1. Pop music – Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid 1950s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, dance, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs. Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in 1926, Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online also states that, in the early 1960s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about 1967, the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative. It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptionsPop music – The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term "pop" refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance)
2. Rock and roll – While elements of rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until the 1950s. For the purpose of differentiation, this deals with the first definition. The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Beyond simply a style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teens enjoyed the music and it went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply rock music or rock. The term rock and roll now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage, the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s. In 1934, the song Rock and Roll by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round, in 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term rock-and-roll to describe upbeat recordings such as Rock Me by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the Rock and Roll Inn in South Merchantville, in 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it. The origins of rock and roll have been debated by commentators. The migration of former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called race music, particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, gospel, country, and folk. The 1940s saw the use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics. In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. Rock and roll arrived at a time of technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar, amplifier and microphone. It was the realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were listening to music that led to the development of what was to be defined as rock. Because the development of rock and roll was a process, no single record can be identified as unambiguously the first rock. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock and roll – Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio in the origins of rock and roll
3. Classical music – Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical and secular music. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period, Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo, meter and rhythms for a piece of music. This can leave less room for such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation. The term classical music did not appear until the early 19th century, the earliest reference to classical music recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836. This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, the written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them, J. S. The use of written notation also preserves a record of the works, Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced. That said, the score does not provide complete and exact instructions on how to perform a historical work, even if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, we do not know exactly how fast the piece should be played. Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations, during the Classical era, the composer-performer Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles. During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto, during the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century and they consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments. The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for music and includes members of the string, woodwind, brass. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass and it generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. However, many bands use a double bass. Many of the used to perform medieval music still exist. Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ, fiddle, Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut, during the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line. Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the medieval era, becoming prevalent by the later 13thClassical music
4. Elvis Presley – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relativesElvis Presley – Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
5. Tupelo, Mississippi – Tupelo /ˈtuːpəloʊ/ is the county seat and the largest city of Lee County, Mississippi. The seventh-largest city in the state, it is situated in Northeast Mississippi and it is accessed by Interstate 22. Roosevelts program of the Tennessee Valley Authority construction of facilities during the Great Depression, the city is also the birthplace of singer Elvis Presley. Indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years, the historic Chickasaw and Choctaw, both Muskogean-speaking peoples of the Southeast, occupied this area long before European encounter. French and British colonists traded with indigenous peoples and tried to make alliances with them. The French established towns in Mississippi mostly on the Gulf Coast, at times, the European powers came into armed conflict. On May 26,1736 the Battle of Ackia was fought near the site of the present Tupelo, British and Chickasaw soldiers repelled a French and Choctaw attack on the then-Chickasaw village of Ackia. The French, under Louisiana governor Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, had sought to link Louisiana with Acadia and the other northern colonies of New France. In the early 19th century, after years of trading and encroachment by European-American settlers from the United States, conflicts increased as the US settlers tried to gain land from these nations. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and authorized the relocation of all the Southeast Native Americans west of the Mississippi River, in the early years of settlement, European-Americans named this town Gum Pond, supposedly due to its numerous tupelo trees, known locally as blackgum. The city still hosts the annual Gumtree Arts Festival, during the Civil War, Union and Confederate forces fought in the area in 1864 in the Battle of Tupelo. Designated the Tupelo National Battlefield, the war site is administered by the National Park Service, in addition, the Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield, about ten miles north, commemorates another Civil War site. After the war, a railroad for northern Mississippi was constructed through the town. With expansion, the changed its name to Tupelo, in honor of the battle. By the early century, the town had become a site of cotton textile mills. Under the states segregation practices, the mills employed only white adults, reformers documented the child workers and attempted to protect them through labor laws. The last known bank robbery by Machine Gun Kelly, a Prohibition-era gangster, took place on November 30,1932 at the Citizen’s State Bank in Tupelo, his gang netted $38,000. After the robbery, the bank’s chief teller said of Kelly, “He was the kind of guy that, if you looked at him, the distribution infrastructure was built with federal assistance as well, employing many local workersTupelo, Mississippi – Main Street in Tupelo
6. Memphis, Tennessee – Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf, Memphis had a population of 653,450 in 2013, making it the largest city in the state of Tennessee. It is the largest city on the Mississippi River, the third largest in the greater Southeastern United States, the greater Memphis metropolitan area, including adjacent counties in Mississippi and Arkansas, had a 2014 population of 1,317,314. This makes Memphis the second-largest metropolitan area in Tennessee, surpassed by metropolitan Nashville, Memphis is the youngest of Tennessees major cities, founded in 1819 as a planned city by a group of wealthy Americans including judge John Overton and future president Andrew Jackson. A resident of Memphis is referred to as a Memphian, and the Memphis region is known, particularly to media outlets, as Memphis and the Mid-South. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years. The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants, French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto would encounter the Chickasaw in that area, in the 16th century. J. D. L. Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present day location of Memphis, spain and the United States vied for control of this site, which was a favorite of the Chickasaws. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River, the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its lumber and iron to their locations in Arkansas. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, by this time, the Spanish had departed. The forts ruins went unnoticed twenty years later when Memphis was laid out as a city, the city of Memphis was founded on May 22,1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River, Memphis developed as a trade and transportation center in the 19th century because of its flood-free location high above the Mississippi River. Located in the delta region along the river, its outlying areas were developed as cotton plantations. The cotton economy of the antebellum South depended on the labor of large numbers of African-American slaves. Through the early 19th century, one million slaves were transported from the Upper South, Many were transported by steamboats along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. This gave planters and cotton brokers access to the Atlantic Coast for shipping cotton to England, the citys demographics changed dramatically in the 1850s and 1860s under waves of immigration and domestic migration. Due to increased immigration since the 1840s and the Great Famine, ethnic Irish made up 9.9 percent of the population in 1850, but 23.2 percent in 1860, when the total population was 22,623. They had encountered considerable discrimination in the city but by 1860 and they also gained many elected and patronage positions in the Democratic Party city government, and an Irish man was elected as mayor before the Civil WarMemphis, Tennessee – From top to bottom and left to right: Downtown Memphis skyline, Beale Street, Graceland, Orpheum Theatre, Beale Street Landing, and the Hernando de Soto Bridge
7. Elvis (1968 TV program) – Elvis, starring Elvis Presley, is a United States television special that aired on December 3,1968 on the NBC television network. The special is commonly referred to as the 68 Comeback Special and it was directed by Steve Binder and produced by Binder and Bones Howe. Music from the special was released before the broadcast, on the album Elvis, Presleys informal jamming in front of a small audience in the special is regarded as a forerunner of the unplugged concept, later popularized by MTV. Despite huge success in both his music and acting careers following his release from the army in 1960, Presley never toured in the United States from 1962 to 1968. Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys manager, had found it difficult to secure the usual $1,000,000 fee for a Presley film. Parker negotiated a deal with NBC for $1,250,000 to finance both a special and a film. Parker wanted the show, which was scheduled as a Christmas season broadcast and he believed the special could simply be a TV-version of the Christmas radio show Presley had contributed to the year before. Binder argued that the special was an opportunity to re-establish the singers reputation after years of formulaic movies and he and Howe hired writers to script a show with specific themes, large set designs, dance sequences and big productions of Presleys hits. However, Binder was open to any variations on this that would showcase the singers talent, the special ends with Presley appealing for world peace and tolerance with the song If I Can Dream. Other musicians included drummer Hal Blaine, pianist Don Randi, guitarist Tommy Tedesco, bass player Larry Knechtel and it was after rehearsals at Western Recorders that Binder took special note of how Presley and the other musicians would spontaneously unwind by improvising old blues and rock n roll numbers. Binder commented. and thats when I really got the idea, Wouldnt it be great if I had a camera in here, Presley is said to have been very apprehensive about the idea of performing live. His last live concert had been at the Bloch Arena in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Binder offered a lot of support and reassurance to stop the singer from rejecting the idea of any live segments. He realized some songs already re-recorded or scheduled would need to be cut and he also brought in Presleys friends Alan Fortas, Lance LeGault and Charlie Hodge to encourage Presley and make him feel at ease. Two sessions took place, each two hours in length, the first on June 24 and the second on the 25th. Both took place in the surroundings of the dressing room at NBC. They were recorded by Presleys friend Joe Esposito using the singers own tape recorder, many songs were tried, including Danny Boy, Blue Moon, Thats My Desire and I Got A Woman, before the final repertoire was decided for the actual TV recording. Subsequently, at 6. 00pm, June 27, Presley took to the stage for the first time in seven years. Clad in black leather, Presley sat down and jammed with band mates for two shows, each show having a different audience, there was a one-hour break between themElvis (1968 TV program) – Elvis Presley in his '68 Comeback Special
8. Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite – Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite is a concert that was headlined by Elvis Presley, and was broadcast live via satellite on January 14,1973. The concert took place at the Honolulu International Center in Honolulu and aired in over 40 countries across Asia, despite the satellite innovation, the United States did not air the concert until April 4,1973. Viewing figures have been estimated to be between 1 and 1.5 billion viewers worldwide, the show was the most expensive entertainment special at the time, costing $2.5 million. On July 8,1972, inspired by a recent visit made by U. S, as the show had already been planned prior to this upset, the original shows, now set for November, would still go ahead but without being filmed. Parker held another conference on September 4,1972, in Las Vegas to confirm that the concert, now titled Aloha From Hawaii. Two weeks after the Las Vegas press conference Parker received a letter from Honolulu Advertiser columnist Eddie Sherman, Sherman had read in news accounts that there was to be no charge for admittance to the concerts, instead a donation for charity was required. Seeing the chance to publicize Presleys charitable nature once again, Parker eagerly agreed, producer-director Marty Pasetta had attended one of Presleys concerts at Long Beach in mid-November, and he had found it to be boring and lacking in any physical excitement. He approached Parker with ideas about the broadcast, including a runway that led out from the stage so Presley could get closer to his audience, Parker insisted that the ideas were useless, and that Presley would agree that they were useless. Pasetta, however, decided to approach Presley about the ideas anyway and was surprised to find that he would be happy to do whatever Pasetta felt was best for the show. This was another example of the rift between Presley and his manager. He also announced officially that it would now be in aid of the Kui Lee Cancer Fund, Presley arrived in Hawaii again on January 9, a day after his 38th birthday, to begin rehearsals. He had lost twenty-five pounds for the show and was confident after news that his sales were increasing. Rehearsals were held at the Hilton Hawaiian Village while the set was being constructed. Although there were technical problems, the rehearsals were an overall success. Presley taped a January 12 rehearsal concert as a fail-safe in case anything went wrong with the satellite during the actual broadcast, for both shows, Presley was dressed in a white American Eagle jumpsuit designed by Bill Belew. The broadcast was directed by Marty Pasetta, who was then in charge of directing the Oscar ceremonies, audience tickets for the January 14 concert and its January 12 pre-broadcast rehearsal show carried no price. Each audience member was asked to pay whatever he or she could afford, the performance and concert merchandise sales raised $75,000 for the Kui Lee Cancer Fund in Hawaii. According to Elvis Presley Enterprises, between 1 and 1.5 billion people watched the one-hour broadcast live, the album containing the music from the concert was a blockbuster hit, becoming Presleys first chart-topping album in the US since the soundtrack to Roustabout in 1965Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite – Aloha from Hawaii via Satellite
9. List of best-selling music artists – This list includes music artists with claims of 75 million or more record sales. If two or more artists have the same claimed sales, they are ranked by certified units. Sales figures, such as those from Soundscan, which are published by Billboard magazine, have not been included in the certified units column. As of 2017, based on sales claims and certified units, The Beatles are considered the highest-selling band. Elvis Presley is considered the individual artist based on sales claims. All artists included on this list, which have begun charting on official albums or singles charts have their available claimed figures supported by at least 20% in certified units, the certified units are sourced from available online databases of local music industry associations. All certified units are converted from Gold/Platinum/Diamond certification awards based on criteria provided by certifying bodies, the certified sales percentage varies according to the first year that an artist appeared in the charts. The requirements of certified sales are designed to avoid inflated sales figures, the claimed figures are referenced from online articles created by highly reliable sources. For clarity, the used, say the term records. However, if all sources for an artist or band say albums. The claimed figures are upgraded only when there is a significant progress in artists certified sales, in other words, the available certified sales for each artist should get relatively closer to already listed claimed figure in order for higher figures to replace the listed ones. The certified sales of the artists may sometimes be higher than their listed claimed figures. This is because Recording Industry Association of America and almost all other certifying bodies count streaming towards Gold, for this reason, some singles and even albums get over certified by hundreds of thousands of units.4 million downloads. The figures of total certified units within the table below are based on certified units of albums, singles, markets order within the table is based on Retail Value, each market generates respectively, the largest market at the top and smallest at the bottom. The column for certified sales above includes markets, the databases of which contain certifications representing figures of 100,000, the figures of total certified units within the table below are based on certified units of albums, singles and videos. Markets order within the table is based on Retail Value each market generates respectively, the largest market at the top, the column for certified sales above includes markets, the databases of which contain certifications representing figures of 100,000 and more. The figures of total certified units within the table below are based on certified units of albums, singles, markets order within the table is based on Retail Value each market generates respectively, the largest market at the top and the smallest at the bottom. The column for certified sales above includes markets, the databases of which contain certifications representing figures of 100,000, the figures of total certified units within the table below are based on certified units of albums, singles and videosList of best-selling music artists – The Beatles
10. Hall of fame – A hall, wall, or walk of fame is a list of individuals, achievements, or animals, usually chosen by a group of electors, to mark their fame in their field. Sometimes, the plaques may instead be posted on a wall or inscribed on a sidewalk. In other cases, the hall of fame is more figurative, the lists are maintained by an organization or community, and may be national, state, local, or private. The English-language term was popularised in the United States by the Hall of Fame for Great Americans at Bronx Community College, in New York City and its inspiration is the Ruhmeshalle in Munich, Germany. The Walhalla memorial in Bavaria, Germany, is an earlier hall of fame, conceived in 1807. The meaning of fame has changed over the years, originally meaning renown as opposed to more common meaning of celebrityHall of fame – Walhalla hall of fame temple, Germany
11. Barbadian people – Barbadians or Bajans are the people who are identified with the country of Barbados, be it the citizens of the country or their descendants in the Barbadian diaspora. This connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural, for most Barbadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their identity. Barbadians are a multi-ethnic and multicultural society of various different ethnic, religious, in addition to Anglophone countries other groups of Barbadians have moved to Latin countries including, Brazil, Cuba and Panama. See, List of famous Barbadian people Barbados nationality law Demographics of Barbados Afro-Barbadian Barbadian American Barbadian Brazilian Barbadian British Barbadian CanadianBarbadian people – Worrell
