices to the gods. He replied, "So that we may always have something to offer." King Demaratus, being annoyed by someone pestering him with a question concerning who the most exemplary Spartan was, answered "He, least like you." On her husband Leonidas's departure for battle with the Persians at Thermopylae, Gorgo, Queen of Sparta asked what she should do. He advised her: "Marry a good man and bear good children." Leonidas replied "Molon labe", which translates to "Come and take them".Laconic phrase – Chilon of Sparta
14. Interwar period – Later a period of considerable prosperity followed, but this changed dramatically with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. The second convulsion, brought on by the worldwide depression, resulted in the rise of Nazism. In Asia, Japan became an ever more assertive power, especially with regard to China. The league tried to enforce economic sanctions upon Italy, but to no avail. The incident highlighted French and British weaknesses, exemplified by their reluctance to alienate Italy and lose it as their ally. The limited actions taken by the Western powers pushed Mussolini's Italy towards alliance with Hitler's Germany. The Abyssinian war showed Hitler how weak the league was and encouraged his participation in the Spanish Civil War. He also re-militarised the Rhineland in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles. There were also other comparably smaller conflicts that major European nations were involved in, such as the Rif War. 1920s 1930s Causes of World War II European Civil War Interwar Britain Blythe, Ronald. The age of illusion: England in the twenties and thirties, 1919-1940. Graves, Robert R. and Alan Hodge, The Long Week-End: A Social History of Great Britain 1918-1939. Napper, Lawrence. British Cinema and Middlebrow Culture in the Interwar Years Mowat, Charles.Interwar period – Europe, 1923
15. Constitution of Lithuania – The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania. It was approved in a referendum on 25 October 1992. The document, written in Ruthenian language, fulfilled the role of the supreme law of the land, even including provisions that no other law could contradict it. The new constitution abolished features that had crippled decision making the state. The peasantry saw their rights increased but it fell short of abolishing serfdom, reconfirmed. Religious tolerance was preserved, although the status of the Catholic faith was recognized. During the closing stages of World War I, Lithuania declared independence on February 1918. Three temporary constitutions were enacted on November 2, 1918, April 4, 1919 and June 10, 1920. On November 1918, the State Council adopted a constitutional act. At the time, it was still constrained by the decision of July 1918, declaring Lithuania a constitutional monarchy, with close ties to Germany. On April 1919, the State Council adopted modified Fundamental Principles of Temporary Constitution. The modifications were mainly notable for the introduction of the office of the President, in place of the Presidium of the Council. The Constituent Assembly did not adopt a constitution until August 1922. The constitution envisioned a politically weakened President as the head of state. A coup on December 1926 started the process of transforming the Republic of Lithuania into an authoritarian state headed by Antanas Smetona as the President.Constitution of Lithuania – Constitution of May 3 in Lithuanian language
16. Soviet Union – A union of multiple subnational Soviet republics, economy were highly centralized. The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party as its capital. They established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, beginning a civil war between the counter-revolutionary "Whites." In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin initiated a centrally planned command economy. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939. In June 1941 the Germans invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945. The territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of economic liberalization, known as "de-Stalinization" and "Khrushchev's Thaw", occurred under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. The country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took an early lead with the first ever satellite and the first human spaceflight. The war was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters.Soviet Union – Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
17. Parliament of Australia – It consists of three elements: the Queen of Australia, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General. Through both houses, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster System. The House of Representatives, currently consists of 150 members, each elected from single member constituencies, known as electoral divisions using compulsory preferential voting. This tends to lead to the chamber being dominated by two major parties, the Labor Party. The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to remain in power. The Senate, consists of 76 members: twelve for each state, two each for the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. As a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power. Coalition rarely has a majority in the Senate and usually needs to negotiate with other parties and Independents to get legislation passed. Although elections can be called early, half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection. The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The current Parliament is the 45th Australian Parliament. The 45th Parliament first sat on 30 August. The Coalition lost 14 seats. The Shorten Labor opposition won an increase of 14 seats.Parliament of Australia
18. Canberra – Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 381,488, it is the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a "Canberran". Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority. The Australian Army's corps is trained at the Royal Military College, Duntroon and the Australian Defence Force Academy is also located in the capital. The ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has its own independent Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states. Compared to the national averages, the rate is lower and the average income higher; tertiary education levels are higher, while the population is younger. Property prices are relatively high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could readily have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers. Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. Although popularly pronounced /ˈkænbᵊrə/ or /ˈkænbɛrə/, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was /ˈkæn.brə/. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians.Canberra – Canberra, with the old and new Parliament House in the centre, viewed from Mount Ainslie
19. Elizabeth II – Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand since 1952. Elizabeth was born as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the presumptive. She began serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. Elizabeth's historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. She has seen constitutional changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. She has also reigned through various conflicts involving many of her realms. She is the world's oldest monarch as well as Britain's longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently head of state following the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. Support for the monarchy remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 April 1926 during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Elizabeth, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.Elizabeth II – The Queen in March 2015
