1. Politics – Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to exercising positions of governance -- organized control over a human community, particularly a state. Furthermore, politics is the study or practice within a given community as well as the interrelationship between communities. It is often said that politics is about power. A political system is a framework which defines political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. Formal Politics publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. That can still affect their daily lives. Informal Politics is understood as forming alliances, protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere". The word comes from the Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics also derives; politika means "affairs of the cities". The title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques"; it became "politics" in Modern English. The history of politics is reflected in the origin, economics of the institutions of government. The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare.Politics – Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart – Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.
2. Decision-making – This article deals with decision-making as analyzed in psychology. See also Decision theory. In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice; it may or may not prompt action. Decision-making is the process of choosing alternatives based on the preferences of the decision-Maker. Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. It is therefore a process which can be based on tacit knowledge. Cognitive: the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment. Normative: the analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision-making, or communicative rationality, the invariant choice it leads to. A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a finite set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria. Then the task might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision-maker when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task might be to determine the total priority of each alternative when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of multiple-criteria decision analysis. This leads to the formulation of a decision-making paradox. Logical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in a given area to make informed decisions.Decision-making – Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia.
3. Political power – In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people. The term "authority" is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. The exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings. In business, power is often expressed as being "downward". With downward power, a company's superior influences subordinates. When a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders. The use of power need not involve the threat of force. At one extreme, it closely resembles although some authors distinguish "influence" as a means by which power is used. One such example is soft power, as compared to hard power. The same individual may sometimes hold all these distinct powers in different role-relationships. The philosopher Michel Foucault saw power as a structural expression of "a strategic situation in a given social setting" that requires both constraint and enablement. A must draw on combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. Drawing on the wrong base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in A's own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, while not excluding minor categories. Further bases have since been adduced -- by Gareth Morgan in his 1986 book, Images of Organization.Political power – Sociology
4. Elections – An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes for regional and local government. This process is also used from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations. Electoral reform describes the process of improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of other statistics relating to elections. In Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja was typically a son of the previous raja. However, the gana members had the final say in his elections. The Pala Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains. Such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members. The leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a pot. To select the committee members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system.Elections – A ballot box
5. Legislature – The legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators. Each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; this is called a quorum. The members of a legislature usually represent political parties; the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs. The internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of political power they wield, compared to political players such as judiciaries, militaries, executives. Such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
6. European Union – The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. The EU operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmental decision-making. The Maastricht Treaty introduced European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. Additionally, 26 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8, the G-20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a potential superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of Steel Community, declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe." The supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak.European Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
7. International organization – An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: nongovernmental organizations: non-governmental organizations that operate internationally. The UN has used the term "organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity. The oldest intergovernmental organization is the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna. International organizations also define the salient issues and thus help governmental priority determination or other governmental arrangements.International organization – The headquarters of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Geneva (Switzerland) is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world.
8. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
9. European Coal and Steel Community – The European Coal and Steel Community was an international organisation serving to unify certain Continental European countries after World War II. It was formally established by the Treaty of Paris, signed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Luxembourg. The ECSC was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950 as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. These would ultimately form the blueprint for today's European Commission, European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Court of Justice. It retained its legal personality. In 2002 the Treaty of Paris expired and all the ECSC activities and resources were absorbed by the European Community. The International Authority for the Ruhr changed in consequence. Schuman's guiding principles were moral, based on the equality of states, not the power politics of domination. The Schuman Declaration of 9 May 1950 occurred after two Cabinet meetings, when the proposal became French government policy. France was thus the first government to agree to surrender sovereignty in a supranational Community. It laid out a plan for a European Community to pool the coal and steel of its members in a common market. Such an act was intended to help economic growth and cement peace between France and Germany, who were historic enemies. The Schuman Declaration that created the ECSC had several distinct aims: It would mark the birth of a united Europe. It would make war between member states impossible. It would encourage world peace.European Coal and Steel Community – Danish:
10. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
11. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
12. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
13. Benelux – The Benelux Union is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg. It is now used to refer to the geographic, economic and cultural grouping of the three countries. The Benelux General Secretariat is located in Brussels. It is the administrative pillar of the Benelux Union. It handles the secretariat of the Committee of Ministers, the various committees and working parties. Moreover, it ensures the registry of the Benelux Court of Justice. A Benelux Parliament was created in 1955. In 1944, exiled representatives of the three countries signed the treaty that established the Benelux Customs Union. Ratified in 1947, the treaty was in force from 1948 until it was superseded by the Benelux Economic Union. Under the Treaty the Union implies the co-operation of economic, social policies. The Benelux Union involves an intergovernmental co-operation. Decisions are taken unanimously. They only become legally valid after having been incorporated into national law, with the exception of Belgium. The constitutional court decided in 1971 that any self-executing treaties have priority over laws by the Belgian parliament. The Treaty establishing the Benelux Union has provided the Committee of Ministers with the legal instruments: decisions, conventions, recommendations and directives.Benelux – Benelux Prime Ministers Mark Rutte (Netherlands), Jean-Claude Juncker (Luxembourg) and Yves Leterme (Belgium) in The Hague on 24 May 2011.
14. Robert Schuman – Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman was a Luxembourg-born French statesman. He was an independent political thinker and activist. The 1964–1965 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. He was born in June 1886, in Clausen, Luxembourg, having his father's then German nationality. Schuman's mother was a Luxembourger. Schuman's secondary schooling from 1896 to 1903 was at Athénée de Luxembourg, followed by the Lycée impérial in Metz. In 1912 he set up practice in Metz. From 1915 to 1918 Schuman served in the administration of the Boulay district. After the First World War, Schuman became a French citizen in 1919. He became active in French politics. This harmonization of the regional law with the French law was called "Lex Schuman". Because of his expertise on Germany, he was called to become a member of Paul Reynaud's wartime government, in charge of the refugees. Schuman kept that charge during the first Pétain government. On July 10, Schuman refused to continue to be in the government. Later that year, on September 14, he was arrested against Nazi methods.Robert Schuman – Robert Schuman
15. Schuman declaration – The Schuman Declaration is the statement laid forward by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950. This organization would be open to participation to other European countries. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany”. Within one year, on 18 April 1951, the six founding members signed the Treaty of Paris. It created Steel Community - Community. However, Schuman's efforts did not stop there. When he left office the Parliament bestowed on him the title of ‘Father of Europe’. Because of the significance of his ‘Schuman Declaration’ on 9 May 1950, this day has been designated as ‘Europe Day’. Europe had just come out of a conflict that had nearly split it between two spheres of influence. With the desire not to repeat such destruction, there was a strong momentum towards European co-operation. Winston Churchill, standing next to Robert Schuman, had called for Franco-German reconciliation in a united Europe in a speech in Metz on 14 July 1946. In Zurich, Churchill later called for a "United States of Europe" and, in the meantime, the formation of a "Council of Europe". The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was founded in 1948 to help coordinate the Marshall Plan. The United States also directly funded prominent European pro-federalists through the government funded American Committee on United Europe.Schuman declaration – Map showing details of the 1946 French proposal for the detachment of the Ruhr area and parts of the Rhineland from Germany.
16. Single market – A common market is usually referred to as the first stage towards the creation of a single market. The goal is that the movement of capital, labour, services between the members is as easy as within them. The physical, fiscal barriers among the member states are removed to the maximum extent possible. These barriers obstruct the freedom of movement of the four factors of production. A unified market is the last stage and ultimate goal of a single market. It requires the free movement of goods, services, capital and people without regard to national boundaries. Large amounts of trade barriers remain. It eliminates all "tariffs" -- duties on imported goods -- from trade in goods within it. However "non-tariff barriers" remain such as differences between the Member States' safety, national administrative procedures. They prevent from marketing the same goods in all member states. The objective of a common market is most often the creation of an integrated single market. It is sometimes considered as the first stage of a single market. The European Economic Community was the first example of a common market. Citizens can study, live, shop, retire in any member state. Consumers enjoy a vast array of products from all member businesses have unrestricted access to more consumers.Single market
17. Customs union – A customs union is a type of trade bloc, composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. In some cases they use different import quotas. Common policy is also helpful to avoid competition deficiency. Purposes for establishing a customs union normally include establishing closer political and cultural ties between the member countries. It is the third stage of economic integration. Customs unions are established through trade pacts. Note: Every Economic union, Customs and monetary union and Economic and monetary union includes a Customs Union. Ptas.mcgill.ca Michael T. Florinsky. 1934. The Saar Struggle. New York: The Macmillan Company. European Customs Information Portal List of international trade topics Trade creation Trade diversion Agreements Notified to the GATT/WTO and in ForceCustoms union
18. Euro – Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. Additionally, million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro. The euro is the second largest currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The euro was officially adopted on 16 December 1995. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spain's troubled banking sector. As of December 2016, the euro -- dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.04. The euro is administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them. These banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring the ECB.Euro – The central bank has its seat in Frankfurt (Germany) and is in charge of the monetary policy of the euro area.
