1. Politics – Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community as well as the interrelationship between communities. It is very often said that politics is about power, a political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to antiquity, with seminal works such as Platos Republic, Aristotles Politics. Formal Politics refers to the operation of a system of government and publicly defined institutions. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics, many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal Politics is Politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, informal Politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting ones daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that politics is everywhere. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotles book Politics also derives, the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as Polettiques, it became politics in Modern English. The history of politics is reflected in the origin, development, the origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China, of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the French Revolution put an end to the divine right of kings. Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of Hereditary monarchy, the king often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, long before the council became a bulwark of democracy, it rendered invaluable aid to the institution of kingship by, Preserving the institution of kingship through heredity. Preserving the traditions of the social order, being able to withstand criticism as an impersonal authority. Being able to manage a greater deal of knowledge and action than an individual such as the king. The greatest of the subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and ScotlandPolitics – Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart – Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.
2. Decision-making – This article deals with decision-making as analyzed in psychology. In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, it may or may not prompt action, decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker. Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory and it is therefore a process which can be more or less rational or irrational and can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge. Cognitive, the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment, normative, the analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision-making, or communicative rationality, and the invariant choice it leads to. A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria. Then the task might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision-maker when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task might be to find the best alternative or to determine the relative priority of each alternative when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of multiple-criteria decision analysis and this leads to the formulation of a decision-making paradox. Logical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in an area to make informed decisions. For example, medical decision-making often involves a diagnosis and the selection of appropriate treatment and they may follow a recognition primed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing alternatives. The decision-makers environment can play a part in the decision-making process, for example, environmental complexity is a factor that influences cognitive function. A complex environment is an environment with a number of different possible states which come. Studies done at the University of Colorado have shown that more complex environments correlate with cognitive function. One experiment measured complexity in a room by the number of objects and appliances present. Cognitive function was greatly affected by the measure of environmental complexity making it easier to think about the situation. Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving and it is important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision-making. Traditionally, it is argued that problem analysis must be done first, information overload is a gap between the volume of information and the tools we have to assimilate itDecision-making – Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia.
3. Political power – In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people. The term authority is used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings, in business, power is often expressed as being upward or downward. With downward power, a companys superior influences subordinates, when a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force, at one extreme, it closely resembles what an English-speaking person might term influence, although some authors distinguish influence as a means by which power is used. One such example is power, as compared to hard power. The philosopher Michel Foucault saw power as an expression of a complex strategic situation in a given social setting that requires both constraint and enablement. Social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, in a now-classic study, a must draw on the base or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. Drawing on the power base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in As own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, further bases have since been adduced – in particular by Gareth Morgan in his 1986 book, Images of Organization. Also called positional power, it is the power of an individual because of the relative position, legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by various attributes of such as a uniform. Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and it is based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower. Nationalism and patriotism count towards a sort of referent power. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country and this is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisers have long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, the charismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement, although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena. Abuse is possible when someone that is likable, yet lacks integrity and honesty, rises to power, referent power is unstable alone, and is not enough for a leader who wants longevity and respectPolitical power – Sociology
4. Elections – An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, however, the gana members had the final say in his elections. The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs also used election to choose their caliph, Uthman and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, males, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage. Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not requiredElections – A ballot box
5. Legislature – A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a seat, as, for, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress, diet and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral. In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
6. Privilege of peerage – The privilege of peerage is the body of special privileges belonging to members of the British peerage. The privileges have been lost and eroded over time, the right to be tried by other peers was abolished in 1948. Legal opinion considers the right of freedom from arrest as extremely limited in application, the remaining privilege is not exercised and was recommended for formal abolition in 1999, but has never been formally revoked. Peers also have other rights not formally part of the privilege of peerage. For example, they are entitled to use coronets and supporters on their achievements of arms, the privilege of peerage extends to all temporal peers and peeresses regardless of their position in relation to the House of Lords. The right to sit in the House is separate from the privilege, Scottish peers from the Acts of Union 1707 and Irish peers from the Act of Union 1800, therefore, have the privilege of peerage. From 1800, Irish peers have had the right to stand for election to the United Kingdom House of Commons but they lose the privilege of peerage for the duration of their service in the lower House. Since 1999, hereditary peers of England, Scotland, Great Britain, and their privilege of peerage is not explicitly lost by service in the lower House. Any peer issuing a disclaimer under the provisions of the Peerage Act 1963 loses all privileges of peerage, the privilege of peerage also extends to wives and widows of peers. A peeress by marriage loses the privilege upon marrying a commoner, individuals who hold courtesy titles, however, do not have such privileges by virtue of those titles. Lords Spiritual do not have the privilege of peerage as, at least since 1621, they have been Lords of Parliament, just as commoners have a right to trial by a jury of their equals, peers and peeresses formerly had a right to trial by other peers. The right of peers to trial by their own order was formalized during the 14th century, the privilege of trial by peers was still ill-defined, and the statute did not cover peeresses. By the reign of Henry VII of England, there were two methods of trial by peers of the realm, trial in the House of Lords, the House of Lords tried the case if Parliament was in session, otherwise, trial was by the Lord High Stewards Court. In the Lord High Stewards Court, a group of Lords Triers, sitting under the chairmanship of the Lord High Steward, acted as judge and jury. By custom the number of Triers was not fewer than 23, so that a majority was a minimum of 12 and this practice was ended by the Treason Act 1695, passed during the reign of King William III. The Act required that all peers be summoned as Triers, all subsequent trials were held before the full House of Lords. By convention, Bishops and Archbishops did not vote on the verdict and they sat until the conclusion of the deliberations, and withdrew from the chamber just prior to the final vote. For a guilty verdict, a majority of twelve was necessary, the entire House also determined the punishment to be imposed, which had to accord with the lawPrivilege of peerage – The House of Lords, c. 1810.
7. House of Lords – The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, referred to ceremonially as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster, officially, the full name of the house is, The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, all members of the House of Lords are appointed, the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England, of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Very few of these are female since most hereditary peerages can only be inherited by men, while the House of Commons has a defined 650-seat membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed. There are currently 805 sitting Lords, the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament to be larger than its respective lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills that have approved by the House of Commons. It regularly reviews and amends Bills from the Commons, while it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons that is independent from the electoral process, Bills can be introduced into either the House of Lords or the House of Commons. Members of the Lords may also take on roles as government ministers, the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queens Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament, the House also has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. This new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland, the Parliament of England developed from the Magnum Concilium, the Great Council that advised the King during medieval times. This royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics, noblemen, the first English Parliament is often considered to be the Model Parliament, which included archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it. The power of Parliament grew slowly, fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined, for example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, and the shire and borough representatives entirely powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not simply by custom or royal charter, further developments occurred during the reign of Edward IIs successor, Edward III. It was during this Kings reign that Parliament clearly separated into two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The authority of Parliament continued to grow, and, during the fifteenth centuryHouse of Lords
8. British House of Commons – The House of Commons of the United Kingdom is the lower house of the countrys parliament. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster, officially, the full name of the house is, The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. The House is a body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past-the-post and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved, under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power. The Government is primarily responsible to the House of Commons and the prime minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the support of a majority of its members. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance, by convention, the prime minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Since 1963, by convention, the minister is always a member of the House of Commons. The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence, confidence and no confidence motions are sometimes phrased explicitly, for instance, That this House has no confidence in Her Majestys Government. Many other motions were considered confidence issues, even though not explicitly phrased as such, in particular, important bills that form a part of the Governments agenda were formerly considered matters of confidence, as is the annual Budget. Parliament normally sits for a term of five years. Subject to that limit, the minister could formerly choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament. By this second mechanism, the government of the United Kingdom can change without a general election. In such circumstances there may not even have been a party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim. A prime minister may resign if he or she is not defeated at the polls. In such a case, the premiership goes to whoever can command a majority in the House of Commons, in practice this is usually the new leader of the outgoing prime ministers party. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no mechanism for electing a new leader, when Anthony Eden resigned as PM in 1957 without recommending a successor and it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the advice of ministers. By convention, all ministers must be members of the House of Commons or of the House of Lords, a handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they then entered Parliament either in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Since 1902, all ministers have been members of the CommonsBritish House of Commons
9. Jury – A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment. Modern juries tend to be found in courts to ascertain the guilt, or lack thereof, in Anglophone jurisdictions, the verdict may be guilty or not guilty. The old institution of grand juries still exists in places, particularly the United States. The modern criminal court jury arrangement has evolved out of the juries in England. Members were supposed to inform themselves of crimes and then of the details of the crimes and their function was therefore closer to that of a grand jury than that of a jury in a trial. The word jury derives from Anglo-Norman juré, Juries are most common in common law adversarial-system jurisdictions. In the modern system, juries act as triers of fact, a trial without a jury is known as a bench trial. The petit jury hears the evidence in a trial as presented by both the plaintiff and the defendant, after hearing the evidence and often jury instructions from the judge, the group retires for deliberation, to consider a verdict. The majority required for a verdict varies, in some cases it must be unanimous, while in other jurisdictions it may be a majority or supermajority. A jury that is unable to come to a verdict is referred to as a hung jury, the size of the jury varies, in criminal cases involving serious felonies there are usually 12 jurors. In civil cases many trials require fewer than twelve jurors, grand juries carry out this duty by examining evidence presented to them by a prosecutor and issuing indictments, or by investigating alleged crimes and issuing presentments. A grand jury is traditionally larger than and distinguishable from the jury used during a trial. It is not required that a suspect be notified of grand jury proceedings, grand juries can also be used for filing charges in the form of a sealed indictment against unaware suspects who are arrested later by a surprise police visit. In addition to their role in screening criminal prosecutions and assisting in the investigation of crimes, grand juries in California, Florida. A third kind of jury, known as a jury can be convened in some common law jurisdiction in connection with an inquest by a coroner. A coroner is an official, who is charged with determining the circumstances leading to a death in ambiguous or suspicious cases. A coroners jury is generally a body that a coroner can convene on a basis in order to increase public confidence in the coroners finding where there might otherwise be a controversy. Serving on a jury is normally compulsory for individuals who are qualified for jury service, a jury is intended to be an impartial panel capable of reaching a verdictJury – An empty jury box at an American courtroom in Pershing County, Nevada.
