1. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico – It is an archipelago that includes a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra, Vieques. Most populous city is San Juan. Its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The island's population is approximately million. Four centuries of colonial government transformed the island's ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, Canarian, Andalusian settlers. In the imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, but strategic role when compared to wealthier colonies like Perú and Mexico. Following the Spanish -- American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States. However, Congress approved a local constitution, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. The initiative has not resulted as a state. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen -- a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". The terms borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as la isla del encanto meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. The island's name was briefly changed to "Porto Rico" after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
2. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
3. Dominican Republic – The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended to unite with the country of Gran Colombia. However, no longer under Spanish rule, the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country fell again under Spanish colonial rule. The crown was ousted permanently during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916. The country's last, was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966 -- 1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996. The Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51 % of the electoral vote over his ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. GDP growth in 2015 reached the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by tourism.Dominican Republic – The Pomier Caves are a series of 55 caves located north of San Cristobal in the Dominican Republic. They contain the largest collection of 2,000-year-old rock art in the Caribbean.
4. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. The West Indies team continues to represent many of those nations. The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the primary accent with the accent on the second. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, although not all sources agree. Usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system. The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea.Caribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
5. Greater Antilles – The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands. The Lucayan Archipelago is not considered to be a part of the Antilles archipelagoes but rather of the North Atlantic. Cohen, S.; Groene, J.; Werner, L.; Vladimir, U.; Williams, D.; Walter, C.; Hiller, H.L.. Caribbean: The Greater Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas. Explore the world Nelles guide. Nelles Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88618-403-3. 254 pages. University, J.R.P.B.S.S. . Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, Plate Tectonics: Ecology, Evolution, Plate Tectonics. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press, USA. P. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-536191-9.Greater Antilles – Location within the Caribbean.
6. Puerto Rico – It is an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra, Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The island's population is approximately 3.4 million. Four centuries of colonial government transformed the island's ethnic, physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, Canarian, Andalusian settlers. In the imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played when compared to wealthier colonies like Perú and Mexico. Following the Spanish -- American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States. However, Congress approved a local constitution, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. The initiative has not resulted in Puerto Rico's admission as a state. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen -- a derivation of its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord". The terms borincano are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. The island's name was briefly changed after the Treaty of Paris of 1898.Puerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
7. Archipelago – An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands. The archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι -- arkhi - and πέλαγος -- pélagos through the Italian arcipelago. It is now used to refer to any island group or, sometimes, to a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. Archipelagos may be found isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass. For example, Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding its mainland which form an archipelago. Archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along island arcs may also be the result of erosion, deposition, elevation. Depending on their geological origin, islands forming archipelagos can be referred to as'oceanic islands','continental fragments', and'continental islands'. Oceanic islands are mainly of volcanic origin. Continental fragments correspond to land masses that have separated from a continental mass due to tectonic displacement. Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, New Zealand, Maldives, the British Isles, the Bahamas, Greece, New York City are examples of well-known archipelagos. The largest archipelagic state in the world by area and population is Indonesia. Island arc List of landforms List of archipelagos by number of islands List of archipelagos List of islands Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Archipelago". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Archipelago – The Ksamil Archipelago in Albania.
8. Vieques, Puerto Rico – Vieques is part of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, retains strong influences from 400 years of Spanish presence in the island. Vieques lies about 8 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland, measures about 21 miles long by 4 miles wide. Its most populated barrio Isabel Segunda, the administrative center on the northern side of the island. The population of Vieques was 9,301 at the 2010 Census. The island's name is a Spanish spelling of an American Indian word said to mean "small island". It also has the nickname "Isla Nena", usually translated from the Spanish as "Little Girl Island", alluding to its perception as Puerto Rico's little sister. During the colonial period, the British name was "Crab Island". The beaches are commonly listed for white sands. Archaeological evidence suggests that Vieques was first inhabited by Indian peoples who traveled from continental America perhaps between 3000 BC and 2000 BC. However, estimates of these prehistoric dates of inhabitation vary widely. These tribes were probably hunter-gatherers. Excavations at the Puerto Ferro site by Yvonne Narganes uncovered a human skeleton in a large hearth area. Radiocarbon dating of shells found in the hearth indicate a burial date of c.1900 BCE. Their reason for placement are unknown. Further waves of settlement by Native Americans followed over many centuries.Vieques, Puerto Rico – Vieques from the air, looking west
9. Culebra, Puerto Rico – Isla Culebra is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. It is located approximately 17 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland, 12 miles west of St. Thomas and 9 miles north of Vieques. Culebra is spread over 5 wards and the administrative center of the city. Residents of the island are known as Culebrenses. With a population of 1,818 as of the latest census, it is Puerto Rico's least populous municipality. Originally called Isla de San Ildefonso, Culebra is also known as Última Virgen. Some sources claim that Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive at the island during his second voyage in 1493. It is believed that the island was populated by Carib Indians during the colonization. After that, the island was left abandoned for centuries. During the era of Spanish commerce through the Americas, it was used as a refuge for pirates, well as sailors. Some sources mention an Englishman named Stevens, put in charge of Culebra in 1875 by the Spanish crown to protect the island from foreigners. Culebra was then settled by Cayetano Escudero Sanz on October 27, 1880. This first settlement was called to honor the Bishop of San Ildefonso de la Culebra. Two years later, on September 25, 1882, construction of the Culebrita Lighthouse began. In 1902, Culebra was integrated as a part of Vieques.Culebra, Puerto Rico – M4A3E8 Sherman tank at Flamenco Beach.
10. Mona, Puerto Rico – Mona is the third-largest island of the Puerto Rican archipelago, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. It lies 66 west of Puerto Rico, of which it is administratively a part. It is one of two islands that make up the Isla de Mona e Islote Monito Barrio of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. The island is managed as the Mona Island Nature Reserve. Mona Island is believed to have been originally settled by Arawak Indians who arrived from Quisqueya. An archeological excavation during the 1980s discovered many Pre-Columbian objects on the island that helped support historians' theories of the island's first inhabitants. Stone tools found in a rock shelter have been dated to around 3000 BC. Much later the island was settled by the Taínos and remained so until the arrival of the Spanish in the 15th century. As he left Puerto Rico, he reputedly became the European to sight the island on September 1494, claimed for Spain. The Mona derives from the Taíno Ámona, bestowed by the natives in honor of the ruling Cacique or chief of the island. Columbus is in a bay on the northwest corner. He is to sail from there straight across to the north coast of Hispaniola. Why would he sail south to where he has already been and then sail north again to Hispaniola? This is illogical. It was never considered by armchair authors because it is small, barren, of no interest, it is not drawn on most maps."Mona, Puerto Rico – Mona Island Lighthouse
11. Hispaniola – Hispaniola is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles. It is the tenth most populous island in the world. Two sovereign nations share the 76,192-square-kilometre island. The Dominican Republic, at 48,445 km2, is twice as large as its neighbour, Haiti, which comprises 27,750 km2. The only shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, shared between France and the Netherlands. Hispaniola is the site of the first European settlement in the Americas founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493. The island was called by its native people, the Taíno Amerindians. De las Casas both recorded that the island was called Haiti by the Taíno. Later research shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. When d`Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. Only recently has the term Hispaniola come into wide use as a name for the geographic unit. The name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. A contingent of men were left at an outpost christened La Navidad on the coast of present-day Haiti. The island was inhabited by one of the indigenous Arawak peoples. European colonization of the island began in earnest the following year, when 1,300 men arrived under the watch of Bartolomeo Columbus.Hispaniola – View from Hispaniola
12. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
13. Treaty – A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known among other terms. Regardless of terminology, the rules are the same. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to legally bind themselves. Since the 19th century, most treaties have followed a fairly consistent format. A treaty typically begins with a preamble describing their joint objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events. The end of the start of the actual agreement is often signaled by the words "have agreed as follows." After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the parties' actual agreement. Each article heading usually encompasses a paragraph. A long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. The date is typically written in its most longest possible form. The signatures of the parties' representatives follow at the very end. Bilateral treaties are concluded between entities. Each of these treaties has seventeen parties. These however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties.Treaty – The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian
14. Incorporated territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have an organized government through an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa. They are classified as unincorporated territories. They are organised, self-governing territories with locally elected governors and territorial legislatures. Each also elects a non-voting member to the U.S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, with no native or permanent populations. The status of some are disputed by Colombia, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the only territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving. Most territories eventually attained statehood. Other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, through which 31 territories applied for and were granted statehood. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Midway Islands.Incorporated territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
15. Organized territory – Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they have an organized government through an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: American Samoa. They are classified as unincorporated territories. They are organised, self-governing territories with territorial legislatures. Each also elects a non-voting member to the U.S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small islands, reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, with no native or permanent populations. The status of some are disputed by the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the only territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving. Most territories eventually attained statehood. Other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Micronesia, Palau. Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, through which 31 territories were granted statehood. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited: Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Midway Islands.Organized territory – View of San Juan, Puerto Rico
16. United States Congress – The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, only as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative. Each state, regardless of size, has two senators. Currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants some unique powers. The Senate ratifies approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.United States Congress
17. Regiment – A regiment is a military unit. Their size varies markedly, depending on the country and the arm of service. By the 17th century, a full-strength regiment was usually commanded by a colonel. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, battlegroups, task forces, other, similarly-sized operational units. Later, it was customary to recruit from specific places, called cantons. When at full strength, an regiment normally comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8 -- 10 companies. In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment. A cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers, making up a single entity. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up a single entity of up to 1,000 troopers. Usually, the regiment is responsible for administering all of a soldier's military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be administrative units or both. This is often contrasted to the "continental system" adopted by many armies. Officers are transferred in and out of divisions as required. Some regiments usually incorporated the place name into the regimental name.Regiment – The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers on parade in England
18. U.S. Army – The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. The service is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, military thinking influenced the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian tactics and organizational skills. Washington lost a series of battles around New York City in 1776 and Philadelphia in 1777. With the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained army. The War of 1812, last American war against Great Britain was a mixed success. Both sides, the United States and Great Britain, returned to the geographical status quo. Warships, however, were never returned to the nation captured from.U.S. Army – Storming of Redoubt #10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of America.
