1. Politics – Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community as well as the interrelationship between communities. It is very often said that politics is about power, a political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to antiquity, with seminal works such as Platos Republic, Aristotles Politics. Formal Politics refers to the operation of a system of government and publicly defined institutions. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics, many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal Politics is Politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, informal Politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting ones daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that politics is everywhere. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotles book Politics also derives, the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as Polettiques, it became politics in Modern English. The history of politics is reflected in the origin, development, the origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China, of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the French Revolution put an end to the divine right of kings. Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of Hereditary monarchy, the king often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, long before the council became a bulwark of democracy, it rendered invaluable aid to the institution of kingship by, Preserving the institution of kingship through heredity. Preserving the traditions of the social order, being able to withstand criticism as an impersonal authority. Being able to manage a greater deal of knowledge and action than an individual such as the king. The greatest of the subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and ScotlandPolitics – Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart – Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.
2. Decision-making – This article deals with decision-making as analyzed in psychology. In psychology, decision-making is regarded as the process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, it may or may not prompt action, decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision-maker. Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory and it is therefore a process which can be more or less rational or irrational and can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge. Cognitive, the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment, normative, the analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision-making, or communicative rationality, and the invariant choice it leads to. A major part of decision-making involves the analysis of a set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria. Then the task might be to rank these alternatives in terms of how attractive they are to the decision-maker when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Another task might be to find the best alternative or to determine the relative priority of each alternative when all the criteria are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of multiple-criteria decision analysis and this leads to the formulation of a decision-making paradox. Logical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in an area to make informed decisions. For example, medical decision-making often involves a diagnosis and the selection of appropriate treatment and they may follow a recognition primed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing alternatives. The decision-makers environment can play a part in the decision-making process, for example, environmental complexity is a factor that influences cognitive function. A complex environment is an environment with a number of different possible states which come. Studies done at the University of Colorado have shown that more complex environments correlate with cognitive function. One experiment measured complexity in a room by the number of objects and appliances present. Cognitive function was greatly affected by the measure of environmental complexity making it easier to think about the situation. Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving and it is important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision-making. Traditionally, it is argued that problem analysis must be done first, information overload is a gap between the volume of information and the tools we have to assimilate itDecision-making – Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia.
3. Political power – In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behavior of people. The term authority is used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings, in business, power is often expressed as being upward or downward. With downward power, a companys superior influences subordinates, when a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force, at one extreme, it closely resembles what an English-speaking person might term influence, although some authors distinguish influence as a means by which power is used. One such example is power, as compared to hard power. The philosopher Michel Foucault saw power as an expression of a complex strategic situation in a given social setting that requires both constraint and enablement. Social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, in a now-classic study, a must draw on the base or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. Drawing on the power base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in As own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, further bases have since been adduced – in particular by Gareth Morgan in his 1986 book, Images of Organization. Also called positional power, it is the power of an individual because of the relative position, legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by various attributes of such as a uniform. Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and it is based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower. Nationalism and patriotism count towards a sort of referent power. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country and this is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisers have long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, the charismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement, although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena. Abuse is possible when someone that is likable, yet lacks integrity and honesty, rises to power, referent power is unstable alone, and is not enough for a leader who wants longevity and respectPolitical power – Sociology
4. Elections – An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, however, the gana members had the final say in his elections. The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs also used election to choose their caliph, Uthman and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, males, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage. Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not requiredElections – A ballot box
5. Legislature – A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is also shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members. Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a seat, as, for, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress, diet and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral. In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7Legislature – The Congress of the Republic of Peru, the country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in 2010.
6. Mexican Texas – Tejas, in English history books usually referred to as Mexican Texas, was a province of Mexico between 1821 and 1836. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 in its war of independence, initially, Mexican Texas operated very similarly to Spanish Texas. However, the 1824 Constitution of Mexico set up a federal structure, the settler population was overwhelmingly outnumbered by the indigenous tribes. To increase settler numbers, Mexico enacted the General Colonization Law in 1824, the first empresarial grant had been made under Spanish control to Stephen F. Austin, whose settlers, known as the Old Three Hundred, settled along the Brazos River in 1822. The grant was ratified by the Mexican government. Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority from the United States of America, while others came from Mexico, after concerns over attitudes of US citizens in Tejas, the Law of April 6,1830 outlawed further immigration of US citizens to Texas. Several new presidios were established in the region to monitor immigration, angry colonists held a convention in 1832 to demand that US citizens be allowed to immigrate. A convention the following year proposed that Texas become a separate Mexican state, the first violent incident occurred on June 26,1832, at the battle of Velasco. On March 2,1836, Texians declared their independence from Mexico, the Texas Revolution ended on April 21,1836, when Santa Anna was taken prisoner following the Battle of San Jacinto. Although Texas then governed itself as the Republic of Texas, Mexico refused to recognize its independence, in 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain after the brutal and destructive Mexican War for Independence. Its territory included much of the former New Spain, including Spanish Texas, the victorious rebels issued a provisional constitution, the Plan de Iguala. This plan reaffirmed many of the ideals of the Spanish Constitution of 1812, initially, there was disagreement over whether Mexico should be a federal republic or a constitutional monarchy. The first monarch, Agustin I, abdicated in March 1823, in July, a new national provisional government named Luciano Garcia as the political chief of Texas. On November 27,1823, the people of Mexico elected congressional representatives, Texas was represented in congress by Erasmo Seguin. A new Mexican constitution was adopted on October 4,1824, making the country a republic with nineteen states. The constitution was modelled on the constitution of the United States of America, but the Mexican constitution made Roman Catholicism the official, because it was sparsely populated, Texas was combined with Coahuila to create the state of Coahuila y Tejas. The Congress did allow Texas the option of forming its own state as soon as it feels capable of doing so, the capital of Texas moved from San Antonio to Monclova and then to Saltillo. Along with the states of Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, Coahuila y Tejas was under a military organizationMexican Texas – Mexico and its interior provinces in 1822, including the province of Texas
7. Texas Revolution – The Texas Revolution began when colonists in the Mexican province of Texas rebelled against the increasingly centralized Mexican government. After a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas, hostilities erupted in October 1835. Texians disagreed on whether the goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the wars motives, Texians, the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texas army, in March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexicos honor, President Antonio López de Santa Anna vowed to personally retake Texas and his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians completely unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered. Santa Anna led a force to San Antonio de Béxar. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groces Landing on the Brazos River, becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houstons army staged an assault on Santa Anna. The Mexican troops were routed, and vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage, in exchange for his life, Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s. The annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, after a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, on the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States also claimed the land west of the Sabine River, following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. Texas was very sparsely populated, with fewer than 3,500 residents, and only about 200 soldiers, in the hopes that an influx of settlers could control the Indian raids, the bankrupt Mexican government liberalized immigration policies for the region. Finally able to settle legally in Texas, Anglos from the United States soon vastly outnumbered the Tejanos, most of the immigrants came from the southern United StatesTexas Revolution – The campaigns of the Texas Revolution
8. San Felipe, Texas – San Felipe, also known as San Felipe de Austin, is a town in Austin County, Texas, United States. The town was the social, economic, and political center of the early Stephen F. Austin colony, the population was 747 at the 2010 census. San Felipe is located in eastern Austin County at 29°47′40″N 96°6′17″W, the town limits extend south below Interstate 10, with access at Exit 723. Sealy is 3 miles to the west, and downtown Houston is 46 miles to the east, Stephen F. Austin State Park is located in the northern part of the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 8.7 square miles. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, San Felipe has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. San Felipe is served by the Sealy Independent School District, in 1823 John McFarland operated a ferry on the Brazos River near this location. In the fall of same year, the site was chosen by Stephen F. Austin with the help of Baron de Bastrop to be the site in Texas for colonization. Founded in 1824 as San Felipe de Austin, the served as the capital of Stephen F. Austins first colony. It was first governed by James Cummins who was appointed the first alcalde, in 1828, the population numbered about 200. The town had three stores, two taverns, a hotel, a blacksmith shop, and forty to fifty log cabins. By 1835, its population had increased to around 600 and it was home to the first post office and one of the earliest newspapers and land offices in Texas. San Felipe was second only to San Antonio as the center of Texas. The Texas conventions of 1832,1833 and the Consultation of November 3,1835, were held here, San Felipe would act as the capital for the provisional government of Texas until the Convention of 1836. The town was burned in 1836 to prevent the Mexican army from capturing it, and rebuilt a few years later, the oldest post office in Texas is located here. The population was 747 at the 2010 census, as of the census of 2000, there were 868 people,312 households, and 234 families residing in the town. The population density was 103.7 people per square mile, there were 347 housing units at an average density of 41. 5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 60. 83% White,34. 56% African American,0. 35% Native American,3. 00% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 9. 45% of the populationSan Felipe, Texas – Location of San Felipe, Texas
