1. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico – It is an archipelago that includes a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra, Vieques. Most populous city is San Juan. Its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The island's population is approximately million. Four centuries of colonial government transformed the island's ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, Canarian, Andalusian settlers. In the imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, but strategic role when compared to wealthier colonies like Perú and Mexico. Following the Spanish -- American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States. However, Congress approved a local constitution, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. The initiative has not resulted as a state. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen -- a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". The terms borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as la isla del encanto meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. The island's name was briefly changed to "Porto Rico" after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
2. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
3. Dominican Republic – The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended to unite with the country of Gran Colombia. However, no longer under Spanish rule, the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country fell again under Spanish colonial rule. The crown was ousted permanently during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916. The country's last, was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966 -- 1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. The Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51 % of the electoral vote over his ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. GDP growth in 2015 reached the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by tourism.Dominican Republic – The Pomier Caves are a series of 55 caves located north of San Cristobal in the Dominican Republic. They contain the largest collection of 2,000-year-old rock art in the Caribbean.
4. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. The West Indies team continues to represent many of those nations. The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the primary accent with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, although not all sources agree. Usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system. The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea.Caribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
5. Greater Antilles – The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands. The Lucayan Archipelago is not considered to be a part of the Antilles archipelagoes but rather of the North Atlantic. Cohen, S.; Groene, J.; Werner, L.; Vladimir, U.; Williams, D.; Walter, C.; Hiller, H.L.. Caribbean: The Greater Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas. Explore the world Nelles guide. Nelles Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88618-403-3. 254 pages. University, J.R.P.B.S.S. . Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, Plate Tectonics: Ecology, Evolution, Plate Tectonics. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press, USA. P. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-536191-9.Greater Antilles – Location within the Caribbean.
6. Puerto Rico – It is an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra, Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The island's population is approximately 3.4 million. Four centuries of colonial government transformed the island's ethnic, physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, Canarian, Andalusian settlers. In the imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played when compared to wealthier colonies like Perú and Mexico. Following the Spanish -- American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States. However, Congress approved a local constitution, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. The initiative has not resulted in Puerto Rico's admission as a state. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen -- a derivation of its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". The terms borincano are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. The island's name was briefly changed after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
7. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι -- arkhi - and πέλαγος -- pélagos through the Italian arcipelago. It is now used to refer to any island group or, sometimes, to a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Archipelagos may be found isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago. Archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs may also be the result of erosion, deposition, elevation. Depending on their geological origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as'oceanic islands','continental fragments', and'continental islands'. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin. Continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the British Isles, the Bahamas, Greece, New York City are examples of well-known archipelagos. The largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Archipelago". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Archipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
8. Vieques, Puerto Rico – Vieques is part of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, retains strong influences from 400 years of Spanish presence in the island. Vieques lies about 8 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland, measures about 21 miles long by 4 miles wide. Its most populated barrio Isabel Segunda, the administrative center on the northern side of the island. The population of Vieques was 9,301 at the 2010 Census. The island's name is a Spanish spelling of an American Indian word said to mean "small island". It also has the nickname "Isla Nena", usually translated from the Spanish as "Little Girl Island", alluding to its perception as Puerto Rico's little sister. During the colonial period, the British name was "Crab Island". The beaches are commonly listed for white sands. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vieques was first inhabited by Indian peoples who traveled from continental America perhaps between 3000 BC and 2000 BC. However, estimates of these prehistoric dates of inhabitation vary widely. These tribes were probably hunter-gatherers. Excavations at the Puerto Ferro site by Yvonne Narganes uncovered a human skeleton in a large hearth area. Radiocarbon dating of shells found in the hearth indicate a burial date of c.1900 BCE. Their reason for placement are unknown. Further waves of settlement by Native Americans followed over many centuries.Vieques, Puerto Rico – Vieques from the air, looking west
9. Culebra, Puerto Rico – Isla Culebra is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. It is located approximately 17 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland, 12 miles west of St. Thomas and 9 miles north of Vieques. Culebra is spread over 5 wards and the administrative center of the city. Residents of the island are known as Culebrenses. With a population of 1,818 as of the latest census, it is Puerto Rico's least populous municipality. Originally called Isla de San Ildefonso, Culebra is also known as Última Virgen. Some sources claim that Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive at the island during his second voyage in 1493. It is believed that the island was populated by Carib Indians during the colonization. After that, the island was left abandoned for centuries. During the era of Spanish commerce through the Americas, it was used as a refuge for pirates, well as sailors. Some sources mention an Englishman named Stevens, put in charge of Culebra in 1875 by the Spanish crown to protect the island from foreigners. Culebra was then settled by Cayetano Escudero Sanz on October 27, 1880. This first settlement was called to honor the Bishop of San Ildefonso de la Culebra. Two years later, on September 25, 1882, construction of the Culebrita Lighthouse began. In 1902, Culebra was integrated as a part of Vieques.Culebra, Puerto Rico – M4A3E8 Sherman tank at Flamenco Beach.
10. Mona, Puerto Rico – Mona is the third-largest island of the Puerto Rican archipelago, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. It lies 66 west of Puerto Rico, of which it is administratively a part. It is one of two islands that make up the Isla de Mona e Islote Monito Barrio of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. The island is managed as the Mona Island Nature Reserve. Mona Island is believed to have been originally settled by Arawak Indians who arrived from Quisqueya. An archeological excavation during the 1980s discovered many Pre-Columbian objects on the island that helped support historians' theories of the island's first inhabitants. Stone tools found in a rock shelter have been dated to around 3000 BC. Much later the island was settled by the Taínos and remained so until the arrival of the Spanish in the 15th century. As he left Puerto Rico, he reputedly became the European to sight the island on September 1494, claimed for Spain. The Mona derives from the Taíno Ámona, bestowed by the natives in honor of the ruling Cacique or chief of the island. Columbus is in a bay on the northwest corner. He is to sail from there straight across to the north coast of Hispaniola. Why would he sail south to where he has already been and then sail north again to Hispaniola? This is illogical. It was never considered by armchair authors because it is small, barren, of no interest, it is not drawn on most maps."Mona, Puerto Rico – Mona Island Lighthouse
11. Hispaniola – Hispaniola is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles. It is the tenth most populous island in the world. Two sovereign nations share the 76,192-square-kilometre island. The Dominican Republic, at 48,445 km2, is twice as large as its neighbour, Haiti, which comprises 27,750 km2. The only shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, shared between France and the Netherlands. Hispaniola is the site of the first European settlement in the Americas founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493. The island was called by its native people, the Taíno Amerindians. De las Casas both recorded that the island was called Haiti by the Taíno. Later research shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. When d`Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. Only recently has the term Hispaniola come into wide use as a name for the geographic unit. The name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. A contingent of men were left at an outpost christened La Navidad on the coast of present-day Haiti. The island was inhabited by one of the indigenous Arawak peoples. European colonization of the island began in earnest the following year, when 1,300 men arrived under the watch of Bartolomeo Columbus.Hispaniola – View from Hispaniola
12. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
13. Treaty – A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known among other terms. Regardless of terminology, the rules are the same. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to legally bind themselves. Since the 19th century, most treaties have followed a fairly consistent format. A treaty typically begins with a preamble describing their joint objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events. The end of the start of the actual agreement is often signaled by the words "have agreed as follows." After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the parties' actual agreement. Each article heading usually encompasses a paragraph. A long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. The date is typically written in its most longest possible form. The signatures of the parties' representatives follow at the very end. Bilateral treaties are concluded between entities. Each of these treaties has seventeen parties. These however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties.Treaty – The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian
14. Incorporated territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have an organized government through an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa. They are classified as unincorporated territories. They are organised, self-governing territories with locally elected governors and territorial legislatures. Each also elects a non-voting member to the U.S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, with no native or permanent populations. The status of some are disputed by Colombia, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the only territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving. Most territories eventually attained statehood. Other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, through which 31 territories applied for and were granted statehood. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Midway Islands.Incorporated territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
15. Organized territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they have an organized government through an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: American Samoa. They are classified as unincorporated territories. They are organised, self-governing territories with territorial legislatures. Each also elects a non-voting member to the U.S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small islands, reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, with no native or permanent populations. The status of some are disputed by the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the only territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving. Most territories eventually attained statehood. Other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, through which 31 territories were granted statehood. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Midway Islands.Organized territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
16. United States Congress – The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, only as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative. Each state, regardless of size, has two senators. Currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants some unique powers. The Senate ratifies approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.United States Congress
17. Bird – Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. The fossil record indicates that birds are the last surviving group of dinosaurs, having evolved within the theropod group of saurischian dinosaurs. True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous period, around million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous -- Palaeogene event that killed off all other dinosaurs. Birds, especially those in the southern continents, then migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. Bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moas and elephant birds. The respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, also members of the duck family, have further evolved for swimming. Birds, specifically Darwin's finches, played an important part by natural selection. Many species annually migrate great distances. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or, rarely, polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually incubated by the parents.Bird – Archaeopteryx lithographica is often considered the oldest known true bird.
18. Endemism in birds – The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area. The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native." Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in," and dēmos meaning "the people." Precinctive, was first used by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was perhaps first used by Frank and McCoy. That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks. Physical, climatic, biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is exclusively found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa. The glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or actively hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: paleoendemism and neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were formerly widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have recently arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants.Endemism in birds – The orange-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia violacea) is exclusively found in fynbos vegetation.
19. New World warbler – This article refers to the New World wood warbler family of birds, the Parulidae. For the Eurasian species Phylloscopus sibilatrix, see warbler. They are not closely related to Australian warblers. Some, like the ovenbird and the two waterthrushes, are primarily terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. It is likely that this group originated in northern Central America, where the greatest number of diversity between them is found. From there they spread north during the interglacial periods, mainly as migrants, returning to the ancestral region in winter. The name derives from the name for the genus. All the warblers are fairly small. The smallest species is the Lucy's warbler, at 10.6 cm. Which species is the largest depends upon which are to be included in the family. Traditionally, this was considered to be the yellow-breasted chat, at 18.2 cm. This tendency is particularly marked in the large genus Setophaga. In contrast, tropical species, which pair for life, show little if any sexual dimorphism. There are of course exceptions.New World warbler – New World warblers
20. Insectivore – An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects. An alternative term is entomophage, which also refers to the human practice of eating insects. The first vertebrates were amphibians. When they evolved million years ago, the first amphibians were piscivores, with numerous sharp conical teeth, much like a modern crocodile. The same arrangement is however also suited for eating animals with exoskeletons, thus the ability to eat insects is an extension of piscivory. At one time, mammals were scientifically classified in an order called Insectivora. This order is now abandoned, as not all insectivorous mammals are closely related. Most of the Insectivora taxa have been reclassified; those that have not yet been reclassified remain in the Eulipotyphla. Although individually small, insects exist in enormous numbers - they number over a million described some of those species occur in enormous numbers. Accordingly, insects make up a very large part of the animal biomass in almost all non-polar environments. It has been estimated that the global insect biomass is with an estimated population of 1018 organisms. Many creatures depend on many that do not nevertheless use insects as a protein supplement, particularly when they are breeding. Even large mammals are recorded as eating insects; the sloth bear is perhaps the largest insectivore. Insects also can be insectivores; examples are dragonflies, hornets, praying mantises. Insectivory also features amongst primates, such as marmosets, tamarins, tarsiers, galagos and aye-aye.Insectivore – This aardwolf skull exhibits greatly reduced molars and carnassials, teeth that are redundant in a large, insectivorous animal subsisting on soft insects such as termites. The dentition of a shrew is very different. The aardwolf uses its canine teeth in self-defence and, occasionally, in digging; accordingly, the canines have not been greatly reduced.
21. Foraging – Foraging is searching for wild food resources. It affects an animal's fitness because it plays an important role in an animal's ability to reproduce. Foraging theory is a branch of behavioral ecology that studies the foraging behavior of animals in response to the environment where the animal lives. Behavioral ecologists use economic models to understand foraging; many of these models are a type of optimality model. Thus foraging theory is discussed in terms of optimizing a payoff from a foraging decision. Foraging theory predicts that the decisions that thus deliver the highest payoff will be selected for and persist. Behavioral ecologists first tackled this topic in the 1970s. Their goal was to formalize a set of models to test their null hypothesis that animals forage randomly. Learning is defined based on a previous experience. Since an animal's environment is constantly changing, the ability to adjust foraging behavior is essential for maximization of fitness. Studies in social insects have shown that there is a significant correlation between foraging performance. In nonhuman primates, young individuals learn foraging behavior by watching other group members forage and by copying their behavior. One measure of learning is ` innovation' -- an animal consuming new food, or using a new foraging technique in response to their dynamic living environment. Foraging innovation is considered learning because it involves behavioral plasticity on the animal's part. Size has been associated with learning behavior.Foraging – Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) mother and cubs foraging in Denali National Park, Alaska.
22. Canopy (forest) – In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns. In ecology, canopy also refers including biological organisms. Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a dense canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Canopy structure is the arrangement of a canopy. Area per unit area, is a key measure used to understand and compare plant canopies. It is also taller than the understory layer. Dominant and co-dominant canopy trees form the uneven canopy layer. Canopy trees are able to photosynthesize relatively rapidly due to abundant light, so it supports the majority of primary productivity in forests. The layer provides protection from strong storms, while leading to a relatively sparsely vegetated understory layer. Forest canopies are home to unique flora and fauna not found in other layers of forests. The highest terrestrial biodiversity resides in the canopy of tropical rainforests. Many rainforest animals have evolved to live solely in the canopy, never touch the ground. The canopy of a rainforest is typically about 10m thick, intercepts around 95% of sunlight. The canopy is below the emergent layer, a sparse layer of very tall trees, typically one or two per hectare.Canopy (forest) – A canopy of a forest in Sabah, Malaysia
23. Bird song – Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. In non-technical use, bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear. In birding, songs are distinguished by function from calls. The distinction between calls is based upon complexity, length, context. Still others require song to have temporal regularity akin to the repetitive and transformative patterns that define music. Bird song is best developed in the order Passeriformes. Some groups are nearly voiceless, producing only rhythmic sounds, such as the storks, which clatter their bills. In some manakins, the males have evolved several mechanisms including mechanisms for stridulation not unlike those found in some insects. Song is usually delivered from prominent perches, although some species may sing when flying. With aseasonal breeding, both sexes must be brought into breeding condition and vocalisation, especially duetting, serves this purpose. The vocal organ is called the syrinx; it is a bony structure at the bottom of the trachea. Sometimes a surrounding air sac resonate to sound waves that are made by membranes past which the bird forces air. The bird controls both pitch and volume by changing the force of exhalation. It can control the two sides of the trachea independently, how some species can produce two notes at once. Experiments suggest that the quality of bird song may be a good indicator of fitness.Bird song – A male blackbird (Turdus merula) singing. Bogense havn, Funen, Denmark. Blackbird song recorded at Lille, France (help · info)
24. Habitat (ecology) – A habitat is an ecological or environmental area, inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. The term typically refers to the zone where it can find food, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the physical environment that surrounds a population. Habitat types include polar, tropical. The terrestrial type may be forest, steppe, grassland, desert. Habitats change over time. Habitat can be defined as the natural environment of the place in which it is natural for it to grow. It is similar in meaning to a biotope, an area of environmental conditions associated with a particular community of animals. Generally speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities. Some plants and animals are generalists, their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations. The white butterfly for example is found apart from Antarctica. Its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats. In the absence of disturbance, a cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Toppled trees in tropical forests allow richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created.Habitat (ecology) – This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area is a rich habitat for sea life.