12. Def Jam Recordings – Def Jam Recordings is an American record label, focused predominantly on hip hop and urban music, owned by Universal Music Group. In the UK, the takes on the name Def Jam UK and is operated through Virgin EMI, while in Japan. The label distributes various record labels, including Kanye Wests GOOD Music, Ludacris Disturbing Tha Peace, Def Jam was founded by Rick Rubin in his dormitory in Weinstein Hall at New York University and its first release was a single by his punk-rock group Hose. Russell Simmons joined Rubin shortly after they were introduced to other, according to one story. Another cites DJ Jazzy Jay as their connector, Rubin has said he met Simmons on the TV show, Graffiti Rock and recognized him then as the face of hip hop, He was five years older than me, and he was already established in the music business. And I had no experience whatsoever, the first single released with the Def Jam Recordings logo was T La Rock & Jazzy Jays Its Yours. The first releases with Def Jam Recordings catalog numbers were LL Cool Js I Need a Beat, the singles sold well, eventually leading to a distribution deal with CBS Records through Columbia Records the following year. A few years later, Russell Simmons and Lyor Cohen started a label called Rush Associated Labels to handle Def Jam. RAL became the home to Nice & Smooth and EPMD after both acts were acquired due to the folding of their former label Sleeping Bag Records, other acts under the RAL umbrella included Redman, Onyx, Flatlinerz, Domino, Warren G and Jayo Felony. As the decade drew to a close, the label signed Public Enemy, Lyor Cohen became president of Def Jam/RAL in 1988, after winning a power struggle with Rubin, who would shortly thereafter leave the company to form Def American Recordings. Rubin would take Slayer with him to Def American in its initial stages, by 1992, despite recent multi-platinum selling releases from Public Enemy, and EPMD, Def Jam ran into severe financial troubles and was faced with folding. However, in 1994, PolyGram purchased Sonys 50% stake in Def Jam Recordings — subsequently bringing the label into its fold, following PolyGrams purchase, Def Jam distributed the Violator Records-signed artist Warren Gs Regulate. G Funk Era album, which went triple platinum and brought much-needed revenue to Def Jam through its distribution deal with Violator, PolyGram acquired an additional 10% in Def Jam Recordings in 1996, further strengthening its ownership of Def Jam. Shortly thereafter, Rush Associated Labels was renamed Def Jam Music Group, the label remained profitable as its veteran star LL Cool J released his successful album Mr. Smith in 1995. The label later signed Foxy Brown, whose debut album Ill Na Na became a seller in 1997. In 1998, PolyGram was purchased by Seagram and merged with the MCA family of labels and it then purchased the remaining interest of Def Jam Recordings from Russell Simmons for a reported $100 million. UMG merged 14+ record labels including, Def Jam, Island Records, despite the formation of IDJMG, the Def Jam, Mercury, and Island labels continued to operate as separate imprints underneath the bigger umbrella. Lyor Cohen was appointed co-president of IDJMG, and Kevin Liles succeeded him as president of Def Jam, Def Soul also issued recordings by Musiq, Montell Jordan, Case,112, Patti LaBelle, and Christina MilianDef Jam Recordings – Def Jam Recordings
13. Jay-Z – Shawn Corey Carter, known professionally as Jay Z, is an American rapper, businessman, and investor. He is one of the musicians of all time, having sold more than 100 million records. MTV ranked him the Greatest MC of all time in 2006, Rolling Stone ranked three of his albums—Reasonable Doubt, The Blueprint, and The Black Album —among the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2014, Forbes estimated his net worth at nearly $520 million, Jay Z co-owns the New York 40/40 Club sports bar, and is the co-creator of the clothing line Rocawear. He is the president of Def Jam Recordings, co-founder of Roc-A-Fella Records. He also founded the sports agency Roc Nation Sports and is a certified NBA, as an artist, he holds the record for most number one albums by a solo artist on the Billboard 200 with 13. He has also had four number ones on the Billboard Hot 100, in 2009, he was ranked the tenth-most successful artist of the 2000s by Billboard as well as the fifth top solo male artist and fourth top rapper behind Eminem, Nelly, and 50 Cent. He was also ranked the 88th-greatest artist of all time by Rolling Stone, Jay Z married Singer-Songwriter Beyoncé in 2008. Shawn Carter was born in Brooklyn, New York, and was raised in Marcy Houses and he and his three siblings were raised by their mother, Gloria Carter after their father, Adness Reeves abandoned the family. Reeves would later meet and reconcile with Jay Z before dying from liver failure in 2003, Jay Z claims in his lyrics that in 1982, at the age of 12, he shot his older brother in the shoulder for stealing his jewelry. Along with future rapper AZ, Carter attended Eli Whitney High School in Brooklyn until it was closed down, according to his interviews and lyrics, during this period he sold crack cocaine and was shot at three times. According to his mother, Carter used to wake up his siblings at night banging out drum patterns on the kitchen table and she bought him a boom box for his birthday, sparking his interest in music. He began freestyling and writing lyrics, known as Jazzy around the neighborhood, Carter later adopted the showbiz/stage name Jay-Z in homage to his mentor Jaz-O. He would drop the hyphen in 2013, Jay Z can be briefly heard on several of Jaz-Os early recordings in the late 1980s and early 1990s, including The Originators and Hawaiian Sophie. Jay Z became embroiled in several battles with rapper LL Cool J in the early 1990s and he first became known to a wide audience on the posse cut Show and Prove on the 1994 Big Daddy Kane album Daddys Home. When I would leave the stage to go change outfits, I would bring out Jay Z and Positive K and let them freestyle until I came back to the stage. The young Jay Z appeared on a song by Big L, Da Graveyard, and on Mic Geronimos Time to Build. His first official rap single was called In My Lifetime, for which he released a music video, an unreleased music video was also produced for the B-side I Cant Get with ThatJay-Z – Jay Z at the Shawn Carter Foundation Carnival, 2011
14. Kardinal Offishall – Jason D. Harrow, better known by his stage name Kardinal Offishall /kɑːrdᵻˈnæl oʊfᵻˈʃæl/, is a Canadian rapper, record producer, and record executive. Often credited as Canadas hip hop ambassador, he is regarded as one of the countrys best hip hop producers, a native of Toronto, Offishall began his career in the citys mid-1990s underground hip hop scene, as a member of The Circle. He released several independent 12 singles, an album. After failing to release the Firestarter Vol.2 album in 2003, on MCA, in 2005, Offishalls third album, Fire and Glory, was released in Canada. That year, he collaborated with R&B singer Akon for the first time, in 2007, he signed with Akons Kon Live Distribution label, through Geffen, and released his fourth album, Not 4 Sale, the following year. The first single, Dangerous, became a top five hit on the Billboard Hot 100, Offishall released two gold-certified singles, Numba 1 and Body Bounce, before leaving Kon Live in late 2010. Since then, his latest singles have been released on his independent label Black Stone Colleagues Inc, in 2012, Offishall released Allow Me to Re-Introduce Myself, a collaborative mixtape with producer Nottz. In 2013, Offishall became the Creative Executive Director of Universal Music Canadas A&R team, two years later, he released his fifth album Kardi Gras, Vol.1, The Clash under the label. Harrow was born in Scarborough, Ontario, in Torontos east end, from the ages of 2 to 13, he lived in the citys Flemingdon Park neighbourhood. He moved back to Scarborough for two years, before settling in Oakwood–Vaughan, in the citys west end. While in high school, he would throw parties at the Alexandra Park Community Centre and he also is a former York University student but did not complete his degree. He started rapping at the age of eight and was winning competitions by the time he was 12. At aged 14, he performed live and on stage for the first time and he graduated in West Hill Collegiate Institute. By 1993, he decided to change his alias KoolAid, Kardinal was signed to a publishing deal with Warner/Chappell Music Canada at the age of 20. In 1996, he released his first single Naughty Dread, which was featured on the Rap Essentials Volume One compilation, in 1997, Kardinal released his debut album Eye & I on Capitol Hill Music. The only single from the album, On wit da Show, had considerable video play on MuchMusic, the album received rave reviews from music critics. Allmusic stated that Kardinal blended soul, dancehall, reggae, hip-hop, unfortunately, the album was poorly distributed in Canada, and a lack of radio support resulted in the album receiving limited commercial attention. Over 4,000 copies of the album were sold in its first three months of release, in 1998, he was featured on the Juno-winning single Northern Touch with the Rascalz, Choclair, Checkmate and ThrustKardinal Offishall – Kardinal Offishall at an etalk party in 2008.
15. J-Status – Roll It Gal is a song written by Shontelle Layne and Sheldon Benjamin, containing a sample of Benjamins Big Love. The song was recorded by soca singer Alison Hinds and was taken from her debut album Soca Queen. The single was released by Hinds in 2005 in Barbados and in the United Kingdom in 2007, a music video was produced for Hinds version of the song in 2005. The Hinds version of Roll It Gal shot to the top of the charts in Barbados, Trinidad, in 2007 a re-worked cover of the song entitled Roll It was released in several European countries. This version was performed by J-Status and featured Shontelle, who assisted in writing both versions of the song, and Rihanna, the J-Status version is taken from their debut album The Beginning, released in several European countries only. The J-Status version is performed with Rihanna and Shontelle herself, shontelles version was issued via various download sites on 14 August 2007 but was not promoted as an official single. It was re-titled Roll for the release but appeared as Roll It on her debut album. Shontelles version of the song contains slightly different lyrics and production, the song was used in an episode from the fifth season of Greys AnatomyJ-Status – "Roll It Gal"
16. Dancehall – Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s. Initially dancehall was a more sparse version of reggae than the roots style, in the mid-1980s, digital instrumentation became more prevalent, changing the sound considerably, with digital dancehall becoming increasingly characterized by faster rhythms. Dancehall music saw mainstream success in Jamaica throughout the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, by the 2010s, dancehall began to heavily influence the work of established Western artists producers which has helped to further bring the genre into the Western music mainstream. Dancehall is named after Jamaican dance halls in which popular Jamaican recordings were played by local sound systems and they began in the late 1940s among people from the inner city of Kingston, who were not able to participate in dances uptown. Themes of social injustice, repatriation and the Rastafari movement were overtaken by lyrics about dancing, violence, around the same time, producer Don Mais was reworking old rhythms at Channel One Studios, using the Roots Radics band. Sound systems such as Killimanjaro, Black Scorpio, Gemini Disco, Virgo Hi-Fi, Volcano Hi-Power and Aces International soon capitalized on the new sound, deejay records became, for the first time, more important than records featuring singers. The early 1980s also saw the emergence of female deejays in dancehall music, such as Lady G, Lady Saw, other female dancehall stars include artistes like Diana King and in the late 1990s to the 2000s Ce Cile, Spice, Macka Diamond and more. In the mid-1980s, French Caribbean group Kassav, the first in the Caribbean to use MIDI technology, King Jammys 1985 hit, Sleng Teng by Wayne Smith, with an entirely-digital rhythm hook took the dancehall reggae world by storm. Many credit this song as being the first digital rhythm in reggae, however, this is not entirely correct since there are earlier examples of digital productions, such as Horace Fergusons single Sensi Addict produced by Prince Jazzbo in 1984. The Sleng Teng rhythm was used in over 200 subsequent recordings and this deejay-led, largely synthesized chanting with musical accompaniment departed from traditional conceptions of Jamaican popular musical entertainment. Dub poet Mutabaruka said, if 1970s reggae was red, green and gold and it was far removed from reggaes gentle roots and culture, and there was much debate among purists as to whether it should be considered an extension of reggae. This shift in style again saw the emergence of a new generation of artists, such as Buccaneer, Capleton and Shabba Ranks, the deejays became more focused on violence, with Bounty Killer, Mad Cobra, Ninjaman and Buju Banton becoming major figures in the genre. By the early 2000s, dancehall inspired pop music saw increased popularity in Jamaica, as well as in the United States and international markets. This was first seen with artists, such as Sean Paul whos single Get Busy became the first dancehall single to number one on the US Billboard Hot 100. The late 2000s saw domestic success for artists, such as Popcaan, Vybz Kartel, Konshens, Mr. Vegas. Donna P. Kingsley Stewart outlines ten of the major cultural imperatives or principles that constitute the dancehall worldview, such a drastic change in the popular music of the region generated an equally radical transformation in fashion trends, specifically those of its female faction. In lieu of traditional, modest rootsy styles, as dictated by Rastafari-inspired gender roles, women began donning flashy and this transformation is said to coincide with the influx of slack lyrics within dancehall, which objectified women as apparatuses of pleasure. These women would team up others to form modeling posses, or dancehall model groupsDancehall – Genres
17. Contemporary R&B – Contemporary R&B, also known as simply R&B, is a music genre that combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, funk, pop, hip hop and dance. The genre features a record production style, drum machine-backed rhythms, an occasional saxophone-laced beat to give a jazz feel. Electronic influences are becoming a trend and the use of hip hop or dance-inspired beats are typical, although the roughness. Contemporary R&B vocalists are often known for their use of melisma, popularized by such as Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Craig David, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston. That same year, Teddy Riley began producing R&B recordings that included hip hop influences and this combination of R&B style and hip hop rhythms was termed new jack swing and was applied to artists such as Bobby Brown, Keith Sweat, Al B. Guy, Jodeci and Bell Biv DeVoe, the style became less popular by the end of the 1990s, but later experienced a resurgence. In 1990 Mariah Carey released Vision of Love as her debut single and it was immensely popular peaking at number 1 in many worldwide charts including the Billboard Hot 100, and it propelled Mariahs carrier. The song is said to have popularized the use of melisma. During the mid-1990s, Whitney Houstons The Bodyguard, Original Soundtrack Album sold over 40 million copies becoming the best-selling soundtrack of all time. Janet Jacksons self-titled fifth studio album janet. which came after her historic multimillion-dollar contract with Virgin Records, sold over twenty million copies worldwide. Boyz II Men and Mariah Carey recorded several Billboard Hot 100 No.1 hits, including One Sweet Day, Carey also released a remix of her 1995 single Fantasy, with Ol Dirty Bastard as a feature, a collaboration format that was unheard of at this point. Carey, Boyz II Men and TLC released albums in 1994 and 1995—Daydream, II and CrazySexyCool. In the late 1990s, neo soul, which added 1970s soul influences to the hip hop soul blend, arose, led by such as DAngelo, Erykah Badu. Hill and Missy Elliott further blurred the line between R&B and hip hop by recording both styles, beginning in 1995, the Grammy Awards enacted the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album, with II by Boyz II Men becoming the first recipient. The award was received by TLC for CrazySexyCool in 1996, Tony Rich for Words in 1997, Erykah Badu for Baduizm in 1998. At the end of 1999, Billboard magazine ranked Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson as the first, simultaneously, in the second half of the 1990s, The Neptunes and Timbaland set influential precedence on contemporary R&B and hip hop music. R&B acts such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Janet Jackson, Mariah Carey, Usher, in 2001, Alicia Keys released Fallin as her debut single. It peaking at one on the Billboard Hot 100, Mainstream Top 40Contemporary R&B – Whitney Houston.
18. Radio Hamburg – Not to be confused with Radio Hamburg, owned by the Nazis or the British Army. Reichssender Hamburg was the Hamburg station of the Nazi German international broadcasting network, Radio Hamburg is a private commercial radio station set up in the 1980s to play the big hits of the times. Nowadays it plays hits from the 1990s onwards, on high rotation and their slogan is Die Mega-Hits der 90er, 2000er und dem Besten von heute“. Its services also include reports on weather and traffic and its website also has a ticket service for all the big concerts, a live web stream and an online shop. Since August 2008, Radio Hamburg is broadcast from the Semperhaus in Hamburg, translates as Easter Mega Hit Marathon. Since 1989 every Easter the station has a marathon where they play 800 Mega Hits over 24–48 hours during Easter, Radio Hamburg Mega Talent is a casting for people, who try their luck by auditioning in front of a jury, that consists of three people. The listener of the Radio Hamburg are voting for their favorite competitor or rather said candidate afterwards, according to this principle the candidates are elected out of the casting, so that there are only two candidates left. They begin to sing against each other, the listener may decide which competitor shall win Radio Hamburg Mega Talent. Finally they are meeting once more and they get to the studio of Radio Hamburg and they are standing face to face and the sum of votings made by the listener who has voted online for in his opinion best candidate are read. It decides who wins the competition, the winner gets money in the amount of 20,000 €/25,000 €. Radio Hamburg Official Website Radio Hamburg Web StreamRadio Hamburg – The former Radio Hamburg building, the St. Petri Haus
19. FutureSex/LoveSounds – FutureSex/LoveSounds is the second studio album by American singer and songwriter Justin Timberlake. It was released on September 8,2006 by Jive Records, the albums contents were produced at Timbalands Thomas Crown Studios. The album shares some themes with Timberlakes debut album Justified. It infuses R&B and pop with techno, funk, and elements of rock, the reprises and interludes interspersed on the albums tracks were created by the production team with the goal of channeling Timberlakes influences, including David Bowie and Prince. FutureSex/LoveSounds received mostly positive reviews critics, who noted its wide range of influences. The album produced six singles that attained chart success, including U. S. Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, SexyBack, My Love, with Summer Love, the album achieved four U. S. Many music publications considered it among the best albums of the 2000s and it has been certified multi-platinum in many countries worldwide, and has sold over 10 million copies, with four million in the United States. The album has added to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fames musical library. In November 2002, Justin Timberlake released his debut album Justified, Cry Me a River in particular was credited for having helped the album sell and peak on the music charts. Justified ended selling four million copies in the United States alone, Timberlake stated that Justified had been years in the making, and a record that would re-create its success would be a challenge he was not ready to take. In the following years, Timberlake went partially idle in the music industry and his being burnt out partly caused him to try acting in films. In October 2003, he hosted and was the guest musician on the variety show Saturday Night Live. He also paired with American actor Jimmy Fallon on The Barry Gibb Talk Show, after the show, Timberlake was reportedly inundated with acting offers, which he readily accepted partly because he needed inspiration and did not want to pass up the opportunities. Before returning to music, Timberlake shot four films, including Edison Force, Timberlake opted not to pursue the reunion with *NSYNC, which he considered after Justified. According to him, he was concerned with how they would reinvent their music, in late 2004, Timberlake then contacted record producers Rich Harrison and Rodney Jerkins, who had produced songs for *NSYNC. Both producers were impressed by the live band-driven late-night shows Timberlake had participated in, in 2005, Timberlake felt inspired to record songs again. Motivated by the sad state of pop radio, he decided he needed to experiment with music, reportedly, it was not until Timberlake turned to producer Timbaland that he figured out the direction he wanted the record to take. In November 2005, Timberlake visited Timbalands brand-new Thomas Crown Studios in Virginia Beach, Virginia, Timbaland had previously collaborated with Timberlake, producing four tracks for Justified including Cry Me a RiverFutureSex/LoveSounds – While on hiatus, Timberlake engaged in non-musical activities.