19. Common Agricultural Policy – The Common Agricultural Policy is the agricultural policy of the European Union. It implements a system of other programmes. It has undergone several changes since then to reduce the cost and to also consider rural development in its aims. It has been criticised on its environmental and humanitarian impacts. As part of building a common market, tariffs on agricultural products would have to be removed. However, the political clout of the sensitivity of the issue made it take many years before the CAP was fully implemented. The Treaty of Rome, signed in 1957, established the Common Market. It also defined the general objectives of a CAP. The principles of the CAP were set out in July 1958. In 1962, the CAP came into force. Some members, particularly all farming professional organisations wanted to maintain strong state intervention in agriculture. That could not only be achieved unless policies were transferred to the European Community level. By 1962, three major principles had been established to guide the CAP: market unity, financial solidarity. Since then, the CAP has been a central element in the institutional system. Germany is still the largest net contributor into the EU budget.Common Agricultural Policy – Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development in Brussels
20. Common Fisheries Policy – The Common Fisheries Policy is the fisheries policy of the European Union. In 2004 it had a budget of the EU budget. However, fisheries policy remains a "shared competence" of the Union and its member states. Thus decisions will still be made primarily by the Council of the European Union, as is the case now. The common fisheries policy was created to manage stock for the European Union as a whole. Article 38 of the 1957 Treaty of Rome, which created the European Communities, stated that there should be a common policy for fisheries. Fishing is a relatively unimportant economic activity within the EU. It contributes generally less than 1 % to national product. In 2007 the fisheries sector employed 141,110 fishermen. In 2007, million tonnes of fish were caught by EU countries. The EU fleet has 97,000 vessels of varying sizes. Farming produced a further 1 million tonnes of fish and shellfish and employed another 85,000 people. There is an EU trade deficit in processed fish products of $3 billion. In Fraserburgh, Scotland, a similar figure is in Peterhead. They are the EU's largest fishing home to the Pelagic vessel fleet.Common Fisheries Policy – The EU's fishing fleet numbers 88,000 – the second largest in the world – and can fish freely across the European Union catching nearly six million metric tonnes a year
21. Currier and Ives – Currier and Ives was a successful American printmaking firm headed by Nathaniel Currier and James Merritt Ives based in New York City from 1834 to 1907. The prolific firm produced prints from paintings by fine artists as black and white lithographs that were hand colored. Nathaniel Currier was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts on March 27, 1813, the second of four children. His parents Nathaniel and Hannah Currier were distant cousins who lived a humble and spartan life. In 1833 at age twenty, he moved to Philadelphia to do contract work for M.E.D. Brown, a noted engraver and printer. The two men specialized in "job" printing and made a variety of print products, including music manuscripts. Currier became dissatisfied with the poor economic return of their business venture and ended the partnership in 1835. Heset up shop alone, working as "N. Currier, Lithographer" until 1856. In 1835, he created a lithograph that illustrated a fire sweeping through New York City's business district. The print of the Merchant's Exchange sold thousands of copies in four days. He quickly gained a reputation as an accomplished lithographer. In this year, Currier's firm began to shift its focus from job printing to independent print publishing. The name Currier & Ives first appeared in 1857, when Currier invited the company's bookkeeper and accountant James Merritt Ives to become his partner. Ives was born on March 5, 1824 in New York City, he married Caroline Clark in 1852.Currier and Ives – A Brush for the Lead, lithograph by Currier and Ives, 1867.
22. National Union Party (United States) – The National Union Party was the name used by the Republican Party for the national ticket in the 1864 presidential election, held during the Civil War. State Republican parties, for the most part, did not change their name. The temporary name was used to attract War Democrats and Border State Unionists who would not vote for the Republican Party. The party nominated incumbent President Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Andrew Johnson, who were elected in a landslide. The National Union Party was created prior to the end of the Civil War. A faction of anti-Lincoln Radical Republicans therefore could not be re-elected. Frémont, who had also been the Republicans' first presidential standard-bearer during the 1856 U.S. presidential election. This is the main reason why War Democrat Andrew Johnson was selected to be the Vice Presidential nominee; then-current Vice President Hannibal Hamlin was not nominated. The National Unionists supporting the Lincoln-Johnson ticket also hoped that the new party would stress the national character of the war. Lincoln asked them to sign the sealed envelope. The complexion of the war changed as the election approached. Confederate Commander Robert E. Lee's last victory in battle occurred June 1864, at Cold Harbor. Union General Ulysses S. Grant's aggressive tactics trapped Lee in the trenches defending Richmond. Admiral David Farragut successfully shut down 1864. Most decisive of all, Union General William Tecumseh Sherman captured Atlanta on September 1864, convincing even the pessimists that the Confederacy was collapsing.National Union Party (United States) – National Union Party
23. United States presidential election, 1864 – The United States presidential election of 1864 was the 20th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864. In this match, incumbent president Republican Abraham Lincoln ran for re-election against Democratic candidate George B. McClellan, who tried to portray himself to the voters as the "peace candidate" who wanted to bring the American Civil War to a speedy end. Lincoln was re-elected president by a landslide in the Electoral College. Since the election of 1860, the Electoral College had expanded as free-soil states. He was assassinated on April 15, 1865, only 42 days later. Lincoln's second term is the second shortest term served by any U.S. president, next to the 31-day presidency of William Henry Harrison. The Presidential election of 1864 took place during the American Civil War. A group of Republican dissidents who called themselves Radical Republicans formed a party named the Radical Democracy Party and nominated John C. Frémont as their candidate for president. Frémont later endorsed Lincoln. In the Border States, War Democrats joined with Republicans as the National Union Party, at the head of the ticket. The National Union Party was a temporary name used to attract War Democrats and Border State Unionists who would not vote for the Republican Party. It faced off including Peace Democrats. The 1864 presidential election conventions of the parties are considered below in order of the party's popular vote.United States presidential election, 1864 – All 233 electoral votes of the Electoral College 117 electoral votes needed to win
24. Abraham Lincoln – Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War -- its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the western frontier in Kentucky and Indiana. Elected in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks, tariffs, railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, which had a statewide majority in Illinois. In 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination from a swing state. Though he gained very little support in the slaveholding states of the South, he was elected president in 1860. Subsequently, on April 1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union. His Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the political dimensions of the war. His primary goal was to reunite the nation. Lincoln closely supervised the effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond; a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. Five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Lincoln has been consistently ranked both the public as among the three greatest U.S. presidents.Abraham Lincoln – Lincoln in 1863, aged 54
25. Andrew Johnson – Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. He became president as he was president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded. The new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. He was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. He was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina. Apprenticed as a tailor, Johnson worked before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee. Johnson served as mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, he was elected in 1843 where he served five two-year terms. Johnson was elected by the legislature to the Senate in 1857. In his congressional service, Johnson sought passage of the Homestead Bill, enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862. As Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America, he remained firmly with the Union. Johnson was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state's secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee after most of it had been retaken. When Johnson was sworn as vice president in March 1865, Johnson gave a rambling speech.Andrew Johnson – Andrew Johnson
26. History of the Republican Party (United States) – The Republican Party, also commonly called the GOP, is one of the world's oldest extant political parties. It is the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its primary rival, the Democratic Party. It emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which threatened to extend slavery into the territories, to promote more vigorous modernization of the economy. The Republican Party was based on northern white Protestants, businessmen, small business owners, African Americans. It was pro-business, supporting high tariffs to protect factory workers and grow industry faster. Under William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, it emphasized an expansive foreign policy. The GOP lost its majorities during the Great Depression. Instead, the Democrats under Franklin D. Roosevelt formed a winning "New Deal" coalition, dominant from 1932 through 1964. That coalition collapsed in the mid-1960s, partly because of white Southern Democrats' disaffection with passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Republicans won five of the six presidential elections from 1968 to 1988, with Ronald Reagan as the party's iconic conservative hero. The GOP expanded its base throughout the South after 1968, largely due to its strength among socially conservative white Evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics. His influence upon the party persists, as nearly every GOP speaker still reveres him. This change was viewed by Free Soil and Abolitionist Northerners as an aggressive, expansionist maneuver by the slave-owning South. The Act was supported by Northern Democrats persuaded by Douglas' doctrine of "popular sovereignty". In the North the old Whig Party was almost defunct.History of the Republican Party (United States) – Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican President (1861–1865).
27. History of the Democratic Party (United States) – The Democratic Party of the United States is the oldest voter-based political party in the world, tracing its heritage back to the 1820s. Both parties worked hard to maximize the turnout of voters, which often reached 90 percent. Both parties used patronage extensively to finance their operations, which included emerging political machines well as national networks of newspapers. The Democratic party was a proponent for farmers across new immigrants. It was especially attractive to Irish immigrants who increasingly controlled the party machinery in the cities. The party was much less attractive to businessmen, social reformers. The party advocated westward opposition to the national banks. The Democrats elected only two presidents for 72 years: Woodrow Wilson. The Party was split between the "Bourbon Democrats", representing Eastern business interests, the agrarian elements comprising poor farmers in the South and West. Both Bryan and Wilson were leaders of the "Progressive Movement", 1890s–1920s. Democratic progressive/liberal leaders included Presidents: 33rd -- 36th -- Lyndon B. The modern Democratic Party emerged in the 1830s from former factions of the Democratic-Republican Party, which had largely collapsed by 1824. It was built by Martin Van Buren who assembled a cadre of politicians in every state behind war hero Andrew Jackson of Tennessee. The new Democratic Party became a coalition of Irish Catholics. Behind acceptance speeches of candidates, editorials, stump speeches, there was a widespread consensus of political values among Democrats.History of the Democratic Party (United States) – Andrew Jackson, the first Democratic President (1829-1837).
28. American Civil War – The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America. The Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U.S. history. Among the 34 U.S. states in January 1861, seven Southern slave states individually formed the Confederate States of America. War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U.S. fortress Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to include eleven states; it claimed the western territory of Arizona. The Confederacy was never diplomatically recognized by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the North. The war ended in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the factious issue of slavery, especially the extension of slavery into the western territories. Slavery was abolished in the entire country. But before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in a total of 49 percent. The first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities in Georgia with 51 % and Louisiana with 55 %. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession.American Civil War – New Orleans the largest cotton exporting port for New England and Great Britain textile mills, shipping Mississippi River Valley goods from North, South and Border states.
29. Communist League of America – On October 1928, three leading members of the Workers Party of America were expelled from the organization for the transgression of "Trotskyism." It fell into the hopper, where they had a dozen or more stenographers with nothing else to do. They picked up Trotsky's document, distributed it to the heads of the delegations and the members of the program commission. So, behold, it was laid in my lap, translated into English! We let the Congress sessions go to the devil while we read and studied this document. Then I knew what I so did he. Our doubts had been resolved... Cannon and the rest of the Comintern delegation returned to America in September 1928. After about a month word leaked about the dissident gospel being propagated by Cannon and his co-thinkers -- Marty Abern. The subject was broached with the Foster loyalists demanding an explanation. The Foster group quickly called another factional meeting, however. A mimeographed statement was circulated in defense of their position, the inevitable expulsions were made, a split was at hand. Cannon, Abern, Shachtman were also expelled from the International Labor Defense. The Communist League of America was born in earnest. Cannon, Shachtman, Abern initially conceived as that of reforming rather than replacing the Communist Party.Communist League of America – The Militant, edited by James P. Cannon, Martin, Abern, and Max Shachtman, was the official organ of the Communist League of America throughout its six years of existence.