10. Commoner – The terms common people, common man, commoners, or the masses denote a broad social division referring to ordinary people who are members of neither royalty nor nobility nor the priesthood. Since the 20th century, the common people has been used in a more general sense to refer to typical members of society in contrast to highly privileged. In Europe, a concept analogous to common people arose in the Classical civilization of ancient Rome around the 6th century BC. The division may have been instituted by Servius Tullius, as an alternative to the clan based divisions that had been responsible for internecine conflict. The ancient Greeks generally had no concept of class and their leading social divisions were simply non-Greeks, free-Greeks, with the growth of Christianity in the 4th century AD, a new world view arose that would underpin European thinking on social division until at least early modern times. Saint Augustine postulated that social division was a result of the Fall of Man, the three leading divisions were considered to be the priesthood, the nobility, and the common people. Sometimes this would be expressed as those who prayed, those who fought, the Latin terms for the three classes – oratores, bellatores and laboratores – are often found even in modern textbooks, and have been used in sources since the 9th century. This threefold division was formalised in the system of social stratification. They were the third of the Three Estates of the Realm in medieval Europe, consisting of peasants, social mobility for commoners was limited throughout the Middle Ages. Generally, the serfs were unable to enter the group of the bellatores, commoners could sometimes secure entry for their children into the oratores class, usually they would serve as rural parish priests. There were cases of serfs becoming clerics in the Holy Roman Empire, though from the Carolingian era, of the two thousand bishops serving from the 8th to the 15th century, just five came from the peasantry. Up until the late 15th-century European social order was relatively stable, there were periods where the common people felt oppressed in certain regions, but often they were content with their lot. The social and political order of medieval Europe was shaken by the development of the cannon in the 15th century. Up until that time a noble with a force could hold their castle or walled town for years even against large armies -. Once effective cannons were available, walls were of far less defensive value and this change of orientation among the nobles left the common people less content with their place in society. A similar trend occurred regarding the clergy, where many priests began to abuse the power they had due to the sacrament of contrition. An early major social upheaval driven in part by the common peoples mistrust of both the nobility and clergy occurred in Great Britain with the English Revolution of 1642, after the forces of Oliver Cromwell triumphed, movements like the Levellers rose to prominence demanding equality for all. According to historian Roger Osbourne, the Colonels speech was the first time a prominent person spoke in favour of male suffrageCommoner – Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix The "Liberty" figure can be interpreted as both a goddess and a heroic commoner.
11. Monarchy of the United Kingdom – The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, coins, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative, judicial and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition. Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War IIMonarchy of the United Kingdom – Queen of the United Kingdom
12. Heraldry – The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as the handmaid of history, the shorthand of history, in modern times, heraldry is used by individuals, public and private organizations, corporations, cities, towns, and regions to symbolize their heritage, achievements, and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for thousands of years, similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can also be found. In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, the Greek and Latin writers frequently describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, and units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, the medieval heralds also devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature. Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, and the arms attributed to the Nine Worthies. These too are now regarded as an invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to an individual, time. Yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic, in England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. A notable example of an armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders. Seals from the part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism. One of the earliest known examples of armory as it came to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou. An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffreys widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a shield decorated with six golden lions rampant. He wears a helmet adorned with another lion, and his cloak is lined in vair. A medieval chronicle states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in 1128, but this account probably dates to about 1175. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions as an emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by Geoffreys shield. Richard is also credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant and it is from this garment that the phrase coat of arms is derivedHeraldry – The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late 15th century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest. (See Roll of arms).
13. George Frederic Watts – George Frederic Watts OM RA was an English Victorian painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement. He said I paint ideas, not things, Watts became famous in his lifetime for his allegorical works, such as Hope and Love and Life. These paintings were intended to form part of an epic symbolic cycle called the House of Life, Watts was born in Marylebone, London on the birthday of George Frederic Handel, to the second wife of a poor piano-maker. The former put him off conventional religion for life, while the latter was an influence on his art. He first exhibited at the Academy in 1837 and he also began his portraiture career, receiving patronage from his close contemporary Alexander Constantine Ionides, who later came to be a close friend. He came to the eye with a drawing entitled Caractacus. Watts won a first prize in the competition, which was intended to promote narrative paintings on patriotic subjects, also while in Italy Watts began producing landscapes and was inspired by Michelangelos Sistine Chapel and Giottos Scrovegni Chapel. Leaving Florence in April 1847 for what was intended to be a return to London. In consequence most of his works are conventional oil paintings. In his studio he met Henry Thoby Prinsep and his wife Sara, Watts thus joined the Prinsep circle of bohemians, including Saras seven sisters, and Julia Margaret Cameron. One of only two pupils Watts ever accepted was Henrys son Valentine Cameron Prinsep, the other was John Roddam Spencer Stanhope – both remained friends, but neither became a major artist. He also took a trip back to Italy in 1853 and with Charles Thomas Newton to excavate Halicarnassus in 1856–57, via Constantinople. In the 1860s, Watts work shows the influence of Rossetti, often emphasising sensuous pleasure, when she eloped with another man after less than a year of marriage, Watts was obliged to divorce her. These works formed part of a version of the House of Life, influenced by the ideas of Max Müller. Watts hoped to trace the evolving mythologies of the races in a synthesis of spiritual ideas with modern science. To maintain his friendship with the Prinsep family as their children began leaving home, he built The Briary for them near Freshwater, in 1877, his decree nisi from Ellen Terry finally came through, and the Grosvenor Gallery was opened by his friend Coutts Lindsay. This was to prove his ideal venue for the ten years. In 1886, at the age of 69, Watts remarried, to Mary Fraser Tytler, in 1891 he bought land near Compton, south of Guildford, in SurreyGeorge Frederic Watts – George Frederic Watts
14. Order of the Garter – The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George and it is awarded at the Sovereigns pleasure as a personal gift on recipients from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, the order also includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St Georges Day, the orders emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne, the list includes Sir Sanchet DAbrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have also been proposed, the Kings wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Also, its original statutes required that member of the Order already be a knight. The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch and it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter, at the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St.1431. Various legends account for the origin of the Order, the most popular legend involves the Countess of Salisbury, whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, exclaiming, Honi soit qui mal y pense, King Edward supposedly recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order. This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774, The motto in fact refers to Edwards claim to the French throne, the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used to fasten armour. Medieval scholars have pointed to a connection between the Order of the Garter and the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in Gawain, a girdle, very similar in its erotic undertones to the garter, plays a prominent role. A rough version of the Orders motto also appears in the text and it translates from Old French as Accursed be a cowardly and covetous heart. While the author of that poem remains disputed, there seems to be a connection between two of the top candidates and the Order of the Garter. Scholar J. P. Oakden has suggested that it is related to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and, more importantly. Another competing theory is that the work was written for Enguerrand de Coucy, the Sire de Coucy was married to King Edward IIIs daughter, Isabella, and was given admittance to the Order of the Garter on their wedding dayOrder of the Garter – Most Noble Order of the Garter
15. Order of the Thistle – The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The current version of the Order was founded in 1687 by King James VII of Scotland who asserted that he was reviving an earlier Order, the Order consists of the Sovereign and sixteen Knights and Ladies, as well as certain extra knights. The Sovereign alone grants membership of the Order, he or she is not advised by the Government, the Orders primary emblem is the thistle, the national flower of Scotland. The motto is Nemo me impune lacessit, the patron saint of the Order is St Andrew. Most British orders of chivalry cover the whole United Kingdom, the Order of the Thistle, which pertains to Scotland, is the second-most senior in precedence. Its equivalent in England, The Most Noble Order of the Garter, is the oldest documented order of chivalry in the United Kingdom, in 1783 an Irish equivalent, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, was founded, but has now fallen dormant. James VII claimed that he was reviving an earlier Order, according to legend, Achaius, King of Scots, while engaged in battle at Athelstaneford with the Saxon King Æthelstan of East Anglia, saw in the heavens the cross of St Andrew. After he won the battle, Achaius is said to have established the Order of the Thistle, dedicating it to the saint, the tale is not credible, because the two individuals purported to have fought each other did not even live in the same century. Another story states that Achaius founded the Order in 809 to commemorate an alliance with the Emperor Charlemagne, there is some credibility to this story given the fact that Charlemagne did employ Scottish bodyguards. There is, in addition, a tradition that the order was instituted, or re-instituted and he allegedly conferred membership of the Order of the Burr or Thissil on King Francis I of France. However, there is no evidence for a fifteenth-century order. A French commentator writing in 1558 described the use of the thistle and the cross of St Andrew on Scottish coins and war banners. Similarly, John Lesley writing around 1578, refers to the three orders of chivalry carved on the gate of James Vs Linlithgow Palace with his ornaments of St Andrew. Some Scottish order of chivalry may have existed during the century, possibly founded by James V and called the Order of St. Andrew. James VII issued letters patent reviving and restoring the Order of the Thistle to its glory, lustre. Eight knights, out of a maximum of twelve, were appointed and his successors, the joint monarchs William and Mary, did not make any further appointments to the Order, which consequently fell into desuetude. In 1703, however, Anne once again revived the Order of the Thistle, in 1827, George IV augmented the Order to sixteen members. From time to time, individuals may be admitted to the Order by special statutes, such members are known as Extra Knights and do not count towards the sixteen-member limitOrder of the Thistle – Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex in the robes of a Knight of the Order of the Thistle
16. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council – Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are present or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, the Council also holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council, mostly used to regulate certain public institutions. The Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, otherwise, the Privy Councils powers have now been largely replaced by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Counsellors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland, the key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a court or curia regis. The body originally concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation, administration, later, different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court. The courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, nevertheless, the Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, powerful sovereigns often used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. During Henry VIIIs reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation, the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIIIs death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became an administrative body. The Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, by the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, and Privy Council had been abolished. The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws, the forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons, the body was headed by Oliver Cromwell, de facto military dictator of the nation. In 1653, however, Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the Council was reduced to thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell even greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs, the Council became known as the Protectors Privy Council, its members were appointed by the Lord Protector, subject to Parliaments approval. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protectors Council was abolished, Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I even more power transferred to this committee and it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign and it is closely related to the word private, and derives from the French word privéHer Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council – Queen Victoria convened her first Privy Council on the day of her accession in 1837.
17. Royal Society – Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as The Royal Society. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Societys President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the members of the society. As of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, there are also royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015, since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London which was previously used by the Embassy of Germany, London. The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at variety of locations and they were influenced by the new science, as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards. A group known as The Philosophical Society of Oxford was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library, after the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College. It is widely held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society, I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, and hinder us. But tis well known who were the men that began and promoted that design. This initial royal favour has continued and, since then, every monarch has been the patron of the society, the societys early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and then by Denis Papin, who was appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their area, and were both important in some cases and trivial in others. The Society returned to Gresham in 1673, there had been an attempt in 1667 to establish a permanent college for the society. Michael Hunter argues that this was influenced by Solomons House in Bacons New Atlantis and, to a lesser extent, by J. V. The first proposal was given by John Evelyn to Robert Boyle in a letter dated 3 September 1659, he suggested a scheme, with apartments for members. The societys ideas were simpler and only included residences for a handful of staff and these plans were progressing by November 1667, but never came to anything, given the lack of contributions from members and the unrealised—perhaps unrealistic—aspirations of the society. During the 18th century, the gusto that had characterised the early years of the society faded, with a number of scientific greats compared to other periods. The pointed lightning conductor had been invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1749, during the same time period, it became customary to appoint society fellows to serve on government committees where science was concerned, something that still continues. The 18th century featured remedies to many of the early problemsRoyal Society – The entrance to the Royal Society in Carlton House Terrace, London
18. FRSE – Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh judges to be eminently distinguished in their subject. Around 50 new fellows are elected each year in March, as of 2016 there are around 1650 Fellows, including 71 Honorary Fellows and 76 Corresponding Fellows. Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSE, examples of fellows include Peter Higgs and Jocelyn Bell Burnell. Previous fellows have included Melvin Calvin and Benjamin Franklin, see the Category, Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for more examplesFRSE – The Royal Society building, at the junction of George Street and Hanover Street in the New Town
19. Scotland – Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four housesScotland – Edinburgh Castle. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of this early settlement is unclear.