20. David Bowie – David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer, songwriter and actor. He was a figure in music for over five decades, regarded by critics and musicians as an innovator. His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, his music, during his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million worldwide, made him one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded nine platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, in the US, he received five platinum and seven gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child, eventually studying art, music and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. Space Oddity became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969, after a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single Starman and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, in 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth and released Station to Station. Heroes and Lodger followed, each reached the UK top five. He then reached his peak in 1983 with Lets Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with styles, including industrial. He stopped concert touring after 2004, and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006, in 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with the release of The Next Day. He remained musically active until he died of cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. David Robert Jones was born on 8 January 1947, in Brixton, south London and his mother, Margaret Mary Peggy, was born in Kent, and had Irish ancestry, she worked as a waitress. His father, Haywood Stenton John Jones, from Yorkshire, was an officer for the childrens charity Barnardos. The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, near the border of the south London areas of Brixton, Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to the suburb of Bromley and his voice was considered adequate by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. Upon listening to Little Richards song Tutti Frutti, Bowie would later say, presleys impact on him was likewise emphatic, I saw a cousin of mine dance to. Hound Dog and I had never seen her get up and be moved so much by anything and it really impressed me, the power of the musicDavid Bowie – Bowie during the Heathen Tour in 2002
21. David Byrne – Byrne is a multi-instrumentalist and is known for his distinctive voice. Since then, Byrne has released his own recordings and worked with various media including film, photography, opera. He has received Oscar, Grammy, and Golden Globe awards and been inducted into the Rock, David Byrne was born 14 May 1952, in Dumbarton, Scotland, to parents Tom and Emma. He is the elder of two children, two years after his birth, his parents moved to Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and then to Arbutus, Maryland, in the United States, when he was 8 or 9 years old. His father worked as an electronics engineer, before high school, Byrne already knew how to play the guitar, accordion, and violin. He was rejected from his schools choir because they claimed he was off-key. From a young age, he had a strong interest in music and his parents say that he would constantly play his phonograph from age three and he learned how to play the harmonica at age five. In his journals he says, I was a peculiar young man—borderline Aspergers, Byrne graduated from Lansdowne High School in southwest Baltimore County. He started his career in a high school band called Revelation. Their repertoire consisted mostly of songs such as April Showers,96 Tears, Dancing on the Ceiling, Byrne attended the Rhode Island School of Design and the Maryland Institute College of Art before dropping out. He returned to Providence in 1973 and formed a band called the Artistics with fellow RISD student Chris Frantz, Byrne moved to New York City in May that year and was joined by Frantz and his girlfriend Tina Weymouth in September. Unable to find a player in New York, Frantz. While working day jobs in late 1974, they were contemplating a band, by January 1975, they were practicing and playing together, while still working normal day jobs. They founded the band Talking Heads and had their first gig in June, Byrne quit his day job in May 1976 and the three-piece band signed to Sire Records in November. Multi-instrumentalist Jerry Harrison joined the band in 1977, the band released eight studio albums before going into hiatus in 1988. Byrne desired to go solo, but it took three years until 1991 to announce that the band was breaking up, a brief reunion for a single Sax and Violins in 1991 occurred before dissolving again. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2002, following this record, Byrne focused his attention on Talking Heads. My Life in the Bush of Ghosts was re-released for its 25th anniversary in early 2006, in keeping with the spirit of the original album, stems for two of the songs component tracks were released under Creative Commons licenses and a remix contest site was launchedDavid Byrne – Byrne speaking at the 2006 Future of Music Policy Summit hosted by the McGill University Schulich School of Music in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
22. Backing vocals – Backing vocalists are singers who provide vocal harmony with the lead vocalist or other backing vocalists. In some cases, a singer may sing alone as a lead-in to the main vocalists entry or to sing a counter-melody. Backing vocalists are used in a range of popular music, traditional music. Solo artists may employ professional backing vocalists in studio recording sessions as well as during concerts, in many rock and metal bands, the musicians doing backup vocals also play instruments, such as guitar, electric bass, drums, or keyboards. In Latin or Afro-Cuban groups, backup singers may play percussion instruments or shakers while singing, in some pop and hip-hop groups and in musical theater, the backup singers may be required to perform elaborately choreographed dance routines while they sing through headset microphones. The style of singing used by backup singers varies according to the type of song, in pop and country songs, backup vocalists may perform vocal harmony parts to support the lead vocalist. In hardcore punk or rockabilly, other members who play instruments may sing or shout backup vocals during the chorus section of the songs. While some bands use performers whose sole on-stage role is performing backing vocals, two notable examples of band members who sang back-up are The Beach Boys and The Beatles. The Beach Boys were well known for their vocal harmonies, occasionally with all five members singing at once such as In My Room. All five members would sing lead, although most often Brian Wilson or Mike Love would sing lead with guitarists Carl Wilson and Al Jardine, examples of three-part harmonies by Lennon, McCartney and Harrison include Nowhere Man, Because, Day Tripper, and This Boy. Former guitarist John Frusciante of the Red Hot Chili Peppers sang nearly all backing vocals often singing some parts without accompaniment from lead vocalist Anthony Kiedis, the bands bassist Flea occasionally filled in for additional vocals. Frusciante usually sang one song by himself during concerts, another example is No Frontiers by The Corrs, which is sung by Sharon and Caroline. In the recording studio, some lead singers record their own backing vocals by overdubbing, one famous example is Freddie Mercury of Queen singing the first part of Bohemian Rhapsody himself by overdubbing. With the exception of a few songs on album, Dan Fogelberg, Eddie Rabbitt, David Bowie. Some bands, such as Hawthorne Heights and Finch have the backup singers do harsh vocals to highlight specific lyrics. Pop and R&B vocalists such as Diana Ross, Ariana Grande, Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé Knowles, Brandy, Faith Evans, DAngelo, when they perform live, they may have backing vocalists that impersonate their voices. Some bands use backing vocals in order to contrast with the singer who may be performing an unusual vocal technique. In rap music, a rapper who chants and rhymes to support the main artist is often referred to as hype manBacking vocals – One of The Wives, the backing vocalists for English singer Ebony Bones
23. Beat box – Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion primarily involving the art of mimicking drum machines using ones mouth, lips, tongue, and voice. It may also involve vocal imitation of turntablism, and other musical instruments, beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture, often referred to as the fifth element of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music. The term beatboxing is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general, examples include the Appalachian technique of eefing and the blues song Bye bye bird by Sonny Boy Williamson II. Many well-known performers used vocal percussion occasionally, even though this was not directly connected to the tradition that came to be known as beatboxing. Paul McCartneys That Would Be Something includes vocal percussion, pink Floyds Pow R. Toc H. also includes vocal percussion performed by the groups lead vocalist Syd Barrett. Jazz singers Bobby Mcferrin and Al Jarreau were very known for their vocal styles and techniques which have had great impact on techniques beatboxers use today. The term beatboxing is derived from the mimicry of the first generation of drum machines, Human beatboxing in hip-hop originated in the 1980s. Its early pioneers include Doug E. Wise inspired a new fan base of human beatboxers with his human turntable technique. The Internet has played a part in the popularity of modern beatboxing. Alex Tew started the first online community of beatboxers in 2000 under the banner of HUMANBEATBOX. COM, in 2001, Gavin Tyte, a member of this community created the worlds first tutorials and video tutorials on beatboxing. In 2003, the community held the worlds first Human Beatbox Convention in London featuring beatbox artists from all over the world, beatboxings current popularity is due in part to releases from artists such as Rahzel, RoxorLoops, Reeps One, and Alem. Sometimes, modern beatboxers will use their hand or another part of their body to extend the spectrum of sound effects and rhythm. Some have developed a technique that involves blowing and sucking air around their fingers to produce a realistic record scratching noise. Another hand technique includes the throat tap which involves the beatboxer tapping their fingers against their throat as they sing or hum. Today there is an increase in the variety in which we see beatboxing throughout musical culture, people have gone as far as adding beatboxing in with different instruments to create a completely different sound unlike any other. Artist Greg Patillo goes as far as adding in beatboxing while playing the flute to very iconic songs, Beatbox has become modernized and has even been seen in popular movies such as Pitch Perfect and Pitch Perfect 2. Beatbox Battle Network was founded in summer 2002 in Berlin, Germany as a non profit organization with the focus to support the global beatboxing community. It is specialized on culture marketing, live broadcasting and artist management, bBB3TV also known as Beatbox Battle Television produces the Beatbox Beatbox World ChampionshipBeat box – Biz Markie beatboxing
24. Michael Haussman – Michael Haussman is an American artist, writer, producer and director of motion pictures, television advertisements and music videos. Haussmans internationally acclaimed commercials have won awards and are featured in advertising books. His commercial works include campaigns for United Airlines, Budweiser, Samsung, Levis, Absolut, BMW, Yves Saint Laurent, Ray-Ban, Diesel and Replay Jeans and his videos have won several MTV and VH1 awards, including MTVLA Best Video and the Museum Of Modern Art award. A Study in Gravity is Haussmans most recent video art exhibition and it is a study of gravitys effect on human emotion told through five high definition video sequences filmed at 2,000 frames per second. It was chosen by LA Weekly as one of the top ten pieces of art this year in Art Platform Los Angeles, the entire Gravity show opened January 17,2013 at Young Projects in the Pacific Design Center. Haussman has done print campaigns for Philips, Replay Jeans, Lancômes Tresor fragrance and worldwide print, Haussman completed two films in 2013. His short film ‘The Audition, ’ which he wrote and directed in Cinecitta studios, the Audition went on to screen at LA Shorts Fest, London Lift-Off, Byron Bay Film Festival, Nashville Film Festival, Regard Sur le Court and NYC Downtown Short Film Festival. The film explores the consequences when an actor and actress allow their feelings to overtake their acting during an audition. The Audition was awarded Best Short Film at Byron Bay, michael is currently in pre-production for Good Guys, which he wrote and will directMichael Haussman – Michael Haussman
25. Mchinji – Mchinji is a district in the Central Region of Malawi. As of 2008 estimates, Mchinji District had a population of 458,556, the areas economy is sustained by rain-fed agriculture. Mchinji Boma, located at 12 km from the Zambian Border and 109 km from Lilongwe the Capital City of Malawi, is the hub of government. It has a railroad junction, being the railhead nearest to Zambia. Mchinji Boma was formerly known as Fort Manning, after governor William Manning, Fort Manning was called a fort because the local government offices were once fortified. In 1930, Fort Manning was attacked by a lion that caused over thirty-six deaths over a five-month period, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake struck Mchinji on 10 March 1989. At least 9 people were killed,100 injured and about 50,000 left homeless in Malawi and it was also felt in Zambia. American pop singer Madonna adopted 13-month-old David Banda from Mchinji in October 2006 and this generated international controversy because Malawian law stated that one year of residence was required of potential adoptive parents. The effort was publicised and culminated in legal disputes. On 19 June 2008 Gillian Merron, the British Minister for International Development, responsible for Africa, visited Mchinji and spoke about maternal health, Mchinji Boma lies at an elevation of 3,877 feet,12 kilometres from the Zambian border. It is situated 7.7 miles away from Katambo,2.2 miles away from Kadulama Lambo,1.4 miles away from Daka and 2.8 miles away from Tsumba, chichewa is the main language spoken in Mchinji. Senga is spoken by some quarters of the population and Ngoni is also spoken by some major population surrounding Mchinji Boma Mchinji is described as poor by The Times. Harvesting rain-fed agriculture is the occupation in Mchinji, with groundnuts, tobacco, soya. Maize, yams, velvet beans and pumpkin are prominent food crops, during the dry season, secondary activities are pursued, such as brick-making, beer brewing, bicycle repair and carpentry. Due to a food shortage caused by the regions many droughts and partially caused by poor government planning. Mchinji is currently the location of a project of a social cash transfer to benefit very poor members of rural areas. There are 10 Traditional Authorities namely, Mkanda, Mavwere, Zulu, Mlonyeni, Pitala, Simphasi, Dambe, Kapondo, Mduwa, the Members for the Malawian National Assembly are six in total. Reverend Thomson Chipeta, remembering losing both his parents, brought orphaned children into his home in 1992 and construction of an orphanage began in 1998Mchinji – Pop singer, Madonna, caused legal controversy when she adopted a child from Mchinji.
26. Rated R: Remixed – Rated R, Remixed is the second remix album by Barbadian singer Rihanna. It was released on May 8,2010, in Brazil and Europe and on May 24,2010 and it contains remixes from her fourth studio album, Rated R. The songs were remixed by Chew Fu. The majority of the remixes were remastered to incorporate influences from the genre of house music, Rated R, Remixed received a mixed review from Jean Goon for MSN Entertainment. She praised Fu for remixing some of the dark and sombre songs into dance songs. As of July 2010, Rated R, Remixed has sold 13,000 copies in the US, the singers first remix album was Good Girl Gone Bad, The Remixes in January 2009. The project was announced as something for fans to bridge the gap while Rihanna was still on the Last Girl on Earth Tour and her studio album. Rated R, Remixed was exclusively remixed by New York-based electronic record producer, remixer and DJ, Chew Fu. Although the track list on Rated R consists of 13 songs, Rated R, Remixed consists of 10 songs, Cold Case Love, The Last Song and Te Amo were not remixed by Fu and were therefore not included. Rated R, Remixed was released on May 8,2010, in Brazil and it was released in the same format on May 24, in the United States. Rated R, Remixed is a house album. Russian Roulette, Photographs, Rude Boy and Stupid in Love feature heavy electro, wait Your Turn, originally a dubstep and hip hop song, was remastered to a house song. Stupid in Love, which was originally a pop and R&B power ballad, was changed to an uptempo house track. Jean Goon for MSN Entertainment gave a review for the album. Goon was complimentary of how Fu changed some of the sombre and downtempo songs to incorporate catchy. She noted that Goon noted that Photographs had undergone a transformation. With regard to Stupid in Love, Goon described the remix as classy enough to be played in a trendy boutique or cafe, the critic noted that Russian Roulette was a mess to listen to. Goon concluded although she thought some of the remixes werent too bad on the ears, furthermore, Goon criticised the remixes for being too heavily distorted with electronic synths which seemed to compete for our attention rather than complement Rihanna’s vocalsRated R: Remixed – Rated R: Remixed
27. ClariS – Claris was a computer software developer formed as a spin-off from Apple Computer in 1987. In 1998 the company divested itself of all but its flagship product, during the early days of the Macintosh computer, Apple shipped the machines with two basic programs, MacWrite and MacPaint, so that users would have a working machine out of the box. However, this resulted in complaints from third-party developers, who felt that these programs were good enough for so many users that there was reason to buy something better. Apple decided to allow the programs to wither, so that the third-party developers would have time to write suitable replacements, unfortunately the developers didnt seem to hold up their end of the bargain, and it was some time before truly capable replacements like WriteNow came along. In the meantime users complained about the lack of upgrades, while the third-party developers continued to complain about the possibility of upgrades, eventually Apple decided the only solution was to spin off the products to a third party of its own creation, forming Claris in 1987. Claris was also given the rights to several lesser-known Apple products such as MacProject, MacDraw, Claris second corporate headquarters was in Santa Clara, about six miles from the main Apple campus. At first Claris provided only trivial upgrades, limited to making the products continue to run on newer versions of the Macintosh operating system, in 1988, Claris purchased FileMaker from Nashoba Systems and quickly released a rebranded version called FileMaker II. In the meantime, development began on major overhauls of their product line. Each of these would be released as part of the Pro series of products. In 1990, Apple decided that Claris should remain a wholly owned subsidiary, the company president soon left, and over the next year most of the other executives followed. That same year Claris also purchased an integrated application written by two former Claris employees, after rebranding in a style similar to FileMaker, MacDraw, and MacWrite, it was released in 1991 as ClarisWorks, and became another huge success for the company. After a lengthy series of ups and downs, this product was taken back by Apple in 1998. In the late 1980s, Claris began a major effort, rewriting all of its products to use a more modern. The result was the Pro series, MacDraw Pro, MacWrite Pro, the series was released piecemeal over a period of about two years, during which period Microsoft was able to dominate the market with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. Claris did offer ClarisWorks, a package, and, while the price was right, ClarisWorks was very limited. Microsoft also released a Works package, by the late 1980s, HyperCard needed updating as well but Apple management did not see any value in the product and let it wither. Complaints eventually became loud enough that they decided something had to be done, studying the problem, they decided that all software should be released through Claris, and sent HyperCard and the Mac OS to them. Many of the refused to move to Claris, leading to a serious split in development that delayed future releases of both productsClariS – Claris logo
28. Illustration – The origin of the word “illustration” is late Middle English, via Old French from Latin illustratio, from the verb illustrate. Contemporary illustration uses a range of styles and techniques, including drawing, painting, printmaking, collage, montage, digital design, multimedia. Most illustrators work on a freelance basis, depending on the purpose, illustration may be expressive, stylised, realistic or highly technical. This may include exploded views, cutaways, fly-throughs, reconstructions, instructional images, component designs, in contemporary illustration practice, 2D and 3D software is often used to create accurate representations that can be updated easily, and reused in a variety of contexts. In the art world, illustration has at times been considered of less importance than graphic design, original illustration art has been known to attract high prices at auction. The US artist Norman Rockwells painting Breaking Home Ties sold in a 2006 Sothebys auction for USD15.4 million, many other illustration genres are equally valued, with pinup artists such as Gil Elvgren and Alberto Vargas, for example, also attracting high prices. Historically, the art of illustration is closely linked to the processes of printing and publishing. The illustrations of medieval codices were known as illuminations, and were hand drawn. With the invention of the press during the 15th century, books became more widely distributed. Subjects included traditional folk tales, popular figures and every day life, hokusai’s The Great Wave of Kanazawa is a famous image of the time. During the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, the main reproduction processes for illustration were engraving and etching, in 18th Century England, a notable illustrator was William Blake, who used relief etching. By the early 19th century, the introduction of lithography substantially improved reproduction quality, in Europe, notable figures of the early 19th Century were John Leech, George Cruikshank, Dickens illustrator Hablot Knight Browne, and, in France, Honoré Daumier. All contributed to both satirical and “serious” publications, at this time, there was a great demand for caricature drawings encapsulating social mores, types and classes. Although all fine art trained, their reputations were gained primarily as illustrators, in common with similar magazines such as the Parisian Le Voleur, Punch realised good illustration sold as well as good text. With publication continuing into the 21st Century, Punch chronicles a gradual shift in popular illustration, from the early 1800s newspapers, mass market magazines, and illustrated books had become the dominant consumer media in Europe and the New World. By the 19th Century, improvements in printing technology freed illustrators to experiment with color, in America, this led to a golden age of illustration from before the 1880s until the early 20th Century. A small group of illustrators became highly successful, with the imagery they created considered a portrait of American aspirations of the timeIllustration – Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith
29. Adult contemporary music – Adult contemporary is rather a continuation of the easy listening and soft rock style that became popular in the 1960s and 1970s with some adjustments that reflect the evolution of pop/rock music. Adult contemporary tends to have lush, soothing and highly polished qualities where emphasis on melody and it is usually melodic enough to get a listeners attention, and is inoffensive and pleasurable enough to work well as background music. Like most of pop music, its songs tend to be written in a basic format employing a verse–chorus structure, the format is heavy on romantic sentimental ballads which mostly use acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitars, pianos, saxophones, and sometimes an orchestral set. The electric guitars are normally faint and high-pitched, however, recent adult contemporary music may usually feature synthesizers. An AC radio station may play mainstream music, but it excludes hip hop, dance tracks, hard rock, and some forms of teen pop, as these are popular among adults. AC radio often targets the 25–44 age group, the demographic that has received the most attention from advertisers since the 1960s, a common practice in recent years of adult contemporary stations is to play less newer music and more hits of the past. This de-emphasis on new songs slows the progression of the AC chart, over the years, AC has spawned subgenres including hot AC, soft AC, urban AC, rhythmic AC, and Christian AC. Some stations play only hot AC, soft AC, or only one of the variety of subgenres, therefore, it is not usually considered a specific genre of music, it is merely an assemblage of selected tracks from musicians of many different genres. Adult contemporary traces its roots to the 1960s easy listening format, a few offered 90% instrumentals, and a handful were entirely instrumental. Billboard first published the Easy Listening chart July 17,1961, with 20 songs, the chart described itself as not too far out in either direction. Initially, the vocalists consisted of such as Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Perry Como. The custom recordings were usually instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs, some stations would also occasionally play earlier big band-era recordings from the 1940s and early 1950s. After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced, better reflecting what middle of the road stations were actually playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically. As rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the half of the 1960s. Roger Miller, Barbra Streisand and Bobby Vinton were among the charts most popular performers and these middle of the road stations also frequently included older, pre-rock-era adult standards and big band titles to further appeal to adult listeners who had grown up with those songs. Another big impetus for the evolution of the AC radio format was the popularity of easy listening or beautiful music stations, stations with music specifically designed to be purely ambient, hard rock had been established as a mainstream genre by 1965. From the end of the 1960s, it common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melodyAdult contemporary music – Adult contemporary artist Celine Dion is one of the biggest international stars in music history, selling more than 220 million albums worldwide.