25. Forest protection – Forest protection is the preservation or improvement of a forest threatened or affected by the nature. Thus due to the different emphases around the world paradoxically suggest different things for forest protection. In German speaking countries protection would focus on the biotic and abiotic factors that are non-crime related. A protected forest is not the same as a forest. These terms can lead to some confusion in English, although they are clearer in other languages. As a result, reading English literature can be problematic for non-experts due to conflation of meanings. Enforcement of laws regarding purchased land is weak or non-existent in most parts of the world. One simple type of protection is the purchasing of land in order to secure it, or in order to plant trees. It can also mean the designation of areas such as natural reservoirs which are intended to be left to themselves. However, does not prevent it from being used by others for poaching and illegal logging. Even in the United States, these measures sometimes don't suffice because arson can burn a forest to the ground, leaving burnt areas free for different use. Alternatives include building an earthhouse. This is being done currently in South America to protect large reservoirs. In former times, North American Native Americans used to live in tipies or mandan earthhouses, which also require less land. An undertaking to develop modern treehouses is being taken from Germany called "TrueSchool treehouses".Forest protection – Forest security in Lithuania
26. Rat – Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea. Many members of families are also referred to as rats, share many characteristics with true rats. Rats are typically distinguished from mice by their size. Generally, when someone discovers a muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, the name includes the term mouse. The common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. Scientifically, the terms are not confined for example, the pack rat and cotton mouse. The best-known rat species are the brown rat. The group is generally originated in Asia. Rats seldom weigh over 500 grams in the wild. The term "rat" is also used in the names of small mammals which are not true rats. Examples include the North American pack rats, a number of species loosely called others. Rats such as the bandicoot rat are not members of the genus Rattus. Male rats are called bucks, unmated females are called does, infants are called kittens or pups. A group of rats is referred to as a mischief. The common species often live with and near humans; therefore, they are known as commensals.Rat – Rats Temporal range: Early Pleistocene – Recent
27. Mongoose – Herpestidae is placed within the Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena, civet families. The word "mongoose" is derived from the Marathi name mungūs. The form of the English name was altered to its "-goose" ending by folk-etymology. It has no etymological connection with the goose. Historically, it has also been spelled "mungoose". The form is mongooses, or, rarely, mongeese. The 34 species range from 24 to 58 cm excluding the tail. Mongooses range in weight from the common dwarf mongoose, at 320 g, at 5 kg. Some species lead predominantly solitary lives, seeking out food only for themselves, while others travel in groups, offspring. Mongooses bear a striking resemblance to mustelids, having long faces and bodies, small, rounded ears, long, tapering tails. Most are grizzly; a few have strongly marked coats. Their nonretractile claws are used primarily for digging. Much like goats, have narrow, ovular pupils. Most species have a anal scent gland, used for territorial marking and signaling reproductive status. The dental formula of mongooses is similar to that of viverrids: 3.1.3-4 -23.1.3 -4.1 -2.Mongoose – Yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
28. Elfin-woods Warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning small insects off leaves. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler Parulidae. On May 1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, which at the time was believed to be its only habitat. A year later Kepler and Parkes named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first Puerto Rican species described in the 20th century. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union. The warbler's upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the species features short, round wings. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a shorter wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year and partially molting to October.Elfin-woods Warbler – Elfin woods warbler
29. Fort San Felipe del Morro – In 1983, the citadel was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations with the San Juan National Historic Site. Over million visitors a year explore the castillo, making it one of Puerto Rico's leading tourist attractions. The construction of its surrounding walls began in 1539 on orders of King Charles V of Spain. Its main purpose was to defend the port of San Juan by controlling the entry to its harbor. It is estimated that this section comprises about 10% of the whole structure. Moreover, in 1680, Governor Enrique Enríquez de Sotomayor began the construction of the city walls surrounding San Juan, which took 48 years to build. El Morro has six levels that rise from sea level to 145 feet high. All along the walls are seen the sentry boxes known as garitas, which have become a cultural symbol of Puerto Rico itself. During the Spanish government of the island, El Morro also known as Castillo de San Felipe survived several attacks on various occasions. In 1595, Englishman Sir Francis Drake attacked San Juan with his fleet. The Spanish gunners shot a cannonball through his cabin. In 1598, the English attacked again, led by 3rd Earl of Cumberland. Clifford succeeded because he attacked San Juan overland instead of trying to enter through the San Juan Bay. However, an epidemic of dysentery forced him to flee the island. The Dutch, led by Boudewijn Hendricksz, also attacked the island emulating George Clifford's overland invasion.Fort San Felipe del Morro – Bird's-eye view of Castillo San Felipe del Morro
30. Old San Juan – Old San Juan is the oldest settlement within Puerto Rico and the historic colonial section of the city of San Juan. The settlement was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the "Zona Histórica de San Juan". It is bounded to the north and to the south by San Juan Bay -- which lies between the city and the mainland. Near Fort San Felipe del Morro, is the Casa Blanca, a palace built on land which belonged to the family of Ponce de Leon. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded Caparra. Constructed in 1521, Casa Blanca served until the mid-eighteenth century. Prior to the 19th century, the area outside the city walls occupying the east side of Old San Juan Island, was almost uninhabited. In 1838 the so-called area of Puerta de Tierra had a population of African descent. According to a census made in 1846, the population had risen to inhabitants living in 58 houses. On May 1897, the wall demolition was officially started after a proclamation was issued by Queen Maria Christina. During the late 1940s, disrepair in the old city was evident. The local authorities were considering development proposals for incorporating modern architecture on new constructions. Anthropologist Ricardo Alegría vehemently advised against the idea of razing old colonial buildings in favor of contemporary building designs. He advised mayor Rincón de Gautier in having local zoning laws changed to favor the incorporation of Spanish colonial motifs in any new construction. This has been a key to San Juan's current status as a tourist destination.Old San Juan – Aerial view of Fort San Felipe del Morro and Old San Juan
31. 1928 Okeechobee hurricane – The Okeechobee hurricane, also known as San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde Islands. Further intensification was slow and halted by late on September 7. About 48 hours later, the storm became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir -- Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12. There, the storm brought 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly as severe as in Guadeloupe. Around midday on September 13, the storm peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph. About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico; it was the only recorded tropical cyclone to strike the island at Category 5 intensity. Very strong winds resulted in Puerto Rico. Throughout the island, 192,444 were damaged, leaving over 500,000 people homeless. Heavy rainfall also led to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were about $50 million in damage. While emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. The storm began crossing on September 16.1928 Okeechobee hurricane – 1928 Okeechobee hurricane
32. Elfin woods warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning small insects off leaves. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler Parulidae. On May 1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, which at the time was believed to be its only habitat. A year later Kepler and Parkes named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first Puerto Rican species described in the 20th century. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union. The warbler's upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the species features short, round wings. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a shorter wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year and partially molting to October.Elfin woods warbler – Elfin woods warbler
33. Fauna of Puerto Rico – The fauna of Puerto Rico is similar to other island archipelago faunas, with high endemism, low, skewed taxonomic diversity. Bats are the only extant terrestrial mammals in Puerto Rico. All terrestrial mammals in the area were introduced by humans, include species such as cats, goats, sheep, the small Asian mongoose, escaped monkeys. Marine mammals include dolphins, whales. Of the 349 bird species, about 120 breed in and 47.5 % are accidental or rare. Some species, introduced by humans, have established populations in reservoirs and rivers. The richness-high diversity pattern is also apparent among invertebrates, which constitutes most of the archipelago's fauna. Hunting, the introduction of non-native species led to extinctions and extirpations. The most notable being for the Puerto Rican parrot, began in the second half of the 20th century. According to IUCN, as of 2002, there were 21 threatened species in Puerto Rico: two mammals, eight breeding birds, three amphibians. An oceanic tectonic plate on which Puerto Rico and the Antilles lie, was formed in the late Mesozoic. According to Rosen, when South America separated from Africa, a volcanic archipelago known as "Proto-Antilles" was formed. It later divided in the "Proto-Antilles". Geologically, the archipelago of Puerto Rico having formed about 135 Ma ago. Rock samples from Sierra Bermeja in southwestern Puerto Rico, dated to the Jurassic/early Cretaceous period, confirm this theory.Fauna of Puerto Rico – A common coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui), arguably the most recognizable species of Puerto Rico's fauna
34. Military history of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico was part of the Spanish Empire for four centuries, when the Puerto Ricans defended themselves from the British, French, Dutch. They fought in the battles of Baton Rouge, Mobile, Pensacola and St. Louis. During the mid-19th century, Puerto Ricans residing in the United States fought in the American Civil War. The island was invaded during the Spanish -- American War. After the war ended, Spain officially ceded the island under the terms established in the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The "Porto Rico Regiment" was established on the island. As citizens of the United States, Puerto Ricans have participated from World War I onward. During World War II, Puerto Ricans participated not only as combatants, but also as commanders. It was during this conflict that Puerto Rican nurses were allowed to participate as members of the WAACs. The members of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment were honored with the Congressional Gold Medal. During the Vietnam War five Puerto Ricans were awarded the Medal of the highest military honor in the United States. Presently Puerto Ricans continue to serve in the military of the United States. The following is brief history of the military events in which Puerto Ricans have participated. Christopher Columbus arrived in the island of Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493, to the so-called "New World". The island was inhabited by the Arawak group of indigenous peoples known as Tainos, who called the island "Borikén" or "Borinquen".Military history of Puerto Rico – Military history of Puerto Rico
35. Nutrition Assistance for Puerto Rico – It provides over $ billion USD in supplemental economic resources to help just over 1 million impoverished residents cope with their nutritional needs. It is based on, though not directly part of, the USDA's national Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Since its inception in 1982, the program has been providing low-income families living in Puerto Rico with cash benefits used for food purchases. It has, however, been controversial throughout its existence. Federal assessments have revealed deficiencies in its operations and management, requiring the implementation of various changes, including increased scrutiny. Public Laws 91-671 of January 11, 93-86 of November 1, 1974 partially extended the Food Stamp Program to U.S. territories. After a year of studies and design, it commenced operations with an annual appropriation of $825 million. The new block program differed significantly from the former Food Stamp program in three major ways. Second, the benefits were provided in cash. The beneficiary could then elect to purchase a product or select services other than food.<ref">FANRR-19-3, Chapter 11, pg. 286, par. 7</ref> It has surpassed $1 billion annually since the early 1990s, increased 30% from 1993 to 2002. Since fiscal year 2006, the appropriation has reached over $ billion annually. Over the years there has been a gradual decline in participation in the nutrition program. Participation in the previous Food Stamp program was estimated before the creation of the block grant. By 1994, by 2006 it had decreased to just over 1 million.Nutrition Assistance for Puerto Rico – The program's federal appropriations and expenditures have increased by a factor of 3–4% to match average inflation rates.
36. Puerto Rican amazon – Measuring 28 -- 30 cm, the bird is white rings around the eyes. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes from Culebra Island, extinct since 1912. Its closest relatives are believed to be the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at between four years of age. It is a cavity nester. Once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks will fledge 60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrot's diet consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark and nectar obtained from the forest canopy. The species has been listed as critically endangered by the World Conservation Union since 1994. Conservation efforts commenced in 1968 to save the bird from extinction. In 2012, the estimated population was 58 -- 80 individuals in the wild and over 300 individuals in captivity. The Puerto Rican amazon was described in 1783. The indigenous Taíno people called the iguaca, an onomatopoeic name that resembled the parrots' flight call. There are two recognized subspecies: A. v. vittata is the nominate and only extant subspecies, inhabiting formerly nearby Vieques Island and Mona Island. A. v. is now extinct.Puerto Rican amazon – Puerto Rican amazon
37. List of Governors of Puerto Rico – This list of Governors of Puerto Rico includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization. The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. The office of captain general was added to the governor. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as this established civilian government on Puerto Rico. The civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. Under this system, the governor is in charge of the island's executive branch. The Governor's four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Year's holiday.List of Governors of Puerto Rico – Juan Ponce de León II, 26th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first native Puerto Rican to become governor
38. List of birds of Puerto Rico – The avifauna of Puerto Rico include a total of 349 species, of which 166 are accidental, 16 are endemic. 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago. This list does not include extinct species. This list's taxonomic nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2016 edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each account. Introduced, extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Puerto Rico. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are common occurring native species. In general, they have broad, relatively short wings. They are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Flamingos filter-feed on algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. The flight is sometimes bat-like. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.List of birds of Puerto Rico – The Puerto Rican spindalis (reina mora in Spanish) is the national bird of Puerto Rico.
39. List of Puerto Rican boxing world champions – In Puerto Rico, boxing is considered a major sport, having produced more amateur and professional world champions than any other sport in its history. This number also places the archipelago in the global lead in terms of champions per capita. Individually, Puerto Rican world champions have earned numerous achievements. These include, by a titleholder. On September 1994, Daniel Jiménez established a world record for the quickest knockout in a championship fight, defeating Harald Geier in 17 seconds. Juan Manuel López is fifth in this category, having defeated César Figueroa in 47 seconds during his first defense. Ossie Ocasio was the first World Boxing Association champion, winning it on February 13, 1982. On June 2014, Miguel Cotto made history by becoming Puerto Rico's first four-division world champion. Boxing was practiced in a clandestine manner in Puerto Rico while the archipelago was still a Spanish colony. The objective was to determine the best fighter among the employees. Following Spanish -- American War, American soldiers who were stationed in the main island practiced the sport. During World War I, a championship known as Campeonato Las Casas was held as training for military personnel. The first Puerto Rican boxer to gain recognition, began his career in these tournaments. The Combat Maneuver Training Center followed organized boxing activities, which they named Los Campeones del Campamento. These were received by the young recruits.List of Puerto Rican boxing world champions – A statue of Sixto Escobar, found in the Estadio Sixto Escobar venue
40. List of Vieques birds – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. It has a total area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques. Some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list. Tags are used to describe this information for each species. This list's taxonomic nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each account. Introduced, extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of each species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Order: Phaethontiformes Family: Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers.List of Vieques birds – Vieques Island from the air
41. Tony Croatto – Hermes Davide Fastino Croatto Martinis, better known as Tony Croatto was an Italian singer and composer best known for his interpretations of Puerto Rican folk music. Croatto was also a presenter. Born in a comune in the province of Udine, Italy. Croatto's family moved to the town of La Paz, Uruguay when he was 9 years old. While being raised as a carpenter, farmer, music was very much a part of his household. At 19, Croatto created his first pop music group with his brother Edelweiss and his sister Argentina, named "TNT". The group eventually developed a very strong following, then Argentina, then in Spain, where TNT moved as their popularity soared. TNT were renowned for their vocal harmonies, Nelly's voice and magnetic personality. At the time, Tony stated once, he was happy with playing guitar, claiming he was rather shy. Eventually, Croatto developed a strong presence, which allowed him to take over vocal duties occasionally. Their group was also popular in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile and Mexico, where they eventually toured. Their LP records for RCA-Victor were fast sellers all over Latin America. They even appeared in "Fiebre de Juventud", along with Mexican pop idol Enrique Guzmán, in 1962. After attaining some success in Spain, TNT moved there in 1963. They went far as representing the country in the Eurovision Song Contest 1964 in Copenhagen, billed as "Nelly, Tim and Tony".Tony Croatto – Tony Croatto, with his sister and brother when they were Los TNT (1960). Tony is the first one from below.
42. Italians – Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Italians have greatly contributed to science, arts, technology, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence and banking both abroad and worldwide. Italian people are generally known to clothing and family values. The term Italian has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Emperor Diocletian's administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief; it became permanent in 395. In 313, churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he also moved his capital to Constantinople greatly reducing the importance of the former. Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy, Odoacer. His defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. Odoacer ruled well after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths.Italians – Amerigo Vespucci, the notable geographer and traveller from whose name the word America is derived.