20. Liberal Party (UK) – The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free-trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite splitting over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to power in 1906 with a landslide victory, by the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives main rival. The party went into decline and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections, apart from notable by-election victories, the partys fortunes did not improve significantly until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 General Election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, at the 1987 General Election, its vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats. A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989 and it was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Lib Dems diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes, the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II, and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of reducing the power of the Crown, although their motives in this were originally to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs gradually came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake. The great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple, after decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832. The Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs demise. As early as 1839 Russell had adopted the name of Liberals, the leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act. They favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances, for a century, free trade remained the one cause which could unite all Liberals. This allowed ministries led by Russell, Palmerston, and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s, a leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, who was a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments. The formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and this was brought about by Palmerstons death in 1865 and Russells retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government Gladstone won a victory at the 1868 election. The establishment of the party as a membership organisation came with the foundation of the National Liberal Federation in 1877. John Stuart Mill was a Liberal MP from 1865 to 1868, for the next thirty years Gladstone and Liberalism were synonymous. William Ewart Gladstone served as prime minister four times, called the Grand Old Man later in life, Gladstone was always a dynamic popular orator who appealed strongly to the working class and to the lower middle classLiberal Party (UK) – A crowd waits outside Leeds Town Hall to see them elect a Liberal Party candidate during the 1880 general elections.
21. George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll – Argyll was born at Ardencaple Castle, Dunbartonshire, the second but only surviving son of John Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll, and his second wife Joan Glassel, the only daughter of John Glassel. Argyll succeeded his father as duke in 1847, with his death he became also hereditary Master of the Household of Scotland and Sheriff of Argyllshire. Argylls wife, née Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower, also served as Mistress of the Robes in this government. In 1871, while serving in the Cabinet, his son and heir, Lord Lorne, married one of Queen Victorias daughters, Princess Louise. In 1886, he broke with Gladstone over the question of the Prime Ministers support for Irish Home Rule, although he did not join the Liberal Unionist Party. Having been already Vice Lord Lieutenant from 1847, Argyll held the honorary post of Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1862 until his death in 1900. He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1853, appointed a Knight of the Thistle in 1856, in 1892 he was created Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Argyll was also a scientist, or at least a publicist on scientific matters, especially evolution, in 1851, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and was appointed Chancellor of the University of St Andrews. Three years later, he became additionally Rector of the University of Glasgow, in 1849 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and served as its President from 1860 to 1864. In 1866, he was a member of the worlds first aeronautical society, the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1869 and he married firstly Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower, eldest daughter of George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland, in 1844. They had five sons and seven daughters, being, John Campbell, Lord Archibald Campbell he married Janey Sevilla Callander on 12 January 1869. Niall Campbell, 10th Duke of Argyll Lady Elspeth Angela Campbell Lord Walter Campbell he married Olivia Milns on 14 April 1874, lilah Olive Campbell Douglas Walter Campbell he married Aimeé Lawrence on 28 November 1899. He remarried Lilian Sclater on 17 June 1920, Ian Campbell, 11th Duke of Argyll Lady Edith Campbell she married Henry Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland on 23 December 1868. Lady Elisabeth Campbell she married Lt. -Col, Edward Harrison Clough-Taylor on 17 July 1880. They have one daughter and one granddaughter, Lesley Venitia Clough-Taylor she married Colonel Hon. Arthur Brodrick on 29 April 1912. They have one daughter, Elisabeth Venitia Marion Brodrick Lord George Granville Campbell he married Sybil Lascelles Alexander, daughter of James Brace Alexander, on 9 May 1879. They have three children, Joan Campbell Lieutenant Ivar Campbell Enid Campbell she married Douglas Tollemache Anstruther on 9 December 1914 and she remarried Colonel Lancelot Holland on 18 August 1925 and they were divorced in 1931George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll – Portrait of Argyll, c. 1860
22. Mitt Romney presidential campaign, 2012 – Having previously run in the 2008 Republican primaries, this was Romneys second campaign for the presidency. He filed his organization with the Federal Elections Commission as an exploratory committee and he became the partys presumptive nominee with his victory in the Texas primary on May 29,2012. On August 11,2012, in Norfolk, Virginia, Romney announced that Paul Ryan, representative for Wisconsins 1st congressional district, would be his running mate for vice president. On August 30,2012, in Tampa, Florida, Romney formally accepted the Republican Partys nomination at the 2012 Republican National Convention, Romneys campaign came to an end on November 6,2012, upon defeat by incumbent President Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election. Romney received 60,933,500 votes, or 47. 2% of the votes cast. Had he won, Romney would have been the first Michigan native to serve as president, Ryan would have been the first vice president from Wisconsin. He also had a network of former staff and supporters eager for him to run again. He continued to give speeches and raise funds on behalf of fellow Republicans. Romney declined a job as head of a hedge fund. Romney finished first in the CPAC straw poll in 2009 and second in 2010 and 2011, won the Southern Republican Leadership Conference straw poll in 2010, and won the New Hampshire Straw Poll in 2011. Romney released his 2010 tax return in early January 2012, along with a partial 2011 return which he promised to release in whole upon its completion, during the presidential campaign, he decided not to disclose additional returns citing the matter as a distraction from more important issues. Despite his preparations, Romney remained unconvinced on whether to run again, in December 2010 he asked his immediate family to vote on a 2012 campaign. In the spring of 2011, his wife and political allies persuaded him to change his mind, Romney formally announced his candidacy for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination at an outdoor gathering in Stratham, New Hampshire, on June 2,2011. In his announcement speech, he pledged to make the U. S. economy the focus of his campaign. On May 16,2011, the Romney campaign announced that it had raised $10.25 million in connection with todays call day fundraiser in Nevada and this was hailed in the media as an impressive one day total. Thereafter, however, the Los Angeles Times reported that the amount actually represented pledges gathered earlier and tallied that day, later, it was discovered that Romney had actually raised $2.403 million on May 16, about a quarter of the claimed amount. By the end of June, Romneys campaign raised $18.5 million, representative Ron Paul, who came 2nd in funding amongst Republican candidates. By the end of March 2012, Romney had raised $88 million, far more than his nearest Republican rival, President Barack Obama had raised $197 million, more than twice as much as Romney, and the Obama campaign had nearly 10 times as much cash on handMitt Romney presidential campaign, 2012 – Mitt Romney for President 2012
23. Socialist Party of Romania – The Socialist Party of Romania was a Romanian socialist political party, created on December 11,1918 by members of the Social Democratic Party of Romania, after the latter emerged from clandestinity. The parties adopted a platform in October 1920. The PS had its headquarters in Bucharest, at the Socialist Club on Sfântul Ionică Street No.12, the building eventually also housed all Romanian trade unions of the period, as well as the General Trade Unions Commission. The Socialists edited the newspaper Socialismul, headquartered on Academiei Street, in 1915, at a time when Romania kept its neutrality, the PSDR, led by the revolutionary-minded Marxist Christian Rakovsky, played a prominent part inside the anti-war Zimmerwald Movement. Throughout the following year, it organized rallies in support of non-intervention into what it deemed an imperialist conflict, when Romania joined the Entente Powers in August 1916, the group came under suspicion of supporting the Central Powers, and was outlawed soon after. While its secretary Dumitru Marinescu was drafted and killed in action during the Romanian Campaign, several of its prominent activists, the PSDRs history was decisively marked by the Russian Revolution of 1917. The PSDR itself radicalized its message, adding to its previous calls for universal suffrage a republican program and its program also called for an end to all forms of exploitation, but argued that this was to be fulfilled inside the existing legislative framework. King Ferdinand Is promise to legislate the land reform, together with electoral reform, was embraced by PSDRs moderate wing, the group quickly swelled in numbers, to about as many as 15,000 workers in a contemporary account. On orders of the Constantin Coandă cabinet, who feared Bolshevik agitation, troops were ordered to fire on the crowd. They also stormed into the Sfântul Ionică building and arrested several Socialist leaders, including the general secretary Moscovici, four PS members, including Alecu Constantinescu, were each sentenced to five years in prison, while all others arrested were acquitted. A single statute was adopted in October 1920, talks yielded no results, especially after Averescu attempted to impose his partys platform on the Socialists. During negotiations, Argetoianu observed that unease was growing between Moscovicis group and the far left, rallied around Cristescu. The three senatorial candidates of that year — Cristescu, Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea and Boris Stefanov — were not validated into Parliament, the PS involvement in the 1920 strike caused authorities to organize a swift crackdown. In early 1921, the PS had 27 branches nationwide, totaling 40,000 to 45,000 registered members, estimates place the industrial working class of the 1920s and 1930s at between 400,000 and 820,000 people. Notable PS activists at the time were David Fabian, Elena Filipescu, among the PS sympathizers were the artist and former prisoner of war Nicolae Tonitza, who regularly contributed graphics to Socialismul, and the writer Gala Galaction. The major issue splitting the party involved affiliation to the Comintern, an additional and hotly contested demand involved submitting trade unions to party control. At the same time, the maximalist wing, led by Cristescu, passed the resolution to join the Comintern, commenting on the success of Leninist delegates, researchers Adrian Cioroianu and Victor Frunză both attributed it to manipulation of inner-party electoral procedures rather than actual appeal. A third PS wing, comprising the centrists who supported conditional affiliation, voinea also left detail on the impact the Congress had on the outside, The matter had become a slogan with which people would greet each other throughout the city, «Long live the thirdSocialist Party of Romania – 1918-12-13 Seven o'clock in the evening... It's quiet throughout the land. (Cartoon by Nicolae Tonitza, published in Socialismul, December 1919)
24. Bolshevik – The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk in Belarus to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues and they ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks or Reds came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, with the Reds defeating the Whites, and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism, in the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Lenin wanted members who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means, Julius Martov suggested by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the partys organisations. Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a core of active members. A main source of the factions could be attributed to Lenin’s steadfast opinion. It was obvious at early stages in Lenin’s revolutionary practices that he would not be willing to concede on any party policy that conflicted with his own predetermined ideas and it was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia that caused the party split. He was seen even by fellow party members as being so narrow minded that he believed there were only two types of people, Friend and enemy—those who followed him, and all the rest. Leon Trotsky, one of Lenins fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Robespierre, Lenins view of politics as verbal and ideological warfare and his inability to accept criticism even if it came from his own dedicated followers was the reason behind this accusation. The root of the split was a book titled What is to be Done. that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile, in Germany, the book was published in 1902, in Russia, strict censorship outlawed its publication and distribution. One of the points of Lenin’s writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses. After the proposed revolution had overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power. Lenin also wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenins view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a supporter of Marxist theory. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral, and were loyal to the idea of a completely classless society, so Lenin’s variations caused the party internal dissonance. Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks would not become official until 1903, as discussed in What is to be Done. Lenin firmly believed that a political structure was needed to effectively initiate a formal revolutionBolshevik – Bolshevik Party meeting. Sitting (from left): Avel Enukidze, Mikhail Kalinin, Nikolai Bukharin, Mikhail Tomsky, Mikhail Lashevich, Lev Kamenev, Yevgeni Preobrazhensky, Leonid Serebryakov, Vladimir Lenin and Alexei Rykov.