19. World War I – More than million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. It paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within weeks, the major powers were at the conflict soon spread around the world. On 28 the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia. As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. The Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. Economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. In Canada, Maclean's magazine in October 1914 wrote, "Some wars name themselves.World War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
20. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations -- including all of the great powers -- eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Axis. It directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. In December 1941, Japan quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union invaded Germany and its allies. Thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political social structure of the world. The United Nations was established to prevent future conflicts. The great powers -- the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, France -- became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to create a common identity. This article uses the conventional dating.World War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
21. Korean War – The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. The Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled until the closing days of World War II. U.S. forces subsequently moved into the south. As a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments. Neither side accepted the border as permanent. On that day, the United Nations Security Council called for an immediate ceasefire. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed with the United States providing 88 % of the UN's military personnel. After the first two months of the conflict, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive cut off many of the North Korean troops. In October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive campaign.Korean War – Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division 's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of an American M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
22. Puerto Rican people – Puerto Ricans are the inhabitants or citizens of Puerto Rico. It equate their nationality with citizenship, allegiance and culture. Over 90 % of Puerto Ricans descend from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has also been influenced by Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans. It also gives a total of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773. Freed African slaves were in Puerto Rico. This interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the male conquistadors. All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in surrounding Caribbean islands. In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue, revolted against their French masters. Some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were followed from other European countries and China. During the 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German -- occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s.Puerto Rican people – Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
23. American Revolution – The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting in April 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were then held New York City for the duration of the war. They failed to defeat Washington's forces. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. The lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies. In 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes for the first time.American Revolution – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress
24. Cuba – Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, north of Jamaica. Havana is capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants. Prior to Spanish colonization in the 15th century, Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes. It remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish -- American War of 1898, which led to nominal independence in 1902. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America. Cuba is a Marxist–Leninist one-party republic, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government including arbitrary imprisonment and torture. Its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba is ranked the eighth highest in North America. It also ranks highly in some metrics including health care and education. The name Cuba comes from the Taíno language.Cuba – Hatuey, an early Taíno chief of Cuba.
25. Kingdom of Great Britain – The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain /ɡreɪt ˈbrɪ.tən/, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm. The unitary state was governed by a single government, based in Westminster. The early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended at the Culloden in 1746. On 1 the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. However, the Treaty also refer numerous times to the "United Kingdom" and the longer form, the "United Kingdom of Great Britain". Other publications refer after 1707 as well. Additionally, the term United Kingdom was found during the 18th century to describe the state. Both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws. This disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland. Newly created peers of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords.Kingdom of Great Britain – Lord Clive meeting Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762)
26. 1779 – As of the start of 1779, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 11 – English troops surrender to the Marathas in Wadgaon, India, are forced to return all territories acquired since 1773. January 19 – Ching-Thang Khomba is crowned King of Manipur. The General Assembly also establishes Louisburg to be the county seat of Franklin County. February 14 – Captain James Cook is killed on the Sandwich Islands on his third and last voyage. March 10 – Treaty of Aynalıkavak between Ottoman Turkey and Russian Empire about Crimean Khanate. May 13 – War of the Bavarian Succession: Russian and French mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiate an end to the war. In the agreement Austria relinquishes the rest. June 1 – American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold is court-martialed for malfeasance in his treatment of government property. June 16 – American Revolutionary War: In support of the U.S. Spain declares war on Britain. July 16 – American Revolutionary War: United States forces led by General Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, New York from British troops. July 20 – Tekle Giyorgis I begins the first of his five reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia. July 22 – Battle of Minisink: The Goshen Militia is destroyed by Joseph Brant's forces. July – The Great Siege of Gibraltar starts. This is an action by Spanish forces to wrest control of Gibraltar from the established British garrison.1779 – Benedict Arnold
27. 1786 – As of the start of 1786, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 3 – The third Treaty of Hopewell was signed between the United States of America and the Choctaw. May 1 – Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro premiered in Vienna. May 21 – The trial in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace ended in Paris. June 10 – An earthquake-caused landslide dam on the Dadu River gave way, killing 100,000 in the Sichuan province of China. June 25 – Gavriil Pribylov discovered St. George Island of the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. July 31 – "Kilmarnock volume" of Robert Burns' Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect published in Scotland. August James Rumsey tested his first steamboat at Shepherdstown, Virginia. The Cabinet of Great Britain approved the establishment of a penal colony at Botany Bay in Australia. August 1 – Caroline Herschel discovered a comet. August 8 – Mont Blanc was climbed for the first time by Dr. Michel-Gabriel Paccard and Jacques Balmat. August 17: The paternal nephew of Frederick the Great, Frederick William, became King of Prussia, as Frederick William II. August 18: The Kingdom of Denmark–Norway chartered six settlements in Iceland to trade with it, thus ending the Danish–Icelandic Trade Monopoly and founding Reykjavík. August 29 – Shays' Rebellion began in Massachusetts. September–December – Goethe undertook his Italian Journey.1786 – August 8: Mont Blanc climbed.
28. Iraq – Largest city, is Baghdad. The ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, Kawliya. Around Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish. The Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, write, live in cities under an organised government -- notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian empires. It was also part of Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Mongol, Safavid, Afsharid, Ottoman empires. Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. The Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the Iraqi Republic created.Iraq – Cylinder Seal, Old Babylonian Period, c.1800 BCE, hematite. The king makes an animal offering to Shamash. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar.
29. 1898 – As of the start of 1898, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 1 – New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York as the world's second largest. The city is geographically divided into five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx and Staten Island. February 15 – Spanish–American War: The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor, Cuba, for reasons never fully established, killing 266 men. The event percipitates the United States' declaration of war on Spain two months later. March 26 – The Sabie Game Reserve in South Africa is created, the first officially designated game reserve. April 5 – Annie Oakley promotes the service of women in combat situations with the United States military. In the history of women in the military, there are records of female U.S. April 22 – Spanish–American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship. April 25 – Spanish–American War: The United States declares war on Spain; the U.S. Congress announces that a state of war has existed since April 21. April 25 – In Essen, German company Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk RWE is founded. California, kills 13 workers at the California Powder Works. May 1 – Spanish–American War – Battle of Manila Bay: Commodore Dewey destroys the Spanish squadron. The first battle of the war, as well as the first battle in the Philippines Campaign. May 2 – Thousands of Chinese scholars and Beijing citizens seeking reforms protest in front of the capital control yuan.1898 – February 15: USS Maine is sunk.
30. Hispanic – The term Hispanic broadly refers to the people, nations, cultures that have a historical link to Spain. It commonly applies to countries once colonized by the Spanish Empire in the Americas and Asia, particularly the countries of Latin America and the Philippines. Spanish culture are the main traditions. The term Hispanic derives from the adjectival derivation of Latin Hispania and Hispanus/Hispanos, ultimately probably of Celtiberian origin. In English the word is attested from the 16th century. Spain, Spanish, Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately. Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the Hispano-Roman is sometimes used. The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from different tribes. Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania. Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world and particularly the Americas. Spanish is used to refer of Spain. Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain. Hispania was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Initially, this territory was divided into two provinces: Hispania Ulterior.Hispanic – Pope Francis
31. English language – English is a West Germanic language, first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea. English is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. It is the third most common native language in the world, after Mandarin and Spanish. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. A set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England, was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries. English is an Indo-European language, belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Most closely related to English are the Frisian languages, English and Frisian form the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic. Modern English descends from Middle English, which in turn descends from Old English. English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares new language features with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, Swedish. These shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor, which linguists call Proto-Germanic. Its cognates in Indo-European languages begin with / p /.English language – The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulf, handwritten in half-uncial script: Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."
32. 1956 – January 1 – The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium ends in Sudan. January 3 By popular demand, Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin, is restaged live by Producers' Showcase on NBC-TV. Columbia Records first releases Glenn Gould's solo recording of Bach's Goldberg Variations. January 16 – Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser vows to reconquer Palestine. January 25–26 – Finnish troops reoccupy Porkkala after Soviet troops vacate its military base. Civilians can return February 4. January 26 – The 1956 Winter Olympics open in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. February 11 – British spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean resurface in the Soviet Union after being missing for 5 years. February 14–26 – 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. MacRae and Jones had previously starred in Oklahoma! Carousel, intended for showing in 55mm, ends up being shown only in 35mm. February 22 – Elvis Presley enters the United States music charts for the first time, with "Heartbreak Hotel". February 23 – Norma Jean Mortenson legally changes her name to Marilyn Monroe. February 25 – Nikita Khrushchev attacks the veneration of Josef Stalin in a speech "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences". March 1 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.1956 – A reel of 2-inch quadruplex videotape compared with a modern-day miniDV videocassette.
33. Puerto Rico National Guard – The Puerto Rico National Guard —Spanish: Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico—is the national guard of Puerto Rico. Abroad, its main function is to train a reserve capable of providing additional personnel in a scenario. These forces which preceded by operated similarly to the Minutemen, were involved during the Spanish colonial period. Since its early days, the units stationed in Puerto Rico used a red patch that features a guerite, similar to those at El Morro. After the Spanish–American War in 1898, Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States. US military authorities discussed Puerto Rico's military value. It offered commercial value in expanding commerce among the US, Central and South America. Because of the political changes in the beginning of the 20th century, the military importance of Puerto Rico grew. In San Juan three companies were organized under Federico Vall-Spinosa, Justo Barros, J. del Barril, R. Swigett, J. Doere, F. Fano. Approximately 20,000 troops were trained at Camp Las Casas. Luis Raúl Estevez, thought a Puerto Rican National Guard was needed. As the first Puerto Rican to graduate at West Point, he had learned about military units in other states. He discussed the issue soon after the conclusion of World War I. The National Guard was organized in 1919. In 1938, Luis R. Esteves was appointed as Adjutant General of the Puerto Rican National Guard.Puerto Rico National Guard – Puerto Rican National Guard Engineers in Korea, 60th Infantry Regiment.
