1. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainlandCommonwealth of Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
2. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest. The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, politically, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is also in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and AntiguaCaribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
3. Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainlandPuerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
4. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi-, in Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago was the proper name for the Aegean Sea and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands. It is now used to refer to any group or, sometimes. Archipelagos may be isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago, archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs generated by subduction zones or hotspots, but may also be the result of erosion, deposition, and land elevation. Depending on their origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as oceanic islands, continental fragments. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin, continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the Bahamas, Greece, Hawaii, the largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed. ArchipelagoArchipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
5. Culebra, Puerto Rico – Isla Culebra is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. It is located approximately 17 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland,12 miles west of St. Thomas and 9 miles north of Vieques, Culebra is spread over 5 wards and Culebra Pueblo, the downtown area and the administrative center of the city. Residents of the island are known as Culebrenses, with a population of 1,818 as of the latest census, it is Puerto Ricos least populous municipality. Originally called Isla Pasaje and Isla de San Ildefonso, Culebra is also known as Isla Chiquita, some sources claim that Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive at the island during his second voyage in 1493. It is believed that the island was populated by Carib Indians during the colonization, after Agüeybaná and Agüeybaná II led the Taíno rebellion of 1511, Taíno Indians from the main island sought refuge on Culebra and allied with Caribs to launch random attacks at the island estates. After that, the island was abandoned for centuries. During the era of Spanish commerce through the Americas, it was used as a refuge for pirates, as well as local fishermen and sailors. Some sources mention an Englishman named Stevens, who was put in charge of Culebra in 1875 by the Spanish crown to protect the island from foreigners, Culebra was then settled by Cayetano Escudero Sanz on October 27,1880. This first settlement was called San Ildefonso, to honor the Bishop of Toledo, two years later, on September 25,1882, construction of the Culebrita Lighthouse began. It was completed on February 25,1886 which made it the oldest operating lighthouse in the Caribbean until 1975, in 1902, Culebra was integrated as a part of Vieques. One year later, on June 26, President Theodore Roosevelt established the Culebra Naval Reservation, a bird refuge was established on February 27,1909. In 1939, the U. S. Navy began to use the Culebra Archipelago as a gunnery and this was done in preparation for the United States involvement in World War II. In 1971 the people of Culebra began protests, known as the Navy-Culebra protests, four years later, in 1975, the use of Culebra as a gunnery range ceased and all operations were moved to Vieques. Culebra was declared an independent island municipality in 1917, the first democratically elected government was put into place in 1960. Prior to this, the government of Puerto Rico appointed delegates to administer the island, Culebra is an archipelago consisting of the main island and twenty-three smaller islands that lie off its coast. The largest of these cays are, Culebrita to the east, Cayo Norte to the northeast, the smaller islands include Cayo Ballena, Cayos Geniqui, Arrecife Culebrita, Las Hermanas, El Mono, Cayo Lobito, Cayo Botijuela, Alcarraza, Los Gemelos, and Piedra Steven. Islands in the archipelago are arid, meaning they have no rivers or streams, all of the fresh water is brought from Puerto Rico via Vieques. Culebra is characterized by an irregular topography resulting in a long intricate shoreline, the island is approximately 7 by 5 milesCulebra, Puerto Rico – M4A3E8 Sherman tank at Flamenco Beach.
6. Mona, Puerto Rico – Mona is the third-largest island of the Puerto Rican archipelago, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. It is the largest of three located in the Mona Passage, a strait between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the others being Monito Island and Desecheo Island. It measures about 11 km by 7 km, and lies 66 km west of Puerto Rico, of which it is administratively a part. The original name given to the island by the Taíno Indians is Amona and it is one of two islands that make up the Isla de Mona e Islote Monito Barrio of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. The island is managed as the Mona Island Nature Reserve, Mona Island is believed to have been originally settled by Arawak Indians who arrived from Quisqueya. An archeological excavation during the 1980s discovered many Pre-Columbian objects on the island that helped support historians theories of the islands first inhabitants, stone tools found in a rock shelter have been dated to around 3000 BC. Much later the island was settled by the Taínos and remained so until the arrival of the Spanish in the 15th century. Within hours of setting foot in Puerto Rico, Columbus and his ships headed west to Hispaniola, as he left Puerto Rico, he reputedly became the first European to sight the island on September 24,1494, which was claimed for Spain. The name Mona derives from the Taíno name Ámona, bestowed by the natives in honor of the ruling Cacique or chief of the island. However, one amateur archaeologist who has studied the Mona Island/Columbus sighting for over 14 years puts this in dispute with the following logic, Columbus is in a bay on the northwest corner. He is to sail from there straight across to the north coast of Hispaniola, why would he sail south to where he has already been and then sail north again to Hispaniola. Mona Island was probably picked by armchair historians because it is the island in the passage between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola that is drawn on most maps. It is more logical that when Columbus left the northwest coast of Puerto Rico and it was never considered by armchair authors because it is small, barren, and of no interest, it is not drawn on most maps. In 1502, Fray Nicolás de Ovando was sent to Isla de la Mona to keep an eye, from a safe distance, with a group of 2,000 Spanish settlers, Ovando was left in charge of creating a permanent settlement on the island. Juan Ponce de León, who accompanied Columbus on his first two voyages, became the first ruling governor of Puerto Rico, in 1515, after some wrangling, Ferdinand II was able to reclaim the island from Diego Colón, Viceroy of the Indies. By then, Isla de la Mona was an important point of trade between Spain and the rest of Latin America, as well as a rest stop for the crews of boats carrying slaves. Realizing that mining would require intense labor, the majority of inhabitants chose to work as fishermen, by accepting this option, they also were exempted from paying imposed taxes, and were able to avoid the hard labor many other natives endured in mines. In time, natives from neighboring islands were brought to Mona Island to assist with laborMona, Puerto Rico – Mona Island Lighthouse
7. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
8. Treaty – A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty typically begins with a preamble describing the parties and their joint objectives in executing the treaty. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a very long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability. The end of the preamble and the start of the agreement is often signaled by the words have agreed as follows. After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the actual agreement. Each article heading usually encompasses a paragraph, a long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one nine hundred. If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, the signatures of the parties representatives follow at the very end. Bilateral treaties are concluded between two states or entities, each of these treaties has seventeen parties. These however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties, the parties are divided into two groups, the Swiss and the EU and its member states. The treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU, a multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes rights and obligations between each party and every other party, Treaties of mutual guarantee are international compacts, e. g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are essentially caveats to an acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i. e. a party cannot add a reservation after it has already joined a treatyTreaty – The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian
9. Incorporated territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have a government through an Organic Act passed by the U. S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are inhabited, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands. They are classified as unincorporated territories and they are organized, self-governing territories with locally elected governors and territorial legislatures. Each also elects a member to the U. S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small islands, atolls and reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, the status of some are disputed by Colombia, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving, other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, United States Virgin Islands and American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, while claimed by the US, Navassa Island, Wake Island, Serranilla Bank and Bajo Nuevo Bank are disputed. Territories have always been a part of the United States, by Act of Congress, the term United States, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Since political union with the Northern Mariana Islands in 1986, they too are treated as a part of the U. S, an Executive Order in 2007 includes American Samoa as U. S. geographical extent duly reflected in U. S. State Department documents. Approximately 4 million islanders are U. S. citizens, about 32,000 U. S. non-citizen nationals live in American Samoa, under current law among the territories, only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals. American Samoans are under the protection of the U. S. with freedom of U. S. travel without visas. The five inhabited U. S. territories have local voting rights and protections under U. S. courts, pay some U. S. taxes, depending on the congress, they may also vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. S. Every four years, the Democratic and Republican political parties nominate their candidates at conventions which include delegates from the five major territories. The citizens there, however, do not vote in the election for U. S. President. S. Incorporated territories are considered a part of the United StatesIncorporated territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
10. United States Census Bureau – The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore, economic and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy. The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau also conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, crime, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau also conducts surveys of manufacturing, retail, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general publicUnited States Census Bureau – Census headquarters in Suitland, Maryland
11. List of United States cities by population – The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States. As defined by the United States Census Bureau, an incorporated place includes a variety of designations, including city, town, village, borough, a few exceptional Census Designated Places are also included in the Census Bureaus listing of incorporated places. Consolidated city-counties represent a type of government that includes the entire population of a county. Some consolidated city-counties, however, include multiple incorporated places and this list presents only that portion of such consolidated city-counties that are not a part of another incorporated place. A different ranking is evident when considering U. S. metropolitan area populations, the following table lists the 304 incorporated places in the United States with a population of at least 100,000 on July 1,2015, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau. A city is displayed in if it is a state or federal capital. Five states—Delaware, Maine, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming—do not have cities with populations of 100,000 or more, smaller incorporated places are not included. The mean density is 4,128.21 inhabitants per square mile, the median is 3,160.85 inhabitants per square mile. The following table lists the five municipalities of Puerto Rico with a greater than 100,000 on July 1,2016. Census-designated places with populations of at least 100,000 according to the 2010 Census, a CDP is a concentration of population identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes. CDPs are delineated for each decennial census as the counterparts of incorporated places such as cities, towns. CDPs are populated areas that lack separate municipal government, but which otherwise physically resemble incorporated places, unlike the incorporated cities in the main list, the US Census Bureau does not release annual population estimates for CDPs. S. Cities that, in past censuses, have had populations of at least 100,000 but have since decreased beneath this threshold or have been consolidated with or annexed into a neighboring city. The percent decline in population from its peak Census count to the most recent Census estimate in 2015, any additional notes of significant importance. Demographics of the United States United States Census Bureau List of U. S. SList of United States cities by population – Population tables of U.S. cities
12. Guaynabo, Puerto Rico – Guaynabo is a municipality in the northern part of Puerto Rico, located in the northern coast of the island, north of Aguas Buenas, south of Cataño, east of Bayamón, and west of San Juan. Guaynabo is spread over 9 wards and Guaynabo Pueblo, Guaynabo is considered, along with its neighbors – San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón, Carolina, Cataño, Trujillo Alto and Toa Baja – to be part of the San Juan metropolitan area. It is also part of the larger San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area, the municipio has a land area of 27.13 square miles and a population of 97,924 as of the 2010 census. The first European settlement in Puerto Rico, Caparra, was founded in 1508 by Juan Ponce de León in land that is part of Guaynabo. Ponce de León resided there as first Spanish governor of Puerto Rico and this settlement was abandoned in 1521 in favor of San Juan. The ruins of Caparra remain and are a U. S. National Historic Landmark, the Museum of the Conquest and Colonization of Puerto Rico, which features artifacts from the site and others in Puerto Rico, is located on the grounds. The municipality of Guaynabo was founded in 1769 by Pedro R. Davila, previously, the municipality was known as Buinabo, a name that means in Taíno Aquí hay otro lugar de agua dulce or Here is another place of fresh water. El Nuevo Día, Chrysler, Santander Securities, Puerto Rico Telephone, wAPA-TV and Univision Puerto Rico have their main studios in Guaynabo. Iberias San Juan-area offices are in Guaynabo, the Conquistadores de Guaynabo, or Guaynabo Conquistadores, are the Guaynabo Mets replacement and still play in the Mario Morales Coliseum. The Mets de Guaynabo are the womens volleyball team that play in the LVSF. They have not won any championships yet and they also play in the Mario Morales Coliseum. Guaynabo Fluminense FC is Guaynabos professional soccer team plays in the Puerto Rico Soccer League. The league started in 2008 and Guaynabos current position in the league is 4th place and it was at the same year that the Puerto Rico Soccer League was starting to take place. In the 2009 season, Guaynabo Fluminense FC moved to the Sixto Escobar Stadium, the Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Metropolitan Detention Center, Guaynabo in Guaynabo. Some regions of the city belong to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district I while others belong to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district II, both of the Districts are represented by two Senators. Professional Hospital Guaynabo located on Felisa Rincón Avenue, is the newest hospital infrastructure built in Puerto Rico, Guaynabo is the only city in Puerto Rico to have a hospital specialized in advanced vascular surgery. Some of the first and newest procedures performed in Puerto Rico during 2009 were done in Professional Hospital Guaynabo, the Japanese Language School of Puerto Rico, a weekend Japanese school, previously held its classes in GuaynaboGuaynabo, Puerto Rico – Guaynabo's Central Business District
13. Caguas, Puerto Rico – Caguas is located 20 miles from San Juan and 40 miles from Ponce. It is known as El Valle del Turabo or La Ciudad Criolla, Caguas is both a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. Caguas was founded on January 1,1775 as San Sebastián del Piñal de Caguax, Caguax was a local Taíno chief and early convert to Christianity. Caguas construction was finished in 1779, in 1820 it was declared a valley, in 2002, Caguas was the site of the 2002 USAF Hercules air disaster. Caguas is located in the largest valley in Puerto Rico, the Valle de Caguas which it shares with Gurabo and part of Aguas Buenas. It is located approximately 30 minutes from the coastline both on the east and the north, and is divided from the Gurabo portion of the valley by the river of the same name. It is east of Aguas Buenas and Cidra, north of Cayey, south of San Juan and it also shares borders with Guayama and Patillas via a five-point border, with Cayey and San Lorenzo. At this point there are two tall antennas which provide signal to Puerto Ricos principal TV stations such as WKAQ-TV and WAPA-TV, no road passes exactly at this point, and it can be approached nearby through Puerto Rico Highway 184. Being a valley, Caguas has the distinction of being relatively flat except near the borders with all the mentioned municipalities except Gurabo, the Río Grande de Loíza divides this municipality from Gurabo. Other Rivers, Río Turabo, Río Caguitas, Río Cañaboncito, Río Bairoa and Río Cañas. The climate is classified as a Tropical monsoon climate, meaning the mean temperature from month to month is never less than 64.4 °F. Rainfall is common in relative abundance throughout most of the year, the land, however, is fertile and deep. Three of the first five Puerto Ricans that played Major League Baseball in the U. S. at one point in their careers played for the Criollos de Caguas, the Criollos de Caguas basketball team, founded in 1968 by Dr. Héctor Tato Dávila and Lcdo. Libertario Pérez Rodríguez, hasnt enjoyed as much success as their baseball counterparts, however in the early 2000s, they showed a lot of progress by reaching the national playoffs various times. The team is a member of the BSN, in 2006, the team won its first BSN national basketball championship, defeating Flor Melendez and his Santurce Crabbers in five games. The Criollas de Caguas womens volleyball team has won 9 national Puerto Rico titles and has made it to the more than 15 times. The team is a member of the Liga de Voleibol Superior Femenino, in September 2005 City Mayor William Miranda Marin levied the first Municipal tax in Puerto Rico via city ordinance. Area Merchants now charge a one cent tax for every dollar spent on all retail businesses, the tax has become known around the island as the Willie TaxCaguas, Puerto Rico – Flag
14. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
15. San Juan ship dock – The Port of San Juan is a seaport facility located in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Port of San Juan is the name used to call various passenger. The port is composed of a total of sixteen piers, of eight are used for passenger ships. The ports facilities, in addition to, Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, the municipalities of Cataño, Guaynabo and San Juan compose the south side of the bay and port. The Port of San Juans cargo facilities are located on the portion of San Juan Bay. Of the approximately eight cargo terminals, five are located in the Puerto Nuevo district of San Juan, the cargo facilities allow for more than 500,000 square feet of space for loading and unloading cargo. The Port of San Juans passenger facilities are located along San Antonio Canal, of the 15 piers in the channel, four accommodate cruise ships while others serve cargo vessels and the La lancha de Cataño. The Cataño ferry provides multiple daily round-trips from San Juan to Cataño, during the late 1980s, ferry service covered the San Juan area and the trip lasted approximately one hour. The service departed and arrived at the Old San Juan docks, while most cargo ships dock on the south side of the bay, cruise ships arrive at one of the four cruise piers located along San Antonio Canal. This arrangement allows tourists to walk to major attractions such as Old San Juan, the short distance between the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport and the cruise ship docks is 7 miles and makes the area a prime location for cruise companies. Cruise ship companies, such as Carnival Cruises and Royal Caribbean prefer this setting, some of the most recognized ships to have docked at the Port of San Juan during the late 1970s and early 1980s, were the Carla C, and Cunards Countess and Princess ships. Transportation in Puerto Rico Port of Mayagüez Port of Ponce Puerto Rico Port Authoritys page Estuario de la Bahia de San Juan Norwegian Cruises to San JuanSan Juan ship dock – The Port of San Juan is one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean and Latin America.