25. Comintern – The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International, was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern had seven World Congresses between 1919 and 1935 and it also had thirteen Enlarged Plenums of its governing Executive Committee, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses. The Comintern was officially dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943, while the differences had been evident for decades, World War I proved the issue that finally divided the revolutionary and reformist wings of the workers movement. The socialist movement had been historically antimilitarist and internationalist, and therefore opposed workers serving as fodder for the bourgeois governments at war. This especially since the Triple Alliance comprised two empires, while the Triple Entente gathered France and Britain into an alliance with Russia, karl Marxs The Communist Manifesto had stated that the working class has no country and exclaimed Proletarians of all countries, unite. Massive majorities voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the working class to resist war if it were declared. Nevertheless, within hours of the declarations of war, almost all the socialist parties of the combatant states announced their support for the war, the only exceptions were the socialist parties of the Balkans. To Lenins surprise, even the Social Democratic Party of Germany voted in favor of war credits, Socialist parties in neutral countries mostly supported neutrality rather than total opposition to the war. The International divided into a left and a reformist right. Lenin condemned much of the center as social-pacifists for several reasons, Lenins term social-pacifist aimed in particular at Ramsay MacDonald, leader of the Independent Labour Party in Britain, who opposed the war on grounds of pacifism, but did not actively resist it. Discredited by its passivity towards world events, the Second International dissolved in the middle of the war in 1916, the victory of the Russian Communist Party in the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 was felt throughout the world. An alternative path to power to parliamentary politics was demonstrated, with much of Europe on the verge of economic and political collapse in the aftermath of the carnage of the Great War, revolutionary sentiments were widespread. The Bolsheviks believed that required a new international to ferment revolution in Europe. The Comintern was founded at a Congress held in Moscow March 2–6,1919, there were 52 delegates present from 34 parties. They decided to form an Executive Committee with representatives of the most important sections, the Congress decided that the Executive Committee would elect a five-member bureau to run the daily affairs of the International. However, such a bureau was not formed and Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev was assisted by Angelica Balabanoff, acting as the secretary of the International, Victor L. Kibaltchitch and Vladmir Ossipovich Mazin. Lenin, Trotsky and Alexandra Kollontai presented material, the main topic of discussion was the difference between bourgeois democracy and the dictatorship of the proletariat. The central policy of the Comintern under Lenins leadership was that Communist parties should be established across the world to aid the international proletarian revolution, in this period, the Comintern was promoted as the General Staff of the World RevolutionComintern – The Communist International published a theoretical magazine in a variety of European languages from 1919 to 1943.
26. Ngo Dinh Diem – Ngô Đình Diệm was a South Vietnamese politician. A former mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty, he was named Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by Head of State Bảo Đại in 1954. In October 1955, after winning a rigged referendum, he deposed Bảo Đại and established the first Republic of Vietnam. He was a leader of the Catholic element and was opposed by Buddhists. The assassination led to the end of the U. S. -Diệm alliance, Diệm has been a controversial historical figure in historiography on Vietnam War scholarship. Some historians portrayed him as a tool of the U. S. policymakers, nevertheless, some recent studies have portrayed Diệm from a more Vietnamese-centered perspective as a competent leader with his own vision on nation building and modernisation of South Vietnam. Diệm was born in 1901 in Quảng Bình, a central Vietnam province and his family originated in the Phú Cam district, a Catholic district in Huế city. His clan had been among Vietnams earliest Catholic converts in the 17th century, Diệm was given a saints name at birth, Gioan Baotixita, following the custom of the Catholic Church. The Ngô-Đình family, along with other Vietnamese Catholics, suffered from anti-Catholic persecutions from Emperors Minh Mạng, in 1880, while Diệms father, Ngô Đình Khả, was studying in Malaya, an anti-Catholic riot led by Buddhist monks almost wiped out the entire Ngô-Đình family. Over 100 of the Ngô clan were burned alive in a church including Khảs parents and he also worked for French armed forces commander as an interpreter and took part in campaigns against anti-colonial rebels in the mountains of Tonkin during 1880. Then, he became a high-ranking Mandarin, the first headmaster of the National Academy in Huế, which was found in 1896, and he also rose to become the minister of the rites and chamberlain, and keeper of the eunuchs. In 1907, after the ouster of Thành Thái king, Khả resigned and withdrew from the royal court, after the tragedy of his family, Khả decided to give up being a priest and got married. Khả had nine sons and three daughters by his second wife, Phạm Thị Thân, after his first wife died childless. They were, Ngô Đình Khôi, Ngô Đình Thị Giao, Ngô Đình Thục, Ngô Đình Diệm, Ngô Đình Thị Hiệp, Ngô Đình Thị Hoàng, Ngô Đình Nhu, Ngô Đình Cẩn, Ngô Đình Luyện. As a devout Roman Catholic, Khả took his family to Mass every morning. Mastering both Latin and classical Chinese, Khả made sure that his children were educated in Christian scriptures. At the age of fifteen he followed his brother, Ngô Đình Thục. Diệm even swore himself to celibacy to prove his devotion to his faith before he decided not to pursue clerical career due to finding monastic life too rigorous, according to Moyar, Diệm‘s personality was too independent to discipline himself in the church. He also inherited his fathers antagonism toward the French colonialists who occupied his country and it was there that he had the only romantic relationship of his life, when he fell in love with one of his teachers daughtersNgo Dinh Diem – The body of Diệm in the back of the APC, having been shot dead en route to military headquarters.
27. South Vietnam – South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the State of Vietnam, the term South Vietnam became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president and its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and eighty-seven other nations. It had membership in several committees of the United Nations. After the Second World War, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, in 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, after Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country from 1967 until 1975, the Vietnam War began in 1959 with an uprising by Viet Cong forces armed and controlled by Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Fighting reached a climax during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 1.5 million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Despite a peace treaty concluded in January 1973, fighting continued until the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong armies overran Saigon on 30 April 1975, the creation of this republic, during the Indochina War, allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent. This pre-Vietnam government prepared for a unified Vietnamese state, but the countrys full reunification was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchinas legal status, Nguyễn Văn Xuân 1949–55 State of Vietnam. Roughly 60% of Vietnamese territory was controlled by the communist Việt Minh. Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel in 1954, once highly lauded by America, he was ousted and assassinated in a U. S. -backed coup. In 1963–65, there were numerous coups and short-lived governments, several of which were headed by Dương Văn Minh or Nguyễn Khánh, Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ was the top leader in 1965–67. Surrendered to Communists when others abandoned their posts, 1975–76 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. Huỳnh Tấn Phát Before World War II, the third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina. Between Tonkin in the north and Cochinchina in the south was the protectorate of Annam, Cochinchina had been annexed by France in 1862 and even elected a deputy to the French National Assembly. It was more evolved, and French interests were stronger than in parts of Indochina. During World War II, Indochina was administered by Vichy France, japanese troops overthrew the French administration on 9 March 1945, Emperor Bảo Đại proclaimed Vietnam independentSouth Vietnam – About 1 million Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
28. 1955 South Vietnamese election – The State of Vietnam referendum of 1955 determined the future form of government of the State of Vietnam, the nation that was to become the Republic of Vietnam. It was contested by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm, who proposed a republic, Bảo Đại had abdicated as emperor in 1945 and at the time of the referendum held the title of head of state. Though published counts showed Diệm winning the election with 98. 2% of the vote, in the capital, Saigon, Diệm was credited with more than 600,000 votes, although only 450,000 people were on the electoral roll. He accumulated tallies in excess of 90% of the registered voters, the referendum was the last phase in the power struggle between Bảo Đại and his prime minister. Bảo Đại disliked Diệm and had attempted to undermine him. At the time, the country was going through a period of insecurity, the State of Vietnam controlled the southern half of the country, pending national elections that were intended to reunify the country under a common government. Despite interference from these groups, Bảo Đại, and even French officials, Diệm managed to subdue the private armies, emboldened by his success, Diệm began to plot Bảo Đạis downfall. He scheduled a referendum for 23 October 1955 and pushed Bảo Đại out of the political scene, in the period leading up to the vote, campaigning for Bảo Đại was banned, while Diệms election campaign focused on personal attacks against Bảo Đại. These included pornographic cartoons of the head of state and unverified rumours claiming he was illegitimate, the government-controlled media launched polemical attacks on Bảo Đại, and police went door-to-door, warning people of the consequences of failing to vote. After his brother Ngô Đình Nhu successfully rigged the poll, Diệm proclaimed himself president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam, the defeat of the French Army at Điện Biên Phủ in 1954, followed by the Geneva Accords, led to a divided Vietnam. The French-backed State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, Hồ Chí Minhs Viet Minh held the north under the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which Hồ Chí Minh had proclaimed in 1945. The agreements stated that elections were to be held in 1956 to unify the country under a common government. In July 1954, during the period, Bảo Đại appointed Diệm as Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam. On 11 October 1954, the border was closed by the International Control Commission, under the Geneva Accords, anti-communist military personnel were obliged to evacuate to the south, while communist forces were to be moved north. Civilians were free to move to whichever zone they preferred, during the 300 days, Diệm and U. S. CIA adviser Colonel Edward Lansdale staged a campaign to convince people to move to South Vietnam. The campaign was focused on Vietnams Catholics, who were to provide Diệms power base in his later years. Between 800,000 and 1,000,000 people migrated to the south, at the start of 1955, French Indochina was dissolved, leaving Diệm in temporary control of the south. At the time, Diệm had little authority beyond the gates of his own palace, many historians believe that Bảo Đại may have selected Diệm for the latters ability to attract U. S. support and funding1955 South Vietnamese election – Colonel Edward Lansdale, who helped Diệm in his campaign
29. Ngo Dinh Nhu – Ngô Đình Nhu was a Vietnamese archivist and politician. He was the brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first president. In his early age, Nhu was a quiet and bookish individual who showed little inclination towards the path taken by his elder brothers. While training as an archivist in France, Nhu adopted the Roman Catholic ideology of personalism, Nhu remained as its head until his own assassination. In 1955, Nhus supporters helped intimidate the public and rig the 1955 State of Vietnam referendum that ensconced his elder brother, Diệm, Nhu used the Cần Lao, which he organised into cells, to infiltrate every part of society to root out opposition to the Ngô family. In 1959, he organized an assassination attempt via mail bomb on Prince Sihanouk. Nhu publicly extolled his own intellectual abilities, in 1963, the Ngô familys grip on power became unstuck during the Buddhist crisis, during which the nations Buddhist majority rose up against the pro-Catholic regime. Nhu tried to break the Buddhists opposition by using the Special Forces in raids on prominent Buddhist temples that left hundreds dead, and framing the regular army for it. However, Nhus plan was uncovered, which intensified plots by military officers, encouraged by the Americans, Nhu was fooled by the loyalist General Tôn Thất Đính, who had turned against the Ngô family. On 1 November 1963, the coup proceeded, and the Ngô brothers were detained and assassinated the next day, Nhus family originated from the central Vietnamese village of Phú Cẩm. His family had served as mandarins in the court in Huế. His father, Ngô Đình Khả, was a counselor to Emperor Thành Thái during the French colonisation, after the French deposed the emperor on the pretext of insanity, Khả retired in protest and became a farmer. Nhu was the fourth of six sons, born in 1910, in his early years, Nhu was aloof from politics and was regarded as a bookish and quiet personality who preferred academic pursuits. By the 1920s, his three elder brothers Ngô Đình Khôi, Ngô Đình Thục and Ngô Đình Diệm were becoming prominent figures in Vietnam, Thục became the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Huế. In 1932, Diệm became the minister but resigned within a few months after realising that he would not be given any real power. Nhu showed little interest in following in their footsteps, Nhu completed a bachelors degree in literature in Paris and then studied paleography and librarianship, graduating from the École Nationale des Chartes, an archivists school in Paris. He returned to Vietnam from France at the outbreak of World War II and he was influenced by personalism, a concept he had acquired in the Latin Quarter. It had been conceived in the 1930s by Catholic progressives such as Emmanuel Mounier, mouniers heirs in Paris, who edited the left wing Catholic review Esprit denounced Nhu as a fraudNgo Dinh Nhu – Ngô Đình Nhu (right) meeting Lyndon B. Johnson, Vice President of the United States, May 12, 1961
30. Saigon – Ho Chi Minh City, formerly named and still often known as Saigon, is the largest city in Vietnam by population. It was once known as Prey Nokor prior to annexation by the Vietnamese in the 17th century, under the name Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam 1955–75. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh, the citys population is expected to grow to 13.9 million by 2025. Ho Chi Minh City has gone by different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic. In the 1690s, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its surroundings. Control of the city and the passed to the Vietnamese. Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after Hồ Chí Minh, even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn/Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally, especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. In particular, Sài Gòn is still used to refer to District 1. This name may refer to the many plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor. It may also refer to the dense and tall forest that existed around the city. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means embankment, and Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Prey means forest or jungle, and nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, the current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, adopted in 1976 and abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, the name commemorates Hồ Chí Minh, the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his name, was one he favored throughout his later years. It combines a common Vietnamese surname with a name meaning enlightened will, in essence. Ho Chi Minh City began as a fishing village likely known as Prey Nokor, Forest City, or perhaps Preah Reach Nokor which. The area that the city now occupies was originally swampland, and was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnamese. In 1623, King Chey Chettha II of Cambodia allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn civil war in Vietnam to settle in the area of Prey Nokor and to set up a custom house thereSaigon – Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.