34. 65th Infantry Regiment (United States) – The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" from the original Taíno name of the island, is a Puerto Rican regiment of the United States Army. The regiment's motto is Honor et Fidelitas, Latin for Honor and Fidelity. On 30 June 1901, the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry" was organized. On July 1908, Congress incorporated the regiment as the Puerto Rico Regiment of United States Army. On May 14, 1917, the Regiment was activated and additional men were assigned, with the unit being sent to serve at Panama. On June 4, 1920, the Regiment was renamed 65th Infantry. During World War II, the Regiment saw action throughout Europe, especially France and Germany, participating in Naples-Foggia, Rome-Arno and Rhin. On April 13, 2016, the 65th Infantry was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. Puerto Ricans have participated in many of the military conflicts in which the United States has been involved. Puerto Rico became a U.S. Territory after the 1898 Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish–American War. The United States appointed a military governor and soon the United States Army established itself in San Juan. On March 2, 1899, the Army received an assignation of funds and authorization meant to formally organize troops in Puerto Rico. Shortly afterwards, each company received additional men for a total of 112. Major Ebon Swift replaced Davison as commander.65th Infantry Regiment (United States) – Officer Staff of the Porto Rico Infantry (cir. 1906) Lt. Teófilo Marxuach pictured on top row, fifth L-R
35. Old San Juan – Old San Juan is the oldest settlement within Puerto Rico and the historic colonial section of the city of San Juan. The settlement was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the "Zona Histórica de San Juan". It is bounded to the north and to the south by San Juan Bay -- which lies between the city and the mainland. Near Fort San Felipe del Morro, is the Casa Blanca, a palace built on land which belonged to the family of Ponce de Leon. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded Caparra. Constructed in 1521, Casa Blanca served until the mid-eighteenth century. Prior to the 19th century, the area outside the city walls occupying the east side of Old San Juan Island, was almost uninhabited. In 1838 the so-called area of Puerta de Tierra had a population of African descent. According to a census made in 1846, the population had risen to inhabitants living in 58 houses. On May 1897, the wall demolition was officially started after a proclamation was issued by Queen Maria Christina. During the late 1940s, disrepair in the old city was evident. The local authorities were considering development proposals for incorporating modern architecture on new constructions. Anthropologist Ricardo Alegría vehemently advised against the idea of razing old colonial buildings in favor of contemporary building designs. He advised mayor Rincón de Gautier in having local zoning laws changed to favor the incorporation of Spanish colonial motifs in any new construction. This has been a key to San Juan's current status as a tourist destination.Old San Juan – Aerial view of Fort San Felipe del Morro and Old San Juan
36. Cobblestone – Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, is used for pavement roads, streets, buildings. This was known as a'pitched' surface and was common all over Britain, as it did not require rounded pebbles. Pitched surfaces predate the use of regularly-sized granite setts by more than a thousand years. Such pitched paving is quite distinct from that formed from rounded stones, although both forms are commonly referred to as'cobbled' surfaces. Most surviving genuinely old'cobbled' areas are in reality pitched surfaces. A cobbled area is known as a "causey", "cassay" or "cassie" in Scots. Cobblestones are typically either set in sand or similar material, or are bound together with mortar. Paving with cobblestones allows a road to be heavily used all year long. It prevents the build-up of ruts often found in dirt roads. It has the additional advantage of not getting muddy in wet weather or dusty in dry weather. Shod horses are also able to get better traction on stone cobbles, pitches or setts than tarmac/asphalt. In England, the custom was to strew the cobbles outside the house of a sick or dying person with straw to dampen the sound. Cobblestones set in sand have the environmental advantage of being permeable paving, of moving rather than cracking with movements in the ground. Cobblestones were largely replaced by quarried granite setts in the nineteenth century. The word cobblestone is often wrongly used to describe such treatment.Cobblestone – Cobblestones
37. Plaza – A plaza /ˈplɑːzə/ is an open urban public space, such as a city square. The plaza might be large enough to serve as a military ground. At times of fiesta, it was the space where a large crowd might gather. Like the Italian piazza, the plaza remains a center of life, only equaled by the market-place. A de toros is a bullring. In modern usage, a plaza can be any place on a street or between buildings, a street intersection with a statue, etc.. Today's metropolitan landscapes often incorporate the "plaza" as an outcome of zoning regulations, building budgetary constraints, the like. Plaza is a Spanish word, cognate to Italian piazza, Portuguese praça, Galician praza, Catalan plaça, Romanian piața, French place. The origin of all these words is, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". More recently plaza has been used to describe a complex, similar to a shopping mall, borrowing its connotations of a center of cultural life. Central Plaza, in Hong Kong, was for four years the tallest building in Asia, at 78 storeys, 374 m. Gostiny Dvor Piazza Shopping mallPlaza – Plaza Mayor, Valladolid is a typical Spanish plaza.
38. 1928 Okeechobee hurricane – The Okeechobee hurricane, also known as San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde Islands. Further intensification was slow and halted by late on September 7. About 48 hours later, the storm became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir -- Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12. There, the storm brought 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly as severe as in Guadeloupe. Around midday on September 13, the storm peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph. About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico; it was the only recorded tropical cyclone to strike the island at Category 5 intensity. Very strong winds resulted in Puerto Rico. Throughout the island, 192,444 were damaged, leaving over 500,000 people homeless. Heavy rainfall also led to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were about $50 million in damage. While emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. The storm began crossing on September 16.1928 Okeechobee hurricane – 1928 Okeechobee hurricane
39. Elfin woods warbler – The elfin woods warbler is a bird endemic to Puerto Rico where it is a local and uncommon species. Described in 1972, it is the most recently described species of New World warbler. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. An insectivore, it feeds by gleaning small insects off leaves. The elfin woods warbler is one of many species in the genus Setophaga of the New World warbler Parulidae. On May 1971, a specimen was captured in El Yunque National Forest, which at the time was believed to be its only habitat. A year later Kepler and Parkes named the species making it the most recent warbler of the genus Setophaga discovered in the New World. Also, it is the first Puerto Rican species described in the 20th century. Angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler. Reinita de Bosque Enano is the Spanish name. This revised classification was adopted by the International Ornithologists’ Union. The warbler's upper body is predominantly black with white areas while its underparts are white with black streaks. Characteristic of Antillean warblers, the species features short, round wings. Among Setophaga spp. only S. adelaidae has a shorter wing length average than the elfin woods warbler. Juveniles differ from adults, retaining a grayish-green back for approximately a year and partially molting to October.Elfin woods warbler – Elfin woods warbler
40. Fauna of Puerto Rico – The fauna of Puerto Rico is similar to other island archipelago faunas, with high endemism, low, skewed taxonomic diversity. Bats are the only extant terrestrial mammals in Puerto Rico. All terrestrial mammals in the area were introduced by humans, include species such as cats, goats, sheep, the small Asian mongoose, escaped monkeys. Marine mammals include dolphins, whales. Of the 349 bird species, about 120 breed in and 47.5 % are accidental or rare. Some species, introduced by humans, have established populations in reservoirs and rivers. The richness-high diversity pattern is also apparent among invertebrates, which constitutes most of the archipelago's fauna. Hunting, the introduction of non-native species led to extinctions and extirpations. The most notable being for the Puerto Rican parrot, began in the second half of the 20th century. According to IUCN, as of 2002, there were 21 threatened species in Puerto Rico: two mammals, eight breeding birds, three amphibians. An oceanic tectonic plate on which Puerto Rico and the Antilles lie, was formed in the late Mesozoic. According to Rosen, when South America separated from Africa, a volcanic archipelago known as "Proto-Antilles" was formed. It later divided in the "Proto-Antilles". Geologically, the archipelago of Puerto Rico having formed about 135 Ma ago. Rock samples from Sierra Bermeja in southwestern Puerto Rico, dated to the Jurassic/early Cretaceous period, confirm this theory.Fauna of Puerto Rico – A common coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui), arguably the most recognizable species of Puerto Rico's fauna
41. Military history of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico was part of the Spanish Empire for four centuries, when the Puerto Ricans defended themselves from the British, French, Dutch. They fought in the battles of Baton Rouge, Mobile, Pensacola and St. Louis. During the mid-19th century, Puerto Ricans residing in the United States fought in the American Civil War. The island was invaded during the Spanish -- American War. After the war ended, Spain officially ceded the island under the terms established in the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The "Porto Rico Regiment" was established on the island. As citizens of the United States, Puerto Ricans have participated from World War I onward. During World War II, Puerto Ricans participated not only as combatants, but also as commanders. It was during this conflict that Puerto Rican nurses were allowed to participate as members of the WAACs. The members of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment were honored with the Congressional Gold Medal. During the Vietnam War five Puerto Ricans were awarded the Medal of the highest military honor in the United States. Presently Puerto Ricans continue to serve in the military of the United States. The following is brief history of the military events in which Puerto Ricans have participated. Christopher Columbus arrived in the island of Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493, to the so-called "New World". The island was inhabited by the Arawak group of indigenous peoples known as Tainos, who called the island "Borikén" or "Borinquen".Military history of Puerto Rico – Military history of Puerto Rico
42. Nutrition Assistance for Puerto Rico – It provides over $ billion USD in supplemental economic resources to help just over 1 million impoverished residents cope with their nutritional needs. It is based on, though not directly part of, the USDA's national Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Since its inception in 1982, the program has been providing low-income families living in Puerto Rico with cash benefits used for food purchases. It has, however, been controversial throughout its existence. Federal assessments have revealed deficiencies in its operations and management, requiring the implementation of various changes, including increased scrutiny. Public Laws 91-671 of January 11, 93-86 of November 1, 1974 partially extended the Food Stamp Program to U.S. territories. After a year of studies and design, it commenced operations with an annual appropriation of $825 million. The new block program differed significantly from the former Food Stamp program in three major ways. Second, the benefits were provided in cash. The beneficiary could then elect to purchase a product or select services other than food.<ref">FANRR-19-3, Chapter 11, pg. 286, par. 7</ref> It has surpassed $1 billion annually since the early 1990s, increased 30% from 1993 to 2002. Since fiscal year 2006, the appropriation has reached over $ billion annually. Over the years there has been a gradual decline in participation in the nutrition program. Participation in the previous Food Stamp program was estimated before the creation of the block grant. By 1994, by 2006 it had decreased to just over 1 million.Nutrition Assistance for Puerto Rico – The program's federal appropriations and expenditures have increased by a factor of 3–4% to match average inflation rates.
43. Puerto Rican amazon – Measuring 28 -- 30 cm, the bird is white rings around the eyes. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes from Culebra Island, extinct since 1912. Its closest relatives are believed to be the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at between four years of age. It is a cavity nester. Once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks will fledge 60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrot's diet consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark and nectar obtained from the forest canopy. The species has been listed as critically endangered by the World Conservation Union since 1994. Conservation efforts commenced in 1968 to save the bird from extinction. In 2012, the estimated population was 58 -- 80 individuals in the wild and over 300 individuals in captivity. The Puerto Rican amazon was described in 1783. The indigenous Taíno people called the iguaca, an onomatopoeic name that resembled the parrots' flight call. There are two recognized subspecies: A. v. vittata is the nominate and only extant subspecies, inhabiting formerly nearby Vieques Island and Mona Island. A. v. is now extinct.Puerto Rican amazon – Puerto Rican amazon
44. List of Governors of Puerto Rico – This list of Governors of Puerto Rico includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization. The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. The office of captain general was added to the governor. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as this established civilian government on Puerto Rico. The civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. Under this system, the governor is in charge of the island's executive branch. The Governor's four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Year's holiday.List of Governors of Puerto Rico – Juan Ponce de León II, 26th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first native Puerto Rican to become governor
45. List of birds of Puerto Rico – The avifauna of Puerto Rico include a total of 349 species, of which 166 are accidental, 16 are endemic. 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago. This list does not include extinct species. This list's taxonomic nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2016 edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each account. Introduced, extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Puerto Rico. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are common occurring native species. In general, they have broad, relatively short wings. They are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Flamingos filter-feed on algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. The flight is sometimes bat-like. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.List of birds of Puerto Rico – The Puerto Rican spindalis (reina mora in Spanish) is the national bird of Puerto Rico.