30. Communist Party USA – The Communist Party USA is a communist political party in the United States. It is the largest communist party in the country. Established in 1919, it has a complex history, closely tied with the U.S. labor movement and the histories of communist parties worldwide. For the first half of the 20th century, the Communist Party was a highly influential force in various struggles for democratic rights. By August 1919, only months after the Communist Party claimed 50,000 to 60,000 members. Members also included other radical leftists. But the Communist Party's early organizing successes did not last. By 1957, membership had dwindled of whom some 1,500 were informants for the FBI. In 1989, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union cut off major funding due to its opposition to glasnost and perestroika. The majority reasserted the party's purely Marxist outlook, prompting a minority faction which urged social democrats to exit the now reduced party. The party has since adopted Marxism-Leninism within its program. The Communist Party USA is based in New York City. For decades, its East Coast newspaper was The Daily World. The two newspapers merged into the People's Weekly World. The PWW has since become called People's World.Communist Party USA – Executive Secretary of the Communist Labor Party Alfred Wagenknecht.
31. Trotskyism – Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Trotskyists are critical of Stalinism, as they oppose the idea of Socialism in One Country. Trotskyists also criticize the bureaucracy that developed under Stalin. Some call Trotsky its "co-leader". However, Lenin criticized intra-Party political habits. Trotsky was the paramount leader of the Soviet Red Army in the direct aftermath of the Revolutionary period. Trotsky originally opposed some aspects of Leninism. Later, he joined the Bolsheviks. Trotsky played a leading role in the revolution. Assessing Trotsky, Lenin wrote, "Trotsky ago said that unification is impossible. Trotsky from that time on there has been no better Bolshevik." In the 1920s they called the Left Opposition, although today's left communism is distinct and usually non-Bolshevik. The terminological disagreement can be confusing because different versions of a political spectrum are used. Anti-revisionists consider the ultimate leftists on a spectrum from communism on the left to imperialist capitalism on the right. In 1905, Trotsky formulated a theory that became known as the theory of Permanent Revolution.Trotskyism – The leaders of the Trotskyist Left Opposition in Moscow, 1927. Sitting: Leonid Serebryakov, Karl Radek, Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Boguslavsky, and Yevgeni Preobrazhensky. Standing: Christian Rakovsky, Yakov Drobnis, Alexander Beloborodov, and Lev Sosnovsky.
32. Socialist Party of Romania – The parties adopted a common platform in October 1920. The PS had its headquarters at the Socialist Club on Sfântul Ionică Street No. 12, near the old National Theater. The building eventually also housed all Romanian trade unions of the period, well as the General Trade Unions' Commission. The Socialists edited the Socialismul, headquartered on Academiei Street. Throughout the following year, it organized rallies into what it deemed "an imperialist conflict". When Romania joined the Entente Powers in August 1916, the group was outlawed soon after. While its secretary Dumitru Marinescu was killed in action during the Romanian Campaign, several of its prominent activists, including Rakovsky, were arrested. The PSDR's history was decisively marked by the Russian Revolution of 1917. The PSDR itself radicalized its message, adding to its previous calls for universal suffrage a republican support for land reform. Its program also argued that this was to be fulfilled inside the existing legislative framework. King Ferdinand I's promise to legislate the reform, together with electoral reform, was embraced by PSDR's moderate wing. The group quickly swelled in numbers, as 15,000 workers in a contemporary account. They also stormed into the Sfântul Ionică building and arrested several Socialist leaders, including the general secretary Moscovici and I. C. Frimu. Four PS members, including Alecu Constantinescu, were each sentenced to five years in prison, while all others arrested were acquitted.Socialist Party of Romania – 1918-12-13 Seven o'clock in the evening... It's quiet throughout the land. (Cartoon by Nicolae Tonitza, published in Socialismul, December 1919)
33. Bolshevik – The RSDLP was a political party formed in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. Lenin wanted members "who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means and by personal participation in one of the party's organisations." Julius Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations." A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin’s steadfast opinion and unwillingness to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own". It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia that caused the party split. One of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin to the revolutionary Robespierre. The root of the split was a book titled What is to be Done? that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile. In Germany, the book was published in 1902; in Russia, strict censorship outlawed its publication and distribution. One of the main points of Lenin’s writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses. After the proposed revolution had successfully overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power, to allow socialism to fully encompass the nation. Lenin also wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a complete supporter of Marxist theory, which also created some party unrest.Bolshevik – Bolshevik Party meeting. Sitting (from left): Avel Enukidze, Mikhail Kalinin, Nikolai Bukharin, Mikhail Tomsky, Mikhail Lashevich, Lev Kamenev, Yevgeni Preobrazhensky, Leonid Serebryakov, Vladimir Lenin and Alexei Rykov.
34. Comintern – The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International, was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern had seven World Congresses between 1919 and 1935. It also had thirteen "Enlarged Plenums" of its governing Executive Committee, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses. The Comintern was officially dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943. While the differences had been evident for decades, World War I proved the issue that finally divided the revolutionary and reformist wings of the workers' movement. The socialist movement had been historically internationalist, therefore opposed workers serving as "fodder" for the "bourgeois" governments at war. This especially since the Triple Alliance comprised two empires, while the Triple Entente gathered France and Britain into an alliance with Russia. Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto had stated that "the working class has no country" and exclaimed "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" Massive majorities voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the international working class to resist war if it was declared. Nevertheless, within hours of the declarations of war, almost all the socialist parties of the combatant states announced their support for the war. The only exceptions were the socialist parties of the Balkans. To Lenin's surprise, even the Social Democratic Party of Germany voted in favor of war credits. Socialist parties in neutral countries mostly supported neutrality rather than total opposition to the war. The International divided with a center wavering between those poles. Lenin condemned much of the center as social-pacifists for several reasons, including their voting for war credits despite opposing the war.Comintern – The Communist International published a theoretical magazine in a variety of European languages from 1919 to 1943.
35. Ngo Dinh Diem – Ngô Đình Diệm (Vietnamese pronunciation:; listen; listen was a South Vietnamese politician. A former mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty, he was named Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by Head of State Bảo Đại in 1954. After winning a heavily rigged referendum, he established the first Republic of Vietnam, as president. The assassination led to the end of the US-Diệm alliance and the collapse of his regime as well as the first Republic of Vietnam. Diệm has been a controversial historical figure in historiography on Vietnam War scholarship. Some historians portrayed him as a tool of the US policymakers, some considered him as an avatar of Vietnamese tradition. Diệm was born in 1901 in Quảng Bình, a central Vietnam province. His family originated in the Phú Cam district, a Catholic district in Huế city. His clan had been among Vietnam's earliest Catholic converts in the 17th century. Diệm was given a saint's name at birth, Gioan Baotixita, following the custom of the Catholic Church. The Ngô-Đình family, along with other Vietnamese Catholics, suffered from anti-Catholic persecutions from Emperors Minh Mạng and Tự Đức. In 1880, while Diệm's father, Ngô Đình Khả, was studying in Malaya, an anti-Catholic riot led by Buddhist monks almost wiped out the entire Ngô-Đình family. Over 100 of the Ngô clan were burned alive in a church including Khả's parents, brothers and sisters. He also worked for French military commander as an interpreter and took part in campaigns against anti-colonial rebels in the mountains of Tonkin during 1880. He also rose to become the minister of the rites and chamberlain, keeper of the eunuchs.Ngo Dinh Diem – The body of Diệm in the back of the APC, having been shot dead en route to military headquarters.
36. South Vietnam – South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition as the "State of Vietnam", later as the "Republic of Vietnam". Its capital was Saigon. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into non-communist parts. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955 with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president. Its sovereignty was recognized by some eighty-seven other nations. After World War II, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in September, 1945. In 1949, Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. After Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, there was a series of military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country until 1975. The Vietnam War began in 1959 by Viet Cong forces armed and controlled by Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Fighting reached a climax during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 500,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam. 1946–47 Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina. The creation of this republic, during the Indochina War, allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent.South Vietnam – About 1 million Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
37. 1955 South Vietnamese election – It was contested by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm, who proposed former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại had abdicated at the time of the referendum held the title of head of state. Though published counts showed Diệm winning the election with 98.2% of the vote, the referendum was widely marred by electoral fraud. In the capital, Saigon, Diệm was credited with more than 600,000 votes, although only 450,000 people were on the electoral roll. He accumulated tallies in excess of 90% of the registered voters, even in rural regions where opposition groups prevented voting. The referendum was the last phase in the struggle between Bảo Đại and his prime minister. Bảo Đại had frequently attempted to undermine him, having appointed him only because he was a conduit to American aid. The State of Vietnam controlled the southern half of the country, pending national elections that were intended to reunify the country under a common government. Emboldened by his success, Diệm began to plot Bảo Đại's downfall. He pushed Bảo Đại out of the political scene, hindering the former emperor's attempts to derail the poll. In the period leading up to the vote, campaigning for Bảo Đại was banned, while Diệm's campaign focused on personal attacks against Bảo Đại. These included pornographic cartoons of the head of unverified rumours claiming he was illegitimate and linking him to various mistresses. Police went door-to-door, warning people of the consequences of failing to vote. After his brother Ngô Đình Nhu successfully rigged the poll, Diệm proclaimed president of the newly created Republic of Vietnam. The defeat of the French Army at Điện Biên Phủ in 1954, followed by the Geneva Accords, led to a divided Vietnam.1955 South Vietnamese election – Colonel Edward Lansdale, who helped Diệm in his campaign
38. Ngo Dinh Nhu – Ngô Đình Nhu was a Vietnamese archivist and politician. He was chief political advisor of South Vietnam's first president, Ngô Đình Diệm. In his early age, Nhu was a bookish individual who showed little inclination towards the political path taken by his elder brothers. While training as an archivist in France, Nhu adopted the Roman Catholic ideology of personalism, although critics claimed that he misused that philosophy. Nhu remained until his own assassination. In 1955, Nhu's supporters helped intimidate the rig the 1955 State of Vietnam referendum that ensconced his elder brother, Diệm, in power. Nhu used the Cần Lao, which he organised into cells, to infiltrate every part of society to root out opposition to the Ngô family. In 1959, he organized a failed attempt via mail bomb on Prince Sihanouk, the monarch of neighbouring Cambodia, with whom relations had become strained. Nhu publicly extolled his intellectual abilities. In 1963, the Ngô family's grip on power became unstuck during the Buddhist crisis, during which the nation's Buddhist majority rose up against the pro-Catholic regime. However, Nhu's plan was uncovered, which intensified plots by military officers, encouraged by the Americans, who turned after the pagoda attacks. Nhu was fooled by the loyalist General Tôn Thất Đính, who had turned against the Ngô family. On 1 November 1963, the Ngô brothers were detained and assassinated the next day. Nhu's family originated from the Vietnamese village of Phú Cẩm. His family had served as mandarins in the imperial court in Huế.Ngo Dinh Nhu – Ngô Đình Nhu (right) meeting Lyndon B. Johnson, Vice President of the United States, May 12, 1961
39. Saigon – Ho Chi Minh City, formerly named and still also referred to as Saigon, is the largest city in Vietnam. It was once known as Prey Nokor, an important Khmer seaport by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam 1955 -- 75. On 2 Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. The city's population is expected to grow by 2025. Ho Chi Minh City has gone during its history reflecting settlement by different ethnic, cultural and political groups. Control of the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định. Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after the late North Vietnamese leader. Even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn / Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. In particular, Sài Gòn is still commonly used to refer to District 1. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, adopted in 1976 and abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville, abbreviated HCMV. The name commemorates the first leader of Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years.Saigon – Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.