30. Baroque pop – Baroque pop is a pop music subgenre that fuses classical music, orchestral pop, rock, and Baroque music. It is identifiable for its use of melodies, functional harmony patterns. The genre emerged in the 1960s after pop musicians and record producers began placing the harpsichord in the foreground of their arrangements, other typical baroque pop instrumentation includes string sections, French horns, and oboes. Baroque pops mainstream popularity faded by the 1970s, partially because punk rock, disco and hard rock took over, nonetheless, music was still produced within the genres tradition. Philadelphia soul in the 1970s and chamber pop in the 1990s both incorporated the spirit of baroque pop while the latter contested much of the low fidelity musical aesthetic. Baroque pop, stylistically, fuses elements of rock with classical music, often incorporating layered harmonies, strings and its prominent characteristics are the use of contrapuntal melodies and functional harmony patterns. It was intended to be a serious and mature outgrowth of rock music. English baroque is used by journalist Bob Stanley to describe a subset that existed between 1968 and 1973, starting in the 1960s, pop musicians and record producers like Phil Spector and the Beach Boys Brian Wilson began placing the harpsichord in the foreground of their arrangements. Harpsichords were widely available in recording studios, and had used in popular music since as early as the 1940s. One of the first pop hits to use a harpsichord was the Jamies Summertime, Summertime. Later examples range from the Beach Boys I Get Around and When I Grow Up to the Righteous Brothers Youve Lost That Lovin Feelin and the Mamas & the Papas Monday, Monday. The Boston Globes Matthew Guerriri speculates that the harpsichord may have been desirable for its buzzing, stinging timbre, slates Forrest Wickman credits Wilson and the Beatles producer, George Martin, as some of the men most responsible for the move into baroque pop. Along with Burt Bacharach, Spector had melded pop music with classical elements before they were melded with rock, writer Andrew Jackson suggests that the era of baroque pop in which rock melded with classical elements was prefaced by the Rolling Stones and Brian Wilson. The Beatles benefited from the music skills of Martin, who played a baroque harpsichord solo on the song In My Life. Author Joe Harrington noted that after its release, many baroque-rock works would soon appear, producer Tommy LiPuma believed, Once the Beatles featured that harpsichord sound on In My Life, pop producers began working it in. The genre is traced to the United States and the United Kingdom, by early 1966, various groups began using baroque and classical instrumentation, described as a baroque rock movement by Gendron. The Zombies single Shes Not There marked a point for British baroque pop. Stanley explains that the song didnt feature any oboes but stuck out rather dramatically in 1964, Shes Not There would inspire New York musician Michael Brown to form the Left Banke, whose song Walk Away Renée is considered by Stanley to be the first recognizable baroque pop singleBaroque pop – The Beatles (with help from George Martin) consciously chose their orchestral arrangements to reflect an English Baroque feel, as per their contemporaries.
31. Britpop – The most successful bands associated with the movement are Oasis, Blur, Suede and Pulp, those groups would come to be known as its big four. The timespan of Britpop is generally considered to be 1993-1997, with 1994-1995, an influence they shared in particular was the Smiths. These bands were joined by others including Oasis, Pulp, The Verve, Supergrass, Cast, Placebo, Space, Sleeper. Britpop groups brought British alternative rock into the mainstream and formed the backbone of a larger British cultural movement called Cool Britannia, the Battle of Britpop brought Britpop to the forefront of the British press in 1995. By 1997, however, the movement began to slow down, many began to falter. The popularity of the pop group the Spice Girls snatched the spirit of the age from those responsible for Britpop. Although its more popular bands were able to spread their commercial success overseas, especially to the United States, the movement largely fell apart by the end of the decade. Britpop bands show elements from the British pop music of the Sixties, glam rock and punk rock of the Seventies, and indie pop of the Eighties in their music, attitude, and clothing. Specific influences vary, Blur and Oasis drew from the Kinks, regardless, Britpop artists project a sense of reverence for British pop sounds of the past. Alternative rock acts from the scene of the Eighties and early Nineties were the direct ancestors of the Britpop movement. The influence of the Smiths is common to the majority of Britpop artists, local identity and regional British accents are common to Britpop groups, as well as references to British places and culture in lyrics and image. Stylistically, Britpop bands use catchy hooks and lyrics that were relevant to young British people of their own generation, Britpop bands conversely denounced grunge as irrelevant and having nothing to say about their lives. Damon Albarn of Blur summed up the attitude in 1993 when after being asked if Blur were a band he said, Well. If punk was about getting rid of hippies, then Im getting rid of grunge, in spite of the professed disdain for the genres, some elements of both crept into the more enduring facets of Britpop. The imagery associated with Britpop was equally British and working class, a rise in unabashed maleness, exemplified by Loaded magazine and lad culture in general, would be very much part of the Britpop era. The emphasis on British reference points made it difficult for the genre to achieve success in the US, journalist John Harris has suggested that Britpop began when Blurs single Popscene and Suedes The Drowners were released around the same time in the spring of 1992. He stated, f Britpop started anywhere, it was the deluge of acclaim that greeted Suedes first records, all of them audacious, successful and very, very British. Suede were the first of the new crop of guitar-orientated bands to be embraced by the UK music media as Britains answer to Seattles grunge sound and their debut album Suede became the fastest-selling debut album in the history of the UKBritpop – The Stone Roses playing live.
32. Chamber pop – Chamber pop is a subgenre of indie rock or indie pop which grew in the mid 1990s as a reaction against the fuzz distortion and lo-fi aesthetic prominent in alternative music. The Beach Boys Brian Wilson informed much of the genre, as did composer Burt Bacharach, specific works that helped define the style include the Beach Boys albums Pet Sounds and Smile, as well as the majority of Louis Phillipes productions for él Records. The combination of string sections and rock music has been called symphonic pop, chamber pop, and ork-pop. Ork-pop refers to a branch of underground rock musicians who shared an affinity with the Beach Boys 1966 studio album Pet Sounds, such as the High Llamas and bands from the Elephant 6 collective. According to CMJs David Jerman, the name was the creation of rock critics, encompassing everyone from fans of the Beach Boys to fans of Bacharach and Mancini. Strongly influenced by the rich orchestrations of Burt Bacharach, Brian Wilson, allMusic states that the genre carries on the spirit of the baroque pop of the 1960s, while cultural writers Joseph Fisher and Brian Flota call it the heir to baroque pop. Another major source of influence was the singer Scott Walker, new York Daily News Jim Farber summarizes the genre, think Donovan meets Burt Bacharach. Just as ork-pop acts shared a love for Wilson, they held an admiration for one anothers work. Newsmakers believes that the Beach Boys Pet Sounds helped define chamber pop as intimate, precisely arranged songs with rocks sweep, following the album was the groups unfinished 1966–67 work Smile, a collaboration between Brian Wilson and lyricist Van Dyke Parks that also heavily influenced the genre. According to the High Llamas Sean OHagan, Pet Sounds had been the beginning of the great pop experiment, but it wasnt allowed to continue, because rock and roll got hold of the whole thing and stopped it. Pop didnt take off again until this decade, author Carl Wilson says that Brians pained vulnerability, uses of offbeat instruments, intricate harmonies, and the Smile saga itself became a common reference point for chamber pop bands. In the late 1980s, the majority of Louis Phillipes productions for él Records also made sophisticated use of orchestras and voices that embodied and defined the chamber pop style. Chamber pop was part of a trend which involved musicians who rejected traditional rock conventions, such as Tortoise and Stereolab. The genres orchestration is more complex than rock music, making extensive use of brass. Although modern rock groups like Smashing Pumpkins, Oasis, and R. E. M, occasionally used strings, their approach was considerably less intricate. The High Llamas were one of the first to anticipate the easy-listening fad with their 1993 debut album Gideon Gaye. OHagan felt that There is this misconception that American college rock with twisted baseball hats and checked shirts is adventurous. All these bands sound like Nirvana and Pearl Jam and its a shame that it couldnt be discovered from the get-go for what it isChamber pop – The Beatles (with help from George Martin) consciously chose their orchestral arrangements to reflect an English Baroque feel, as per their contemporaries.
33. Dangdut – Dangdut is a genre of Indonesian folk and traditional popular music that is partly derived from Hindustani, Malay, and Arabic music. Dangdut is a popular genre in Indonesia because of its melodious instrumentation. Indonesians dance in somewhat similar to the ghoomar while listening to dangdut music, Dangdut features a tabla and gendang beat. Dangdut really has strong Indian music influence from the basis of harmony, instrument, beat, Dangdut is very popular throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and other Malay-speaking lands. A dangdut band typically consists of a singer, male or female. Instruments usually include a tabla, gendang, flute, mandolin, guitars, sitar, drum machines, the term has been expanded from the desert-style music to embrace other musical styles. Modern dangdut incorporates influences from Middle Eastern pop music, Western rock, house music, hip-hop music, contemporary R&B, the popularity of Dangdut peaked in the 1990s. By 2012, it was popular in the western parts of Indonesia and not in the eastern parts. The term dangdut is a Javanese language onomatopoeia for the sound of the tabla drum and it was reportedly coined by music magazine Aktuil, although Rhoma Irama stated that it was coined as a term of derision by the rich to the music of the poor. Besides orkes Melayu, the musical influence on dangdut was Indian Bollywood music. The song Terajana pays homage to the 1959 Bollywood hit Tera Jana Ke, the next verse of Terajana is as follows, Terajana. Terajana - Terajana, Terajana Ini lagunya, lagu India - This is the song, song of India Orkes Melayu singer Ellya Khadam switched to dangdut in the 1970s, and, by 1972, she was the number-one artist in Indonesia. Her success, with that of Rhoma Irama, meant that by 1975,75 percent of all recorded music in Indonesia was of the dangdut genre, most major cities, especially on Java, have one or more venues that have a dangdut show several times a week. The concerts of major stars are also broadcast on television. In the face of opposition from conservative Muslim groups in Indonesia and this cancellation led numerous commentators to note that opposition to Lady Gagas performances was surprising given the nature of some dangdut shows. Dangdut remains a part of Indonesian life and pop culture despite conservative Muslim concerns over the supposed vulgarity of some performances. Because the popularity of the genre, some movies and TV show have dangdut-centered themes, such as Rhoma Iramas movies and Rudy Soedjarwos Mendadak DangdutDangdut – Kempul gongs from Java
34. Dream pop – Dream pop is a subgenre of alternative rock and neo-psychedelia that developed in the 1980s. The style is typified by a preoccupation with atmosphere and texture as much as melody, the AllMusic Guide to Electronica defines dream pop as an atmospheric subgenre of alternative rock that relies on sonic textures as much as melody. Common characteristics are breathy vocals and use of effects, often producing a wall of noise. Dream pop tends to focus on textures and moods rather than propulsive rock riffs, lyrics are often introspective or existential in nature. In the view of music critic Simon Reynolds, dream pop celebrates rapturous and transcendent experiences, often using druggy, according to Rachel Felder, dream pop artists often resist representations of social reality in favor of ambiguous or hallucinogenic experiences. The term dream pop, which is thought to relate to the immersion in the experienced by the listener, was coined in the late 1980s by Alex Ayuli to describe the music of his band A. R. It was later adopted by Simon Reynolds to describe the nascent shoegazing scene in the UK, in the 1990s, dream pop and shoegazing were interchangeable and regionally dependent terms, with dream pop being the name by which shoegazing was known in America. Reynolds described dream pop bands as a wave of hazy neo-psychedelic groups, rolling Stone also described dream pop as originating with the early 1980s work of Cocteau Twins and their contemporaries. PopMatters noted an evolutionary line from gothic rock to dream pop, ambient pop music was described by AllMusic as essentially an extension of the dream pop that emerged in the wake of the shoegazer movement, distinct for its incorporation of electronic textures. According to N. George Harrisons 1970 album All Things Must Pass, with its Wall of Sound and fluid arrangements, led music journalist John Bergstrom to credit it as an influence on dream popDream pop
35. Pop punk – Pop punk is a punk rock music genre and a fusion genre that combines elements of punk rock with elements of pop music. Pop punk typically combines fast punk rock tempos, power chord changes and loud, distorted guitars with pop-influenced melodies. Pop-influenced punk rock emerged in the mid-1970s with a style that was stylistically similar to power pop. By the mid-1980s, several bands merged hardcore punk with pop music to create a new, faster pop punk sound such as Dag Nasty, Pop punk in the United States began to grow in popularity locally in California in the mid-to-late 1980s. Pop punk particularly thrived in California, where independent record labels adopted a do it approach to releasing music. By the mid-1990s, a few pop punk bands had started to sell millions of records and receive radio and television airplay. By 1994, pop punk was quickly growing in mainstream popularity, the late 1990s, exemplified by the 1999 release of Blink-182s Enema of the State, represented the genres mainstream peak, although some pop punk bands scored successful album chartings in the 2000s. In the mid-2000s, emo pop, a genre combining emo and pop punk. By the end of the 2000s, the pop sound of the 1990s had largely waned in mainstream popularity. Pop punk typically merges upbeat pop melodies with catchy hooks, catchy choruses, harmonies, speedy tempos, punk rock power chord changes and loud, distorted electric guitars. About. com has described second-wave pop punk bands as having a radio friendly sheen to their music, club, pop punk often pits sweet harmonies against bratty, rowdy riffs. Lyrical topics that are common in pop punk include love, lust, drunkenness, adolescence, cartoonish violence, some pop punk lyrics focus on jokes and humor. Some pop punk music features elements of rock, power pop. According to Ryan Cooper of About. com, pop punk is a style that more to the Beatles. It is not clear when the pop punk was first used. Protopunk and power pop bands of the late 1960s and early 1970s helped lay the groundwork for the pop punk sound, the Beatles, the Kinks and the Beach Boys all paved the way for pop punk. With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s bubblegum pop, the Ramones loud and fast melodic minimalism differentiated them from other bands in New York Citys budding art rock scene, but pop punk was not considered a separate subgenre until later. An early use of the pop punk appeared in a 1977 New York Times article, CabaretPop punk – The Ramones performing in Norway in 1980.