9. Tejano – The Tejano are residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Texas and northern Mexico. They may be variously of Criollo Spanish or Mexican American heritage, historically, the Spanish term Tejano has been used to identify various groups of people. During the Spanish colonial era, the term was applied to Spanish settlers of the region now known as the state of Texas. Since the early 20th century, Tejano has been broadly used to identify a Texan Mexican American. It is also a used to identify natives, as opposed to newcomers. Latino people of Texas identify as Tejano if their families were living there before the area was controlled by Anglo Americans, a dilemma arose a few years ago debating if West Texas residents, were considered to be Tejanos. A board committee composed of Odessa and Midland members came to conclusion that people from West Texas are not considered Tejanos as they are categorized as Mexican American people, as early as 1519, Alonso Alvarez de Pineda claimed the area which is now Texas for Spain. The Spanish monarchy paid little attention to the province until 1685, in that year, the Crown learned of a French colony in the region and worried that it might threaten Spanish colonial mines and shipping routes. King Carlos II sent ten expeditions to find the French colony, between 1690 and 1693 expeditions were made to the Texas region, and they acquired better knowledge of it for the provincial government and settlers who came later. These populations shared certain characteristics, yet they were independent of one another, the main unifying factor was their shared responsibility for defending the northern frontier of New Spain. Some of the first settlers were Isleños from the Canary Islands and their families were among the first to reside at the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar in 1731. Soon after, they established the first civil government at La Villa de San Fernando, ranching was a major activity in the Bexar-Goliad area, which consisted of a belt of ranches that extended along the San Antonio River between Bexar and Goliad. The Nacogdoches settlement was located north and east. Tejanos from Nacogdoches traded with the French and Anglo residents of Louisiana, the third settlement was located north of the Rio Grande, toward the Nueces River. The ranchers there were citizens of Spanish origin from Tamaulipas and northern Mexico, in 1840 the northern Mexican states of Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas seceded from Mexico to establish la República del Río Grande with its capital in what is now Laredo, Texas. They did not maintain this status and became part of Mexico again, by 1821 at the end of the Mexican War of Independence, about 4,000 Tejano lived in Mexican Texas alongside a lesser number of foreign settlers. In addition, several thousand Mexicans lived in the areas of Paso del Norte and Nuevo Santander, incorporating Laredo, during the 1820s, many settlers from the United States and other nations moved to Mexican Texas, settling mostly in the eastern area. The passage of a colonization law encouraged immigration, granting them citizenship if they declared loyalty to MexicoTejano – Juan Seguín
10. Stephen F. Austin – Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario born in Virginia and raised in southeastern Missouri. Known as the Father of Texas, and the founder of Texas, he led the second, in addition, he worked with the Mexican government to support emigration from the United States. He was also granted Mexican nationality when settling Texas, Stephen F. Austin was born in the mining region of southwestern Virginia in what is known as Austinville today, some 256 miles southwest of Richmond, Virginia. He was the child of Moses Austin and Mary Brown Austin. On June 8,1798, when Stephen was four years old, his family moved west to the region of present-day Potosi. His father Moses Austin received a sitio from the Spanish government for the site of Mine à Breton. His great-great-grandfather Anthony Austin in Bishopstoke, Hampshire, England, he and his wife Esther were original settlers of Suffield, after graduating, Austin began studying to be a lawyer, at age 21, he served in the legislature of the Missouri Territory. As a member of the legislature, he was influential in obtaining a charter for the struggling Bank of St. Louis. Left penniless after the Panic of 1819, Austin decided to move south to the new Arkansas Territory and he acquired property on the south bank of the Arkansas River, in the area that would later become Little Rock. After purchasing the property, he learned the area was being considered as the location for the new territorial capital and he made his home in Hempstead County, Arkansas. Two weeks before the first Arkansas territorial elections in 1820, Austin declared his candidacy for Congress and his late entrance meant his name did not appear on the ballot in two of the five counties, but he still placed second in the field of six candidates. He was later appointed as a judge for the First Circuit Court, over the next few months, Little Rock did become the territorial capital, but Austins claim to land in the area was contested, and the courts ruled against him. The Territorial Assembly reorganized the government and abolished Austins judgeship, Austin left the territory, moving to Louisiana. He reached New Orleans in November 1820, where he met and stayed with New Orleans lawyer and former Kentucky congressman Joseph H. Hawkins and made arrangement to study law. During Austins time in Arkansas, his father traveled to Spanish Texas, Moses Austin caught pneumonia soon after returning to Missouri. He left his empresario grant to his son Stephen, Austin boarded the steamer Beaver and departed to New Orleans to meet Spanish officials led by Erasmo Seguín. He was at Natchitoches, Louisiana, on June 31,1821 and this news has effected me very much, he was one of the most feeling and affectionate Fathers that ever lived. His faults I now say, and always have, were not of the heart, at the age of 24, Austin led his party to travel 300 miles in four weeks to San Antonio with the intent of reauthorizing his fathers grant, arriving on August 12Stephen F. Austin – Stephen F. Austin (by an unidentified artist)
11. Militia – For instance, the members of some U. S. Army National Guard units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to maintain the same standards as their full-time counterparts. Militias thus can be military or paramilitary, depending on the instance, some of the contexts in which the term militia is used include, Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory, property, and laws. The entire able-bodied population of a community, town, county, or state, a subset of these who may be legally penalized for failing to respond to a call-up. A subset of these who actually respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation, a private, non-government force, not necessarily directly supported or sanctioned by its government. An irregular armed force enabling its leader to exercise military, economic, an official reserve army, composed of citizen soldiers. Called by various names in different countries, such as the Army Reserve, National Guard, the national police forces in several former communist states such as the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, but also in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia. The term was inherited in Russia and other former CIS countries, in France the equivalent term Milice has become tainted due to its use by notorious collaborators with Nazi Germany. A select militia is composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population, as regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers, Santiago de Liniers drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the peoples, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated, the militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the criollos could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the May Revolution, a decree by Mariano Moreno derogated the system of promotions involving criollos, allowing instead their promotion on military merit. The Argentine Civil War was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts and these irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, and assembled as leagues depending on political pacts. This system had declined by the 1870s, mainly due to the establishment of the modern Argentine Army, provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, Sarmiento, Avellaneda and Roca. Armenian militia also played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993, in the Colony of New South Wales Governor Lachlan Macquarie proposed a colonial militia but the idea was rejected. Governor Ralph Darling felt a mounted force was more efficient than a militia. A military volunteer movement attracted wide interest during the Crimean War, following Federation, the various military reserve forces of the Commonwealth of Australia became the Citizen Military Force. In the beginning, members didnt have uniforms and often paraded in business attire and they were given instruction on guerrilla warfare, and later the private organization was taken over by the Australian Government and became part of the Australian Military Forces. After World War I, multiple militias formed as soldiers returned home to their villages, only to many of them occupied by SloveneMilitia – The Lexington Minuteman, a statue commemorating Captain John Parker, a commander of Massachusetts militia forces during the American Revolutionary War.
12. Sliding puzzle – A sliding puzzle, sliding block puzzle, or sliding tile puzzle is a combination puzzle that challenges a player to slide pieces along certain routes to establish a certain end-configuration. The pieces to be moved may consist of shapes, or they may be imprinted with colors, patterns, sections of a larger picture, numbers. Sliding puzzles are essentially two-dimensional in nature, even if the sliding is facilitated by mechanically interlinked pieces or three-dimensional tokens, as this example shows, some sliding puzzles are mechanical puzzles. However, the fixtures are usually not essential to these puzzles. Unlike other tour puzzles, a block puzzle prohibits lifting any piece off the board. This property separates sliding puzzles from rearrangement puzzles, hence, finding moves and the paths opened up by each move within the two-dimensional confines of the board are important parts of solving sliding block puzzles. Chapmans invention initiated a puzzle craze in the early 1880s, from the 1950s through the 1980s sliding puzzles employing letters to form words were very popular. These sorts of puzzles have several possible solutions, as may be seen from such as Ro-Let, Scribe-o. The fifteen puzzle has been computerized and examples are available to play for free on-line from many Web pages and it is a descendant of the jigsaw puzzle in that its point is to form a picture on-screen. The last square of the puzzle is displayed automatically once the other pieces have been lined up. Winning Ways The 15 Puzzle US Patent 4872682 - sliding puzzle wrapped on Rubiks CubeSliding puzzle – A 7x7 sliding block puzzle. The task for this puzzle is to arrange it so that no tile design is repeated in any row column or diagonal. There is more than one solution to this puzzle.
13. 1880 Republican National Convention – Of the 14 men in contention for the Republican nomination, the three strongest candidates leading up to the convention were Ulysses S. Grant, James G. Blaine, and John Sherman. Grant had served two terms as President from 1869 to 1877, and was seeking a third term in office. He was backed by the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party, Blaine was a senator and former representative from Maine who was backed by the Half-Breed faction of the Republican Party. Sherman, the brother of Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman, was serving as Secretary of the Treasury under President Rutherford B, a former senator from Ohio, he was backed by delegates who did not support the Stalwarts or Half-Breeds. On the first ballot, Sherman received 93 votes, while Grant and Blaine had 304 and 285, with 379 votes required to win the nomination, none of the candidates was close to victory, and the balloting continued. After the thirty-fifth ballot, Blaine and Sherman switched their support to a new dark horse candidate, on the next ballot, Garfield won the nomination by receiving 399 votes,93 higher than Grants total. Garfields Ohio delegation chose Chester A. Arthur, a Stalwart, Arthur won the nomination by capturing 468 votes, and the longest-ever Republican National Convention was subsequently adjourned. The Garfield–Arthur Republican ticket later defeated Democrats Winfield Scott Hancock and William Hayden English in the close 1880 presidential election, as President of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes had caused heated tensions within the Republican Party. Hayes had moved away from party patronage by offering government jobs to Southern Democrats instead of Northern Republicans and his actions drew heavy criticism from those inside his party, such as Roscoe Conkling of New York and James G. Blaine of Maine. Hayes had known since the dispute over the 1876 election that he was unlikely to win in 1880, without an incumbent president in the race, the rival factions within the Republican Party, the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds, eagerly anticipated the 1880 presidential election. At the close of Grants two terms as president in 1877, the Republican-controlled Congress suggested that Grant not return to the White House for a third term. Grant did not seem to mind and even told his wife Julia, I do not think I could stand it. After Grant left the White House, he and his wife decided to use their US$85,000 of savings to travel around the world, Young saw that Grants popularity was soaring, as he was treated with splendid receptions at his arrival in Tokyo and Peking, China. With the backing of the Stalwarts and calls for a man of iron to replace the man of straw in the White House, with a Grant victory, Conkling and other Stalwarts would have great influence in the White House. Grant knew he could count on the Stalwart leaders to solidify their respective states in order to guarantee a Grant victory, Conkling was so confident in Grants nomination that he said, Nothing but an act of God could prevent Grants nomination. An aide to the ex-president, Adam Badeau, commented that Grant had become anxious to receive the nomination. However, close friends of Grant saw that his support was slipping. John Russell Young took Grant aside and told him that he would lose the election, Young argued that Grant was being heavily attacked by opponents, who were against the concept of a presidential third term1880 Republican National Convention – Nominees Garfield and Arthur
14. Ulysses S. Grant – Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two. After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he also used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876. Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third termUlysses S. Grant – Grant during the mid-1870s
15. James A. Garfield – James Abram Garfield was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4,1881, until his assassination later that year. He is the only sitting House member to be elected president, Garfield was raised in humble circumstances on an Ohio farm by his widowed mother. He worked at various jobs, including on a canal boat, beginning at age 17, he attended several Ohio schools, then studied at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, from which he graduated in 1856. A year later, Garfield entered politics as a Republican and he married Lucretia Rudolph in 1858, and served as a member of the Ohio State Senate. Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and fought in the battles of Middle Creek, Shiloh. He was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohios 19th District, throughout Garfields extended congressional service after the Civil War, he firmly supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield initially agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but later favored an approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen. At the 1880 Republican National Convention, Senator-elect Garfield attended as campaign manager for Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, and gave the presidential nomination speech for him. When neither Sherman nor his rivals – Ulysses S. Grant and James G. Blaine – could get votes to secure the nomination. In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a front porch campaign. Garfield made notable diplomatic and judiciary appointments, including a U. S. Supreme Court justice, Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, and civil rights for African Americans. He also proposed substantial civil service reform, eventually passed by Congress in 1883 and signed into law by his successor, Chester A. Arthur, Presidents due to the short length of his presidency. James Garfield was born the youngest of five children on November 19,1831, in a log cabin in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Orange Township was located in the Western Reserve, and like many who settled there, Garfields ancestors were from New England. James father Abram had been born in Worcester, New York and he instead wed her sister Eliza, who had been born in New Hampshire. James was named for a brother, dead in infancy. In early 1833, Abram and Eliza Garfield joined the Church of Christ, Abram Garfield died later that year, his son was raised in poverty in a household led by the strong-willed Eliza. James was her child, and the two remained close for the rest of her life. Eliza Garfield remarried in 1842, but soon left her husband, Warren BeldenJames A. Garfield – Brady - Handy photograph of Garfield, taken between 1870 and 1880