31. Brothers Grimm – Their first collection of folk tales, Childrens and Household Tales, was published in 1812. The brothers spent their formative years in the German town of Hanau and their fathers death in 1796 caused great poverty for the family and affected the brothers for many years after. They both attended the University of Marburg where they developed a curiosity about German folklore, which grew into a dedication to collecting German folk tales. The rise of romanticism during the 19th century revived interest in folk stories. With the goal of researching a scholarly treatise on folk tales, between 1812 and 1857, their first collection was revised and republished many times, growing from 86 stories to more than 200. The popularity of the Grimms best folk tales has endured well, Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on 4 January 1785 and his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm on 24 February 1786. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, in 1791, the family moved to the countryside town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate. The family became prominent members of the community, residing in a home surrounded by fields. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau, the children were educated at home by private tutors, receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. In 1796, Philipp Grimm died of pneumonia, plunging his family into poverty, Dorothea depended on financial support from her father and sister, first lady-in-waiting at the court of William I, Elector of Hesse. Jacob was the eldest living son, and he was forced at age 11 to assume adult responsibilities for the two years. The two boys adhered to the advice of their grandfather, who continually exhorted them to be industrious, the brothers left Steinau and their family in 1798 to attend the Friedrichsgymnasium in Kassel, which had been arranged and paid for by their aunt. By then, they were without a provider, forcing them to rely entirely on each other. The two brothers differed in temperament, Jacob was introspective and Wilhelm was outgoing, sharing a strong work ethic, they excelled in their studies. In Kassel, they became aware of their inferior social status relative to high-born students who received more attention. Still, each brother graduated at the head of his class, Jacob in 1803, after graduation from the Friedrichsgymnasium, the brothers attended the University of Marburg. The university was small with about 200 students and there they became aware that students of lower social status were not treated equally. They were disqualified from admission because of their standing and had to request dispensation to study lawBrothers Grimm – Wilhelm Grimm (left) and Jacob Grimm in an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
32. Constitution – A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i. e. constitute, some constitutions are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from states to companies. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a states rulers cannot cross, the term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. Later, the term was used in canon law for an important determination, especially a decree issued by the Pope. The Latin term ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials. Ultra vires gives a justification for the forced cessation of such action. A violation of rights by an official would be ultra vires because a right is a restriction on the powers of government, and therefore that official would be exercising powers they do not have. It was never law, even though, if it had been a statute or statutory provision, in such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions for common law writs, excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877 found evidence of the earliest known code of justice, issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca 2300 BC. Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered, for example, it is known that it relieved tax for widows and orphans, and protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by codes of written laws. The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur, some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law. In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the cruel oral laws of the city-state of Athens, in 594 BC Solon, the ruler of Athens, created the new Solonian Constitution. It eased the burden of the workers, and determined that membership of the class was to be based on wealth. Cleisthenes again reformed the Athenian constitution and set it on a footing in 508 BC. The most basic definition he used to describe a constitution in general terms was the arrangement of the offices in a stateConstitution – A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
33. Hanover (state) – The territory was named after its capital, the city of Hanover, which was the principal town of the region from 1636. In contemporary usage, the name is used for the city, most of the historical territory of Hanover forms the greater part of the German Land of Lower Saxony. Hanover was formed by the union of several divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The title Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg was held, from 1235 and these holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a state, being neither compact nor indivisible. The territories were named after towns where the dukes had their residences, e. g. Calenberg, Göttingen, Grubenhagen, Lüneburg. The unifying element of all territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Bernard received the territory of Lüneburg, whose town was Celle. From 1527 until 1642 the Principality of Harburg, seated in Harburg, was partitioned from Lüneburg, in 1569, Lüneburg was divided between Henry III and William VI, the sons of Ernest the Confessor, Bernards great-great-grandson. A distant cousin of the line of Lüneburg, Frederick Ulrich, after some dispute, his territories were divided in 1635 between the Dannenberg and Celle branches of the Lüneburg line. Henry IIIs son Augustus became Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and his descendants ruled the Duchy of Brunswick. Williams first four sons ruled Lüneburg in sequence from their fathers death in 1592 to 1648, the fifth son, George received the territories of Calenberg and Göttingen in 1635. In 1636 he moved the seat of the Dukes of Calenberg from Pattensen to the town of Hannover in the Calenberg territory and this was the nucleus of the state of Hanover, though the territory would have to wait until 1814 before receiving Hanover as its official name. In 1648, the Duke of Calenberg inherited Lüneburg from his uncle Frederick, from 1648 to 1705, Lüneburg was held by the senior of the Lüneburg line, and Calenberg by the next junior. In 1692, the Emperor promised to raise the Duke of Calenberg, Ernest Augustus and this promotion did not become effective until it was recognized by the Imperial Diet in 1708, ten years after Ernest Augustus death. In the meantime, his son, George Louis, inherited Lüneburg from his uncle in 1705, doubling Hanovers size. In 1692, the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, elevated Georges son, there were protests against the addition of a new Elector, and the elevation did not become official until 1708, in the person of Ernest Augustus son, George Louis. Though the Electors titles were properly Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he is commonly referred to as the Elector of Hanover after his residence. The Electorate was legally bound to be indivisible, it could add to its territory, but not alienate territory or be split up among several heirs, and its succession was to follow male primogenitureHanover (state) – William
34. 1837 – As of the start of 1837, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 26 – Michigan becomes the 26th state admitted to the United States, February – Charles Dickenss Oliver Twist begins publication in serial form in London. February 4 – Seminoles attack Fort Foster in Florida, February 25 – In Philadelphia, the Institute for Colored Youth is founded as the first institution for the higher education of black people in the United States. March 4 Martin Van Buren is sworn in as President of the United States, the city of Chicago is incorporated. April 12- The conglomerate of Procter & Gamble has its origins when British-born businessmen William Procter and James Gamble begin selling their first manufactured goods in Cincinnati, may – W. F. Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented a system of electrical telegraph. May 10 – The Panic of 1837 begins in New York City, june 5 – The city of Houston, is incorporated by the Republic of Texas. June 11 – The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, Massachusetts, june 20 – 18-year-old Queen Victoria accedes to the throne of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle William IV without legitimate heirs. She will reign for more than 63 years, under Salic law, the Kingdom of Hanover passes to Williams brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, ending the personal union of Britain and Hanover which has persisted since 1714. July – Charles W. King sets sail on the American merchant ship Morrison, in the Morrison incident, he is turned away from Japanese ports with cannon fire. July 13 – Queen Victoria moves from Kensington Palace into Buckingham Palace, August 16 – The Dutch sack the fortress of Bonjol, ending the Padri War. September – Battle of Aranzueque, Liberal victory for the loyal to Queen Isabel II of Spain. September 28 – Samuel Morse files a caveat for a patent for the telegraph, October 10 – October 13 – The French army besieges and captures Constantine in French Algeria. October 22 – Henry David Thoreau makes his first journal entry at the suggestion of Ralph Waldo Emerson, november 7 – American abolitionist and newspaper editor Elijah Lovejoy is killed by a pro-slavery mob, at his warehouse in Alton, Illinois. November 8 – Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, later Mount Holyoke College, is founded in South Hadley, november–December – In the Canadas, William Lyon Mackenzie leads the Upper Canada Rebellion and Louis-Joseph Papineau leads the Lower Canada Rebellion. December 17 – Fire in the Winter Palace, Saint Petersburg, december 29 – The Caroline affair on the Niagara River, the basis for the Caroline test for anticipatory self-defence in international relations. At Le Mans, France, Father Basil Moreau, CSC, founds the Congregation of Holy Cross by joining the Brothers of St. Joseph, the 5th century BC Berlin Foundry Cup is acquired for the Antikensammlung Berlin in Germany. Sylvain Charles Valée and French troops capture Skikda, Algeria, January 2 – Mily Balakirev, Russian composer January 7 – Thomas Henry Ismay, English shipowner February 5 Dwight L. S. Lovejoy, American abolitionist undated - Mary Dixon Kies, the first recipient of a U. S. patent Chronicle of Events from August 1836 to September 1837, American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge1837 – June 20: Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901).