36. Pop-rap – Pop-rap is a genre of music fusing the rhythm-based lyricism of hip hop music with pop musics preference for melodious vocals and catchy tunes, which gained mainstream popularity during the 1990s. The lyrics are often lighthearted, with similar to those heard in pop music. The influences and roots of pop rap trace back to late 1980s hip hop artists, such as Run DMC, LL Cool J, many pop singers will often feature hip-hop artists now. In the 1980s, rap artists including Run DMC, Beastie Boys and LL Cool J set up the blueprints, LL Cool J has been described as the very first pop-rapper in history, when he rose to prominence on his 1985 debut album Radio. When he joined Russell Simmons Def Jam label and decided to try merging rap with pop and R&B influences, MTV has described LL Cool Js 1987 single I Need Love, as one of the first pop-rap crossover hits. Later, rap artists such as Tone Loc, Young MC, during the 1990s, pop rap began to expand even more as hip hop music also began to connect strongly with dance music and R&B. On 9 July 1990, Céline Dion released Unison as the single for her first English-language album of the same name. The track was produced by Andy Goldmark, for the single release, Unison was remixed by Kevin Unger. and make it funky. In the early 1990s, MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice broke into the mainstream with songs like U Cant Touch This, during the 1990s, smash-hit rappers such as MC Hammer caused pop-rap to be derided for its willingness to borrow from well-known hit singles. By the end of the 1990s as rappers fused gangsta rap themes with 1980s pop and soul elements, mariah Carey did a collaboration in 1995 with ODB with the remix version of Fantasy. During the early 2000s, pop-rap returned with a different style. It then went back into the mainstream with the success of The Black Eyed Peas who had smash singles such as Where Is the Love, which came off their Elephunk album.2 million in the United States alone. During the late 2000s, pop-rap had many such as Drake, Will. i. am, Nicki Minaj. For instance, Drakes Take Care album went at the top of the Top 40. Also, his So Far Gone EP peaked at six on the Billboard 200 chart with 73,000 units sold. It dropped in the second week down to nine, with sales of 36,000. Despite being an EP, it became the fifth-best-selling rap record of 2009, as of February 2012, the EP has sold 639,000 copies in the US. The EP was certified gold by the RIAA on July 4,2010 for sales exceeding 500,000, Drakes single Im Goin In charted and peaked at number 40 the week after the EP was soldPop-rap – MC Hammer performing with Vanilla Ice in July 2009, who were both described as early pop-rap artists for blending rap music with catchy hooks.
37. Power pop – Power pop is a pop rock music subgenre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American rock music. It typically incorporates a combination of devices such as strong melodies, clear vocals and crisp vocal harmonies, economical arrangements. Instrumental solos are usually kept to a minimum, and blues elements are largely downplayed, in the 1980s and 1990s, power pop continued as a commercially modest genre but by the mid-1990s through the 2000s, power pop was mainly in the underground. While its cultural impact has waxed and waned over the decades, Power pop is a more aggressive form of pop rock that is based on catchy, melodic hooks and energetic moods. The Small Faces are often cited as being among the progenitors of power pop, the Whos role in the creation of power pop has been cited by singer-songwriter Eric Carmen of the Raspberries, who has said, Pete Townshend coined the phrase to define what the Who did. For some reason, it didnt stick to the Who, but it did stick to these groups came out in the 70s that played kind of melodic songs with crunchy guitars. It just kind of stuck to us like glue, and that was okay with us because the Who were among our highest role models, other acts such as the Knickerbockers, the Easybeats and the Outsiders contributed iconic singles. Writer John Borack has noted, Its also quite easy to draw a line from garage rock to power pop. Although the formative influences on the genre were primarily British, the bands that developed and codified power pop in the 1970s were nearly all American. The Raspberries 1972 hit single Go All The Way is an almost perfect embodiment of the elements of power pop, the most influential group of the period may have been Big Star. The Replacements even recorded a song entitled Alex Chilton in honor of Big Stars frontman, spurred on by the emergence of punk rock and new wave, power pop enjoyed a prolific and commercially successful period in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Although coined in the 1960s, and used as early as 1973 in reference to Sweet, as the novelist Michael Chabon has written, Power pop in its essential form. Did not come into existence for a number of years after it was first identified, like so much of the greatest work turned out by popular artists of the 1970s, true power pop is quintessential second-generation stuff. The term was used in reference to critics favorites Elvis Costello and Nick Lowe. Los Angeles-based Bomp. magazine championed power pop in its March 1978 issue, tying the genres roots to 1960s groups like the Who, like their punk brethren, late–1970s power pop groups favored a leaner and punchier sound than their early–1970s predecessors. Some occasionally incorporated synthesizers into their music, though not to the degree as did their new wave counterparts. Representative singles from the period include releases from the Bomp, records label by 20/20, Shoes and the Romantics. Major label groups like Cheap Trick, the Cars and Blondie merged power pop influences with other styles and achieved their first mainstream success with albums released in 1978Power pop – Influential British rock band the Kinks in 1965
38. Sentimental ballad – Ballads are generally melodic enough to get the listeners attention. Sentimental ballads are found in most music genres, such as, pop, R&B, soul, country, folk, rock and electronic music, Ballads tend to have a lush musical arrangement, emphasizing melody and harmonies. Characteristically, ballads use acoustic instruments such as guitars, pianos, saxophones, however though, many modern, mainstream ballads tend to feature synthesizers, drum machines and even, to some extent, a dance rhythm. Sentimental ballads had their origins in the early Tin Pan Alley music industry of the later 19th century, sentimental ballads have their roots from medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were originally danced songs. Ballads were particularly characteristic of the poetry and song of the British Isles from the later medieval period until the 19th century. They were widely used across Europe, and later in the Americas, Australia, as a narrative song, their theme and function may originate from Scandinavian and Germanic traditions of storytelling. Musically they were influenced by the Minnesinger, the earliest example of a recognizable ballad in form in England is Judas in a 13th-century manuscript. Ballads at this time were composed in couplets with refrains in alternate lines. These refrains would have been sung by the dancers in time with the dance, in the 18th century, ballad operas developed as a form of English stage entertainment, partly in opposition to the Italian domination of the London operatic scene. In America a distinction is drawn between ballads that are versions of European, particularly British and Irish songs, and Native American ballads, a further development was the evolution of the blues ballad, which mixed the genre with Afro-American music. In the late 19th century, Danish folklorist Svend Grundtvig and Harvard professor Francis James Child attempted to record and classify all the known ballads, by the Victorian era, ballad had come to mean any sentimental popular song, especially so-called royalty ballads. Some of Stephen Fosters songs exemplify this genre, by the 1920s, composers of Tin Pan Alley and Broadway used ballad to signify a slow, sentimental tune or love song, often written in a fairly standardized form. Jazz musicians sometimes broaden the term still further to embrace all slow-tempo pieces, notable sentimental ballads of this period include, Little Rosewood Casket, After the Ball, and Danny Boy. Popular sentimental ballad vocalists in this era were Frank Sinatra, Doris Day, Andy Williams, Dusty Springfield, Johnny Mathis, Connie Francis, Nat King Cole, Liza Minnelli and their custom recordings were usually instrumental versions of current or recent rock and roll or pop hit songs. The most popular and enduring songs from this style of music are known as pop standards or American standards. Soft rock, a subgenre that mainly consist of ballads, was derived from rock in the early 1970s, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody. Major sentimental ballad artists of this decade included Barbra Streisand, Nana Mouskouri, Elton John, Engelbert Humperdinck, Carole King, Cat Stevens, James Taylor. By the early 1970s, softer songs by the Carpenters, Anne Murray, John Denver, Barry ManilowSentimental ballad – To emphasize the emotional aspect of a power ballad, crowds customarily hold up lighters adjusted to produce a large flame.
39. Swamp pop – Swamp pop is a musical genre indigenous to the Acadiana region of south Louisiana and an adjoining section of southeast Texas. Created in the 1950s and early 1960s by teenaged Cajuns, it combines New Orleans-style rhythm and blues, country and western, and traditional French Louisiana musical influences. It is not to be confused with swamp rock, which is a genre that drew more on 1960s rock than on the 1950s rhythm. The swamp pop sound is typified by highly emotional, lovelorn lyrics, tripleting honky-tonk pianos, undulating lines, bellowing horn sections. It is exemplified by slow ballads like Cookie and the Cupcakes Mathilda, but the genre has also produced many upbeat compositions, such as Bobby Charles Later Alligator, popularly covered by Bill Haley & His Comets. During the genres heyday, several swamp pop songs appeared on national U. S. record charts, in swamp pops south Louisiana-southeast Texas birthplace, fans regarded many songs that never became national hits as classics. By the late 1950s, swamp pop musicians had developed their own distinct sound and they performed to receptive crowds in local dancehalls like the Southern Club in Opelousas, Landrys Palladium in Lafayette, the OST Club in Rayne, and the Green Lantern in Lawtell. Swamp pop musicians often adopted Anglo-American stage names that masked their Cajun surnames, some of these musicians changed their names because they were ashamed of their rural French heritage — a feeling shared at the time by a segment of the Cajun population. Despite its obvious rock and roll and rhythm & blues influences, joe Barry re-recorded his swamp pop hit Im A Fool To Care in French under the title Je suis bête pour taimer. And Randy and the Rockets issued Lets Do The Cajun Twist, since the genres origin in the mid-1950s, over 20 swamp pop songs have appeared in the Billboard Hot 100. Five of these songs broke into the Top 10, and three of them reached number one, Swamp pop also left its imprint on the related but distinct genre known as swamp blues, including Slim Harpos classic Rainin In My Heart. Swamp pop influenced Tex-Mex music, particularly the recordings of Freddy Fenders early swampy songs like Before The Next Teardrop Falls and Wasted Days and Wasted Nights in 1975. Although the genre began a decline with the onslaught of the British Invasion, swamp pop music continues to draw devoted fans to south Louisiana and southeast Texas festivals. Only a few younger swamp pop musicians, such as Don Rich, are replacing the original generation of swamp pop pioneers, some younger non-swamp musicians, such as Cajun musician Zachary Richard and rockers Marc Broussard and C. C. Adcock, have acknowledged a strong pop influence. Johnnie Allan, Promised Land, Ace 380,1992, Johnnie Allan, Swamp Pop Legend, Johnnie Allan – The Essential Collection, Jin 9044,1995. Rod Bernard, Swamp Pop Legend, Rod Bernard – The Essential Collection, Rod Bernard, Swamp Rock n Roller, Ace 488,1994. The Boogie Kings, Swamp Boogie Blues, Jin 9045,1995, van Broussard, The Early Years, CSP1007,1993Swamp pop – Swamp pop musician Jivin' Gene, c. 1959.
40. Synthpop – Synth-pop is a subgenre of new wave music that first became prominent in the late 1970s and features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument. It was prefigured in the 1960s and early 1970s by the use of synthesizers in progressive rock, electronic, art rock, disco, and particularly the Krautrock of bands like Kraftwerk. It arose as a genre in Japan and the United Kingdom in the post-punk era as part of the new wave movement of the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. In Japan, Yellow Magic Orchestras success opened the way for bands such as P-Model, Plastics. The development of polyphonic synthesizers, the definition of MIDI. This, its adoption by the acts from the New Romantic movement, together with the rise of MTV. Synth-pop is sometimes deployed interchangeably with electropop, but electropop may also denote a variant of synth-pop that places emphasis on a harder. In the late 1980s duos such as Erasure and Pet Shop Boys adopted a style that was successful on the US dance-charts. Some artists and bands were criticised for gender bending, Synth-pop was defined by its primary use of synthesizers, drum machines and sequencers, sometimes using them to replace all other instruments. Borthwick and Moy have described the genre as diverse but, many synth-pop musicians had limited musical skills, relying on the technology to produce or reproduce the music. The result was often minimalist, with grooves that were woven together from simple repeated riffs often with no harmonic progression to speak of. Early synth-pop has been described as eerie, sterile, and vaguely menacing, using droning electronics with little change in inflection, common lyrical themes of synth-pop songs were isolation, urban anomie, and feelings of being emotionally cold and hollow. Synthesizers were increasingly used to imitate the conventional and clichéd sound of orchestras, thin, treble-dominant, synthesized melodies and simple drum programmes gave way to thick, and compressed production, and a more conventional drum sound. Lyrics were generally optimistic, dealing with more traditional subject matter for pop music such as romance, escapism. According to music writer Simon Reynolds, the hallmark of 1980s synth-pop was its emotional, at times operatic singers such as Marc Almond, Alison Moyet and Annie Lennox. Because synthesizers removed the need for groups of musicians, these singers were often part of a duo where their partner played all the instrumentation. Later synth-pop saw a shift to a style influenced by other genres. Electronic musical synthesizers that could be used practically in a recording studio became available in the mid-1960s, the portable Minimoog, which allowed much easier use, particularly in live performance was widely adopted by progressive rock musicians such as Richard Wright of Pink Floyd and Rick Wakeman of YesSynthpop – The Prophet-5, one of the first polyphonic synthesizers. It was widely used in 1980s synthpop, along with the Roland Jupiter and Yamaha DX7.
41. Urban pop – Urban contemporary is a music radio format. The term was coined by New York DJ Frankie Crocker in the mid-1970s, urban contemporary was developed through the characteristics of genres such as R&B and soul. Virtually all urban contemporary formatted radio stations are located in cities that have sizeable African-American populations, such as New York City, Atlanta, Chicago, Washington, the term urban contemporary is heavily associated with African-American music, particularly for R&B in African-American contexts. For Latin Americans, the music is more Latin urban, such as reggaeton, Latin hip hop, urban contemporary playlists are dominated by singles by top-selling hip hop and R&B performers. On occasion, a contemporary station will play classic soul songs from the 1970s. Most urban formatted stations such as KJLH, KPRS, KMEL, KDAY, mainstream urban is a branch of urban contemporary, and rhythmic contemporary is also a branch. When Frankie Crocker was appointed as director of the newly created WBLS in 1974, he created an eclectic music mix of R&B. The station was an instant success, the most listened-to radio station in the country, in 1975, WDMT in Cleveland began programming a mix of rhythm blues R&B, disco and rap. The station featured live street jocks mixing vinyl records each night, the stations popularity grew and in 1980, it was Arbitron rated No.2 12+, just behind the No.1 rated WMMS with the original Morning Zoo. In 1983 WBLS in New York City was the first station to air a rap radio show, Rap Attack with Mr. Magic and Marley Marl. During the early 1980s as newly formed WRKS-FM became the first rap station in the United States, the urban format by this time was redefined by an eclectic mix of R&B, rap, reggae, dance, house, and freestyle. WBLS continued as the station of the urban format, however. Another successful early urban outlet was WDRQ in Detroit, which switched from a top 40 format in the spring of 1982 and made a #2 showing 12+ in its first Arbitron ratings book. In addition to rap, R&B and dance music, WDRQ featured mainstream pop music with a beat from artists such as Cyndi Lauper. Another subformat of urban contemporary is rhythmic contemporary hits which plays a great deal of dance music, wQHT-FM and KPWR were the first stations to utilize this format. Since the 1990s, as contemporary hits have dominated the US pop charts. In 2004, all 12 songs that topped Billboard Hot 100 were African-American recording artists, along with Ushers streak of singles, top 40 radio and both pop and R&B charts were topped by OutKasts Hey Ya. Snoop Doggs Drop It Like Its Hot, Terror Squads Lean Back, the Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration has been awarded since 2002Urban pop – Whitney Houston.