16. Tourism in Puerto Rico – Tourism in Puerto Rico attracted 4.2 million visitors in 2013 and 4 million visitors in 2011, a notable increase over 2010 at 3. The fact that visitors from the United States do not need a passport to enter Puerto Rico attracts a number of tourists from the mainland United States each year. Other groups of tourists that visit Puerto Rico in significant numbers include French, German, Spaniards, Canadians, Mexicans, Venezuelan, Brazilians, the inauguration of the Condado Vanderbilt Hotel on 16 October 1919 marked the beginning of upscale tourism in Puerto Rico. The tourism industry is expected to moderate levels of growth in 2014, driven primarily by the introduction of new lines and airfare activity. Nonstop flights to Puerto Rico from Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Bogota, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, New direct routes from Europe and Latin America are in the works. Cuba and Puerto Rico have always been indirectly competing in the Caribbean for top tourist destination, however, due to Cuba and the U. S. resuming diplomatic relations, Puerto Ricos tourism industry could be in jeopardy in the near future. Luquillo, Home to several beaches, including Balneario La Monserrate, Playa Azul, La Pared, mayagüez, home of the Dr. Juan ATourism in Puerto Rico – Historic Old San Juan
17. San Juan, Puerto Rico – San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricos capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, today, San Juan is Puerto Ricos most important seaport, and is the islands manufacturing, financial, cultural, and tourism center. San Juan is also a city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the settlement was given its formal name. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant, because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe. Because of the cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, artillery from San Juans fort, El Morro, repelled Drake, however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion, in 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amezquita and 50 members of the militia on land. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amezquita. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard, after a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the citys militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze, captains Amezquita and Andre Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemys front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships, the British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. The USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, on May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victorySan Juan, Puerto Rico – Ruins of Juan Ponce de León's residence at Caparra
18. Governor of Puerto Rico – The governor of Puerto Rico is the head of government of Puerto Rico and, by its nature, constitutes the executive branch of the government of the island. He is also the commander-in-chief of the military forces, the Puerto Rico National Guard. Since 1948, the governor has been elected by the people of Puerto Rico, prior to that, the governor was appointed either by the King of Spain or the President of the United States. Article IV of the Constitution of Puerto Rico vests the executive power on the governor, law No.104 of 1956 empowers him with the faculty to delegate functions. These two faculties in conjunction allow the governor to delegate most of his functions while continuing to be the maximum officer, most of the governors functions are delegated to the Chief of Staff, who is charged with managing and overseeing all the executive departments and almost all executive agencies. The budget is delegated to the Director of the Office of Management, historically, however, governors tend to be heavily involved in the day-to-day operations of the government in both internal and external affairs. It is believed that the rank was apparently established through democratic means. His importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his rather than his warlord skills. Agüeybaná I is the most-well known cacique as he was the one governing all others when the Spaniards arrived in 1493 although many others existed during his period, as well as before and after him. Juan Ponce de León was appointed as the first Governor of Puerto Rico in 1508, in 1579, after several others had already served as governor, Juan Ponce de León II became the first person born in Puerto Rico to assume, temporarily, the governorship of Puerto Rico. He served until, who assumed the governorship of the island that same year, in 1914 Howard Lewis Kern from Charles City, Iowa was appointed by Woodrow Wilson to be the attorney general. The acting governor fell ill and Kern served as the acting governor off and on from 1914 to 1916, during that time Governor Kern focused on cleaning up the riff-raff, educating women and children, providing public health and welfare. Kern was partner in starting the International Telephone and Telegraph Company from the failing Puerto Rican Radio and his wife, Edna Francis and their first daughter, Myrna Quail resided in the governors mansion across the street from Fortaleza. Their second daughter, Virginia was born in Newark after their return to the north, ref. cited-Whos Who in America and the San Juan Islander Newspaper 1916-1924. It is believed that Juan Bernardo Huyke may have served as an interim or acting governor in the absence of Kern, who resigned in 1924. Emmet Montgomery Reily and Horace Mann Towner also served in the appointment of governorship, in 1946, President Harry Truman appointed Jesús T. Piñero to the governors seat. Piñero remained in office until 1948, when Puerto Ricans were allowed to choose their governor for the first time in history, in 1948, Luis Muñoz Marín became the first Puerto Rican elected Governor of Puerto Rico. The governor is head of the government of Puerto Rico and he has the power to veto any number of projects that the Puerto Rican Legislature wishes to passGovernor of Puerto Rico – La Fortaleza is the oldest Governor's Mansion in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere
19. New World – The New World is one of the names used for the Earths Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term was coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, the Americas were also referred to as the fourth part of the world. New World are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the worlds major ecozones, and to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the New World in a context, e. g. when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus. For lack of alternatives, the term is still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas. The term New World is used in a context, when one speaks of Old World. Biological taxonomists often attach the New World label to groups of species that are exclusively in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the Old World. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers, the label is also often used in agriculture. Common Old World crops, and domesticated animals did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by contact in the 1490s. Other famous New World crops include the cashew, cocoa, rubber, sunflower, tobacco, and vanilla, there are rare instances of overlap, e. g. In wine terminology, New World has a different definition, Vespucci was finally convinced when he proceeded on his mapping expedition through 1501-02, covering the huge stretch of coast of eastern Brazil. But this opinion is false, and entirely opposed to the truth, Vespuccis letter was a publishing sensation in Europe, immediately reprinted in several other countries. The Venetian explorer Alvise Cadamosto had used the term un altro mundo to refer to sub-Saharan Africa, however, this was merely a literary flourish, not a suggestion of a new fourth part of the world. Cadamosto was quite aware sub-Saharan Africa was firmly part of the African continent, the Italian-born Spanish chronicler Peter Martyr dAnghiera often shares credit with Vespucci for designating the Americas as a new world. Peter Martyr used the term Orbe Novo in the title of his history of the discovery of the Americas as a whole, a year later, Peter Martyr again refers to the marvels of the New Globe and the Western hemisphere. Christopher Columbus touched the continent of South America in his 1498 third voyage, in another letter, Columbus refers to having reached a new heavens and world and that he had placed another world under the dominion of the Kings of Spain. The Vespucci passage above applied the New World label to merely the continental landmass of South America, although the proceedings of the Toro-Burgos conferences are missing, it is almost certain that Vespucci articulated his recent New World thesis to his fellow navigators there. In English usage the term New World was problematic and only accepted relatively late, while it became generally accepted after Vespucci that Columbuss discoveries were not Asia but a New World, the geographic relationship between the two continents was still unclearNew World – Sebastian Münster 's map of the New World, first published in 1540
20. UNESCO – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. It is the heir of the League of Nations International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, UNESCO has 195 member states and nine associate members. Most of its offices are cluster offices covering three or more countries, national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs, education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and it is also a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, on 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944, a prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCOs Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place between 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General and this change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organizations fields of competence. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organizations publications amounted to interference in the racial problems. South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, UNESCOs early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947. This project was followed by missions to other countries, including, for example. In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory, in 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults. Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, UNESCOs early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960. The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam, during the 20-year campaign,22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro, Fes, Kathmandu, Borobudur, the organizations work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978, since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 and 2005UNESCO – UNESCO offices in Brasília
21. World Heritage Site – A World Heritage Site is a landmark which has been officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some form of significance. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the interests of humanity. The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture, under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The program was founded with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the Worlds Cultural and Natural Heritage, since then,192 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most adhered to international instruments. As of July 2016,1052 sites are listed,814 cultural,203 natural, in 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites. In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the Member States for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia, the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. The project cost $80 million, about $40 million of which was collected from 50 countries, the projects success led to other safeguarding campaigns, saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, and the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, the United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, the Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of June 2016, it has been ratified by 192 states, including 188 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See, Niue, a country must first list its significant cultural and natural sites, the result is called the Tentative List. A country may not nominate sites that have not been first included on the Tentative List, next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File. The Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and these bodies then make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list, up to 2004, there were six criteria for cultural heritage and four criteria for natural heritage. In 2005, this was modified so there is now only one set of ten criteria. Nominated sites must be of outstanding value and meet at least one of the ten criteria. Thus, the Geneva Convention treaty promulgates, Article 53, PROTECTION OF CULTURAL OBJECTS AND OF PLACES OF WORSHIP. There are 1,052 World Heritage Sites located in 165 States Party, of these,814 are cultural,203 are natural and 35 are mixed propertiesWorld Heritage Site – Site #252: Taj Mahal, an example of cultural heritage site
22. Elfin woods warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Discovered in 1968 and described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler, the species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning insects off leaves. Due to its populations and restricted habitats, conservation efforts were begun in 1982 to protect this species but, as of 2005. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler family Parulidae. It was first observed in 1968 by Cameron and Angela Kepler while they were conducting observations on two Puerto Rican endemic birds, the Puerto Rican amazon and the Puerto Rican tody. On May 18,1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, a year later Kepler and Parkes described and named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first species described in the Caribbean since 1927, the species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Elfin-woods warbler is a spelling, and Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union, the warblers upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Other identifying characteristics are dark eyes, white patches on its ears and neck, an incomplete white eyering, a white eyestripe. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the features a long bill and short. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year, the warblers average mature length is 12.5 cm and its average weight is 8.4 g. Sexual dimorphism is not present in this species, the elfin woods warbler is often confused with the black-and-white warbler, a non-breeding species in the Caribbean occurring in Puerto Rico from mid-September to early May. The main physical distinction is in the eyes, the elfin woods warbler has an incomplete white eyering and the black-and-white warbler has a white band across the eye and a white lower half of the eyering. Another distinction is found in the crown, with the elfin woods warblers being entirely black, the latter species forages on larger branches compared with the elfin woods warblers foraging in the canopy and on smaller branch tips. The elfin woods warblers song and call are difficult to hear, the species has a subtle voice and its call and song resemble those of the bananaquit, the most abundant bird in Puerto RicoElfin woods warbler – Elfin woods warbler
23. Puerto Rican amazon – The Puerto Rican amazon, also known as the Puerto Rican parrot or iguaca, is the only bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico belonging to the Neotropical genus Amazona. Measuring 28–30 cm, the bird is a green parrot with a red forehead. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes from Culebra Island and its closest relatives are believed to be the Cuban amazon and the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at three and four years of age. It reproduces once a year and is a cavity nester, once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks are fed by parents and will fledge 60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrots diet is varied and consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark, the species is the only remaining native parrot in Puerto Rico and has been listed as critically endangered by the World Conservation Union since 1994. Conservation efforts commenced in 1968 to save the bird from extinction, in 2012, the total estimated population was 58–80 individuals in the wild and over 300 individuals in captivity. The Puerto Rican amazon was described by Dutch ornithologist Pieter Boddaert in 1783, the indigenous Taíno people called it the iguaca, an onomatopoeic name that resembled the parrots flight call. There are two recognized subspecies, A. v. vittata is the nominate and only extant subspecies, inhabiting Puerto Rico and formerly nearby Vieques Island, a. v. gracilipes inhabited Culebra Island and is now extinct. It is unclear whether it was different from the nominate subspecies. Most Caribbean bird species originate from Central, North and South America, the Amazona species found in the Caribbean are divided in two groups, five mid-sized species found in the Greater Antilles and seven large species in the Lesser Antilles. All the Greater Antillean amazons display characteristics leading to suppositions of relatedness, including predominantly green-toned color patterns, subsequent studies showed that size and color patterns were not sufficient to assess evolutionary relationships, and that patterns changed with relative ease even within members of the same species. The research concluded that the Puerto Rican amazon may share an ancestor with the Jamaican A. agilis. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the Puerto Rican amazon is more related to the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon measures 28–30 cm and weighs 250–300 g, although small compared to amazons in general, it is similar in size to other Greater Antilles Amazona species. Both males and females have green plumage, though their feathers have blue edges. The primary flight feathers of the wings and the covert feathers are dark bluePuerto Rican amazon – Puerto Rican amazon
24. List of Governors of Puerto Rico – This list of Governors of Puerto Rico includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelagos colonization. The first person to occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office, the first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the government or the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States, during the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, in 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected through a democratic process every four years. After 1580 the Captaincy General of Puerto Rico was established, on July 25,1898, at the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States when, following a brief armed conflict, the United States Army landed at Guánica. Following the conclusion of the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, Puerto Rico began the twentieth century under the military rule of the United States with officials, including the governor, who were appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as a United States federal law, the first civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. This system was used after the approval of the Jones–Shafroth Act, which altered the structure of government in Puerto Rico. Following the approval of the federal Elective Governor Act by President Harry S Truman in 1947, under this system, the governor is in charge of the islands executive branch. The Governors four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Years Day holiday. org Mellander, the United States in Panamanian Politics, The Intriguing Formative Years. Mellander, Gustavo A. Nelly Maldonado Mellander, Charles Edward Magoon, The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, Editorial Plaza MayorList of Governors of Puerto Rico – Juan Ponce de León II, 26th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first native Puerto Rican to become governor
25. List of birds of Puerto Rico – The avifauna of Puerto Rico include a total of 349 species, of which 166 are accidental,42 are introduced by humans and 16 are endemic. Around 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago and this list does not include extinct species. This lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World,2016 edition, the family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, accidental and extirpated species are included in the species counts for Puerto Rico. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, and those that do not are common occurring native species. These birds are adapted to an existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent. In general, they are plump and have broad, relatively short wings and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like and their long wings have black markings, as does the head. White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus Red-billed tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus Order, Suliformes Family and they are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches and they do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Puerto Rico. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, plumage coloration is varied with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being quite colorful. American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers and they are strong fliers and, rather surprisingly, given their size and weight, very capable soarers. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers, however, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcassesList of birds of Puerto Rico – The Puerto Rican spindalis (reina mora in Spanish) is the national bird of Puerto Rico.