35. New Zealand – New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, today, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North, Middle and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te WaipounamuNew Zealand – The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi
36. McGillicuddy Serious Party – The McGillicuddy Serious Party was a satirical political party in New Zealand in the late 20th century. Between 1984 and 1999, it provided colour to ensure that citizens not take the process too seriously. The partys logo, the head of a court jester. It gained its highest number of votes in the last first-past-the-post general election in 1993, the party was formed in 1984 in Hamilton as the political arm of Clan McGillicuddy. Members of the Clan had stood as candidates in the 1983 local-body elections in the Waikato, and it had a strong Scottish theme, with the kilt considered one of the its symbols. Candidates included street performers and comedic musical groups such as The Big Muffin Serious Band, after discovering that he had some relationship to the Stuart pretenders, Bonnie Prince Geoffie the Reluctant was advanced by Clan McGillicuddy in 1979 as replacement for Queen Elizabeth II. Armed pacifist insurrection using harmless weapons having failed, the Clan reluctantly turned to the ballot-box, the two groups most recent battle was on Sunday 15 February 2015, in Wellington. The party sometimes became the subject of aggression from unexpected quarters—in 1990 Green Party candidate Warrick Pudney challenged his Te Atatu rival to a fight in Aotea Square. The fight ended in a draw, with both combatants treated for paper cuts. At one point the party selected its candidates through trial by combat, with swords and water-balloons. In 1996 a giant game of musical chairs took place in Cathedral Square, whoever remained sitting on one of the labelled chairs when the music stopped became the candidate for that seat. Potential candidates for proportional representation seats vied Cinderella-style by trying to fit into labelled shoes, the party selected its policies on the basis of their absurdity and their impracticality. At a deeper level the party invoked the political system of Tibetan Buddhism and this embodied the principles stated by the ancient Greeks that no-one who seeks power should be allowed it. Other policies included, Free dung Sending out intelligence agents around the world to wipe New Zealand off published maps, standing a dog for parliament in the Hobson seat in Northland. Her policies included the abolition of cars, and turning a meat-works into an organic flea-powder factory, the abolition of money, replacing it with chocolate fish or with sand. The demolition of The Beehive, parliament buildings, and all buildings on a last-up. Restricting the vote to minors, i. e. ONLY those under 18 years of age could vote, the party ran its 1993 electoral advertisements during childrens programming. National Party education spokesman Lockwood Smith promised a return to free education if elected, abandoning male suffrage, New Zealand, the first nation to achieve womens suffrage, made a big deal of the centenary of this at the time of the 1993 electionMcGillicuddy Serious Party – McGillicuddy Serious Party
37. Medieval – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the periodMedieval – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
38. Jacobitism – The movement took its name from Jacobus, the Renaissance Latin form of Iacomus, the original Latin form of James. Adherents rebelled against the British government on several occasions between 1688 and 1746, the strongholds of Jacobitism were parts of the Scottish Highlands and the lowland north-east of Scotland, Ireland, and parts of Northern England. Significant support also existed in Wales and South-West England, the Jacobites believed that parliamentary interference with the line of succession to the English and Scottish thrones was illegal. Catholics also hoped the Stuarts would end recusancy, in Scotland, the Jacobite cause became intertwined with the clan system. The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade, White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. From the second half of the 17th century onwards, a time of political, the Commonwealth ended with the Restoration of Charles II. During his reign the Church of England was re-established, and episcopal government was restored in Scotland. The authorities attempted some accommodation with Presbyterian dissidents, introducing official Indulgences in 1669 and 1672 and this was particularly true of the followers of the Reverend Richard Cameron, soon to be known as the Cameronians. The government increasingly resorted to force in its attempts to out the Cameronians. The reigns of the last three Stuart Kings – Charles I, Charles II and James II and VII – were marked by growing Royal resistance to this developing consensual model of government. In part the Kings were inspired by the development of Royal Absolutism in contemporary Europe, exemplified particularly strongly by their neighbour and contemporary, Louis XIV of France. In part, however, the apologists of royal authority based their claims on a just assessment of the powers claimed by England, in 1685, Charles II was succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James II and VII. In addition to sharing his familys absolutist views of government, James attempted to introduce religious toleration of Roman Catholics, in Seventeenth-century Europe, being a religious outsider meant being a political and social outsider as well. James tried to encourage the participation in life of Roman Catholics, Protestant Dissenters. Such attempts to broaden his basis of support succeeded in antagonising members of the Anglican establishment, in England and Scotland, James attempted to impose religious toleration, which helped the Catholic minority but alarmed the religious and political establishment. Then in 1688 Jamess second wife had a boy, bringing the prospect of a Catholic dynasty, on 4 November 1688 William arrived at Torbay, England. When he landed the next day, at Brixham, James fled to France, in February 1689, the Glorious Revolution formally changed Englands monarch, but many Catholics, Episcopalians and Tory royalists still supported James as the constitutionally legitimate monarch. Forces of Cameronians as well as Clan Campbell Highlanders led by the Earl of Argyll had come to bolster Williams support, the convention set out its terms and William and Mary were proclaimed at Edinburgh on 11 April 1689, then had their coronation in London in MayJacobitism – David Morier 's depiction of the Battle of Culloden in 1746
39. De-Ba'athification – De-Baathification refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Baath Partys influence in the new Iraqi political system. It is considered to be Iraqs equivalent to Germanys Denazification after World War II and it was first outlined in CPA Order 1 which entered into force on 16 May 2003. The declared that all public sector employees affiliated with the Baath Party were to be removed from their positions, the policy was highly controversial among US academics, institutions, government, military, and international media and debate outlets. The policy under the Coalition Provisional Authority was officially rescinded on 28 June 2004 as part of the transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government on 30 June 2004, however, elements of the policy continued under the Iraqi Governing Council and later under the elected Iraqi Parliament. Proponents of the policy contend that the policy effectively cleansed Iraqi society of Baathist influence, critics argue that the policy was not only undemocratic, but also a significant factor in the deteriorating security situation throughout Iraq. The goal of the policy is contained in the language of the preamble of Order No,1, This order implements the declaration by eliminating the party’s structures and removing its leadership from positions of authority and responsibility in Iraqi society. The overarching goal of the invasion was the seizure and removal of weapons of mass destruction, the actual time-frame for the development of the policy was a matter of weeks. The Department of Defense argued for an expansive policy targeting any and this was in contrast to the State Department and CIA, who advocated a less comprehensive de-Saddamification policy which would only target those accused of crimes and upper echelon leadership. According to Charles Fergusons interviews, the time the policy was discussed outside of the National Security Council or the Department of Defense’s Office of Special Plans was on 15 May 2003. Prior to Paul Bremer’s arrival in Iraq on 12 May 2003, he met with Douglas Feith and the Office of Special Plans, following the meeting, the final draft was written, and was sent via courier to Iraq after Bremer’s arrival. Per National Security Presidential Directive 24, the Department of Defense was the organization in charge of the occupation. To this end, Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith created the Office of Special Plans in order to devise Department of Defense strategy for occupying Iraq, in addition to Wolfowitz and Feith, Walter Slocombe accepted the position of overseeing the implementation of the Department of Defense’s occupation strategy. All of this occurred under the purview of the then Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, according to Charles Ferguson’s film interview with Gen. Jay Garner, Paul Bremer told Garner that I was given my orders. This led Garner to believe that Bremer was not responsible for the content of the policy, another important actor in the creation of the policy of de-Baathification was exile leader of the Iraqi National Congress Ahmad Chalabi. Jay Garner, Col. Paul Hughes, Robert Hutchings, Ambassador Barbara Bodine and these strategies are found in the Potsdam Agreement of 1945, the German Instrument of Surrender, and the General Order No.1 for post-war Japan. As the highest authority in Iraq, orders issued from his office carried the force of law in Iraq and it was through CPA orders that Bremer and his administrative team enacted the policy of de-Baathification crafted in the Office of Special Plans at the Department of Defense. A total of 100 orders were issued by the CPA between May 2003 and June 2004, entering into force on 16 May 2003, Order No. 1, entitled De-Baathification of Iraqi Society, describes the objectives of the policy developed by the Office of Special PlansDe-Ba'athification – Ahmad Chalabi acted as key figure on the 2003–2004 Supreme National De-Baathification Commission created by Paul Bremer.
40. Ba'ath Party – The Arab Socialist Baath Party was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi. The party espoused Baathism, which is an ideology mixing Arab nationalist, pan-Arabism, Arab socialist, Baathism calls for unification of the Arab world into a single state. Its motto, Unity, Liberty, Socialism, refers to Arab unity, the party was founded by the merger of the Arab Baath Movement, led by Aflaq and al-Bitar, and the Arab Baath, led by al-Arsuzi, on 7 April 1947 as the Arab Baath Party. The party quickly established branches in other Arab countries, although it would hold power in Iraq. The Arab Baath Party merged with the Arab Socialist Party, led by Akram al-Hawrani, the newly formed party was a relative success, and became the second-largest party in the Syrian parliament in the 1954 election. This, coupled with the strength of the Syrian Communist Party, led to the establishment of the United Arab Republic. The union would prove unsuccessful, and a Syrian coup in 1961 dissolved the union, following the break-up of the UAR, the Baath Party was reconstituted. However, during the UAR, military activists had established the Military Committee to take control of the Baath Party from civilian hands. In the meantime, in Iraq, the local Baath Party branch had taken power by orchestrating and leading the Ramadan Revolution, the Military Committee, with Aflaqs consent, took power in Syria in the 8th of March Revolution of 1963. A power struggle developed between the civilian faction led by Aflaq, al-Bitar, and Munif al-Razzaz and the Military Committee led by Salah Jadid. As relations between the two deteriorated, the Military Committee initiated the 1966 Syrian coup détat which ousted the National Command led by al-Razzaz, Aflaq. The 1966 coup split the Baath Party between the Iraqi-dominated Baath movement and the Syrian-dominated Baath movement, other regional branches were established throughout the Arab world in the later 1940s and early 1950s, in, among others, Iraq, Yemen and Jordan. Throughout its existence, the National Command, gave most attention to Syrian affairs, the congress is notable for sanctioning the merger of the Arab Socialist Party and the Baath Party, which took place in 1952. 90 percent of Baath Party members who stood for elections were elected to parliament, the failure of the traditional parties represented by the Peoples Party and the National Party, strengthened the Baath Partys public credibility. Through this position, the party was able to get two of its members into the cabinet, Bitar was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and Khalil Kallas became Minister of Economics. Its new, strengthened position, was used successful to garner support for Syrias merger with Gamal Abdel Nassers Egypt, which led to the establishment of the United Arab Republic in 1958. On 24 June 1959, Fuad al-Rikabi, the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch, Rimawi reacted to his expulsion by forming his own party, the Arab Socialist Revolutionary Baath Party, which established a rival National Command to compete with the original. In Iraq, the Iraqi Regional Branch had supported Abd al-Karim Qasims seizure of power, the Iraqi Baathists supported Qasim on the ground that they believed he would enter Iraq into the UAR, enlarging the Arab nationalist republicBa'ath Party – Part of the 1947 Ba'ath Party constitution
41. Army of the Republic of Vietnam – It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War. After the fall of Saigon to the invading North Vietnamese Army, the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Unions French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a range of campaigns including but not limited to the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA quickly became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps and it included infantry, artillery, signals, armored cavalry, airborne, airforce, navy and a national military academy. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam, Laos, in 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On October 26,1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who then established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on December 30,1955. The air force was known as the Vietnamese Air Force, early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diệm administration. The United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors, in 1963 Ngô Đình Diệm was killed in a coup détat carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, during these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant. They were also plagued by continuing problems of corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was highly critical of the ARVN, it continued to be entirely US-armed and funded. S, there were also many circumstances in which Vietnamese families had members on both sides of the conflict. Slowly, ARVN began to expand from its role to become the primary ground defense against the NLF. From 1969 to 1971 there were about 22,000 ARVN combat deaths per year, starting in 1968, South Vietnam began calling up every available man for service in the ARVN, reaching a strength of one million soldiers by 1972. In 1970 they performed well in the Cambodian Incursion and were executing three times as many operations as they had during the American war period. However, the ARVN equipment continued to be of lower standards than their American and South Korean allies, however, the officer corps was still the biggest problem. Leaders were too often poorly trained, corrupt, lacking morale, however, forced to carry the burden left by the Americans, the South Vietnamese Army actually started to perform rather well, though with continued American air support. In 1972, General Võ Nguyên Giáp launched the Easter Offensive, the assault combined infantry wave assaults, artillery and the first massive use of armored forces by the PAVN. Although T-54 tanks proved vulnerable to LAW rockets, the ARVN took heavy losses, the PAVN and NLF forces took Quảng Trị Province and some areas along the Laos and Cambodian bordersArmy of the Republic of Vietnam – USCGC Sherman's doctor and a South Vietnamese corpsman at a medical Civil Action Patrol in a small Vietnamese village.