20. Monarchy of Australia – The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign. The present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of Australia, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is represented in Australia in accordance with the Australian constitution and letters patent from the Queen. The Australian monarch, besides reigning in Australia, separately serves as monarch for each of 15 other Commonwealth nations known as realms. They are now independent of each other and are legally distinct. Likewise, on all matters relating to any Australian state, the monarch is advised by the ministers of the Crown of that state. The British government is thus considered a foreign power in regard to Australia's foreign affairs. Typically, the monarch is addressed as such when in Australia or performing duties on behalf of Australia abroad. Prior to 1953, the title had simply been the same as that in the United Kingdom. Australia, however, wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned well. Thus, the resolution was a title that included the United Kingdom but, for the first time, separately mentioned Australia and the other Commonwealth realms. The passage of a new Royal Style and Titles Act by the Parliament of Australia put these recommendations into law. Queen Elizabeth II signed her assent on 19 October 1973. Australians do not pay any money for personal income or to support the royal residences outside Australia. Only when the Queen is in Australia does the Australian government support her in the performance of her duties.Monarchy of Australia – Queen of Australia
21. Australian dollar – Within Australia, it is always abbreviated with the dollar sign, with A$ or AU$ sometimes used to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is subdivided into 100 cents. As of 2011, the Australian dollar is the fifth most traded currency in the world, accounting for 7.6% of the world's daily share. It trades in the world foreign exchange markets behind the US dollar, the euro, the pound sterling. The currency is commonly referred to by foreign-exchange traders as the "Aussie dollar". With pounds, pence to be replaced by decimal currency on 14 February 1966, many names for the new currency were suggested. In 1963, Sir Robert Menzies, a monarchist, wished to name the currency the royal. Trial designs were prepared and printed by the Reserve Bank of Australia. Harold Holt, announced the decision in Parliament on 5 June 1963. The royal for the currency proved very unpopular, with Holt and his wife even receiving death threats. It would need to be revisited. On 18 September Holt advised Parliament that the name was to be the dollar, of 100 cents. The rate of conversion for the decimal currency was two dollars per Australian pound, or ten Australian shillings per dollar. The rate was pegged to the pound sterling at a rate of $1 = 8 shillings. In 1967, the Australian dollar did not follow.Australian dollar – $100
22. Parliament House, Canberra – Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. The building was opened on 9 May 1988 by Queen of Australia. It cost more than A$1.1 billion to build. Federal Parliament meetings were first held in Melbourne until 1927. Between 1927 and 1988, the Parliament of Australia met in the Provisional Parliament House, now known as "Old Parliament House". Construction of Australia's permanent Parliament House was delayed while its location was debated. Construction of the new building began in 1981. The principal design of the structure is based on the shape of two boomerangs and is topped by an 81-metre flagpole. Parliament House contains 4,700 rooms, many areas are open to the public. The main foyer contains a marble staircase and leads to the Great Hall, which has a large tapestry on display. The House of Representatives chamber is decorated green, while the Senate chamber has a red colour scheme. Between the two chambers is the Members' Hall, which has a water feature and is not open to the public. The Ministerial Wing houses the office of the prime minister and other ministers. The Parliament shall sit at Melbourne until it meet at the seat of Government. Nothing was done for some years to build the city.Parliament House, Canberra – The main entrance and the flag mast
23. 1930s – The 1930s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1930, ended on December 31, 1939. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in particular the Third Reich in Germany. The 1930s also saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of film. Colombia–Peru War – fought between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru. Chaco War – the war was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over the disputed territory of Gran Chaco resulting in an overall Paraguayan victory in 1935. An agreement dividing the territory was made in 1938, officially ending outstanding differences and bringing an official "peace" to the conflict. Saudi–Yemeni War – was a war between Saudi Arabia and Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. Second Sino-Japanese War – fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It also made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War. Spanish Civil War – Germany and Italy back anti-communist Falange forces of Francisco Franco. Communist parties back the left-wing republican faction in the war. The war ends in April 1939 with Franco's nationalist forces defeating the republican forces. Franco becomes Head of State of Spain, President of facto dictator. The Republic gives way to the Spanish State, an authoritarian dictatorship.1930s – The Colombian Army countering a Peruvian attack during the Colombia–Peru War
24. Australia – Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Its largest urban area is Sydney. An additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories. The population of million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia has the world's 13th-largest economy and per capita income. With the human development index globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times. The adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. These first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists and hunter-gatherers.Australia – Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia
25. Fascism – Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, influenced by national syndicalism. Fascism originated in Italy during World War I and spread to other European countries. Fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the left -- spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes in the nature of technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. Fascism rejects assertions that violence views imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. The Italian term fascismo is derived from fascio meaning a bundle of rods, ultimately from the Latin word fasces. In 1919, Benito Mussolini founded the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in Milan, which became the Partito Nazionale Fascista two years later. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break. Similar symbols were developed by different fascist movements; for example, the Falange symbol is five arrows joined together by a yoke. Historians, political scientists, other scholars have long debated the exact nature of fascism. Each interpretation of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions too wide or narrow. According to many scholars, fascism—especially once in power—has historically attacked communism, conservatism and parliamentary liberalism, attracting support primarily from the far right.Fascism – Georges Sorel
26. New Guard – The New Guard declined rapidly with its remaining members becoming increasingly inclined towards fascism. Still led by Campbell, the movement disbanded completely shortly after. Politically, the end of the Great War in 1918 left Australians unusually polarised. Venomous campaigns for the 1916-1917 conscription plebiscites had contributed of rhetoric about disloyalty and extremism. The 1917 Australian General Strike had also left a bitter legacy. The movement resented the vindictive suppression of the strike; conservatives saw the strike as proof of union extremism sparked by foreign theorists. The movement reflected this sour mood. Its parliamentary strategy had been partly discredited by the desertion of leaders in the split. After the war, impatient unions signalled their interest in methods proposed by the syndicalist "One Big Union" movement. For a time the Labor Party managed to contain its hard-core socialists. In October 1921 its Federal Conference did adopt a socialist objective. This was carefully qualified, becoming a timeless target to be pursued by parliamentary methods. But unsurprisingly, the ideological conflict alarmed conservatives. So too did NSW Labor's uncomfortable relationship with the Communists. In 1925 the Labor Party Annual Conference even resolved to allow the Communist Party with Labor.New Guard – Jack Lang was Premier of New South Wales on two separate occasions, from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1930 to his dismissal in 1932.