16. European Union – The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendumEuropean Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
17. Opt-outs in the European Union – In general, the law of the European Union is valid in all of the twenty-eight European Union member states. However, occasionally member states negotiate certain opt-outs from legislation or treaties of the European Union, currently, four states have such opt-outs, Denmark and United Kingdom, Ireland and Poland. It is further distinct from Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification and permanent acquis suspensions, as of 2015, four states have formal opt-outs from a total of five policy areas. The Schengen Agreement abolished border controls between member states, Ireland only joined the UK in adopting this opt-out to keep their border with Northern Ireland open via the Common Travel Area. The opt-out has been criticised in the United Kingdom for hampering the United Kingdoms capabilities in stopping transnational crime through the inability to access the Schengen Information System. However, the protocol stipulates that if Denmark chooses not to implement future developments of the Schengen acquis, the EU and its member states will consider appropriate measures to be taken. In the negotiations for the Lisbon Treaty, Denmark obtained an option to convert its Area of freedom, security and justice opt-out, into a flexible opt-in modelled on the Irish and British opt-outs. The Protocol stipulates that if Denmark exercises this option, then it will be bound by the Schengen acquis under EU law rather than on an intergovernmental basis, in a referendum on 3 December 2015,53. 1% rejected exercising this option. All member states, other than Denmark and the United Kingdom, have adopted the euro or are legally bound to do so. During the negotiations of the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 the UK secured an opt-out, while a protocol gave Denmark the right to decide if, the purpose of the agreement was to assist in its approval in a second referendum, which it did. In the UK, the Labour government of Tony Blair argued that the UK should join the euro, contingent on approval in a referendum, however, the assessment of those tests in June 2003 concluded that not all were met. The policy of the 2010s coalition government, elected in 2010, was against introducing the euro prior to the 2015 general election. In 2000 the Danish electorate voted against joining the euro in a referendum by a margin of 53. 2% to 46. 8% on a turnout of 87. 6%. The Edinburgh Agreement of 1992 included a guarantee to Denmark that they would not be obliged to join the Western European Union, additionally, the agreement stipulated that Denmark would not take part in discussions or be bound by decisions of the EU with defence implications. The Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997 included a protocol which formalised this opt-out from the EUs Common Security, as a consequence, Denmark is excluded from foreign policy discussions with defence implications and does not participate in foreign missions with a defence component. After the Civic Platform won the 2007 parliamentary election in Poland, it announced that it would not opt-out from the Charter, shortly after the signature of the treaty, the Polish Sejm passed a resolution which expressed its desire to be able to withdraw from the Protocol. Tusk later clarified that he may sign up to the Charter after successful ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon has taken place. However, after the treaty entered into force a spokesperson for the Polish President argued that the Charter already applied in Poland and he also stated that the government was not actively attempting to withdraw from the protocolOpt-outs in the European Union – State with an opt-out
18. Cornelius, Oregon – Cornelius is a city in Washington County, Oregon, United States. Located in the Portland metropolitan area, the population was 11,869 at the 2010 census. The city lies along Tualatin Valley Highway between Forest Grove to the west and Hillsboro to the east, Cornelius was incorporated in 1893 and is named for founder Thomas R. Cornelius. In 1845, Benjamin Cornelius immigrated to Oregon with his family, the Cornelius family settled on the Tualatin Plains, near what is now North Plains. The same year, Benjamin Q. Tucker and Solomon Emerick staked land claims, at that time, the area was called Free Orchards, there was no actual community, but the name referred to the orchards on the 107 acres of land. In 1871, Benjamin Corneliuss son Colonel Thomas R. Cornelius learned that Ben Holladay planned to extend the Oregon, the new railroad was approaching Free Orchards in 1871, and Cornelius saw an opportunity to benefit from the new railroad. He left his farm and built a new house, a warehouse, the warehouse and store were located right next to the railroad, and so became natural places for local farmers to trade and store their goods. Cornelius also built a creamery to process milk, and two sawmills to supply lumber for the growing community, in addition, he helped to build the first frame schoolhouse and the Methodist Church. In 1893, Free Orchards was incorporated and renamed Cornelius, to honor the man who spent many years helping build the community. Though Holladays plan to make Free Orchards into the county seat never materialized, Cornelius survives today as a town and, increasingly. The Cornelius Public Library was founded in 1912, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.01 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,869 people,3,339 households, the population density was 5,905.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,499 housing units at a density of 1,740.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64. 0% White,1. 2% African American,1. 3% Native American,2. 2% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,27. 2% from other races, and 4. 0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50. 1% of the population,14. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.51 and the family size was 3.88. The median age in the city was 30.4 years. 32. 9% of residents were under the age of 18,9. 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24,30. 6% were from 25 to 44,20. 5% were from 45 to 64, and 6. 3% were 65 years of age or olderCornelius, Oregon – Virginia Garcia Memorial Health Center
19. Thomas R. Cornelius – Thomas Ramsey Cornelius was a prominent American politician and soldier in the early history of Oregon. Born in Missouri, he moved to the Oregon Country with his family as a man where he fought in the Cayuse War. He settled in Washington County near what later became Cornelius, named in his honor, a Whig and later a Republican, he served in the Oregon Territorial Legislature, and following statehood, he served in the Oregon State Senate. In the Senate he served one term as the president of that chamber and he also built the Cornelius Pass Road that bears his name. He was the father of Benjamin P. Cornelius, who was prominent in state politics. Cornelius was born in Missouri, on November 16,1827, to Elizabeth, in 1845, Thomas and his family traveled over the Oregon Trail to the Oregon Country and set up a farm on the Tualatin Plains, north of what would become the community of Cornelius. After the Whitman Massacre in late 1847, Thomas volunteered for the militia of the Oregon Provisional Government in 1848, the militia prosecuted the Cayuse War in an attempt to punish those responsible for the killings at the Whitman Mission. After gold was discovered in California, Cornelius journeyed there for a brief time, the next year he married Florentine Wilkes, and they had six children together before she died in 1864, including son Benjamin. The family would settle on 640 acres of their Donation Land Claim near Cornelius, in 1855, a second war against the Native Americans started east of the Cascade Mountains against the Yakima tribe. Cornelius volunteered again for the militia, for three months he led a company with the rank of captain before being elected as colonel after James W. Nesmith resigned his commission. Cornelius continued as colonel until the end of the war in 1856, in 1856, Cornelius was elected to upper chamber of the Oregon Territorial Legislature, called the Council. Serving as a Whig, he represented Washington, Columbia, and he won re-election to the Council in 1857 and again in 1858 to the final session of the territorial legislature. In 1859, he continued holding office in the newly formed Oregon State Senate after Oregon entered the Union on February 14,1859 as the 33rd state, in the Oregon Senate, Cornelius continued as a Republican representing Washington County and several other counties through the 1874 legislature. His service was interrupted by the American Civil War during 1862 session and he was chosen as colonel of the troops and they deployed to a military post at Walla Walla, Washington, where he assumed command. He resigned during the summer of 1862 and returned home, during the 1866 legislature Cornelius was selected as President of the Oregon Senate. In 1886, he won the Republican nomination for Governor of Oregon, after his first wife died in 1864, Cornelius remarried in 1866 to Missouri A. Smith. In 1872, he moved to Cornelius, which would be renamed after him, in addition to the store, Cornelius owned a total of 1,500 acres, including covering three farms, a warehouse, and a sawmill. He built the Cornelius Pass Road that linked the Tualatin Valley to the Columbia River, Cornelius died on June 24,1899, at the age of 71Thomas R. Cornelius – Thomas R. Cornelius
20. Oregon Territorial Legislature – Oregon’s Territorial Legislature was a bicameral legislative body created by the United States Congress in 1848 as the legislative branch of the government of the Oregon Territory. Ten annual sessions were held, with most starting in December, during the sessions the capital of the territory was moved from Oregon City to Salem, then briefly to Corvallis, and back to Salem. Legislation included the creation of new counties, the renaming of old counties, membership in the Council remained at nine throughout the history of the body, while the House of Representatives membership increased from 17 to as high as 30 due to increases in population. The Provisional Government of Oregon was the governing body from 1843 until 1849, at the end of the regions joint settlement by Great Britain. The Provisional Governments legislative body was the unicameral Provisional Legislature of Oregon, in 1846 the United States and Great Britain settled the Oregon Question with the Oregon Treaty. The treaty created a boundary between British North America and the United States west of the Rocky Mountains at the 49th parallel, the structural framework for the government came from the Northwest Ordinance, passed in 1787, which created the Northwest Territory. The Territorial Legislature then worked within the framework of the Organic Laws of Oregon. These laws were the de facto constitution of the Provisional Government, the legislature had two chambers, the larger, lower House of Representatives, and the upper chamber Council. The Council consisted of nine members, apportioned among the territorys counties, the House had about twice as many members, also apportioned by counties. As the population increased and counties added, the number of legislators in the House was expanded, though the Oregon Territory was created in August 1848, the territorial government did not arrive and assume power until Joseph Lane arrived on March 2,1849. The first session of the Legislature convened on July 16,1849 in Oregon City, thereafter, regular sessions were held during the winter months of December, January, and February, with special sessions in May 1850 and July 1852. The first session met from July 16 to September 29 in Oregon City at the Methodist Church, during this session two of the original districts were renamed with Tuality County becoming Washington County and Champoeg County becoming Marion County. Also during the 1849 session Vancouver County on the side of the Columbia River was renamed Clarke County with the “e” later dropped. The law was repealed in 1854, but a new version was added in 1857 when Oregon ratified its constitution in preparation for statehood. Asa Lovejoy served as the speaker of the House, and Samuel Parker as the President of the Council, from December 2,1850 to February 8,1851, the second session of the legislature gathered in Oregon City. W. W. Buck served as the President of the Council, the 1850-51 session was not a harmonious one, being divided over the controversial matter of location of the Oregon state capital. This matter, which left Oregon City entirely out of the equation, was acutely partisan, with Whigs favoring the historic capital, during the 1850-51 session the Legislature created three new counties for the Oregon Territory. The first of these, Pacific County, encompassed coastal areas north of the Columbia River and this new county, with Pacific City as the county seat, was created out of the southwest corner of Lewis CountyOregon Territorial Legislature – Seal of the Oregon Territory
21. Oregon State Senate – The Oregon State Senate is the upper house of the statewide legislature for the US state of Oregon. Along with the lower chamber Oregon House of Representatives it makes up the Oregon Legislative Assembly, there are 30 members of the State Senate, representing 30 districts across the state, each with a population of 114,000. The State Senate meets at the Oregon State Capitol in Salem, Oregon State Senators serve four-year terms without term limits. In 2002, the Oregon Supreme Court struck down the decade-old Oregon Ballot Measure 3, the current Senate President is Peter Courtney of Salem. Instead, a position of Senate President is in place. If the chamber is tied, legislators must devise their own methods of resolving the impasse, in 2002, for example, Oregons state senators entered into a power sharing contract whereby Democratic senators nominated the Senate President while Republican senators chaired key committees. Kathryn Clarke was the first woman to serve in Oregons Senate, women became eligible to run for the Oregon state legislature in 1914 and later that year Clarke was appointed to fill a vacant seat in Douglas county by her cousin, governor Oswald West. Following some controversy concerning whether West had the authority to appoint someone to fill the vacancy and she took office five years before the 19th Amendment to the US constitution protected the right of all US women to vote. In 1982, Mae Yih became the first Chinese American elected to a state senate in the United States, during the 2011 legislative session, the House and Senate passed Senate Bill 989, which implemented new legislative districts for the 2012 elections and beyondOregon State Senate
22. Denmark – Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state. The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has an area of 42,924 square kilometres. The country consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea, Denmark, Sweden and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit the Faroe Islands, Iceland, beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy, the government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nations capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs, Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948, in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs, it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE. The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix Dan and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning land, related to German Tenne threshing floor. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald BluetoothDenmark – The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age.