26. Puerto Rico national basketball team – The Puerto Rico national basketball team, represents Puerto Rico in basketball international competitions, and is controlled by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation. The Puerto Rican Basketball Federation joined FIBA in 1957, Puerto Rico has participated in nine Olympics and 12 World Championships, although they have never won a medal at either competition. Puerto Ricos first appearance at a World Championship was in 1959 in Chile, where, led by Juan Vicéns, who averaged 22 points per game, the team finished 5th with a record of 3–6. In 1963, at Puerto Ricos second World Championship appearance which took place in Brazil, yet, after losing other six games back to back, ended its participation with a win over Italy, obtaining the 6th place. Coming back from its 13th place debut at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, in 1964 in Tokyo and this was, and still is as of 2016, the highest place it has ever reached since the teams birth at any Olympic Games. The medal count included two golds at the 1962 and the 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games, failing to medal only at the 1967 Pan American Games, where it finished 5th. Also, the 1974 World Championship and the 1979 Pan American Games were held in San Juan, promoting local enthusiasm for international basketball, the 4–3 showing in 1978 in the Philippines was the first time ever the team finished with a positive record at a World Championship. These achievements were accompanied by golds at the 1973 CentroBasket and the 1978 Central American and Caribbean Games, in all, Puerto Rico continued its regional success and was able to medal in all regional competitions. The 1980s were very good for the team, attaining gold at two of the first four FIBA Americas Championships in 1980 and 1989, and at the 1985,1987 and 1989 CentroBasket tournaments. The silver medal at the 1988 Americas Championship held in Montevideo, Uruguay, having qualified and earned the right to participate, the Puerto Rican team chose not to do so at the 1980 Olympic Games, held in Moscow, due to the American boycott of that competition. It wouldnt participate either at the 1984 Olympic Games, held in Los Angeles, eight years after its last showing, Puerto Rico was able to advance to the second round and finished 7th at the 1988 Olympic Games, held in Seoul. Two years earlier, at the 1986 World Championshipat in Spain, Puerto Ricos performance granted it the 10th place, during the 1990s, the teams successes continued as usual. This victory at CentroBasket was the last of a 5 gold medal streak at the tournament and it was then when Puerto Rico began to be classified as one of the top 10 international teams. This Olympic cycle did not go well for the team at the International level, although it did have great moments, later that year, the team repeated its 4th place at the 2001 FIBA Americas tournament in Argentina. In 2002, the team had a showing at the World Championship held in Indianapolis. In a tournament full of well-known professionals, including NBA superstars, Puerto Rico, with a 5–1 record entering the quarterfinals, lost its chance to get into the medals round only by a dramatic 2-points loss to New Zealand, eventually placing 7th. It is worth mentioning that Carlos Arroyo debuted at this tournament, in 2003, the team also won gold at the CentroBasket tournament, held in Mexico, but was only able to achieve the bronze medal at the Tournament of the Americas and the Pan American Games. S. Team, and the first since NBA players were allowed to compete, the 92–73 outcome of that game is, as of 2016, the most lopsided victory against the U. S. in the history of Olympic/World Championship basketballPuerto Rico national basketball team – Puerto Rico
27. Puerto Rico independence movement – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, and since 1898, from the United States, a wide variety of groups, movements, political parties, and organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of autonomous, Nationalist, and Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island, during the second half of the 20th century, the independence movement has attracted neither widespread support nor support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a status referendum in 2012,5. 5% voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44% of the votes cast, Independence also received the least support, less than 4. 5% of the vote, in the status referendums in 1967,1993 and 1998. A fourth referendum was held in 2012, with 54% voting to change Puerto Ricos status, the fifth plebiscite is due to be held on June 11,2017. The two options at that time will be Statehood and Independence/Free Association and it will be the first referendum not to offer the choice of retaining the current status as a Commonwealth. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the 16th century and he was joined by Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Agüeybaná IIs people, who were armed only with spears, bows, and arrows, were no match for the guns of the Spanish forces, the revolt ultimately failed, and many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the born, or Criollos. These include the conspiracy at San Germán in 1809, and the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán, many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to create a federation of Latin American nations, to include Puerto Rico, the Spanish occupation forces were the object of more than thirty conspiracies. Some, like the Lares uprising, the riots and sedition of 1897, the most widespread popular revolts, however, were the one in Lares in 1868, and the one in Yauco in 1897. In 1868, the Grito de Lares took place, in which occupied the town of Lares. Ramón Emeterio Betances was the leader of this revolt, earlier, Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Betances had founded the Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances wrote several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish colonial system and these statements were rapidly circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. The critical state of the economy, along with the repression imposed by the Spanish. The stronghold of the movement were located on the mountains of the west of the islandPuerto Rico independence movement – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
28. Antonio S. Pedreira – Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira, was a Puerto Rican author and educator. Pedreira was born into a family in San Juan. He became interested in the art of writing stories as a child during his primary and secondary school years and he attended the University of Puerto Rico after graduating from high school and earned his teachers certificate. In 1920, Pedreira traveled to New York City with the intention of becoming a medical doctor and he was exposed to the realities of racial discrimination, which was rampant in the city at that time, during his brief stay. This was one of the factors which influenced Pedreira decision to join the Puerto Rican Nationalist movement while at the same time becoming an open advocate for Puerto Ricos independence. He dropped out of school because of financial problems and returned to Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, he was granted a scholarship by the government, in 1925, Pedreira earned a Bachelor of Arts degree. He continued his education and in 1928 earned a masters degree in Letters. Pedreria then moved to Spain to pursue a doctorate in Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid and he returned to his homeland upon graduation. Pedreira held the position of professor of Spanish literature at both the University of Puerto Rico and Columbia University, eventually, the University of Puerto Rico named him Director of the Department of Hispanic Studies. Pedreira believed that Puerto Rico was in danger of losing its identity and expressed his beliefs in a daily column titled Aclaraciones y críticas. He also founded and co-edited a magazine that went by the title Indice, a handful of scholars have studied the work of Eugenio María de Hostos as he did. In 1934, Pedreira authored his most important book, Insularismo and this includes an in-depth study of the intertwining of the Spanish, Taino and African cultures. In his book he talks about the cultural survival of the Puerto Rican identity after the island was invaded by the United States. Antonio S. Pedreira died on October 23,1939 in San Juan, Puerto Rico has honored his memory by naming a school and a main avenue with his name. He was an member of Phi Eta Mu Fraternity, besides that. List of Puerto Rican writers List of Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican literatureAntonio S. Pedreira – Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira
29. Alicia Moreda – Alicia Moreda Tuya, was a soap opera actress, comedian, and a pioneer in Puerto Rico television. Moreda was born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, the one of three born to Alberto Moreda Cifuentes and Celestina Tuya Lafuente. She had one sister, Adela Moreda Tuya and one brother and her father was born in Gijón, Asturias, northern Spain, and had come with his brother to Mayagüez, Puerto Rico before the Spanish–American War. In 1921, her mother died and she was raised by her father, Moreda received her primary and secondary education at the Catholic school Colegio La Milagrosa in Mayagüez. At first she thought that she would like to become a nun, after she graduated from high school, Moreda auditioned for theatre roles and participated in many local productions. At first she would tell everyone that she was a Gallega, besides theatre, she also made many presentations on radio. In 1960, she acted in Casos y cosas de casa with Braulio Castillo and she also acted in the soap opera La Gata and became very attached to the cat on the set. She then adopted many cats and dogs, and she named one of the animals after a famous person. She would always carry the flags of Spain and Puerto Rico wherever she went, at times when she would be hospitalized for any reason, she would request that if she ever died she would like to be buried with both flags. Alicia Moreda died on June 13,1985 of natural causes and was buried with her two flags in the cemetery of Mayagüez, the city of Caguas named a street Calle Alicia Moreda in her honor. Romance in Puerto Rico. And God Created Them List of Puerto Ricans Alicia Moreda at the Internet Movie DatabaseAlicia Moreda – Alicia Moreda
30. Royal Navy – The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and later with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, however, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap. The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V. Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He also invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusiveRoyal Navy – Royal Navy
31. George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland – Sir George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, KG was an English peer, naval commander and courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. He was notable at court for his jousting, at the Accession Day Tilts, two famous survivals, his portrait miniature by Nicholas Hilliard and a garniture of Greenwich armour reflect this important part of his life. In contrast, he neglected his estates in the far north of England, Clifford was born on 8 August 1558 at Brougham Castle in Westmorland, the son and heir of Henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland. His valuable wardship and marriage was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, life at court meant that George Clifford spent an increasing amount of time in southern England, away from his familys estates. As a result, Brougham Castle, one of his properties in the north, was neglected and abandoned, Clifford rose in the world as an accomplished jouster and became Queen Elizabeths second Champion on the retirement of Sir Henry Lee of Ditchley. A portrait miniature by Nicholas Hilliard circa 1590 commemorates the appointment and she made him a Knight of the Garter in 1592 and he sat as a peer in the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. Clifford was involved in the formation of the East India Company and he commanded the galleon Elizabeth Bonaventure in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585, during which he had little success but fared better in later naval battles against the Spanish fleet in the Caribbean. He led and invested in a number of expeditions but many were turned back due to storms or lack of prizes and his first success was an expedition to the Azores in 1589 taking a number of Portuguese and Spanish prizes. He helped to prepare an expedition with Walter Raleigh which led to the Battle of Flores in 1592 and the capture of richly laden carrack Madre de Deus off Flores in the Azores. At the end of 1593, Clifford financed three ships for an expedition to the Azores, which resulted in the Action of Faial between the English and a joint Iberian/Portuguese fleet. He commissioned the building of his own ship, the 38-gun Scourge of Malice, during the Battle of San Juan in 1598 he achieved fame for having briefly captured Fort San Felipe del Morro, the citadel protecting San Juan, Puerto Rico. Clifford and his force of men had arrived in Puerto Rico on 15 June 1598, all the great wealth he gained from his buccaneering he lost in jousting and horse racing and was eventually obliged to sell his inherited lands. It formerly hung in Appleby Castle and is now displayed in the Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal and it depicts Anne as a girl at left and as a mature woman at right. The central panel shows her parents and young brothers, the painting is replete with significant elements referring to her life and to her succession to her paternal inheritance, gained after a lengthy legal dispute, only settled in 1617. His two sons, Robert and Francis, had died young before the age of 5, thus his daughter and only surviving child Anne Clifford became his sole heiress. She inherited the title Baron de Clifford suo jure, which having been created by writ in 1299 was able to descend in the female line, after lengthy litigation Anne won much of the land, including Brougham and Appleby castles. Clifford died on 30 October 1605 within the Liberty of the Savoy in London and his chest tomb monument survives in Holy Trinity church, Skipton, adjacent to his seat of Skipton Castle. George Cliffords tournament armour survives and is considered the finest surviving garniture of the Tudor period, as Queens Champion Cliffords armour would have been unrivaled in beautyGeorge Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland – George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, 1588 portrait after Nicholas Hilliard
32. Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico – Santurce is one of the districts of San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States. It is also the biggest and most populated of all the districts in the capital, with a total population of 94,067, Santurce has a bigger population than most of the municipalities of Puerto Rico. As a result, it is one of the most densely populated areas of the island. Santurce is one of the top ten most-populated areas of the island, the 2000 U. S. Census recorded a total population of 94,067 people living in an area of 5.24 square miles. It is the most populous borough in Puerto Rico and one of the most densely populated areas of San Juan, geographically speaking, Santurce is a peninsula that is attached to the mainland in the east, where it borders with the Isla Verde district of Carolina. It is 7.6 km long from west to east, to the south is the Martín Peña Channel, which separates Santurce from the northern barrios of former municipio Río Piedras, Hato Rey Norte, Hato Rey Central, and Oriente. To the west is San Juan Bay, where three bridges, Puente Dos Hermanos, Puente G. Esteves and Puente San Antonio connect Santurce with La Isleta where Old San Juan is located. It has an area of 8.70 square miles composed of 5.24 square miles of land and 3.46 square miles of water area. The topography is flat with low hills toward the central areas and swampy areas to the south along the Martín Peña Channel. The highest point is at Monteflores with 23 meters, Santurce is located along the north-eastern coast of Puerto Rico. It lies south of the Atlantic Ocean, east of Old San Juan, the district occupies an area of 5.24 square miles of land and 3.46 of water. Santurce was originally settled by the native Indians and later by slaves of African ancestry who arrived from the neighboring Danish West Indies, throughout the centuries, the district continued to grow due to its crossfade location between San Juan and its southern suburbs. Many years after his arrival he was granted the title of Count of Santurce by the Spanish Crown, with his newly acquired title and influence, the district was renamed after his title. The neighboring Condado also received its present-name from Ubarris title, as the name literally translates to county. The Treaty of Paris provided that Cuba would become independent from Spain and it ceded to the United States Puerto Rico, and other adjacent islands then under Spanish sovereignty in the Caribbean, as well as Guam and the Philippines in Asia-Pacific region. The United States Army established the now historical Camp Las Casas, the camp was the main training base of the Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry The Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry was a segregated U. S. Army Regiment which was later renamed the 65th Infantry Regiment. Correction on the statement, The 65th Infantry Regiment was not segregated. It was a Regular Army Regiment that accepted personnel of every race but blacks, there was a black Regiment in the Island for that purpose, the base continued in operation until 1946, when it was finally closed and the Residencial Las Casas now standsSanturce, San Juan, Puerto Rico – Aerial view of Santurce
33. Puerto Rican Independence Party – The Puerto Rican Independence Party is a social-democratic political party in Puerto Rico that campaigns for the independence of Puerto Rico from United States suzerainty. Those who follow the PIP ideology are usually called independentistas, pipiolos, the party began as the electoral wing of the Puerto Rican independence movement. It is the largest of the parties, and the only one that is on the ballot during elections. In 1948, two years after being founded, the PIP gathered 10. 2% of the votes in the island. In 1956 it took 12. 4% of the votes, in 19603. 1%, in 1964, 4%, in 1968,3.5, in 1972,5.4, in 1976,5.7, in 1980,5.4, in 1984,3.6, and in 1988,5.5. In 2004 it obtained 2. 7% of the votes, the party was founded on 20 October 1946, by Gilberto Concepción de Gracia and his colleague Fernando Milán Suárez. They felt the movement had been betrayed by the Popular Democratic Party. In the case of Puerto Rican independence groups, J. Edgar Hoovers 1961 memo refers to our efforts to disrupt their activities, scholars say the papers provide invaluable additions to the recorded history of Puerto Rico. I expect that this will alter somewhat the analysis of why independence hasnt made it, said Félix V. Matos Rodríguez, in the 1940s, independence was the second-largest political movement in the island, and a real alternative. Freeh gave the first public acknowledgment of the federal governments Puerto Rican surveillance and offered a mea culpa. Your question goes back to a period, particularly in the 1960s, freeh said, according to transcripts of the hearing. Freeh said that he would make the available and see if we can redress some of the egregious illegal action, maybe criminal action. The FBIs surveillance of any person or organization advocating Puerto Ricos independence has been recognized by the FBIs top leadership, the FBIs past surveillance of the pro-independence movement is detailed in 1.8 million documents, a fraction of which were released in 2000. In 1971, the PIP gubernatorial candidate, Rubén Berríos led a protest against the US Navy in Culebra, during the 1972 elections, the PIP showed the largest growth in its history while running a democratic socialist, pro-worker, pro-poor campaign. The Marxist–Leninist faction, called the terceristas, split into several groups, the biggest of them went into the Popular Socialist Movement, while the rest went into the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. In 1999, PIP leaders, especially Rubén Berríos, became involved in the Navy-Vieques protests started by many citizens of Vieques against the presence of the US military in the island-municipality. During the 2008 elections, the PIP lost official recognition for the second time, loss of recognition was official on January 2,2009. The minimum vote percentage to keep official recognition is 3. 0% as per the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico law, the party also lost both of its seats in the legislature, where they had had one seat in each housePuerto Rican Independence Party
34. Moca, Puerto Rico – Moca is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the north-western region of the island, north of Añasco, southeast of Aguadilla, east of Aguada, and west of Isabela and San Sebastián. Moca is spread over 12 wards and Moca Pueblo and it is part of the Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastián Metropolitan Statistical Area. The name of Moca comes from the tree Andira Ínermis whose beautiful pink/purple flowers expose their presence, the Moca tree was officially adopted as the representative tree of the town on February 19,1972. Moca is famous for its Mundillo lace, Mundillo is the Puerto Rican name for handmade bobbin lace. It is almost synonymous with the town of Moca. Moca known as La Capital del Mundillo it was founded by Don José de Quiñónez on June 22,1772, diverse versions exist on the date of its foundation. Manuel de Ubeda and Delgado, in his Isla de Puerto Rico, estudio histórico, geográfico y estadístico, published in San Juan in 1878, says to us that it was founded on 1774. On the other hand, Cayetano Coll y Toste, in the Boletín histórico de Puerto Rico, on August 14,1898, The United States Armed Forces entered and took the town of Moca finding no resistance. On August 8,1898, after the Spanish–American War officially ended, localization, 18° 23N and 67° 06W of the Meridian of Greenwich. It is located in a valley, in the skirts of The Tuna mountains. Climate, Tropical with hardly noticeable seasonal changes, temperatures throughout the year range between 76 and 98 degrees Fahrenheit. Cerro Moca, Monte El Ojo, Monte Mariquita of the Jaicoa Mountain Range On May 16,2010, the earthquake was felt in the entire island and also in the Dominican Republic and the Virgin Islands. Damage was reported in various towns, agriculture, Fruits, dairy farming, cattle and bovine ranching. Business, Industrial, Alarms, clothing, electronic machinery, footwear, Juan Sanchez Acevedo Coliseum Moca also had a volleyball team named Los Rebeldes, which played in LVS through the years of 1998 to 2005. The team went to the post season every year, obtained a second place in its 1998 final with the Changos of Naranjito. In addition, Los Rebeldes were National Champions against the Changos in the 2000 final, Los Rebeldes swept the Changos 4-0 in the finals, handing the Changos its most embarrassing finals defeat in the teams history. Like all municipalities in Puerto Rico, Moca is administered by a mayor, the current mayor is José Avilés Santiago, from the New Progressive Party. Avilés was elected at the 2000 general election, the city belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district IV, which is represented by two SenatorsMoca, Puerto Rico – Moca, Puerto Rico
35. Ciales, Puerto Rico – Ciales is a municipality of Puerto Rico, located on the Central Mountain Range, northwest of Orocovis, south of Florida and Manatí, east of Utuado and Jayuya, and west of Morovis. Ciales is spread over eight wards and Ciales Pueblo and it is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ciales was founded on June 24,1820 by Isidro Rodríguez, Toro Negro Forest Reserve Rivers are, Río Cialitos, Río Grande de Manatí, Río Toro Negro, and Río Yunes. Their middle brother, Enrique Coco Vicens, a former Puerto Rico Senator, was a track, agriculture, coffee & cattle All municipalities in Puerto Rico are administered by a mayor, elected every four years. The current mayor of Ciales is Juan José Rodríguez Pérez, of the Popular Democratic Party and he was elected at the 2012 general elections. The city belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district III, which is represented by two Senators, in 2008, José Emilio González Velázquez and Angel Martínez Santiago were elected as District Senators. The flag is divided into seven unequal stripes described in sequence, yellow, red, yellow, purple, yellow, red, and yellow. The coat of arms consists of a shield with a lion standing on its rear legs. The lion also shows a red tongue, above the lion in the superior part of the shield are located three heraldic roses arranged horizontally with red petals and green leaves. A golden crown of three towers rests on the shield, the three towers are united by walls, simulating masonry blocks. The shield is surrounded by a crown of coffee tree branches with their berries, all in natural colorsCiales, Puerto Rico – Coat of arms