27. Socialist Party of Romania – The parties adopted a common platform in October 1920. The PS had its headquarters at the Socialist Club on Sfântul Ionică Street No. 12, near the old National Theater. The building eventually also housed all Romanian trade unions of the period, well as the General Trade Unions' Commission. The Socialists edited the Socialismul, headquartered on Academiei Street. Throughout the following year, it organized rallies into what it deemed "an imperialist conflict". When Romania joined the Entente Powers in August 1916, the group was outlawed soon after. While its secretary Dumitru Marinescu was killed in action during the Romanian Campaign, several of its prominent activists, including Rakovsky, were arrested. The PSDR's history was decisively marked by the Russian Revolution of 1917. The PSDR itself radicalized its message, adding to its previous calls for universal suffrage a republican support for land reform. Its program also argued that this was to be fulfilled inside the existing legislative framework. King Ferdinand I's promise to legislate the reform, together with electoral reform, was embraced by PSDR's moderate wing. The group quickly swelled in numbers, as 15,000 workers in a contemporary account. They also stormed into the Sfântul Ionică building and arrested several Socialist leaders, including the general secretary Moscovici and I. C. Frimu. Four PS members, including Alecu Constantinescu, were each sentenced to five years in prison, while all others arrested were acquitted.Socialist Party of Romania – 1918-12-13 Seven o'clock in the evening... It's quiet throughout the land. (Cartoon by Nicolae Tonitza, published in Socialismul, December 1919)
28. Bolshevik – The RSDLP was a political party formed in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. Lenin wanted members "who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means and by personal participation in one of the party's organisations." Julius Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations." A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin’s steadfast opinion and unwillingness to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own". It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia that caused the party split. One of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin to the revolutionary Robespierre. The root of the split was a book titled What is to be Done? that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile. In Germany, the book was published in 1902; in Russia, strict censorship outlawed its publication and distribution. One of the main points of Lenin’s writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses. After the proposed revolution had successfully overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power, to allow socialism to fully encompass the nation. Lenin also wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a complete supporter of Marxist theory, which also created some party unrest.Bolshevik – Bolshevik Party meeting. Sitting (from left): Avel Enukidze, Mikhail Kalinin, Nikolai Bukharin, Mikhail Tomsky, Mikhail Lashevich, Lev Kamenev, Yevgeni Preobrazhensky, Leonid Serebryakov, Vladimir Lenin and Alexei Rykov.
29. Comintern – The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International, was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern had seven World Congresses between 1919 and 1935. It also had thirteen "Enlarged Plenums" of its governing Executive Committee, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses. The Comintern was officially dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943. While the differences had been evident for decades, World War I proved the issue that finally divided the revolutionary and reformist wings of the workers' movement. The socialist movement had been historically internationalist, therefore opposed workers serving as "fodder" for the "bourgeois" governments at war. This especially since the Triple Alliance comprised two empires, while the Triple Entente gathered France and Britain into an alliance with Russia. Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto had stated that "the working class has no country" and exclaimed "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" Massive majorities voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the international working class to resist war if it was declared. Nevertheless, within hours of the declarations of war, almost all the socialist parties of the combatant states announced their support for the war. The only exceptions were the socialist parties of the Balkans. To Lenin's surprise, even the Social Democratic Party of Germany voted in favor of war credits. Socialist parties in neutral countries mostly supported neutrality rather than total opposition to the war. The International divided with a center wavering between those poles. Lenin condemned much of the center as social-pacifists for several reasons, including their voting for war credits despite opposing the war.Comintern – The Communist International published a theoretical magazine in a variety of European languages from 1919 to 1943.
30. Ngo Dinh Diem – Ngô Đình Diệm (Vietnamese pronunciation:; listen; listen was a South Vietnamese politician. A former mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty, he was named Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by Head of State Bảo Đại in 1954. After winning a heavily rigged referendum, he established the first Republic of Vietnam, as president. The assassination led to the end of the US-Diệm alliance and the collapse of his regime as well as the first Republic of Vietnam. Diệm has been a controversial historical figure in historiography on Vietnam War scholarship. Some historians portrayed him as a tool of the US policymakers, some considered him as an avatar of Vietnamese tradition. Diệm was born in 1901 in Quảng Bình, a central Vietnam province. His family originated in the Phú Cam district, a Catholic district in Huế city. His clan had been among Vietnam's earliest Catholic converts in the 17th century. Diệm was given a saint's name at birth, Gioan Baotixita, following the custom of the Catholic Church. The Ngô-Đình family, along with other Vietnamese Catholics, suffered from anti-Catholic persecutions from Emperors Minh Mạng and Tự Đức. In 1880, while Diệm's father, Ngô Đình Khả, was studying in Malaya, an anti-Catholic riot led by Buddhist monks almost wiped out the entire Ngô-Đình family. Over 100 of the Ngô clan were burned alive in a church including Khả's parents, brothers and sisters. He also worked for French military commander as an interpreter and took part in campaigns against anti-colonial rebels in the mountains of Tonkin during 1880. He also rose to become the minister of the rites and chamberlain, keeper of the eunuchs.Ngo Dinh Diem – The body of Diệm in the back of the APC, having been shot dead en route to military headquarters.