23. Constitution of Denmark – The Constitutional Act of Denmark, or simply the Constitution, forms a part of the supreme law of Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles of governance and establishes the structure, procedures, powers, later sections set out fundamental rights and the duties of citizens, such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion and compulsory military service. The Kingdom is governed on the basis of this Constitutional Act but it is complemented by Royal Law, the Act of Succession and devolution arrangements in Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The government of Denmark, as described in Part One of the Constitutional Act, is a system under a constitutional monarchy. In its present form, the Constitutional Act is from 1953 and its adoption ended an absolute monarchy and introduced democracy. Denmark celebrates the adoption of the Constitution on 5 June—the date in which the Constitution was ratified—every year as Constitution Day, the Danish Parliament cannot make any laws which may be repugnant or contrary to the Constitutional Act. However, Denmark has no court, and establishing such a court would require a constitutional amendment. Changes to the Act must be confirmed by a majority in two parliamentary terms and the approval of the electorate through a national referendum. The Danish Constitution differs from all other Danish laws by virtue of its superseding status, as such, these laws are not permitted to contravene the provisions of the Constitution Act. The main principle of the Constitutional Act was to limit the Kings power and it creates a comparatively weak constitutional monarch who is dependent on Ministers for advice and Parliament to draft and pass legislation. The Constitution of 1849 established a parliament, the Rigsdag, consisting of the Landsting. The most significant change in the Constitution of 1953 was the abolishment of the Landsting, leaving the unicameral Folketing and it also enshrined fundamental civil rights, which remain in the current constitution, such as habeas corpus, private property rights and freedom of speech. The Constitutional Act has been changed very few times, but always with the consent of Danish citizens, the wording in the Act is so general that it can still be applied today, despite major changes in society and political life in the intervening years. However, since Denmark lacks a Constitutional Court, scrutiny of legislation for compatibility with the Constitution is a matter for ordinary courts, significantly this means that the actual testing of compatibility can only be instigated by a citizen or company who is affected by the question. When reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear in mind that the King is meant to be read as the government because of the symbolic status. This is a consequence of sections 12 and 13, by which the King executes his power through his ministers, an implication of these sections is that the monarch cannot act alone in disregard of the ministers, so the Danish monarch does not interfere in politics. The Danish Parliament is the power, enacting the laws of the country. The Cabinet is the power, formally acting out the role of the MonarchConstitution of Denmark – The Danish Constitution of 1849
24. Invasion of Poland – The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident, as the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, Polish forces then withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. While those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, in the end their aid to Poland was very limited. The Soviet Red Armys invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible, on 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock, German and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland. The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, the Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West. On 30 January 1933, the Nazi Party, under its leader Adolf Hitler, as part of this long-term policy, Hitler at first pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve opinion in Germany, culminating in the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Earlier, Hitlers foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, and attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a front against the Soviet Union. The Poles feared that their independence would eventually be threatened altogether, the so-called Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, and inhabited by a Polish majority. The Corridor had become a part of Poland after the Treaty of Versailles, many Germans also wanted the city of Danzig and its environs to be reincorporated into Germany. Danzig was a city with a German majority. It had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into the nominally independent Free City of Danzig, the series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier. Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement and it coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September 1938, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October. This region had a Polish majority and had been disputed between Czechoslovakia and Poland in the aftermath of World War I, the Polish annexation of Slovak territory later served as the justification for the Slovak state to join the German invasion. Poland rejected this proposal, fearing that after accepting these demands, it would become subject to the will of GermanyInvasion of Poland – Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a German–Soviet non-aggression pact.
25. German minority in Poland – The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity. At a 2002 census there were 152,900 people declaring German ethnicity, in 2013, Polands German community was estimated to be around 350,000. The German language is used in areas in Opole Voivodeship. However, there are no localities in either the former Upper Silesia or Poland as a whole where German could be considered a language of everyday communication. In the school year of 2014/15 there were 387 elementary schools in Poland, with over 37,000 students, in which German was taught as a minority language, hence de facto as a subject. There were no minority schools with German as the language of instruction, most members of the German minority are Roman Catholic, while some are Lutheran Protestants. A number of German-language newspapers and magazines are published in Poland. A second region with a notable German minority is Masuria, with 4,311 living in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, corresponding to 2. 9% of all Germans in Poland, and 0. 3% of the local population. Towns with particularly high concentrations of German speakers in Opole Voivodeship include, Strzelce Opolskie, Dobrodzien, Prudnik, Głogówek, German migration into the area that is part of modern Poland began with the medieval Ostsiedlung. The historically Prussian regions of Lower Silesia, East Brandenburg, Pomerania, in other areas of modern-day Poland there were substantial German populations, most notably in the historical regions of Pomerelia, Upper Silesia, and Posen or Greater Poland. Lutheran Germans settled numerous Olęder villages along the Vistula River and its tributaries during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, in the 19th century, Germans were actively involved in developing the clothmaking industry in what is now central Poland. Over 3,000 villages and towns within Russian Poland are recorded as having German residents, many of these Germans remained east of the Curzon line after World War I, including a significant number in Volhynia. In the late 19th century, some Germans moved westward during the Ostflucht, after the creation of the Second Polish Republic, large numbers of ethnic Germans were forced to leave, especially in the Polish Corridor area. According to the 1931 census there were around 740,000 German speakers living in Poland and their minority rights were protected by the Little Treaty of Versailles. The right to appeal to the League of Nations however was renounced in 1934, after Nazi Germanys invasion of the Second Polish Republic in 1939, many members of the German minority joined the ethnic German paramilitary organisation Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz. When the German occupation of Poland began, the Selbstschutz took a part in Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles. Due to their interactions with the Polish majority, they were able to prepare lists of Polish intellectuals. The organisation actively participated and was responsible for the deaths of about 50,000 Poles, before the Nazis defeat, the Soviets annexed a massive portion of the eastern part of Poland as part of an agreement between the two powersGerman minority in Poland – Inspection of Selbstschutz unit in Bydgoszcz. Josef Meier ("Bloody Meier") - leader of Selbstschutz in Bydgoszcz, Werner Kampe - mayor of Bydgoszcz and Ludolf von Alvensleben - leader of Selbstschutz in Pomerania
26. Deutscher Volksverband – DVV was headed by August Utta, and financially supported by the Reich Ministry of Finance. Deutscher Volksverband was most active in the Łódź and Tomaszów area, DVV members denounced the Lodzer Mensch from the DKWB as puppets of the Polish government collaborating with the Jews and committing high treason against the German Reich. In 1935 August Utta was replaced by Ludwig Wolff, a committed Nazi, by the late 1930s, the whole of Poland was covered by ethnic German organizations supported financially by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Third Reich. The Deutscher Volksverband membership grew to over 25,000 participants in 1937, by 1938, all local structures of the DVV were formed. Many members of the DVV became German partisans during the 1939 invasion of Poland according to research and they were treated as an integral part of the German foreign policy towards the Polish state. The DVV community leaders were asked to register people into the Deutsche Volksliste without proof of origin, all that they needed was a declaration, the action was most successful among peasants, as educated Polish Germans did not want to be affiliated with Adolf Hitler. The new Volksdeutsche were trained to guide the Luftwaffe aircraft towards a target with mirrors. In Inowrocław, an ethnic German was spotted fastening big mirrors to a chimney on a roof of his dog pound. In the city of Toruń for example, during the first days of war about a people were arrested and executed for signalling German reconnaissance planes with mirrors. The courses in sabotage were conducted with the promise of receiving property in Poland, volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, Nazi storm brigade in World War II consisting of members of the German minority in PolandDeutscher Volksverband – German People's Union in Poland Deutscher Volksverband in Polen
27. Abwehr – The Abwehr was a German military intelligence organisation which existed from 1920 to 1945. The initial purpose of the Abwehr was defence against foreign espionage—an organisational role which later evolved considerably, to this end, the Abwehr gathered domestic and foreign information, most of it in the form of human intelligence. Each Abwehr station throughout Germany was based on districts and more offices were opened in amenable neutral countries. Its headquarters was located at 76/78 Tirpitzufer, Berlin, adjacent to the offices of the OKW, the Abwehr was created in 1920 as part of the German Ministry of Defence when the German government was allowed to form the Reichswehr, the military organization of the Weimar Republic. The first head of the Abwehr was Major Friedrich Gempp, a deputy to Colonel Walter Nicolai, the head of German intelligence during World War I. At that time it was composed of three officers and seven former officers, plus a clerical staff. When Gempp became a general, he was promoted out of the job as chief, to be followed by Major Günther Schwantes, by the 1920s, the slowly growing Abwehr was organised into three sections, The Reichsmarine intelligence staff merged with the Abwehr in 1928. His successes did not stop the other branches of the services from developing their own intelligence staffs. Army leaders also feared that the flights would endanger the secret plans for an attack on Poland, adolf Hitler ordered the termination of the overflights in 1934 after he signed a nonaggression treaty with Poland since these reconnaissance missions might be discovered and jeopardize the treaty. Patzig was fired in January 1935 as a result, and sent to command the new pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee and his replacement was another Reichsmarine captain, Wilhelm Canaris. Before he took over the Abwehr on 1 January 1935, the soon-to-be Admiral Canaris was warned by Patzig of attempts by Himmler, Canaris, a master of backroom dealings, thought he knew how to deal with Heydrich and Himmler. Even though he tried to maintain a relationship with them. For instance, Canariss Abwehr controlled the Armed Forces Deciphering operation, while the navy maintained its own listening service, further complicating COMINT matters, the Foreign Office also had its own communications security branch, the Pers Z. Matters came to a head in 1937 when Hitler decided to help Joseph Stalin in the purge of the Soviet military. Hitler ordered that the German Army staff should be kept in the dark about Stalins intentions, to conceal the thefts, fires were started at the break-ins, which included Abwehr headquarters. Instead of convincing Franco to assist the Nazi regime, Canaris advised him to out of the fight since he was certain the war was going to end in disaster for Germany. Thus, instead of helping the Nazis elicit allies to their side, experiencing an explosion in personnel of sorts, the Abwehr went from less than 150 employees to nearly one-thousand between 1935 and 1937. Throughout Canariss tenure it was headed by Generalmajor Hans Oster and this liaison with the OKW meant that the Foreign Branch was the appropriate channel to request Abwehr support for a particular missionAbwehr – Secret radio service the OKW (Foreign Affairs/Defence Office)
28. Buddhism – Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars, Theravada and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkhaBuddhism – Standing Buddha statue at the Tokyo National Museum. One of the earliest known representations of the Buddha, 1st–2nd century CE.