40. Brothers Grimm – Their first collection of folk tales, Children's and Household Tales, was published in 1812. The brothers spent their formative years in the German town of Hanau. Their father's death in 1796 affected the brothers for many years after. They both attended the University of Marburg where they developed a curiosity about German folklore, which grew to collecting German folk tales. Between 1857, their first collection was revised and republished many times, growing from 86 stories to more than 200. The popularity of the Grimms' best folk tales has endured well. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was born on his brother Wilhelm Carl Grimm on 24 February 1786. Both boys were born to Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist, Dorothea Grimm née Zimmer, daughter of a Kassel city councilman. They were the second- and third-eldest surviving siblings in a family of nine children, three of whom died in infancy. In 1791, the family moved to the town of Steinau, when Philipp was employed there as district magistrate. The family became prominent members of the community, residing in a large home surrounded by fields. Biographer Jack Zipes writes that the brothers were happy in Steinau and "clearly fond of life". The children were educated by private tutors receiving strict instruction as Lutherans that instilled in both a lifelong religious faith. Later, they attended local schools. In 1796, they were forced to relinquish their servants and large house.Brothers Grimm – Wilhelm Grimm (left) and Jacob Grimm in an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann
41. Constitution – A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. I.e. constitute, what the entity is. Some constitutions are written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers can not cross, such as fundamental rights. The constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. The Latin ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials. In such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions such as quo warranto. For example, it is protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws. The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur. In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the oral laws of the city-state of Athens; this code prescribed the death penalty for many offences.Constitution – A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
42. Hanover (state) – The territory was named after its capital, the city of Hanover, the principal town of the region from 1636. Hanover was formed with the sole exception of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" was held, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany. These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a state, being neither indivisible. The territories were named after notable towns where the dukes had e.g. Calenberg, Göttingen, Grubenhagen, Lüneburg, Wolfenbüttel. Bernard received the territory of Lüneburg, whose principal town was Celle. From 1527 until 1642 the Principality of Harburg, seated in Harburg, was partitioned from Lüneburg. In 1569, Lüneburg was divided between the sons of Ernest the Confessor, Bernard's great-great-grandson. A distant cousin of the line of Lüneburg, Frederick Ulrich, who ruled the territories of Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg, died in 1634. After some dispute, his territories were divided in 1635 of the Lüneburg line. His descendants eventually ruled the Duchy of Brunswick. William's first four sons ruled Lüneburg from their father's death in 1592 to 1648. George received the territories of Calenberg and Göttingen in 1635. In 1636 he moved the seat of the Dukes of Calenberg from Pattensen in the Calenberg territory. This was the nucleus of the state of Hanover, though the territory would have to wait before receiving "Hanover" as its official name.Hanover (state) – William
43. 1837 – As of the start of 1837, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 1 – Galilee earthquake. January 26 – Michigan becomes the 26th state admitted to the United States. February – Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist begins publication in serial form in London. February 4 – Seminoles attack Fort Foster in Florida. Martin Van Buren is sworn in as President of the United States. The city of Chicago is incorporated. May – W. F. Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented a system of electrical telegraph. May 10 – The Panic of 1837 begins in New York City. June 5 – The city of Houston, is incorporated by the Republic of Texas. June 11 – The Broad Street Riot occurs in Boston, Massachusetts, fueled by ethnic tensions between the Irish and the Yankees. June 20 – 18-year-old Queen Victoria accedes to the throne of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle William IV without legitimate heirs. She will reign for more than 63 years. July – Charles W. King sets sail on the American merchant ship Morrison. In the Morrison incident, he is turned away with cannon fire.1837 – June 20: Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837–1901).
44. Brown Dog affair – The Brown Dog affair was a political controversy about vivisection that raged in England from 1903 until 1910. The affair became a célèbre that divided the country. The procedure was condemned as unlawful by the National Anti-Vivisection Society. Bayliss, whose research on dogs led to the discovery of hormones, was outraged by the assault on his reputation. He won. – leading to frequent vandalism of the memorial and the need for a 24-hour police guard against the so-called anti-doggers. A new statue of the brown dog was erected in Battersea Park in 1985. There was significant opposition to vivisection in England, during the 1837 -- 1901 reign of Queen Victoria. The Queen herself was strongly opposed to it. The vivisection referred to the dissection of living animals, with and without anaesthesia, often in front of audiences of medical students. Physiologists in the 19th century were frequently criticized including the well-known French physiologist Claude Bernard. Irish feminist Frances Power Cobbe founded the National Anti-Vivisection Society in 1898. The former sought to restrict the latter to abolish it. The General Medical Council and British Medical Journal objected, so additional protection was introduced instead. The result was the Cruelty to Animals Act 1876, criticized as "infamous but well-named."Brown Dog affair – The original statue, by Joseph Whitehead, was erected in 1906 in Battersea 's Latchmere Recreation Ground, and presumed destroyed in 1910.
45. Edwardian – The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era. The new king Edward VII was already the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of Continental Europe. Women became increasingly politicised. Robert Tressell's popular novel The Ragged-Trousered Philanthropists is a strong example of the era's social critique. Despite this, this type of perception has been challenged more recently by modern historians. There was a growing political awareness of the working class, leading to a rise in trade unions, demands for better working conditions. The aristocracy remained in control of top government offices. At first the war split Britain into pro-war factions. Great orators, such as the Liberal David Lloyd George, who spoke against the war, became increasingly influential. Nevertheless pro-war politicians, such as Unionist Joseph Chamberlain, maintained their hold on power. When Kitchener took command in 1900, he initiated a scorched earth policy to interdict Boer guerilla tactics. This resulted to internment camps. As prisoners of war were transported overseas to British possessions, the majority of internees were women and children. Conditions in the camps were due to overcrowding and bad sanitation. Supplies were unreliable, partly because of the constant disruption of communication lines by the Boers.Edwardian – King Edward VII, after whom the Edwardian period is named
46. Vivisection – Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure. Human vivisection has been perpetrated as a form of torture. In the U.S. the Animal Welfare Act explicitly requires that any procedure that may cause use "tranquilizers, anesthetics", with exceptions when "scientifically necessary". In the U.K. any experiment involving vivisection must be licensed by the Home Secretary. Development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army, undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In Mindanao, Moro Muslim prisoners of war were subjected in many cases without anesthesia. Human experimentation involved medical experiments on live subjects, such as vivisections by Josef Mengele, usually without anesthesia. Vivisection without anesthesia was an method employed at the Tuol Sleng prison. Only seven people survived the four-year run of the prison before its liberation by the Vietnamese army in January 1979. It is possible that human vivisection was practiced in the 3rd BC. Celsus in the early-Christian Tertullian state that Herophilos of Alexandria vivisected at least 600 live prisoners. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 2007" Yarri, Donna. The Ethics of Animal Experimentation, Oxford University Press U.S. 2005Vivisection – Mice are the most numerous mammal species used for live animal research. Such research is sometimes described as vivisection.
47. Riot – A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people. Riots typically involve the destruction of property, public or private. The property targeted varies depending on the inclinations of those involved. Targets can include shops, cars, restaurants, religious buildings. Riots often occur to a perceived grievance or out of dissent. While individuals may attempt to control a riot, riots typically consist of disorganized groups that are frequently "chaotic and exhibit herd behavior." However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that riots are not irrational, herd-like behavior, but actually follow social norms. Charles Wilson noted, "Spasmodic rises in food prices provoked keelmen to riot in 1709 tin miners to plunder granaries at Falmouth in 1727." Some rioters have an improved understanding of the tactics used by police in riot situations. Citizens with video cameras may also have an effect on both police. Dealing with riots is often a difficult task for police forces. They may use tear CS gas to control rioters. Riot police may use less-than-lethal methods such as shotguns that fire flexible baton rounds to injure or otherwise incapacitate rioters for easier arrest. A riot is a term for the disproportionate and unlawful use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians. This term is commonly provoking peaceful civilians into violence.Riot – Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934.