31. South Vietnam – South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition as the "State of Vietnam", later as the "Republic of Vietnam". Its capital was Saigon. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into non-communist parts. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955 with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president. Its sovereignty was recognized by some eighty-seven other nations. After World War II, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in September, 1945. In 1949, Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. After Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, there was a series of military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country until 1975. The Vietnam War began in 1959 by Viet Cong forces armed and controlled by Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Fighting reached a climax during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 500,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam. 1946–47 Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina. The creation of this republic, during the Indochina War, allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent.South Vietnam – About 1 million Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
32. 1955 South Vietnamese election – It was contested by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm, who proposed former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại had abdicated at the time of the referendum held the title of head of state. Though published counts showed Diệm winning the election with 98.2% of the vote, the referendum was widely marred by electoral fraud. In the capital, Saigon, Diệm was credited with more than 600,000 votes, although only 450,000 people were on the electoral roll. He accumulated tallies in excess of 90% of the registered voters, even in rural regions where opposition groups prevented voting. The referendum was the last phase in the struggle between Bảo Đại and his prime minister. Bảo Đại had frequently attempted to undermine him, having appointed him only because he was a conduit to American aid. The State of Vietnam controlled the southern half of the country, pending national elections that were intended to reunify the country under a common government. Emboldened by his success, Diệm began to plot Bảo Đại's downfall. He pushed Bảo Đại out of the political scene, hindering the former emperor's attempts to derail the poll. In the period leading up to the vote, campaigning for Bảo Đại was banned, while Diệm's campaign focused on personal attacks against Bảo Đại. These included pornographic cartoons of the head of unverified rumours claiming he was illegitimate and linking him to various mistresses. Police went door-to-door, warning people of the consequences of failing to vote. After his brother Ngô Đình Nhu successfully rigged the poll, Diệm proclaimed president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam. The defeat of the French Army at Điện Biên Phủ in 1954, followed by the Geneva Accords, led to a divided Vietnam.1955 South Vietnamese election – Colonel Edward Lansdale, who helped Diệm in his campaign
33. Ngo Dinh Nhu – Ngô Đình Nhu was a Vietnamese archivist and politician. He was chief political advisor of South Vietnam's first president, Ngô Đình Diệm. In his early age, Nhu was a bookish individual who showed little inclination towards the political path taken by his elder brothers. While training as an archivist in France, Nhu adopted the Roman Catholic ideology of personalism, although critics claimed that he misused that philosophy. Nhu remained until his own assassination. In 1955, Nhu's supporters helped intimidate the rig the 1955 State of Vietnam referendum that ensconced his elder brother, Diệm, in power. Nhu used the Cần Lao, which he organised into cells, to infiltrate every part of society to root out opposition to the Ngô family. In 1959, he organized a failed attempt via mail bomb on Prince Sihanouk, the monarch of neighbouring Cambodia, with whom relations had become strained. Nhu publicly extolled his intellectual abilities. In 1963, the Ngô family's grip on power became unstuck during the Buddhist crisis, during which the nation's Buddhist majority rose up against the pro-Catholic regime. However, Nhu's plan was uncovered, which intensified plots by military officers, encouraged by the Americans, who turned after the pagoda attacks. Nhu was fooled by the loyalist General Tôn Thất Đính, who had turned against the Ngô family. On 1 November 1963, the Ngô brothers were detained and assassinated the next day. Nhu's family originated from the Vietnamese village of Phú Cẩm. His family had served as mandarins in the imperial court in Huế.Ngo Dinh Nhu – Ngô Đình Nhu (right) meeting Lyndon B. Johnson, Vice President of the United States, May 12, 1961
34. Saigon – Ho Chi Minh City, formerly named and still also referred to as Saigon, is the largest city in Vietnam. It was once known as Prey Nokor, an important Khmer seaport by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam 1955 -- 75. On 2 Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. The city's population is expected to grow by 2025. Ho Chi Minh City has gone during its history reflecting settlement by different ethnic, cultural and political groups. Control of the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định. Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after the late North Vietnamese leader. Even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn / Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. In particular, Sài Gòn is still commonly used to refer to District 1. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, adopted in 1976 and abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville, abbreviated HCMV. The name commemorates the first leader of Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years.Saigon – Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.
35. Brothers Grimm – Their first collection of folk tales, Children's and Household Tales, was published in 1812. The brothers spent their formative years in the German town of Hanau. Their father's death in 1796 affected the brothers for many years after. They both attended the University of Marburg where they developed a curiosity about German folklore, which grew to collecting German folk tales. Between 1857, their first collection was revised and republished many times, growing from 86 stories to more than 200. The popularity of the Grimms' best folk tales has endured well. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm on 24 February 1786. Both boys were born to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel city councilman. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate. The family became prominent members of the community, residing in a large home surrounded by fields. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of life". The children were educated by private tutors receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. Later, they attended local schools. In 1796, they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house.Brothers Grimm – Wilhelm Grimm (left) and Jacob Grimm in an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
36. Constitution – A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. I.e. constitute, what the entity is. Some constitutions are written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers can not cross, such as fundamental rights. The constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. The Latin ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials. In such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions such as quo warranto. For example, it is protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws. The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur. In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the oral laws of the city-state of Athens; this code prescribed the death penalty for many offences.Constitution – A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
37. Hanover (state) – The territory was named after its capital, the city of Hanover, the principal town of the region from 1636. Hanover was formed with the sole exception of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" was held, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany. These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a state, being neither indivisible. The territories were named after notable towns where the dukes had e.g. Calenberg, Göttingen, Grubenhagen, Lüneburg, Wolfenbüttel. Bernard received the territory of Lüneburg, whose principal town was Celle. From 1527 until 1642 the Principality of Harburg, seated in Harburg, was partitioned from Lüneburg. In 1569, Lüneburg was divided between the sons of Ernest the Confessor, Bernard's great-great-grandson. A distant cousin of the line of Lüneburg, Frederick Ulrich, who ruled the territories of Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg, died in 1634. After some dispute, his territories were divided in 1635 of the Lüneburg line. His descendants eventually ruled the Duchy of Brunswick. William's first four sons ruled Lüneburg from their father's death in 1592 to 1648. George received the territories of Calenberg and Göttingen in 1635. In 1636 he moved the seat of the Dukes of Calenberg from Pattensen in the Calenberg territory. This was the nucleus of the state of Hanover, though the territory would have to wait before receiving "Hanover" as its official name.Hanover (state) – William
38. 1837 – As of the start of 1837, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 1 – Galilee earthquake. January 26 – Michigan becomes the 26th state admitted to the United States. February – Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist begins publication in serial form in London. February 4 – Seminoles attack Fort Foster in Florida. Martin Van Buren is sworn in as President of the United States. The city of Chicago is incorporated. May – W. F. Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented a system of electrical telegraph. May 10 – The Panic of 1837 begins in New York City. June 5 – The city of Houston, is incorporated by the Republic of Texas. June 11 – The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, Massachusetts, fueled by ethnic tensions between the Irish and the Yankees. June 20 – 18-year-old Queen Victoria accedes to the throne of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle William IV without legitimate heirs. She will reign for more than 63 years. July – Charles W. King sets sail on the American merchant ship Morrison. In the Morrison incident, he is turned away with cannon fire.1837 – June 20: Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901).
39. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
40. Suffragette – It particularly refers to militants in the United Kingdom such as members of the Women's Social and Political Union. Suffragist is a more general term for members of the suffrage movement. Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895. Today is divided as to whether the militant tactics of the suffragettes hindered their cause. British suffragettes were mostly women from middle-class backgrounds, frustrated by their economic situation. Mill introduced the idea of women's suffrage on the platform he presented to the British electorate in 1865. He was subsequently joined by numerous men and women fighting for the same cause. The term "suffragette" was first used as a term of derision by the journalist Charles E. Hands in the London Daily Mail to describe activists in the movement for women's suffrage, in particular members of the Women's Social and Political Union. The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, founded in 1897, was formed from local suffrage societies. The union was led by Millicent Fawcett, who believed in constitutional campaigning, issuing leaflets, organising meetings and presenting petitions but the campaign had little effect. In 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded a new organisation, the Women's Social and Political Union. She thought the movement would have to become radical and militant if it was going to be effective. The Daily Mail gave them the name "Suffragettes". Some radical techniques used by especially hunger strikes, were learned from tsarism who had escaped to England.Suffragette – Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst used violent tactics in Britain as members of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU)
41. Al Gore – Gore was re-elected in 1996. At the end of Clinton's second term, he was picked as the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election. After leaving office, he remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate activism earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. He was an elected official for 24 years. Gore was a Congressman from 1985 to 1993 served as one of the state's Senators. Gore served as Vice President from 1993 to 2001. A controversial dispute over a vote recount in Florida was settled by the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled 5 -- 4 in favor of Bush. He is also a partner in the venture firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading its climate change solutions group. Gore served on the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute. He was also the subject of the Academy Award-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth in 2006. In 2007, Gore was named a runner-up of the Year. Gore was born in Washington, D.C. the second of two children of Albert Gore Sr. a U.S. Representative who later served as a U.S. Senator from Tennessee, Pauline Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. He is partly descended from Scots-Irish immigrants who first moved to Tennessee after the Revolutionary War.Al Gore – Gore in 1994
42. CNN – The Cable News Network is an American basic cable and satellite television channel, owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first all-news television channel in the United States. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U.S. to distinguish the American channel from its international sister network, CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over million U.S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U.S. channel extends throughout Canada. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in territories. As of February 2015, CNN is available to approximately 96,289,000 cable, telco television households in the United States. The Cable News Network was launched on June 1, 1980. By Ted Turner the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, specialized closed-circuit channels. The company has several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts. On October 1987, Jessica McClure, an 18-month-old toddler, fell down a well in Midland, Texas. The event helped make its name.CNN – Replica of the newsroom at CNN Center.
43. Samuel Adams – Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams. Adams was born in Boston, brought up in a politically active family. A graduate of Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and collector before concentrating on politics. His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770. Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the coming of the American Revolution. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, convened to coordinate a colonial response. Adams returned after the American Revolution where he served in the state senate and was eventually elected governor. Samuel Adams later became a controversial figure in American history. Both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. Adams's parents were devout members of the Old South Congregational Church. The family lived in Boston. Adams emphasized Puritan values in his political career, especially virtue. Samuel Adams, Sr. was a prosperous merchant and deacon. Deacon Adams became a leading figure through an organization that became known as the Boston Caucus, which promoted candidates who supported popular causes.Samuel Adams – In this c. 1772 portrait by John Singleton Copley, Adams points at the Massachusetts Charter, which he viewed as a constitution that protected the peoples' rights.
44. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
45. Writer – A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. Some writers work from an oral tradition. Writers can produce material across a number of genres, non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Some writers may use multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music well as words. Writers may be paid either in advance, or only after their work is published. Many are never paid for their work. Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium. For example, a writer's work may be recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, a piece of journalism. The writer of a letter may include elements of criticism, journalism.Writer – Sculpture of Anonymus in Budapest.
46. Political philosophy – Political philosophy dates back to the Spring and Autumn period, specifically with Confucius in the 6th BC. The major philosophies during the period, Confucianism, Legalism, Mohism, Agrarianism and Taoism, each had a political aspect to their philosophical schools. Philosophers such as Confucius, Mencius, Mozi, focused on political unity and political stability as the basis of their political philosophies. Confucianism advocated a meritocratic government based on empathy, interpersonal relationships. Legalism advocated a highly authoritarian government based on draconian punishments and laws. Mohism advocated a decentralized government centered on ascetism. The Agrarians advocated a peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. Taoism advocated a proto-anarchism. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty, but was replaced by State Confucianism in the Han Dynasty. Prior to China's adoption of communism, State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century. Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece, where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato. Ancient Greece was dominated by city-states, which experimented with various forms of political organization, grouped into four categories: timocracy, tyranny, oligarchy. One of the first, extremely important classical works of political philosophy is Plato's Republic, followed by Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics and Politics. Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Stoics, including the Roman statesman Cicero. Political philosophy demarcated a clear distinction between nation and state religion and state.Political philosophy – Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.
47. Founding Fathers of the United States – A further subset includes those who signed the Continental Association or the Articles of Confederation. During much of the 19th century, they were referred to as either the "Founders" or the "Fathers". Adams, Jefferson, Franklin worked on the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton, Madison, Jay were authors of the The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution. Washington commanded the revolutionary army. All served in important positions in the early government of the United States. The delegates, who included George Washington, soon to command John Adams, were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Notable delegates included Samuel Adams from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay. This congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress came together on May 10, 1775, it was, in effect, a reconvening of the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Witherspoon of New Jersey. Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was summoned back to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation. The second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.Founding Fathers of the United States – Declaration of Independence, a painting by John Trumbull depicting the Committee of Five presenting their draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Congress on June 28, 1776. Trumbull's painting appears on the reverse of the United States two-dollar bill.