42. Air Supply – Air Supply is an Australian soft rock duo, consisting of singer-songwriter and guitarist Graham Russell and lead vocalist Russell Hitchcock. They had a succession of hits worldwide, including eight Top Ten hits in the United States and they formed in Australia in 1975 and have included various accompanying musicians and singers. The Australian Recording Industry Association inducted Air Supply into their Hall of Fame on 1 December 2013 at the annual ARIA Awards. Chrissie Hammond, Russell Hitchcock, and Graham Russell met in May 1975 while performing in the Australian production of the Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice musical, Jesus Christ Superstar. With Hammond and Hitchcock on vocals and Russell on guitar, they formed a vocal group in Melbourne. Hammond left the group to form Cheetah and was replaced by Jeremy Paul on bass guitar. Together, Hitchcock, Russell and Paul formed Air Supply, the groups first single, Love and Other Bruises, was released in November 1976 and peaked at No.6 on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart in January 1977. It was followed by Air Supply, their album, in December. The album was produced by Peter Dawkins with Air Supply line-up as Hitchcock, Paul, Russell and drummer Jeff Browne, guitarist Mark McEntee and keyboardist, Other singles were If You Knew Me, Empty Pages and Feel the Breeze but none reached the Top 40. A national tour followed with Hitchcock, Paul, Russell and Scott joined by Nigel Macara on drums, the album spawned the singles Do What You Do, Thats How the Whole Thing Started and Do It Again but neither album nor singles charted into the Top 40. From late 1977, the group supported Rod Stewart during his tour of Australia—he invited them to continue to the United States, Paul, in 1980, recruited fellow former Air Supply bandmate McEntee in the line-up of Divinyls, fronted by Chrissie Amphlett. Air Supply performed in London supporting Chicago and Boz Scaggs, by early 1978, the line-up was Hitchcock, Russell, and Macara with George Terry and Joey Murcia on guitar, George Bitzer on keyboards and Harold Cowart on bass guitar. However, by mid-1978, only Hitchcock and Russell remained in the line-up, backed by Ralph Cooper on drums and former Sailor members Brian Hamilton on bass guitar and vocals and David Moyse on guitar. In April 1979, the band released Life Support, an album which included a picture disc on its first printing. The album was recorded at Trafalgar Studios in Sydney, the album had a five-and-a-half-minute version of Lost in Love, written by Graham Russell in 15 minutes, it was released as a single and peaked at No.13 in Australia and No.13 in New Zealand. The track caught the attention of Arista Records boss Clive Davis, in late November 1979 Russell was embroiled in a bitter court case with Samuel Nay over accusations of assault at a backstage meet and greet in Oklahoma. Nay would later pass away during the case and all charges were dropped. The line-up for the album kept Hitchcock, Russell, Cooper, and Moyse, Esler-Smith had previously known Hitchcock and Russell from working with them in Jesus Christ SuperstarAir Supply – Graham Russell (left) and Russell Hitchcock (right) of Air Supply, 2006
43. Alanis Morissette – Alanis Nadine Morissette is a Canadian-American alternative rock singer-songwriter, musician, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, and actress. Morissette began her career in Canada in the early 1990s, with two commercially successful dance-pop albums and her following album, Supposed Former Infatuation Junkie, was released in 1998. Morissette took up producing duties for her subsequent albums, which include Under Rug Swept, So-Called Chaos and her eighth studio album, Havoc and Bright Lights, was released in 2012. Morissette has sold more than 60 million albums worldwide, Morissette is also known for her powerful and emotive mezzo-soprano voice. She has been dubbed the Queen of alt-rock angst by Rolling Stone, Morissette was born June 1,1974, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, to teacher Georgia Mary Ann and high-school principal Alan Richard Morissette. She has two siblings, older brother Chad is an entrepreneur, and twin brother Wade is a musician. Her father was of French and Irish descent and her mother had Hungarian ancestry and her parents were teachers in a military school and due to their work often had to move. From 1977 to 1980 Morissette spent three years of her childhood in Germany, when she was six years old, she returned to Ottawa and started to play the piano. In 1981, when she was seven years old, she began dance lessons and she attended Holy Family Catholic School for elementary school and Immaculata High School for Grades 7 and 8 before completing the rest of her high school at Glebe Collegiate Institute. She appeared on the television show You Cant Do That on Television for five episodes when she was in elementary school. Morissette recorded her first demo called Fate Stay with Me, produced by Lindsay Thomas Morgan at Marigold Studios in Toronto, in 1991 MCA Records Canada released Morissettes debut album, Alanis, in Canada only. Morissette co-wrote every track on the album with its producer, Leslie Howe, the dance-pop album went platinum, and its first single, Too Hot, reached the top twenty on the RPM singles chart. Subsequent singles Walk Away and Feel Your Love reached the top 40, Morissettes popularity, style of music and appearance, particularly that of her hair, led her to become known as the Debbie Gibson of Canada, comparisons to Tiffany were also common. During the same period, she was an opening act for rapper Vanilla Ice. Morissette was nominated for three 1992 Juno Awards, Most Promising Female Vocalist of the Year, Single of the Year, in 1992, she released her second album, Now Is the Time, a ballad-driven record that featured less glitzy production than Alanis and contained more thoughtful lyrics. Morissette wrote the songs with the producer, Leslie Howe. She said of the album, people could go, Boo, hiss, hiss, but the way I look at it. People will like your next album if its a suck-ass one, as with Alanis, Now Is the Time was released only in Canada and produced three top 40 singles—An Emotion Away, the minor adult contemporary hit No Apologies and Never a Waste of TimeAlanis Morissette – Morissette performing at Saban Theater in Beverly Hills, California, May 19, 2014
44. The Beach Boys – The Beach Boys are an American rock band formed in Hawthorne, California in 1961. The groups original lineup consisted of brothers Brian, Dennis, and Carl Wilson, their cousin Mike Love, distinguished by their vocal harmonies and early surf songs, they are one of the most influential acts of the rock era. The Beach Boys began as a band managed by the Wilsons father Murry. Emerging at the vanguard of the California Sound, they performed material that reflected a southern California youth culture of surfing, cars. After 1964, they abandoned the surfing aesthetic for more personal lyrics, in 1966, the Pet Sounds album and Good Vibrations single vaulted the group to the top level of rock innovators and established the band as symbols of the nascent counterculture era. Following Smiles dissolution, Brian gradually ceded production and songwriting duties to the rest of the band, reducing his input because of mental health and substance abuse issues. The continued success of their greatest hits albums during the mid 1970s precipitated the transition into an oldies act. Since the 1980s, much-publicized legal wrangling over royalties, songwriting credits, Dennis drowned in 1983 and Carl died of lung cancer in 1998. After Carls death, many live configurations of the band fronted by Mike Love, Even though Wilson and Jardine have not performed with Love and Johnstons band since their one-off 2012 reunion tour, they remain a part of the Beach Boys corporation, Brother Records Inc. The Beach Boys are one of the most critically acclaimed, commercially successful, the group had over eighty songs chart worldwide, thirty-six of them US Top 40 hits, four reaching number-one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. They received their only Grammy Award for The Smile Sessions, the core quintet of the three Wilsons, Love and Jardine were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988. At the time of his birthday on June 20,1958, Brian Wilson shared a bedroom with his brothers, Dennis and Carl – aged thirteen and eleven. He had watched his father, Murry Wilson, play piano, after dissecting songs such as Ivory Tower and Good News, Brian would teach family members how to sing the background harmonies. For his birthday that year, Brian received a tape recorder. He learned how to overdub, using his vocals and those of Carl, Brian played piano with Carl and David Marks, an eleven-year-old longtime neighbor, playing guitars they had each received as Christmas presents. Soon Brian and Carl were avidly listening to Johnny Otis KFOX radio show, inspired by the simple structure and vocals of the rhythm and blues songs he heard, Brian changed his piano-playing style and started writing songs. His enthusiasm interfered with his studies at school. Family gatherings brought the Wilsons in contact with cousin Mike Love, Brian taught Loves sister Maureen and a friend harmoniesThe Beach Boys – The Beach Boys during their 2012 reunion (left to right) Brian Wilson, David Marks, Mike Love, Bruce Johnston, Al Jardine
45. Bee Gees – The Bee Gees were a pop music group formed in 1958. Their line-up consisted of brothers Barry, Robin and Maurice Gibb, the Bee Gees wrote all of their own hits, as well as writing and producing several major hits for other artists. Born on the Isle of Man to English parents, the Gibb brothers lived in Chorlton, Manchester, England, the family then moved to Redcliffe, in Queensland, Australia, and then to Cribb Island. The Bee Gees have sold more than 220 million records worldwide, the Bee Gees Hall of Fame citation says Only Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Michael Jackson, Garth Brooks and Paul McCartney have outsold the Bee Gees. Following Maurices sudden death in January 2003 at the age of 53, Barry, in 2009 Robin announced that he and Barry had agreed that the Bee Gees would re-form and perform again. Robin died in May 2012 at the age of 62, after a struggle with cancer and other health problems. In December 1957 the boys began to sing in harmony, the story is told that they were going to lip sync to a record in the local Gaumont cinema and as they were running to the theatre, the fragile shellac 78-RPM record broke. The brothers had to sing live and received such a response from the audience that they decided to pursue a singing career. In May 1958 the Rattlesnakes were disbanded when Frost and Horrocks left, with the Gibb brothers then forming Wee Johnny Hayes, in August 1958 the Gibb family, including older sister Lesley and infant brother Andy, emigrated to Redcliffe, just north-east of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia. The young brothers began performing to raise pocket money and they were introduced to leading Brisbane radio DJ Bill Gates by speedway promoter and driver Bill Goode, who had hired the brothers to entertain the crowd at the Redcliffe Speedway in 1960. Gates renamed them the BGs after his, Goodes, and Barry Gibbs initials—thus the name was not specifically a reference to Brothers Gibb, the family relocated to Cribb Island which was later demolished for Brisbane Airport. While there, the brothers went to Northgate State School, by 1960 the Bee Gees were featured on television shows, including their performance of Time Is Passing By. In the next few years they began working regularly at resorts on the Queensland coast, for his songwriting, Barry sparked the interest of Australian star Col Joye, who helped them get a record deal in 1963 with Festival Records subsidiary Leedon Records under the name Bee Gees. The three released two or three singles a year, while Barry supplied additional songs to other Australian artists, in 1962, the Bee Gees were chosen as the supporting act for Chubby Checkers concert at Sydney Stadium. From 1963 to 1966 the Gibb family lived at 171 Bunnerong Road, the house was demolished in 2016. A minor hit in 1965, Wine and Women, led to the groups first LP, The Bee Gees Sing, by 1966 Festival was, however, on the verge of dropping them from the Leedon roster because of their perceived lack of commercial success. It was at time that they met American-born songwriter, producer and entrepreneur, Nat Kipner. Kipner briefly took over as the manager and successfully negotiated their transfer to Spin in exchange for Festival being granted the Australian distribution rights to the groups recordingsBee Gees – Bee Gees in 1978 (top to bottom) Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb
46. Coldplay – Coldplay are a British rock band formed in 1996 by lead vocalist and keyboardist Chris Martin and lead guitarist Jonny Buckland at University College London. After they formed under the name Pectoralz, Guy Berryman joined the group as bassist, will Champion joined as drummer and backing vocalist, completing the performing line-up. Creative Director Phil Harvey is often referred to as the fifth member by the band. The band renamed themselves Coldplay in 1998, before recording and releasing three EPs, Safety in 1998, Brothers & Sisters as a single in 1999, the Blue Room was their first release on a major label, after signing to Parlophone. They achieved worldwide fame with the release of the single Yellow in 2000 and this was followed by their debut album Parachutes released the same year, which was nominated for the Mercury Prize. The bands second album, A Rush of Blood to the Head, was released to acclaim and won multiple awards. Their next release, X&Y, the album worldwide in 2005, was met with mostly positive reviews upon its release. In May 2014, they released their album, Ghost Stories. In December 2015, the released their seventh album, A Head Full of Dreams. Coldplay have sold more than 80 million records worldwide, making one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In December 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted the group the fourth-best artist of the 2000s, Coldplay have been an active supporter of various social and political causes, such as Oxfams Make Trade Fair campaign and Amnesty International. Chris Martin and Jonny Buckland first met during their week at University College London in September 1996. The pair spent the rest of the university year planning a band, Guy Berryman, a classmate of Martin and Buckland, later joined the group. By 1997, the group, who had renamed themselves Starfish, Martin also had recruited his longtime school friend Phil Harvey, who was studying classics at the University of Oxford, to be the bands manager. Coldplay have since accepted Harvey as the member of the group. The bands line-up was completed when Will Champion joined to take up percussion duties, Champion had grown up playing piano, guitar, bass, and tin whistle, he quickly learned the drums. The band finally settled on the name Coldplay which was suggested by Tim Crompton, by 1997, Martin had met Classics student Tim Rice-Oxley. During a weekend in the English village Virginia Water in Surrey they asked each other to play their own songs on the pianoColdplay – Coldplay on stage following a 2009 performance during the Viva La Vida tour. From left to right: Chris Martin, Guy Berryman, Jonny Buckland, Will Champion
47. Fleetwood Mac – Fleetwood Mac are a British-American rock band, formed in London in 1967. The band has more than 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the worlds best-selling bands of all time. In 1998, selected members of Fleetwood Mac were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, to date, the album has sold over 40 million copies worldwide, making it the eighth-highest-selling album of all time. Due to numerous changes, the only original member present in the band is drummer Mick Fleetwood. Keyboardist Christine McVie, who joined the band in 1970 while married to John McVie, has appeared on every album except the debut album and she left the band in 1998 but returned in 2014. Fleetwood Mac were formed in July 1967 in London when Peter Green left the British blues band John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, Peter Green had replaced guitarist Eric Clapton in the Bluesbreakers, and received critical acclaim for his work on their album A Hard Road. After he had been in the Bluesbreakers for some time, Green asked if drummer Mick Fleetwood could replace Aynsley Dunbar, Green had been in two bands with Fleetwood—Peter Bs Looners and the subsequent Shotgun Express. John Mayall agreed and Fleetwood became a member of the band, the Bluesbreakers now consisted of Green, Fleetwood, John McVie and Mayall. Mayall gave Green free recording time as a gift, in which Fleetwood, McVie, the fifth song was an instrumental which Green named after the rhythm section, Fleetwood Mac. Soon after, Green contacted Fleetwood to form a new band, the pair wanted McVie on bass guitar and even named the band Fleetwood Mac as a way to entice him. However, McVie opted to keep his income with Mayall rather than take a risk with a new band. The Green, Fleetwood, Spencer, Brunning version of the band made its debut on 13 August 1967 at the Windsor Jazz, Brunning merely played at a handful of gigs with Fleetwood Mac. Within weeks of this show, John McVie agreed to join the band as permanent bassist, Fleetwood Macs first album, Fleetwood Mac, was a no-frills blues album and was released on the Blue Horizon label in February 1968. In fact there were no players on the album. The album was successful in the UK, hitting No,4, though it did not have any singles on it. The band soon released two singles Black Magic Woman and Need Your Love So Bad, the bands second album, Mr. Wonderful, was released in August 1968. Like the first it was an album, but this time they made a few changes. The album was recorded live in the studio with miked amplifiers and PA system and this method provided the ideal environment for producing this style of music, and gave it an authentically vintage soundFleetwood Mac – Left to right: John McVie, Stevie Nicks, Lindsey Buckingham, Mick Fleetwood at Saint Paul, Minnesota on 3 March 2009
48. Frank Sinatra – Francis Albert Sinatra was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the music artists of all time. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra began his career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943 and he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatras professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas and his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice n Easy. Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own label, Reprise Records. It was followed by 1968s collaboration with Duke Ellington, using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until a short time before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor. After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm and he appeared in various musicals such as On the Town, Guys and Dolls, High Society, and Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he associated with playing detectives. Sinatra would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B, on television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. While Sinatra never formally learned how to read music, he had a natural, intuitive understanding of it, a perfectionist, renowned for his impeccable dress sense and cleanliness, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname Ol Blue Eyes, Sinatra led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. He went on to marry Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976, Sinatra had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him the greatest singer of the 20th century, Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12,1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey. He was the child of Italian immigrants Antonino Martino Marty SinatraFrank Sinatra – Sinatra in 1957
49. Gwen Stefani – Gwen Renée Stefani is an American singer, songwriter, and fashion designer. During the bands hiatus, Stefani embarked on a pop career in 2004 by releasing her debut studio album Love. Inspired by pop music from the 1980s, the album was met both critical and commercial success. It spawned three successful singles, What You Waiting For. Rich Girl, and Hollaback Girl, the reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 while also becoming the first US download to sell one million copies. In 2006 Stefani released her studio album The Sweet Escape. The album produced two singles, Wind It Up and the albums title track The Sweet Escape. Her third solo album This Is What the Truth Feels Like was released in March 2016, Stefani has won three Grammy Awards. As a solo artist she has received accolades, including an American Music Award, Brit Award, World Music Award. In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L. A. M. B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line, drawing inspiration from Japanese culture, Stefani performs and makes public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She was married to British musician Gavin Rossdale from 2002 to 2015, Billboard magazine ranked Stefani the 54th most successful artist and 37th most successful Hot 100 artist of the 2000–09 decade. VH1 ranked her 13th on their 100 Greatest Women in Music list in 2012, including her work with No Doubt, Stefani has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide. Stefani was born on October 3,1969, in Fullerton, California and she was named after a stewardess in the 1968 novel Airport, and her middle name, Renée, comes from The Four Tops 1968 cover of The Left Bankes 1966 song Walk Away Renée. Her father, Dennis Stefani, is Italian American and worked as a Yamaha marketing executive and her mother, Patti, worked as an accountant before becoming a housewife. Gwens parents were fans of music and exposed her to music by artists like Bob Dylan. She has two siblings, Jill and Todd, and an older brother named Eric. Eric was the keyboardist for No Doubt before leaving the band to pursue a career in animation on The Simpsons. Her brother Eric introduced Gwen to 2 Tone music by Madness and The Selecter and, in 1986, he invited her to provide vocals for No Doubt, finally, in 1991, the band was signed to Interscope RecordsGwen Stefani – Stefani at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival
50. Kylie Minogue – Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE, often known simply as Kylie, is an Australian singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson, since then, Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several nicknames including Princess of Pop. She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association, born and raised in Melbourne, Australia, Minogue has for many years worked and lived in London. She signed to PWL in 1987 and released her first studio album Kylie the next year, in 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records and where she created her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics. Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and her 2001 single Cant Get You Out of My Head became one of the most successful singles during the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her song and was named the catchiest song ever by Yahoo. Her album Fever was a hit in countries, including the United States. In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl, The Greatest Hits Tour, after treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl, The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a triumph. Minogue resumed work as an actress and appeared in the films Moulin Rouge, Jack & Diane, and Holy Motors. In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the series of The Voice UK. Her other ventures include product endorsements, children books and fashion, as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and she was appointed OBE by Charles, Prince of Wales in 2008. She was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture, Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, in December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia and her father is a fifth generation Australian, and has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father, Millie and Denis Jones, just before Kylies birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylies younger brother, Brendan, is a cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is also a singerKylie Minogue – Minogue at an amfAR event, 2015
51. Lady Gaga – Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta, known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She performed initially in theater, appearing in school plays. From there, Akon noticed her vocal abilities and helped her to sign a joint deal with Interscope Records and her debut album The Fame was a critical and commercial success that produced international chart-topping singles such as Just Dance and Poker Face. A follow-up EP, The Fame Monster, was met with a reception and Bad Romance, Telephone. Her second full-length album Born This Way was released in 2011, topping the charts in more than 20 countries, including the United States, the album produced the number-one single Born This Way. Her third album Artpop, released in 2013, topped the US charts, in 2014, Gaga released a collaborative jazz album with Tony Bennett titled Cheek to Cheek, which became her third consecutive number one in the United States. For her work in the television series American Horror Story, Hotel, with her fifth studio album Joanne, she became the first woman to have four US number one albums in the 2010s. In February 2017, Gaga headlined the Super Bowl LI halftime show which had an audience of over 150 million across various platforms worldwide. With global album and single sales of 27 million and 146 million respectively, as of January 2016 and her achievements include twelve Guinness World Records, three Brit Awards, and six Grammy Awards. She is also the first artist to win the Songwriters Hall of Fames Contemporary Icon Award, in 2013, Gaga finished second on Times readers poll of the most influential people of the past ten years, while in 2015, she was named Billboards Woman of the Year. Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta was born on March 28,1986 and she is the elder daughter of Cynthia Louise Cindy and Internet entrepreneur Joseph Joe Germanotta. Gaga has three Italian grandparents and one American grandparent, as well as French Canadian ancestry, Gagas sister Natali is a fashion student. From age 11, she attended the Convent of the Sacred Heart and she described her academic life in high school as very dedicated, very studious, very disciplined but also a bit insecure. I used to get made fun of for being too provocative or too eccentric. I didnt fit in, and I felt like a freak, in 2014, Gaga said she was raped at the age of 19. She stated, I went through some things that Im able to laugh now, because Ive gone through a lot of mental and physical therapy. Gaga later said that she suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder because of the rape, and that support from doctors, family, and friends really saved my life. Gaga began playing the piano at the age of four, wrote her first piano ballad at 13 and she performed lead roles in high school productions, including Adelaide in Guys and Dolls and Philia in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the ForumLady Gaga – Gaga performing at the Cheek to Cheek Tour in June 2015
52. Lionel Richie – Lionel Brockman Richie, Jr. is an American singer, songwriter, actor and record producer. Beginning in 1968, he was a member of the funk and soul band the Commodores and he also co-wrote the 1985 charity single We Are the World with Michael Jackson, which sold over 20 million copies. Richie has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the worlds best-selling artists of all time and he is also a five-time Grammy Award winner. In 2016, Richie received the Songwriters Hall of Fames highest honor, Lionel Brockman Richie, Jr. was born and raised in Tuskegee, Alabama, the son of Alberta R. and Lionel Brockman Richie, Sr. He grew up on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, Richie graduated from Joliet Township High School, East Campus. A star tennis player in Joliet, he accepted a scholarship to attend Tuskegee Institute. Richie seriously considered studying divinity to become a priest with the Episcopal Church and he is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi, a national honor fraternity for marching band members, and an active life member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. As a student in Tuskegee, Richie formed a succession of R&B groups in the mid-1960s, in 1968, he became a singer and saxophonist with the Commodores. They signed a contract with Atlantic Records in 1968 for one record before moving on to Motown Records initially as a support act to The Jackson 5. The Commodores then became established as a soul group. Their first several albums had a danceable, funky sound, as in such tracks as Machine Gun, over time, Richie wrote and sang more romantic, easy-listening ballads such as Easy, Three Times a Lady, Still, and the tragic breakup ballad Sail On. By the late 1970s, Richie had begun to accept songwriting commissions from other artists and he composed Lady for Kenny Rogers, which hit #1 in 1980, and produced Rogerss album Share Your Love the following year. Richie and Rogers maintained a friendship in later years. Latin jazz composer and salsa romantica pioneer La Palabra enjoyed international success with his cover of Lady, also in 1981 Richie sang the theme song for the film Endless Love, a duet with Diana Ross. Issued as a single, the song topped the Canada, Brazil, Australia, Japan, New Zealand and US pop music charts and its success encouraged Richie to branch out into a full-fledged solo career in 1982. He was replaced as lead singer for the Commodores by Skyler Jett in 1983, the album hit #3 on the music charts and sold over 4 million copies. His 1983 follow-up album, Cant Slow Down, sold twice as many copies. The album contained the #1 hit All Night Long a Caribbean-flavored dance number that was promoted by a music video produced by former Monkee Michael NesmithLionel Richie – Lionel Richie in France in 2012
53. Michael Jackson – Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, actor, and philanthropist. Called the King of Pop, his contributions to music, dance, the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music, the popularity of these videos helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Jacksons 1987 album Bad spawned the U. S and he continued to innovate with videos such as Black or White and Scream throughout the 1990s, and forged a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and his distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various music genres. Thriller is the album of all time, with estimated sales of 65 million copies worldwide. Jacksons other albums, including Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous and he is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records. Jackson won hundreds of awards, making him the most awarded recording artist in the history of popular music. He became the first artist in history to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when Love Never Felt So Good reached number nine on May 21,2014. Jackson traveled the world attending events honoring his humanitarianism, and, in 2000, aspects of Jacksons personal life, including his changing appearance, personal relationships, and behavior, generated controversy. In 1993, he was accused of sexual abuse, but the civil case was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of child sexual abuse allegations. While preparing for his concert series, This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication on June 25,2009. The Los Angeles County Coroner ruled his death a homicide, and his personal physician, Jacksons death triggered a global outpouring of grief, and a live broadcast of his public memorial service was viewed around the world. Forbes ranks Jackson as the dead celebrity with earnings of $825 million in 2016. Michael Joseph Jackson was born on August 29,1958 and his mother, Katherine Esther Scruse, was a devout Jehovahs Witness. She played clarinet and piano and once aspired to be a country-and-western performer, michaels father, Joseph Walter Joe Jackson, a former boxer, was a steelworker at U. S. SteelMichael Jackson – Jackson performing in 1988, during the Bad World Tour
54. Miley Cyrus – Miley Ray Cyrus is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. Her father Billy Ray Cyrus also starred in the show and she released her second album Breakout and launched her film career as a voice actress in the animated film Bolt in 2008. Cyrus starred in the feature film Hannah Montana, The Movie, in 2010, she released her third album Cant Be Tamed, which stands as the lowest-selling record of her career, and starred in the coming-of-age film The Last Song. Cyrus focused on her career with several television and film appearances in 2011 and 2012. Her sexually explicit behavior generated widespread controversy while promoting her fourth album Bangerz, Cyrus independently-released fifth studio album Miley Cyrus & Her Dead Petz deviated from her traditional pop style for more psychedelic experimentation. In 2016, she was a coach for the season of the singing competition series The Voice. With Bangerz, Cyrus achieved her third album on the U. S. Billboard 200. She has logged seven top 10 entries on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 with, See You Again,7 Things, The Climb, Cant Be Tamed, We Cant Stop and the chart-topping Wrecking Ball. Cyrus has earned awards and nominations, as Billboard ranked her as the fourth best-selling female artist of 2009. She was ranked number thirteen on Forbes Celebrity 100 in 2010 and she has been included on the Time 100 list of most influential people in 2008 and 2014. Destiny Hope Cyrus was born November 23,1992, in Franklin, Tennessee, to Leticia Jean Tish Cyrus, Cyrus was born with supraventricular tachycardia, a condition which causes an abnormal resting heart rate. She changed her name to Miley Ray Cyrus, her middle name honors her grandfather, against the advice of her fathers record company, Cyruss parents secretly married on December 28,1993, a year after her birth. They had two children together, son Braison and daughter Noah. From previous relationships, her mother has two children, Trace and Brandi, while her father has a son named Christopher. Cyrus godmother is entertainer Dolly Parton, Cyrus grew up on a 500-acre farm in Franklin, and attended Heritage Elementary School. While working on Hannah Montana, she enrolled at Options for Youth Charter Schools, raised a Christian, she was baptized in a Southern Baptist church before moving to Hollywood in 2005. She attended church regularly while growing up and wore a purity ring, in 2001, when Cyrus was eight, she and her family moved to Toronto, Canada while her father filmed the television series Doc. After Billy Ray took her to see a 2001 Mirvish production of Mamma Mia. at the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Cyrus grabbed his arm and told him, This is what I want to do and she began taking singing and acting classes at the Armstrong Acting Studio in TorontoMiley Cyrus – Cyrus performing at the 93.3 FLZ Jingle Ball, December 2013
55. Ne-Yo – Shaffer Chimere Smith, better known by his stage name Ne-Yo, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor. Ne-Yo gained fame for his abilities when he penned his 2004 hit Let Me Love You for singer Mario. The singles successful release in the United States prompted a meeting between Ne-Yo and Def Jams label head, and the signing of a recording contract. Ne-Yos debut album was In My Own Words, released in 2006, the album was critically successful, reaching number one on the Billboard 200. It is certified platinum in the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Ne-Yos first single Stay, was released in September 2005. The song was a success on the R&B charts, but failed to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 and his second single, So Sick was first released in November 2005. In the US, it was a success, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. When Youre Mad and Sexy Love were released afterwards from the album in 2006, reaching number 15 and number 7 on the Billboard Hot 100. In April 2007, Ne-Yo released his studio album, Because of You. The album won a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary R&B Album at the 2008 Grammy Awards, Ne-Yos third studio album, Year of the Gentleman, was released internationally in August 2008. Year of the Gentleman has been certified platinum twice in the US, the third single, Mad, peaked at number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100. Ne-Yos fourth studio album, Libra Scale was released in November 2010, though Libra Scale reached number one in the UK R&B Singles and Albums Charts, number 9 on the US Billboard 200, it sold less than the previous albums. Three single were released from the album, UK number-one hit Beautiful Monster, as well the R&B singles Champagne Life, Ne-Yo released his fifth album, R. E. D. in November 2012. His mainstream lead single Let Me Love You, released in July 2012, was certified platinum in US, Ne-Yo released his sixth album Non-Fiction in January 2015. On July 12,2016, Ne-Yo was a guest judge on NBCs Americas Got Talent judge cuts, Shaffer Smith was born in Camden, Arkansas. His father is of African American and Chinese descent, and his mother is African-American, as a young child, he was raised by his mother after she separated from his father. In hopes of better opportunity, his mother relocated the family to Las Vegas, Nevada. While in the Las Vegas Academy, Smith adopted the stage name GoGo and joined an R&B group called Envy, the group disbanded in 2000, and Smith continued to write songs for other artists before starting his solo careerNe-Yo – Ne-Yo in January 2013
56. Phil Collins – Philip David Charles Phil Collins LVO is an English singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, record producer and actor. He is best known as the drummer and lead singer in the rock band Genesis, between 1983 and 1990, Collins scored three UK and seven US number-one singles in his solo career. When his work with Genesis, his work with artists, as well as his solo career is totalled. His most successful singles from the period include In the Air Tonight, Against All Odds, One More Night, Sussudio and Another Day in Paradise. Born and raised in West London, Collins played drums from the age of five and completed drama school training and he then pursued a music career, joining Genesis in 1970 as their drummer and becoming lead singer in 1975 following the departure of Peter Gabriel. Collins became one of the most successful pop and adult contemporary singers of the 80s and he also became known for a distinctive gated reverb drum sound on many of his recordings. After leaving Genesis in 1996, Collins pursued various projects before a return in 2007 for the Turn It On Again Tour. In 2011, he retired to focus on his family life and he announced his return to the music industry in 2015. Collins discography includes eight albums that have sold 33.5 million certified units in the US. He is one of two recording artists, along with Paul McCartney, who have sold over 100 million records worldwide both as solo artists and separately as principal members of a band. He has won seven Grammy Awards, six Brit Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, an Academy Award, and a Disney Legend Award. Philip David Charles Collins was born on 30 January 1951 in Chiswick, west London, England, the son of Winifred M. June, an agent, and Greville Philip Austin Collins. He was given a toy drum kit for Christmas when he was five, Later, his uncle made him a makeshift set that he used regularly. As Collins grew older, these were followed by more complete sets bought by his parents and he practiced by playing with music on the television and radio. Collins studied drum rudiments as a teenager, first learning basic rudiments under Lloyd Ryan, Collins recalled, Rudiments I found very, very helpful – much more helpful than anything else because theyre used all the time. In any kind of funk or jazz drumming, the rudiments are always there and he never learned to read and write conventional musical notation and instead used a system he devised himself. He later regretted this, saying, I never really came to grips with the music, I should have stuck with it. Ive always felt that if I could hum it, I could play it, for me, that was good enough, but that attitude is badPhil Collins – Collins before a Forest National concert in Belgium, 2007
57. Pink (singer) – Alecia Beth Moore, known professionally as Pink, is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actress. She was signed to her first record label with original R&B girl group Choice in 1995, the label, LaFace Records saw potential in only Pink, offering her a solo deal. Pink rose as an artist with her solo album, Cant Take Me Home. It was certified double-platinum in the United States and spawned two Billboard Hot 100 top-ten hits, There You Go and Most Girls and she gained further recognition with the Moulin Rouge. Soundtrack Lady Marmalade, which gave Pink her first Grammy Award as well as her first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100, Pink took control in early 2001 insisting she wanted to work with her childhood hero, Linda Perry. Pink took more control and pursued a pop direction for her second album. It sold more than 15 million copies worldwide and yielded three United States top-ten singles, Get the Party Started, Dont Let Me Get Me, Pinks third album, Try This, generated considerably lower sales, but earned her the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance. Pink revived her popularity with her fourth and fifth albums, Im Not Dead and Funhouse, with the latter containing her second United States number-one hit. Pink concluded the first decade of her career with the compilation album Greatest Hits, so Far. which featured Fuckin Perfect and the chart-topping single Raise Your Glass. In 2014 Pink recorded an album, Rose Ave. with Canadian musician Dallas Green under a folk music duo named You+Me. Recognized for her signature vocals and acrobatic performances, Pink has sold over 60 million albums worldwide. Her career accolades include three Grammy Awards, a Brit Award, a Daytime Emmy Award and six MTV Video Music Awards, in 2009, Billboard named Pink the Pop Songs Artist of the Decade. Pink was also the second most-played female solo artist in the United Kingdom during the 2000s decade, vH1 ranked her number 10 on their list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music, while Billboard awarded her the Woman of the Year award in 2013. At the 63rd annual BMI Pop Awards, she received the BMI Presidents Award for her achievement in songwriting and global impact on pop culture. Alecia Beth Moore was born on September 8,1979, in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, to nurse Judy and insurance salesman Jim Moore and she has described her background as Irish-German-Lithuanian-Jew. Although a healthy baby at birth, she developed asthma that plagued her through her early years. Pink attended Central Bucks High School West, when Moore was a toddler, her parents began having marital problems, and before she was 10 her parents had divorced. Pink developed her voice early in life, in high school, Pink joined her first band, Middleground, but it disbanded upon losing a battle of the bands competitionPink (singer) – Pink performing live during Truth About Love Tour in April 2013