48. Second Malaysia Plan – The Second Malaysia Plan was an economic development plan introduced by the government of Malaysia with the goal of implementing the Malaysian New Economic Policy. It was the successor to the First Malaysia Plan, also intended to specifically tackle the problem of poverty among the Malays. Although the Malays have nearly always comprised a majority of the Malaysian population, their economic power has rarely been commensurate. In 1970, the Bumiputra controlled only 1.9% of the Malaysian economy, while the non-Malays held 37.4%, with the rest in foreign hands. However, the rally soon turned into a riot which lasted two days. Officially, around 200 people died—although others have given much larger estimates—with thousands left homeless, the majority of them Chinese. A state of emergency was declared, Parliament was suspended. The National Operations Council governed until 1971, when Parliament reconvened. The Second Malayan Five Year Plan was an economic plan continued by the government of Malaysia. This plan followed the First Malayan Five Plan, which ran to 1960. The Second Malayan Five Year Plan increased expenditure for the development of agriculture and rural areas. Funding was markedly increased for social services. The Plan's stated objective was "to provide opportunities for the rural population to improve its level of social wellbeing." The Outline Perspective Plan was also approved, with similar goals to the NEP. A sum of M$7.25 billion in total was allocated for the Second Malaysia Plan.Second Malaysia Plan – Crop diversification was introduced during the Second Malaysia Plan, phasing out rubber in favour of oil palm.
49. Economy of Malaysia – Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, relatively open and state-oriented. Malaysia is also the third richest in Southeast Asia by GDP per capita values, after the city-states of Singapore and Brunei. Malaysia's economy is one of the most competitive in ranking 14th in the Ease of Doing Business Index for 2015. Malaysia exports value of palm oil products globally after Indonesia. As one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays a very significant role in Malaysia's economy. At one time, it was the largest producer of tin, rubber and oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy, accounting for over 40% of the GDP. Malaysia is also financial centre. In the 1970s, agricultural based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysia's growth. High levels of investment played a significant role in this. With Japanese investment, in a matter of years, Malaysian exports became the country's primary growth engine. Malaysia consistently achieved more than 7 % GDP growth along in the 1980s and the 1990s. In 1991, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad outlined Vision 2020 in which Malaysia would become a self-sufficient industrialised nation by 2020. A government minister, said Malaysia could attain developed country status in 2018 if the country's growth remains constant or increases.Economy of Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur, financial centre of Malaysia.
50. Malaysia – Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia. East Malaysia shares a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. With a population of over million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. Located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire. The British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. Less in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, indigenous peoples.Malaysia – "Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
51. Dictatorship – A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism, in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarianism societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government. Since World War II a broader range of dictatorships have been recognized including family-based dictatorships. In the Roman Empire, a Roman dictator was the incumbent of a political office of legislate of the Roman Republic. Roman dictators were allocated absolute power during times of emergency. Their power was originally neither unaccountable, requiring justification. After the collapse of colonial rule, various dictators came in liberated countries. Such dictators have been also referred to as "personalismo". The wave of military dictatorships in Latin America in the second half of the twentieth century left a particular mark on Latin American culture. In American literature, the novel challenging caudillismo, is a significant genre. There are also many films depicting Latin American military dictatorships. Leading examples of modern totalitarian dictatorship include:. These constitutions often failed to work without a strong middle class or work against the preexisting autocratic rule.Dictatorship – Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong meets with U.S. President Richard Nixon. Mao's dictatorial rule from 1949 to 1976 is believed to have caused the deaths of an estimated 40 to more than 70 million people.
52. Second Polish Republic – Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state. It included substantially more territory in the east and less in the west. The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km2, making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km2. According to the 1921 census, the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union. Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". The victorious Allies of World War I confirmed the rebirth of Poland in the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919. It was one of the great stories of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.Second Polish Republic – Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939)
53. Partitions of Poland – The First Partition of Poland was decided on August 5, 1772. Two decades later, the Second Partition was signed on January 1793. Austria did not participate in the Second Partition. The Third Partition of Poland took place on October 24, 1795, in reaction to the unsuccessful Polish Kościuszko Uprising the previous year. With this partition, the Commonwealth ceased to exist. In Polish, there are two separate words for the two meanings. In Polish historiography, the term "Fourth Partition of Poland" has also been used, in reference to any subsequent annexation of Polish lands by foreign invaders. It became increasingly difficult to undertake action. The liberum veto also provided openings for foreign diplomats to get their ways, through bribing nobles to exercise it. This applies particularly to the last Commonwealth King Stanisław August Poniatowski, who for some time had been a lover of Russian Empress Catherine the Great. The Commonwealth could never be liquidated unless Austria, allowed it, so Catherine had to win Austria to her side. Frederick II retaliated by ordering enough Polish currency counterfeited to severely affect the Polish economy. This new constitution undid the reforms made in 1764 under Stanisław II. The liberum veto and all the old abuses of the last one and a half centuries were guaranteed as unalterable parts of this new constitution. Poorly commanded Polish forces suffered a major defeat.Partitions of Poland – Allegory of the 1st partition of Poland, showing Catherine II of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures
54. Polish Socialist Party – A party with the same name was established in 1987 but has remained at the margins of Polish politics. Founder of the Polish state, was a member and later leader of the PPS in the early 20th century. The PPS was founded in Paris in 1892. In November 1892 the leading personalities of the PPS agreed on a political program. In 1917-18 the party participated in the Central Council of Ukraine and the Government of Ukraine. Many PPS members were jailed in the infamous Bereza Kartuska prison. The party was a member between 1940. The party supported the Polish resistance during World War II as the underground Polish Socialist Party – Freedom, Equality, Independence. In 1948 it suffered a fatal split, as the communists applied the salami tactics to dismember any opposition. One faction, which included Edward Osóbka-Morawski wanted to join forces with the Polish Peasant Party and form a united front against the Communists. Leader of the Peasant Party, would not agree to form a united front with the Socialists. The Communists played by making Cyrankiewicz Prime Minister. However, the new PPS remains a marginal group within the political landscape of the Third Republic. Its main propaganda outlet was the Robotnik newspaper.Polish Socialist Party – Polish Socialist Party Polska Partia Socjalistyczna
55. Polish Legions in World War I – General Haller escaped to France to form the Polish army in the West against the anti-Polish German-Bolshevik treaty. The Legions took part both in the Carpathian Mountains. They suffered horrendous casualties outnumbered three to one in the Battle of Łowczówek. They captured Kielce, in 1915 took part in the offensive on Warsaw. In June 1916 the unit had approximately 25,000 soldiers. Both the number of troops and the composition of units changed rapidly. The Polish Legions became the Polish Auxiliary Corps. However, most of the members refused to swear allegiance to the German Kaiser and were interned in Beniaminów and Szczypiorno. Approximately 3,000 of them were drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army and the failed German Polnische Wehrmacht, while approximately 7,500 stayed in the Austrian Polish Auxiliary Corps. They were sent to the Italian Front. The formation of the Legions was declared by Józef Piłsudski in his order of August 22, 1914. The Austrian government, having jurisdiction over the area, officially agreed to the formation August 27, 1914. The unit became an independent formation of the Austro-Hungarian Army thanks to the efforts of the KSSN and the Polish members of the Austrian parliament. Initially the Polish Legions were composed of two legions: the Eastern and the Western Legion, both formed on August 27. After the war ended the officers of the Polish Legions became the backbone of the Polish Army.Polish Legions in World War I – Col. Józef Piłsudski with his staff in front of the Governor's Palace in Kielce, 1914
56. Russian Empire – One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. It expanded to the west and south. Its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762. With million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, religion. There were dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had a agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized in railways and factories. The land was ruled through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, laid the foundations of the Russian state. The Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, diplomacy, continuing Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all million serfs in 1861.Russian Empire – Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia the Russian Empire in 1721, and himself its first emperor. He instituted the sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
57. Central Powers – It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente, after which it was dissolved. The Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879. The Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria did not join until after World War I had begun. The Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers later in 1914. In 1915, the Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the alliance. Finland, Azerbaijan, Lithuania joined them in 1918 before the war ended and after the Russian Empire collapsed. When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany viewed the act as provocative. After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 Germany responded by declaring war on France. This plan was hoped to quickly gain victory against the French and allow German forces to concentrate on the Eastern Front. Belgium was a neutral country and would not accept German forces crossing its territory. Germany disregarded Belgian neutrality and invaded the country to launch an offensive towards Paris. Europe Upon its founding in 1871, the German Empire controlled Alsace-Lorraine as an "imperial territory" incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germany's sovereign territory.Central Powers – Leaders of the Central Powers (left to right):
58. Austria-Hungary – Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. The Compromise required regular renewal, as did the customs union between the two components of the union. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous. The Empire built up the fourth-largest industry of the world, after the United States, the United Kingdom. The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population. Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on November 3, 1918. The realm's full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Hungary, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its governmental structures. This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.Austria-Hungary – Franz Joseph I. (1885)
59. German Empire – The German Empire consisted with most being ruled by royal families. This included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, one imperial territory. Although the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the Empire's territory, it played a lesser role. As Dwyer points out, Prussia's "political and influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron, railways. By 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in the united Germany became predominantly urban. Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became only to Britain's Royal Navy. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had only one ally – Austria-Hungary. They were later joined by Bulgaria to form the Central Powers or Quadruple Alliance. In the First World War, the war on the Western Front became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; it occupied Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.German Empire
60. May Coup (Poland) – The May Coup d'État was a coup d'état carried out in Poland by Marshal Józef Piłsudski between 12 and 14 May 1926. The coup overthrew the government of Prime Minister Wincenty Witos. A new government was headed by Lwów Polytechnic Professor Kazimierz Bartel. He declined in favor of Ignacy Mościcki. Piłsudski, however, became the power behind the throne until his death in 1935. General Lucjan Żeligowski became the new government's minister of military affairs. The edition was confiscated by the authorities. On May they marched on Warsaw and captured bridges over the Wisła River. Meanwhile, Wincenty Witos' government declared a state of emergency. At about 17:00 hours, Marshal Piłsudski met President Stanisław Wojciechowski on the Poniatowski Bridge. Piłsudski demanded the resignation of Witos' cabinet, while the President demanded Piłsudski's capitulation. With no result in this round of negotiations, fighting erupted about 19:00 hours. A new round of negotiations was begun, mediated by Archbishop Aleksander Kakowski and Marshal of the Sejm Maciej Rataj. These negotiations, however, brought no change to the stalemate. On May the Polish Socialist Party declared its support for the rebels and called for a general strike, supported by the Railwaymen's Union.May Coup (Poland) – Józef Piłsudski and other coup leaders on Poniatowski Bridge in Warsaw.