36. Carlos Delgado – Carlos Juan Delgado Hernández is a Puerto Rican former professional baseball player. With 473 home runs and 1,512 RBI, he holds the home run. He is one of six players in Major League history to hit 30 home runs in ten consecutive seasons. Delgado also played for the Florida Marlins and New York Mets, on February 4,2015, Delgado was elected to the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. Delgado was born in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico to Carlos Cao Delgado and he grew up in the El Prado section of Aguadilla. There, he attended elementary school alongside his three siblings, both his father, Don Cao, and his grandfather, Asdrúbal Pingolo Delgado, were well-known figures in the town. Delgado has said that made him feel protected, but that it also demanded that he had to behave properly. Delgado attended Agustín Stahl Middle School and José de Diego High School, Delgado has expressed his strong feelings of pride in being an Aguadillano, noting everything he holds dear is found in the municipality, and his off-season house is located there. He developed friendships with several of the inhabitants, with whom he began playing baseball in the little leagues. At the age of 16, several major league organizations including the Cincinnati Reds, Montreal Expos, New York Mets, Texas Rangers and Toronto Blue Jays saw his potential and he signed with the Blue Jays in 1988 after being discovered by team scout Epy Guerrero. After being named the #4 prospect in the leagues by Baseball America. Though he didnt play in the 1993 World Series, he was awarded a World Series ring, originally a catcher, he later switched to first base and became one of the most productive sluggers in the major leagues. A two-time All-Star, in 2000 and 2003, Delgado holds several Blue Jays single-season and he won the Hank Aaron and The Sporting News Player of the Year Awards in 2000, and the Silver Slugger Award in 1999,2000, and 2003. In 1999, Delgado hit a career-high 44 home runs, along with 134 RBI, the next year, he batted a career-high.344, along with 41 home runs,57 doubles, and 137 RBI. He finished fourth in the 2000 American League MVP voting, on September 25,2003, in a game against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, Delgado became the 15th major league player to hit four home runs in one game. Delgado is the player to hit four home runs with only 4 at-bats in a game. In the 2003 season, Delgado hit 42 home runs and led the Majors with 145 RBI, while batting.302 and he was named AL Player of the Week on September 30,2003 and again on September 7,2004. Following the 2004 season, Delgado became an agent, and was pursued by the Baltimore Orioles, Florida Marlins, New York Mets, Seattle MarinersCarlos Delgado – Delgado with the New York Mets
37. Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies – Princess Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies was Queen consort of Spain and Regent of Spain. Born in Palermo, Sicily on 27 April 1806, she was the daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies by his second wife, Maria Isabella of Spain. With the death on 27 May 1829 of the wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain. This led to his marriage, just seven months later. If the rushed marriage was not awkward enough, King Ferdinand was also her uncle by both birth and marriage, Maria Christinas mother, Maria Isabella, was King Ferdinands sister, both were born to King Charles IV of Spain and his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. As queen, Maria Christina, rapidly delivered two daughters, the future Queen Isabella II, and the Infanta Luísa Fernanda, and two sons who did not survive past one year, when Ferdinand died on 29 September 1833, Maria Christina became regent for their daughter Isabella. Some supporters of Don Carlos went so far as to claim that Ferdinand had actually bequeathed the crown to his brother and it was further alleged that the Queen had signed her dead husbands name to a decree recognizing Isabella as heir. Carlos attempt to power resulted in the Carlist Wars. Despite considerable support for Carlos from the Roman Catholic Church and conservative elements in Spain, the Carlist Wars grew from a dispute about the succession into a dispute over the future of Spain. The supporters of Maria Christina and her daughter favored a liberal constitution, in contrast, Carlos supporters favored a return to traditional society and an absolute monarchy. Ultimately, the loyalty to Isabella II proved the decisive issue in the war. On 28 December 1833, shortly after the death of Ferdinand VII, Maria Christina had secretly married an ex-sergeant from the royal guard, Maria Christina and Muñoz had several children together while trying to keep their marriage a secret. Maria de los Desamparados, Countess of Vista Alegre married Prince Władysław Czartoryski, Maria de los Milagros, Marchioness of Castillejo married to Filippo del Drago, Principe di Mazzano e dAntuni. Agustín Maria, 1st Duke of Tarancón candidate to King of Ecuador in 1846, Fernando Maria, 2nd Duke of Riansares and Tarancon married to Eladia Bernaldo de Quirós y González de Cienfuegos. Maria Cristina, Marchioness of La Isabella, Juan Bautista, Count of Recuerdo Antonio de Padua. Jose Maria, Count of Gracia Muñoz enlisted in the royal bodyguard, Maria Christinas husband, King Ferdinand VII of Spain died on 29 September 1833, and on 28 December 1833 she and Muñoz were privately married. If Maria Christina had officially made the public, she would have forfeited the regency. Eventually, news of Maria Christinas marriage to this low-ranking soldier became public and that news made Maria Christina deeply unpopularMaria Christina of the Two Sicilies – Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
38. Grito de Lares – The Grito de Lares —also referred to as the Lares uprising, the Lares revolt, the Lares rebellion, or the Lares revolution—was the first major revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico. The short-lived revolt was planned by Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis and it began on September 23,1868, in the town of Lares, for which it is named, and spread rapidly to various revolutionary cells throughout the island. In the 1860s, the government of Spain was involved in conflicts across Latin America. It became involved in a war with Peru and Chile, and had to address slave revolts in Cuba and this board, the Junta Informativa de Reformas de Ultramar would be formed by representatives of each overseas province, in proportion to their collective population. The board would meet in Madrid, then report to the Minister of State, the Puerto Rican delegation was freely elected by those eligible to vote, in what was one of the first exercises of political openness in Spain. However, Acosta could convince the Junta that abolition could be achieved in Puerto Rico without disrupting the local economy, beyond abolition however, proposals for autonomy were voted down, as were other petitions to limit the governor generals power over virtually every aspect of life in Puerto Rico. Once the Junta members returned to Puerto Rico, they met with community leaders in a famed meeting at the Hacienda El Cacao in Carolina. Ramón Emeterio Betances, who supported independence from Spain and had been exiled by the Spanish government twice by that time, was invited by Ruiz, Betances then suggested an outright, island-wide rebellion, with a proclamation of independence as soon as possible. To Acostas horror, many of the meetings attendees sided with Betances, the Lares uprising, commonly known as the Grito de Lares, occurred on September 23,1868, but was planned well before that date. A group led by Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis founded the Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico on January 6,1868 from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances authored several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish centralist system and these statements soon circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. Among them, Los Diez Mandamientos de los hombres libres written in exile in Saint Thomas in November 1867. It is directly based on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted by Frances National Assembly in 1789, eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances, provided Mariana Bracetti with the materials for the Revolutionary Flag of Lares. The flag was divided in the middle by a white Latin cross, a white star was placed in the upper left blue corner. The Revolutionary Committee named twelve of their members as generales, the stronghold of the movement were towns located in the mountains, on the western part of the island. On September 20, Francisco Ramírez Medina held a meeting at his house in which the insurrection was planned, cancela instructed Manuel María González to deliver all of the acts and important papers in regard to the meeting to Manuel Rojas. Juan Castañón, a captain stationed in Quebradillas, overheard two cell members commenting that on September 29 the troops at Camuy would be neutralized by poisoning the bread rations. Castañón and his men then entered Gonzálezs residence and confiscated the documents of Medinas meeting, the cell leaders at the Lanzador del Norte cell in Camuy were soon arrestedGrito de Lares – Original Lares Revolutionary Flag Municipality of Lares highlighted in red
39. Mihiel Gilormini – Brigadier General Mihiel Mike Gilormini Pacheco, was a United States Air Force officer who served in the Royal Air Force and in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. He was the recipient of the Silver Star, the Air Medal with four clusters and he was also a co-founder of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard. Gilormini was born to Domingo Gilormini and Petronila Pacheco de Gilormini in the town of Yauco, the town of Yauco, where he was raised and where he received his primary education, is located in the southwestern region of the island. Gilormini, graduated from the Escuela Superior de Yauco and in the early 1940s, moved to San Diego, California where he took flying lessons. On November 23,1941, he enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force with the rank of sergeant /Pilot, upon the outbreak of World War II, Gilormini offered his services to the Royal Air Force and served with them. As a member of the RAF, he flew in a squadron of P-39s from England to North Africa and he served with the RAF until November 30,1942, when he joined the United States Army Air Forces with the rank of second lieutenant. In October 1942, he was assigned to the 346th Fighter Squadron, in March 1943, he was transferred to the 345th Fighter Squadron of the 350th Fighter Group in North Africa and Italy, to replace pilot losses. He stayed with the 345th Devil Hawks and flew a P-47 Thunderbolt until February 1945, on one occasion Gilormini led a squadron in an attack against Nazi positions in Conneto, Italy. During the attack his P-47 was struck by enemy anti-aircraft fire, Gilormini made a nose dive which put out the flames consuming his aircraft and rejoined his squadron. His squadron destroyed a railroad and vehicles which were transporting military equipment. During the war he was promoted to captain and flew a total of 200 combat missions over England, North Africa, Corsica, on May 19,1943, Gilormini was involved in an aircraft accident when his P-39 went down over Maison Blanche, Algiers. Gilormini and Miller flew their last flight in Italy together giving air cover for General George C, marshalls visit to their group at Pisa. They both returned to the United States on the same ship, Gilormini was also the recipient of five Distinguished Flying Crosses. Also, in 1945, Puerto Rican poet Francisco Rojas Tollinchi paid homage to Gilormini in his poem Recuerdo yaucano, after the war he continued to serve in the Army Air Force. In 1947, he was reassigned to the newly formed United States Air Force, Gilormini was promoted to brigadier general and served as commander until his retirement from the military in 1975Mihiel Gilormini – Mihiel "Mike" Gilormini (1944) Gilormini was a co-founder of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard
40. Puerto Rican spindalis – The Puerto Rican spindalis is a bird endemic to the island of Puerto Rico, where it is commonly known as reina mora. The species is distributed throughout the island and is an important part of the Puerto Rican ecosystem because of its help in seed dispersal. The Puerto Rican spindalis has been proposed as the bird of the United States Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rican spindalis was originally classified as Spindalis zena portoricensis, in 1997, an article was published which presented an extensive analysis of the genus Spindalis. The report concluded, based on differences in weight, color, pattern, distribution, and voice, four distinct species were identified—Spindalis dominicensis, Spindalis nigricephala, Spindalis portoricensis and Spindalis zena. S. zena was also subdivided into five subspecies, S. z. pretrei, S. z. salvini, S. z. benedicti, S. z. townsendi and S. z. zena. Specifically, the difference in vocalization, and morphology, distinguish S. portoricensis from S. dominicensis, the Puerto Rican spindalis exhibits sexual dimorphism with males being brightly colored and females being dully colored. Males are green colored above with a neck and chest. They have a head with two white stripes running across it, with one above and one below the eyes. The tail and wings are gray to black with white stripes at the tips. In contrast, the female is a dull olive-green color with slightly noticeable white stripes, sexual dimorphism is also noticeable in weight and size. Females are slightly heavier but smaller in length than males. The males weight ranges from 22.5 to 37.0 grams with an average of 30.8 grams while the ranges from 28.0 to 41.1 grams with an average of 33.5 grams. The length of the wings ranges from 82 to 88.5 mm with an average of 85.2 mm while the females range from 80 to 85.5 mm with an average of 82.6 mm. The length of the tail ranges from 59 to 68 mm with an average of 63.3 mm while the females range from 56 to 65.5 mm with an average of 60.6 mm. The Puerto Rican spindalis is currently more commonly in plantations than in their natural habitat, the forests of Maricao. It may also be found in gardens, scavenging for flower nectar and it can be attracted by a sugar solution. It is distributed throughout the main island of Puerto Rico and is rarely found above 1000 meters in elevationPuerto Rican spindalis – Puerto Rican spindalis
41. Hatchling – In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird. A group of mammals called monotremes lay eggs, and their young are hatchlings as well, fish hatchlings generally do not receive parental care, similar to reptiles. Like reptiles, fish hatchlings can be affected by xenobiotic compounds, for example, exposure to xenoestrogens can feminize fish. As well, hatchlings raised in water with high levels of carbon dioxide demonstrate unusual behaviour and this change could be reversed by immersion into gabazine water, leading to the hypothesis that acidic waters affect hatchling brain chemistry. The behavior of a hatchling, commonly referred to as a tadpole, is controlled by a few thousand neurons. While newt hatchlings are only able to swim for a few seconds, the tadpole live from remaining yolk-mass in the gut for a period, before it swims off to find food. The reptile hatchling is quite the opposite of an altricial bird hatchling, most hatchling reptiles are born with the same instincts as their parents and leave to live on their own immediately after leaving the egg. When first hatched, hatchlings can be several times smaller than their adult forms, Pine Snakes weigh 30 grams when they first hatch and this appears to have been the case even in dinosaurs. In sea turtles, hatchling sex is determined by incubation temperature, in species in which eggs are laid then buried in sand, indentations in the sand can be a clue to imminent hatching. In sea turtles, this usually occurs about 60 days after the laying of eggs, however, exposure to xenobiotic compounds, especially endocrine-disrupting compounds, can affect hatchling sex ratios as well. Persistent Organic Pollutants and other pollutants like octylphenol are also known to increase rate of hatchling mortality and deformity, upon hatching, animals such as turtles have innate navigational skills, including compass and beacon methods of navigation, to reach safety. For example, turtle hatchlings instinctively swim against waves to ensure they leave the beach, hatchlings of the species Iguana iguana also gain gut flora essential to digestion from adults as part of their development. In the wild, hatchling survival rates are low due to factors such as predation, for example, by crabs. Human intervention has also benefitted hatchling reptiles at times, for example, late-hatched loggerhead turtles are taken in by such groups as the University of Georgia to be raised. In species such as crocodiles, hydration levels also play an important role in embryo survival, reptile hatchlings, especially those of turtles, are often sold as pets. This has been reported to occur even in places where such practices are illegal, bird hatchlings may be altricial or precocial. Altricial means that the young hatch naked and with their eyes closed, precocial hatching are feathered when hatched, and can leave the nest immediately. It has also shown that auditory development in hatchlings is disrupted by environments high in visual and social stimulationHatchling – Yellow-faced honeyeater chicks
42. United States Department of State – The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established. The Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building located at 2201 C Street, NW, the Department operates the diplomatic missions of the United States abroad and is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the United States and U. S. diplomacy efforts. The Department is also the depositary for more than 200 multilateral treaties, the Department is led by the Secretary of State, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Secretary of State is Rex Tillerson, beginning 1 February 2017, the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the President pro tempore of the Senate. This legislation remains the law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, and the taking of the census. President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15, most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were eventually turned over to various new Federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. On September 29,1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, then Minister to France, from 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time. It occupied a building at Church and Fifth Streets, in 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and then the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801 and it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866 and it then occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State, War, and Navy Building in 1875, since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, the State Department is therefore sometimes metonymically referred to as Foggy Bottom. Madeleine Albright became the first woman to become the United States Secretary of State, condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Rodham Clinton became the female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building, the Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S, the Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the Presidents foreign policy. It also provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens, the total Department of State budget, together with Other International Programs, costs about 45 cents a day for each resident of the United States. Keeping the public informed about U. S. foreign policy and relations with other countries, providing automobile registration for non-diplomatic staff vehicles and the vehicles of diplomats of foreign countries having diplomatic immunity in the United StatesUnited States Department of State – Harry S Truman Building, headquarters of the U.S. State Department since 1947
43. US Justice Department – The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan members, the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department has responsibility to investigate instances of fraud, to represent the United States in legal matters such as in the Supreme Court. The department also has responsibilities to review actions of law enforcement conduct by the Violent Crime Control. The Department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President, the current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions. The U. S. Attorney General was initially a one-person and it was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, but this grew with the bureaucracy. At one time the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, until March 3,1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salary by engaging in private practice of law. Following unsuccessful efforts to put the Attorney Generals Office on a footing, in 1869. On February 19,1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice, President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill into law on June 22,1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1,1870, just prior to the Civil War, in February 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as Americas first Solicitor General, both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grants first term in there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. The result was a decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was better or stronger then Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Akermans successor, George H. Williams, in December 1871, the law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, new facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary, upon Medarys death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the projectUS Justice Department – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
44. Police brutality – Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members. Widespread police brutality exists in countries and territories, even those that prosecute it. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law, the term police brutality was in use in the American press as early as 1872, when the Chicago Tribune reported on the beating of a civilian under arrest at the Harrison Street Police Station. Cases of police brutality appear to have been frequent then, with the bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks. Portions of the population may perceive the police to be oppressors, in addition, there is a perception that victims of police brutality often belonging to relatively powerless groups, such as minorities, the disabled, the young, and the poor. After facing federal trial, two of the four officers were convicted and received 32 months prison sentence, the case was widely seen as a key factor in the reform of the Los Angeles Police Department. According to data released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, between 2003 and 2009 at least 4,813 people died in the process of being arrested by local police. Of the deaths classified as law enforcement homicides,2,876 deaths occurred of which 1,643 or 57. 1% of the people who died were people of color, Police brutality entails serious violations of the human rights to life and physical security. In accordance with human rights law, victims have a right to forcibly resist police brutality where absolutely necessary to prevent serious and irreparable harm. Notably, police brutality entailing extrajudicial killings, torture and inhuman treatment may be resisted, incidents of police brutality in Austria seem to be largely influenced and triggered by racism and prejudice against foreign nationals and ethnic minorities within the community. This underlying issue has continued to be present and relevant when examining cases of police brutality within Austria, for example, in Vienna there tends to be an association made between Viennas drug problem and the citys African migrants. This has led to the existence of cultural stereotypes which have then led to the racial profiling of African migrants. There have been a number of highly publicised incidents in Austria where police have either tortured, publicly humiliated, the most notorious of these incidents occurred in the late 1990s, however recent reports in 2015 show that police are still treating civilians in this way. 24 April 1996, Mr Jevremovic, a Serbian Romani man and he escaped, and later a large group of police came into his home without a warrant, and violently beat him and his wife before taking them both into custody. May 1996, Marcus Omofuma, an Illegal Nigerian immigrant, was being deported from Vienna when the officers taped him to his chair like a mummy and he suffocated whilst in police custody. November 1998, Dr C, a black Austrian citizen, was stopped by police after reversing his car into a street and was asked Why are you driving the wrong way. He was beaten unconscious and handcuffed, Police continued beating him after he regained consciousness. After he was arrested, he spent 11 days in hospital recovering,28 July 2015, A 27-year-old man, suspected of being a pickpocket, was handcuffed and violently thrown into the ground whilst under police custodyPolice brutality – New York City Police Department officers violently attacking unemployed civilians in Tompkins Square Park, 1874.