29. Maoism – Mao Zedong Thought, or Maoism, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong. Its followers are known as Maoists, the modern Chinese intellectual tradition of the turn of the twentieth century is defined by two central concepts, iconoclasm and nationalism. It was this association of conservatism and Confucianism which lent to the nature of Chinese intellectual thought during the first decades of the twentieth century. Chinese iconoclasm was expressed most clearly and vociferously by Chen Duxiu during the New Culture Movement which occurred between 1915 and 1919, vital to understanding Chinese nationalist sentiments of the time is the Treaty of Versailles, which was signed in 1919. The negative reaction culminated in the May 4th Incident which occurred on day in 1919. The May 4th Incident and Movement which followed, catalyzed the political awakening of a society which had long seemed inert, yet another international event would have a large impact on not only Mao but also the Chinese intelligentsia, the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Although the revolution did elicit interest among Chinese intellectuals, socialist revolution in China was not considered an option until after the May 4th Incident. Afterwards, To become a Marxist was one way for a Chinese intellectual to both the traditions of the Chinese past and Western domination of the Chinese present. During the period following the Long March, Mao and the Communist Party of China were headquartered in Yanan. During this period Mao clearly established himself as a Marxist theoretician, the rudimentary philosophical base of Chinese Communist ideology is laid down in Maos numerous dialectical treatises and was conveyed to newly recruited party members. This period truly established ideological independence from Moscow for Mao and the CPC, the Initial Marxist Period from 1920–1926, Marxist thinking employs imminent socioeconomic explanations, Maos reasons were declarations of his enthusiasm. Mao did not believe education alone would bring about the transition from capitalism to communism because of three main reasons and these reasons do not provide socioeconomic explanations, which usually form the core of Marxist ideology. The Formative Maoist Period from 1927–1935, In this period, Mao avoided all theoretical implications in his literature and his writings in this period failed to elaborate what he meant by the Marxist method of political and class analysis. Prior to this period, Mao was concerned with the dichotomy between knowledge and action, now, he was more concerned with the dichotomy between revolutionary ideology and counter-revolutionary objective conditions. There was more correlation drawn between China and the Soviet model, the Mature Maoist Period from 1935–1940, Intellectually, this was Maos most fruitful time. The shift of orientation was apparent in his pamphlet Strategic Problems of Chinas Revolutionary War and this pamphlet tried to provide a theoretical veneer for his concern with revolutionary practice. Mao started to separate from the Soviet model since it was not automatically applicable to China, Chinas unique set of historical circumstances demanded a correspondingly unique application of Marxist theory, an application that would have to diverge from the Soviet approach. The Civil-War Period from 1940-1949, Unlike the Mature period, this period was intellectually barren, Mao focused more on revolutionary practice and paid less attention to Marxist theoryMaoism – Tiananmen with a portrait of Mao Zedong
30. South Vietnam – South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a state governing the southern half of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition in 1949 as the State of Vietnam, the term South Vietnam became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. The Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president and its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and eighty-seven other nations. It had membership in several committees of the United Nations. After the Second World War, the Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, in 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, after Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country from 1967 until 1975, the Vietnam War began in 1959 with an uprising by Viet Cong forces armed and controlled by Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Fighting reached a climax during the Tet Offensive of 1968, when there were over 1.5 million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. Despite a peace treaty concluded in January 1973, fighting continued until the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong armies overran Saigon on 30 April 1975, the creation of this republic, during the Indochina War, allowed France to evade a promise to recognise Vietnam as independent. This pre-Vietnam government prepared for a unified Vietnamese state, but the countrys full reunification was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by Cochinchinas legal status, Nguyễn Văn Xuân 1949–55 State of Vietnam. Roughly 60% of Vietnamese territory was controlled by the communist Việt Minh. Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel in 1954, once highly lauded by America, he was ousted and assassinated in a U. S. -backed coup. In 1963–65, there were numerous coups and short-lived governments, several of which were headed by Dương Văn Minh or Nguyễn Khánh, Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ was the top leader in 1965–67. Surrendered to Communists when others abandoned their posts, 1975–76 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. Huỳnh Tấn Phát Before World War II, the third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina. Between Tonkin in the north and Cochinchina in the south was the protectorate of Annam, Cochinchina had been annexed by France in 1862 and even elected a deputy to the French National Assembly. It was more evolved, and French interests were stronger than in parts of Indochina. During World War II, Indochina was administered by Vichy France, japanese troops overthrew the French administration on 9 March 1945, Emperor Bảo Đại proclaimed Vietnam independentSouth Vietnam – About 1 million Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
31. Army of the Republic of Vietnam – It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War. After the fall of Saigon to the invading North Vietnamese Army, the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Unions French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a range of campaigns including but not limited to the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA quickly became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps and it included infantry, artillery, signals, armored cavalry, airborne, airforce, navy and a national military academy. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam, Laos, in 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On October 26,1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who then established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on December 30,1955. The air force was known as the Vietnamese Air Force, early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diệm administration. The United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors, in 1963 Ngô Đình Diệm was killed in a coup détat carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, during these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant. They were also plagued by continuing problems of corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was highly critical of the ARVN, it continued to be entirely US-armed and funded. S, there were also many circumstances in which Vietnamese families had members on both sides of the conflict. Slowly, ARVN began to expand from its role to become the primary ground defense against the NLF. From 1969 to 1971 there were about 22,000 ARVN combat deaths per year, starting in 1968, South Vietnam began calling up every available man for service in the ARVN, reaching a strength of one million soldiers by 1972. In 1970 they performed well in the Cambodian Incursion and were executing three times as many operations as they had during the American war period. However, the ARVN equipment continued to be of lower standards than their American and South Korean allies, however, the officer corps was still the biggest problem. Leaders were too often poorly trained, corrupt, lacking morale, however, forced to carry the burden left by the Americans, the South Vietnamese Army actually started to perform rather well, though with continued American air support. In 1972, General Võ Nguyên Giáp launched the Easter Offensive, the assault combined infantry wave assaults, artillery and the first massive use of armored forces by the PAVN. Although T-54 tanks proved vulnerable to LAW rockets, the ARVN took heavy losses, the PAVN and NLF forces took Quảng Trị Province and some areas along the Laos and Cambodian bordersArmy of the Republic of Vietnam – USCGC Sherman's doctor and a South Vietnamese corpsman at a medical Civil Action Patrol in a small Vietnamese village.
32. Communist – Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism, and the political ideologies grouped around both. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production. Likewise, some communists defend both theory and practice, while others argue that historical practice diverged from communist principles to a greater or lesser degree, according to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece. At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, in the medieval Christian church, for example, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has also traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on ownership of property. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France. Later, following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism emerged as a political doctrine, in the early 19th century, Various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. But unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the emphasis with a rational. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, in its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels, in 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to power of Lenins Bolsheviks. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority, the event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development, Russia, however, was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule, the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenins Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Great Purge of 1937–1938 was Stalins attempt to destroy any possible opposition within the Communist Party and its leading role in the Second World War saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and Communist parties played a role in many independence movementsCommunist – Vladimir Lenin after his return to Petrograd
33. Viet Minh – Việt Minh was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó on May 19,1941. This organization soon lapsed into inactivity, only to be revived by the Indochinese Communist Party, the Việt Minh established itself as the only organized anti-French and anti-Japanese resistance group. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire, when the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China. After World War II, the Việt Minh opposed the re-occupation of Vietnam by France and later opposed South Vietnam, during World War II, Japan occupied French Indochina. As well as fighting the French, the Việt Minh started a campaign against the Japanese. As of the end of 1944, the Việt Minh claimed a membership of 500,000, of which 200,000 were in Tonkin,150,000 in Annam, and 150,000 in Cochinchina. Due to their opposition to the Japanese, the Việt Minh received funding from the United States, the Soviet Union, the Việt Minh also recruited more than 600 of the Japanese soldiers, who fought in the war against France until 1954. After the nationalist organizations proclaimed the independence of Việt Nam, Hồ proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2,1945, however, within days, the Chinese Kuomintang Army arrived in Vietnam to supervise the repatriation of the Japanese Imperial Army. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam therefore existed only in theory and effectively controlled no territory, a few months later, the Chinese, Vietnamese and French came to a three-way understanding. The French gave up rights in China, the Việt Minh agreed to the return of the French in exchange for promises of independence within the French Union. Negotiations between the French and Việt Minh broke down quickly, what followed was nearly ten years of war against France. This was known as the First Indochina War or, to the Vietnamese, the Việt Minh, who were short on modern military knowledge, created a military school in Quảng Ngãi Province in June 1946. More than 400 Vietnamese were trained by Japanese defectors in this school and these soldiers were considered to be students of the Japanese. Later, some of them fought as generals against the United States in the Vietnam War or, to the Vietnamese, French General Jean-Étienne Valluy quickly pushed the Việt Minh out of Hanoi. His French infantry with armored units went through Hanoi, fighting battles against isolated Việt Minh groups. The French encircled the Việt Minh base, Việt Bắc, in 1947, but failed to defeat the Việt Minh forces, the campaign is now widely considered a Việt Minh victory over the well-equipped French force. The Việt Minh continued fighting against the French until 1949, when the border of China, the newly communist Peoples Republic of China gave the Việt Minh both sheltered bases and heavy weapons with which to fight the French. With the additional weapons, the Việt Minh were able to control over many rural areas of the countryViet Minh – The Việt Minh flag.