43. Governor of Puerto Rico – He is also the commander-in-chief of the Puerto Rico National Guard. Since 1948, the governor has been elected by the people of Puerto Rico. Prior to that, the governor was appointed either by the President of the United States. Article IV of the Constitution of Puerto Rico empowers him with the faculty to appoint officers. Law No. 104 of 1956 empowers him with the faculty to delegate functions. These two faculties in conjunction allow the governor to delegate most of his functions while continuing to be the maximum head of government. The budget is delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget while centralized planning is delegated to the President of the Planning Board. It is believed that the cacique rank was apparently established through democratic means. His importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his tribe rather than his warlord skills, since the Taínos were mostly a pacifist culture. Juan Ponce de León assumed the post in 1510. He served until, who assumed that same year. In 1914 Howard Lewis Kern from Charles City, Iowa was appointed by Woodrow Wilson to be the general. During that time Governor Kern focused on cleaning up the riff-raff, providing public health and welfare. Kern was partner in starting the International Telephone and Telegraph Company from the failing Puerto Rican Radio and Telegraph Company. His wife, Edna Francis and their first daughter, Myrna Quail resided in the governor's mansion across the street from Fortaleza.Governor of Puerto Rico – La Fortaleza is the oldest Governor's Mansion in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere
44. Ceiba, Puerto Rico – Ceiba is a small municipality in northeast Puerto Rico. It is named after the famous Ceiba tree. Ceiba is located in the coast of the island, bordering the Atlantic Ocean, south of Fajardo, north of Naguabo and southeast of Río Grande. Located about one hour's driving distance from San Juan, Ceiba is spread over Ceiba Pueblo. It is part of the Fajardo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ceiba, situated near Fajardo, used to be home of the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station. The base was closed in 2004. Locals are commonly known as "Los Come Sopa". Even though there is no official reason as to why they are called this, a few stories have been suggested. Ceiba is also known as "La Ciudad del Marlin". Ceiba was founded by Luis de la Cruz. Ceiba derives its name from an Indian Seyba, the name for a famous tree that grows in the island, the Ceiba pentandra. Ceiba is home of the Ceiba Forest which extends along the coastline between Ceiba and Fajardo. 95% of the forest is classified as mangrove. Various species of birds can be seen well as turtles and manatees.Ceiba, Puerto Rico – Location of Ceiba in Puerto Rico
45. Victor Argo – Victor Argo was an American actor of Puerto Rican descent who usually played the part of a tough bad guy in his movies. Argo was born Victor Jimenez in The Bronx, New York. Both of his parents were born in the town of Quebradillas, Puerto Rico. Argo began his career as a actor. While performing during the 1960s, Argo met Yoko Ono, with whom he participated in the so-called "Happening" movement. He also became friends with whom he remained close for nearly forty years. In 1977, Argo became a founding member of the Riverside Shakespeare Company on New York City's Upper West Side. As a member, he toured the parks of Manhattan playing Lord Montague. He became a favorite of such directors as Martin Scorsese, Abel Ferrara and Woody Allen. In 2001, he played Jennifer Lopez's father in the romantic drama Angel Eyes. His guest appearances include The Rockford Files, Wonder Woman, Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, Spenser: For Hire, Law & Order and Miami Vice. Argo lent his talents in total. Among the films in which Argo had a role were the following:. The film was released in 2005. Argo died in New York City at Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Center at age 69.Victor Argo – Victor Argo
46. Grito de Lares – The short-lived revolt was planned by Segundo Ruiz Belvis. It began on September 23, 1868, for which it is named, spread rapidly to various revolutionary cells throughout the island. In the 1860s, the government of Spain was involved across Latin America. It had to address slave revolts in Cuba. This board, the Junta Informativa de Reformas de Ultramar would be formed by representatives of each overseas province, in proportion to their collective population. The board would meet in Madrid, then report to the Minister of State, Emilio Castelar. The Puerto Rican delegation was freely elected by those eligible to vote, in what was one of the first exercises of political openness in Spain. However, Acosta could convince the Junta that abolition could be achieved without disrupting the local economy. Betances then suggested an outright, island-wide rebellion, as soon as possible. To horror, many of the meeting's attendees sided with Betances. The Lares uprising, commonly known as the Grito de Lares, was planned well before that date. Betances called for immediate insurrection. These statements soon circulated throughout the island as dissident groups began to organize. Among them, Los Diez Mandamientos de los hombres libres written in Saint Thomas in November 1867. Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances, provided Mariana Bracetti for the Revolutionary Flag of Lares.Grito de Lares – Original Lares Revolutionary Flag Municipality of Lares highlighted in red
47. Puerto Rican independence movement – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, since 1898, from the United States. A wide variety of groups, organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of political parties exist on the island. During the second half of the 20th century, the movement has attracted neither support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a status referendum in 2012, 5.5% voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44% of the votes cast. Independence also received less than 4.5 % of the vote, in 1967, 1993 and 1998. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the 16th century and the Taíno rebellion of 1511 led by Agüeybaná II. He was joined by cacique of Utuado, who killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Many Taíno either fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the native born, or Criollos, occurred in the 19th century. These include the conspiracy at San Germán in 1809, the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán and Sabana Grande in 1898. Many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to create a federation of Latin American nations, to include Puerto Rico and Cuba.Puerto Rican independence movement – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
48. Maricao, Puerto Rico – Maricao is the second-least populous municipality of Puerto Rico located at the western edge of the Cordillera Central. Maricao is spread over 15 wards and Maricao Pueblo. The hatchery is part of the Maricao State Forest, also known as Monte del Estado. Though of dryer vegetation than the other mountain forest, Maricao is home to large number of bird species. Its tower provides far-flung views to the Mona Passage. Maricao has a 2000 census population of 6,449. It has a land area of 37.1 square miles (96.87 km2. It originally belonged to the district of San Germán, but they alleged the roads were too long and almost impassable. Their request made references to a parish already established in 1866. During the 19th boom, other regions surged economically. When the spurt of coffee in the island ended by the start of the 20th century, the economic conditions deteriorated again. Many of the old plantation houses have been converted in museums to stimulate the tourism industry. While Puerto Rico still has a niche in the market, the large coffee growing which built Maricao is no longer economically feasible. The flag of Maricao derives its colors, design and symbolism from the municipal shield. The color green symbolizes the vegetation of the municipality and the yellow band symbolizes the mountains of the region.Maricao, Puerto Rico – Water stream at El Monte del Estado
50. Supreme Court of Puerto Rico – The Supreme Court holds its sessions in San Juan. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico was maintained in the 1952 Constitution of Puerto Rico. It is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. However, since Puerto Rico is under United States sovereignty, there is also a Federal District Court for the island. The justices are confirmed by majority vote by the Senate. One of these nine justices serves as Chief Justice; the remaining members are designated Associate Justices. This provision has been used four times in Court history. Immediately after the Constitution's ratification, the Court asked for two additional judges. During the early 1960s, the Court again petitioned for the addition of two more judges, arguing that there was a case backlog on its docket. Subsequently, during the 1970s the Court asked for its number to be reduced back to seven members, arguing that the backlog had been attended to. Finally, in 2010 a 4 -- 3 majority of the justices petitioned the Legislative Assembly to again increase the Court's membership to 9. This decision has generated controversy since it is the first time that such a request has been done from the justices. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is defined by the laws of Puerto Rico. In general, the jurisdictional structure parallels that of the state Supreme Courts in the continental United States.Supreme Court of Puerto Rico – The Supreme Court Building is at the entrance of the city of San Juan.
51. Puerto Rican Day Parade – The Puerto Rican Day Parade takes place annually in the United States along Fifth Avenue in the Manhattan borough of New York City, New York. The parade always attracts many politicians from the Tri-State area. The first Puerto Rican Day Parade was held on Sunday, April 1958, in Manhattan, replacing the Hispanic Day Parade. In 1995, the parade expanded beyond the venue itself. The parade now hosts over seven major events throughout the city. There are dozens of other events that also take place the weekend of the parade that are not sponsored by the National Parade's corporation. In addition to the parade in New York City, there are currently over fifty smaller parades that take place throughout the United States. In 2009, organizers selected internationally recognized telenovela actor Osvaldo Ríos, as the parade's "Special Guest Star". In June 2004, Puerto Rican rapper Ivy Queen was designated as the "Puerto Rico Youth Godmother" of the parade. Others to be given such titles include Wisin & Yandel and Willie Colón. The parade itself has been featured in an episode of the NBC Seinfeld titled "The Puerto Rican Day". In it, Jerry Seinfeld, Cosmo Kramer get stuck in a traffic jam as a result of the parade. Before the National Puerto Rican Coalition protested the episode, network executives issued an apology. The company also made a pledge to "improve our procedures regarding sensitive programming issues". Latin American classic "Empire of Dreams" by Giannina Braschi staged a revolution on the Puerto Rican Day Parade.Puerto Rican Day Parade – Frankie Cutlass at the Puerto Rican Day Parade 2006
52. New York City – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. The five boroughs -- Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island -- were consolidated into a single city in 1898. New York served as the capital of the United States until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, environmental sustainability. Several sources have ranked the most photographed city in the world. The names of many of the city's bridges, parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 469 stations in operation. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the geologic foundation for much of New York City today. On, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. He named it "Nouvelle Angoulême". He returned to Spain in August.New York City – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
53. Grammy Award – A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Academy Awards. The first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 1959, to honor the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, The Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012. The 58th Grammy Awards were held at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s. The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to Oscars the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. They finally settled on using the name of the invention of the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The number of awards given fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. Each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado. Billings developed a alloy named grammium, trademarked. By February 2009, 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded. The "General Field" are four awards which are not restricted by genre.Grammy Award – Grammy Awards
54. Latin Grammy – A Latin Grammy Award is an award by The Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences to recognize outstanding achievement in the Latin music industry. The Latin Grammy honors is awarded in the United States. The first Latin Grammys ceremony was held at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on September 13, 2000. Broadcast by that first ceremony became the first primarily Spanish language primetime program carried on an English-language American television network. The 17th Annual Latin Grammy Awards, was held on November 17, 2016 at the T-Mobile Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. Since 2005, the awards are broadcast by the television network Univision. In 2013, million people watched the Latin Grammy Awards on Univision, making the channel a top-three network for the night in the U.S.. The Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences was formed by the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences in 1997. It was founded by Producers & Songwriters Rudy Pérez & Mauricio Abaroa. Rudy Pérez was the Grammy Florida chapter "first President of the Board. The concept of a separate Grammy Awards for Latin music began in 1989. According to organizers, the Latin Grammy Awards was established as the Latin universe was deemed too large to fit on the Grammy Awards. The Latin Grammy Awards mainly focuses from Latin America, Spain, Portugal, the United States. In 2000, it was announced that the 1st Annual Latin Grammy Awards would take place at the Staples Center on September 2000. On July 2000, the nominations were announced in Miami, Florida, USA.Latin Grammy – Latin Grammy Award
55. Poet – POET LLC is a U.S. biofuel company that specializes in the creation of bioethanol. The privately held corporation, originally called Broin Companies, is headquartered in South Dakota. In 2007, the Renewable Fuels Association named the largest U.S. ethanol producer creating 1.1 billion US gallons of fuel per year. Currently, POET produces billion gallons of ethanol per year. POET operates 27 ethanol plants spread across South Dakota. A grand opening was held for the facility on September 2014. It is expected to produce million gallons of ethanol per year from corncobs, leaves and husks provided by farmers in and around the area. POET has also collaborated including Deere & Co. and Vermeer Company, to develop manufacturing equipment for harvesting corn cobs used in ethanol production. Among its products in the process are distillers grains branded Dakota Gold, Inviz, Voila. The company traces its history to the farm in Wanamingo, Minnesota where the Broins began producing ethanol in 1983. In 2007, it was renamed POET. Then president Jeff Broin said the new name is not an acronym. POET has constructed an $8 million plant to produce cellulosic ethanol made from corn cobs and other crop residue. A commercial project, based on the pilot plant, was undertaken as a joint venture with Royal DSM under the name POET-DSM Advanced Biofuels, LLC. A federal guarantee was obtained in July, 2011 for a commercial-scale plant to be built in Emmetsburg, Iowa.Poet
56. Roberto Clemente – Roberto Enrique Clemente Walker was a Puerto Rican professional baseball player. He spent 18 Major League Baseball seasons playing as a right fielder for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Clemente was inducted in 1973 becoming the first Latin American and Caribbean player to be enshrined. He was an All-Star for fifteen All-Star Games. He had 3,000 major league hits during his career. Clemente also played in two World Series championships. Clemente was married in 1964; his wife had three children. Clemente was involved in Caribbean countries during the off-seasons, often delivering baseball equipment and food to those in need. On December 1972, Clemente died in a plane crash while en route to deliver aid to earthquake victims in Nicaragua. Roberto Clemente was born to Don Melchor Clemente and Doña Luisa Walker. He was the youngest of seven siblings; Clemente had two sisters. During his childhood, his father worked as foreman of sugar crops located in the municipality. Because the family's resources were limited, he worked in the fields loading and unloading trucks. He often played against neighboring barrios. Clemente attended Vizcarrondo High School in Carolina.Roberto Clemente – Clemente (U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 1958)
57. Ana Roque – Ana Roqué de Duprey, also known as "Flor del Valle", was an educator, suffragist and one of the founders of the University of Puerto Rico. Roqué was born in Puerto Rico. She had learned how to write by the age of three. She was raised by her father, aunt and grandmother, who were all educators. In 1860, when Roqué was seven years old, she was sent to a regular school, two years later graduated. She in 1864 at the age of eleven, became the youngest teacher's assistant in Puerto Rico. At age 13, she founded a school in her house. She also wrote a textbook for her students, later adopted by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico. She passed the examinations. In 1872, she married a well-to-do landowner, involved in politics. She developed an interest in the politics of Puerto Rico. With Duprey, she had five children. Three survived to adulthood: Luis Enrique, Borinquen and America. During her spare time, she composed music. In 1880 her husband died, leaving her with young children to care for.Ana Roque – Roque was one of the founders of the University of Puerto Rico
58. University of Puerto Rico – The University of Puerto Rico is the main public university system of Puerto Rico and a government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico. It has approximately 58,000 students and 5,300 faculty members. UPR has the largest and most academic offerings in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, with 472 academic programs of which 32 lead to a doctorate. At Fajardo, the Escuela Normal Industrial was established as the first higher education center in Puerto Rico. Its initial enrollment was 5 professors. It was moved to Río Piedras. On March 12, 1903, that day the "Escuela Normal" was proclaimed as its first department. 1910 - Establishment of the College of Liberal Arts. 1911 - Establishment of the College of Agriculture at Mayagüez. A year later the name was changed to College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 1913 - The Departments of Pharmacy and Law were established. 1918 - University High School is founded to provide clinical experience and supervised practice for teacher applicants, support staff and other teaching professionals. In 1924 the governor appointed the first Rector. The enrollment is 1,500 students. 1924 - The administrative structure and identity of the University of Puerto Rico is completely independent of the Department of Public Instruction.University of Puerto Rico – Seal of the University of Puerto Rico
59. Ernesto Ramos Antonini – Ernesto Ramos Antonini was the President of the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico and co-founder of the Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico. Ramos Antonini was born into a poor family in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. He was the youngest child of the marriage between Rosa Antonini Danseau. When he was three months old, the family moved to Ponce, Puerto Rico, where he spent the next 43 years of his life. As a child, his parents taught the importance of a getting a good education. He graduated at 19 years of age. After he graduated from high school, Ramos Antonini enrolled at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras to study law. He in 1922 earned his law degree. He returned to Ponce where he taught math, established his law firm. Upon the withdrawal of the permits, the police opened fire in what became known as the Ponce Massacre. He also became known by being active in the International Workers Congress. He defended the Puerto Rican workers who were being abused by the American companies established in the island. In 1932, he was elected to the Senate. In 1940 he lived at Calle Isabel #31 in Ponce. His wife was Josefina Buonomo.Ernesto Ramos Antonini – Ernesto Ramos Antonini
60. Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico – Founded in 1938 from the Puerto Rican Liberal Party and the Unionist Party, its founders defined the party as center-left in the ideological spectrum. In recent years however, its leaders describe the party as being centrist. The PPD currently holds the seat of the governor. It also has a simple majority of Representatives; effectively controlling both the executive and legislative branch without political opposition. The party also holds more than half of the seats of mayors in the municipalities of Puerto Rico. Another option, spearheaded by a caucus within the PPD, advocates for Puerto Rico to enter a compact of free association with the United States. Members of the PPD are commonly called populares and mostly affiliate with the Democratic Party of the United States. Dissidents expelled from the Liberal Party of Puerto Rico, founded the PPD in 1938. Many of them were part of the socialist movement of Puerto Rico. The dissident faction, initially calling the Partido Liberal, Neto, Auténtico y Completo, was led by Luis Muñoz Marín. In 1940, the highest political office in Puerto Rican was as president of its Senate. At the time, the governor was appointed by the president of the United States; no native-born Puerto Ricans were appointed until 1946. In the 1940 election, the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico finished with the Liberal Party. Once Jesús T. Piñero stepped down as the first Puerto Rican named governor, the governor's office became an elected position. This record has been surpassed only under Spanish rule.Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico – Sila Calderón
61. Lares, Puerto Rico – Lares is spread over 10 wards and Lares Pueblo. It is part of the Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastián Metropolitan Statistical Area. The movement, known thereafter as El Grito de Lares, was soon extinguished, making Lares the site of the shortest-lived republic ever. The flag of Lares is now considered by many Puerto Ricans to be the symbol of their independence movement. Lares was founded by Pedro Vélez Borrero. The city was named after one of a Spanish nobleman. The lengthy process was begun in 1824 and was led by Don Juan Francisco de Soto Mayor. However late Lares had its beginnings as el Hato de Lariz in the 16th century. The Spanish word hato means pasture or cattle ranch. This particular hato owes its name to a Spanish colonizer. Prior to becoming a municipality in its own right, Lares was a barrio or ward of the town of San Sebastian del Pepino. In any event, over the course of seven years the founders of Lares overcame various difficulties and the municipality of Lares came into being. The Patriotas won 3 championships, in 2002. In 1981 and 1983 they beat Corozal in the finals and in 2002 they beat Naranjito. Some of the Native players were: David Vera 1979, Rigoberto Guiyoti 1979, Modesto 1980, Lares' economy is primarily agricultural.Lares, Puerto Rico – Downtown Lares: July 2007
62. Aguadilla, Puerto Rico – Aguadilla is spread over 15 wards and Aguadilla Pueblo, the administrative center of the city. It is a principal city of the Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastián Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to sources, a Taíno settlement called Amamón was located close to the Culebrinas River. The present territory of Aguadilla was originally part of the territory of Aguada. In 1775, the foundation of Aguadilla by Don Luis de Córdova was approved. But it wasn't until 1780 that the territory was properly segregated, making the founding of the town official. Originally, Aguadilla was constituted by the Victoria and Higüey wards. This region was already known before 1770. Nevertheless, according to Dr. Agustín Stahl in his Foundation of Aguadilla, it was not until 1780 that the town was officially founded. The construction of a new church and the proceedings to become an independent village began in the 1775. The population in the Village of Aguadilla continued to increase constantly mainly due to its excellent port and strategic location in the route of the boats. In 1831, according to Don Pedro Tomás de Córdova, the party of Aguadilla belonged to Aguada. He adds that its "port is the most frequented in the Island due to the proportions that it offers to refresh all class of ship." In 1860, Aguadilla was officially declared a village. In January 1841 a Royal Order transferred the judicial party from Aguada to Aguadilla.Aguadilla, Puerto Rico – Aguadilla, Puerto Rico
63. Coin collecting – Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the systematic study of currency. Though closely related, the two disciplines are not necessarily the same. A numismatist may not be a coin collector, vice versa. A coin's grade is a main determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party service like PCGS or NGC will grade, authenticate, attribute, encapsulate most U.S. and foreign coins. Over million coins have been certified by the four largest services. People have hoarded coins for their value for as long as coins have been minted. However, the collection of coins for their artistic value was a later development. Evidence from the historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and state treasuries. It also seems probable that individual citizens collected old, commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art. Appreciation began around the fourteenth century. During the Renaissance, it became a fad among some members of especially kings and queens. Poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuit's first and most famous aficionado.Coin collecting – Two 20 kr gold coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union.