61. Foreign policy – The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. The study of such strategies is called foreign analysis. Due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors. The aforementioned interaction is monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister. In some countries the legislature also has considerable effects. The Greek philosopher Aristotle described humans as social animals. Therefore, relations have existed between humans since the beginning of human interaction. As the organization developed in human affairs, relations between people also organized. Foreign policy thus goes back to primitive times. Before writing, most of these relations were carried out by word of mouth and left little archaeological evidence. According to Business Dictionary.com, foreign policy is plan of action adopted by one nation in regards with other countries. Foreign policy is established as a systemic way to deal with issues that may arise with other countries.Foreign policy
62. Iran and weapons of mass destruction – Iran has first-hand knowledge of WMD effects—over 100,000 Iranian troops and civilians were victims of chemical weapons during the 1980s Iran–Iraq War. Later versions of this fatwa forbid only the "use" of nuclear weapons, but said nothing about their production. Iran has stated its uranium enrichment program is exclusively for peaceful purposes. In a 2007 National Intelligence Estimate, the United States Intelligence Community assessed that Iran had ended all "nuclear work" in 2003. U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta stated in January 2012 that Iran was pursuing a nuclear weapons capability, but was not attempting to produce nuclear weapons. In 2009, U.S. intelligence assessed that Iranian intentions were unknown. Some European intelligence believe Iran has resumed its alleged nuclear weapons design work. Iran has called for nuclear weapons states to disarm and for the Middle East to be a nuclear weapon free zone. Former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad argued that the sanctions were illegal. The IAEA has been able to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran, but not the absence of undeclared activities. The Non-Aligned Movement has called on both sides to work through the IAEA for a solution. Another IAEA report stated "there is no evidence that the previously undeclared nuclear material and activities... were related to a nuclear weapons program." On 31 July 2006, the Security Council passed a resolution demanding Iran suspend its enrichment program. On 23 December 2006, the UN Security Council imposed sanctions against Iran, which were later tightened on 24 March 2007, because Iran refused to suspend enrichment. Iran's representative to the UN argued that the sanctions compelled Iran to abandon its rights under the NPT to peaceful nuclear technology.Iran and weapons of mass destruction – Iranian soldier with gas mask under Chemical bombardment by Iraqi forces in the battlefield during the Iran–Iraq War.
63. European sovereign-debt crisis – The European debt crisis is a multi-year debt crisis, taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009. The detailed causes of the crisis varied. The structure of the eurozone as a union without fiscal union contributed to the crisis and limited the ability of European leaders to respond. European banks own a significant amount of such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing. Return to improved structural deficits enabled Ireland and Portugal to exit their bailout programmes in July 2014. Greece and Cyprus both managed to partly regain access in 2014. Spain officially received a bailout programme. Its package from the ESM was earmarked for a bank recapitalization fund and did not include financial support for the government itself. In 1992, members of the European Union signed the Maastricht Treaty, under which they pledged to limit their deficit debt levels. The crisis subsequently spread while raising concerns about Italy, Spain, the European banking system, more fundamental imbalances within the eurozone. In Greece the low forecast was reported to the actual situation. The fact that France owned 10 % of that debt, struck terror into investors at the word "default". As of January 2009, a group of eastern European banks had already asked for a bailout. Together these three international organisations representing the bailout creditors became nicknamed "the Troika". By July 2012 also the Netherlands, Finland benefited from zero or negative interest rates.European sovereign-debt crisis – Total (gross) government debt around the world as a percent of GDP by IMF
64. 1979 – United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim heralds the start of the International Year of the Child. Many musicians donate including ABBA, who wrote the song "Chiquitita" to commemorate the event. The People's Republic of China establish full diplomatic relations. The Canton of Jura comes into existence as the 26th canton being formed from the predominantly French-speaking Catholic part of the Canton of Bern. January 4 – The State of Ohio agrees to pay $675,000 to families of the dead and injured in the Kent State shootings. January 5 – Queen releases "Don't Stop Me Now". It becomes one of their most popular singles. January 7 – Vietnam and Vietnam-backed Cambodian insurgents announce the fall of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, the collapse of the Pol Pot regime. The Khmer Rouge retreat west to an area along the Thai border. January 8 -- Whiddy Island Disaster: The French Betelgeuse explodes at the Gulf Oil terminal at Bantry, Ireland; 50 are killed. It is broadcast the following day around the world. Hosted by the Bee Gees, other performers include Donna Summer, ABBA, Earth, Wind & Fire. A album is later released. January 16 – Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees Iran with his family, relocating to Egypt after a year of turmoil. January 19 – Former U.S. Attorney General John N. Mitchell is released on parole after 19 months at a federal prison in Alabama.1979 – Rosamund Pike
65. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both an Indian Ocean coastline. Its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is largest city, as well as its leading economic center. Iran is heir to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning in 3200 -- 2800 BC. The area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant political power in the region. The empire reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Rashidun Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Sunni Islam. Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, thinkers. Through the late 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the Majles. Following a d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West but grew increasingly autocratic.Iran – Cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC
66. Islamic Republic – Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it upon Jamiat-e Islami seizing capital Kabul from the Communists. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their laws. The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean some contradictory to others. They see it as secular nationalism and republicanism. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic Republic". Before the Islamic Republic referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology such as the Republic or the democratic republic. However, there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also those beliefs are of determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as guidelines for statesmen. Believing in it. There are, of that, other principles are to the submission in front of Allah and his order. Therefore legislation is limited to god and laws far as correspond to divine legislation are valid.Islamic Republic – Islamic republics shown in green.
67. Shah – Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. The full, Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān, "King of Kings" or "Emperor". This word is commonly confused with the unrelated and distinct Indian Shah, derived from the Sanskrit Sadhu or Sahu, meaning "gentleman". Šāhanšāh to use the full-length term, was the title of the Persian emperors. While the Ottoman Sultans never styled themselves as Shah, but rather Sultan, their male offspring received prince. In Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων, "King of Kings", equivalent to "Emperor". In Western languages, Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh. The term was first recorded as a title for the King of Persia and with the spelling Shaw. In the twentieth century, the Shah of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages, the rendering Emperor. He also styled شهبانو Shahbānu. Iran longer had a shah after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Another style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning "King, refuge of the world". The Shah-Armens, used the title Shāh-i Arman. Georgian mepetmepe was also inspired by the shahanshah title. Shahzadeh.Shah – Royal and noble ranks in Iran, Turkey, Caucasus, Pakistan and Afghanistan
68. 1948 – January 1 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade inaugurated. Railways of Britain are nationalized to form British Railways. The Constitution of the Italian Republic goes into effect. The latest Constitution of New Jersey goes into effect. January 5 – Warner Brothers shows the first color newsreel. January 7 – Kentucky Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell crashes while in pursuit of a supposed UFO. January 12 – Mahatma Gandhi begins his fast-unto-death in Delhi to stop communal violence during the Partition of India. January 17 – A truce is declared between nationalist Indonesian and Dutch troops in Java. The Treaty of Brussels is signed March 17 as a predecessor to NATO. The Pakistan Socialist Party is founded in Karachi. DC-3 aircraft crash near Coalinga, California, kills four US citizens and 28 deportees, commemorated in a protest song by Woody Guthrie. January 30 Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi: Indian pacifist and leader Mahatma Gandhi is shot by Nathuram Godse in New Delhi. Also on this day Orville Wright of the pioneering aviators the Wright Brothers dies in Dayton, Ohio. 1948 Winter Olympics open in Switzerland. January 31 – The British crown colony of the Malayan Union, Penang and Malacca form the Federation of Malaya.1948 – Israeli Declaration of Independence, 1948
69. La Violencia – His murder provoked the Bogotazo rioting that killed some 5,000 people. An alternative historiography proposes as the start the Conservatives' return to power following the election of 1946. La Violencia is estimated to have cost the lives of at least 200,000 people. Both also fought against the paramilitary forces of the Colombian Communist Party. The conflict caused millions of people to abandon their homes and property. Media and news services failed to cover events accurately for fear of revenge attacks. The lack of civil authority prevented victims from laying charges against perpetrators. Documented evidence from these years is fragmented. The majority of the population at the time was Catholic. During the conflict there were press reports that Catholic Church authorities supported the Conservative Party. No official statements were made by the Holy See or the Board of Bishops. These events were recounted in the 1950 book Lo que cielo no perdona, written by the secretary to Builes, Father Fidel Blandon. Eduardo Caballero Calderón also recounted these events in his 1952 book El Cristo de Espaldas. After releasing his book, Blandon assumed a false identity as Antonio Gutiérrez. However, he was eventually identified and legally prosecuted.La Violencia – La Violencia
70. Colombian Liberal Party – The Colombian Liberal Party is a social-democratic political party in Colombia. It later developed into a more social-democratic direction, joining the Socialist International in 1999. In the 1994 election the Liberal Party's Ernesto Samper was narrowly elected President. Immediately afterwards he was accused of accepting millions from the Cali Cartel to fund his campaign. Partly due to the scandal the Liberal Party lost seats in the 1998 parliamentary election, although it remained easily the largest party. More seriously, the Liberals were defeated in the Presidential election held the same year. The Liberal Party suffered a major split to the 2002 elections. The party's unsuccessful 1998 Presidential candidate was nominated to run again. However a former Senator and Governor from the party launched an independent Presidential campaign, backed by the Conservatives and dissident Liberals. Whereas Serpa supported the then ongoing negoitations with FARC, Uribe advocated confronting the guerrillas. Uribe was victorious in the elections, securing a majority in the first round. As a compromise, former president César Gaviria Trujillo was elected leader in 2005. At the 2006 legislative election, the Liberals lost around half their seats. While they remained the largest party in the Chamber of Representatives, they finished third in the Senate. At the 2010 presidential election Liberal candidate Rafael Pardo finished sixth with 4.38% of the vote.Colombian Liberal Party – La Violencia
71. Colombian Communist Party – The Colombian Communist Party or PCC is the legal communist party of Colombia. It was founded as the Colombian section of the Comintern. It is currently led by Jaime Caycedo. PCC publishes the weekly Voz. In the mid-1960s the U.S. State Department estimated the membership to be approximately 13,000. Those groups with more direct relations with the PCC tended keeping their weapons and organizational structures mostly intact. Both activities were considered to have their own place within a concept often employed by PCC and FARC. Gradually the PCC and FARC-EP grew apart politically, in particular during the later 1980s. After the Berlin Wall fell, confusion among the two sides increased. The PCC officially broke in 1993. Both organizations have remained completely distinct in their activities, though individual members of both parties may have continued to maintain working relationships on occasion. During most of its history the PCC has been the subject of persecution both by private individuals, active and retired government agents and others. For the last three decades the PCC has been targeted by paramilitary forces as documented by Colombian and international organizations and press reports. . During the last ten years, members of PCC and other left-wingers, have been murdered.Colombian Communist Party – La Violencia
72. Colombian Conservative Party – The Colombian Conservative Party is a traditional political party in Colombia. The party was formally established by Mariano Ospina Rodríguez and José Eusebio Caro. Currently, the Conservative Party is the second largest political force in the congress. It supported the conservative government of Álvaro Uribe since 2002. Lawyer José Ignacio de Márquez was elected president of Colombia in 1837. After the war, known as the War of the Supremes, General Pedro Alcántara Herrán won the presidency. Alcántara created a new constitution, with centralist characteristics. Mariano Ospina Rodríguez was a prominent member of his government, he reformed the education system. Alcántara's administration preceded the government of General Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera. Mosquera's supporters created the Liberal Party in 1848. In the newspaper La Civilización of October 1849; Ospina and Caro published the conservative program that became the ideological platform for the new party. In 1863 the Liberal party created a new constitution in the city of Rionegro, opposed by the Conservative Party. The country went to an unstable period of economic decay and multiple civil wars between states and parties. In 1876 the liberal politician Rafael Núñez was defeated by the official liberal candidate Aquileo Parra. Núñez was in favor of reforming the federal system.Colombian Conservative Party – Liberal President Rafael Núñez switched to the Conservative Party and led the process known as "La Regeneración".