34. Vietnam People's Army – The Peoples Army of Vietnam, also known as the Vietnamese Peoples Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of Vietnam Peoples Armed Forces and includes, Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Border Defence Force, however, Vietnam does not have a specific separate Ground Force or Army branch. The military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, during the French Indochina War, the PAVN was often referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army and this allowed writers, the US military, and the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong. However, both groups ultimately worked under the command structure. According to Hanois official history, the Viet Cong was a branch of the VPA, in 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1, 000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades, the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, and fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The group was renamed the Vietnam Liberation Army in May 1945, in September, the army was again renamed the Vietnam National Defence Army. At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers, in 1950, it officially became the Peoples Army of Vietnam. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd Capital Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division, later known as the Pioneer Division formed by the 88th Tu Vu Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment, at that time, the 308th Division was also backed by the 11th Battalion that later became the main force of the 312th Division. The first six divisions became known as the original PAVN Steel, in 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. At about the time, Group 579 was created as its maritime counterpart to transport supplies into the South by sea. Most of the infiltrators were members of the 338th Division. Those PAVN formations were seen as extremely brave forces by the US forces and we had to change our plan and make it different from when we fought the Saigon regime, because we now had to fight two adversaries — the United States and South Vietnam. We understood that the U. S. Army was superior to our own logistically, in weapons, so strategically we did not hope to defeat the U. S. Army completely. Our intentions were to fight a time and cause heavy casualties to the United States, so the United States would see that the war was unwinnableVietnam People's Army – Vietnam General Staff in First Indochina War and Vietnam War, from left: Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng, President Ho Chi Minh, General Secretary Trường Chinh and General Võ Nguyên Giáp
35. Ngo Dinh Diem – Ngô Đình Diệm was a South Vietnamese politician. A former mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty, he was named Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by Head of State Bảo Đại in 1954. In October 1955, after winning a rigged referendum, he deposed Bảo Đại and established the first Republic of Vietnam. He was a leader of the Catholic element and was opposed by Buddhists. The assassination led to the end of the U. S. -Diệm alliance, Diệm has been a controversial historical figure in historiography on Vietnam War scholarship. Some historians portrayed him as a tool of the U. S. policymakers, nevertheless, some recent studies have portrayed Diệm from a more Vietnamese-centered perspective as a competent leader with his own vision on nation building and modernisation of South Vietnam. Diệm was born in 1901 in Quảng Bình, a central Vietnam province and his family originated in the Phú Cam district, a Catholic district in Huế city. His clan had been among Vietnams earliest Catholic converts in the 17th century, Diệm was given a saints name at birth, Gioan Baotixita, following the custom of the Catholic Church. The Ngô-Đình family, along with other Vietnamese Catholics, suffered from anti-Catholic persecutions from Emperors Minh Mạng, in 1880, while Diệms father, Ngô Đình Khả, was studying in Malaya, an anti-Catholic riot led by Buddhist monks almost wiped out the entire Ngô-Đình family. Over 100 of the Ngô clan were burned alive in a church including Khảs parents and he also worked for French armed forces commander as an interpreter and took part in campaigns against anti-colonial rebels in the mountains of Tonkin during 1880. Then, he became a high-ranking Mandarin, the first headmaster of the National Academy in Huế, which was found in 1896, and he also rose to become the minister of the rites and chamberlain, and keeper of the eunuchs. In 1907, after the ouster of Thành Thái king, Khả resigned and withdrew from the royal court, after the tragedy of his family, Khả decided to give up being a priest and got married. Khả had nine sons and three daughters by his second wife, Phạm Thị Thân, after his first wife died childless. They were, Ngô Đình Khôi, Ngô Đình Thị Giao, Ngô Đình Thục, Ngô Đình Diệm, Ngô Đình Thị Hiệp, Ngô Đình Thị Hoàng, Ngô Đình Nhu, Ngô Đình Cẩn, Ngô Đình Luyện. As a devout Roman Catholic, Khả took his family to Mass every morning. Mastering both Latin and classical Chinese, Khả made sure that his children were educated in Christian scriptures. At the age of fifteen he followed his brother, Ngô Đình Thục. Diệm even swore himself to celibacy to prove his devotion to his faith before he decided not to pursue clerical career due to finding monastic life too rigorous, according to Moyar, Diệm‘s personality was too independent to discipline himself in the church. He also inherited his fathers antagonism toward the French colonialists who occupied his country and it was there that he had the only romantic relationship of his life, when he fell in love with one of his teachers daughtersNgo Dinh Diem – The body of Diệm in the back of the APC, having been shot dead en route to military headquarters.
36. Vietnamese language – Vietnamese /ˌviɛtnəˈmiːz/ is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the language of the Vietnamese people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia, Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers, Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation. The Vietnamese alphabet in use today is a Latin alphabet with diacritics for tones. As the national language, Vietnamese is spoken throughout Vietnam by ethnic Vietnamese, Vietnamese is also the native language of the Gin minority group in southern Guangxi Province in China. A significant number of speakers also reside in neighboring Cambodia. In the United States, Vietnamese is the sixth most spoken language, with over 1.5 million speakers and it is the third most spoken language in Texas, fourth in Arkansas and Louisiana, and fifth in California. Vietnamese is the seventh most spoken language in Australia, in France, it is the most spoken Asian language and the eighth most spoken immigrant language at home. Vietnamese is the official and national language of Vietnam. It is the first language of the majority of the Vietnamese population, in the Czech Republic, Vietnamese has been recognized as one of 14 minority languages, on the basis of communities that have either traditionally or on a long-term basis resided in the country. This status grants Czech citizens from the Vietnamese community the right to use Vietnamese with public authorities, Vietnamese is increasingly being taught in schools and institutions outside of Vietnam. Since the 1980s, Vietnamese language schools have been established for youth in many Vietnamese-speaking communities around the world, furthermore, there has also been a number of Germans studying Vietnamese due to increased economic investment in Vietnam. Vietnamese is taught in schools in the form of immersion to a varying degree in Cambodia, Laos. Classes teach students subjects in Vietnamese and another language, furthermore, in Thailand, Vietnamese is one of the most popular foreign languages in schools and colleges. Vietnamese was identified more than 150 years ago as part of the Mon–Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family. Later, Muong was found to be closely related to Vietnamese than other Mon–Khmer languages. The term Vietic was proposed by Hayes, who proposed to redefine Viet–Muong as referring to a subbranch of Vietic containing only Vietnamese and MuongVietnamese language – In the bilingual dictionary Nhật dụng thường đàm (1851), Chinese characters (chữ nho) are explained in chữ Nôm.
37. Fall of Saigon – The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city. The South Vietnamese government capitulated shortly afterward, the city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the Democratic Republics late President Hồ Chí Minh. The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history, in addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the citys population. Various names have applied to these events. The Vietnamese government officially calls it Day of liberating the South for national reunification or Liberation Day and it is called the Ngày mất nước, Tháng Tư Đen, Ngày Quốc Nhục, or Ngày Quốc Hận by many Overseas Vietnamese who were refugees from communism. The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, and probably to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a prepared by the CIA and U. S. Army Intelligence. These predictions proved to be grievously in error, even as that memo was being released, General Dũng was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Buôn Ma Thuột. The ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the part of South Vietnam. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Đà Nẵng—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. By April 8, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dũng, cabled him to demand “unremitting vigor in the all the way to the heart of Saigon. ”On April 14, they renamed the campaign the Hồ Chí Minh campaign, after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to any significant increase in military aid from the United States. On April 9, PAVN forces reached Xuân Lộc, the last line of defense before Saigon, the North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles from downtown Saigon. With the ARVN having few defenders, the fate of the city was effectively sealed, the ARVN III Corps commander, General Toan, had organized five centers of resistance to defend the city. These fronts were so connected as to form an arc enveloping the area west, north. South Vietnamese defensive forces around Saigon totaled approximately 60,000 troops, however, as the exodus made it into Saigon, along with them were many ARVN soldiers, which swelled the men under arm in the city to over 250,000Fall of Saigon – Evacuation of CIA station personnel by Air America on the rooftop of 22 Gia Long Street in Saigon on April 29, 1975.
38. 1944 – Below, events of World War II have the WWII prefix. January 2 – WWII, Free French General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny is appointed to command French Army B, Landing at Saidor,13,000 US and Australian troops land on Papua New Guinea in an attempt to cut off a Japanese retreat. January 8 – WWII, Philippine Commonwealth troops enter the province of Ilocos Sur in northern Luzon, january 11 President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a Second Bill of Rights for social and economic security in his State of the Union address. Nazi German administration expanded Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp into larger and standalone Konzentrationslager Plaszow bei Krakau, january 12 – Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle begin a 2-day wartime conference in Marrakech. Fifth Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Mark W. Clark arrive on the River Garigliano, the French Expeditionary Corps under command of General Alphonse Juin moves into the mountains north of Monte Cassino. January 14 – WWII, Soviet troops start the offensive at Leningrad, january 15 WWII, The 27th Polish Home Army Infantry Division is re-created, marking the start of Operation Tempest by the Polish Home Army. 1944 San Juan earthquake, An earthquake hits San Juan, Argentina, january 17 – WWII, British forces in Italy cross the Garigliano river. The Battle of Monte Cassino begins in Italy, the Soviet Union ceases production of the Mosin–Nagant 1891/30 sniper rifle. January 20 – WWII, The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin, the United States 36th Infantry Division, in Italy, attempts to cross the Rapido River. January 22 – WWII, Operation Shingle, The Allies begin the assault on Anzio, the U. S. 45th Infantry Division stand their ground at Anzio against violent assaults for 4 months. January 27 – WWII, The 2-year Siege of Leningrad is lifted, january 29 – WWII, Koniuchy massacre, Soviet and Jewish partisans kill at least 38 villagers in Koniuchy, Poland. Light cruiser HMS Spartan is sunk by a Henschel Hs 293 guided missile from a German aircraft off Anzio, western Italy, january 30 – WWII, The Battle of Cisterna opens as United States Army Rangers attempt to break out of the Anzio beachhead. United States troops invade Majuro, Marshall Islands, january 31 – WWII, Battle of Kwajalein, American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands. February 1 – WWII, Pacific War – United States troops land in the Marshall Islands, february 2 – The first issue of Human Events is published in Washington, D. C. February 3 – WWII, United States troops capture the Marshall Islands, february 7 – WWII, At Anzio, German forces launch a counteroffensive. February 8 – WWII,2,765 drown when USS Snook torpedoes Lima Maru,2,670 drown when HMS Sportsman torpedoes Petrella. February 14 – WWII, An anti-Japanese revolt breaks out on Java, february 15 – WWII – Battle of Monte Cassino, The monastery atop Monte Cassino is destroyed by Allied bombing. February 17 – WWII, Pacific War – The Battle of Eniwetok begins when U. S. forces invade the atoll in the Marshall Islands, february 18 – WWII, HMS Penelope torpedoed by the German U-boat1944 – US Army troops landing at Anzio during Operation Shingle, late January 1944.