64. El Yunque National Forest – El Yunque National Forest, formerly known as the Luquillo National Forest and the Caribbean National Forest, is a forest located in northeastern Puerto Rico. It is the tropical rain forest in the United States National Forest System. The second-tallest mountain within El Yunque is also named El Yunque. The highest mountain peak in the forest rises 1,065 metres above sea level. Ample rainfall creates a jungle-like setting -- lush foliage, crags, rivers are a prevalent sight. The forest has a number of trails from which the jungle-like territory's fauna can be appreciated. El Yunque is also renowned for its unique Taíno petroglyphs. It was renamed June 1935. It is home to over 200 species of plants, 23 of which are found nowhere else. Because Puerto Rico is south of the Tropic of Cancer, it has a tropical climate. There is no distinct dry season in El Yunque; it rains year round. The length of daylight remain fairly constant throughout the year. The average year-round is 80 degrees Fahrenheit and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. All of these factors provide a year-round growing season. Its ecosystem is specifically surveyed by the Management Team of Ecosystems, led by Pedro Rios.El Yunque National Forest – El Yunque National Forest
65. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire originated after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish -- American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies to the United States. Its African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits. The treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 in the papal bull Æterni regis. Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.Spanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
66. Orlando Figueroa – He has since retired from NASA. Figueroa was born in Puerto Rico. As a child he always had an interest in learning how mechanical toys functioned. During his elementary school years, he would occupy most of his time looking for solutions to problems. After he finished his primary and secondary education, he went to high school, where he was an advanced student. The beginning of the era, captured his attention during his childhood. He would try to imagine what it would be like to travel into space. In 1978, he earned his bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering. Upon his graduation, he completed advanced courses in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 1982, Figueroa was named Head of the Cryogenics Technology Section at the Goddard Space Flight Center located in Maryland. In 1997, Figueroa became a member of the Senior Executive Service of the U.S. Federal Government. The programs long range objective is to place humans into its hostile environment. Under his directorship the Mars Explorer Rover mission launched Spirit and Opportunity in 2004. In August 2005 Mr. Figueroa was appointed to the position of Director at the Goddard Space Flight Center. In January 2010, he accepted the position of Goddard Space Flight Center.Orlando Figueroa – Previously the NASA Mars Czar.
67. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The new agency became operational on October 1958. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. This led to an agreement that a federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. Many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.NASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
68. Czar – Tsar /zɑːr/, also spelled tzar, csar, or czar, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. Occasionally, the word could be used to designate other, secular, supreme rulers. The Tsar is derived from the Latin title for the Roman emperors, Caesar. Thus, "tsar" was also used to refer to Biblical rulers and ancient kings. From this ambiguity, the development has moved in different directions in the Slavic languages. Thus, Russian language no longer use tsar as an equivalent of the term emperor/imperator as it exists in the West European tradition. Currently, the tsar refers to native sovereigns, ancient and Biblical rulers, as well as monarchs in fairy tales and the like. The title of king is by some Russian-speakers reserved for European royalty. Foreign monarchs of imperial status, both inside and outside of Europe, ancient well as modern, are generally called imperator, rather than tsar. Biblical rulers in Serbian are called цар and in Croatian kralj. In the Polish language however tsar is always used as imperator, never as king. Tsar is very often used to refer to the Russian rulers after Peter the Great. The sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. In Latin sources the Emperor of Bulgaria is sometimes designated "Emperor of Zagora".Czar – Reception of the Tsar of Russia in the Moscow Kremlin.
69. 1919 – As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The Czechoslovak Legions occupy much of the self-proclaimed "free city" of Pressburg, enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia. HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of Scotland; 206 die. Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company. Spartacist uprising: Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution. The beginning of the Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, suppressed by official forces. January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin. January 10–12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin. January 11 Romania annexes Transylvania. Georgians genocide in Alagir. January 13 – Worker's councils in Berlin end the general strike; the Spartacist uprising is over. January 14 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army. Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising. Great Molasses Flood: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150. The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.1919 – January 1: Iolaire sinks.
70. Luisa Capetillo – Luisa Capetillo was one of Puerto Rico's most famous labor organizers. She was also an anarchist who fought for workers and women's rights. Capetillo was born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, from the Basque country and Luisa Margarita Perone, a Corsican immigrant. Luis Capetillo arrived at around the same time as Margarita travelling with his family. In Arecibo she was home schooled by her parents, who were both very liberal in regard to their philosophical and political ideologies. In 1898, Capetillo had the first of her two children out of wedlock. She found a job as a reader in a cigar making factory in Arecibo. It was in the factory that Capetillo had her first contact with labor unions. In 1904, Capetillo began to write essays, titled "Mi Opinión", about her ideas, which were published in radical and union newspapers. During a farm workers' strike in 1905, Capetillo organized the workers in the strike. She quickly traveled throughout Puerto Rico educating and organizing women. Arecibo, became the most unionized area of the country. During the "FLT" convention, Capetillo asked the union to approve a policy for women's suffrage. She insisted that all women should have the same right to vote as men. Capetillo is considered to be one of Puerto Rico's first suffragists.Luisa Capetillo – Luisa Capetillo
71. Boxing – Amateur boxing is a common fixture in most international games -- it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, the fight is considered a draw. Boxing was a popular sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. The thong soon became a weapon. The Romans even introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus which then led to a more sinister weapon called the myrmex. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres. The Roman form of boxing was often a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Often slaves were used in a circle marked on the floor. This is where the ring came from. During the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality. It was not until the 17th century that boxing re-surfaced in London. However, there are detailed records of fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries.Boxing – Two Royal Navy men boxing for charity. The modern sport was codified in England.
72. US Justice Department – The current Attorney General is Loretta Lynch. The U.S. Attorney General was initially a part-time job. This grew with the bureaucracy. On February 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice. Both the Senate and House passed the bill. President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill on June 22, 1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1870. Prior to the Civil War, in February of 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. The law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred from the Department of Interior. A facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the project. On Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over one million square feet of space. The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served for the entire building contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside.US Justice Department – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
73. Puerto Rico Police Department – The Puerto Rico Police —also known in Puerto Rico as La Uniformada — is the state police of Puerto Rico. The Police is organized into thirteen regions within Puerto Rico for operational purposes with headquarters are 601 Franklin D. Roosevelt Avenue in San Juan. It provided police services to the entire island, although many municipalities maintained their own police force. This program was put to the test from 1993 to 1996, but unfortunately, 48 police officers died in the line of duty. It was later activated again in 2004 by governor Sila María Calderón but not with the same intensity as in the early 1990s. In 2009, Police Superintendent José Figueroa Sancha re-organized the Puerto Rico Police in terms of commanding officers and regional organization. Every zone was changed to have two commanding officers: one in the other in charge of investigations. Also, the name was changed from Police Zones to Police Regions. Also, a new policy of the agency was to get involved in the community. In September 2009, the government of Puerto Rico suffered an economic crisis, which caused the dismissal of thousands of public employees. Many citizens' concern was that the dismissals of public employees would cause the level of criminal incidents to increase. Governor Luis Fortuño dismissed this concern. But in the last 3 months of the year 2009, crime increased dramatically, leading to carjackings. The year 2009 ended with a total of 894 murders, that would be 74 murders more than those reported in 2008. In the first 14 days of 2010, there were an average per week.Puerto Rico Police Department – The logo of the Puerto Rico Police
74. Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. Congress submitted the amendment to the states on September 28, 1789. By December 15, 1791, the necessary three-fourths of the states had ratified it. On March 1, 1792, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson announced the adoption of the amendment. The amendment was held to apply to the states in Mapp v. Ohio. The exclusionary rule is one way the amendment is enforced. Established in Weeks v. United States, this rule holds that evidence obtained through a Fourth Amendment violation is generally inadmissible at criminal trials. Like many other areas of American law, the Fourth Amendment finds its roots in English legal doctrine. Entick filed suit in Entick v Carrington, argued before the Court of King's Bench in 1765. In 1756, the colony of Massachusetts enacted legislation that barred the use of general warrants. This represented the first law in American history curtailing the use of seizure power. A crisis erupted over the writs of assistance on December 27, 1760 when the news of King George II's death on October 23 arrived in Boston. In mid-January 1761, a group of over 50 merchants represented by James Otis petitioned the court to have hearings on the issue. During the five-hour hearing on February 23, 1761, Otis vehemently denounced British colonial policies, including their sanction of general warrants and writs of assistance. However, the court ruled against Otis.Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
75. Police brutality – Widespread brutality exists in many countries, even those that prosecute it. It is one of several forms of misconduct, which include: false arrest; intimidation; racial profiling; political repression; surveillance abuse; sexual abuse; and police corruption. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law. Cases of brutality appear to have been frequent then, with "the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks." Portions of the population may perceive the police to be oppressors. After facing federal trial, two of the four officers were received 32 months prison sentence. The case was widely seen as a key factor in the reform of the Los Angeles Police Department. Of the deaths classified as enforcement homicides, 2,876 deaths occurred of which 1,643 or 57.1 % of the people who died were "people of color". Incidents of brutality in Austria seem to be largely influenced and triggered by racism and prejudice against foreign nationals and ethnic minorities within the community. This underlying issue has continued to be relevant when examining cases of police brutality within Austria. In Vienna there tends to be an association made between Vienna's drug problem and the city's African migrants. The most notorious of these incidents occurred in the late 1990's, however recent reports in 2015 show that police are still treating civilians in this way. They were fined without reason. He suffocated whilst in custody. He was beaten unconscious and handcuffed.Police brutality – New York City Police Department officers violently attacking unemployed civilians in Tompkins Square Park, 1874.
76. Hurricane Irene (2011) – Hurricane Irene was a large and destructive tropical cyclone, which affected much of the Caribbean and East Coast of the United States during late August 2011. Irene is ranked as the seventh-costliest hurricane in United States history. Due to development of atmospheric convection and a closed center of circulation, the system was designated as Tropical Storm Irene on August 20, 2011. After intensifying, Irene made landfall in St. Croix as a strong tropical storm later that day. Early on August 21, the storm made a second landfall in Puerto Rico. While crossing the island, Irene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane. The storm paralleled offshore of Hispaniola, continued to slowly intensify in the process. Shortly before making four landfalls in the Bahamas, Irene peaked as a 120 mph Category 3 hurricane. Thereafter, the storm slowly leveled-off in intensity as it struck the Bahamas and then curved northward after passing east of Grand Bahama. Early on the following day, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic from southeastern Virginia. A few hours later, Irene made its ninth and final landfall in Brooklyn, New York City. Early on August 29, Irene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone hitting Vermont after remaining inland as a tropical cyclone for less than 12 hours. Throughout its path, Irene caused widespread destruction and at least 56 deaths. In addition, monetary losses in the Caribbean and Canada were $830 $ million respectively for a total of nearly $ billion in damage. The strong thunderstorm activity continued to become more pronounced around the main low-pressure feature.Hurricane Irene (2011) – Hurricane Irene at peak intensity over the southern Bahamas, on August 24
77. Hurricane – Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. As a result, they rarely form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter. Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas. Cyclone refers to their cyclonic nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect. In addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their primary energy source. For this reason, coastal regions are particularly vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, however, can cause significant flooding inland, storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres from the coastline. Though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. Tropical cyclones are areas of relatively low pressure in the troposphere, with the largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface. On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest ever observed at sea level. The environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as "warm core" systems.Hurricane – Hurricane Isabel (2003) as seen from orbit during Expedition 7 of the International Space Station. The eye, eyewall, and surrounding rainbands, characteristics of tropical cyclones, are clearly visible in this view from space.
78. 2011 Atlantic hurricane season – However, the first tropical storm of the season, Arlene, did not develop until nearly a month later. Tropical Storm Sean, dissipated over the open Atlantic on November 11. Despite unfavorable conditions, seven storms reached four of those storms reached major hurricane status. Ophelia reached overall peak. Due to the presence of a La Niña in the Pacific Ocean, pre-season forecasts called for an above-average hurricane season. In Colorado State University's outlook, the organization called for 16 named storms and 9 hurricanes, of which 4 would intensify further into major hurricanes. On May 2011, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued their pre-season forecast, predicting 12 -- 18 named storms, 6 -- 10 hurricanes, 3 -- 6 major hurricanes. Tropical cyclones affected land during the 2011 season; most impacts, however, did not result in a significant loss of life or property. On June 29, Arlene moved ashore near Mexico, causing minor damage and killing 22. Roughly a month later, Tropical Storm Don made landfall in southern Texas; no damage was reported. Three deaths were reported as a result. As an extratropical cyclone, Lee caused significant damage in the form of flooding especially in New York and Pennsylvania. Most destructive cyclone of the season developed east of the Lesser Antilles on August 21. Hurricane Irene caused significant damage across many of United States Eastern Seaboard, ultimately resulting in the name's retirement. Overall, the season resulted in $18.5 billion in damage.2011 Atlantic hurricane season
79. Utah Jazz – The Utah Jazz are an American professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Jazz compete as a member club of the league's Western Conference Northwest Division. Since 1991, the team has played its home games at Vivint Smart Home Arena. The Jazz were one of the least successful teams in the league in their early years. Although 10 seasons elapsed before the Jazz qualified in 1984, they did not miss the playoffs again until 2004. Both Stockton and Malone moved on in 2003. After missing the playoffs for three consecutive seasons the Jazz returned under the on-court leadership of point guard Deron Williams. However, partway through the 2010 -- the Jazz began restructuring after Sloan's retirement and Williams' trade to the New Jersey Nets. The team has made the playoffs once since then, in 2012 under coach Tyrone Corbin. Quin Snyder was hired as coach in June 2014. On June 1974, the New Orleans Jazz were admitted as an expansion franchise into the National Basketball Association. Team officials selected the name because of its definition in the dictionary: collective improvisation. The team began its inaugural season in New Orleans in the 1974–75 season. Maravich struggled from that season onward. Venue issues were a continual problem for the team while it was based in New Orleans.Utah Jazz – Pete Maravich played for the Jazz from 1974 to 1980.