58. Prince (musician) – Prince Rogers Nelson was an American singer-songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, philanthropist, dancer and record producer. He was an innovator who was known for his eclectic work, flamboyant stage presence, extravagant dress and makeup. His music integrates a variety of styles, including funk, rock, R&B, new wave, soul, psychedelia. He has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the artists of all time. He won seven Grammy Awards, an American Music Award, a Golden Globe Award, and he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004, his first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked Prince at number 27 on its list of 100 Greatest Artists, Prince was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and developed an interest in music as a young child. He signed a contract with Warner Bros. at the age of 18. In 1984, he began referring to his band as the Revolution and released Purple Rain. It quickly became his most critically and commercially successful release, spending 24 consecutive weeks atop the Billboard 200, after releasing the albums Around the World in a Day and Parade, The Revolution disbanded, and Prince released the double album Sign o the Times as a solo artist. He released three solo albums before debuting the New Power Generation band in 1991. He released five records between 1994 and 1996 before signing with Arista Records in 1998, in 2000, he began referring to himself as Prince again. He released 16 albums after that, including the platinum-selling Musicology and his final album, Hit n Run Phase Two, was first released on the Tidal streaming service on December 12,2015. Prince died from an overdose at his Paisley Park recording studio and home in Chanhassen, Minnesota, on April 21,2016. Prince Rogers Nelson was born in Minneapolis, to Mattie Della and his parents were both African-American and his family ancestry is centered in Louisiana, all four of his grandparents came from that state. Princes father was a pianist and songwriter, and his mother was a jazz singer, Prince was given his fathers stage name, Prince Rogers, which his father used while performing with a jazz group called the Prince Rogers Trio. In 1991, Princes father told A Current Affair that I named my son Prince because I wanted him to do everything I wanted to do, Prince has said he was born epileptic and used to have seizures when he was young. He also said, My mother told me one day I walked in to her and said, Mom, Im not going to be sick anymore, Princes sister Tika Evene was born in 1960. Both siblings developed a keen interest in music, and this was encouraged by their father, Prince wrote his first tune, Funk Machine, on his fathers piano when he was sevenPrince (musician) – Prince performing in 2008
59. Shakira – Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll is a Colombian singer, songwriter, dancer, and record producer. Born and raised in Barranquilla, she began performing in school, demonstrating Latin American, Arabic, Shakira entered the English-language market with her fifth album, Laundry Service. Its lead single, Whenever, Wherever, became the single of 2002. Shakiras eighth and ninth albums, She Wolf and Sale el Sol and her official song for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Waka Waka, became the biggest-selling World Cup song of all time. With over 1.3 billion views, it is one of the music videos on YouTube. Shakira served as a coach on the fourth and sixth seasons of the American version of The Voice in 2013 and 2014 and her tenth album, Shakira, is preceded by its lead single, Cant Remember to Forget You. She carries out well-known philanthropic activities through charity work most notably through her Pies Descalzos Foundation, in 2014, she was listed as the 58th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes. Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll was born on 2 February 1977 in Barranquilla and she is the only child of Nidia Ripoll Torrado and William Mebarak Chadid. Her paternal grandparents emigrated from Lebanon to New York City, where her father was born and her father then emigrated to Colombia at age 5. The name Shakira is Arabic, from which language it translates as grateful and it is the feminine form of the name Shakir. From her mother, she has Spanish and Italian ancestry, although both of her mothers surnames are Spanish and she was raised Roman Catholic and attended Catholic schools. She has eight older half-siblings from her fathers previous marriage, as she was growing up, she was fascinated watching her father writing stories on a typewriter, and asked for one as a Christmas gift. She got that typewriter at the age of seven, and has continued writing poetry since then and these poems eventually evolved into songs. She started dancing on the table, and the experience made her realize that she wanted to be a performer and she enjoyed singing for schoolmates and teachers at her Catholic school, but in second grade, she was rejected for the school choir because her vibrato was too strong. The music teacher told her that she sounded like a goat, at school, she was often sent out of the class because of her hyperactivity. She says she had also known as the belly dancer girl. Thats how I discovered my passion for live performance, she says, to instill gratitude in Shakira for her upbringing, her father took her to a local park to see orphans who lived there. The images stayed with her, and she said to herself, as noted below, she eventually did exactly thatShakira – Shakira in 2014
60. Toto (band) – Toto is an American rock band formed in 1977 in Van Nuys in Los Angeles. The bands current lineup consists of Joseph Williams, David Paich, Steve Porcaro, Steve Lukather, plus touring members Lenny Castro, Warren Ham, Shem von Schroeck and Shannon Forrest. Toto is known for a style that combines elements of pop, rock, soul, funk, progressive rock, hard rock, R&B, blues. David Paich and Jeff Porcaro had played together as musicians on several albums. David Hungate, Steve Lukather, Steve Porcaro and Bobby Kimball were recruited before their first album release, the band enjoyed great commercial success in the late 1970s and 1980s, beginning with the bands eponymous debut released in 1978. With the release of the acclaimed and commercially successful Toto IV. Widely known for the Top 5 hits Hold the Line, Rosanna, and Africa, Hungate left in 1982 followed by Kimball in 1984 but rejoined the band in 1998 until 2008. Jeff Porcaro died in 1992 of a heart attack, Hungate rejoined Toto as a touring musician and later a band member. In 2008, Lukather announced his departure from the band, the band have released 17 studio albums, and have sold over 40 million records worldwide. The group was honored with several Grammy Awards and was inducted into the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum in 2009. The members of Toto were regulars on albums by Steely Dan, Seals and Crofts, Boz Scaggs, Sonny and Cher, keyboardist David Paich, son of musician and session player/arranger Marty Paich, rose to fame after having co-written much of Scaggss Silk Degrees album. They brought in bassist and fellow session vet David Hungate, having played him in the backing band for Scaggs. In addition, the duo asked guitarist Steve Lukather and Jeff Porcaros brother Steve Porcaro to join the team, Lukather and Steve Porcaro were high school classmates and continued the band Rural Still Life after Paich and Jeff graduated. With the addition of former S. S, fools singer Bobby Kimball, the group began to work on their first album in 1977 after signing with Columbia Records. Once the band together, David Paich began composing what would become the eponymous debut album. According to popular myth, at the first recording sessions, in order to distinguish their own demo tapes from other bands in the studio, in the early 1980s, band members told the press that the band was named after the dog in The Wizard of Oz. One popular rumor is that the name came from Bobby Kimballs true last name and this rumor was in fact only a joke popularized by former bassist David Hungate. After the completion of the first album, the band and record were still unnamed, David Hungate, after viewing the name on the demo tapes, explained to the group that the words In Toto in Latin translated to all-encompassingToto (band) – Toto live in Copenhagen, Denmark, at KB Hallen July 20, 2010. 2010 lineup, left to right, Simon Phillips (drums), David Paich (keyboards, vocals), Mabvuto Carpenter (vocals), Jory Steinberg (vocals), Steve Lukather (guitar, vocals), Nathan East (bass, vocals), Steve Porcaro (keyboards), Joseph Williams (lead vocals)
61. Usher (entertainer) – Usher Raymond IV is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and actor. Born in Dallas, Texas but raised and lived in Chattanooga, Tennessee until moving to Atlanta, at the age of 12, his mother put him in local singing competitions, before catching the attention of a music A&R from LaFace Records. In 1994 he released his debut album, Usher. 8701 produced the number-one singles U Remind Me and U Got It Bad and it sold 8 million copies worldwide and won his first two Grammy Awards as Best Male R&B Vocal Performance in 2002 and 2003. Confessions established him as one of the musical artists of the 2000s decade. Bolstered by its four consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number one singles, Burn, Confessions Part II, and My Boo, it has been certified Diamond by the RIAA. Here I Stand and Raymond v. Raymond, debuted atop of the Billboard 200, the EP, Versus, also produced the Hot 100 top-five single DJ Got Us Fallin in Love. Looking 4 Myself, also debuted atop the Billboard 200 chart, Raymond v. Raymond and Looking 4 Myself received Grammy Awards for R&B singles There Goes My Baby and Climax. Hard II Love peaked at five of the Billboard 200 albums chart. Usher has sold 23.8 million albums and 38.2 million digital songs in the United States, to date, his worldwide sales stand at 43 million albums and 75 million records overall, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. Usher has won awards and accolades including 18 Billboard Music Awards and 8 Grammy Awards. Billboard also placed him at number 6 on their list of Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years, Usher has attained 9 US Hot 100 number-one singles. Considered an icon and sex symbol, he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, in 2008, he started his own record label Raymond-Braun Media Group, a joint venture with talent manager Scooter Braun that includes Canadian singer Justin Bieber. Usher was born in Dallas, Texas, the son of Jonetta Patton, from Tennessee, Usher spent the majority of his young life in Chattanooga, his father left the family when Usher was a year old. Usher grew up with his mother, then-stepfather, and half-brother, while in Atlanta, Usher attended North Springs High School. At age 10, Usher joined an R&B local quintet called the NuBeginnings, Usher recorded 10 songs with the group in 1991, and the ensuing album, Nubeginning Featuring Usher Raymond IV, was only made available regionally and by mail order. However, Patton took him out because, according to her, the album was re-released nationally in April 2002 by Hip-O Records. At age 13, Usher would meet A. J, alexander at local talent show in AtlantaUsher (entertainer) – Usher during the Division 1 launch party, 2010
62. Girl group – A girl group is a music act featuring several female singers who generally harmonize together. All-female bands, in which also play instruments, are usually considered a separate phenomenon. These groups are sometimes called girl bands to differentiate, although this terminology is not universally followed, with the advent of the music industry and radio broadcasting, a number of girl groups emerged, such as the Andrews Sisters. The late 1950s saw the emergence of all-female singing groups as a force, with 750 distinct girl groups releasing songs that reached US. The Supremes alone held 12 number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100 during the height of the wave, in later eras, the girl group template would be applied to disco, contemporary R&B, and country-based formats, as well as pop. A more globalized music industry saw the popularity of dance-oriented pop music led by major record labels. This emergence, led by the US, UK, South Korea, also, since the late 2000s, South Korea has had a significant impact, with 8 of the top 10 girl groups by digital sales in the world originating there. The ladies were together from 1923 until the early 1940s, and known for their harmonies, as well as barbershop style or novelty tunes. The Three X Sisters were also especially a notable addition to the music scene, the Boswell Sisters, who became one of the most popular singing groups from 1930 to 1936, had over twenty hits. The Andrews Sisters had musical hits across multiple genres, which contributed to the prevalence, the rise of girl groups appeared out of and was influenced by other musical movements of the time period. Importantly, the first successful girl groups of this era were typically white and this era was also advantageous to the beginnings of girl group music because of the newfound prevalence of the radio as well, which allowed this style of music to spread. Also, the Lennon Sisters were a mainstay on the Lawrence Welk Show from 1955 on, in early 1956, doo-wop one-hit wonder acts like the Bonnie Sisters with Cry Baby and the Teen Queens with Eddie My Love showed early promise for a departure from traditional pop harmonies. With Mr. Lee, the Bobbettes lasted for 5 1/2 months on the charts in 1957, building momentum and gaining acceptance of all-female. However, it was the Chantels 1958 song Maybe that became arguably, the mixture of black doo-wop, rock and roll, and white pop was appealing to a teenage audience and grew from scandals involving payola and the perceived social effects of rock music. However, early groups such as the Chantels started developing their groups musical capacities traditionally, through mediums like Latin, the Shirelles solidified their success with five more top 10 hits, most particularly 1962s number one hit Soldier Boy, over the next two and a half years. Motown would mastermind several major groups, including Martha and the Vandellas, the Velvelettes. Other songwriters and producers in the US and UK quickly recognized the potential of new approach. Phil Spector recruited the Crystals, the Blossoms, and the Ronettes, while Goffin, phil Spector made a huge impact on the ubiquity of the girl group, as well as bringing fame and notoriety to new heights for many girl groupsGirl group – Girl groups
63. Glossary of jazz and popular music – Most of the terms are in English, but in some cases, terms from other languages are encountered. 1x10 A speaker cabinet containing one ten-inch loudspeaker, Used for small venue PA cabinets and small stage monitor speakers, and lightweight bass guitar or electric guitar combination amplifiers and cabinets designed for rehearsal monitoring or practice. 1x12 A speaker cabinet containing one twelve-inch loudspeaker, Used for mid-sized venue PA cabinets and stage monitor speakers, and lightweight bass and guitar combos and cabinets. 1x15 A speaker cabinet containing one fifteen-inch loudspeaker, Used for PA cabinets and stage monitor speakers, bass combos and cabinets, and in small venue subwoofer cabinets. 1x18 A speaker cabinet containing one eighteen-inch loudspeaker, typically used in subwoofer cabinets for PA applications, 1x21 A speaker cabinet containing one twenty-one-inch loudspeaker, typically used in large subwoofer cabinets for PA applications. 2x10 A speaker cabinet containing two ten-inch loudspeakers, Used in electric guitar and bass combos and cabinets. 2x12 A speaker cabinet containing two twelve-inch loudspeakers, Used in electric guitar and bass combos and cabinets, and, with a horn, as a PA cabinet. 2x15 A speaker cabinet containing two fifteen-inch loudspeakers, Used in bass cabinets and, with a horn, as a PA cabinet. 2x18 A speaker cabinet containing two eighteen-inch loudspeakers, typically used as a subwoofer for PA applications or in dance clubs, 4x10 A speaker cabinet containing four ten-inch loudspeakers. Used in electric guitar and bass combos and cabinets, 4x12 A speaker cabinet containing four twelve-inch loudspeakers. Commonly used in electric guitar amplifier systems, less so in bass, configured with all four speakers on the same panel or with the top two speakers angled upward. 4-track A simple portable recording and mixing device used in the 1970s and 1980s which used compact cassettes. 5-string An electric bass with five strings, which means the addition of a low B string. 6-string An electric bass with six strings, which means the addition of a low B string. It is also a common slang of guitar, 7-string An electric guitar with seven strings, which often means the addition of a low B string. Seven-string guitars are associated with jazz, fusion, and metal styles, 8-string An electric guitar with eight strings, which often means the addition of a low F# string and a low B string. Eight-string guitars are associated with jazz, fusion, and metal styles, 8-track A tape format popular in the 1970s. Used in electric guitar and bass cabinets and it is sometimes called a stack, and, in the case of a bass cabinet, a bass stackGlossary of jazz and popular music – A seven-string electric guitar, the Ibanez RG7321BK
64. Honorific nicknames in popular music – These patterns of naming were transferred to rock and roll when it emerged in the 1950s. There was a series of attempts to find the King of Rock n Roll and this has been seen as part of a process of the appropriation of credit for innovation of the then new music by a white establishment. Similar honorific nicknames have been given in other genres, including Aretha Franklin, madonna and Michael Jackson have been closely associated with the terms Queen and King of Pop since the 1980s. They have been strongly promulgated and contested by various artists and occasionally disowned or played down by their subjects, some notable honorific nicknames are in general usage and commonly identified with particular individuals. Jazz royalty Sobriquet Teen idol A denotes template, i. e. for sources where a reference is alluded to, or given in part and their factuality, thus, may or may not be in question. B denotes template, i. e. for source that needs to be translated. C denotes template, i. e. for source very possibly being unreliable D denotes template, i. e. for source that have been checked, E denotes template, i. e. clarification of wording or interpretation is needed. F denotes template, i. e. source cannot be verified, G denotes template The discussed artists themselves and/or only one cited personHonorific nicknames in popular music – By the 1920s, American bandleader Paul Whiteman was often referred to as the "King of Jazz" in press releases
65. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. These volunteers are supported by organizations around the world, including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia and it consists of editors and Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include, The Wikimedia Foundation is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco and it owns the domain names and operates most of the movements websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. According to the WMFs 2015 financial statements, in 2015 the WMF had a budget of $72 million USD, spending $52 million USD on its operation, Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in specified geographical regions, mostly countries. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a budget of €20 million. WMDE allocates approximately €1 million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, to have the same procedure, every chapter follows the same process and requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. The foundation as internet domain owner of the project pages requests a share of the donations via the website in a country, a total of under 4 Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations. The legal base is a Chapters Agreement with the foundation, thematic organizations are founded to support Wikimedia projects in a focal area. User groups have less formal requirements than chapters and thematic organizations and they support and promote the Wikimedia projects locally or on a specific theme, topic, subject, or issue. At the beginning of 2016, there were 55 user groups, once they are recognized by the Affiliations Committee, they enter into a User Groups Agreement and Code of Conduct with the foundation. They have a program to encourage female editorsWikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014