45. Utah Jazz – The Utah Jazz are an American professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Jazz compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Western Conference Northwest Division. Since 1991, the team has played its games at Vivint Smart Home Arena. The franchise began play in 1974 as the New Orleans Jazz, a team based in New Orleans. The Jazz were one of the least successful teams in the league in their early years, although 10 seasons elapsed before the Jazz qualified for their first playoff appearance in 1984, they did not miss the playoffs again until 2004. During the late 1980s, John Stockton and Karl Malone arose as the players for the team. Both Stockton and Malone moved on in 2003, after missing the playoffs for three consecutive seasons the Jazz returned to prominence under the on-court leadership of point guard Deron Williams. However, partway through the 2010–11 NBA season, the Jazz began restructuring after Sloans retirement, the team has made the playoffs once since then, in 2012 under coach Tyrone Corbin. Quin Snyder was hired as coach in June 2014. Valued in 2015 at $850 million by Forbes, the Jazz rank as the 20th most valuable franchise in the NBA ahead of the Indiana Pacers, on June 7,1974, the New Orleans Jazz were admitted as an expansion franchise into the National Basketball Association. Team officials selected the name because of its definition in the dictionary, the team began its inaugural season in New Orleans in the 1974–75 season. Maravich struggled with injuries from that season onward. Venue issues were a problem for the team while it was based in New Orleans. Later, they played games in the cavernous Louisiana Superdome, but things were no better, due to demand for the stadium, onerous lease terms. Years later, founding owner Sam Battistone claimed that there was no plan in case the Jazz ever qualified for the playoffs. The pick would have been the Jazzs had they not traded it to acquire Gail Goodrich two years earlier, despite being barely competitive, the Jazz drew well during their first five years. However, by 1979 the franchise was sinking financially, barry Mendelson, the teams executive vice president for most of the early years, said one factor in the financial trouble was an 11 percent amusement tax, highest in the U. S. at the time. The team also could not attract much local corporate support—an important factor even in those days—or local investors, Battistone concluded that the franchise could not be viable in New Orleans and decided to move elsewhereUtah Jazz – Pete Maravich played for the Jazz from 1974 to 1980.
46. Puerto Rican National Basketball Team – The Puerto Rico national basketball team, represents Puerto Rico in basketball international competitions, and is controlled by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation. The Puerto Rican Basketball Federation joined FIBA in 1957, Puerto Rico has participated in nine Olympics and 12 World Championships, although they have never won a medal at either competition. Puerto Ricos first appearance at a World Championship was in 1959 in Chile, where, led by Juan Vicéns, who averaged 22 points per game, the team finished 5th with a record of 3–6. In 1963, at Puerto Ricos second World Championship appearance which took place in Brazil, yet, after losing other six games back to back, ended its participation with a win over Italy, obtaining the 6th place. Coming back from its 13th place debut at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, in 1964 in Tokyo and this was, and still is as of 2016, the highest place it has ever reached since the teams birth at any Olympic Games. The medal count included two golds at the 1962 and the 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games, failing to medal only at the 1967 Pan American Games, where it finished 5th. Also, the 1974 World Championship and the 1979 Pan American Games were held in San Juan, promoting local enthusiasm for international basketball, the 4–3 showing in 1978 in the Philippines was the first time ever the team finished with a positive record at a World Championship. These achievements were accompanied by golds at the 1973 CentroBasket and the 1978 Central American and Caribbean Games, in all, Puerto Rico continued its regional success and was able to medal in all regional competitions. The 1980s were very good for the team, attaining gold at two of the first four FIBA Americas Championships in 1980 and 1989, and at the 1985,1987 and 1989 CentroBasket tournaments. The silver medal at the 1988 Americas Championship held in Montevideo, Uruguay, having qualified and earned the right to participate, the Puerto Rican team chose not to do so at the 1980 Olympic Games, held in Moscow, due to the American boycott of that competition. It wouldnt participate either at the 1984 Olympic Games, held in Los Angeles, eight years after its last showing, Puerto Rico was able to advance to the second round and finished 7th at the 1988 Olympic Games, held in Seoul. Two years earlier, at the 1986 World Championshipat in Spain, Puerto Ricos performance granted it the 10th place, during the 1990s, the teams successes continued as usual. This victory at CentroBasket was the last of a 5 gold medal streak at the tournament and it was then when Puerto Rico began to be classified as one of the top 10 international teams. This Olympic cycle did not go well for the team at the International level, although it did have great moments, later that year, the team repeated its 4th place at the 2001 FIBA Americas tournament in Argentina. In 2002, the team had a showing at the World Championship held in Indianapolis. In a tournament full of well-known professionals, including NBA superstars, Puerto Rico, with a 5–1 record entering the quarterfinals, lost its chance to get into the medals round only by a dramatic 2-points loss to New Zealand, eventually placing 7th. It is worth mentioning that Carlos Arroyo debuted at this tournament, in 2003, the team also won gold at the CentroBasket tournament, held in Mexico, but was only able to achieve the bronze medal at the Tournament of the Americas and the Pan American Games. S. Team, and the first since NBA players were allowed to compete, the 92–73 outcome of that game is, as of 2016, the most lopsided victory against the U. S. in the history of Olympic/World Championship basketballPuerto Rican National Basketball Team – Puerto Rico
47. NBA Finals – The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association played between the Western and Eastern champions of the Conference Finals. The first team to win four games in the game series is declared the league champion and is awarded the Larry OBrien Championship Trophy. Winners from 1946 to 1983 received the Walter A. Brown Trophy redesigned in 1977 to the current form, the NBA Finals has been played at the end of every NBA and Basketball Association of America season in history, the first being held in 1947. Most NBA Finals series were played under the 2–2–1–1–1 format prior to 1985, the series was named the BAA Finals from 1947 to 1949 and then changed to the NBA World Championship Series from 1950 to 1982. The following two years, the league used Showdown 83 and Showdown 84 and it returned to NBA World Championship Series in 1985, before settling on NBA Finals in 1986. During the first decade the Minneapolis Lakers had the first NBA dynasty, the team also featured George Mikan, one of the greatest players in NBA history. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons and they won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957, Bill Russell became the star of the league, Game 7 of the NBA Finals was decided on a Celtics basket in the final seconds of the second overtime. For most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics always seemed to have the hand on Wilt Chamberlains teams. The following season, he joined the Philadelphia 76ers, the former Syracuse Nationals team that had moved to cover the vacancy created with the departure of the Warriors, a clash between the two stars in the playoffs was in 1966 and Boston won it 4–1. Chamberlains coach told him to play a game, not an individual game. His new-found team spirit brought them to a new record of 68 wins the season, and they defeated the Celtics and then advanced to, and won. In 1968, Boston overcame a 3–1 deficit against Philadelphia to once again arrive in the Finals and they went on to defeat the Los Angeles Lakers for the sixth straight time,4 games to 2. In 1969, the Celtics overcame even longer odds, Boston was an aging team and had injuries to a number of players. They barely qualified for the playoffs, finishing fourth in the East, the Lakers, who in the offseason added Chamberlain to join West and Elgin Baylor, won the West and were prohibitive favorites to finally win it all for the first time since relocating to L. A. They won the first two games at the Los Angeles Forum, however, when the series shifted to Boston Garden, the Celtics won Game 3 110–105. Game 4 was the point, as the Lakers led 87–86 and had the ball with 10 seconds to play. But after a turnover, Sam Jones put up a shot hit the front of the rim, the back heel, rolled aroundNBA Finals – The Shot O'Brien Championship Trophy.
48. Baseball – Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East, West, and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position. Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket also descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrantsBaseball – A baseball game at Angel Stadium in Anaheim, CA
49. Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League – In 2007, the LBPRC suspended operations for the first time since its creation. In 2008, the organization resumed operations, after restructuring and these included renaming the league to Puerto Rico Baseball League and establishing a website. In May 2012, the league debuted its current name, choosing to honor hall of famer Roberto Clemente by naming it after him, currently consisting of five teams, the leagues champion participates in the Caribbean Series. Puerto Rican Baseball began at the end of the 19th century, the first two clubs were founded in 1897, the Almendares Baseball Club owned by Francisco Alamo Armas, and the Borinquen Baseball Club owned by Santos Filippi. According to El Pais newspaper, the first game was played on January 11,1898 at the old velodrome in Santurce, the Borinquen beat the Almendares 3 to 0. The first game to complete nine innings was played on January 30,1898, enrique Huyke, a professor from Mayagüez, originally suggested the establishment of an organized baseball league in Puerto Rico. The idea was adopted by Teofilo Maldonado, president of the Commission on Recreation, the Liga de Béisbol Semiprofesional de Puerto Rico was founded in 1938, as a semi-professional league. Six team formed the new organization, these were the Senadores de San Juan, Leones de Ponce, Criollos de Caguas, Brujos de Guayama and Grises Orientales de Humacao. The first Puerto Rican players to play in Major League Baseball, Hiram Bithorn and Luis Olmo, were active in the rosters of San Juan, Bithorn became the younger manager in the leagues history, receiving the office when he was 22 years old. Huyke served as manager for Mayagüez for less than a month, Maldonado was named the leagues commissioner. Changes in the rosters were allowed only during the first half of the season, while the number of games has historically varied from 40 to 80 games per season. The All-Star game was scheduled to coincide with the traditional Three Kings Day and this date was used for decades, until the emergence of television forced the league to comply to the dates requested by the networks. One of the figures of the league in its early stage was veteran Negro leagues veteran. The Cangrejeros de Santurce and Tiburones de Aguadilla joined the teams in the 1939–40 season. On January 8,1939, Humacao and San Juan played an 18-inning game that lasted four hours, in 1939–40, Perucho Cepeda, the defending batting champion, won the leagues batting title over Josh Gibson, who managed to win it the following season. The Criollos de Caguas won their firs championship in 1940–41, defeating the Cangrejeros in the final series, Santurces Luis Cabrera was the last player to win the LBSPR Most Valuable Player award. On September 14,1941, Rafael Delgado Márquez proposed that the league was renamed to Liga de Béisbol Profesional de Puerto Rico, a format of vueltas was adopted since the leagues creation, where the winners of each vuelta facing each other for the championship. However, Ponce managed to win three consecutive championships without having to participate in a final by winning both vueltas, consequently, the fans of teams that were mathematically eliminated by this format lost interest in the tournamentPuerto Rican Professional Baseball League – Logo of the first Interleague Series between the PRBL and the LBPRD
50. Colombia – Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and then the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has also influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been foundColombia – San Agustín Archaeological Park
51. Francisco Coimbre – Francisco Pancho Coimbre Atiles, more commonly known as Pancho Coimbre, was a Puerto Rican professional baseball player. He was born in the municipality of Coamo and moved to Ponce early in his life and it was in Ponce where he would begin to actively participate in sports, both in sprinting and baseball. Coimbre played thirteen seasons in the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League, during this period the team won five league championships. He finished his career with an average of.337, and had an average of 2.2 strikeouts per season, Coimbre also won two LBPPR batting titles and the leagues Most Valuable Player Award in 1943. Coimbre traveled to New York City, after completing his first professional season in Puerto Rico and he was contracted by the New York Cubans, while playing with the Porto Rico Stars. He joined the NY Cubans and played several seasons for them, Coimbres batting average remained over the.300 mark, including two seasons where he batted over.400. He also played with teams established in Colombia, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, following his retirement Coimbre worked as a coach and manager of teams in both the professional and amateur leagues of Puerto Rico. Coimbre, who was eighty years old, died because he was unable to escape the flames of a building in which he lived. Francisco Coimbre was born in Coamo, Puerto Rico, to Guillermo Coimbre, upon his birth, he was inscribed as a resident of Arroyo in his birth certificate, following a common practice at the time. In 1922, he moved to Ponce along his mother, in order to live closer to his sister, there he began playing baseball under the training and supervision of Miguel Caratini and Antonio Gordan, two hall of famers in the local league. His first accomplishments in sports where in track and field, where he competed in the 50-yard dash and he continued practicing this sport while attending high school. This event led to a case which marked the first time in Puerto Rico that a court hearing was scheduled for a case involving sports. Judge Roberto Tood Jr. determined that the evidence against Coimbre was insufficient during the hearing, in high school, Coimbre played in a school league in the positions of pitcher and second baseman. His incursion in organized baseball came about when he was recommended by a member of the Leones de Ponce, the Leones de Ponce was the local team of the Puerto Rican amateur league who was to play in a series against the San Juan Athletics. During that season the team needed additional players and he was selected by the teams owner and he debuted in a game that took place in Ponce, where he was given the position of right fielder and he had four hits in five at bats. He continued in the team and in 1928 participated in a series between his team and the team of Guayama, where Ponce won on six games. In the last game of this series Coimbre pitched and won with a score of 5–3. Coimbres first performance outside Puerto Rico was in the Dominican Republic and he was accompanied by several Puerto Rican players during this stayFrancisco Coimbre – Francisco "Pancho" Coimbre Atiles
52. History of Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 430 BC and 1000 AD, at the time of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. The Taíno peoples numbers went dangerously low during the half of the 16th century because of new infectious diseases carried by Europeans, exploitation by Spanish settlers. Located in the northeastern Caribbean, Puerto Rico formed a key part of the Spanish Empire from the years of the exploration, conquest. The island was a military post during many wars between Spain and other European powers for control of the region in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The smallest of the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico was a stepping-stone in the passage from Europe to Cuba, Mexico, Central America, and the northern territories of South America. Free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown, in 1898, during the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded and subsequently became a possession of the United States. The first years of the 20th century were marked by the struggle to obtain greater democratic rights from the United States, However, the political status of Puerto Rico, a Commonwealth controlled by the United States, remains an anomaly. The settlement of Puerto Rico began with the establishment of the Ortoiroid culture from the Orinoco region in South America, some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back 4000 years. An archeological dig at the island of Vieques in 1990 found the remains of what is believed to be an Ortoiroid man which was dated to around 2000 BC. The Ortoiroid were displaced by the Saladoid, a culture from the region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BC. Between the seventh and 11th centuries, the Arawak are thought to have settled the island, during this time the Taíno culture developed, and by approximately 1000 AD, it had become dominant. Taíno culture has been traced to the village of Saladero at the basin of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, at the time of Columbus arrival, an estimated 30 to 60 thousand Taíno Amerindians, led by the cacique Agüeybaná, inhabited the island. They called it Borinquenthe great land of the valiant and noble Lord, the natives lived in small villages led by a cacique and subsisted on hunting, fishing and gathering of indigenous cassava root and fruit. When the Spaniards arrived in 1493, the Taíno were already in conflict with the raiding Carib, the Taíno domination of the island was nearing its end, and the Spanish arrival marked the beginning of their extinction. Their culture, however, remains part of that of contemporary Puerto Rico, musical instruments such as maracas and güiro, the hammock, and words such as Mayagüez, Arecibo, iguana, Caguas and huracán are examples of the legacy left by the Taíno. On September 24,1493, Christopher Columbus set sail on his voyage with 17 ships and 1,200 to 1,500 soldiers from Cádiz. On November 19,1493 he landed on the island, naming it San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist, Ponce de Leon was actively involved in the Higuey massacre of 1503 in Puerto RicoHistory of Puerto Rico – Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886)
53. African immigration to Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Ricans of African descent begins with free African men, known as libertos, who accompanied the Spanish Conquistadors in the invasion of the island. The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as a result of new infectious diseases, spains royal government needed laborers and began to rely on slavery to staff their mining and fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans, when the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown no longer considered the island to be a high colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels, the Spaniards encouraged free people of color from British and French possessions in the Caribbean to emigrate to Puerto Rico, to provide a population base to support the Puerto Rican garrison. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to earn or buy their freedom, however, the expansion of sugar cane plantations drove up demand for labor and the slave population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising against Spanish colonial rule in what is known as the Grito de Lares, on March 22,1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, art, language, when Ponce de León and the Spaniards arrived on the island of Borikén, they were greeted by the Cacique Agüeybaná, the supreme leader of the peaceful Taíno tribes on the island. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between the Taíno and the Spaniards, according to historian Ricardo Alegria, in 1509 Juan Garrido was the first free black man to set foot on the island, he was a conquistador who was part of Juan Ponce de Leóns entourage. Garrido was born on the West African coast, the son of an African king, in 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore Puerto Rico and prospect for gold. In 1511, he fought under Ponce de León to repress the Carib and the Taíno, Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Another free black man who accompanied de León was Pedro Mejías, Mejías married a Taíno woman chief, by the name of Yuisa. Yuisa was baptized as Catholic so that she could marry Mejías and she was given the Christian name of Luisa The peace between the Spanish and the Taíno was short-lived. The Spanish took advantage of the Taínos good faith and enslaved them, forcing them to work in the gold mines, many Taíno died, particularly due to epidemics of smallpox, to which they had no immunity. Other Taínos committed suicide or left the island after the failed Taíno revolt of 1511, friar Bartolomé de las Casas, who had accompanied Ponce de León, was outraged at the Spanish treatment of the Taíno. In 1512 he protested at the council of Burgos at the Spanish Court and he fought for the freedom of the natives and was able to secure their rights. The Spanish colonists, fearing the loss of their labor force and they complained that they needed manpower to work in the mines, build forts, and supply labor for the thriving sugar cane plantations. As an alternative, Las Casas suggested the importation and use of African slaves, in 1517, the Spanish Crown permitted its subjects to import twelve slaves each, thereby beginning the slave trade in their coloniesAfrican immigration to Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
54. Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico – Large-scale Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean began during the 19th century. Chinese immigrants had to face different obstacles that prohibited or restricted their entry in Puerto Rico, when Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony, the Spanish government did not encourage settlers of non-Hispanic origin. By the 19th century, the Spanish Crown had lost most of its possessions in the Americas, two of its remaining possessions were Puerto Rico and Cuba, which were demanding more autonomy and had pro-independence movements. The Spanish Crown issued the Royal Decree of Graces which was originated August 10,1815, the Spanish government, believing that the independence movements would lose their popularity, granted land and initially gave settlers Letters of Domicile. The decree applied only to the people of Europe, since it was expected that the settlers would swear loyalty to the Spanish Crown and these restrictions were lifted in the latter part of the century. During the latter part of the 19th century, Spain and the rest of the Americas became industrialized and were in need of manpower to fulfill their workforces, poor and uneducated men, driven by war and starvation, made their way from China to the Americas as laborers. A large number of unskilled workers were sold in what became known as the coolie trade. Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic were the last stop for many of the coolies before reaching their final destinations, many of these Chinese immigrants stayed in Puerto Rico and the other two Caribbean countries. When the United States enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act on May 6,1882, many Chinese in the United States fled to Puerto Rico, Cuba and they established small niches and worked in restaurants and laundries. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law which implemented the suspension of Chinese immigration, after the Spanish–American War, Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States under the conditions established by the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Chinese workers in the United States were allowed to travel to Puerto Rico, some worked in the islands sugar industry, but most worked in re-building Puerto Ricos infrastructure and rail systems. Many of the workers in Puerto Rico decided to settle permanently in the island. S and they believed that Chinese agents were preparing to flood Puerto Rico with Chinese from other countries, who would eventually move on into the United States later. The Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed by the 1943 Magnuson Act, in 1959, thousands of business-minded Chinese fled Cuba, after the success of the Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro. One of the results of the communist revolution was that the state took over private property, most of the Cuban Chinese fled overseas and, among the places where many of them settled, were Puerto Rico, Miami and New York City. Chinese Puerto Ricans are involved in operating Chinese restaurants, and others work in other sectors, many members of Puerto Ricos Chinese minority have integrated both Puerto Rican and Chinese cultures into their daily lives. Some Chinese have intermarried with Puerto Ricans and many of todays Chinese-Puerto Ricans have Hispanic surnames and are of mixed Chinese and Puerto Rican descent, various businesses are named Los Chinos and a valley in Maunabo, Puerto Rico is called Quebrada Los Chinos. The Padmasambhava Buddhist Center, whose followers practice Tibetan Buddhism, has a branch in Puerto Rico, Los Chinos de Ponce, formally Kings Cream, is an ice cream store whose owners are descendants of Chinese immigrants who arrived in Puerto Rico via Cuba in the early 1960s. The ice cream parlor, which is in front of the square, Plaza Las Delicias, opposite the historic Parque de BombasChinese immigration to Puerto Rico – Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
55. Irish immigration to Puerto Rico – From the 16th to the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. During the 18th century many men such as Field Marshal Alejandro OReilly and this led to an influx of additional Irish immigration to the island by family members brought to the Island by these Irish serving in the Islands Spanish colonial armies. Almost all of those who fled the Island temporarily during this expulsion, survived the witch hunt created by Castro, many of these Irish settlers were instrumental in the development of the islands hugely successful sugar industry which was vital to the islands growing economy. After Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by Spain as a consequence of the Spanish–American War in 1898, many U. S. The Irish influence in Puerto Rico is not limited to their contributions to the agricultural industry, they have also influenced the fields of education, sciences. Since the early 16th Century, the Irish, who were predominantly Catholics were suffering horrific injustices at the hands of their English overlords and authorities who were Protestant. William Stanley, An English Catholic, was given a commission by Queen Elizabeth I to organize an Irish regiment of solely native Irish soldiers. This was intended to get rid of Irish men who the English authorities wanted out of Ireland and these Irishmen were sent to fight as mercenaries on behalf of England in support of the Dutch United Provinces. However, in 1585, motivated by factors and bribes offered by the Spaniards, Stanley defected to the Spanish side. These Irishmen who fled the English Army to join the armies of other nations came to be known as Wild Geese. In 1765, the King of Spain, Carlos III sent Field Marshal Alejandro OReilly to Puerto Rico, some of OReillys other recommendations resulted in a massive 20-year program of revamping San Felipe del Morro Castle in San Juan, now a World Heritage Site. The training which he instituted was to bring fame and glory to the Puerto Rican militias 30 years later during the English invasions of Puerto Rico in 1797, OReillys civilian militias had become known as the Disciplined Militia. OReilly was later appointed governor of colonial Louisiana in 1769 where he became known as Bloody OReilly, later he was granted land in the vicinity of Guaynabo and ODaly developed it into a thriving sugar hacienda. ODaly and another fellow Irishman Miguel Kirwan became business partners in the Hacienda San Patricio, the plantation no longer exists, however the land in which the plantation was located is now a suburb called San Patricio with a shopping mall San Patricio Plaza. Easily, he joined an growing and thriving embryonic Irish immigrant community in Puerto Rico that would come to be associated with the growth of commercial agriculture, upon his untimely death in 1781, his brother Jaime took over the property and helped raise Tomás children. Jaime ODaly was named Director of the Real Fabrica de Tabaco in Puerto Rico by the Spanish Crown, Jaime ODaly became a successful sugar and tobacco planter. His nephews, Julio and Arturo ONeill, moved to Puerto Rico in 1783 with their slaves and plantation equipment and were followed by Tomás Armstrong, another Irishman. ODaly s connections with the non-Hispanic Caribbean and European nations helped him economically, however, in 1787, the Spanish Crown appointed him director of the Royal Tobacco FactoryIrish immigration to Puerto Rico – Cayetano Coll y Toste • Rafael O'Ferrall • Kenneth McClintock
56. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii – Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began when Puerto Ricos sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a shortage in sugar and a huge demand for the product from Hawaii. Hawaiian sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit the jobless, but experienced, in the 19th century Puerto Rico depended mainly on its agricultural economy. The island together with Cuba was the Spanish Crowns leading exporter of sugar, coffee, tobacco, cheap labor was provided by Puerto Ricans who depended on the nations agriculture as their only source of income. On August 8,1899, Hurricane San Ciriaco, with winds of over 100 miles per hour, struck Puerto Rico and, on August 22, another hurricane followed. The floods caused by 28 days of rain damaged the agricultural industry and left 3,400 dead and thousands of people without shelter. As a result, there was a shortage of sugar from the caribbean in the world market, to meet the demand, plantation owners began a campaign to recruit the jobless laborers in Puerto Rico. On November 22,1900, the first group of Puerto Ricans consisting of 56 men, began their journey to Maui. The trip was long and unpleasant and they first set sail from San Juan harbor to New Orleans, Louisiana. Once in New Orleans, they were boarded on a train and sent to Port Los Angeles. From there they set sail aboard the Rio de Janeiro to Hawaii, according to the Los Angeles Times dated December 26,1901, the Puerto Ricans were mistreated and starved by the shippers and the railroad company. They arrived in Honolulu, on December 23,1900, and were sent to work in one of the different plantations owned by the Big Five on Hawaiis four islands. By October 17,1901,5,000 Puerto Rican men, women and children had made their new homes on the four islands. Records show that, in 1902,34 plantations had 1,773 Puerto Ricans on their payrolls,1,734 worked as field hands and another 39 were clerks or overseers. The Big Five was the given to a group of sugarcane corporations that wielded considerable political power in the Territory of Hawai‘i. The Big Five was Castle & Cooke, Alexander & Baldwin, amfac and Theo H. Davies & Co. The owners of the Big Five were Euro-Americans who would indulge in discrimination and they had an association called the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association whose power could be considered as equivalent to an oligarchy. Wages and living accommodations depended upon their job and race, europeans were paid more and received better quartersPuerto Rican immigration to Hawaii – Puerto Rico Hawaii
57. Constitution of Puerto Rico – The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is the controlling government document of Puerto Rico. It is composed of nine articles detailing the structure of the government as well as the function of several of its institutions, the document also contains an extensive and specific Bill of Rights. Since Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States, the Puerto Rico Constitution is bound to adhere to the postulates of the U. S, Constitution due to the Supremacy Clause, and of relevant Federal legislation due to the Territorial Clause. It was ratified by Puerto Ricos electorate in a referendum on March 3,1952, July 25, which had been an official holiday in Puerto Rico commemorating the invasion of United States troops in Puerto Rico on July 25,1898, is now known as Constitution Day. It was ratified by Puerto Ricos electorate in a referendum on March 3,1952, the United States Congress and the President approved it by Pub. L. 327, enacted July 3,1952, requiring that the Bill of Rights Section 20 be stricken, on July 10,1952 the Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico reconvened and approved a resolution accepting the conditions established by Pub. L. 82–447, which were ratified in a referendum held in November,1952. On July 25,1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the constitution was in effect, in a speech on July 25,2013, Governor Alejandro García Padilla, despite the conditions established in Pub. L. 82-447, proclaimed that, henceforth, Sec.20 would be deemed by his administration to be in effect, the United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution by Pub. L. The Constitutional Assembly met for a period of months between 1951 and 1952 in which the document was written. The framers had to only two basic requirements established under Pub. L. The first was the document must establish a form of government for the island. The second was the inclusion of a Bill of Rights, the constitution was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 82% of the voters in a popular referendum and ratified by the United States Congress with a few amendments. The United States maintains ultimate sovereignty over Puerto Rico while giving Puerto Ricans a high degree of autonomy, under this Constitution, Puerto Rico officially identifies as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. A continuing debate has dealt with the status of Puerto Rico under the Federal Government of the United States. Certain decisions by the Supreme Court of the United States appeared to have interpreted the Territorial Clause of the United States Constitution as still controlling over Puerto Rico, under this clause, the United States Congress is the recognized sovereign of the island. However on June 9,2016, as an outcome of the known as Puerto Rico v. Sanchez Valle. The Supreme Court ruling stated that, at least in the related to criminal offensesConstitution of Puerto Rico – Exhibition of the Constitution at the Capitol of Puerto Rico
58. Government of Puerto Rico – The Government of Puerto Rico is a republican form of government with separation of powers, subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States. Article I of the Constitution of Puerto Rico defines the government and its political power, said law mandated the establishment of a local constitution due to Puerto Ricos political status as a commonwealth of the United States. Ultimately, the powers of the government of Puerto Rico are all delegated by Congress, because of this, the head of state of Puerto Rico is the President of the United States. Structurally, the government is composed of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial branch, the executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Ricky Rosselló, who is also the head of government. The legislative branch consists of a legislature, namely the Legislative Assembly, composed by the Senate as its upper house. The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years, the judicial branch is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, currently Liana Fiol Matta. The legal system is a mix of the law and the common law systems. Members of the branch are appointed by the governor with advice. Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by Spain at the end of the Spanish–American War by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the Foraker Act of 1900 provided for an organization of the civilian government. The Jones–Shafroth Act of 1917 re-organized the government, the United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution by Pub. L. On 4 June 1951 the Puerto Ricans voted to hold a convention in a referendum. The convention adopted a constitution on 6 February 1952 and was ratified by Puerto Ricos electorate in a referendum on March 3,1952, the United States government approved an amended version by Pub. L. 327, enacted July 3,1952, and on July 10,1952 the Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico reconvened and approved the conditions established by Pub. L, on July 25,1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the Constitution of Puerto Rico was in effect. The executive branch is responsible for administering resources, as well as providing all necessary public services to the Puerto Rican general public. It is by far the largest branch in the government as well as the largest employer in Puerto Rico with more than 150,000 workers, the head of government is the Governor of Puerto Rico, who is elected every four years in a general election. The position is similar in nature, responsibility, and power as those of a governor of a U. S. state, the position of Governor has the overall responsibility of the state of the commonwealth, equivalent to the state of the union in the U. S. The official residence of the governor is La Fortaleza, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere, similar to a U. S. State, the Governor has authority over the Puerto Rico National Guard. Puerto Rico does not have a post for lieutenant governor but the Chief of Staff performs a role as the officer charged with managing and overseeing all executive agenciesGovernment of Puerto Rico – The main offices of the Puerto Rico Department of State in front of Plaza de Armas in Old San Juan.
59. Puerto Rican citizenship – Puerto Rican citizenship was first legislated by the United States Congress in Article 7 of the Foraker Act of 1900 and later recognized in the Constitution of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican citizenship existed before the U. S. takeover of the islands of Puerto Rico and its affirmative standing was also recognized before and after the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952. Puerto Rican citizenship was recognized by the United States Congress in the twentieth century. The United States government also continues to recognize a Puerto Rican nationality, Puerto Rican citizenship is also recognized by the Spanish Government, which recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, and not American citizenship. It also grants Spanish citizenship to Puerto Ricans on the basis of their Puerto Rican, not American, on November 18,1997, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, through its ruling in Miriam J. Ramirez de Ferrer v. On April 12,1900, the United States Congress enacted the Foraker Act of 1900, Section VII of this act created a Puerto Rican citizenship for the residents born in Puerto Rico and, therefore, subject to its jurisdiction. The Puerto Rican citizenship replaced the Spanish citizenship that Puerto Ricans held at the time of the American invasion in 1898, such Puerto Rican citizenship was granted by Spain in 1897. Are satisfied with our own beloved Porto Rican citizenship, and proud to have been born, the official 1916 Report by the American colonial governor of Puerto Rico to the U. S. The Spanish Government recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican and it also provides Puerto Rican citizens privileges not provided to citizens of several other nations. On March 2,1917, the Jones–Shafroth Act was signed, luis Muñoz Rivera, who participated in the creation of the Jones-Shafroth Act, gave a speech in the U. S. House floor that argued in favor of Puerto Rican citizenship. He declared that if the earth were to swallow the island, but as long as the island existed, the residents preferred Puerto Rican citizenship. The Jones Act allowed locals to renounce the United States citizenship and remain exclusively Puerto Rican citizens, despite these arbitrary limitations,287 residents completed the process to forfeit the statutory recognition. In 1952, upon U. S. Congress approving the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and this was further reaffirmed in 2006 while the U. S. Senate probed into the Presidents Task Force on Puerto Ricos status. In 1994, Puerto Rican activist Juan Mari Brás flew to Venezuela, Mari Brás, through his renunciation of U. S. citizenship, sought to redefine Section VII as a source of law that recognized a Puerto Rican nationality separate from that of the United States. In December 1995, his denaturalization was confirmed by the US State Department, among the arguments that ensued over his action was whether he would now be able to vote in elections in Puerto Rico. In a 2006 memorandum, the Secretary of Justice of Puerto Rico concluded, based on the Mari Brás case, each is distinct from the others, and has citizens of its own who owe it allegiance, and whose rights, within its jurisdiction, it must protect. This is the integral juridical tie between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and their citizens, the court stated that Puerto Rican political community is defined better by the citizenship of Puerto Rico than by US citizenship. That is a fact not subject to historical rectifications and a reality which no law can change, on November 17,1997, Governor Pedro Rosselló signed Law 132 amending Puerto Ricos Political CodePuerto Rican citizenship – Front and back pages of a Certificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship application form as provided by the Puerto Rico State Department in the Summer of 2007.