48. Kingdom of Great Britain – The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain /ɡreɪt ˈbrɪ.tən/, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single government, based in Westminster. The early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended at the Culloden in 1746. On 1 the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, the Treaty also refer numerous times to the "United Kingdom" and the longer form, the "United Kingdom of Great Britain". Other publications refer after 1707 as well. Additionally, the term United Kingdom was found during the 18th century to describe the state. Both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws. This disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland. Newly created peers of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords.Kingdom of Great Britain – Lord Clive meeting Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762)
49. American Revolution – The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting in April 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were then held New York City for the duration of the war. They failed to defeat Washington's forces. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. The lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies. In 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes for the first time.American Revolution – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress
50. Republicanism – Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies. However, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. Republics revived subsequently, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain. The concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britain's North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution. In Europe it gained enormous influence through the French Revolution. In Ancient Greece, several historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism. Traditionally, the Greek concept of "politeia" was rendered as res publica. Consequently, political theory until recently often used republic in the general sense of "regime." There is definition from this era that exactly corresponds with a modern understanding of the term "republic." However, most of the essential features of the modern definition are present in the works of Plato, Aristotle, Polybius. These include theories of civic virtue. In The Republic, Plato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue together with personal virtue on the part of the ideal rulers. Some of this history, composed more than 500 years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, may be fictitious reconstruction. Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE.Republicanism – Thomas Paine
51. Boston Tea Party – The Boston Tea Party was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, on December 16, 1773. They boarded the ships and threw the chests of tea into Boston Harbor. The British government responded harshly and the episode escalated into the American Revolution. The Tea Party became an iconic event of American history, other political protests such as the Tea Party movement after 2010 explicitly refer to it. The Boston Tea Party was a significant event in the growth of the American Revolution. Parliament responded in 1774 with the Coercive Acts, or Intolerable Acts, which, among other provisions, ended local self-government in Massachusetts and closed Boston's commerce. The crisis escalated, the American Revolutionary War began near Boston in 1775. The North Ministry's attempt to resolve these issues produced a showdown that would eventually result in revolution. As Europeans developed a taste for tea in the 17th century, rival companies were formed to import the product from China. In England, Parliament gave the East India Company a monopoly on the importation of tea in 1698. The East India Company did not export tea to the colonies; by law, the company was required to sell its tea wholesale at auctions in England. British firms exported it to the colonies, where they resold it to merchants in Boston, Charleston. Until 1767, the East India Company paid an ad valorem tax of about 25% on tea that it imported into Great Britain. Parliament laid additional taxes on tea sold for consumption in Britain. Instead of solving the smuggling problem, however, the Townshend duties renewed a controversy about Parliament's right to tax the colonies.Boston Tea Party – Source: W.D. Cooper. "Boston Tea Party.", The History of North America. London: E. Newberry, 1789. Engraving. Plate opposite p. 58. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (40)
52. First Continental Congress – It was called to "The passage of the Coercive Acts" by the British Parliament. The Intolerable Acts had punished Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. The Congress was attended by 56 delegates. The Pennsylvania delegation was appointed by the colonial assembly. The Congress also called for another Continental Congress in the event that their petition was unsuccessful in halting enforcement of the Intolerable Acts. The delegates also urged each colony to train its own militia. The Congress met to October 26, 1774. Peyton Randolph presided over the proceedings; Henry Middleton took over as President of the Congress for the last few days, to October 26. Leader of Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence, was selected to be Secretary of the Continental Congress. The delegates who attended the Congress were not of one mind concerning why they were there. Their ultimate goal was to bring about reconciliation between the colonies and Great Britain. In the end, the voices of compromise carried the day. It requested that local Committees of Safety regulate local prices for goods. Furthermore, they did not repudiate control by the royal prerogative, explicitly acknowledged to the King a few days later. The Congress had two primary accomplishments.First Continental Congress – First Continental Congress 1774
53. United States Declaration of Independence – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast. A committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term "Declaration of Independence" is not used in the document itself. John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. But Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was signed. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside, widely distributed and read to the public. The copy used for this printing may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, signed primarily on August 2. The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made his policies. This has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language", containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history". The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive.United States Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
54. Second Continental Congress – The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met between October 26, 1774, also in Philadelphia. The second Congress moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. When the Second Continental Congress came together on May 1775 it was, in effect, a reconvening of the First Continental Congress. The delegates appointed the same president and secretary. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and John Hancock of Massachusetts. He declined. Hancock was elected president on May 24. Delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies were present when the Second Continental Congress convened. Georgia did not initially send delegates to the Second Continental Congress. They arrived on July 20. The Second Continental Congress would meet on May 1775, to plan further responses if the British government had not repealed or modified the Coercive Acts. By the time the Second Continental Congress met, the American Revolutionary War had already started with the Battles of Lexington and Concord. The Congress was to take charge of the effort. For the few months of the struggle, the Patriots had carried on their struggle in an ad-hoc and uncoordinated manner.Second Continental Congress – Thirteen Colonies United States