42. Communist – Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism, and the political ideologies grouped around both. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production. Likewise, some communists defend both theory and practice, while others argue that historical practice diverged from communist principles to a greater or lesser degree, according to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece. At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, in the medieval Christian church, for example, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has also traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on ownership of property. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France. Later, following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism emerged as a political doctrine, in the early 19th century, Various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. But unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the emphasis with a rational. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, in its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels, in 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to power of Lenins Bolsheviks. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority, the event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development, Russia, however, was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule, the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenins Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Great Purge of 1937–1938 was Stalins attempt to destroy any possible opposition within the Communist Party and its leading role in the Second World War saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and Communist parties played a role in many independence movementsCommunist – Vladimir Lenin after his return to Petrograd
43. Viet Minh – Việt Minh was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó on May 19,1941. This organization soon lapsed into inactivity, only to be revived by the Indochinese Communist Party, the Việt Minh established itself as the only organized anti-French and anti-Japanese resistance group. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire, when the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China. After World War II, the Việt Minh opposed the re-occupation of Vietnam by France and later opposed South Vietnam, during World War II, Japan occupied French Indochina. As well as fighting the French, the Việt Minh started a campaign against the Japanese. As of the end of 1944, the Việt Minh claimed a membership of 500,000, of which 200,000 were in Tonkin,150,000 in Annam, and 150,000 in Cochinchina. Due to their opposition to the Japanese, the Việt Minh received funding from the United States, the Soviet Union, the Việt Minh also recruited more than 600 of the Japanese soldiers, who fought in the war against France until 1954. After the nationalist organizations proclaimed the independence of Việt Nam, Hồ proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2,1945, however, within days, the Chinese Kuomintang Army arrived in Vietnam to supervise the repatriation of the Japanese Imperial Army. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam therefore existed only in theory and effectively controlled no territory, a few months later, the Chinese, Vietnamese and French came to a three-way understanding. The French gave up rights in China, the Việt Minh agreed to the return of the French in exchange for promises of independence within the French Union. Negotiations between the French and Việt Minh broke down quickly, what followed was nearly ten years of war against France. This was known as the First Indochina War or, to the Vietnamese, the Việt Minh, who were short on modern military knowledge, created a military school in Quảng Ngãi Province in June 1946. More than 400 Vietnamese were trained by Japanese defectors in this school and these soldiers were considered to be students of the Japanese. Later, some of them fought as generals against the United States in the Vietnam War or, to the Vietnamese, French General Jean-Étienne Valluy quickly pushed the Việt Minh out of Hanoi. His French infantry with armored units went through Hanoi, fighting battles against isolated Việt Minh groups. The French encircled the Việt Minh base, Việt Bắc, in 1947, but failed to defeat the Việt Minh forces, the campaign is now widely considered a Việt Minh victory over the well-equipped French force. The Việt Minh continued fighting against the French until 1949, when the border of China, the newly communist Peoples Republic of China gave the Việt Minh both sheltered bases and heavy weapons with which to fight the French. With the additional weapons, the Việt Minh were able to control over many rural areas of the countryViet Minh – The Việt Minh flag.
44. Vietnam People's Army – The Peoples Army of Vietnam, also known as the Vietnamese Peoples Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of Vietnam Peoples Armed Forces and includes, Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Border Defence Force, however, Vietnam does not have a specific separate Ground Force or Army branch. The military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, during the French Indochina War, the PAVN was often referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army and this allowed writers, the US military, and the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong. However, both groups ultimately worked under the command structure. According to Hanois official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the VPA, in 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1, 000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades, the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, and fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The group was renamed the Vietnam Liberation Army in May 1945, in September, the army was again renamed the Vietnam National Defence Army. At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers, in 1950, it officially became the Peoples Army of Vietnam. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd Capital Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division, later known as the Pioneer Division formed by the 88th Tu Vu Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment, at that time, the 308th Division was also backed by the 11th Battalion that later became the main force of the 312th Division. The first six divisions became known as the original PAVN Steel, in 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. At about the time, Group 579 was created as its maritime counterpart to transport supplies into the South by sea. Most of the infiltrators were members of the 338th Division. Those PAVN formations were seen as extremely brave forces by the US forces and we had to change our plan and make it different from when we fought the Saigon regime, because we now had to fight two adversaries — the United States and South Vietnam. We understood that the U. S. Army was superior to our own logistically, in weapons, so strategically we did not hope to defeat the U. S. Army completely. Our intentions were to fight a time and cause heavy casualties to the United States, so the United States would see that the war was unwinnableVietnam People's Army – Vietnam General Staff in First Indochina War and Vietnam War, from left: Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng, President Ho Chi Minh, General Secretary Trường Chinh and General Võ Nguyên Giáp
45. Strategic Hamlet Program – In 1962, the government of South Vietnam, with advice and financing from the United States, began the implementation of the Strategic Hamlet Program. The strategy was to isolate the population from contact with and influence by the National Liberation Front. Both of these attempted to create new communities of protected hamlets. The rural peasants would be provided protection, economic support, and aid by the government and it was hoped this would lead to increased loyalty by the peasantry towards the government. The Strategic Hamlet Program was a failure, alienating more rural Vietnamese than it helped, after President Ngo Dinh Diem was overthrown in a coup in November 1963, the program was cancelled. Peasants moved back into their old homes or sought refuge from the war in the cities, in 1952, during the First Indochina War French commander François de Linares, in Tonkin began the construction of protected villages, which the French later named agrovilles. By constructing quasi-urban amenities, the French designed the agrovilles to attract peasants away from their villages and this policy was known as pacification by prosperity. In addition to offering social and economic benefits, the French also encouraged villagers to develop their own militias, between 1952 and 1954, French officials transplanted approximately 3 million Vietnamese into agrovilles, but the project was costly. To help offset the cost, the French relied partially on American financial support, according to a private Vietnamese source, the U. S. spent about 200,000 dollars on the show agroville at Dong Quan. The First Indochina War terminated and the Geneva Conference partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts, at the time, it is believed that there were approximately 10,000 Communist insurgents throughout South Vietnam. In February 1959, recognizing the danger that the guerrillas posed if they had the support of the peasants, President Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, a plan was put forth to develop centers of agglomeration. Through force and/or incentives, peasants in rural communities were separated and relocated, the primary goal of the centers was to concentrate the villagers, so they were not able to provide aid, comfort, and information to the Viet Cong. The Government of Vietnam developed two types of centers of agglomeration, by 1960, there were twenty-three of these centers, each consisting of many thousands of people. This mass resettlement created a backlash from peasants and forced the central government to rethink its strategy. In late 1961, President Kennedy sent Roger Hilsman, then director of the State Departments Bureau of Intelligence and Research, there Hilsman met Sir Robert Thompson, head of the British Advisory Mission to South Vietnam. Thompson was a veteran of the Malayan counter-insurgency effort and an advisor to the Diem government. Thompson shared his revised system of resettlement and population security, a system he had proposed to Diem that would become the Strategic Hamlet Programme. Thompsons proposal, adopted by Diem, advocated a priority on winning control of the South Vietnamese rural population rather than killing insurgents, the police and local security forces would play an important role coupled with anti-insurgent sweeps by the South Vietnamese armyStrategic Hamlet Program – A strategic hamlet in South Vietnam c.1964
46. Vietnamese language – Vietnamese /ˌviɛtnəˈmiːz/ is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the language of the Vietnamese people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia, Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers, Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation. The Vietnamese alphabet in use today is a Latin alphabet with diacritics for tones. As the national language, Vietnamese is spoken throughout Vietnam by ethnic Vietnamese, Vietnamese is also the native language of the Gin minority group in southern Guangxi Province in China. A significant number of speakers also reside in neighboring Cambodia. In the United States, Vietnamese is the sixth most spoken language, with over 1.5 million speakers and it is the third most spoken language in Texas, fourth in Arkansas and Louisiana, and fifth in California. Vietnamese is the seventh most spoken language in Australia, in France, it is the most spoken Asian language and the eighth most spoken immigrant language at home. Vietnamese is the official and national language of Vietnam. It is the first language of the majority of the Vietnamese population, in the Czech Republic, Vietnamese has been recognized as one of 14 minority languages, on the basis of communities that have either traditionally or on a long-term basis resided in the country. This status grants Czech citizens from the Vietnamese community the right to use Vietnamese with public authorities, Vietnamese is increasingly being taught in schools and institutions outside of Vietnam. Since the 1980s, Vietnamese language schools have been established for youth in many Vietnamese-speaking communities around the world, furthermore, there has also been a number of Germans studying Vietnamese due to increased economic investment in Vietnam. Vietnamese is taught in schools in the form of immersion to a varying degree in Cambodia, Laos. Classes teach students subjects in Vietnamese and another language, furthermore, in Thailand, Vietnamese is one of the most popular foreign languages in schools and colleges. Vietnamese was identified more than 150 years ago as part of the Mon–Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family. Later, Muong was found to be closely related to Vietnamese than other Mon–Khmer languages. The term Vietic was proposed by Hayes, who proposed to redefine Viet–Muong as referring to a subbranch of Vietic containing only Vietnamese and MuongVietnamese language – In the bilingual dictionary Nhật dụng thường đàm (1851), Chinese characters (chữ nho) are explained in chữ Nôm.