46. List of Puerto Rican boxing world champions – In Puerto Rico, boxing is considered a major sport, having produced more amateur and professional world champions than any other sport in its history. This number also places the archipelago in the global lead in terms of champions per capita. Individually, Puerto Rican world champions have earned numerous achievements. These include, by a titleholder. On September 1994, Daniel Jiménez established a world record for the quickest knockout in a championship fight, defeating Harald Geier in 17 seconds. Juan Manuel López is fifth in this category, having defeated César Figueroa in 47 seconds during his first defense. Ossie Ocasio was the first World Boxing Association champion, winning it on February 13, 1982. On June 2014, Miguel Cotto made history by becoming Puerto Rico's first four-division world champion. Boxing was practiced in a clandestine manner in Puerto Rico while the archipelago was still a Spanish colony. The objective was to determine the best fighter among the employees. Following Spanish -- American War, American soldiers who were stationed in the main island practiced the sport. During World War I, a championship known as Campeonato Las Casas was held as training for military personnel. The first Puerto Rican boxer to gain recognition, began his career in these tournaments. The Combat Maneuver Training Center followed organized boxing activities, which they named Los Campeones del Campamento. These were received by the young recruits.List of Puerto Rican boxing world champions – A statue of Sixto Escobar, found in the Estadio Sixto Escobar venue
47. List of Vieques birds – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. It has a total area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques. Some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list. Tags are used to describe this information for each species. This list's taxonomic nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each account. Introduced, extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of each species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Order: Phaethontiformes Family: Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers.List of Vieques birds – Vieques Island from the air
48. United States Capitol shooting incident (1954) – They wanted to highlight their desire from US rule. All recovered. The assailants were arrested, given long sentences, effectively life imprisonment. In 1979, they were pardoned by President Jimmy Carter; all four returned to Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party was founded by people seeking independence. They contended that, as a matter of international law, the Treaty of Paris could not empower the Spanish to "give" what was longer theirs. While other political parties supported independence, some political parties supported autonomy for the island within a formal relationship with the United States. During this period of unrest, the electorate increasingly voted for the People's Democratic Party, which by 1940 controlled a majority in the legislature. It supported the act of 1950 by the US Congress, which established Puerto Rico as a Estado Libre Asociado, with some autonomy. The US retained responsibility for defense and foreign treaties. The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolts of the 1950s were a widespread call for independence against this colonial regime. The party demanded the recognition of Puerto Rico's international sovereignty. It also repudiated the status of Estado Libre Asociado, established in 1950 as continued colonialism. Pedro Albizu Campos, ordered armed uprisings on October 30, 1950, in several towns, including Peñuelas, Mayagüez, Naranjito, Arecibo and Ponce. The most notable uprisings occurred in Utuado, San Juan.United States Capitol shooting incident (1954) – Pres. Roosevelt wielding his big stick in the Caribbean
49. Westernbank – The W Holding Company was a financial holding corporation located in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. With initial deposits reaching $250,000, the bank grew at a rapid rate, quadrupling its assets in less than nine months. In 1999, Westernbank was reorganized to better represent its future plans and strategy. This reorganization converted its main divisions, such as Westernbank, into wholly owned subsidiaries. In 2001, W Holding created a general insurance agent. Its main headquarters were located in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, the town of the company's founding. Westernbank, at one time operated 55 bank branches, all insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Banker Magazine two years in a row. Rated "One of America’s Fastest Growing Companies" by Equities Magazine. Ranked 1st as "Best in Technology" by Microbanker Publication. Included in NASDAQ’s "1,000 Honor Roll" and "Top 100 Company Honor Roll". Ranked 7th and 10th among the "100 Best Banks in the United States" by U.S. Banker Magazine in 2003 and 2002, respectively. W Holding was the only financial company in such TOP GUNS listing. Ranked the 1,674 th Largest Company by Forbes.Westernbank – W Holding Company
50. U.S. citizenship – Citizenship in the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education and eligibility for state political posts such as U.S. Senator. In Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a "uniform rule of naturalization" is granted explicitly to Congress. U.S. law permits multiple citizenship. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U.S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, though they must renounce allegiance to the other country. A U.S. citizen retains U.S. citizenship when becoming the citizen of another country, should that country's laws allow it. Citizenship can be renounced by American citizens who also hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U.S. Embassy, it can also be restored. Freedom to reside and work. United States citizens have the right to reside and work in the United States. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. However, non-citizens, unlike citizens, may have the right taken away: for example, they may be deported if convicted of a serious crime. Freedom to enter and leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to enter and leave the United States freely. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. Voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only.U.S. citizenship – United States citizenship confers the right to acquire a U.S. passport. The one shown above is a post-2007 issued passport.
51. Government of Puerto Rico – The Government of Puerto Rico is a republican form of government with separation of powers, subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States. Article I of the Constitution of Puerto Rico defines its political power and authority pursuant to U.S. Pub.L. 82–447. Said law mandated the establishment of a local constitution due to Puerto Rico's political status as a commonwealth of the United States. Ultimately, the powers of the government of Puerto Rico lack full protection under the U.S. Constitution. Because of this, the head of state of Puerto Rico is the President of the United States. Structurally, the government is composed of three branches: the executive, judicial branch. The executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Alejandro García Padilla, also the head of government. Legislators are elected by popular vote every four years. The judicial branch is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, currently Liana Fiol Matta. The legal system is a mix of the common law systems. Members of the judicial branch are appointed from the Senate. Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The Foraker Act of 1900 provided for an organization of the civilian government. The Jones–Shafroth Act of 1917 re-organized the government.Government of Puerto Rico – The main offices of the Puerto Rico Department of State in front of Plaza de Armas in Old San Juan.
52. Tony Croatto – Hermes Davide Fastino Croatto Martinis, better known as Tony Croatto was an Italian singer and composer best known for his interpretations of Puerto Rican folk music. Croatto was also a presenter. Born in a comune in the province of Udine, Italy. Croatto's family moved to the town of La Paz, Uruguay when he was 9 years old. While being raised as a carpenter, farmer, music was very much a part of his household. At 19, Croatto created his first pop music group with his brother Edelweiss and his sister Argentina, named "TNT". The group eventually developed a very strong following, then Argentina, then in Spain, where TNT moved as their popularity soared. TNT were renowned for their vocal harmonies, Nelly's voice and magnetic personality. At the time, Tony stated once, he was happy with playing guitar, claiming he was rather shy. Eventually, Croatto developed a strong presence, which allowed him to take over vocal duties occasionally. Their group was also popular in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile and Mexico, where they eventually toured. Their LP records for RCA-Victor were fast sellers all over Latin America. They even appeared in "Fiebre de Juventud", along with Mexican pop idol Enrique Guzmán, in 1962. After attaining some success in Spain, TNT moved there in 1963. They went far as representing the country in the Eurovision Song Contest 1964 in Copenhagen, billed as "Nelly, Tim and Tony".Tony Croatto – Tony Croatto, with his sister and brother when they were Los TNT (1960). Tony is the first one from below.
53. Juan Antonio Corretjer – Juan Antonio Corretjer, was a poet, journalist and pro-independence political activist opposing United States rule in Puerto Rico. He was born into a politically active pro-independence family. His parents were María Brígida Montes González. His father and uncles were involved against the United States occupation. As a lad, Corretjer would often accompany his father and uncles to political rallies. Corretjer received his primary and secondary education in his hometown. In 1920, when he was only 12 years old, he wrote his first poem "Canto a Ciales". In 1924, he published his first booklet of poems. He joined the "Literary Society of Jose Gautier Benitez", which later would be renamed the "Nationalist Youth", while he was still in elementary school. When he was in 8th grade, Corretjer organized a student protest in his town. Corretjer was expelled for organizing a strike to have it renamed for José de Diego. He was then sent in the town of Vega Baja. In 1927, Corretjer worked as a journalist for the newspaper "La Democracia". Corretjer later moved to the city of Ponce where he published his first two books of poetry: "Agüeybaná" and "Ulises". Throughout his life, Corretjer wrote in Puerto Rico, Cuba and the United States.Juan Antonio Corretjer – Juan Antonio Corretjer,Poet and Secretary General of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
54. Golden Globe Award – The 73rd Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in television in 2015, were broadcast live on January 2016. Ricky Gervais hosted the show for the fourth time. The 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, was held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held including the Beverly Hills Hotel, the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish a honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer, Cecil B. DeMille. The official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award. In 1963, the Miss Golden Globe concept was introduced. One for television. The two Miss Golden Globes named that year were Eva Six and Donna Douglas, respectively. In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned. It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. Gervais returned to host the annual Golden Globe Awards in 2012.Golden Globe Award – The Golden Globe statuette
55. University of Puerto Rico – The University of Puerto Rico is the main public university system of Puerto Rico and a government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico. It has approximately 58,000 students and 5,300 faculty members. UPR has the largest and most academic offerings in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, with 472 academic programs of which 32 lead to a doctorate. At Fajardo, the Escuela Normal Industrial was established as the first higher education center in Puerto Rico. Its initial enrollment was 5 professors. It was moved to Río Piedras. On March 12, 1903, that day the "Escuela Normal" was proclaimed as its first department. 1910 - Establishment of the College of Liberal Arts. 1911 - Establishment of the College of Agriculture at Mayagüez. A year later the name was changed to College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 1913 - The Departments of Pharmacy and Law were established. 1918 - University High School is founded to provide clinical experience and supervised practice for teacher applicants, support staff and other teaching professionals. In 1924 the governor appointed the first Rector. The enrollment is 1,500 students. 1924 - The administrative structure and identity of the University of Puerto Rico is completely independent of the Department of Public Instruction.University of Puerto Rico – Seal of the University of Puerto Rico