60. List of political parties in Puerto Rico – This article lists political parties in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico has a hybrid first past the post electoral system, in which a voter can vote by party, to qualify as an official political party, a party must meet the criteria set forth by the Puerto Rico Electoral Law. Principal Party of the Majority - one that obtained the majority of governor candidate votes cast in the general election. As of 2016, Puerto Rico has 4 registered electoral parties, A number of unregistered political parties and these organizations span the entire political spectrum, Movimiento Socialista de Trabajadores - Socialist Revolutionary organization, with strong bases in the trade union and student movement. Bandera Roja - Periodical, in Spanish Hostosian National Independence Movement - - Movimiento Independentista Nacional Hostosiano Pro ELA - In favor of an associated republic status. Libertarian Party of Puerto Rico - Partido Libertario de Puerto Rico - Pro-Libertarianism / Formerly affiliated to the US Libertarian Party United Statehooders - Estadistas Unidos, Socialist Front - An umbrella of socialist organizations. Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Republican Party of Puerto Rico - The Republican Party of Puerto Rico is an affiliate of the national Republican Party in Puerto Rico, Democratic Party of Puerto Rico - The Democratic Party of Puerto Rico is an affiliate of the national Democratic Party in Puerto RicoList of political parties in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
61. Independence movement in Puerto Rico – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, and since 1898, from the United States, a wide variety of groups, movements, political parties, and organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of autonomous, Nationalist, and Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island, during the second half of the 20th century, the independence movement has attracted neither widespread support nor support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a status referendum in 2012,5. 5% voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44% of the votes cast, Independence also received the least support, less than 4. 5% of the vote, in the status referendums in 1967,1993 and 1998. A fourth referendum was held in 2012, with 54% voting to change Puerto Ricos status, the fifth plebiscite is due to be held on June 11,2017. The two options at that time will be Statehood and Independence/Free Association and it will be the first referendum not to offer the choice of retaining the current status as a Commonwealth. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the 16th century and he was joined by Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Agüeybaná IIs people, who were armed only with spears, bows, and arrows, were no match for the guns of the Spanish forces, the revolt ultimately failed, and many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the born, or Criollos. These include the conspiracy at San Germán in 1809, and the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán, many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to create a federation of Latin American nations, to include Puerto Rico, the Spanish occupation forces were the object of more than thirty conspiracies. Some, like the Lares uprising, the riots and sedition of 1897, the most widespread popular revolts, however, were the one in Lares in 1868, and the one in Yauco in 1897. In 1868, the Grito de Lares took place, in which occupied the town of Lares. Ramón Emeterio Betances was the leader of this revolt, earlier, Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Betances had founded the Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances wrote several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish colonial system and these statements were rapidly circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. The critical state of the economy, along with the repression imposed by the Spanish. The stronghold of the movement were located on the mountains of the west of the islandIndependence movement in Puerto Rico – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
62. Geography of Puerto Rico – The geography of Puerto Rico consists of an archipelago located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands. The main island of Puerto Rico is the smallest and most eastern of the Greater Antilles, with an area of 3,515 square miles, it is the third largest island in the United States and the 82nd largest island in the world. Various smaller islands and cays, including Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Desecheo, Mona is uninhabited through large parts of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. The mainland measures some 96 nautical miles by 35 nautical miles and it is mostly mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south regions of the island. Some popular beaches on the north-west side of the island are Jobos Beach, Marias Beach, Domes Beach, the main mountainous range is called La Cordillera Central. The highest elevation point of Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta, is located in this range, another important peak is El Yunque, located in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with a maximum elevation of 3,494 feet. The capital, San Juan, is located on the islands north coast. The archipelago of Puerto Rico is located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands. Located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, Puerto Rico was key to the Spanish Empire since the years of exploration, conquest. The Cordillera Central extends through the island, dividing it into the northern and southern region. The mountain region accounts for approximately 60% of the land area, the archipelago of Culebra, located east of Puerto Rico, north of Vieques, and west of the Virgin Islands, is composed of the main island of Culebra and 28 uninhabited islets. Mainly mountainous, the island of Culebra possesses renowned beaches, located in the tropics, Puerto Rico enjoys an average temperature of 27 °C throughout the year. The seasons do not change very drastically, the temperature in the south is usually a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island. The highest temperature record was in the Town of San German with 105 °F, the dry season spans from November to May while the wet season coincides with the Atlantic hurricane season from June to November. Puerto Rico has lakes and more than 50 rivers, most of these rivers are born in the Cordillera Central, Puerto Ricos principal mountain range located across the center of the island. The rivers in the north of the island are bigger and with higher capacity than those of the south. The south is drier and hotter than the north. These rivers make up 60 watersheds throughout the island, where over 95% of the runoff goes back to sea, as of 1998,239 plants,16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles have been discovered that are endemic to the archipelago of Puerto RicoGeography of Puerto Rico – Satellite photo of Puerto Rico
63. Municipalities of Puerto Rico – The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is led by a mayor and divided into barrios, geographically, a municipality has an urban core that consists of either a town or a city. Urban cores with a population of 50,000 or above are considered cities, for U. S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered county-equivalents. The municipalities are grouped into eight districts, but these do not possess administrative functions. Every municipality is composed of several barrios, except for Florida which has only one barrio, the municipality of Ponce has the largest number of barrios,31. Every municipality also has an area made up of one or more barrios. When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios, Ponces urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. All of San Juans barrios are urban barrios, and the municipality of San Juan is composed of urban barrios only - thus, every municipalitys urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has a zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities urban zones are termed pueblo while others are termed ciudad, the difference resides in the population of the municipality, if the municipality has an urban zone below 50,000 inhabitants, then its urban zone is called a pueblo. If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, the municipalities elect a Mayor and a Municipal Legislature in the general elections every four years. The following is an alphabetical list of the municipalities in Puerto Rico, and their foundation year, population. The following is an alphabetical list of the municipalities and their population together with a breakdown of their racial composition,36 of the 78 municipalities currently experience a budget deficit, putting 46% of the municipalities in financial stress. In total, the combined debt carried by the stands at about $590 million USD. In October 2009, a Puerto Rican legislator proposed a bill that would reduce the current 78 municipalities of Puerto Rico down to 20, the bill called for a referendum to take place on June 13,2010, which would let the people decide on the matter. However, the bill never made into law and it was not the first time that an attempt to consolidate municipalities had failed. In 1902 the Puerto Rico legislature, under pressure from the US. -appointed governor of Puerto Rico, the law was repealed three years later. diariodepuertorico. comMunicipalities of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
64. Puerto Rican dry forests – The Puerto Rican dry forests are a subtropical dry forest ecoregion located in southwestern and eastern Puerto Rico and on the offshore islands. They cover an area of 1,300 km2 and these forests grow in areas receiving less than 1,000 mm of rain annually. Many of the trees are deciduous, losing their leaves during the dry season which lasts from December to July. Dry forests also exist on the adjacent off-shore islands of Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Monito, Desecheo, Caja de Muertos, the vast majority of studies have focused on the south coast - almost nothing has been published about the northeastern dry forest. Studies of the islands have been limited to species lists. Puerto Rican dry forests consist of short-stature, multi-stemmed trees, the canopy is largely evergreen, while the emergent layer is considerably more dry-season deciduous. Guaiacum officinale, Coccoloba venosa, Ceiba pentandra, and Capparis cynophallophora are common trees in dry forests. Dry limestone forest species include Pisonia albida, Guaiacum sanctum, although most of the forest was destroyed for agriculture prior to the 1940s, some patches of forest which pre-date that period still exist. In addition, large areas of secondary forest have grown back on abandoned agricultural land, unlike areas which were only lightly used, these forests on abandoned farmland have far fewer species than do natural forests. Their path to recovery remains uncertain, Puerto Rican dry forests are dominated by plants in the families Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Myrtaceae. In this regard they are similar to Jamaican dry forests, but differ sharply from dry forests on the mainland of South and Central America, the best example of dry forests in Puerto Rico are in the Guánica State Forest outside the town of Guánica. This site has also been the focus of the vast majority of studies of dry forests, archived from the original on 2010-03-08Puerto Rican dry forests – Puerto Rican dry forest on Caja de Muertos, south of Ponce
65. Puerto Rico Trench – The Puerto Rico Trench is located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Scientific studies have concluded that an earthquake occurring along this zone could generate a significant tsunami. The island of Puerto Rico which lies immediately to the south of the fault zone, the Puerto Rico Trench is located at a boundary between two plates that pass each other along a transform boundary with only a small component of subduction. The Caribbean Plate is moving to the east while the North American Plate is moving to the west and this subduction zone explains the presence of active volcanoes over the southeastern part of the Caribbean Sea. Volcanic activity is frequent along the island arc southeast from Puerto Rico to the coast of South America. Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, the Puerto Rico Trench is capable of producing earthquakes greater than magnitude 8.0. Knowledge of the earthquake and tsunami risks has not been widespread among the public of the islands located near the trench. Since 1988, the Puerto Rican Seismic Society has been trying to use the Puerto Rican media to inform people about an earthquake that could result in a catastrophic tragedy. Following the 2004 tsunami that affected more than forty countries in the Indian Ocean, local governments have begun emergency planning. In the case of Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands and it is increasing its seismic investigations and developing tsunami warning systems. On 11 October 1918, the western coast of the island was hit by an earthquake which caused a tsunami. The 1918 earthquake was caused by an old left-lateral strike-slip fault near the Mona Passage, in 1953, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, was affected by the Santo Domingo earthquake. The actual subduction zone has not ruptured in over 200 years, Puerto Rico has always been an area of concern to earthquake experts because, apart from the 1918 episode, there are frequent tremors in and around the island, indicating activity. A1981 tremor was felt across the island, while another in 1985 was felt in the towns of Cayey, the January 13,2014 M6.4 earthquake north of Puerto Rico occurred as a result of oblique-thrust faulting. The location, depth and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with the event occurring on this subduction zone interfacePuerto Rico Trench – Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Lesser Antilles are on the lower left side of the view and Florida is on the upper right. The purple sea floor at the center of the view is the Puerto Rico trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
66. Operation Bootstrap – Operation Bootstrap is the name given to a series of projects which transformed the economy of Puerto Rico into an industrial and developed one. Bootstrap is still considered the model of Puerto Rico as the island has still not been able to evolve into a knowledge economy. The islands traditional economy was based around sugarcane plantations, the Administration of Economic Development invited investment of external capital, importing the raw materials, and exporting the finished products to the mainland. To entice participation, tax exemptions and differential rental rates were offered for industrial facilities, as a result, Puerto Ricos economy shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing and tourism. Through this project, an agricultural society was transformed into an industrial working class. Although initially touted as a miracle, by the 1960s. As living standards and wages in Puerto Rico rose, manpower-intensive industries faced competition from outside the United States, as of 2005 the continental United States remains Puerto Ricos major trading partner, received 86% of Puerto Ricos exports and providing 69% of its imports. United States Department of Agriculture Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc, Puerto Rican Pottery Teodoro Moscoso and Puerto Ricos Operation Bootstrap by A. W. Gainesville, University Press of Florida,1997, ISBN 0-8130-1501-4 Las campañas de control de la natalidad contra las mujeres, by Gloria Arimón en Servir al pueblo, número 233,1984. Economic History of Puerto Rico, Institutional Change and Capitalist Development, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press,1986. The Disenchanted Island, Puerto Rico and the United States in the Twentieth Century, 2ª ed. Westport CT, Praeger,1996. Factories and Food Stamps, The Puerto Rico Model of Development, baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press,1985. Democracy at Work in Rural Puerto Rico A Puerto Rican resource Young Lords in Lincoln ParkOperation Bootstrap – Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
67. United States dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or also accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, there, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more commonUnited States dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
68. Puerto Ricans in the United States – Puerto Ricans, either born in the island or in the states, are American citizens. At 10 percent of the Latino population in the United States, Puerto Ricans are the second largest Latino group nationwide, and comprise 1. 5% of the entire population of the United States. Although the 2010 Census counted the number of Puerto Ricans living in the United States at 4.6 million, more recent estimates show the Puerto Rican population to be over 5 million, as of 2012. The portmanteau Nuyorican refers to Puerto Ricans and their descendants in the New York City metropolitan area, important Puerto Rican institutions have emerged from this long history. ASPIRA was established in New York City in 1961 and is now one of the largest national Latino nonprofit organizations in the United States, the government of Puerto Rico has a long history of involvement with the stateside Puerto Rican community. In July 1930, Puerto Ricos Department of Labor established an employment service in New York City. The Migration Division, also part of Puerto Rico’s Department of Labor, was created in 1948, the strength of stateside Puerto Rican identity is fueled by a number of factors. Since 1898, Puerto Rico has been under the control of the United States, even during Spanish rule, Puerto Ricans settled in the US. However, it was not until the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898 that a significant influx of Puerto Rican workers to the US began, with its 1898 victory, the United States acquired Puerto Rico from Spain and has retained sovereignty since. The 1917 Jones–Shafroth Act made all Puerto Ricans US citizens, freeing them from immigration barriers, the massive migration of Puerto Ricans to the mainland United States was largest in the early and late 20th century, prior to its resurgence in the early 21st century. U. S. political and economic interventions in Puerto Rico created the conditions for emigration, by concentrating wealth in the hands of US corporations, policymakers promoted colonization plans and contract labour programs to reduce the population. US employers, often with government support, recruited Puerto Ricans as a source of labour to the United States. Puerto Ricans migrated in search of jobs, first to New York City, and later to other cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia. New York City neighborhoods such as East Harlem in Upper Manhattan, the South Bronx, between the 1950s and the 1980s, large numbers of Puerto Ricans migrated to New York, especially to Brooklyn, the Bronx, Spanish Harlem and Loisaida neighborhoods of Manhattan. Labor recruitment was the basis of this particular community, in 1960, the number of stateside Puerto Ricans living in New York City as a whole was 88%, with most living in East Harlem. They helped others settle, find work, and build communities by relying on social networks containing friends, there are significant Puerto Rican communities in all five boroughs. The Puerto Rican population in East Harlem and New York City as a whole remains the poorest among all migrant groups in US cities, as of 1973, about 46. 2% of the Puerto Rican migrants in East Harlem were living below the federal poverty line. The struggle for legal work and affordable housing remains fairly low, New York Citys Puerto Rican community contributed to the creation of hip hop music, and to many forms of Latin music including Boogaloo, Salsa, Latin House, and FreestylePuerto Ricans in the United States – José Ferrer
69. Demographics of Puerto Rico – The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization especially under the Spanish Empire, slavery and economic migration. Sometime between 400 B. C. E. and 100 A. C. E, the Arawak group of Amerindians inhabited Puerto Rico. The Arawak no longer lived on the island, perhaps because they had integrated with another culture and they called the island, Borikén, which means land of the valiant one, and later, Puerto Ricans called themselves Boricua to embrace their indigenous identity. In the 15th century, the Carib lived on nearby islands, the Spanish conquered the island, assuming government in 1508, colonized it, and assumed hegemony over the natives. The Taíno population dwindled due to disease, tribal warfare, and forced labor, Spanish men arrived on the island disproportionately to Spanish women, African and Taíno women would sometimes marry them, resulting in a mulatto or mixed tri-racial ethnicity. In the late 18th century the number of African slaves began to dwindle on the island, the British ban on slavery resulted in slave raids on Puerto Rico. Many slaves also escaped to neighboring islands, during the 19th century large numbers of immigrants from Spain, as well as numerous Spaniards living in former Spanish colonies in South America, also arrived in Puerto Rico. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico, the first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s. Puerto Ricos economic boom of the 1950s attracted a number of Jewish families from the U. S. mainland. This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century, emigration has been a major part of Puerto Ricos recent history as well. C. This continued even as Puerto Ricos economy improved and its birth rate declined. Structure of the population, The first census by the United States in 1899 reported a population of 953,243 inhabitants,61. 8% of them classified as white,31. 9% as mixed, and 6. 3% as black. A strong European immigration wave and large importation of slaves from Africa helped increase the population of Puerto Rico over sixfold during the 19th century, no major immigration wave occurred during the 20th century. The Naturalization Act of 1870, passed during Reconstruction, allowed for peoples of African descent to become U. S, citizens but it excluded other nonwhites. European Jews and Gypsies, although of Asiatic Ancestry, were not affected by the Asiatic Barred Zone, the Johnson-Reed act of 1924 applied only to the Eastern Hemisphere. The Act imposed immigration quotas on Europe, which allowed for easy immigration from Northern and Western Europe, Africa and Asia were excluded altogether. The Western Hemisphere remained unrestricted to immigrate to the United States, thus under the Immigration Act of 1924 all Hispanics and Caribbeans could immigrate to the United States, but a White family from Poland or Russia could not immigrate. Puerto Rican Citizenship was created under the Foraker Act, Pub. L, 56–191,31 Stat.77 but it wasnt until 1917 that Puerto Ricans were granted full American Citizenship under the Jones–Shafroth Act (Pub. LDemographics of Puerto Rico