39. 20 July plot – On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolfs Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. The name Operation Valkyrie, originally referring to part of the conspiracy, has become associated with the entire event. The apparent purpose of the attempt was to seize political control of Germany and its armed forces from the Nazi Party. The underlying desire of many of the involved high-ranking Wehrmacht officers was apparently to show to the world that not all Germans were like Hitler and the Nazi Party. The details of the peace initiatives remain unknown, but they likely would have included demands to accept wide-reaching territorial annexations by Germany in Europe. The plot was the culmination of the efforts by groups in the German resistance to overthrow the Nazi German government. The failure of the assassination and the military coup détat which was planned to follow led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the Gestapo, of whom 4,980 were executed. Since 1938, conspiratorial groups planning an overthrow of some kind had existed in the German Army, early leaders of these plots included Brigadier-General Hans Oster, General Ludwig Beck and Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben. Oster was the deputy head of the Military Intelligence Office, Beck was a former Chief-of-Staff of the German Army High Command. Von Witzleben was the commander of the German 1st Army. Military conspiratorial groups exchanged ideas with civilian, political, and intellectual groups in the Kreisauer Kreis. Moltke was against killing Hitler, instead, he wanted him placed on trial, moltke said, we are all amateurs and would only bungle it. Moltke also believed killing Hitler would be hypocritical, Hitler and National Socialism had turned wrong-doing into a system, something which the resistance should avoid. This first military resistance group delayed their plans after Hitlers extreme popularity following the rapid success in the battle for France. In 1942, a new group formed, led by Colonel Henning von Tresckow, a member of Field Marshal Fedor von Bocks staff. Tresckow systematically recruited oppositionists to the Groups staff, making it the centre of the army resistance. Little could be done against Hitler as he was heavily guarded, during 1942, Oster and Tresckow nevertheless succeeded in rebuilding an effective resistance network. Linking this asset to Tresckows resistance group in Army Group Centre created a viable coup apparatus, the bomb failed to detonate, and a second attempt a week later with Hitler at an exhibition of captured Soviet weaponry in Berlin also failed20 July plot – The Wolf's Lair conference room soon after the explosion
40. Adolf Hitler – Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator of the German Reich, he initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and was central to the Holocaust, Hitler was born in Austria, then part of Austria-Hungary, and raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I and he joined the German Workers Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power, the failed coup resulted in Hitlers imprisonment, during which he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy, by 1933, the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, which led to Hitlers appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain, Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British, in June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe, failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, on 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two killed themselves to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians, in addition,29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European Theatre of World War II. The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare, Hitlers father Alois Hitler Sr. was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, in 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Aloiss mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedlers brother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler, in 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Aloiss father. Alois then assumed the surname Hitler, also spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, the Hitler surname is probably based on one who lives in a hut. Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Aloiss mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, and that the familys 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenbergers existence, Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire. He was one of six born to Alois Hitler and Klara PölzlAdolf Hitler – Hitler in 1938
41. 1952 – January 8 – West Germany has 8 million refugees inside its borders. January 12 – The University of Tennessee admits its first black student, january 26 – Black Saturday in Egypt, rioters burn Cairos central business district, targeting British and upper-class Egyptian businesses. February 2 – A tropical storm forms just north of Cuba moving northeast, the storm makes landfall in southern Florida the next day. It is the earliest reported landfall from a storm. February 6 George VI dies aged 56 after a long illness and he is succeeded by his daughter The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, who is on a visit to Kenya. She is proclaimed Queen of Canada at Rideau Hall, Ottawa, in the United States, a mechanical heart is used for the first time in a human patient. February 7 – Elizabeth II is proclaimed Queen of the United Kingdom at St Jamess Palace, London, February 14 – February 25 – The Winter Olympics held in Oslo, Norway. February 15 – The funeral of George VI takes place at St Georges Chapel, February 18 – Greece and Turkey join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The SS Pendleton, a T2 Tanker, breaks in half during a noreaster off the east coast near Massachusetts, bernard Webber and a crew of four volunteer to rescue the 32 survivors aboard. This was the one of the most courageous rescues in the history of the US Coast Guard, February 20 Emmett Ashford becomes the first African-American umpire in organized baseball, by being authorized to be a substitute umpire in the Southwestern International League. Winston Churchill scraps UK compulsory national identity cards, the day is later declared International Mother Language Day by UNESCO. February 25 – The Parícutin active volcano in Michoacán, west central Mexico, ceases its discontinuous eruption after spewing forth a gigaton of lava, February 26 United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill announces that the United Kingdom has an atomic bomb. Vincent Massey is sworn in as the first Canada-born Governor General of Canada, March 10 – General Fulgencio Batista re-takes power in Cuba in a coup. March 15–16 –73 inches of rain falls in Cilaos, Réunion, March 20 – The United States Senate ratifies a peace treaty with Japan. March 21 The last two executions in the Netherlands take place, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah is elected Prime Minister of the Gold Coast. Tornadoes ravage the lower Mississippi River Valley, leaving 208 dead, March 22 – Wernher von Braun publishes the first in his series of articles titled Man Will Conquer Space Soon. Including ideas for manned flights to Mars and the Moon, March 27 Konrad Adenauer survives an assassination attempt. Legislative Assembly election held in Coorg, March 29 – U. S. President Harry S. Truman announces that he will not seek reelection1952 – The explosion of the first hydrogen bomb.
42. European Coal and Steel Community – The European Coal and Steel Community was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority. It was formally established in 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, signed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The ECSC was the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism, the ECSC was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950 as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. He declared his aim was to make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible which was to be achieved by regional integration, of which the ECSC was the first step. The Treaty would create a market for coal and steel among its member states which served to neutralise competition between European nations over natural resources, particularly in the Ruhr. These would ultimately form the blueprint for todays European Commission, European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, the 1967 Merger Treaty led to all of ECSCs institutions to merge into that of the European Economic Community, but the ECSC retained its own independent legal personality. In 2002, the Treaty of Paris expired and the ECSC ceased to exist in any form, its activities fully absorbed by the European Community under the framework of Amsterdam and Nice treaties. Despite stiff ultra-nationalist, Gaullist and communist opposition, the French Assembly voted a number of resolutions in favour of his new policy of integrating Germany into a community, the International Authority for the Ruhr changed in consequence. Schumans guiding principles were moral, based on the equality of states, the Schuman Declaration of 9 May 1950 occurred after two Cabinet meetings, when the proposal became French government policy. France was thus the first government to agree to surrender sovereignty in a supranational Community and it laid out a plan for a European Community to pool the coal and steel of its members in a common market. Such an act was intended to help economic growth and cement peace between France and Germany, who were historic enemies, Coal and steel were vital resources needed for a country to wage war, so pooling those resources between two such enemies was seen as more than symbolic. Schuman saw the decision of the French government on his proposal as the first example of a democratic and supranational Community, a new development in world history. The plan was seen by some, like Monnet, who crossed out Reuters mention of supranational in the draft and inserted federation. The Schuman Declaration that created the ECSC had several distinct aims and it would make war between member states impossible. It would transform Europe in a step by step process leading to the unification of Europe democratically and it would create the worlds first supranational institution. It would create the worlds first international anti-cartel agency and it would create a common market across the Community. It would, starting with the coal and steel sector, revitalise the whole European economy by similar community processes and it would improve the world economy and the developing countries, such as those in Africa. Firstly, it was intended to prevent further war between France and Germany and other states by tackling the cause of warEuropean Coal and Steel Community – Danish:
43. 1830 – As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland. January 11 – LaGrange College began operation, becoming the first publicly chartered college in Alabama, february 3 – The London Protocol establishes the full independence and sovereignty of Greece from the Ottoman Empire as the final result of the Greek War of Independence. March 12 – Craig vs. March 26 – The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, March 28 – The Java War ends. April 6 – Joseph Smith and five others organize the Church of Christ, may 13 – Ecuador separates from Gran Colombia. May 28 – The United States Congress passes the Indian Removal Act, june 26 – William IV succeeds his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom. July 5 – France invades Algeria, July 17 – Barthélemy Thimonnier is granted a patent for a sewing machine in France, it chains stitches at 200/minute. July 18 – Uruguay adopts its first constitution, July 20 – Greece grants citizenship to Jews. July 27 – France, The July Revolution begins, august 9 – France, Louis Philippe becomes King of the French. August 13 – France, Duc de Broglie becomes Prime Minister, august 25 – The Belgian Revolution begins. August 31 – Edwin Beard Budding is granted a patent for the invention of the lawn mower, september 15 – The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opens, the worlds first intercity passenger railway operated solely by steam locomotives. September 27 – The Belgian Revolution ends by liberating Brussels from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, october 4 – The Provisional Government in Brussels declares the creation of the independent state of Belgium, in revolt against the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. October – Start of the Regeneration in Switzerland, more liberal constitutions adopted in most cantons, november 2 – France, Jacques Laffitte succeeds the Duc de Broglie as Prime Minister. November 8 – Ferdinand II becomes King of the Two Sicilies, november 22 – The Whig Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey succeeds Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. November 29 – The Polish insurrection begins in Warsaw against Russian rule, december 5 – Hector Berliozs most famous work, Symphonie fantastique, has its world premiere in Paris. December 20 – The independence of Belgium is recognized by the Great Powers,10,000 chests of opium are sold in China. Austins of Derry established in Northern Ireland, until closure in 2016, it was the worlds oldest independent department store. January 7 – Albert Bierstadt, German-American painter January 21 – Liu Kunyi, Chinese general January 23 – Gaston Alexandre Auguste, Marquis de Galliffet, French general January 31 – James G1830 – Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution (July 27).
44. Charles X of France – Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois, an uncle of the uncrowned King Louis XVII, and younger brother to reigning Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him. His rule of almost six years ended in the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication, exiled once again, Charles died in 1836 in Gorizia, then part of the Austrian Empire. He was the last of the French rulers from the branch of the House of Bourbon. Charles Philippe of France was born in 1757, the youngest son of the Dauphin Louis and his wife, Charles was created Count of Artois at birth by his grandfather, the reigning King Louis XV. As the youngest male in the family, Charles seemed unlikely ever to become king and his eldest brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, died unexpectedly in 1761, which moved Charles up one place in the line of succession. He was raised in childhood by Madame de Marsan, the Governess of the Children of France. At the death of his father in 1765, Charless oldest surviving brother, Louis Auguste and their mother Marie Josèphe, who never recovered from the loss of her husband, died in March 1767 from tuberculosis. This left Charles an orphan at the age of nine, along with his siblings Louis Auguste, Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence, Clotilde, Louis XV fell ill on 27 April 1774 and died on 10 May of smallpox at the age of 64. His grandson Louis-Auguste succeeded him as King Louis XVI of France, in November 1773, Charles married Marie Thérèse of Savoy. The marriage, unlike that of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, was consummated almost immediately, in 1775, Marie Thérèse gave birth to a boy, Louis Antoine, who was created Duke of Angoulême by Louis XVI. Three years later, in 1778, Charles second son, Charles Ferdinand, was born, in the same year Queen Marie Antoinette gave birth to her first child, Marie Thérèse, quelling all rumours that she could not bear children. Charles was thought of as the most attractive member of his family and his wife was considered quite ugly by most contemporaries, and he looked for company in numerous extramarital affairs. According to the Count of Hézecques, few beauties were cruel to him, later, he embarked upon a lifelong love affair with the beautiful Louise de Polastron, the sister-in-law of Marie Antoinettes closest companion, the Duchess of Polignac. Charles also struck up a friendship with Marie Antoinette herself. The closeness of the relationship was such that he was accused by Parisian rumour mongers of having seduced her. As part of Marie Antoinettes social set, Charles often appeared opposite her in the theatre of her favourite royal retreat. They were both said to be very talented amateur actors, Marie Antoinette played milkmaids, shepherdesses, and country ladies, whereas Charles played lovers, valets, and farmersCharles X of France – Signature
45. French Revolution of 1830 – Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis Philippe Orléanists. On 16 September 1824, Charles X ascended to the throne of France and he was the younger brother of Louis XVIII, who, upon the defeat of Napoleon I, and by agreement of the Allied powers, had been installed as King of France. Both Louis and Charles ruled by right rather than Revolution. Upon the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, continental Europe, the Congress of Vienna met to redraw the continents political map. Another very influential person at the Congress was Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, although France was considered an enemy state, Talleyrand was allowed to attend the Congress because he claimed that he had only cooperated with Napoleon under duress. Talleyrand proposed that Europe be restored to its borders and governments. France returned to its 1789 borders and the House of Bourbon, the Congress however forced Louis to grant the Charte constitutionnelle française, the French Constitution otherwise known as La Charte. This document was the trigger of the July Revolution. On 16 September 1824, after an illness of several months. Therefore, his brother, Charles, aged 66, inherited the throne of France. On 27 September Charles X as he was now known, made his entry into Paris to popular acclaim. But eight months later, the mood of the capital had sharply worsened in its opinion of the new king, the causes of this dramatic shift in public opinion were many, but the main two were, The imposition of the death penalty for anyone profaning the Eucharist. The provisions for financial indemnities for properties confiscated by the 1789 Revolution and these indemnities to be paid to any one, whether noble or non-noble, who had been declared enemies of the Revolution. Critics of the first accused the king and his new ministry of pandering to the Catholic Church, the second matter, that of financial indemnities, was far more opportunistic than the first. But opponents, many of whom were frustrated Bonapartists, began a campaign that Charles X was only proposing this in order to shame those who had not emigrated. Both measures, they claimed, were nothing more than clever subterfuge meant to bring about the destruction of La Charte and this, too, was about to change. On 12 April, propelled by both genuine conviction and the spirit of independence, the Chamber of Deputies roundly rejected the proposal to change the inheritance laws. The popular newspaper Le Constitutionnel pronounced this refusal a victory over the forces of counter-revolutionaries, the popularity of both the Chamber of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies skyrocketed, and the popularity of the king and his ministry droppedFrench Revolution of 1830 – Charles X in coronation robes