56. United States Military Academy – It sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, 50 miles north of New York City. The central campus is a national home to scores of historic sites, buildings, monuments. The majority of the campus's Norman-style buildings are constructed from gray and black granite. The campus is a popular tourist destination complete with a large visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Other nomination sources include the President and Vice President of the United States. Students are referred to collectively as the "United States Corps of Cadets". Tuition for cadets is fully funded by the Army in exchange for an active obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating. Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that "a cadet will not lie, tolerate those who do." The academy bases a cadet's leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance: academics, physical, military. Most graduates are commissioned as second lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries. The academy's traditions have influenced other institutions because of its age and unique mission. West Point's body has lexicon. All cadets dine together en masse on weekdays for lunch.United States Military Academy – West Point fortifications 1780
57. Aibonito, Puerto Rico – Aibonito is spread over 8 wards and Aibonito Pueblo. It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area. Aibonito is located on a high elevation, which makes its cooler than most of Puerto Rico's towns. Before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, it is believed that there were Taíno settlements in the region that belonged to Cacique Orocobix domain. This was authorized on March 1824 by Governor Don Miguel la Torre. The first Catholic church in Aibonito was built in 1825. The building was replaced by the current church, started in 1887 and completed in 1897. After the town was officially constituted, wards started developing in the area. This scrimmage came to an end when the Spanish government surrendered on August 12, 1898. There are several stories regarding the name of the town. Some people say that it is derived from the Taíno word "Jatibonicu", the name of a Cacique of the area. Aibonito is located in the Cayey mountain range, part of the Cordillera Central in Puerto Rico. Aibonito is the town with the highest elevation in Puerto Rico, located at 2,401 feet above sea level. Some of its mountains are Buena Vista. Some of the rivers that flow through Aibonito are the Río de Aibonito, Río Usabón.Aibonito, Puerto Rico – Flag
58. Federico Degetau – He was born in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico where he also attended the Central College of Ponce. His father was son of family. In Ponce his father Mathias managed the banks of the Overman and Dede House, of which his father, Otto Georg Christian Degetau, was a partner. Federico's mother was María Consolación González, daughter of a respected San Juan family. His parents married in 1851. Degetau was graduated from the department of the Central University of Madrid. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Madrid, Spain. He founded the newspaper La Isla de Puerto Rico to communicate the plight of Puerto Rico to the colonial power. A colonial-civil government was imposed three years later as a result of the Spanish -- American War. He settled in San Juan, Puerto Rico and continued to practice law. Degetau was a member of the municipal council of San Juan in 1897, mayor of San Juan in 1898. He was deputy to the Spanish Cortes Generales of 1898. He was appointed by General Henry's successor, General George W. Davis, as a member of the Insular Board of Charities. Degetau became a member of the Insular Republican Party, founded in 1899. He was elected as a Puerto Rican Republican to the Resident Commissioner post in 1900, reelected in 1902.Federico Degetau – Federico Degetau y González
60. Rick Aviles – Rick Aviles was an American stand-up comedian and actor of Puerto Rican descent, best remembered for portraying the villainous Willie Lopez in the film Ghost. In the 1980s, Aviles worked as a stand-up comedian on the Greenwich Village night-club circuit in New York. In 1981, he landed the role of Mad Dog in The Cannonball Run. He went on to act in fourteen more film productions. In 1987, Aviles landed a small part in the film The Secret of My Success, starring Michael J. Fox. He became the host of It's Showtime at the Apollo, continued as host until 1991. In 1990, Aviles landed his most memorable role: killer of Patrick Swayze's Sam Wheat, in the film Ghost. The film was a smash received multiple Oscar nominations. Along with Swayze, Aviles shared the screen with Demi Moore, Tony Goldwyn. Having contracted HIV through abuse, Aviles died on March 17, 1995 in Los Angeles, California, from complications of AIDS.Rick Aviles – Aviles as Willie Lopez in Ghost (1990)
61. Major League Baseball – Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the American League and National League, with 15 teams in each league. The AL and NL operated as separate legal entities from 1901 and 1876 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869, 30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball. The few decades of professional baseball were characterized by players who often jumped to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era; players rarely hit home runs during this time. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, baseball's color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of thirty teams: twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada.Major League Baseball – MLB headquarters at 245 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, USA
62. Ponce massacre – Most of the dead were reportedly shot in their backs. Further criticism by members of the U.S. Congress led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to remove Winship in 1939 as governor. The Ponce massacre remains the largest massacre in imperial history in Puerto Rico. It has been the source of many articles, books, paintings, theatrical works. Several days before the scheduled Palm Sunday march, the Nationalists had received legal permits for a peaceful protest from the mayor of Ponce. According to a 1926 Puerto Rico Supreme Court ruling, government permits were not necessary for the use of plazas, streets for meetings or parades. However, as a courtesy to the Ponce municipal government, the Nationalists requested the permit nevertheless. Winship intended to crush their leader, Pedro Albizu Campos. Police Chief Guillermo Soldevilla with 14 policemen, took a position in front of the marchers. Chief Perez Segarra and Sgt. Rafael Molina, commanding nine policemen armed with Thompson submachine guns and tear gas bombs, stood in the back. According to some reports, police numbered "over 200 heavily armed" guards. The Insular Police started firing on the marchers -- wounding some 235 civilians, including women and children. Police firing went on for over 15 minutes. The dead included 17 men, a young girl.Ponce massacre – Outbreak of the Ponce Massacre
63. Slavery in Puerto Rico – The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as the Spaniards' oppressive colonization efforts. Spain's royal government began to rely on slavery to staff their mining and fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans. When the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown longer considered the island to be a high colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to buy their freedom; however, this did little to help their situation. The slave population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were many slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising in what is known as the "Grito de Lares". On March 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, art, heritage have been instrumental to Puerto Rican culture. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between Taíno the Spaniards. Garrido was born on the son of an African king. In 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore prospect for gold. Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.Slavery in Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
64. Raymond Arrieta – Raymond Arrieta is a Puerto Rican actor, comedian, host and philanthropist. Since 2007, Arrieta has been hosting a Día, along with Dagmar. Arrieta is also a theater actor. Arrieta has also gained notoriety for his philanthropic endeavors. Because of his commitment to the cause, Arrieta has received numerous recognitions, including from the Senate of Puerto Rico. Raymond Arrieta was born as Ramón Emilio Arrieta Vázquez in one of the main barrios of San Juan, Puerto Rico. His parents were Carmín Vázquez. Arrieta went at the Academy Nuestra Señora de la Providencia. After that he continued even organizing his own. Arrieta has mentioned that José Miguel Agrelot has always been his main inspiration. There, he also joined Phi Sigma Alpha Fraternity. On one occasion, some friends visited the café theater "El Punto del Coquí" located in Old San Juan. He played the piano while doing imitations. The owner of the club asked Arrieta to prepare an act for his club. He was soon traveling around the island with his "show".Raymond Arrieta – Raymond Arrieta
65. Telenovela – The word combines novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". There are similar genres to the telenovela that go by varying names including teleserye, téléroman, or simply dramas. Telenovelas differ from soap operas in that they rarely continue for more than a year. This makes them shorter than soap operas, but still longer than most other serials. In Spain, they are also called culebrones because of the convoluted plots. Episodes of telenovelas usually last except for final episodes. The telenovela naturally evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur. By the 1980s Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior, particularly successfully in introducing the idea of family planning. Over time telenovelas evolved in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover, previously taboo themes such as urban violence, homosexuality were later incorporated into telenovelas. The result is that the telenovela requires a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to the soap opera. Telenovelas, which are sometimes called "tassels" or "comedias," are usually shown during prime time. Between 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli. The global telenovela was Los ricos también lloran, exported to Russia, China, the United States and other countries.Telenovela – Brazilian actress Juliana Paes as Maya, character of the telenovela India – A Love Story (2009).
66. Economy of Puerto Rico – Internal Revenue Code. Puerto Rico has, however, surprisingly been able to maintain a relatively low inflation in the past decade. Its main trading partners are the United States itself, Japan, with most products coming from East Asia, mainly from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan. Puerto Rico, like other countries, has transitioned from an agricultural economy to an industrial one. Its economy is currently experiencing a transformation caused by the Information Age, albeit slowly. Not much is known prior to the arrival of Spaniards. The little, known about the Taíno, is that their economy was a mixture of hunting and gathering with agriculture. The Taíno ate small animals, such as mammals, earthworms, lizards, turtles, birds. Fish were caught in nets, speared, poisoned, trapped in weirs, or caught with hook and line. Iguanas were taken from trees and other vegetation. Fields such as the staple yuca, were prepared by heaping up mounds of soil, called conucos. It allowing for longer storage of crops in the ground. Less important crops such as corn burn technique. Typically, conucos were arranged in rows. The primary crop was yuca/cassava, a woody shrub cultivated for its edible and starchy tuberous root.Economy of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP) by economic sector.