80. Puerto Rican National Basketball Team – The Puerto Rico national basketball team, represents Puerto Rico in basketball international competitions, is controlled by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation. The Puerto Rican Basketball Federation joined FIBA in 1957. It has participated in 12 World Championships, although they have never won a medal at either competition. Yet, after losing other six games back to back, ended its participation with a win over Italy, obtaining the 6th place. This still is as of 2016, the highest place it has ever reached since the team's birth at any Olympic Games. The 4 -- 3 showing in 1978 in the Philippines was the first time ever the team finished at a World Championship. These achievements were accompanied by the 1978 Central American and Caribbean Games. In all, it was able to medal in all regional competitions. The silver medal at the 1988 Americas Championship held in Montevideo, Uruguay, secured the team's Olympic participation since 1976. Puerto Rico wouldn't participate either at the 1984 Olympic Games, held in Los Angeles, because the team failed to qualify for it. During the 1990s, the team's successes continued as usual. This victory at CentroBasket was the last of a 5 gold streak at the tournament. Puerto Rico was then when Puerto Rico began to be classified as one of the top 10 international teams. The team repeated its 4th place at the 2001 FIBA Americas tournament in Argentina. In 2002, the team had a strong showing at the World Championship held in Indianapolis, USA.Puerto Rican National Basketball Team – Puerto Rico
81. National Superior Basketball League of Puerto Rico – The Baloncesto Superior Nacional is the first tier level professional men's basketball league in Puerto Rico. It was founded in 1929 and is organized by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation. The league has produced players that have distinguished themselves in the NBA, ACB, EuroLeague, other tournaments throughout the world. Among them, NBA players Butch Lee, José Ortiz, Ramón Rivas, José Juan Barea started their careers playing for BSN teams. The league began in 1930, is noted for having had several head coaches who went on to achieve international recognition later in their careers. Notable coaches who have worked for BSN teams include Gene Bartow, Lou Rossini, Del Harris, P.J. Carlesimo, Herb Brown. On October 8, 2015 the BSN owners selected Fernando Quiñones, Esq. to succeed Carlos J. Beltrán as President of the BSN. The BSN tournament is played under the regular FIBA basketball rules. The teams regularly play a total of three games amongs them. For the 2015, the regular season will extend to 44 games. Of the 12 participating teams, the top 8 move on to the postseason. The current league organization features 11 teams in a single division. He broke both the single-season points record with 810 in 1978 and the most career points record with 11,549. Rodríguez also holds the mark for most rebounds in a career with 6,178. He also held the single-season record in 1978, which stood until Lee Benson broke it in 2008.National Superior Basketball League of Puerto Rico – Baloncesto Superior Nacional De Puerto Rico
82. Dallas Mavericks – The Dallas Mavericks are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas. The Mavericks compete as a club of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division. The team plays its home games at the American Airlines Center, which it shares with the National Hockey League's Dallas Stars. According to a 2016 Forbes report, they are the ninth most valuable franchise in the NBA, valued at approximately $1.4 billion. Since their inaugural 1980 -- 81 season, the Mavericks have won one NBA Championship. Asking for a possible partner, Adkins recommended one of his clients, Gifts owner Don Carter. Carter would provide half the amount. James Garner, who played the character, was a member of the group. The University of Texas at Arlington, who also uses the Mavericks nickname, had objections about a shared name, but did not attempt any legal action. They joined the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, where they would stay until the league went to six divisions for the 2004–05 season. Dick Motta, who had guided the Washington Bullets in 1977 -- 78, was hired as the team's first coach. He had a well-earned reputation of being a stern disciplinarian, but was also a great teacher of the game. In the Mavericks' game, taking place in the brand-new Reunion Arena, the Mavericks defeated 103 -- 92. But the Mavs started the season with a 6–40 record on their way to finishing 15–67. At the time, there was absolutely no reason to expect that Davis would be any better than the expansion-level talent the Mavs had.Dallas Mavericks – Mavs' founder Don Carter
83. 2011 NBA Finals – The 2011 NBA Finals was the championship series of the 2010–11 season of the National Basketball Association and the conclusion of the season's playoffs. The Western Conference champion Dallas Mavericks defeated the Eastern Conference champion 4 -- 2, to win their first NBA title. The series was held to June 12, 2011 -- the first to start before June 1 since the 1986 NBA Finals. German player Dirk Nowitzki was named the Finals MVP. Nowitzki was the second European to win the award after Tony Parker; he is the first German to win the award. Going into the series, the Heat were heavy favorites with their newly acquired stars Chris Bosh along with returning star Dwyane Wade. The series was a rematch of the 2006 NBA Finals, won by the Heat in six games after Dallas blew a 2–0 series lead. The Game 3 winner went on to win the series. The previous 6 times this happened, the Finals ended in seven games; Dallas became the first team in NBA history to do it in six games. ABC averaged nearly 17.3 million viewers with the 2011 Finals, according to Nielsen. Both Heat made their second appearance in the NBA Finals, the first for both teams being the 2006 NBA Finals. This Finals marked a rematch of the 2006 Finals, won in six games after the Mavericks were up 2 -- 0. The Heat had home-court advantage by virtue of a better regular-season record than the Mavericks. It also marks the first time since 1995 that the Eastern Conference team lost despite having home court advantage. The 2011 series marked the first time a Finals match was played since 1986.2011 NBA Finals – 2011 NBA Finals
84. Miami Heat – The Miami Heat are an American professional basketball team based in Miami. The Heat compete as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division. They play their home games at the American Airlines Arena in downtown Miami. The owner is Micky Arison, who also owns cruise-ship giant Carnival Corporation. The head coach is Erik Spoelstra. The mascot of the team is an anthropomorphic fireball. Formed as an expansion team, the Heat have won three league championships, five conference titles and 11 division titles. From February 3 to March 2013, the Heat won 27 games in a row, the third-longest streak in NBA history. In 2016, Forbes valued the Heat among NBA franchises. In 1987 the NBA granted one of its four new expansion teams to a team formed in 1988. Upon the purchasing of the franchise by Micky Arison in 1995, Pat Riley was brought in as the team president and coach. With them they also brought in Cody Posselt, to work on shooting. Miami earned the moniker of "Road Warriors" for its remarkable 32 -- 9 record on the road. Their biggest rivals of the time were Riley's former team, who would eliminate the Heat in the playoffs from 1998 through 2000. A period of mediocrity followed after, highlighted by missing the playoffs in 2003.Miami Heat – Alonzo Mourning
85. NBA Finals – The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association played between the Western and Eastern champions of the Conference Finals. The first team to win four games in the best-of-seven series is awarded the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy. Winners from 1946 to 1983 received the Walter A. Brown Trophy redesigned in 1977 to the current form. The NBA Finals has been played at the end of America season in the first being held in 1947. Most NBA Finals series were played under the 2–2–1–1–1 format prior to 1985; the Finals returned to this format in 2014. The series was then changed from 1950 to 1982. The following two years, the league used "Showdown'83" and "Showdown'84". It returned before settling on NBA Finals in 1986. During the first decade the Minneapolis Lakers had the first NBA dynasty, winning five championships in six years under Hall of Fame head coach John Kundla. The team also featured George Mikan, one of the greatest players in NBA history. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons. They won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957, Bill Russell became the star of the league. Game 7 of the NBA Finals was decided on a Celtics basket in the final seconds of the second overtime. For most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics always seemed to have the upper hand on Wilt Chamberlain's teams.NBA Finals – The Shot O'Brien Championship Trophy.
86. Caguas, Puerto Rico – Caguas is located 20 miles from San Juan and 40 miles from Ponce. It is known as El Valle del Turabo or La Ciudad Criolla and its name originates from the Taíno cacique Caguax. Caguas is both a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. Caguas was founded as San Sebastián Piñal de Caguax, later modernized to its current form. Caguax was a local Taíno chief and early convert to Christianity. Caguas' construction was finished in 1779, in 1820 it was declared a valley and in 1894 it became a city. In 2002, Caguas was the site of the 2002 USAF Hercules air disaster. Caguas is located in the largest valley in Puerto Rico, the "Valle de Caguas" which it shares with Gurabo and part of Aguas Buenas. It is east of Aguas Buenas and Cidra, north of Cayey, south of San Juan, west of Gurabo and Trujillo Alto. It also shares borders with Guayama and Patillas via a five-point border, with Cayey and San Lorenzo. At this point there are two tall antennas which provide signal to Puerto Rico's principal TV stations such as WKAQ-TV and WAPA-TV. No road passes exactly at this point, it can be approached nearby through Puerto Rico Highway 184. Being a valley, Caguas has the distinction of being relatively flat except near the borders with all the mentioned municipalities except Gurabo. The Río Grande de Loíza divides this municipality from Gurabo. Other Rivers: Río Turabo, Río Caguitas, Río Cañaboncito, Río Bairoa and Río Cañas.Caguas, Puerto Rico – Flag
87. World Boxing Organization – The World Boxing Organization is a sanctioning organization which recognizes professional boxing world champions. The WBO's headquarters are located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The WBO's first president was Ramon Pina Acevedo of the Dominican Republic. Soon after its beginning, the WBO was staging world championship bouts around the globe. Its first fight was between Thomas Hearns and James Kinchen; Hearns won by decision. In order to gain respectability, the WBO former world light heavyweight champion José Torres of Ponce, Puerto Rico, as its president. Torres left in 1996, giving way to Puerto Rican lawyer Francisco Varcarcel as president. Varcarcel has held that position since. All other sanctioning bodies of boxing recognized the then-undefeated Mike Tyson as the undisputed heavyweight champion. Damiani, meanwhile, went on to become the first WBO heavyweight champion. Boxing publication The Ring also did not recognize the WBO, despite having recognized the IBF after its inception in 1983, five years prior to the WBO. For example, WBO heavyweight champion Michalczewski unified his title by defeating Virgil Hill. By 2001, the WBA was giving the same recognition to WBO champions as it did to WBC and IBF champions. In 2004 the WBC began naming WBO champions on its ranking listings. The IBF did not recognize the WBO in May 2006, but was doing so by February 2007.World Boxing Organization – World Boxing Organization
88. World Boxing Association – The World Boxing Association is one of four major organizations which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the IBF, WBC and WBO. The WBA awards the WBA world title at the professional level. By 1975, the organization headquarters were moved to Panama. After being located in Venezuela, the organization offices returned to Panama in 2007. The World Boxing Association can be traced back to the original National Boxing Association, organized in 1921. The first bout it recognized was the Jack Dempsey–Georges Carpentier Heavyweight Championship bout in New Jersey. The NYSAC sometimes crowned different world champions in the same division, leading to confusion about, the real champion. It also did not collect "sanctioning fees." Gilberto Mendoza from Venezuela was the President of the WBA until his death in 2016, after which Gilberto Mendoza Jr. took over as president. In the 1990s, the WBA moved its central offices to Caracas, Venezuela. In January 2007, it returned its offices to Panama. In 2014 the WBA approved the creation of the WBA Oceania based in Brisbane, Australia. The WBA Oceania's inaugural Committee is President Francisco Martinez, Vice President Damon Locantro, Ratings Chairman Ferlin Marsh. The WBA has been plagued with charges of corruption for years. In a 1981 Sports Illustrated article, a WBA judge claimed that he was influenced by the WBA president to support certain fighters.World Boxing Association – World Boxing Association
89. 1999 Pan American Games – Approximately 5,000 athletes from 42 nations participated at the games. The competition was marred by a total of 7 positive drug tests. Financially, the 1999 games were a success, generating a surplus of $ million through the contribution of nearly 20,000 volunteers. The 1999 Pan American Games were the second Pan American Games hosted by Canada and Winnipeg. Previously, Winnipeg hosted the 1967 Pan American Games. To sort this table by nation, any other column, click to the column title. Note ^ The medal counts for the United States and Cuba are disputed. 330 events in 35 sports were contested. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sport.1999 Pan American Games – Pan Am Games monument at The Forks, Winnipeg
90. 2000 Summer Olympics – It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, also the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated. The United States won the most medals with 93, while Australia came with 58. The games cost was estimated to be A$ billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers, sportsmanship and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called saying that they "couldn't be better". Admit there can never be done with it", as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were also the second Olympic Games to be held in spring. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With no controversies, the games were deemed generally successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD billion, average cost overrun is 176 %.2000 Summer Olympics – The 2000 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony at Stadium Australia, on 15 September 2000.
91. Miguel Cotto – Miguel Ángel Cotto Vázquez, best known as Miguel Cotto, is a Puerto Rican professional boxer. In 2009 he reached a peak pound for pound ranking of seventh by The Ring. Having begun his professional career in 2001, Cotto defeated Kelson Pinto for the WBO light title in 2004. He made six successful defenses before vacating the title when he ascended to welterweight. In 2006, Cotto defeated Carlos Quintana for the vacant WBA title. He successfully defended it four times before a loss in what was his first professional defeat. He won the vacant WBO welterweight title, defending it once before losing it to Manny Pacquiao in the same year. In 2010, Cotto won the WBA title from Yuri Foreman. Having been promoted to Super champion status, Cotto won a 2011 rematch against Antonio Margarito. In 2012 he lost the WBA title in one of the most anticipated fights in modern boxing history. The year would end on a sour note for Cotto, as he suffered an upset defeat to WBA light middleweight champion Austin Trout. Two years later, Cotto defeated Sergio Martínez to win the unified WBC, lineal middleweight titles. In doing so, he became the first Puerto Rican fighter in history to win a title in four different weight classes. In 2015, he defended his titles once before losing to Canelo Álvarez. Cotto has evolved over the years into a more refined boxer-puncher.Miguel Cotto – Cotto in 2010
92. Pittsburgh Pirates – The Pittsburgh Pirates are an American professional baseball team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pirates compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the National League Central division. Founded as Allegheny, the franchise has won five World Series championships. The Pirates are also often referred to as the "Buccos". Overall, the Pirates lost two. They would then advance to the NL Division Series round, where they lost to the St. Louis Cardinals. The Pirates would make the playoffs in both 2014 and 2015, losing in the Wild Card Game both times. Professional baseball has been played since 1876. On October 1881, the strongest team in the area joined the American Association as a founding member to begin play in 1882. Their various home fields in the 19th century were in a then-separate city called Allegheny City, across the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh. After five mediocre seasons in the A.A. Pittsburgh became the first A.A. team to switch to the older National League in 1887. At this time, the team renamed the Pittsburgh Alleghenys, although Allegheny remained a separate city until it was annexed by Pittsburgh in 1907. At that time, owner-manager Horace Phillips sold the team to Dennis McKnight; Phillips stayed on as manager. Before the 1890 season, nearly all of the Alleghenys' best players bolted to League's Pittsburgh Burghers. The players were allowed to go back to their old clubs.Pittsburgh Pirates – Tunnels
93. 3,000 hit club – In Major League Baseball, the 3,000 hit club is the group of batters who have collected 3,000 or more regular-season hits in their careers. Cap Anson was the first to join the club on July 18, 1897, although his precise career hit total is unclear. Two players—Nap Lajoie and Honus Wagner—reached 3,000 hits during the 1914 season. Cobb, also MLB's all-time career average leader, remained the MLB leader until September 11, 1985, when Pete Rose collected his 4,192 nd hit. Roberto Clemente's career ended with precisely 3,000 hits, reaching the mark in the last at bat of his career. Ichiro Suzuki is the most recent player to reach the milestone, achieving the feat on August 7, 2016. In total, 30 players have reached the 3,000 hit mark in MLB history. Of these, 15 were right-handed batters, 13 were left-handed, two were switch hitters, meaning they could bat from either side of the plate. Ten of these players have played for only one major league team. Five players -- Hank Aaron, Willie Mays, Alex Rodriguez -- are also members of the 500 home run club. At.367, Cobb holds the highest career batting average among club members, while Cal Ripken Jr. holds the lowest at.276. Craig Biggio was thrown out at second base attempting to stretch his 3,000th hit, a single, into a double. Baseball writer Josh Pahigian wrote that membership in the club has been "long considered the greatest measure of superior bat handling." Reaching 3,000 hits is often described as a guarantee of eventual entry into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Rose is ineligible for the Hall of Fame because he was permanently banned from baseball in 1989.3,000 hit club – Pete Rose is the all-time MLB hits leader with 4,256 hits
94. Hit (baseball) – If a batter reaches first base because of offensive interference by a preceding runner, he is also credited with a hit. A hit for one base is called a single, for three bases a triple. A run is also scored as a hit. Doubles, home runs are also called extra base hits. An "infield hit" is a hit where the ball does not leave the infield. Infield hits most often earned by speedy runners. A no-hitter is a game in which one of the teams prevented the other from getting a hit. Throwing a no-hitter is rare and considered an extraordinary accomplishment for a pitcher or staff. In most cases in the professional game, no-hitters are accomplished by a single pitcher who throws a complete game. If the pitcher allows no runners to reach base, the no-hitter is a perfect game. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases as hits. The experiment was abandoned the following season. There is controversy regarding how the records of 1887 should be interpreted. In 1968, Major League Baseball formed a Special Baseball Records Committee to resolve this issues. The Committee ruled that walks in 1887 should not be counted as hits.Hit (baseball) – In Major League Baseball history, Ty Cobb had a record 4,191 hits (later revised to 4,189) by 1928; Pete Rose would surpass it 57 years later, and finish with 4,256 career hits.