47. Fall of Saigon – The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city. The South Vietnamese government capitulated shortly afterward, the city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the Democratic Republics late President Hồ Chí Minh. The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history, in addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the citys population. Various names have applied to these events. The Vietnamese government officially calls it Day of liberating the South for national reunification or Liberation Day and it is called the Ngày mất nước, Tháng Tư Đen, Ngày Quốc Nhục, or Ngày Quốc Hận by many Overseas Vietnamese who were refugees from communism. The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, and probably to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a prepared by the CIA and U. S. Army Intelligence. These predictions proved to be grievously in error, even as that memo was being released, General Dũng was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Buôn Ma Thuột. The ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the part of South Vietnam. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Đà Nẵng—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. By April 8, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dũng, cabled him to demand “unremitting vigor in the all the way to the heart of Saigon. ”On April 14, they renamed the campaign the Hồ Chí Minh campaign, after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to any significant increase in military aid from the United States. On April 9, PAVN forces reached Xuân Lộc, the last line of defense before Saigon, the North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles from downtown Saigon. With the ARVN having few defenders, the fate of the city was effectively sealed, the ARVN III Corps commander, General Toan, had organized five centers of resistance to defend the city. These fronts were so connected as to form an arc enveloping the area west, north. South Vietnamese defensive forces around Saigon totaled approximately 60,000 troops, however, as the exodus made it into Saigon, along with them were many ARVN soldiers, which swelled the men under arm in the city to over 250,000Fall of Saigon – Evacuation of CIA station personnel by Air America on the rooftop of 22 Gia Long Street in Saigon on April 29, 1975.
48. Vietnam War – It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and later on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962. Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has also been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is also called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decadesVietnam War – Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Offensive, two Douglas A-4C Skyhawks en route for airstrikes against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre.
49. June – June is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the second month to have the length of 30 days. June contains the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours, and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, June in the Northern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent to December in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. In the Northern hemisphere, the beginning of the astronomical summer is 21 June. In the Southern hemisphere, meteorological winter begins on 1 June, at the start of June, the sun rises in the constellation of Taurus, at the end of June, the sun rises in the constellation of Gemini. However, due to the precession of the equinoxes, June begins with the sun in the sign of Gemini. The Latin name for June is Junius, ovid offers multiple etymologies for the name in the Fasti, a poem about the Roman calendar. In ancient Rome, the period from mid-May through mid-June was considered inauspicious for marriage, ovid says that he consulted the Flaminica Dialis, the high priestess of Jupiter, about setting a date for his daughters wedding, and was advised to wait till after June 15. Plutarch, however, implies that the month of June was more favorable for weddings than May. Certain meteor showers take place in June, the Arietids takes place May 22 to July 2 each year, and peaks on June 7. The Beta Taurids June 5 to July 18, the June Bootids take place roughly between 26 June and 2 July each year. The Secular Games were held roughly every 100 years in either May or June and these dates does not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. In Catholic tradition, June is the Month of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, african-American Music Appreciation Month ALS Awareness Month Caribbean American Heritage Month Crop over, celebrated until the first Monday in August. The birth flowers are rose and honeysuckle, the zodiac signs for the month of June are Gemini and CancerJune – June, from the Très riches heures du duc de Berry
50. 2004 – February 26 – Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski is killed in a plane crash near Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. February 29 – Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is overthrown in a coup détat, march 2 – A series of bombings occur in Karbala, Iraq, killing over 140 Shia Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. March 11 – Coordinated bombs explode at a Cercanías train station in Madrid, Spain, march 28 – Hurricane Catarina, the first ever recorded South Atlantic tropical cyclone, makes landfall in Santa Catarina, Brazil. March 29 – Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia are admitted to NATO, april 8 – The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and two rebel groups, in order to put a pause on the War in Darfur. April 17 – Israeli helicopters fire missiles at a convoy of vehicles in the Gaza Strip, april 24 – Referendums on the Annan Plan for Cyprus, which proposes to reunite the island, take place in both the Greek-controlled and the Turkish-controlled parts. Although the Turkish Cypriots vote in favour, the Greek Cypriots reject the proposal, june 21 – In Mojave, California, SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded spaceplane to achieve spaceflight. June 28 – The U. S. -led coalition occupying Iraq transfers sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government, june 30 – Preliminary hearings begin in Iraq in the trial of former president Saddam Hussein, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. July 1 – The Cassini–Huygens spacecraft arrives at Saturn, august 3 – NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft is launched, with its primary mission being the study of Mercury. August 13–29 – The 2004 Summer Olympics are held in Athens, august 22 – Armed robbers steal Edvard Munchs The Scream, Madonna, and other paintings from the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway. September 1 – Chechen rebels take 1,128 people hostage, mostly children, at a school in Beslan, the crisis ends when Russian security forces storm the building, resulting in more than 330 people being killed. September 2 – The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 1559, calling for the removal of all troops from Lebanon. October 8 – Suicide bombers detonate two bombs at the Red Sea resort of Taba, Egypt, killing over 30 people, october 19 – A team of explorers reach the bottom of Krubera Cave, the worlds deepest cave, with a depth of 2,080 meters. October 29 – European heads of state sign in Rome the Treaty and Final Act, november 13 – The European Space Agency probe SMART-1 arrives at the Moon, becoming the first European satellite to travel to and orbit it. November 16 – NASAs hypersonic Scramjet breaks a record by reaching a velocity of about 7,000 mph in an experimental flight. It obtains a speed of Mach 9.6, almost 10 times the speed of sound, november 22 – The Orange Revolution begins following a disputed presidential election in Ukraine where Viktor Yanukovych won against Viktor Yushchenko amid accusations of electoral fraud. A revote results in Yushchenko being declared the winner, December 14 – The worlds tallest bridge, the Millau Viaduct over the River Tarn in the Massif Central mountains, France, is officially opened. December 21 – Iraqi insurgents attack a U. S. military base in the city of Mosul, December 26 – The 9. 1–9.3 Mw Indian Ocean earthquake shakes northern Sumatra with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. One of the largest observed tsunamis follows, affecting areas of Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh2004 – Cyclone Gafilo
51. Canadian federal election, 2004 – The Canadian federal election,2004, was held on June 28,2004 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 38th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin lost its majority, the main opposition party, the newly amalgamated Conservative Party of Canada, improved its position but with a showing below its expectations. On May 23,2004, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson, on the advice of Martin, following a 36-day campaign, voters elected 308 Members of the House of Commons. All three major parties had changed their leaders since the 2000 election. Polls started to indicate the possibility of a minority government for the Liberals, or even a minority Conservative government, in the end, the Liberals fared better than the final opinion polls had led them to fear, but well short of a majority. In 2004, a party required 155 of the 308 seats to hold a majority in Canada. The Liberals came short of this number, winning 135, as a result, the combined seat count of the Liberals and the NDP was 154, while the other 154 seats belonged to the Conservatives, Bloquistes, and one independent Chuck Cadman. Rather than forming a coalition with the NDP, the Liberal party led a minority government, the bill passed with the Speaker casting the decisive tie-breaking vote. Voter turnout nationwide was 60. 9%, the lowest in Canadian history at that time, the voter turnout fell by more than 3pp from the 2000 federal election which had 64. 1% turnout. Notes, % change refers to change from previous election * Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election, in the case of the CHP, which did have 46 candidates in the previous election, the party did not have official status and is not officially compared. 1 Conservative Party results are compared to the totals of the Canadian Alliance. Source, Elections Canada Western Arctic, NT, Ethel Blondin-Andrew def, dennis Bevington by 53 votes Jeanne-Le Ber, QC, Liza Frulla def. Thierry St-Cyr by 72 votes Simcoe—Grey, ON, Helena Guergis def, Paul Bonwick by 100 votes New Westminster—Coquitlam, BC, Paul Forseth def. Steve McClurg by 113 votes Regina—Lumsden—Lake Centre, SK, Tom Lukiwski def, Gary Anderson by 122 votes Palliser, SK, Dave Batters def. Dick Proctor by 124 votes Edmonton—Beaumont, AB, David Kilgour def, tim Uppal by 134 votes Cambridge, ON, Gary Goodyear def. Janko Peric by 224 votes Kildonan—St, terry Duguid by 278 votes Northumberland—Quinte West, ON, Paul Macklin def. However, polls released immediately after the scandal broke showed Liberal support down as much as 10% nationwide, with declines in its heartland of Quebec. Although there was some recovery in Ontario and Atlantic Canada, Liberal hopes of making unprecedented gains in the west faded, the unpopularity of some provincial Liberal parties may also have had an effect on federal Liberal fortunesCanadian federal election, 2004 – 308 seats in the 38th Canadian Parliament 155 seats needed for a majority
52. Art Buchwald – Arthur Art Buchwald was an American humorist best known for his long-running column in The Washington Post, which in turn was carried as a syndicated column in many other newspapers. His column focused on satire and commentary. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Outstanding Commentary in 1982 and in 1986 was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts, Art Buchwald was born to an Austrian-Hungarian Jewish immigrant family. He was the son of Joseph Buchwald, a manufacturer, and Helen Klineberger. He was the youngest of four, with three older sisters—Alice, Edith, and Doris, Buchwalds father put him in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in New York City when the family business failed during the Great Depression. Buchwald was moved about between several homes, including a Queens boarding house for sick children operated by Seventh-day Adventists. He stayed in the home until he was 5. Buchwald, his father and sisters were reunited and lived in Hollis. Buchwald did not graduate from Forest Hills High School, and ran away home at age 17. From October 1942 to October 1945, he served with the Marines as part of the 4th Marine Aircraft Wing and he spent two years in the Pacific Theater and was discharged from the service as a Sergeant. He said of his time in the Marines, In the Marines, they dont have much use for humorists, on his return, Buchwald enrolled at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on the G. I. Bill, despite not having his high school diploma, at USC he was managing editor of the campus magazine Wampus, he also wrote a column for the college newspaper, the Daily Trojan. In 1949 he left USC and bought a ticket to Paris. Eventually, he got a job as a correspondent for Variety in Paris, in January 1950, he took a sample column to the offices of the European edition of The New York Herald Tribune. Titled Paris After Dark, it was filled with scraps of information about Parisian nightlife. Buchwald was hired and joined the editorial staff and his column caught on quickly, and Buchwald followed it in 1951 with another column, Mostly About People. They were fused into one under the title Europes Lighter Side, Buchwalds columns soon began to recruit readers on both sides of the Atlantic. After Hagerty called his own conference to denounce the article as unadulterated rot, Buchwald famously retorted, on August 24,1959, TIME magazine, in reviewing the history of the European edition of The Herald Tribune, reported that Buchwalds column had achieved an institutional qualityArt Buchwald – Art Buchwald
53. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014