67. St. John the Baptist – John the Baptist, also known as John the Baptizer, was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. John is revered as a religious figure in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá' í Faith, Mandaeism. He is honoured as a saint in many Christian traditions. John used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus. John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself. Christians commonly refer as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah. John the Baptist is mentioned in the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes. The Synoptic Gospels describe John baptising Jesus; in the Gospel of John it is implied in John 1:32-34. John is described as living on locusts and wild honey. Jesus is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how; as he emerges from the water, the heavens open and the Holy Spirit descends on him'like a dove'. A voice from heaven then says, "the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."St. John the Baptist – John the Baptist Preaching in the Wilderness by Anton Raphael Mengs, 1760
68. San Juan, Puerto Rico – San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico's capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic. San Juan is the island's manufacturing, cultural, tourism center. San Juan is also a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name, Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the Americas. Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. Artillery from San Juan's fort, El Morro, repelled Drake; however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken.San Juan, Puerto Rico – Ruins of Juan Ponce de León's residence at Caparra
69. Frederick Lois Riefkohl – The Navy Cross is the second highest medal, after the Medal of Honor, that can be awarded by the U.S. Navy for heroism or distinguished service. Riefkohl was a World War I Navy Cross recipient who served during World War II. Born Luis Federico Riefkohl Jaimieson), he was born and raised in Maunabo, Puerto Rico, a son of Luis Riefkohl y Sandoz and Julia Jaimieson. His other siblings were his sisters, Helen, Louise Riefkohl. In 1911, Riefkohl became the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the Academy. He was reassigned to the Fifteenth Naval District, Balboa, Canal Zone as District Communication Officer. Until October 1923 he served as Aide and Flag Secretary and Fleet Radio and Communication Officer to Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet. From July 1926 to August 1928, Riefkohl assumed command of the destroyer "USS Corry". He served as Chief of Staff until April 30, 1931, when he became Commandant of the islands Naval Station. From January 1935 to December 1936 Riefkohl served at Buenos Aires, Argentina. Until April 4, 1941 he served as War Plans Officer on the staff of the Commandant Fifteenth Naval District, Balboa, Canal Zone. He assumed command of the USS Vincennes on April 1941. USS Vincennes was in the Atlantic when the U.S. escorted the aircraft carrier USS Hornet to the Pacific. Vincennes was part of the escort for Hornet and USS Enterprise for the Doolittle Raids on Tokyo and for the Battle of Midway. The USS Vincennes belonged to Task Group 62.2, which screened the landings to the west of the assembled transports unloading on Guadalcanal and Tulagi.Frederick Lois Riefkohl – Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl The first Puerto Rican to graduate from the United States Naval Academy
70. Navy Cross – The Navy Cross is the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat. The Navy Cross is awarded primarily to a member of the United States Navy, U.S. Coast Guard for extraordinary heroism. The medal is equivalent to the Army's Distinguished Service Cross, the Coast Guard's Coast Guard Cross. The Navy Cross was approved on February 4, 1919. The Navy Cross was instituted in part into World War I. The Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and Distinguished Service Medal in 1918, while the Navy followed suit in 1919, retroactive to 6 April 1917. Congress revised this on 7 August 1942, making a combat-only decoration that follows the Medal of Honor in order of precedence. Since the medal was established, it has been awarded more than 6,300 times. It was designed by James Earle Fraser. The actual recipient of the Navy Cross is unknown because initial awards were made from a lengthy list published after World War I. The Navy Cross may be awarded to any member of the U.S. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross. The Navy Cross originally was the Navy's third-highest decoration, after the Medal of the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. On 7 Congress revised the order of precedence, placing the Navy Cross above the Distinguished Service Medal in precedence. Since that time, the Navy Cross has been worn before all other awards.Navy Cross – Crew members: Jonell Copeland, AtM2/c; Que Gant, StM; Harold Clark, Jr., StM; James Eddie Dockery, StM; Alonzo Alexander Swann, StM; and Eli Benjamin, StM were given the Navy Cross for standing by their gun when their ship was damaged by enemy attack in the Philippine area, ca. 1945
71. El Yunque National Forest – El Yunque National Forest, formerly known as the Luquillo National Forest and the Caribbean National Forest, is a forest located in northeastern Puerto Rico. It is the tropical rain forest in the United States National Forest System. The second-tallest mountain within El Yunque is also named El Yunque. The highest mountain peak in the forest rises 1,065 metres above sea level. Ample rainfall creates a jungle-like setting -- lush foliage, crags, rivers are a prevalent sight. The forest has a number of trails from which the jungle-like territory's fauna can be appreciated. El Yunque is also renowned for its unique Taíno petroglyphs. It was renamed June 1935. It is home to over 200 species of plants, 23 of which are found nowhere else. Because Puerto Rico is south of the Tropic of Cancer, it has a tropical climate. There is no distinct dry season in El Yunque; it rains year round. The length of daylight remain fairly constant throughout the year. The average year-round is 80 degrees Fahrenheit and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. All of these factors provide a year-round growing season. Its ecosystem is specifically surveyed by the Management Team of Ecosystems, led by Pedro Rios.El Yunque National Forest – El Yunque National Forest
72. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire originated after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish -- American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies to the United States. Its African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits. The treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 in the papal bull Æterni regis. Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.Spanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
73. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The new agency became operational on October 1958. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. This led to an agreement that a federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. Many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.NASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
74. Dryden Flight Research Center – The Armstrong Flight Research Center, located inside Edwards Air Force Base, is an aeronautical research center operated by NASA. Similarly the Western Aeronautical Test Range at the facility was renamed the NASA Hugh L. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range. The facility operates some of the most advanced aircraft in the world. David McBride is currently the center's director. He succeeded Kevin Petersen, who retired in April 2008. Until 2004, Armstrong Flight Research Center operated a B-52B model, converted to drop test aircraft, dubbed ` Balls 8.' It dropped a large number of supersonic test vehicles, ranging from the hypersonic X-43A, powered by a Pegasus rocket. The aircraft is currently on display near the North Gate of Edwards. NACA, operated the Douglas Skyrocket. A successor to the D-558-II could operate under rocket or jet power. It conducted extensive tests in the transsonic range, optimal supersonic wing configurations, rocket plume effects, high-speed flight dynamics. Like the X-1, the D-558-II could be air-launched using a B-29 Superfortress. Unlike the X-1, the Skyrocket could also takeoff from a runway with the help of JATO units. On December 1984, a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft was flown into specially built wing openers which tore the wings open, fuel spraying everywhere. Despite the new additive, the resulting fire ball was huge; the fire still took an hour to fully extinguish.Dryden Flight Research Center – Armstrong Flight Research Center from the air
75. Antonia Novello – Antonia Coello Novello, M.D. is a Puerto Rican physician and public health administrator. Novello served as fourteenth Surgeon General of the United States from 1990 to 1993. She is first Hispanic to serve as Surgeon General. In 1979, she received a commission in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. Her first assignment was as a officer at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. From 1976, Novello also held a clinical appointment at Georgetown University Hospital. During her years at NIH, she worked from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health receiving the degree in 1982. Novello also served as Coordinator from September 1987. In this role, Novello developed a particular interest in pediatric AIDS, which caught the attention of the White House. In 1976, she opened her private practice in Springfield, Virginia where she worked as a pediatrician. However Novello soon realized that she was emotionally involved with her patients so she left her practice. She stated in an interview "When the pediatrican cries much as the parents do, then you know it's time to get out". Novello was the first Hispanic to hold the position. Novello played an important role in launching the Healthy Children Ready to Learn Initiative. Novello was actively involved in working with other organizations to promote immunization of childhood injury prevention efforts.Antonia Novello – Antonia Novello
76. Fajardo, Puerto Rico – Fajardo is spread over 7 wards and Downtown Fajardo, which serves as the administrative center of the city. It is both a principal city of the Fajardo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. It is also the home to the largest Marina in the Caribbean, called Puerto del Rey. The town contains various hotels and inns. Off shore, near Fajardo, a few islets can be found. These are Icacos, Palominos, Palominito, Diablo, among other uninhabited coral islands. Fajardo was founded in 1760, 1773 or 1774 as Santiago de Fajardo. It was one of the locations used by the Americans to invade Puerto Rico. Rodgers ordered some of his men ashore, which included Puerto Rican volunteers, with the mission of posting the American Flag atop the lighthouse. Fajardo's beaches are bounded by calm, clear water ideal for snorkeling. Seven Seas Beach offers offshore points of scuba diving. Fajardo is also home to one of the few Bioluminescent Lagoons in the world. Nightly trips are offered by kayak by local companies who give educational tours. Las Cabezas de San Juan Light House - One of the oldest lighthouses in Puerto Rico. Only one used for nautical reasons in the entire island.Fajardo, Puerto Rico – Aerial view of Fajardo's basin
77. Surgeon General of the United States – The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States. The Surgeon General's staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General. The U.S. Surgeon General is confirmed by the Senate. The current Surgeon General is Vivek Murthy, confirmed on December 2014. The Surgeon General also has informal duties, such as educating the American public about health issues and advocating healthy lifestyle choices. The office also periodically issues health warnings. Perhaps the best known example of this is the Surgeon General's warning label, present on all packages of American tobacco cigarettes since 1966. A similar warning has appeared on alcoholic beverages labels since 1988. In 1798, Congress established a network of hospitals that cared for sick and disabled seamen. The Marine Hospital Fund became the Marine Hospital Service -- predecessor to today's United States Public Health Service. The service became a separate bureau of the Treasury Department with its own staff, administration, the position of Supervising Surgeon. Some Surgeons General are notable for advocating controversial proposals on how to reform the U.S. health system. On Rear Admiral Luther Terry, M.D. published a landmark report saying that smoking may be hazardous to health, sparking nationwide anti-smoking efforts. His committee defined cigarette smoking of nicotine as not an addiction.Surgeon General of the United States – Incumbent Vice Admiral Vivek H. Murthy since December 18, 2014
78. Chupacabra – The chupacabra or chupacabras is a legendary creature in the folklore of parts of the Americas, with its first purported sightings reported in Puerto Rico. The name comes from the animal's reported habit of drinking the blood of livestock, especially goats. Physical descriptions of the creature vary. Sightings in the southern United States have been verified as canids afflicted by mange. According to wildlife management officials, the chupacabra is an urban legend. Chupacabras can be literally translated from chupar and cabra. The latter a regularization of it. The name in Spanish can be preceded by the plural masculine article. The reported attacks occurred in March 1995 in Puerto Rico. In this attack, eight sheep were discovered dead, each with three puncture wounds in the area and completely drained of blood. In 1975, similar killings in the small town of Moca were attributed to El Vampiro de Moca. Each of the animals was reported to have had its body bled dry through a series of circular incisions. Puerto Rican entrepreneur Silverio Pérez is credited with coining the term chupacabras soon after the first incidents were reported in the press. The resemblance to the chupacabra was really impressive," Tolentino reported. This, Radford believes, seriously undermines the credibility of the chupacabra as a real animal.Chupacabra – An image of the Chupacabra based on its original description.