55. Articles of Confederation – The formal ratification by all thirteen states was completed in early 1781. Government under the Articles was superseded in 1789. Nevertheless, the weakness of the government created by the Articles became a matter of concern for key nationalists. On March 1789, the general government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the United States Constitution. The new Constitution provided by establishing a chief executive, courts, taxing powers. The Articles of Confederation would bear some resemblance to it. During the war, Congress exercised an unprecedented level of political, diplomatic, economic authority. It adopted trade restrictions, maintained an army, issued fiat money, created a military code and negotiated with foreign governments. To transform themselves into a legitimate nation, the colonists needed international recognition for their cause and foreign allies to support it. The monarchies in particular could not be expected to aid those they considered rebels against another legitimate monarch. Congress then created three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, the Articles of Confederation. Chairman John Dickinson presented their results to the Congress on July 12, 1776. There were long debates on such issues as sovereignty, the exact powers to be given the confederate government, whether to have a judiciary, voting procedures. Under the Articles, the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the national government. The individual articles set the rules for future operations of the United States government.Articles of Confederation – Page I of the Articles of Confederation
56. United States House of Representatives – The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. Since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof and is therefore traditionally the leader of the controlling party. Other floor leaders are chosen depending on whichever party has more voting members. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates. The issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation. The Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. Its implementation was set for March 1789. The House began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time.United States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
57. 1st United States Congress – The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority. April 1, 1789: House of Representatives first achieved a quorum and elected its officers April 6, 1789: Senate first achieved a quorum and elected its officers. 1, 1 Stat. 23 July 4, 1789: Hamilton Tariff, ch. 2, 1 Stat. 24 July 27, 1789: United States Department of State, was established, originally named the Department of Foreign Affairs, ch. 4, 1 Stat. 28. July 31, 1789. Regulation of the Collection of Duties on Tonnage and Merchandise, ch.5, 1 Stat. 29. August 7, 1789: Department of War was established, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 49. September 2, 1789: United States Department of the Treasury was established, ch. 12, 1 Stat. 65 September 24, 1789: Judiciary Act of 1789, ch. 20, 1 Stat. 2, 1 Stat. 101 March 26, 1790: Naturalization Act of 1790, ch. 3, 1 Stat. 103 April 10, 1790: Patent Act of 1790, ch.1st United States Congress – Federal Hall, site of the first two sessions of this Congress (1789)
58. Governor of Massachusetts – The current governor is Charlie Baker. The Governor of Massachusetts is supported by a number of subordinate officers. He, like most other state officers, representatives, was originally elected annually. Since 1966 the office of governor has carried a four-year term. The Governor of Massachusetts does not receive a mansion, housing allowance. Instead, he resides in his private residence. The title "His Excellency" is a throwback to the royally appointed governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The title was retained until 1742, when an order from King George II forbade its further use. However, the framers of the constitution revived it because they found it fitting to dignify the governor with this title. The governor also serves as commander-in-chief of the Commonwealth's armed forces. According to the constitution, whenever the chair of the governor is vacant, the lieutenant governor shall take over as acting governor. Most recently, Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci. Under this system, the governor retains his or her position and title as "lieutenant governor" and becomes acting governor, not governor. The governor, when acting as governor, is referred to as "the lieutenant governor, acting governor" in official documents. The Massachusetts Constitution does not use the term "governor".Governor of Massachusetts – Incumbent Charlie Baker since January 8, 2015
59. John Hancock – John Hancock was an American merchant, statesman, prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Before the American Revolution, Hancock was one of the wealthiest men in the Thirteen Colonies, having inherited a mercantile business from his uncle. Hancock began his political career as a protégé of Samuel Adams, an influential local politician though the two men later became estranged. As tensions between Great Britain increased in the 1760s, Hancock used his wealth to support the colonial cause. He became very popular in Massachusetts, especially after British officials charged him with smuggling. Hancock was one of Boston's leaders during the crisis that led in 1775. He served more than two years in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, as president of Congress, was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence. Hancock was elected governor of the Commonwealth, serving in that role for most of his remaining years. He used his influence to ensure that Massachusetts ratified the United States Constitution in 1788. He was born in a part of town that eventually became the separate city of Quincy. He was the son of Mary Hawke Thaxter, from nearby Hingham. As a child, Hancock became a casual acquaintance of young John Adams, whom the Reverend Hancock had baptized in 1735. The Hancocks owned one slave to help with household work. After Hancock's father died in 1744, John was sent to live with his uncle and aunt, Lydia Hancock.John Hancock – Portrait by John Singleton Copley, c. 1770–72
60. Iran and weapons of mass destruction – Iran has first-hand knowledge of WMD effects—over 100,000 Iranian troops and civilians were victims of chemical weapons during the 1980s Iran–Iraq War. Later versions of this fatwa forbid only the "use" of nuclear weapons, but said nothing about their production. Iran has stated its uranium enrichment program is exclusively for peaceful purposes. In a 2007 National Intelligence Estimate, the United States Intelligence Community assessed that Iran had ended all "nuclear work" in 2003. U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta stated in January 2012 that Iran was pursuing a nuclear weapons capability, but was not attempting to produce nuclear weapons. In 2009, U.S. intelligence assessed that Iranian intentions were unknown. Some European intelligence believe Iran has resumed its alleged nuclear weapons design work. Iran has called for nuclear weapons states to disarm and for the Middle East to be a nuclear weapon free zone. Former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad argued that the sanctions were illegal. The IAEA has been able to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran, but not the absence of undeclared activities. The Non-Aligned Movement has called on both sides to work through the IAEA for a solution. Another IAEA report stated "there is no evidence that the previously undeclared nuclear material and activities... were related to a nuclear weapons program." On 31 July 2006, the Security Council passed a resolution demanding Iran suspend its enrichment program. On 23 December 2006, the UN Security Council imposed sanctions against Iran, which were later tightened on 24 March 2007, because Iran refused to suspend enrichment. Iran's representative to the UN argued that the sanctions compelled Iran to abandon its rights under the NPT to peaceful nuclear technology.Iran and weapons of mass destruction – Iranian soldier with gas mask under Chemical bombardment by Iraqi forces in the battlefield during the Iran–Iraq War.