95. List of municipalities in Puerto Rico – The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is divided into barrios, though the latter are not vested with political authority. Geographically, a municipality has an urban core that consists of either a city. Urban cores above are considered cities, while those under 50,000 inhabitants are termed towns. For U.S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered "county-equivalents." These do not possess administrative functions. Every municipality is composed except for Florida which has only one barrio. The municipality of Ponce has the largest number of 31. Every municipality also has an urban area made up of one or more barrios. When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, it is called "Barrio Pueblo". Some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios: Ponce's urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. Every municipality's urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has an urban zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities' urban zones are termed "pueblo" while others are termed "ciudad". If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, then its urban zone is called a ciudad.List of municipalities in Puerto Rico – Municipalities of Puerto Rico
96. List of Puerto Rico-related topics – The main island of Puerto Rico is the least extensive of the four Greater Antilles: Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name. The terms borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as "La Isla del Encanto", which translated means "The Island of Enchantment." On August 1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León establishes Capárra, the first European settlement on the island of San Juan Bautista.List of Puerto Rico-related topics – An enlargeable satellite image of Puerto Rico
97. History of Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. During the Spanish -- American War, Puerto Rico was invaded and subsequently became a possession of the United States. The first years of the 20th century were marked by the struggle to obtain greater democratic rights from the United States. However, the political status of a Commonwealth controlled by the United States, remains an anomaly. The settlement of Puerto Rico began from the Orinoco region in South America. Some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back 4000 years. The Ortoiroid were displaced from the same region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BC. Between the 11th centuries, the Arawak are thought to have settled the island. By approximately 1000 AD, it had become dominant. At an estimated 30 to 60 thousand Taíno Amerindians, led by the cacique Agüeybaná, inhabited the island. They called it "Borinquen "the great land of the noble Lord". The natives lived in small villages subsisted on hunting, fishing and gathering of indigenous cassava root and fruit. When the Spaniards arrived in 1493, the Taíno were already with the raiding Carib, who were moving up the Antilles chain.History of Puerto Rico – Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886)
98. Black history of Puerto Rico – The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as the Spaniards' colonization efforts. Spain's royal government began to rely on slavery to staff their fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans. When the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown longer considered the island to be a colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to earn or buy their freedom; however, this did little to help their situation. The population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were many slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising against Spanish colonial rule in what is known as the "Grito de Lares". On March 22, 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, heritage have been instrumental to Puerto Rican culture. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between the Taíno and the Spaniards. Garrido was born on the West African coast, the son of an African king. In 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore Puerto Rico and prospect for gold. Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.Black history of Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
99. African immigration to Puerto Rico – The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as a result of new infectious diseases and the Spaniards' oppressive colonization efforts. Spain's royal government began to rely on slavery to staff their mining and fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans. When the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown longer considered the island to be a high colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to buy their freedom; however, this did little to help their situation. The slave population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were many slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising in what is known as the "Grito de Lares". On March 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, art, heritage have been instrumental to Puerto Rican culture. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between Taíno the Spaniards. Garrido was born on the son of an African king. In 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore prospect for gold. Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.African immigration to Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
100. Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico – Large-scale Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean began during the 19th century. Chinese immigrants had to face different obstacles that restricted their entry in Puerto Rico. When Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony, the Spanish government did not encourage settlers of non-Hispanic origin. By the 19th century, the Spanish Crown had lost most of its possessions in the Americas. Two of its remaining possessions were Puerto Rico and Cuba, which had pro-independence movements. The Spanish government, believing that the independence movements would lose their popularity, initially gave settlers "Letters of Domicile". These restrictions were lifted in the latter part of the century. Uneducated men, driven by war and starvation, made their way from China to the Americas as laborers. A large number of these unskilled workers were sold in what became known as the "coolie" trade. Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic were the last stop for many of the "coolies" before reaching their final destinations. Many of these Chinese immigrants stayed in the other two Caribbean countries. They worked in restaurants and laundries. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law which implemented the suspension of Chinese immigration. After the Spanish–American War, Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States under the conditions established by the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Chinese workers in the United States were allowed to travel to Puerto Rico.Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico – Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
101. Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico – Those of Corsican descent have played an instrumental role in the development of the economy of the island, especially in the coffee industry. Juan Fantauzzi was the first documented Corsican to immigrate to Puerto Rico. He was born about 1734 in Morsiglia, Corsica. He immigrated in the 1760s. He married Josefa Martinez. Two known children of his, are Juan Maria Fantauzzi. He died November 1798. It is his certificate that confirms his Corsican origin. Corsica is an island located southeast of France. Corsica belonged in 1768 was ceded to France to pay off debt. The island relied largely on its agricultural economy for survival. One of those changes came with the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution. Also, there was a widespread failure due to long periods of drought and crop diseases, a cholera epidemic and a general deterioration of economic conditions. Thus, many of the farms in Corsica began to fail. There was also political discontent characterized by bitter armed conflict.Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico – First row:1. Mariana Bracetti 2. Luisa Capetillo Second row: 3. Antonio Paoli 4. Antonio Mattei Lluberas
102. French immigration to Puerto Rico – Important factors which encouraged French immigration to the island was the revival of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 in the later 1800s. Therefore, the decree was circulated widely through ports and coastal cities throughout Europe. They distinguished themselves as business people, merchants, tradesmen, politicians and writers. "Louisiana" was the name given to an administrative district of New France. These islands were part of the Spanish and New World Catholic Empire, which protected the French from their English and Protestant enemy. Among them was Corsair Captain and former Royal Naval officer of the French Navy, Capt. Antoine Daubón, owner and captain of the ship L'Espiégle and another Frenchman named Captain Lobeau of the ship Le Triomphant. Among the French surnames of those who fought on the Island were: Bernard, Hirigoyan, Chateau, Roussell, Larrac and Mallet. These Frenchmen joined the thriving other French immigrants who also had fought against the English invasion with these French prisoners. These newly arrived 400 Frenchmen all sent for their families to come from France. In 1697, the Spanish Crown ceded the western half of the island of Hispaniola to the French. The Spanish part of the island was named the French named their part Saint-Domingue. The French settlers owned plantations, which required a huge amount of manpower. They imported slaves from Africa to work in the fields. However, soon the population of the slaves outgrew those of the whites.French immigration to Puerto Rico – First row: Alejandrina Benítez de Gautier • José Gautier Benítez Second row: Manuel Gregorio Tavárez • Fermín Tangüis
103. German immigration to Puerto Rico – With the passage of the Jones Act of 1917 Puerto Ricans could be conscripted to serve in the Armed Forces of the United States. As a result, Puerto Ricans have served in U.S. military installations in said country since then. Many of these soldiers married German women who eventually moved to the island with their husbands. Puerto Ricans of German descent have distinguished themselves in different fields, among them the fields of science, military. According to Professor Ursula Schmidt-Acosta, German immigrants arrived during the early 19th century. Many of these German immigrants established warehouses and businesses in the coastal towns of Fajardo, Arroyo, Ponce, Mayagüez, Cabo Rojo and Aguadilla. Not all of the immigrants were businessmen, some were teachers, skilled laborers. One of those changes came with the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution. Many people who worked the farmlands moved to the larger industrialized cities with the hope of finding better paying jobs. Unemployment were on the rise. Soon, the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states erupted, leading to the Frankfurt Parliament. Ultimately, the rather non-violent "revolution" failed. Disappointed, many Germans immigrated to the Americas and Puerto Rico, dubbed as the Forty-Eighters. The majority of these came from Alsace-Lorraine, Baden, Hesse, Rheinland and Württemberg. The Spanish Crown had lost most of its possessions in the Americas.German immigration to Puerto Rico – First row: Salvador Brau • Federico Degetau • Luis R. Esteves Völckers Second row: Virgil R. Miller • Rudolph William Riefkohl • Frederick Lois Riefkohl
104. Irish immigration to Puerto Rico – From the 16th to the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. Many of these Irish settlers were instrumental in the development of the island's hugely successful industry, vital to the island's growing economy. These Irishmen were sent to fight in support of the Dutch United Provinces. However, in 1585, motivated by religious bribes offered by the Spaniards, Stanley defected to the Spanish side, taking his many Irish regiments with him. These Irishmen who fled the English Army to join the armies of foreign nations came to be known as "Wild Geese." In the King of Spain, Carlos III sent Field Marshal Alejandro O'Reilly to Puerto Rico, to assess the state of the defenses of that colony. Some of O'Reilly's other recommendations resulted in a 20-year program of revamping San Felipe del Morro Castle in San Juan, now a World Heritage Site. O'Reilly's civilian militias had become known as the "Disciplined Militia." O'Reilly was later appointed governor of colonial Louisiana in 1769 where he became known as "Bloody O'Reilly." Later he was granted land in the vicinity of Guaynabo and O'Daly developed it into a thriving hacienda. Another fellow Irishman Miguel Kirwan became business partners in the "Hacienda San Patricio," which they named after the patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. Easily, he joined an growing and thriving embryonic immigrant community in Puerto Rico that would come to be associated with the growth of commercial agriculture. Upon his untimely death in 1781, his Jaime took over the property and helped raise Tomás' children. Jaime O'Daly was named Director of the Real Fabrica de Tabaco in Puerto Rico by the Spanish Crown. Jaime O'Daly became a successful sugar and planter.Irish immigration to Puerto Rico – Cayetano Coll y Toste • Rafael O'Ferrall • Kenneth McClintock
105. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii – Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a worldwide shortage for the product from Hawaii. Sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit the jobless, but experienced, laborers in Puerto Rico. In the 19th century Puerto Rico depended mainly on its agricultural economy. The island together with Cuba was the Spanish Crown's leading exporter of sugar, coffee, cotton. Cheap labor was provided by Puerto Ricans who depended as their only source of income. On August 1899, Hurricane San Ciriaco, with winds of over 100 miles per hour, struck Puerto Rico and, on August 22, another hurricane followed. The floods caused by 28 days of continuous rain left 3,400 dead and thousands of people without shelter, food or work. To meet the demand, plantation owners began a campaign to recruit the jobless laborers in Puerto Rico. On November 1900, the first group of Puerto Ricans consisting of 56 men, began their long journey to Maui, Hawaii. The trip was unpleasant. They first set sail from San Juan harbor to Louisiana. Once in New Orleans, they were sent to Port Los Angeles, California. From there they set sail to Hawaii. According to the "Los Angeles Times" dated December 1901, the Puerto Ricans were mistreated and starved by the shippers and the railroad company.Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii – Puerto Rico Hawaii
106. Puerto Rican migration to New York – Puerto Ricans have both immigrated and migrated to New York City. The following wave of Puerto Ricans to move to New York City did so after the Spanish–American War in 1898. That was until 1917, when the United States Congress approved Jones-Shafroth Act which gave a U.S. citizenship with certain limitations. Two months later, when Congress passed the Selective Service Act, conscription was extended both in the island and in the mainland.. It was expected that Puerto Rican men older serve in the U.S. military during World War I. The Jones-Shafroth Act also allowed thereby becoming migrants. Similar to other eastcoast cities, Puerto Ricans were the first Hispanic group to move to New York City in large numbers. According to the 2010 census, Puerto Ricans represent 5.5 % of New York State as a whole. During the 19th century, commerce existed between the ports of the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico. Ship records show that many Puerto Ricans traveled on ships that sailed to the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Many of them settled in places such as New York, Massachusetts. The earliest Puerto Rican enclave in New York City was in Manhattan. By 1850, Puerto Rico and Cuba were the only two remaining Spanish colonies in the New World. The Spanish Crown would either banish any person who promoted the independence of these two nations. Two of these exiles were Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis who together founded "The Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico" in New York.Puerto Rican migration to New York – Top Row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • Jose Ferrer Nicholas Estavillo Bottom Row Aída Álvarez • Herman Badillo • Nelson Antonio Denis
107. Politics of Puerto Rico – Legislative power is vested upon the Legislature. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico, Tribunal de Primera Instancia. There is also a Federal Court to hear cases of a federal nature or with federal jurisdiction. Puerto Rico's governor, the members of the legislature are elected every four years by popular vote. Puerto Rico's legislature is a bi-cameral body consisting of a Camara de Representantes. The members of the judicial branch are appointed with the approval of the Senate to serve until they reach age 70. Due to the status of Puerto Rico as a territory of the United States, its residents cannot vote in the U.S. presidential elections. Politics in Puerto Rico revolve around a political system. The politics of Puerto Rico are dominated by three political parties: the Partido Nuevo Progresista, the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño. Dr. Barbosa had been the leader in the Autonomist Party that favored a government for Spain. In this context, Dr. Barbosa returned to the original idea of equal footing, but this time with the constituent members of the American Republic. During the last twenty years under the Spanish flag, the local parties, with the exception of the Partido Incondicional Español embraced the idea of autonomy. The Incondicionales accepted whatever Spain had for the Crown duly recognized their support by giving aristocratic titles to the leaders. The leader of the Canadian model supported a similar development for Puerto Rico under Spain. At about the same time that the Republican Party of Puerto Rico was organized under the U.S. Luis Muñoz-Rivera organized the Federal Party.Politics of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
108. Constitution of Puerto Rico – The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is the controlling government document of Puerto Rico. It is composed of nine articles detailing the structure of the government well as the function of several of its institutions. The document also contains an specific Bill of Rights. Since Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States, the Puerto Rico Constitution is bound to adhere to the postulates of the U.S. Constitution due to the Supremacy Clause, of relevant Federal legislation due to the Territorial Clause. It was ratified by Puerto Rico's electorate in a referendum on March 1952. The President approved it by Pub.L. 82–447, 66 Stat. 327, enacted July 1952, requiring that the Bill of Right's Section 20 be stricken and that language be added to Section 3 of Article VII. On July 1952 the Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico reconvened and approved a resolution accepting the conditions established by Pub.L. 82–447, which were later ratified in a referendum held in November, 1952, by the electorate. On July 1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the constitution was in effect. In a speech on July 2013, Governor Alejandro García Padilla, despite the conditions established in Pub.L. 82-447, proclaimed that, henceforth, Sec. 20 would be deemed by his administration to be in effect. The United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution by Pub.L.Constitution of Puerto Rico – Exhibition of the Constitution at the Capitol of Puerto Rico
109. Government of Puerto Rico – The Government of Puerto Rico is a republican form of government with separation of powers, subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States. Article I of the Constitution of Puerto Rico defines its political power and authority pursuant to U.S. Pub.L. 82–447. Said law mandated the establishment of a local constitution due to Puerto Rico's political status as a commonwealth of the United States. Ultimately, the powers of the government of Puerto Rico lack full protection under the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, the head of state of Puerto Rico is the President of the United States. Structurally, the government is composed of three branches: the executive, judicial branch. The executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Alejandro García Padilla, also the head of government. Legislators are elected by popular vote every four years. The judicial branch is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, currently Liana Fiol Matta. The legal system is a mix of the common law systems. Members of the judicial branch are appointed from the Senate. Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The Foraker Act of 1900 provided for an organization of the civilian government. The Jones–Shafroth Act of 1917 re-organized the government.Government of Puerto Rico – The main offices of the Puerto Rico Department of State in front of Plaza de Armas in Old San Juan.
110. Puerto Rican citizenship – Puerto Rican citizenship existed before the U.S. takeover of the islands of Puerto Rico and continued afterwards. Its affirmative standing was also recognized after the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952. The United States government also continues to recognize a Puerto Rican nationality. Puerto Rican citizenship is also recognized by the Spanish Government, which recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, not "American" citizenship. It also grants Spanish citizenship to Puerto Ricans on the basis of their Puerto Rican, not American, citizenship. Section VII of this act created a Puerto Rican citizenship for the residents "born in Puerto Rico and, therefore, subject to its jurisdiction". The Puerto Rican citizenship replaced the Spanish citizenship that Puerto Ricans held in 1898. Such Puerto Rican citizenship was granted in 1897. The Spanish Government recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, "and not American," citizenship. It also provides Puerto Rican privileges not provided to citizens of several other nations. On March 1917, the Jones -- Shafroth Act was signed, collectively making Puerto Ricans United States citizens without rescinding their Puerto Rican citizenship. He declared that "if the earth were to swallow the island, Puerto Ricans would prefer American citizenship to any citizenship in the world. But long as the island existed, the residents preferred Puerto Rican citizenship." Despite these arbitrary limitations, 287 residents completed the process to forfeit the statutory recognition. In 1952, upon U.S. Congress approving the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, also reaffirmed that Puerto Rican citizenship continued in full force.Puerto Rican citizenship – Front and back pages of a Certificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship application form as provided by the Puerto Rico State Department in the Summer of 2007.
111. Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico – Every bill must be signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico to become law. Each house has its unique powers. The constitution also states that each house shall be the unique judge on the legal capacity of its members. The constitution also grants parliamentary immunity to all elected members of the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly convenes at the Capitol in San Juan. The House of Representatives is the oldest legislative body in Puerto Rico. After Puerto Rico was granted to the United States as part of the Spanish -- American War, a military government took over the island. This was until April 1900 when the U.S. Congress approved the first civil government for Puerto Rico under the federal Foraker Act. The political arrangement under the Foraker Act continued until 1917. Puerto Rico was then divided into 35 representative districts. The first Puerto Rican Senate was elected in July 1917. With the approval by U.S. Congress in July 1950 of Public Law 600, the island was divided into 40 representatives. The Constitution of Puerto Rico vests all legislative powers in the Legislative Assembly. Each house has the sole power to by the judge of the legal capacities of its members. Each House holds exclusive powers that are not given to the other.Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico
112. Senate of Puerto Rico – The Senate of Puerto Rico is the upper house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The Senate, together with the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. Every bill must be signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico in order to become law. The Senate has exclusive power to decide impeachments. Justices of the Supreme Court can not assume office by the Senate. The Senate has been meeting after the enactment of the Jones -- Shafroth Act established the body formally. The Senate of Puerto Rico was established after the signing of the Jones Act. Signed in March 1917, the act made Puerto Ricans into U.S. citizens and empowered them to have a popularly-elected Senate. This came to improve the Foraker Act, signed in 1900, which granted limited administrative and executive powers to Puerto Ricans. From 1900 to 1917, Puerto Ricans made several attempts to convince the United States into amending the Foraker Act, so they could elect their own Senate. Finally, in January 1916, Representative William Jones presented the Jones Act for other territories. It was signed by Woodrow Wilson on March 1917. In August 1917, the first Senate of Puerto Rico was sworn in. Antonio R. Barceló was chosen with Eduardo Georgetti as his Pro tempore. Also, Manuel Palacios Salazar were selected as Secretary and Sergeant at Arms respectively.Senate of Puerto Rico
113. House of Representatives of Puerto Rico – The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the bicameral territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The House, together with the Senate, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. Every bill must be signed by the governor in order to become law. The House has exclusive power to bring an indictment. Financially, all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House. The House has been meeting since 1900, after the enactment of the Foraker Act established the body formally. The House of Delegates was controlled by the Republican Party through 1904. In January 1905, the House switched to control by the Union Party, which would remain until 1924. A former prosecutor and freshman representative from San Juan, was elected to the first of three stints as Speaker. Viera Martínez was elected to his second stint as Speaker. Since the new House in 1981 was tied, it was unable to elect a Speaker, as required, by an absolute majority. During Bernazard's incumbency, he required that all House decisions and legislation be approved by consensus. Edison Misla Aldarondo, became Speaker in 1997. After he left office in 2000, he was convicted of corruption charges in federal and state courts. He was succeeded by Carlos Vizcarrondo during the 2001 -- 2004 term.House of Representatives of Puerto Rico – House of Representatives of Puerto Rico
114. List of political parties in Puerto Rico – This article lists political parties in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico has a hybrid ` first past the post' electoral system, in which a voter can vote by candidate or both. To qualify as an political party, a party must meet the criteria set forth by the Puerto Rico Electoral Law. Principal Party of the Majority - one that obtained the majority of governor candidate votes cast in the prior general election. These organizations span the political spectrum: Movimiento Socialista de Trabajadores - Socialist Revolutionary organization, with strong bases in the trade union and student movement. Libertarian Party of Puerto Rico - Partido Libertario de Puerto Rico - Pro-Libertarianism / Formerly affiliated to the US Libertarian Party United Statehooders - Estadistas Unidos. Socialist Front - An umbrella of socialist organizations. Democratic Party of Puerto Rico - The Democratic Party of Puerto Rico is an affiliate of the Democratic Party in Puerto Rico.List of political parties in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
115. Military of Puerto Rico – The military defense of Puerto Rico is the responsibility of the United States as part of the Treaty of Paris. At the national level, the commander-in-chief is the President of the United States, currently Barack Obama. No other Air Force Bases or Naval Air Stations remain. The Puerto Rico Air National Guard longer has any fighter planes within its jurisdiction. Responsibility for the defense of Puerto Rico now rests with USAF or US Navy fighters that would be flown in case of a military emergency. The former U.S. Navy facilities at Roosevelt Roads, Sabana Seca have been deactivated and partially turned over to the local government. The coastal defense of Puerto Rico is the responsibility from ships at sea and the U.S. Coast Guard. The United States Coast Guard has a significant presence in Puerto Rico. Located on what was formerly Ramey Air Force Base, the Coast Guard maintains what is now referred to as "Coast Guard Air Station Borinquen". HH-65C helicopters operate out of Borinquen performing search-and-rescue well as law-enforcement missions. U.S. Coast Guard cutters visit Puerto Rican waters periodically in their missions of coastal search-and-rescue. U.S. Navy ships visit Puerto Rican waters on an as-required basis, just like they visit all American waters, foreign ones, too. On "La Puntilla" in Old San Juan the Coast Guard base its small, but capable fleet of several 110-foot long cutters and other patrol boats. These cutters work hand in hand with the air station responding to any mission that they may be called upon to perform. A significant number of Puerto Ricans participate for the U.S..Military of Puerto Rico – Contents
116. Independence movement in Puerto Rico – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, since 1898, from the United States. A wide variety of groups, movements, organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island. During the second half of the 20th century, the movement has attracted neither widespread support nor support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a referendum in 2012, 5.5 % voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44 % of the votes cast. Independence also received the least support, less than 4.5 % of the vote, in 1967, 1993 and 1998. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the Taíno rebellion of 1511 led by Agüeybaná II. He was joined by cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the native born, or Criollos, occurred in the 19th century. These include the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán and Sabana Grande in 1898. Many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to include Puerto Rico and Cuba.Independence movement in Puerto Rico – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
117. Geography of Puerto Rico – The main island of Puerto Rico is most eastern of the Greater Antilles. With an area of 3,515 square miles, it is the 82nd largest island in the world. Mona is uninhabited except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. It is mostly mountainous with south regions of the island. Some popular beaches on the north-west side of the island are Jobos Beach, Maria's Beach, Sandy Beach. The main range is called La Cordillera Central. The highest point of Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta, is located in this range. Another important peak is El Yunque, located at the El Yunque National Forest, with a maximum elevation of 3,494 feet. San Juan, is located on the main island's north coast. The Cordillera Central extends through the entire island, dividing it into the southern region. The region accounts for approximately 60 % of the land area. Mainly mountainous, the island of Culebra possesses renowned beaches. Located in the tropics, Puerto Rico enjoys an average temperature of 27 °C throughout the year. The seasons do not change drastically. The minimum registration is 39 ° F in Aibonito.Geography of Puerto Rico – Satellite photo of Puerto Rico
118. Municipalities of Puerto Rico – The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is divided into barrios, though the latter are not vested with political authority. Geographically, a municipality has an urban core that consists of either a city. Urban cores above are considered cities, while those under 50,000 inhabitants are termed towns. For U.S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered "county-equivalents." These do not possess administrative functions. Every municipality is composed except for Florida which has only one barrio. The municipality of Ponce has the largest number of 31. Every municipality also has an urban area made up of one or more barrios. When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, it is called "Barrio Pueblo". Some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios: Ponce's urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. Every municipality's urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has an urban zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities' urban zones are termed "pueblo" while others are termed "ciudad". If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, then its urban zone is called a ciudad.Municipalities of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
119. Puerto Rican dry forests – The Puerto Rican dry forests are a subtropical dry forest ecoregion located in southwestern and eastern Puerto Rico and on the offshore islands. They cover an area of 1,300 km2. These forests grow in areas receiving less than 1,000 mm of rain annually. Many of the trees are deciduous, losing their leaves during the dry season which normally lasts from December to July. Dry forests also exist on the off-shore islands of Cayo Santiago. The vast majority of studies have focused on the south coast - almost nothing has been published about the northeastern dry forest. Studies of the offshore islands have been limited to species lists and qualitative descriptions of the vegetation. Puerto Rican dry forests consist of short-stature, multi-stemmed trees. The canopy is largely evergreen, while the emergent layer is considerably more dry-season deciduous. Guaiacum officinale, Capparis cynophallophora are common trees in coastal dry forests. Dry forest species include Pisonia albida, Plumeria alba. Although most of the forest was destroyed for agriculture prior to the 1940s, some patches of forest which pre-date that period still exist. In addition, large areas of secondary forest have grown back on abandoned agricultural land. Unlike areas which were only lightly used, these forests on abandoned farmland have far fewer species than do natural forests. Their path to recovery remains uncertain.Puerto Rican dry forests – Puerto Rican dry forest on Caja de Muertos, south of Ponce
120. Puerto Rico Trench – The Puerto Rico Trench is located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Scientific studies have concluded that an earthquake occurring along this zone could generate a significant tsunami. The Caribbean Plate is moving to the east while the North American Plate is moving to the west. This zone explains the presence of active volcanoes over the southeastern part of the Caribbean Sea. Volcanic activity is frequent along the island southeast from Puerto Rico to the coast of South America. The Puerto Rico Trench is capable of producing earthquakes greater than magnitude 8.0. Knowledge of the tsunami risks has not been widespread among the general public of the islands located near the trench. Local governments have begun planning. In the case of the U.S. Virgin Islands, the United States government has been studying the problem for years. It is developing tsunami warning systems. On 11 the western coast of the island was hit by a major earthquake which caused a tsunami. The 1918 earthquake was caused by an left-lateral strike-slip fault near the Mona Passage. In 1953, Dominican Republic, was affected by the Santo Domingo earthquake. A 1981 tremor was felt across the island, while another in 1985 was felt in the towns of Cayey and Salinas. "The January 13, 2014 M 6.4 north of Puerto Rico occurred as a result of oblique-thrust faulting.Puerto Rico Trench – Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Lesser Antilles are on the lower left side of the view and Florida is on the upper right. The purple sea floor at the center of the view is the Puerto Rico trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
121. Economy of Puerto Rico – Internal Revenue Code. Puerto Rico has, however, surprisingly been able to maintain a relatively low inflation in the past decade. Its main trading partners are the United States itself, Japan, with most products coming from East Asia, mainly from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan. Puerto Rico, like other countries, has transitioned from an agricultural economy to an industrial one. Its economy is currently experiencing a transformation caused by the Information Age, albeit slowly. Not much is known prior to the arrival of Spaniards. The little, known about the Taíno, is that their economy was a mixture of hunting and gathering with agriculture. The Taíno ate small animals, such as mammals, earthworms, lizards, turtles, birds. Fish were caught in nets, speared, poisoned, trapped in weirs, or caught with hook and line. Iguanas were taken from trees and other vegetation. Fields such as the staple yuca, were prepared by heaping up mounds of soil, called conucos. It allowing for longer storage of crops in the ground. Less important crops such as corn burn technique. Typically, conucos were arranged in rows. The primary crop was yuca/cassava, a woody shrub cultivated for its edible and starchy tuberous root.Economy of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP) by economic sector.
122. Operation Bootstrap – Operation Bootstrap is the name given to a series of projects which transformed the economy of Puerto Rico into an industrial and developed one. Bootstrap is still considered the economic model of Puerto Rico as the island has not been able to evolve into a knowledge economy. The island's traditional economy was based around sugarcane plantations. The Administration of Economic Development invited investment of external capital, exporting the finished products to the mainland. To entice participation, differential rental rates were offered for industrial facilities. As a result, Puerto Rico's economy shifted labor to manufacturing and tourism. Through this project, a agricultural society was transformed into an industrial working class. Although initially touted by the 1960s, Operation Bootstrap was increasingly hampered by a growing unemployment problem. As living wages in Puerto Rico rose, manpower-intensive industries faced competition from outside the United States. As of 2005 the continental United States remains Puerto Rico's major trading partner, providing 69 % of its imports. United States Department of Agriculture Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc. Progress Island U.S.A. Puerto Rican Pottery Teodoro Moscoso and Puerto Rico's Operation Bootstrap by A.W. Maldonado. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997.Operation Bootstrap – Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
123. Tourism in Puerto Rico – Other groups of tourists that visit Puerto Rico in significant numbers include French, German, Spaniards, Canadians, Mexicans, Venezuelan, Brazilians and Asian tourists. The inauguration of the Condado Vanderbilt Hotel on 16 October 1919 marked the beginning of upscale tourism in Puerto Rico. Nonstop to Puerto Rico from Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Bogota, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and New York are currently available. New direct routes from Europe and Latin America are in the works. Puerto Rico have always been indirectly competing in the Caribbean for top tourist destination. However, due to the U.S. resuming diplomatic relations, Puerto Rico's tourism industry could be in jeopardy in the near future.Tourism in Puerto Rico – Historic Old San Juan
124. Puerto Rican peso – The currencies of Puerto Rico closely follow the historic development of Puerto Rico. As a colony of the United States, Puerto Rico was granted the use of both foreign and provincial currencies. Following the Spanish colonization in 1502, Puerto Rico became an important port, with its own supply of gold. However, as the mineral reserves ran empty within the century, the archipelago's economy suffered. Between 1637, Philip IV of Spain imposed a tax which had to be paid using a revenue stamp. The situado was discontinued during the 19th century, creating an economic crisis, as a result of Mexico gaining its independence from Spain. The colonial governor in office, ordered the issue of provincial banknotes, creating the Puerto Rican peso. However, printing of these banknotes ceased after 1815. During the following decades, foreign coins became the widespread currency. In the 1870s, banknotes reemerged. On February 1890, the Banco Español de Puerto Rico was inaugurated and began issuing banknotes. The bank placed three in circulation under Spanish rule. In 1895, a Royal Decree ordered the production of provincial peso coins. On August 1898, the Spanish -- American War ended with Spain ceding Puerto Rico to the United States. The Banco Español de Puerto Rico was issued bills equivalent to the United States dollar, creating the Puerto Rican dollar.Puerto Rican peso – Bilingual 200 pesos banknote (first issue, 1904 - 1907)
125. United States dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units. The circulating money consists of Federal Reserve Notes. The U.S. dollar is money. It is the currency is the world's primary reserve currency. In many others it is the de facto currency. Anthony dollar. Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U.S.C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued. These coins are both designated as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper dollar. The pure dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle.United States dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
126. Puerto Ricans – Puerto Ricans are the inhabitants or citizens of Puerto Rico. It equate their nationality with citizenship, allegiance and culture. Over 90 % of Puerto Ricans descend from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has also been influenced by Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans. It also gives a total of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773. Freed African slaves were in Puerto Rico. This interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the male conquistadors. All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in surrounding Caribbean islands. In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue, revolted against their French masters. Some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were followed from other European countries and China. During the 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German -- occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s.Puerto Ricans – Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
127. Puerto Ricans in the United States – Puerto Ricans, either born in the states, are American citizens. The portmanteau "Nuyorican" refers in the New York City metropolitan area. Important Puerto Rican institutions have emerged from this long history. ASPIRA is now one of the largest national Latino nonprofit organizations in the United States. The government of Puerto Rico has a long history of involvement with the stateside Puerto Rican community. In July 1930, Puerto Rico's Department of Labor established an service in New York City. The strength of stateside Puerto Rican identity is fueled by a number of factors. Since 1898, Puerto Rico has been under the control of the United States, fueling migratory patterns between the island. Even during Spanish rule, Puerto Ricans settled in the US. However, it was not until the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898 that a significant influx of Puerto Rican workers to the US began. With its 1898 victory, the United States has retained sovereignty since. The 1917 Jones–Shafroth Act made all Puerto Ricans US citizens, freeing them from immigration barriers. U.S. economic interventions in Puerto Rico created the conditions for emigration, "by concentrating wealth in the hands of US corporations and displacing workers." Policymakers promoted "colonization plans and labour programs to reduce the population. US employers, often with support, recruited Puerto Ricans as a source of low-wage labour to the United States and other destinations."Puerto Ricans in the United States – José Ferrer
128. Demographics of Puerto Rico – The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization especially under the Spanish Empire, slavery and economic migration. The inhabitants of Puerto Rico immediately before the European contact were part of the Arawak group of Amerindians. They called the island, themselves "Boricuas". They were named the Taíno by Christopher Columbus in 1493. The Spanish conquered assuming government in 1508, colonized it, assumed hegemony over the natives. The Taíno population dwindled due to disease, forced labor, so the Spanish began importing large numbers of slaves from Africa. Spanish men arrived on the island disproportionately to Spanish women; African and Taíno women would sometimes marry them, resulting in a mulatto or "mixed" tri-racial ethnicity. In the 18th century the number of African slaves began to dwindle on the island. The British ban on slavery resulted on Puerto Rico. Many slaves also escaped to neighboring islands. This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 at the close of the century. Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history as well. This continued even as its birth rate declined. The 2010 Census in fact recorded Puerto Rico's first drop in history. Puerto Rico's demographics instead more resemble those of many Eastern European countries such as Romania or Lithuania.Demographics of Puerto Rico
129. Education in Puerto Rico – Education in Puerto Rico is overseen by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Education Council. Instruction in Puerto Rico is compulsory between the ages of 18, which comprises the elementary and high school grades. Students in Puerto Rico may attend either private schools. As of 2013, the island had 1,460 public schools, 764 private schools, 606,515 K-12 students, 250,011 university students. The first school in Puerto Rico was the Escuela de Gramática. The school was established in the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed. The school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, literature, history, science, art, philosophy and theology. The educational system in Puerto Rico consists of seven categories. Other schools are referred to as Nivel Secundario. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico grants the right to an education to every citizen on the island. To this end, public schools in Puerto Rico provide free and education at the elementary and secondary levels. The public system is funded by the state and is operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education. The remaining teachers contracted on a yearly basis. Preschool education, services are free for low income families with private daycares being common and within walking distance in urban areas. Secondary education is compulsory and free regardless of income through more than 1,400 public schools.Education in Puerto Rico – This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
130. Culture of Puerto Rico – The culture of Puerto Rico is the result of a number of international and indigenous influences, both past and present. A subgroup of the Arawakan aboriginals, inhabited the Greater Antilles (comprising Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola. The Taíno culture impressed modern sociologists. There was a hierarchy of deities who inhabited the sky; Yocahu was the supreme Creator. Jurakán, was perpetually angry and ruled the power of the hurricane. Mythological figures were the gods Zemi and Maboya. Taíno Indians believed that being in the good graces of their zemis protected them in war. They therefore served cassava bread as well as beverages and tobacco as propitiatory offerings. The Taíno aboriginals had a hierarchically arranged chiefs or caciques. At the time Juan Ponce de León took possession of the Island, yucayeques, Cacique Agüeybana, was chief of the Taínos. He lived on the Guayanilla River. There was no aristocracy of lineage, nor were their titles other than those given to individuals to distinguish their services to the clan. Their complexion were average stature, dark, flowing, coarse hair, large and slightly oblique dark eyes. Both sexes painted themselves on special occasions; they wore earrings, necklaces, which were sometimes made of gold. Taíno crafts were few; stone, marble and wood were worked skillfully.Culture of Puerto Rico – 'La escuela del Maestro Cordero' by Puerto Rican artist Francisco Oller.
131. List of Puerto Rican artists – The list is divided into categories and, in some cases, sub-categories, which best describe the field for which the subject is most noted. Some categories such as "Actors, directors" are relative since a subject, a comedian may also be an actor or director. However, the custom is to place the subject's name under the category for which he/she is most noted. He has won a Pulitzer Prize, two Grammys, three Tony awards, among others. Adalberto Rodríguez, a.k.a. Z Manuel Zeno Gandía, writer; wrote La Charca, the first Puerto Rican novel. "Aguila Blanca" revolutionary. Civil rights activist; pioneer in black history who; helped awareness of the contributions by Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-Americans to society. "Jellybean Benítez", music producer and remixer Lucecita Benítez, a.k.a. "El Father", reggaeton singer Rafael José Díaz, a.k.a. "Chencho", singer, producer Carmita Jiménez, a.k.a. Florencio Morales Ramos, a.k.a. Mark Morales, a.k.a. "Prince Markie Dee", rapper, producer Noro Morales, pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader Carli Muñoz, pianist, composer, arranger, bandleader, producer. Actor Pedro Ortiz Davila, a.k.a..List of Puerto Rican artists
132. Casals Festival – The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals. The festival was founded by Pablo Casals. After implementing Operation Bootstrap, Teodoro Moscoso employed advertiser David Ogilvy to propagate the image of a people engaged in a cultural renaissance. Pablo Casals, was born to a Puerto Rican mother Pilar Defilló. Casals went to live in the French village of Prades. There he established the Prades Festival. In 1956 In 1956, Casals moved permanently to the island. He was scheduled to inaugurate the festival which bears his name. The inauguration of the festival was held in the University of Puerto Rico Theater. Even though Casals was hospitalized, the event went on as scheduled with the performance of pianist Rudolf Serkin. When the festival first started, the majority of the musicians contracted by the orchestra for the event came from the United States. Some of the exceptions to this practice were Jesus Maria Sanroma, Henry Hutchinson Sr. Fernando Valenti and Narciso Figueroa and his brothers. By 1970, the majority of the members of the festival's orchestra were Puerto Ricans. Pablo Casals died on October 1973. These two Puerto Rican artists have continued to follow the legacy of Pablo and Marta Casals, attracting many musicians for a series of concerts.Casals Festival – Pablo Casals, 1922
133. Cinema of Puerto Rico – The history of the Cinema industry in Puerto Rico begins with the US invasion of the island in 1898. At that time, the American soldiers brought cameras to record what they saw. It was not until the 1912 that Puerto Ricans would begin to produce their own films. After this, Puerto Rican cinema has developed at a slow pace. Despite this, one Academy Award nominated film. Starting in the late 1990s the Puerto Rican industry saw significant growth and the number of local productions has been on the increase every year. After the early images recorded by the American soldiers in 1898, most of the films produced in the island were documentaries. It wasn't until 1912 that Rafael Colorado D'Assoy recorded the non-documentary film titled Un drama en Puerto Rico. Other film companies formed during the time were the Porto Rico Photoplays. The Tropical Film Company was founded by a veteran filmmaker that immigrated to Puerto Rico from Spain. Even though it is known that this company had produced four films, none of them have been retrieved. This however does not negate the founding base of the Tropical Film Company in Puerto Rican Cinema. In 1934, Juan Emilio Viguié Cajas directed the first Puerto Rican film with sound titled, Romance Tropical. There is little known of the whereabouts of this film or the ones mentioned above. Los Peloteros, featured a Puerto Rican cast and was based on a real story.Cinema of Puerto Rico – Romance Tropical the first Puerto Rican film with sound and the second Spanish-speaking film in the world
134. Puerto Rican cuisine – Puerto Rican Cuisine has its root in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe, Africa and the native Taínos. Puerto Rican cuisine has been influenced by an array of cultures including their current colonizers, The United States. Locals call their cuisine criolla. By the end of the nineteenth century, the traditional Puerto Rican cuisine was well established. By 1848 La Mallorquina, opened in Old San Juan. The island's first cookbook, was published in 1849. On November 2004 a book titled Puerto Rico: Grand Cuisine of the Caribbean, was released in Spanish and English. The cookbook is a dedication to chefs sharing old and new recipes. This is due to the frequent hurricanes that Puerto Rico experiences, which destroy crops of maíz, allowing more safeguarded plants like yuca conucos to flourish. See: Spanish Cuisine Spanish / European influence is also prominent in Puerto Rican cuisine. The tradition of cooking complex stews and rice dishes in pots such as rice and beans are also thought to have originated in Europe. Olives, olive oil play a big part in Puerto Rican cooking, but can not be grown under the tropical climate of the island. The island imported most of these foods from Spain along with some herbs. Early Dutch, French, Italian, Chinese immigrants influenced not only Puerto Rican cooking as well. This great variety of traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla.Puerto Rican cuisine – Cocina Criolla can be traced back to African, Taino and Spanish inhabitants of the island.