73. 2003 – 2003 was designated the: International Year of fresh water. European Disability Year. January 22 – The last signal from NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft is received, some 7.6 billion miles from Earth. January 30 – Belgium legally recognizes same-sex marriage, becoming the second country in the world to do so. February 1 – At the conclusion of the STS-107 mission, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates during reentry over Texas, killing all 7 astronauts on board. February 15 – Millions of people worldwide take part in massive anti-war protests before the United States and its allies invade Iraq. February 20 – The Station nightclub fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island kills 100 people and injures 230. February 26 – The War in Darfur begins after rebel groups rise up against the Sudanese government. March 8 – Malta approves joining the European Union in a referendum. Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić is assassinated in Belgrade by a sniper. The World Health Organization issues a global alert on acute respiratory syndrome when it spreads to Hong Kong and Vietnam after originating in China. March 20 – The Iraq War begins with the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. and allied forces. March 23 – Slovenia approves joining the European Union and NATO in a referendum. April 9 – Iraq War: U.S. forces seize control of Baghdad, ending the regime of Saddam Hussein. April 12 – Hungary approves joining the European Union in a referendum.2003 – Richard Crenna
74. Saddam Hussein – Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and other industries. The state-owned banks were put under his control, leaving the system eventually insolvent mostly due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, UN sanctions. Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatuses of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population. Saddam formally rose to power in 1979, although he had been the de facto head of Iraq for several years prior. The total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam's government in various purges and genocides is unknown, but the lowest estimate is 250,000. Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. His execution was carried out on 30 December 2006. His mother, Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat, named her newborn son Saddam, which in Arabic means "One who confronts". He is always referred to by this personal name, which may be followed by the patronymic and other elements. He never knew his father, Hussein'Abd al-Majid, who disappeared six months before Saddam was born. Shortly afterward, Saddam's 13-year-old brother died of cancer. The infant Saddam was sent to the family of his maternal uncle Khairallah Talfah until he was three.Saddam Hussein – Saddam Hussein in 1979.
75. Iraq – Largest city, is Baghdad. The ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, Kawliya. Around Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish. The Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, live in cities under an organised government -- notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian empires. It was also part of Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, Ottoman empires. Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. The Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the Iraqi Republic created.Iraq – Cylinder Seal, Old Babylonian Period, c.1800 BCE, hematite. The king makes an animal offering to Shamash. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar.
76. 2006 – January 4 – Ariel Sharon, Prime Minister of Israel, suffers a severe stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Saudi Arabia, collapses, killing 76 pilgrims visiting to perform Hajj. Saudi Arabia, kills 362 pilgrims. January 15 – NASA's Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 16 – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf assumes office as President of Liberia, the first female elected head of state in Africa. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a 9-year journey. January 25 – Pope Benedict XVI issues his first encycylical, Deus caritas est. January 27 – Celebrations are held in Salzburg and around the world, for the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Philippines, kills 74 people and leaves 600 injured. February 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126. February 19 – Pasta de Conchos mine disaster: Sixty-five miners die after becoming trapped underground, following an explosion in Nueva Rosita, Mexico. March 4 – The final contact attempt with Pioneer 10 receives no response. March 9 – NASA's Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturn's moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars.2006 – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
77. Han Myung-sook – Han Myeong-sook was the Prime Minister of South Korea from April 2006 to March 2007. Han is South Korea's prime minister. She resigned as Prime Minister on March 7, 2007 and declared her presidential candidacy. But she did not succeed in the nominations. In 2008 she ran for parliament, but was not elected. However, in January 2012 she was elected leader of the main oppositional Democratic United Party before the April legislative elections and became a member of parliament. But the liberals did not manage to defeat the ruling Saenuri Party and Han stepped down as party leader in April 2012. In August 2015, Han was convicted of receiving illegal donations at the amount of 900 million KRW, sentence to two years in prison. Han is ineligible to run after her term. Han became the prime minister of the Republic of Korea to serve a prison time. A government committee exonerated her of any wrongdoing in 2001, ruling her confession was elicited through torture. In 1999, she joined the National Congress for New Politics, entered politics. In 2000, she was elected as a member of the 16th Korean National Assembly. In 2004, she ran for a member of the National Assembly in Ilsan of Goyang and was elected. Han was the first Minister of Gender Equality, serving from 2001 to 2003.Han Myung-sook – Han Myeong-sook
78. South Korea – South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The earliest Korean pottery dates with three kingdoms flourishing in the 1st century BC. Its vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites. Annexed by Imperial Japan in 1910 due to its central location, Korea was divided after its surrender in 1945. A Korean invasion led to the Korean War. A long legacy of focus in innovation made it successful. It is the only G20 nation trading freely with China, the US and EU simultaneously. It is rated highly in peaceful tolerance and inclusion of minorities. South Korea is East Asia's most developed country in the Human Development Index. The name Korea derives from Goryeo, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants, who called it "Korea". The name Goryeo originally referred to the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, which referred to itself, was widely referred to, since the 5th century. The modern spelling, "Korea", first appeared in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After Goryeo was replaced in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country to Daehan Jeguk.South Korea – Flag
79. 2005 – January 12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral by a Delta II rocket. January 14 – The Huygens probe lands on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. January 25 – A stampede occurs at the Mandhradevi temple near Wai, India during a religious pilgrimage, killing 291 people. January 30 – Iraq holds its first parliamentary election since 1958. February 10 North Korea announces that it possesses nuclear weapons as a protection against the hostility it feels from the United States. Saudi Arabia holds its municipal election in over 40 years, in which only male citizens are allowed to vote. February 14 21 others are killed by a suicide bomber in Beirut. The most popular video sharing website, is founded. February 16 – The Kyoto Protocol goes into effect, without the support of the United States and Australia. February 19 – Multiple suicide bombings kill more than 30 people across Iraq as Shia Muslims mark Ashura, their holiest day. February 28 – In Iraq, the Al Hillah bombing kills 127 people at the Iraqi police forces recruiting centre in Al Hillah. Millionaire Steve Fossett breaks a world record by completing the fastest non-stop, non-refueled, solo flight around the world in the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer. Four Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers are gunned down in Alberta, Canada. It is deadliest day in Canadian enforcement in over 120 years. The People's Republic of China ratifies an anti-secession law, aimed at preventing Taiwan from declaring independence.2005 – Shirley Chisholm
80. Togo – It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its Lomé is located. Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres, making one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of approximately 7.5 million. From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. In 1884, Germany declared a protectorate. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence in 1960. In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a military coup d'état after which he became president. At the time of his death in 2005, Gnassingbé was the longest-serving leader in African history, after having been president for 38 years. In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. Togo is a sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons. The official language is French, with other languages spoken in Togo, particularly those of the Gbe family. There are significant Christian and Muslim minorities. Archaeological finds indicate that ancient tribes were able to produce pottery and iron. That name Togo is translated as "land where lagoons lie". Not much is known of the period in 1490.Togo – Togoland (R. Hellgrewe, 1908)
81. 1937 – January 1 – Anastasio Somoza García becomes President of Nicaragua. January 11 – The first issue of Look magazine goes on sale in the United States. January 19 – Spanish Civil War: Second Battle of the Corunna Road concludes with both sides withdrawing. January 19 – Howard Hughes establishes a record by flying from Los Angeles to New York City in 7 hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds. January 20 – Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. January 26 – Michigan celebrates its centennial anniversary as a U.S. state. January 30 – Ingrid Christensen becomes the first woman to set foot on the continent of Antarctica. January 31 – The Soviet Union executes 31 people for alleged Trotskyism. February 5 – U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a plan to enlarge the Supreme Court of the United States. February 8 – Spanish Civil War: Falangist troops take Málaga. February 8 – February 27 – Spanish Civil War – Battle of Jarama: Nationalist and government troops fight to a stalemate. February 11 – A sit-down strike ends when General Motors recognizes the United Automobile Workers union. February 16 – Wallace H. Carothers receives a patent for nylon. Airliner VH-UHH goes down over Lamington National Park, bound for Sydney, killing five people. The Italian security guard fire into the crowd of Ethiopian onlookers.1937 – January 19: Howard Hughes sets record.