46. 1912 – As of the start of 1912, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Republic of China is proclaimed, January 4 – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Commonwealth by Royal Charter. January 5 – Moscow Art Theatre production of Hamlet opens, January 6 – New Mexico becomes the 47th state of the United States. January 6 – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift, January 14 – Raymond Poincaré forms a coalition government in France, beginning his first term of office as Prime Minister on 21 January. January 17 – British polar explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott and a team of four become the second group to reach the South Pole. January 18 – Prague Party Conference, Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party break away from the rest of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. January 22 – The Overseas Railroad opens and the first train arrives in Key West, Florida at 10,43 AM, with Henry M. Flagler, January 23 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague. February 12 – The Manchu Qing dynasty of China comes to an end after 268 years with the abdication of Emperor Puyi in favour of the Republic of China. February 14 – Arizona becomes the 48th U. S. state, february 29 – Serbia and Bulgaria secretly sign a treaty of alliance for a term of eight years, with each pledging to come to the defense of the other during war. March 1 – Albert Berry is reported to have made the first parachute jump from a flying airplane. March 6 – Italian forces became the first to use airships in war, march 7 – Roald Amundsen in Hobart, Tasmania, announces his success in reaching the South Pole the previous December. March 12 – The Girl Scouts is founded by Juliette Gordon Low in Savannah, march 16 – Lawrence Oates, dying member of Scotts South Pole expedition, leaves the tent saying, I am just going outside and may be some time. March 22 – State of Bihar is formed out of the ertswhile State of Bengal in British India, march 27 – Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo gives 3,000 cherry trees to be planted in Washington, D. C. to symbolize the friendship between the two countries. March 29 – The remaining members of Robert Falcon Scotts South Pole expedition die, march 30 – The French Third Republic establishes the French protectorate in Morocco. April 10 – White Star liner RMS Titanic departs from Southampton with 2225 passengers, april 11 – RMS Titanic makes her last call, at Queenstown in Ireland. April 14–15 – Sinking of the RMS Titanic, RMS Titanic strikes an iceberg in the northern Atlantic Ocean, the wreck will not be discovered until 1985. April 16 – Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly across the English Channel, april 17 –500 striking gold miners in Siberia are killed or wounded by troops in the Lena massacre. April 18 – Cunard Line vessel RMS Carpathia arrives in New York with the 708 RMS Titanic survivors, april 20 – Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts, opens1912 – March 27: Cherry trees for Washington, D.C.
47. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
48. Conservatism – Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since used to describe a wide range of views. There is no set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a range of issues. In contrast to the definition of conservatism, political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism primarily in terms of a general defense of social. In Great Britain, conservative ideas emerged in the Tory movement during the Restoration period, Toryism supported a hierarchical society with a monarch who ruled by divine right. Tories opposed the idea that sovereignty derived from the people, and rejected the authority of parliament, Robert Filmers Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings, published posthumously in 1680 but written before the English Civil War of 1642–1651, became accepted as the statement of their doctrine. However, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 destroyed this principle to some degree by establishing a government in England. Faced with defeat, the Tories reformed their movement, now holding that sovereignty was vested in the three estates of Crown, Lords, and Commons rather than solely in the Crown, Toryism became marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendancy in the 18th century. Conservatives typically see Richard Hooker as the father of conservatism, along with the Marquess of Halifax, David Hume. Halifax promoted pragmatism in government, whilst Hume argued against political rationalism and utopianism, Burke served as the private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham and as official pamphleteer to the Rockingham branch of the Whig party. Together with the Tories, they were the conservatives in the late 18th century United Kingdom, Burkes views were a mixture of liberal and conservative. He supported the American Revolution of 1765–1783 but abhorred the violence of the French Revolution and he insisted on standards of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition, and saw the aristocracy as the nations natural leaders. That meant limits on the powers of the Crown, since he found the institutions of Parliament to be better informed than commissions appointed by the executive and he favored an established church, but allowed for a degree of religious toleration. Burke justified the order on the basis of tradition, tradition represented the wisdom of the species and he valued community. Burke was a leading theorist in his day, finding extreme idealism an endangerment to broader liberties, despite their influence on future conservative thought, none of these early contributors were explicitly involved in Tory politics. Hooker lived in the 16th century, long before the advent of toryism, whilst Hume was an apolitical philosopher, Burke described himself as a Whig. Shortly after Burkes death in 1797, conservatism revived as a political force as the Whigs suffered a series of internal divisionsConservatism – Edmund Burke (1729–1797)
49. Economist – An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. A generally accepted interpretation in academia is that an economist is one who has attained a Ph. D. in economics, teaches economic science, the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as the main change in economics since around 1900. Economists debate the path they believe their profession should take, surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter. Most major universities have a faculty, school or department. However, many prominent economists come from a background in mathematics, business, political science, law, sociology, getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. The prize winners are announced in October every year and they receive their awards on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobels death. In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, in academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having a degree in this subject is often considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, finance, accountancy, commerce, marketing, business administration, lobbying. Politicians often consult economists before enacting economic policy, many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario, small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, research, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D. s every year, incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes. As of January 2013, PayScale. com showed Ph. D. economists salary ranges as follows, all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000, Ph. D. The largest single grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service. This figure compares very favourably with the picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current well-known economists include, Ben Bernanke, Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 2006 to 2014, milton Friedman, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate in EconomicsEconomist – Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan testifies before the U.S. House Committee on Financial Services
50. Statistician – A statistician is someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics. The profession exists in both the private and public sectors and it is common to combine statistical knowledge with expertise in other subjects, and statisticians may work as employees or as statistical consultants. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2014,26,970 jobs were classified as statistician in the United States, of these people, approximately 30 percent worked for governments. Statisticians are included with the professions in various national and international occupational classifications, in the United States most employment in the field requires either a masters degree in statistics or a related field or a PhD. List of statisticians Statistician entry, Occupational Outlook Handbook, U. SStatistician – Statistician Walter Krämer with some of the statistics books he has written
51. Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics – The prize was established in 1968 by a donation from Swedens central bank, the Swedish National Bank, on the banks 300th anniversary. Although it is not one of the prizes that Alfred Nobel established in his will in 1895, laureates are announced with the other Nobel Prize laureates, and receive the award at the same ceremony. Laureates in the Memorial Prize in Economics are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and it was first awarded in 1969 to the Dutch and Norwegian economists Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch, for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes. An endowment in perpetuity from Sveriges Riksbank pays the Nobel Foundations administrative expenses associated with the prize, since 2012, the monetary portion of the Prize in Economics has totalled 8 million Swedish kronor. This is equivalent to the amount given for the original Nobel Prizes, the Prize in Economics is not one of the original Nobel Prizes created by Alfred Nobels will. However, the process, selection criteria, and awards presentation of the Prize in Economic Sciences are performed in a manner similar to that of the Nobel Prizes. Laureates are announced with the Nobel Prize laureates, and receive the award at the same ceremony, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. According to its website, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences administers a researcher exchange with academies in other countries and publishes six scientific journals. Members of the Academy and former laureates are also authorised to nominate candidates, all proposals and their supporting evidence must be received before February 1. The proposals are reviewed by the Prize Committee and specially appointed experts, before the end of September, the committee chooses potential laureates. If there is a tie, the chairman of the committee casts the deciding vote, next, the potential laureates must be approved by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Members of the Ninth Class of the Academy vote in mid-October to determine the next laureate or laureates of the Prize in Economics. The first prize in economics was awarded in 1969 to Ragnar Frisch, in 2009, Elinor Ostrom became the first woman awarded the prize. This makes it available to researchers in such topics as political science, psychology, moreover, the composition of the Economics Prize Committee changed to include two non-economists. This has not been confirmed by the Economics Prize Committee, the members of the 2007 Economics Prize Committee are still dominated by economists, as the secretary and four of the five members are professors of economics. Some critics argue that the prestige of the Prize in Economics derives in part from its association with the Nobel Prizes, among them is the Swedish human rights lawyer Peter Nobel, a great-grandson of Ludvig Nobel. Nobel criticizes the institution of misusing his familys name. He explaiend that Nobel despised people who cared more about profits than societys well-being and this does not matter in the natural sciencesNobel Memorial Prize in Economics – Announcement of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences 2008
52. Milton Friedman – Friedmans challenges to what he later called naive Keynesian theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and he theorized that there existed a natural rate of unemployment, and argued that employment above this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was, in the run, vertical at the natural rate. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as monetarism, and argued that a steady and his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation influenced government policies, especially during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserves response to the financial crisis of 2007–08. Friedman was an advisor to Republican U. S. President Ronald Reagan and his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating U. S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment and his support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, later renamed EdChoice. His books and essays have had influence, including in former communist states. Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31,1912 and his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary. They both worked as dry goods merchants, shortly after Miltons birth, the family relocated to Rahway, New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident, a talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics, during his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago, Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933. He was strongly influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, and it was at Chicago that Friedman met his future wife, economist Rose Director. During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University and he was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, who was then working on Theory and Measurement of Demand. That year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler, foreshadowing his later ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued. During 1935, he work for the National Resources Committee. Ideas from this later became a part of his Theory of the Consumption FunctionMilton Friedman – Friedman in 2004
53. Barack Obama – Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but also spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009. Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama also advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating. He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a yearBarack Obama – Barack Obama
54. United States Senator – The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. S. From 1789 until 1913, Senators were appointed by the legislatures of the states represented, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. The Senate chamber is located in the wing of the Capitol, in Washington. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House, in the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise, there was also a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a Peoples House directly elected by the people, the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally, the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate, the name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the comment about the Senate, In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people. An agrarian law would take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation, landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other. They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority, the senate, therefore, ought to be this body, and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. The Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that states consent, the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two senators, but they are officials of the D. C. city government. The United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. In 1787, Virginia had roughly ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has roughly 70 times the population of Wyoming and this means some citizens are effectively two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the individual state legislaturesUnited States Senator – United States Senate
55. Illinois – Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands also had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has also said to mean tribe of superior men. The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, Illinois, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitationIllinois – Mississippian copper plate found at the Saddle Site in Union County, Illinois
56. President of the United States – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationPresident of the United States – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
57. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014