79. John Ruiz – John Ruiz is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2010. He is the first Latino boxer to have won a heavyweight world title. 1991 competed in Sydney, Australia. Results were: Defeated Mohamed Benguesmia PST Defeated Miodrag Radulovic RSC-3 Lost to Andrey Kurniavka PTS 1992 competed in Worcester. Result was: Lost to Jeremy Williams PTS His professional record is 44 -- 9 -- -- 1, with 30 knockouts. Frustrated from the boxing press and fans, he retired upon his second loss of the WBA title on April 30, 2005. Ruiz un-retired after finding out that James Toney had tested positive for anabolic steroids. A unanimous-decision defeat, was changed to a no-contest; the WBA ordered that Ruiz retain the title. Ruiz then filed a lawsuit against Toney, claiming that he had damaged Ruiz's career. On December 2005, he lost his title for the third time -- in controversial fashion, -- to Nikolai Valuev. Ruiz lost a rematch on August 30, 2008 once again in controversial fashion. His management sued, claiming that WBA rules entitled him to a title shot. After learning of the judge decreed that upon entering the ring against Grant on April 29, 2000, Lewis would automatically forfeit the WBA title. Ruiz fought former champion Holyfield to fill the vacancy on August 2000, losing by unanimous decision. Many observers and boxing reporters felt that the underdog Ruiz had done enough to win.John Ruiz – John Ruiz, holding his WBA Heavyweight Championship belt, on a visit to the White House in 2001
80. US Justice Department – The current Attorney General is Loretta Lynch. The U.S. Attorney General was initially a part-time job. This grew with the bureaucracy. On February 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice. Both the Senate and House passed the bill. President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill on June 22, 1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1870. Prior to the Civil War, in February of 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. The law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred from the Department of Interior. A facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U.S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the project. On Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over one million square feet of space. The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served for the entire building contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside.US Justice Department – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
81. Puerto Rico Police Department – The Puerto Rico Police —also known in Puerto Rico as La Uniformada — is the state police of Puerto Rico. The Police is organized into thirteen regions within Puerto Rico for operational purposes with headquarters are 601 Franklin D. Roosevelt Avenue in San Juan. It provided police services to the entire island, although many municipalities maintained their own police force. This program was put to the test from 1993 to 1996, but unfortunately, 48 police officers died in the line of duty. It was later activated again in 2004 by governor Sila María Calderón but not with the same intensity as in the early 1990s. In 2009, Police Superintendent José Figueroa Sancha re-organized the Puerto Rico Police in terms of commanding officers and regional organization. Every zone was changed to have two commanding officers: one in the other in charge of investigations. Also, the name was changed from Police Zones to Police Regions. Also, a new policy of the agency was to get involved in the community. In September 2009, the government of Puerto Rico suffered an economic crisis, which caused the dismissal of thousands of public employees. Many citizens' concern was that the dismissals of public employees would cause the level of criminal incidents to increase. Governor Luis Fortuño dismissed this concern. But in the last 3 months of the year 2009, crime increased dramatically, leading to carjackings. The year 2009 ended with a total of 894 murders, that would be 74 murders more than those reported in 2008. In the first 14 days of 2010, there were an average per week.Puerto Rico Police Department – The logo of the Puerto Rico Police
82. Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. Congress submitted the amendment to the states on September 28, 1789. By December 15, 1791, the necessary three-fourths of the states had ratified it. On March 1, 1792, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson announced the adoption of the amendment. The amendment was held to apply to the states in Mapp v. Ohio. The exclusionary rule is one way the amendment is enforced. Established in Weeks v. United States, this rule holds that evidence obtained through a Fourth Amendment violation is generally inadmissible at criminal trials. Like many other areas of American law, the Fourth Amendment finds its roots in English legal doctrine. Entick filed suit in Entick v Carrington, argued before the Court of King's Bench in 1765. In 1756, the colony of Massachusetts enacted legislation that barred the use of general warrants. This represented the first law in American history curtailing the use of seizure power. A crisis erupted over the writs of assistance on December 27, 1760 when the news of King George II's death on October 23 arrived in Boston. In mid-January 1761, a group of over 50 merchants represented by James Otis petitioned the court to have hearings on the issue. During the five-hour hearing on February 23, 1761, Otis vehemently denounced British colonial policies, including their sanction of general warrants and writs of assistance. However, the court ruled against Otis.Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution – The Bill of Rights in the National Archives
83. Police brutality – Widespread brutality exists in many countries, even those that prosecute it. It is one of several forms of misconduct, which include: false arrest; intimidation; racial profiling; political repression; surveillance abuse; sexual abuse; and police corruption. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law. Cases of brutality appear to have been frequent then, with "the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks." Portions of the population may perceive the police to be oppressors. After facing federal trial, two of the four officers were received 32 months prison sentence. The case was widely seen as a key factor in the reform of the Los Angeles Police Department. Of the deaths classified as enforcement homicides, 2,876 deaths occurred of which 1,643 or 57.1 % of the people who died were "people of color". Incidents of brutality in Austria seem to be largely influenced and triggered by racism and prejudice against foreign nationals and ethnic minorities within the community. This underlying issue has continued to be relevant when examining cases of police brutality within Austria. In Vienna there tends to be an association made between Vienna's drug problem and the city's African migrants. The most notorious of these incidents occurred in the late 1990's, however recent reports in 2015 show that police are still treating civilians in this way. They were fined without reason. He suffocated whilst in custody. He was beaten unconscious and handcuffed.Police brutality – New York City Police Department officers violently attacking unemployed civilians in Tompkins Square Park, 1874.
84. Hurricane Irene (2011) – Hurricane Irene was a large and destructive tropical cyclone, which affected much of the Caribbean and East Coast of the United States during late August 2011. Irene is ranked as the seventh-costliest hurricane in United States history. Due to development of atmospheric convection and a closed center of circulation, the system was designated as Tropical Storm Irene on August 20, 2011. After intensifying, Irene made landfall in St. Croix as a strong tropical storm later that day. Early on August 21, the storm made a second landfall in Puerto Rico. While crossing the island, Irene strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane. The storm paralleled offshore of Hispaniola, continued to slowly intensify in the process. Shortly before making four landfalls in the Bahamas, Irene peaked as a 120 mph Category 3 hurricane. Thereafter, the storm slowly leveled-off in intensity as it struck the Bahamas and then curved northward after passing east of Grand Bahama. Early on the following day, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic from southeastern Virginia. A few hours later, Irene made its ninth and final landfall in Brooklyn, New York City. Early on August 29, Irene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone hitting Vermont after remaining inland as a tropical cyclone for less than 12 hours. Throughout its path, Irene caused widespread destruction and at least 56 deaths. In addition, monetary losses in the Caribbean and Canada were $830 $ million respectively for a total of nearly $ billion in damage. The strong thunderstorm activity continued to become more pronounced around the main low-pressure feature.Hurricane Irene (2011) – Hurricane Irene at peak intensity over the southern Bahamas, on August 24
85. Hurricane – Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. As a result, they rarely form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter. Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas. Cyclone refers to their cyclonic nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect. In addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their primary energy source. For this reason, coastal regions are particularly vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, however, can cause significant flooding inland, storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres from the coastline. Though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. Tropical cyclones are areas of relatively low pressure in the troposphere, with the largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface. On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest ever observed at sea level. The environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as "warm core" systems.Hurricane – Hurricane Isabel (2003) as seen from orbit during Expedition 7 of the International Space Station. The eye, eyewall, and surrounding rainbands, characteristics of tropical cyclones, are clearly visible in this view from space.
86. 2011 Atlantic hurricane season – However, the first tropical storm of the season, Arlene, did not develop until nearly a month later. Tropical Storm Sean, dissipated over the open Atlantic on November 11. Despite unfavorable conditions, seven storms reached four of those storms reached major hurricane status. Ophelia reached overall peak. Due to the presence of a La Niña in the Pacific Ocean, pre-season forecasts called for an above-average hurricane season. In Colorado State University's outlook, the organization called for 16 named storms and 9 hurricanes, of which 4 would intensify further into major hurricanes. On May 2011, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued their pre-season forecast, predicting 12 -- 18 named storms, 6 -- 10 hurricanes, 3 -- 6 major hurricanes. Tropical cyclones affected land during the 2011 season; most impacts, however, did not result in a significant loss of life or property. On June 29, Arlene moved ashore near Mexico, causing minor damage and killing 22. Roughly a month later, Tropical Storm Don made landfall in southern Texas; no damage was reported. Three deaths were reported as a result. As an extratropical cyclone, Lee caused significant damage in the form of flooding especially in New York and Pennsylvania. Most destructive cyclone of the season developed east of the Lesser Antilles on August 21. Hurricane Irene caused significant damage across many of United States Eastern Seaboard, ultimately resulting in the name's retirement. Overall, the season resulted in $18.5 billion in damage.2011 Atlantic hurricane season
87. Utah Jazz – The Utah Jazz are an American professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Jazz compete as a member club of the league's Western Conference Northwest Division. Since 1991, the team has played its home games at Vivint Smart Home Arena. The Jazz were one of the least successful teams in the league in their early years. Although 10 seasons elapsed before the Jazz qualified in 1984, they did not miss the playoffs again until 2004. Both Stockton and Malone moved on in 2003. After missing the playoffs for three consecutive seasons the Jazz returned under the on-court leadership of point guard Deron Williams. However, partway through the 2010 -- the Jazz began restructuring after Sloan's retirement and Williams' trade to the New Jersey Nets. The team has made the playoffs once since then, in 2012 under coach Tyrone Corbin. Quin Snyder was hired as coach in June 2014. On June 1974, the New Orleans Jazz were admitted as an expansion franchise into the National Basketball Association. Team officials selected the name because of its definition in the dictionary: collective improvisation. The team began its inaugural season in New Orleans in the 1974–75 season. Maravich struggled from that season onward. Venue issues were a continual problem for the team while it was based in New Orleans.Utah Jazz – Pete Maravich played for the Jazz from 1974 to 1980.