83. 1945 – Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January -- WWII: Allied advance to the Rhine continues; the United States Army crosses the Siegfried Line. January 1 – WWII: Germany begins Operation Bodenplatte, an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries. The Chenogne massacre in which German prisoners were allegedly killed near the village of Chenogne, Belgium. January 5 – Australia recognizes the Polish Committee of National Liberation as the government of Poland. January 7 – WWII: British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference at Zonhoven describing his supporting role at the Battle of the Bulge. January 12 – WWII: The Soviet Union begins the Vistula–Oder Offensive in Eastern Europe against the German Army. January 13 – WWII: The Soviet Union begins the East Prussian Offensive to eliminate German forces in East Prussia. January 16 – WWII: Adolf Hitler takes residence in the Führerbunker in Berlin. January 17 WWII: The Soviet Union occupies Warsaw, Poland. The Holocaust: A Soviet patrol arrests Raoul Wallenberg in Hungary. January 18 – The Holocaust: The SS begins evacuation of Auschwitz concentration camp. Mostly Jews, are forced to march to other locations in Germany; as many as 15,000 die. The 7,000 too sick to move are left without supplies being distributed. January 23 – WWII: Hungary agrees to an armistice with the Allies.1945 – January 27: The Soviet Red Army liberates Auschwitz.
84. Adolf Hitler – Hitler was born in Austria, then part of Austria-Hungary, raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. He joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy. By 1933, the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, which led to Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two killed themselves to avoid capture by the Red Army, their corpses were burned. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war.Adolf Hitler – Hitler in 1938
85. Death of Adolf Hitler – Adolf Hitler killed himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin. His Eva committed suicide by taking cyanide. Contemporary historians have rejected these accounts as being either Soviet propaganda or an attempted compromise in order to reconcile the different conclusions. One eye-witness recorded that the body showed signs of having been shot through the mouth, but this has been proven unlikely. There is also controversy regarding the authenticity of skull and jaw fragments which were recovered. In 2009, American researchers performed DNA tests on a skull Soviet officials had long believed to be Hitler's. The tests and examination revealed that the skull was actually that of a woman less than 40 years old. The jaw fragments, recovered were not tested. By early 1945, Germany's military situation was on the verge of total collapse. American forces in the south were advancing towards Mainz, the Rhine. In parallel to the military actions, the Allies had met at Yalta between 4–11 February to discuss the conclusion of the war in Europe. Presiding over a rapidly disintegrating Third Reich, retreated on 16 January 1945. To the Nazi leadership, it was clear that the battle for Berlin would be the final battle of the war in Europe. Some 325,000 soldiers of Germany's Army Group B were captured on April, leaving the path open for American forces to reach Berlin. By 11 April the Americans crossed the Elbe, 100 kilometres to the west of the city.Death of Adolf Hitler – Front page of the U.S. Armed Forces newspaper, Stars and Stripes, 2 May 1945
86. Red Army – The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. The Red Army is credited as being the decisive force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II. At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering million. Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Because the Red Army was composed mainly of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army; men, along with some women, flooded the recruitment centres. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy. Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for the fleet.Red Army – Red Guards unit of the Vulkan factory
87. Berlin – Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its 16 states. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, lakes. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin again became the capital of a unified Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, politics, media and science. Its economy is based on the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular destination. Significant industries also include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics. Modern Berlin is host to many sporting events. Its urban setting has made a sought-after location for international film productions. The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, a high quality of living. Over the last decade Berlin has seen the emergence of a entrepreneurial scene. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, of which there are many east of the River Elbe, are of Slavic origin.Berlin
88. President of Germany (Weimar Republic) – The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, officially in force from 1919 to 1945. In English he was usually simply referred to as the President of Germany. The German Reichspräsident literally means President of the Reich, the term Reich referring to the federal state established in 1871. The Weimar constitution created a semi-presidential system in which power was divided between a parliament. The Reichspräsident was directly elected under universal adult suffrage for a seven-year term. The German Basic Law of 1949 established the office of Federal President, however, a chiefly ceremonial post largely devoid of political power. Political Party SPD none A Hans Luther, Chancellor of Germany, was acting head of state from 28 February to 12 March 1925. B Walter Simons, President of the Supreme Court, was acting head of state from 12 March to 12 May 1925. Upon Generalfeldmarschall von Hindenburg's death, Adolf Hitler merged the offices of Chancellor and head of state in his person. He styled himself Führer und Reichskanzler, but did not use the title of Reichspräsident. Upon his suicide on 30 April 1945, Hitler nominated Großadmiral Karl Dönitz to be President. Dönitz was arrested on 23 May 1945 and the office was dissolved. Under the Weimar constitution, the President was directly elected by universal adult suffrage for a term of seven years; reelection was not limited. The law provided that the presidency was open to all German citizens who had reached 35 years of age. The direct election of the president occurred under a form of the two round system.President of Germany (Weimar Republic) – The Presidential Palace (Reichspräsidentenpalais) at the Wilhelmstrasse in Berlin.
89. Joseph Goebbels – Paul Joseph Goebbels was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. Goebbels advocated progressively harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the Holocaust. Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1921. Goebbels worked with Gregor Strasser in their northern branch. After the Nazi Seizure of Power in 1933, Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry quickly exerted controlling supervision over the news media, arts, information in Germany. Goebbels was particularly adept at using the relatively new media of film for propaganda purposes. Topics for propaganda included antisemitism, attacks on the Christian churches, attempting to shape morale. As Nazi Germany faced defeat, Magda Goebbels and the Goebbels children joined him in Berlin. They moved into part of Hitler's underground bunker complex, on 22 April 1945. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April. In accordance with Hitler's will, Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor of Germany; he served one day in this post. The following day, his wife committed suicide, after poisoning their six children with cyanide. Paul Joseph Goebbels was born on 29 October 1897 in an industrial town south of Mönchengladbach near Düsseldorf. Both of his parents were Catholics with modest family backgrounds. His Fritz was a factory clerk; his mother Katharina was ethnically Dutch.Joseph Goebbels – Official portrait of Goebbels
90. Chancellor of Germany – The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany. The official title in German is Bundeskanzler, sometimes shortened to Kanzler. The term, dating from the early Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin term cancellarius. In German politics, the Chancellor is equivalent to that of a prime minister in many other countries. German has two equivalent translations of Ministerpräsident. While Premierminister usually refers to heads of governments of foreign countries, Ministerpräsident may also refer to the heads of government of most German states. The current Chancellor is Angela Merkel, serving her third term in office. She is the female chancellor, thus being known as Bundeskanzlerin. The role of the Chancellor has varied greatly throughout Germany's modern history. Today, the Chancellor is the country's effective leader. The title was, at times, used in several states of German-speaking Europe. The modern office of Chancellor was established with the North German Confederation, of which Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor in 1867. After the Unification of Germany in 1871, the office became known as Reichskanzler although it continued to be referred in English. With Germany's constitution of 1949, the title Bundeskanzler was revived in German. During the various eras, the role of the Chancellor has varied.Chancellor of Germany – Incumbent Angela Merkel since 22 November 2005
91. Koran – The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is widely regarded in the Arabic language. The Quran is divided into chapters, which are then divided into verses. According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad were responsible for writing down the revelations. Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was memorized parts of it. There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures. It summarizes dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. It often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. The Quran is used along with the hadith to interpret law. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Some Muslims read Quranic ayah with elocution, often called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers.Koran – Manuscript of the Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
92. Murder – Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but recklessness. In most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term sentence, possibly a life sentence where permitted. In common law jurisdictions, a person convicted of murder will receive a mandatory life sentence. In jurisdictions where punishment exists, the death penalty may be imposed for such an act; however, this practice is now less common. The English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun. The elements of common murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all function as marking the end of life. At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus took its first breath.Murder – Murder in the House, Jakub Schikaneder.
93. Terror – In humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of cognition and learning. Thus fear is judged appropriate and irrational or inappropriate. An irrational fear is called a phobia. Psychologists such as John B. This hypothesized set includes such emotions as anger, angst, anxiety, fright, horror, joy, panic, sadness. The response serves survival by generating appropriate behavioral responses, so it has been preserved throughout evolution. Physiological changes in the body are associated with fear, summarized as the fight-or-flight response. This primitive mechanism may help an organism survive by either fighting the danger. With the series of physiological changes, the consciousness realizes an emotion of fear. People develop specific fears as a result of learning. This has been studied in psychology as fear conditioning, beginning with John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment in 1920, inspired after observing a child with an irrational fear of dogs. In this study, an 11-month-old boy was conditioned to fear a white rat in the laboratory. The fear became generalized to include other furry objects, such as a rabbit, dog, even a ball of cotton. Fear can be learned by watching a frightening traumatic accident.Terror – A scared child shows fear in an uncertain environment.
94. Geert Wilders – Geert Wilders is a Dutch politician, the founder and leader of the Party for Freedom. Wilders is the parliamentary group leader of his party in the Dutch House of Representatives. Raised a Roman Catholic, Wilders left the church at his coming of age. His travels to Israel as a young adult, well as to Arab countries, helped form his political views. He was elected to the Utrecht city council in 1996, later to the House of Representatives. Wilders has campaigned to stop what he views as the "Islamisation of the Netherlands". He has compared the Quran to Mein Kampf and has campaigned to have the book banned in the Netherlands. He advocates ending immigration from Muslim countries, supports banning the construction of new mosques. His controversial 2008 film about his views on Islam, Fitna, received international attention. He has been described in the media as populist and labeled far-right, although this is disputed by other observers. Wilders was born in the city of Venlo, in the southeast Netherlands. He is the youngest of four children, was raised Catholic. He was born to a Dutch father and a mother born in colonial Indonesia, whose ancestors were Dutch Indonesian. Wilders received his secondary education at the Mavo and Havo middle school and high school in Venlo. Wilders' goal after he graduated from secondary school was to see the world.Geert Wilders – Wilders delivering a speech in 2010
95. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament. The name Holland is also incorrectly used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" literally influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 % of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below level are man-made. Since the 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 % of the country's current land mass. With a density of 408 people per km2 -- 505 if water is excluded -- the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, Taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. England at 420 people per km2 is also more densely populated when the total area of the Netherlands including water is used. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. This is partly due to the fertility of the mild climate. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union.Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
96. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014