70. List of Puerto Rican artists – This is a list of notable people from Puerto Rico which includes people who were born in Puerto Rico, people who are of full or partial Puerto Rican background. The list is divided into categories and, in cases, sub-categories. Some categories such as Actors, actresses, comedians and directors are relative since a subject who is a comedian may also be an actor or director. In some cases a subject may be notable in more than one field, such as Luis A. Ferré, however, the custom is to place the subjects name under the category for which he/she is most noted. Herger, television host, psychologist Daisy Martinez, host of PBS cooking show Daisy Cooks. and ¡Parriba, Papi, giannina Braschi, a National Endowment for the Arts Fellow, author of the bestselling Spanglish classic Yo-Yo Boing. k. a. k. a. Clara Lair, poet whose work dealt with the struggles of the common Puerto Rican O Judith Ortiz Cofer, poet, writer and essayist, in 1994. Z Manuel Zeno Gandía, writer, wrote La Charca, the first Puerto Rican novel, President and founder of Ramirez and Co. Puerto Ricos largest brewery Salvador Vassallo, founder of Vassallo Industries Inc. Navy bombing zones after the 1999 death of Puerto Rican civilian and Vieques native David Sanes, who was killed during a U. S. Naval bombing exercise. Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, civil rights activist, pioneer in black history who, elías Beauchamp, Political activist and nationalist who in 1936, assassinated Elisha Francis Riggs, the United States appointed police chief of Puerto Rico. Beauchamp is considered a hero by the members of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement, blanca Canales, political activist, nationalist leader who led the Jayuya Uprising in 1950 against US colonial rule of Puerto Rico. Truman Rosa Collazo a. k. a Rosa Cortéz Collazo, political activist and he was one of the four members of a group of nationalists, who proceeded to attack the United States House of Representatives in 1954. Irvin Flores, political activist, Nationalist leader and activist and he was one of the four members of a group of nationalists, who proceeded to attack the United States House of Representatives in 1954. Lolita Lebrón, political activist, Nationalist leader and activist, the leader of a group of nationalists, Rosado and his comrade Beauchamp are considered heroes by the members of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement. Isabel Rosado, political activist, imprisoned multiple times, a Mary Ann Acevedo Rivera, singer, songwriter Juan F. k. a. Jellybean Benítez, music producer and remixer Lucecita Benítez, a. k. a. k. a. k. a. k. a. S. Reality series The Voice Willie Colón, salsa composer César Concepción, orchestra leader Ernesto Cordero, composer, El Father, reggaeton singer Rafael José Díaz, a. k. a. k. a. k. a. Chencho, singer, producer Carmita Jiménez, a. k. a. k. a, prince Markie Dee, rapper, producer Noro Morales, pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader Carli Muñoz, pianist, composer, arranger, bandleader, producer. Rafael Muñoz, orchestra leader Luis Miguel, a. k. a. sol de Mexico, shalim, singer, actor Pedro Ortiz Davila, a. k. a. k. aList of Puerto Rican artists
71. Casals Festival – The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals. The festival was founded in 1956 by Pablo Casals and it was promoted by Teodoro Moscoso and David Ogilvy with the objectives of changing the image of Puerto Rico and promoting tourism to the island during off-peak tourism time. After implementing Operation Bootstrap, Teodoro Moscoso employed advertiser David Ogilvy to propagate the image of a people engaged in a cultural renaissance. Teodoro Moscosos decisive actions at critical junctures and his personal persuasiveness, as with Pablo Casals, Pablo Casals, was born in Spain to a Puerto Rican mother Pilar Defilló. He was a player and a supporter of the Spanish Republican Government. Casals went to live in the French village of Prades, there he established the Prades Festival. Casals visited Puerto Rico in 1955 and in 1956 In 1956 and he was scheduled to inaugurate the festival which bears his name. The inauguration of the festival was held in the University of Puerto Rico Theater, Casals, who was supposed to perform Suite Number 3 in C major, for solo cello by Johann Sebastian Bach, fell ill and suffered a heart attack during the rehearsals. Even though Casals was hospitalized, the event went on as scheduled with the performance of pianist Rudolf Serkin, when the festival first started, the majority of the musicians contracted by the festival orchestra for the event came from the United States. Some of the exceptions to this practice were Jesus Maria Sanroma, Henry Hutchinson Sr. Fernando Valenti and Narciso Figueroa, by 1970, the majority of the members of the festivals orchestra were Puerto Ricans. Pablo Casals died on October 22,1973 and his widow Marta Casals who was the president of the musical committee and Co‑Chairman of the Board and Music Director until 1979, undertook to continue the annual event. The festival has now taken on a new dimension with the appointment of pianist and scholar Elías López-Sobá and bass/baritone Justino Díaz as artistic and these two Puerto Rican artists have continued to follow the legacy of Pablo and Marta Casals, attracting many musicians for a series of concerts. The Prades Festival established by Casals in France in 1950 was renamed the Pablo Casals Festival in 1982, list of artists who have participated in the Casals Festival Official Web SiteCasals Festival – Pablo Casals, 1922
72. Puerto Rican cuisine – Puerto Rican Cuisine has its root in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe, Africa and the native Taínos. Starting from the part of the 19th century, the cuisine of Puerto Rico has been greatly influenced by the United States in the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rican cuisine has transcended the boundaries of the island and also has a lot of Asian influence especially Japanese and Chinese, Puerto Rican cuisine has been influenced by an array of cultures including the Taino Arawak, Spanish, African and their current colonizers, The United States. Although Puerto Rican cooking is similar to both Spanish and other Latin American cuisine, it is a unique tasty blend of influences, using indigenous seasonings. Locals call their cuisine cocina criolla, by the end of the nineteenth century, the traditional Puerto Rican cuisine was well established. By 1848 the first restaurant, La Mallorquina, opened in Old San Juan, El Cocinero Puertorriqueño, the islands first cookbook, was published in 1849. On November 1,2004 a book titled Puerto Rico, Grand Cuisine of the Caribbean, was released in Spanish and English, the cookbook is a dedication to Puerto Ricos rich gastronomic and chefs sharing old and new recipes. The book features not only native Puerto Rican chefs but chefs from all over who have influenced by Puerto Ricos cuisine calling it the gastronomic capital of the Caribbean. See, Native American cuisine From the diet of the Taíno and Arawak people come many tropical roots and tubers like malanga and especially Yuca, from which thin cracker-like casabe bread is made. The Taínos also grew varieties of beans and some maíz, and this is due to the frequent hurricanes that Puerto Rico experiences, which destroy crops of maíz, allowing more safeguarded plants like yuca conucos to flourish. Maíz when used was made into cornmeal and then into guanime, cornmeal mixed with mashed yautía and yuca. See, Spanish Cuisine Spanish / European influence is prominent in Puerto Rican cuisine. Wheat, chickpeas, black pepper, onions, garlic, cilantro, basil, sugarcane, citrus fruit, grapes, eggplant, lard, chicken, beef, pork, lamb, goat and dairy all came to Borikén from Spain. The tradition of cooking complex stews and rice dishes in pots such as rice, olives, capers, and olive oil play a big part in Puerto Rican cooking, but cannot be grown under the tropical climate of the island. The island imported most of these foods from Spain along with some herbs, early Dutch, French, Italian, and Chinese immigrants influenced not only the culture but Puerto Rican cooking as well. This great variety of traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla, African slaves also introduced the deep-frying of food. The most significant influence has to do with how people fry food, the early Spaniards brought olive oil for cooking and frying, but importing it from Spain made it very expensive, and cooks on the island shifted over to lard, which could be produced locally. For 50 to 60 years, corn oil produced in the United States took the place of lard for making cuchifritosPuerto Rican cuisine – Cocina Criolla can be traced back to African, Taino and Spanish inhabitants of the island.
73. Puerto Rican literature – Puerto Rican literature evolved from the art of oral story telling to its present-day status. Written works by the islanders of Puerto Rico were prohibited and repressed by the Spanish colonial government. Only those who were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the history of the island were allowed to write. It wasnt until the late 19th century with the arrival of the first printing press, the first writers to express their political views in regard to Spanish colonial rule of the island were journalists. With the Puerto Rican diaspora of the 1940s, Puerto Rican literature was influenced by a phenomenon known as the Nuyorican Movement. Puerto Rican literature continued to flourish and many Puerto Ricans have distinguished themselves as authors, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists, the influence of Puerto Rican literature has transcended the boundaries of the island to the United States and the rest of the world. Puerto Rican literature got off to a late start, therefore, written works by the native islanders were prohibited and were punishable by prison terms or banishment. The island, which depended on an economy, had an illiteracy rate of over 80% in the beginning of the 19th century. Even though the first library in Puerto Rico was established in 1642, in the Convent of San Francisco, the only people who had access to the libraries and who could afford books were either appointed Spanish government officials or wealthy land owners. The poor had to resort to oral story-telling in what are known in Puerto Rico as Coplas and Decimas. The islands first writers were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the history of the island. The first native-born Puerto Rican governor, Ponce de León II, included information on Taíno culture, particularly their religious ceremonies and he also covered the early exploits of the conquistadors. These documents were sent to the National Archives in Sevilla, Spain, Puerto Rican history, however, was to change forever with the arrival of the first printing press from Mexico in 1806. That same year Juan Rodríguez Calderón wrote and published the first book in the island, in 1851, the Spanish appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Juan de la Pezuela Cevallo, founded the Royal Academy of Belles Letters. This institution contributed greatly to the intellectual and literary progress of the island, the school licensed primary school teachers, formulated school methods, and held literary contests. However, only those with government positions and the wealthy benefited from the formation of the institution, the first Puerto Rican writers came from some of the islands wealthiest families, and they were critical of the injustices of the Spanish Crown. In 1806, the Spanish Colonial Government established La Gaceta de Puerto Rico, the newspaper was biased as to the ideals of the government. The first written works in Puerto Rico were influenced by the Romanticism of the time, Journalists were the first writers to express their political views in the newspapers of the day and later in the books which they authoredPuerto Rican literature – First row: Alejandro Tapia y Rivera • Alejandrina Benitez de Gautier José Gautier Benítez Second row: Eugenio María de Hostos • Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira Teresita A. Levy
74. List of birds of Vieques – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. Vieques is a municipality of Puerto Rico located off the east coast of the main island of Puerto Rico, south of Culebra island. It has an area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is land area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques, some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but are, nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list and this list presents the following information for each species, common and scientific name of each species, preferred habitat, breeding status in Vieques and frequency of occurrence for each season. Tags are used to describe this information for each species and this lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, introduced, stray and extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat, thorn scrub Inhabited areas Mangrove lagoons Dry forest Shoreline Moist forest The following tags have been used to describe the breeding status of each species in Vieques. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order, Podicipediformes Family and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, Order, Phaethontiformes Family, Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head, Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Vieques. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, Order, Suliformes Family, Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings, the males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface, having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Pelecanidae Pelicans are very large birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbillsList of birds of Vieques – Vieques Island from the air
75. Puerto Rican crested anole – The Puerto Rican crested anole is the nominate subspecies of a species of anole belonging to the Polychrotidae family of reptiles. This lizard is found throughout Puerto Rico and has introduced into eastern Hispaniola, Dominica. Another subspecies, Anolis cristatellus wileyae, is found on islands off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico, such as Culebra and Vieques and these lizards typically spend their time perched on tree trunks, coming to the ground to forage for insects and fruit. Coloration may vary significantly from a brownish-red to a black or a very light gray. They are often referred to as chameleons because of their ability to slightly change color. They have a crest along the tail, probably serving as means for males to demonstrate dominance in a contest for a female, the male has a bright yellow-orange dewlap which is also used in determining dominance when attempting to control territory. They are usually 5-8 inches in length, but can grow up to 10 inches. When looking for a mate or defending its territory, this anole will display its dewlap, males aggressively defend territories when mating, but only rarely does this result in physical combat. As a defense against predators, they autotomize their tails, the Puerto Rican crested anole is found throughout Puerto Rico, excepting some of the mountainous regions of the island. They are also found on offshore islands of Puerto Rico. Anoles have been introduced into southern Florida and eastern Dominican Republic and they are sold globally in the pet trade. Anoles mainly eat spiders and small invertebrates, but will eat fruit on the ground. They will sometimes eat other anoles, due to territorial disputes or food scarcity. List of amphibians and reptiles of Puerto Rico List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico List of Anolis lizards Kingsnake. com CaribHerp. netPuerto Rican crested anole – Puerto Rican crested anole
76. Mona ground iguana – The Mona ground iguana is a subspecies of the rhinoceros iguana. It is endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico and is the largest native terrestrial lizard in Puerto Rico, the Mona ground iguana is a subspecies of rhinoceros iguana belonging to the genus Cyclura. It was named by Thomas Barbour and G. K, noble as a species in 1916. In 1937, Barbour considered it to be a subspecies of Cyclura cornuta and its generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek cyclos meaning circular and ourá meaning tail, after the thick-ringed tail characteristic of all Cyclura. The Mona ground iguanas specific name, cornuta, is the form of the Latin adjective cornutus, meaning horned. Its subspecific name, stejnegeri honors Leonhard Hess Stejneger, who, debate continues as to whether this is a valid subspecies and not a different species in its own right. It is known in scientific circles as Cyclura stejnegeri. Still, others consider it a variant of the parent species. The Mona ground iguana is a large-bodied, heavy-headed lizard with strong legs, a crest of pointed, horned scales extends from the nape of the neck to the tip of the tail. The color is a gray to olive drab with slight brown or blue colorations. Juveniles differ from adults in that they have gray transverse bands across their bodies and these bands last until they are sexually mature at about three years of age. Males possess bony, prominent turbicles on their snouts resembling horns, adipose pads in the form of a helmet on the region of their heads. Mona ground iguanas are diurnal and spend most of the day basking in the sun conserving energy, Mona ground iguanas are endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico. They are scattered through the island, though the Southwest part of the island is only used during the nesting season. They live a considerable portion of their lives underground, and are found in talus slopes, caves. The average depth underground that they can be found is 1.5 metres, the females bury their eggs in the sand and the sunlight incubates the eggs. Males reach sexual maturity at a size of 28–31 cm in length from snout to vent, usually in their third to fourth year, nesting season begins in the second week of June. Usually, one female mates with more than one male in the two weeks the mating season lasts, copulation may last from 15 sec to 2 mins and 15 secMona ground iguana – Mona ground iguana
77. Flag of Puerto Rico – The flag of Puerto Rico represents and symbolizes the island of Puerto Rico and its people. Ramón Emeterio Betances and embroidered by Mariana Brazos de Oro Bracetti and this flag was used in the short-lived Puerto Rican revolt against Spanish rule in the island, known as El Grito de Lares. The use and display of the Puerto Rican flag was outlawed and the only permitted to be flown in Puerto Rico were the Spanish flag. In 1952, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico adopted the flag design. The color of the triangle that was used by the administration of Luis Muñoz Marín was the dark blue, therefore, it is not uncommon to see the flag of Puerto Rico with different shades of blue displayed in the island. Several Puerto Rican flags, with darker shades than sky blue were aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during its flight into space on March 15,2009. The conquistadores under the command of Juan Ponce de León proceeded to conquer and they carried as their military standard the Spanish Expedition Flag. After the island was conquered and colonized, the flag of Spain was used in Puerto Rico, the Spanish Army designed the Cross of Burgundy Flag and adopted it as their standard. This flag flew wherever there was a Spanish military installation, the independence movement in Puerto Rico gained momentum with the liberation successes of Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín in South America. The materials for the flag were provided by Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, the flag was divided in the middle by a white Latin cross, the two lower corners were red and the two upper corners were blue with a white star in the upper left blue corner. The Revolutionary Flag of Lares was used in the rebellion against Spain in what became known as El Grito de Lares. The original Lares flag was taken by a Spanish army officer as a war prize, many years later it was returned and transferred to the Puerto Rican people. It is now exhibited in the University of Puerto Ricos Museum, in 1873, following the abdication of Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, as King and with Spains change from Kingdom to Republic, the Spanish government issued a new colonial flag for Puerto Rico. The new flag, which was used until 1873, resembled the flag of Spain, Juan de Mata Terreforte, a leader of the Grito de Lares revolt who fought alongside Manuel Rojas, was exiled to New York City. He joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee and was named its Vice-President, Terreforte and the members of the Revolutionary committee adopted the Flag of Lares as their standard. In 1892, the Committee was presented with the design of the current flag of Puerto Rico, the new flags design has been attributed to various Puerto Ricans who were members of the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City. Some sources document Francisco Gonzalo Marín with presenting a Puerto Rican flag prototype in 1895 for adoption by the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City, Marín has since been credited by some with the flags design. There is a written by Juan de Mata Terreforte which gives credit to MarinFlag of Puerto Rico – A photograph of the Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
78. Scouting in Puerto Rico – Scouting in Puerto Rico has a long history, from the 1920s to the present day, serving both boys and girls. Troops, Venturing Crews and Sea Scouting units are part of the Boy Scouts of America, several campsites are owned and maintained by these organizations. Puerto Rican Boy Scouting is served by the Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America, the council serves more than 6,200 youth and 3,500 volunteers in more than 300 units. Borikén District, based in Caguas, covers the area of Puerto Rico. Caribe District, based in Ponce, covers the area of Puerto Rico from Yauco to Patillas. Guaitiao District, based in San Juan, covers the area of Puerto Rico. Majagua District, based in Bayamón covers the area of Puerto Rico from Vega Alta to Bayamón. Yagüeka District, based in Mayagüez, covers the area of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is the council of the BSA where the Spanish translation is in primary usage. 1938 marked the inauguration of Guajataka Scout Reservation, Puerto Ricos main camp center and it is located in the municipality of San Sebastian and on the shores of Guajataca Lake, from which the camp takes its name. Since then the camp has evolved and has many changes. Scouts and leaders who visit are lodged in one of the ten campsites and these campsites feature a series of concrete-and-wood cabins that house its campers. The campsites have very simple names, while there are in-campsite cabins, the camps operations are divided into two seasons, Summertime and Christmastime. The main program is presented during the summer, in ten weeks are divided for Cub Scouts, Boy Scouts. The Christmas season runs for a week and summarizes the summers offerings open for both Cub Scouts and Boy Scouts. A short three-to-four-day camp has also offered during Spring Break with a similar program to the one offered during the Christmas camp. The camp also operates off-season for special activities or external groups that wish to experience the outdoor spirit of the reservation. Guajataka is the home of the councils Order of the Arrow Lodge Yokahu 506Scouting in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America