61. European sovereign-debt crisis – The European debt crisis is a multi-year debt crisis, taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009. The detailed causes of the crisis varied. The structure of the eurozone as a union without fiscal union contributed to the crisis and limited the ability of European leaders to respond. European banks own a significant amount of such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing. Return to improved structural deficits enabled Ireland and Portugal to exit their bailout programmes in July 2014. Greece and Cyprus both managed to partly regain access in 2014. Spain officially received a bailout programme. Its package from the ESM was earmarked for a bank recapitalization fund and did not include financial support for the government itself. In 1992, members of the European Union signed the Maastricht Treaty, under which they pledged to limit their deficit debt levels. The crisis subsequently spread while raising concerns about Italy, Spain, the European banking system, more fundamental imbalances within the eurozone. In Greece the low forecast was reported to the actual situation. The fact that France owned 10 % of that debt, struck terror into investors at the word "default". As of January 2009, a group of eastern European banks had already asked for a bailout. Together these three international organisations representing the bailout creditors became nicknamed "the Troika". By July 2012 also the Netherlands, Finland benefited from zero or negative interest rates.European sovereign-debt crisis – Total (gross) government debt around the world as a percent of GDP by IMF
62. 2006 – January 4 – Ariel Sharon, Prime Minister of Israel, suffers a severe stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Saudi Arabia, collapses, killing 76 pilgrims visiting to perform Hajj. Saudi Arabia, kills 362 pilgrims. January 15 – NASA's Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 16 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf assumes office as President of Liberia, the first female elected head of state in Africa. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a 9-year journey. January 25 – Pope Benedict XVI issues his first encycylical, Deus caritas est. January 27 – Celebrations are held in Salzburg and around the world, for the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Philippines, kills 74 people and leaves 600 injured. February 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126. February 19 – Pasta de Conchos mine disaster: Sixty-five miners die after becoming trapped underground, following an explosion in Nueva Rosita, Mexico. March 4 – The final contact attempt with Pioneer 10 receives no response. March 9 – NASA's Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturn's moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars.2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
63. Michelle Bachelet – Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria is a Chilean politician, President of Chile since 11 March 2014. She was previously president from 2006 to 2010, becoming the first woman in her country to do so. In December 2013, Bachelet was re-elected president over 62 % of the vote, bettering the 53.5 % she obtained in 2006. She is the first person since 1932 to win the presidency of Chile twice in competitive elections. A physician with studies in military strategy, was Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, Ricardo Lagos. She describes herself as an agnostic. Aside from her Spanish, she also speaks, with varying levels of fluency, English, German, Portuguese and French. She is a member of the Socialist Party of Chile. Bachelet is the second child of Air Force Brigadier General Alberto Bachelet Martínez. He married the daughter of an English physician working in Chile. Máximo Jeria Johnson, married Angela Gómez Zamora. Their union produced five children, the fourth of whom is Bachelet’s mother. Bachelet was born in a middle class suburb of Santiago. She was named after French actress Michèle Morgan. Bachelet spent many of her childhood years moving with her family from one military base to another.Michelle Bachelet – Michelle Bachelet
64. President of Chile – The President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile. The President is responsible for both state administration. It is also considered as one of the institutions, essential to the country's political stability. Under the current Constitution, the President is elected to serve for a period of four years, with immediate re-election being prohibited. The shorter period allows for presidential elections to be synchronized. The official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago. The Constitution of its consecutive amendments, establishes the requirements for becoming President. Originally the President must be a natural-born citizen of the country. The President must also be at least 35 years old. In addition, all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply. The president must meet all the requirements to qualify as a fully Chilean citizen with the right to vote. Those are who have never never been sentenced to afflicting punishment. The loss of the right to vote is the main disqualification for the applicant. In the 2005 constitutional reform, some of these requirements were changed: The President now must have the Chilean nationality. The President must also be at least 35 years old.President of Chile – Incumbent Michelle Bachelet since 11 March 2014
65. 1854 – As of the start of 1854, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 3 –Charles Dickens commences writing the novel Hard Times. January 6 – The fictional detective Sherlock Holmes is born. January 9 –The Teutonia Männerchor in Pittsburgh, U.S.A. is founded to promote German culture. February 11 –Major streets are lit by coal gas for the first time. February 13 –Mexican troops force William Walker and his troops to retreat to Sonora. February 14 –Texas is linked by telegraph with the rest of the United States, when a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas is completed. February 17 –The British recognize the independence of the Orange Free State in Southern Africa; its official independence is declared 6 days later. February 27 –Britain sends Russia an ultimatum to withdraw from two Romanian provinces it has conquered, Moldavia and Wallachia. February 28 –The Republican Party is founded in Ripon, Wisconsin. March – The British East India Company annexes Jhansi State in India under the doctrine of lapse. March 1 –German psychologist Friedrich Eduard Beneke disappears; 2 years later his remains are found in the canal near Charlottenburg. March 3 –Australia's first telegraph line, linking Melbourne and Williamstown, opens. March 11 –A Royal Navy fleet sails from Britain under Vice Admiral Sir Charles Napier. March 20 –The Boston Public Library opens to the public.1854 – Original map by Dr John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854
66. Republican Party (United States) – The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Businessman Donald Trump of New York, will become the Republican president on January 20, 2017. The Republican Party's current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' modern liberalism. The Republican Party's platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, restrictions on labor unions. In addition to economic themes there are important traditional values, usually with a ethical foundation. The party also holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures. Specifically, 68 out of 98 partisan state legislative chambers have Republican majorities. According to CBS news, "The Republican National Committee says the acronym "GOP" dates back to 1875, at which time it meant'Gallant Old Party'." The main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The name was partly chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The official convention was held on July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan. The Republicans' initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest. With the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states.Republican Party (United States) – Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican U.S. President (1861–1865).
67. Ripon, Wisconsin – Ripon is a city in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 7,733 at the 2010 census. The city is surrounded by the Town of Ripon. Horner named not only the town but also most of the streets, his house is still standing today. Ripon was officially founded by David P. Mapes, a former New York steamboat captain. Mapes was a founder of Ripon College, originally incorporated as Brockway College in 1851. The group also took a leading role during the summer of 1854. The February 1854 meeting was the political meeting of the group that would become the Republican Party. A Republican think tank, takes its name from Ripon, Wisconsin. Ripon is located in the northwest corner of Fond du Lac County. Ripon lies in a geologic formation composed primarily of dolostone, with limestone as a secondary rock type. Ripon's bedrock is primarily limestone. The limestone indicates that Ripon's location was once a shallow sea. Since Ripon is on the Sinnipee Group, it is a Karst environment. Ripon also lies in an area, affected by several glaciation periods.Ripon, Wisconsin – Looking north in downtown Ripon
68. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014