135. Puerto Rican literature – Puerto Rican literature evolved from the art of oral story telling to its present-day status. Written works by the native islanders of Puerto Rico were repressed by the Spanish colonial government. Only those who were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the chronological history of the island were allowed to write. The first writers to express their political views to Spanish colonial rule of the island were journalists. With the Puerto Rican diaspora of the 1940s, Puerto Rican literature was greatly influenced by a phenomenon known as the Nuyorican Movement. Many Puerto Ricans have distinguished themselves as authors, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists and in all the fields of literature. The influence of Puerto Rican literature has transcended the boundaries of the rest of the world. Puerto Rican literature got off to a late start. Therefore, written works by the native islanders were punishable by prison terms or banishment. The island, which depended on an agricultural economy, had an rate of over 80 % in the beginning of the 19th century. The only people who could afford books were either appointed Spanish government officials or wealthy land owners. The poor had to resort in what are traditionally known in Puerto Rico as Coplas and Decimas. The island's first writers were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the chronological history of the island. Ponce de León II, included information on Taíno culture, particularly their religious ceremonies and language. He also covered the early exploits of the conquistadors.Puerto Rican literature – First row: Alejandro Tapia y Rivera • Alejandrina Benitez de Gautier José Gautier Benítez Second row: Eugenio María de Hostos • Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira Teresita A. Levy
136. Music of Puerto Rico – The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. Puerto Rican music today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from essentially indigenous genres like bomba to recent hybrids like reggaeton. Their music, from salsa to the boleros of Rafael Hernández, can not be separated from culture of Puerto Rico itself. Nevertheless, this entry will emphasize culture as it has flourished on the island; readers should naturally consult other entries for genres like salsa. Culture in Puerto Rico during the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries is poorly documented. Certainly it included Spanish church music, diverse genres of dance music cultivated by the jíbaros and enslaved Africans and their descendants. While these later never constituted more than 11% of the island's population, they contributed some of the island's most dynamic musical features becoming distinct indeed. The African people of the island used drums made of carved harwood covered with an untreated rawhide on one side, commonly made from goatskin. Jibaros are small farmers of primarily Hispanic descent—constituted the overwhelming majority of the Puerto Rican population until the mid-twentieth century. They are traditionally recognized as romantic icons of land cultivation, self-sufficiency, hospitality, love of song and dance. Their instruments were relatives of the lesser known tiple. A typical group nowadays might feature a cuatro, guitar, percussion instrument such as the güiro scraper and/or bongo. Lyrics to music are generally in the décima form, consisting of ten octosyllabic lines in the rhyme scheme abba, accddc. Décima form derives from 16th-century Spain. In between the décimas, lively improvisations can be played on the cuatro.Music of Puerto Rico – Manuel Gregorio Tavárez
137. Sports in Puerto Rico – One of the sports which the Taíno's played was a game called "Batey". The Spanish Conquistadores who conquered the island introduced various sports such as horse racing, cockfighting, a game similar to "Bowling" called "Boliche". The Spaniards however did not participate in team sports. Spain ceded Puerto Rico as a result of their defeat in the 1898 Spanish -- American War. Puerto Rico participates in the Olympics as an independent nation even though it is a territory of the United States. Puerto Rico has participated as such since the 1948 Summer Olympics celebrated in London. On March 2, 1917, Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States as a result of the enactment of the Jones–Shafroth Act (Pub.L. 64–368, 39 Stat. 951. However, the two most important of these sports were ball playing. The game was played in a field, which they called "Batey", situated in the middle of the village. The fields were either shaped like a triangle or like a "U". The ball was made of vegetable leaves, which gave flexibility. Two teams played against each other. The objective of the game was to keep the ball in constant motion. The players were allowed to use their heads, elbows, knees.Sports in Puerto Rico – First row: Wilfredo Gómez • Orlando Cepeda Ivan Rodriguez • Juan Evangelista Venegas Second row: Gigi Fernández • Lisa Fernandez • Carlos Arroyo • Victor Cruz Third row: Félix Trinidad
138. List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico – This is a list of the endemic fauna of Puerto Rico. This list is sorted by the scientific name of the species, which are in parentheses. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press. ISBN 0-8477-0243-X.List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico – Elfin-woods warbler
140. List of birds of Vieques – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. It has a total area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques. Some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list. Tags are used to describe this information for each species. This list's taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of each species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Order: Phaethontiformes Family: Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers.List of birds of Vieques – Vieques Island from the air
141. Monito gecko – The Monito gecko is a lizard, a species of gecko endemic to the island of Monito, in the archipelago of Puerto Rico. It was discovered in May 1974 when an egg were collected from the island of Monito. In 1982, a survey was conducted to establish the population size of the species. A total of 18 individuals were observed. For these reasons the species was placed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Subsequent studies proved that the Monito gecko is more closely related to a species common throughout the Puerto Rican Bank. Due to the rarity of the species biological information is limited. The Monito gecko is light-gray to tan with darker spots on top of the body. The maximum length for this species is 36 mm from snout to vent. Information on the diet of the Monito gecko is currently unavailable but it is believed that, similar to other geckos, it carnivore. It is estimated that breeding season lasts from March to November. It is believed that females lay two eggs that hatch in 2 to 3 months. Contrary to the majority of geckos, it is diurnal. List of amphibians and reptiles of Puerto Rico Fauna of Puerto Rico List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico Tolson. "Sphaerodactylus micropithecus".Monito gecko – Monito gecko
142. Puerto Rican crested anole – The Puerto Rican crested anole is the nominate subspecies of a species of anole belonging to the Polychrotidae family of reptiles. This lizard has been introduced into eastern Hispaniola, Dominica, Florida. These lizards typically spend their time perched on tree trunks, coming to the ground to forage for insects and fruit. Coloration can shift in reaction to temperature and behavioral state. They are not related to true chameleons. They have a crest along the tail, probably serving as means for males to demonstrate dominance in a contest for a female. The male has a yellow-orange dewlap, also used in determining dominance when attempting to control territory. They can occasionally grow up to 10 inches. When defending its territory, this anole will display its dewlap and perform "push-ups" to establish dominance. Males aggressively defend territories when mating, but only rarely does this result in physical combat. As a defense against predators, they autotomize their tails. The Puerto Rican crested anole is found throughout Puerto Rico, excepting some of the mountainous regions of the island. They are also found on some offshore islands of Puerto Rico. Anoles have been introduced into eastern Dominican Republic. They are sold globally in the pet trade.Puerto Rican crested anole – Puerto Rican crested anole
143. Mona ground iguana – The Mona ground iguana is a subspecies of the rhinoceros iguana. It is the largest native terrestrial lizard in Puerto Rico. The Mona iguana is a subspecies of rhinoceros iguana belonging to the genus Cyclura. It was named by Thomas Barbour and G.K. Noble as a species in 1916. In 1937, Barbour considered it to be a subspecies of Cyclura cornuta. Its generic name is derived from the Greek cyclos meaning "circular" and ourá meaning "tail", after the thick-ringed tail characteristic of all Cyclura. Stejnegeri honors Leonhard Hess Stejneger, who, when writing his Herpetology of Porto Rico in 1902, suspected this was a new species. Debate continues as to whether this is a valid subspecies and not a different species in its own right. It is known in some scientific circles as Cyclura stejnegeri. Still, others consider a regional variant of the parent species. The Mona iguana is a large-bodied, heavy-headed lizard with strong legs and a vertically flattened tail, capable of reaching 1.22 metres in length. A crest of horned scales extends from the nape of the neck to the tip of the tail. The color is a gray to olive drab with slight brown or blue colorations. Juveniles differ from adults in that they have gray transverse bands across their bodies.Mona ground iguana – Mona ground iguana
144. Flag of Puerto Rico – The flag of Puerto Rico represents and symbolizes the island of Puerto Rico and its people. This flag was used in the island, known as "El Grito de Lares". The color of the triangle, used by the administration of Luis Muñoz Marín was the dark blue. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see the flag of Puerto Rico with different shades of blue displayed in the island. Several Puerto Rican flags, with darker shades than blue were aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during its flight into outer space on March 15, 2009. The conquistadores under the command of Juan Ponce de León proceeded to settle the island. They carried as their military standard the "Expedition Flag". The Spanish Army designed the "Cross of Burgundy Flag" and adopted it as their standard. This flag flew wherever there was a military installation. The movement in Puerto Rico gained momentum with the liberation successes of Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín in South America. The materials for the flag were provided by Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances. The "Revolutionary Flag of Lares" was used in what became known as El Grito de Lares. The original Lares flag was taken by a Spanish officer as a war prize. Many years later it was transferred to the Puerto Rican people. It is now exhibited in the University of Puerto Rico's Museum.Flag of Puerto Rico – A photograph of the Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
145. Transportation in Puerto Rico – It is funded primarily with both federal government funds. Puerto Rico has a total including one in each of the smaller islands of Vieques and Culebra. The main airport consists of two runways and three concourses. Puerto Rico has 21 airports of which: 3 airports with more than 10,000 ft of runway. 3 airports with runways ranging between 5,000 ft and 8,000 ft. 15 airports with less than 5,000 ft of runway. Puerto Rico also has 8 airports with unpaved runways, all of which have less than 5,000 ft of runway. This transportation/trade restriction includes Puerto Rico per the Jones Act of 1920. It is the main port of the island. Port of Ponce - The second largest port in Puerto Rico and can handle both freight/cargo and cruise ships. It is currently undergoing a significant expansion, with plans to convert it to an international hub. Port of Mayagüez - The third largest port in Puerto Rico. It is mainly used for freight/cargo ships but has also been used for cruise ships. The following are minor harbors used for small freight/cargo ships, fishing vessels, private boats/yachts: Guánica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Fajardo, Culebra, Vieques. There are ferries between Fajardo, Culebra and Vieques; between San Juan and Cataño; and between Caja de Muertos.Transportation in Puerto Rico – 19th century train station in Yauco
146. Rail transport in Puerto Rico – This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series. Rail transport in Puerto Rico currently consists of a 10.7-mile passenger system in the island's metropolitan area of San Juan. Its history can be traced back with the construction of a limited passenger line in Mayagüez. However, the entire system was soon overshadowed by the 1950s was completely abandoned. Small remnants of this system still exist in some parts of some conserved for tourism purposes. The simple street system consisted of small wagons on rails pulled by horses, connected the center part of the town with the Playa sector. It faced numerous difficulties, including poor street conditions, which were troublesome for the animals. The new system operated more efficiently, offering more stops, including one in the town Market Place and another in the Guanajibo neighborhood. It lasted until 1912, when the Mayagüez Tramways Anonymous Society was replaced by the Mayagüez Tramway Company in 1913. The third operator of the system introduced new larger electric-powered cars, although the service was now limited from the Playa sector directly to the Balboa neighborhood. This system was the beginning of colonization of the hinterland of the walled city of San Juan. In 1901, the San Juan Light & Transit Co. replaced the tram by a new electric tram system. The paradas along the avenue were numbered, from 1 in Old San Juan to 40 in Río Piedras. The numbers became so identified with the locations that some street maps still show them today. In 1911 a new line going through Condado in Santurce is constructed by the Porto Rico Railway, Light & Power Co.Rail transport in Puerto Rico – Railroad map of Puerto Rico, 1924.
147. List of Puerto Ricans – In some cases, sub-categories, which best describe the field for which the subject is most noted. Some categories such as "Actors, actresses, directors" are relative since a subject, a comedian may also be an actor or director. However, the custom is to place the subject's name under the category for which he/she is most noted. He has won a Pulitzer Prize, two Grammys, an Emmy, three Tony awards, among others. Adalberto Rodríguez, a.k.a. Z Manuel Zeno Gandía, writer; wrote La Charca, the first Puerto Rican novel. "Aguila Blanca" revolutionary. Civil rights activist; pioneer in black history who; helped raise awareness of the contributions by Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-Americans to society. "Jellybean Benítez", music producer and remixer Lucecita Benítez, a.k.a. "El Father", reggaeton singer Rafael José Díaz, a.k.a. "Chencho", singer, producer Carmita Jiménez, a.k.a. Florencio Morales Ramos, a.k.a. Mark Morales, a.k.a. "Prince Markie Dee", rapper, producer Noro Morales, pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader Carli Muñoz, pianist, composer, arranger, bandleader, producer. "Shalim", actor Pedro Ortiz Davila, a.k.a..List of Puerto Ricans
149. Scouting in Puerto Rico – Scouting in Puerto Rico has a long history, from the 1920s to the present day, serving both boys and girls. Several campsites are maintained by these organizations. Puerto Rican Boy Scouting is served by the Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America. The council serves 3,500 volunteers in more than 300 units. Borikén District, based in Caguas, covers the eastern area of Puerto Rico, from Aibonito to Ceiba. Caribe District, based in Ponce, covers the southern area of Puerto Rico from Yauco to Patillas. Guaitiao District, based in San Juan, covers the northeastern area of Puerto Rico, from Guaynabo to Fajardo. Majagua District, based in Bayamón covers the north-northeastern area of Puerto Rico from Vega Alta to Bayamón. Yagüeka District, based in Mayagüez, covers the western area of Puerto Rico, from Isabela to Sabana Grande. Puerto Rico is the only council of the BSA where the Spanish translation is in primary usage. 1938 marked the inauguration of Puerto Rico's main camp center. It is located on the shores of Guajataca Lake, from which the camp takes its name. Since then the camp has seen many changes, both in structure and program. Leaders who visit are lodged in one of the ten campsites, in-campsite cabins or stand-alone cabin campsites of the reservation. These campsites feature a series of concrete-and-wood cabins that house its campers.Scouting in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America
150. Piragua (food) – A Piragua /pɪˈrɑːɡwə/ is a Puerto Rican shaved ice dessert, shaped like a pyramid, consisting of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup. Piraguas are sold by vendors, known as piragüeros, in colorful pushcarts. Besides Puerto Rico, Piraguas can be found in the United States mainland areas, such as Central Florida, which have large Puerto Rican communities. In most Spanish-speaking countries, the piragua means pirogue, a small, flat-bottomed boat. In Puerto Rico the piragua refers to a frozen treat made of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup. Unlike the American cone, round and resembles a snowball, the piragua is pointy and shaped like a pyramid. The piragua is derived from the combination of the Spanish words "pirámide" and "agua". In Latin America, frozen treats similar to the piragua are known by different names. The vendor is known as the "piragüero". Most piragüeros sell their product from a wooden pushcart that carries an umbrella, instead of from a fixed stand or kiosk. The piragüero makes the treats from the shavings off a block of solid ice, located inside his cart and mixtures of fruit-flavored syrups. The tropical syrup flavors vary to passion fruit and guava. In the process of preparing a piragua, the piragüero shaves the ice from the block of ice with a Hand Ice Shaver. He then uses a funnel shaped tool, which resembles a cone-pyramid, to give it the distinctive pyramid shape. The piragüero finishes making the piragua when he pours the desired flavored syrup.Piragua (food) – Young girl eating a "Piragüa" in Puerto Rico