88. Puerto Rican National Basketball Team – The Puerto Rico national basketball team, represents Puerto Rico in basketball international competitions, is controlled by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation. The Puerto Rican Basketball Federation joined FIBA in 1957. It has participated in 12 World Championships, although they have never won a medal at either competition. Yet, after losing other six games back to back, ended its participation with a win over Italy, obtaining the 6th place. This still is as of 2016, the highest place it has ever reached since the team's birth at any Olympic Games. The 4 -- 3 showing in 1978 in the Philippines was the first time ever the team finished at a World Championship. These achievements were accompanied by the 1978 Central American and Caribbean Games. In all, it was able to medal in all regional competitions. The silver medal at the 1988 Americas Championship held in Montevideo, Uruguay, secured the team's Olympic participation since 1976. Puerto Rico wouldn't participate either at the 1984 Olympic Games, held in Los Angeles, because the team failed to qualify for it. During the 1990s, the team's successes continued as usual. This victory at CentroBasket was the last of a 5 gold streak at the tournament. Puerto Rico was then when Puerto Rico began to be classified as one of the top 10 international teams. The team repeated its 4th place at the 2001 FIBA Americas tournament in Argentina. In 2002, the team had a strong showing at the World Championship held in Indianapolis, USA.Puerto Rican National Basketball Team – Puerto Rico
89. National Superior Basketball League of Puerto Rico – The Baloncesto Superior Nacional is the first tier level professional men's basketball league in Puerto Rico. It was founded in 1929 and is organized by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation. The league has produced players that have distinguished themselves in the NBA, ACB, EuroLeague, other tournaments throughout the world. Among them, NBA players Butch Lee, José Ortiz, Ramón Rivas, José Juan Barea started their careers playing for BSN teams. The league began in 1930, is noted for having had several head coaches who went on to achieve international recognition later in their careers. Notable coaches who have worked for BSN teams include Gene Bartow, Lou Rossini, Del Harris, P.J. Carlesimo, Herb Brown. On October 8, 2015 the BSN owners selected Fernando Quiñones, Esq. to succeed Carlos J. Beltrán as President of the BSN. The BSN tournament is played under the regular FIBA basketball rules. The teams regularly play a total of three games amongs them. For the 2015, the regular season will extend to 44 games. Of the 12 participating teams, the top 8 move on to the postseason. The current league organization features 11 teams in a single division. He broke both the single-season points record with 810 in 1978 and the most career points record with 11,549. Rodríguez also holds the mark for most rebounds in a career with 6,178. He also held the single-season record in 1978, which stood until Lee Benson broke it in 2008.National Superior Basketball League of Puerto Rico – Baloncesto Superior Nacional De Puerto Rico
90. Dallas Mavericks – The Dallas Mavericks are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas. The Mavericks compete as a club of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division. The team plays its home games at the American Airlines Center, which it shares with the National Hockey League's Dallas Stars. According to a 2016 Forbes report, they are the ninth most valuable franchise in the NBA, valued at approximately $1.4 billion. Since their inaugural 1980 -- 81 season, the Mavericks have won one NBA Championship. Asking for a possible partner, Adkins recommended one of his clients, Gifts owner Don Carter. Carter would provide half the amount. James Garner, who played the character, was a member of the group. The University of Texas at Arlington, who also uses the Mavericks nickname, had objections about a shared name, but did not attempt any legal action. They joined the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, where they would stay until the league went to six divisions for the 2004–05 season. Dick Motta, who had guided the Washington Bullets in 1977 -- 78, was hired as the team's first coach. He had a well-earned reputation of being a stern disciplinarian, but was also a great teacher of the game. In the Mavericks' game, taking place in the brand-new Reunion Arena, the Mavericks defeated 103 -- 92. But the Mavs started the season with a 6–40 record on their way to finishing 15–67. At the time, there was absolutely no reason to expect that Davis would be any better than the expansion-level talent the Mavs had.Dallas Mavericks – Mavs' founder Don Carter
91. 2011 NBA Finals – The 2011 NBA Finals was the championship series of the 2010–11 season of the National Basketball Association and the conclusion of the season's playoffs. The Western Conference champion Dallas Mavericks defeated the Eastern Conference champion 4 -- 2, to win their first NBA title. The series was held to June 12, 2011 -- the first to start before June 1 since the 1986 NBA Finals. German player Dirk Nowitzki was named the Finals MVP. Nowitzki was the second European to win the award after Tony Parker; he is the first German to win the award. Going into the series, the Heat were heavy favorites with their newly acquired stars Chris Bosh along with returning star Dwyane Wade. The series was a rematch of the 2006 NBA Finals, won by the Heat in six games after Dallas blew a 2–0 series lead. The Game 3 winner went on to win the series. The previous 6 times this happened, the Finals ended in seven games; Dallas became the first team in NBA history to do it in six games. ABC averaged nearly 17.3 million viewers with the 2011 Finals, according to Nielsen. Both Heat made their second appearance in the NBA Finals, the first for both teams being the 2006 NBA Finals. This Finals marked a rematch of the 2006 Finals, won in six games after the Mavericks were up 2 -- 0. The Heat had home-court advantage by virtue of a better regular-season record than the Mavericks. It also marks the first time since 1995 that the Eastern Conference team lost despite having home court advantage. The 2011 series marked the first time a Finals match was played since 1986.2011 NBA Finals – 2011 NBA Finals
92. Miami Heat – The Miami Heat are an American professional basketball team based in Miami. The Heat compete as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division. They play their home games at the American Airlines Arena in downtown Miami. The owner is Micky Arison, who also owns cruise-ship giant Carnival Corporation. The head coach is Erik Spoelstra. The mascot of the team is an anthropomorphic fireball. Formed as an expansion team, the Heat have won three league championships, five conference titles and 11 division titles. From February 3 to March 2013, the Heat won 27 games in a row, the third-longest streak in NBA history. In 2016, Forbes valued the Heat among NBA franchises. In 1987 the NBA granted one of its four new expansion teams to a team formed in 1988. Upon the purchasing of the franchise by Micky Arison in 1995, Pat Riley was brought in as the team president and coach. With them they also brought in Cody Posselt, to work on shooting. Miami earned the moniker of "Road Warriors" for its remarkable 32 -- 9 record on the road. Their biggest rivals of the time were Riley's former team, who would eliminate the Heat in the playoffs from 1998 through 2000. A period of mediocrity followed after, highlighted by missing the playoffs in 2003.Miami Heat – Alonzo Mourning
93. NBA Finals – The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association played between the Western and Eastern champions of the Conference Finals. The first team to win four games in the best-of-seven series is awarded the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy. Winners from 1946 to 1983 received the Walter A. Brown Trophy redesigned in 1977 to the current form. The NBA Finals has been played at the end of America season in the first being held in 1947. Most NBA Finals series were played under the 2–2–1–1–1 format prior to 1985; the Finals returned to this format in 2014. The series was then changed from 1950 to 1982. The following two years, the league used "Showdown'83" and "Showdown'84". It returned before settling on NBA Finals in 1986. During the first decade the Minneapolis Lakers had the first NBA dynasty, winning five championships in six years under Hall of Fame head coach John Kundla. The team also featured George Mikan, one of the greatest players in NBA history. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons. They won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957, Bill Russell became the star of the league. Game 7 of the NBA Finals was decided on a Celtics basket in the final seconds of the second overtime. For most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics always seemed to have the upper hand on Wilt Chamberlain's teams.NBA Finals – The Shot O'Brien Championship Trophy.
94. Salsa (music) – Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s. Latin jazz, also developed in New York City, has had a significant influence on salsa arrangers, instrumental soloists. Salsa is primarily Cuban son, Afro-Cuban percussion, merged with North American music styles such as jazz. Salsa also occasionally incorporates elements of rock, funk. All of these non-Cuban elements are grafted onto the basic Cuban son template when performed within the context of salsa. The first salsa bands were predominantly "Cubans and Puerto Ricans" who moved since 1930's. The music eventually spread throughout the rest of the Americas. Ultimately, it became a global phenomenon. Some of the founding salsa artists were Johnny Pacheco, Ray Barretto, Rubén Blades, Willie Colón, Larry Harlow, Roberto Roena, Bobby Valentín, Héctor Lavoe. Salsa carries connotations of the spiciness common in Latin and Caribbean cuisine. In the 20th century, salsa acquired a musical meaning in both English and Spanish. In this sense salsa has been described with "vivid associations." Puerto Rican in New York have used the term analogously to swing or soul music. In this usage salsa connotes a frenzied, "hot" and wild musical experience that draws upon or reflects elements of Latin culture, regardless of the style. Various music historians have traced the use of salsa to different periods of the 20th century.Salsa (music) – Conga drums, one of the foundational instruments of salsa music.
95. Ponce, Puerto Rico – Ponce is both a city and a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico. The city is the seat of the municipal government. It is often referred to as La Ciudad de las Quenepas. It is also the regional center for various other commonwealth and federal government agencies. The municipality has a total including 12 in the urban area of the city. Ponce is a principal city of both the Ponce Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Ponce-Yauco-Coamo Combined Statistical Area. The region of what is now Ponce belonged to the Taíno Guaynia region, which stretched along the southern coast of Puerto Rico. A cacique who led the region, was among those that greeted conquistador Juan Ponce de León when he came to the island in 1508. Archeological findings have identified four sites within the municipality of Ponce with archeological significance: Canas, Tibes, Caracoles, El Bronce. During the first years of the colonization, Spanish families started settling around the Jacaguas River, in the south of the island. For security reasons, these families moved to the banks of the Rio Portugués, then called Baramaya. Starting around 1646 the whole area from the Rio Portugués to the Bay of Guayanilla was called Ponce. In 1670, a small chapel was raised in the middle of the small settlement and dedicated in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Among its earliest settlers were Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the Portuguese Don Pedro Rodríguez de Guzmán, from nearby San Germán. Captains Enrique Salazar and Miguel del Toro where also instrumental.Ponce, Puerto Rico – Ponce as seen from El Vigia, with the Caribbean Sea and Caja de Muertos in the background
96. Democratic Republic of the Congo – The Democratic Republic of the Congo, also known as DR Congo, DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or simply the Congo is a country located in Central Africa. From 1908 to 1960 it was called the Belgian Congo. It is the second-largest country in Africa by area, eleventh largest in the world. The Congolese Civil Wars, which began in 1996, devastated the country. These wars ultimately resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. Besides the capital, the other major cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi, are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting in 2012. According to the Human Development Index, DR Congo has a low level of human development, ranking 176 out of 187 countries. The country's name was restored by former president Laurent-Désiré Kabila following the fall of longtime dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997. Their propagation was accelerated to Iron Age techniques. The people living in southwest were mostly San Bushmen and hunter-gatherer groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies. The development of metal tools during this period revolutionized agriculture and animal husbandry. This led in the east and southeast. The 10th century marked the final expansion of the Bantu in West-Central Africa. Rising populations soon made possible intricate local, foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in salt, iron and copper.Democratic Republic of the Congo – Village attacked by Arab-Swahili slavers near Nyangwe, end of 19th century
97. The Rumble in the Jungle – The Rumble in the Jungle was a historic boxing event in Kinshasa, Zaire on October 30, 1974. Held at the 20th of May Stadium, it pitted the undefeated world heavyweight champion George Foreman against a former heavyweight champion. The attendance was 60,000. Ali won by knockout, putting Foreman just before the end of the eighth round. It has been called "arguably the greatest event of the 20th century". The event was one of Don King's first ventures as a professional promoter. Don King arranged Jerry Masucci, who took his famed musicians, Fania All Stars, to play at the venue. King managed to get Ali and Foreman to sign separate contracts saying they would fight for him if he could get a $ million purse. However, as King did not have the money, he began seeking an outside country to sponsor the event. Zaire's dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, eager for the publicity such a high-profile event would bring, asked for the fight to be held in his country. Although King is most closely associated with the fight, Video Techniques Inc. with whom King was a director, were the bout's official co-promoters. The fight was broadcast throughout the world. The play by commentary was done by "Colonel" Bob Sheridan. Color commentary was done by Jim Brown, Joe Frazier. Meanwhile, the heavily-muscled Foreman had quickly risen to the top ranks of professional heavyweights.The Rumble in the Jungle – The Rumble in the Jungle
98. Yankee Stadium (1923) – Yankee Stadium was a stadium located in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. The stadium hosted Yankees regular home games during its 85-year history. It was also the former home of the New York Giants team from 1956 through the first part of the 1973 -- 74 season. It has also been known as "The Cathedral of Baseball". The stadium was built from 1922 to 1923 for $2.4 million. Yankee Stadium opened for the 1923 MLB season and at the time, it was hailed as a one-of-a-kind facility in the country for its size. The stadium went through many alterations and playing surface configurations over the years. The condition of the facility worsened in the 1970s, prompting its closing from 1974 to 1975. The renovation significantly altered the appearance of the venue and reduced the distance of the outfield fences. In 2006, the Yankees began building a new $2.3 billion stadium in public parkland adjacent to the stadium. The price included $1.2 billion in public subsidies. The design includes a replica of the frieze along the roof, in Yankee Stadium. A Hall of Fame for former Yankees, was relocated to the new stadium. Yankee Stadium closed following the 2008 baseball season and the new stadium opened in 2009, adopting the "Yankee Stadium" moniker. The original Yankee Stadium was demolished in 2010, two years after it closed, the 8-acre site was converted into a park called Heritage Field.Yankee Stadium (1923) – Aerial view in August 2002.
99. Heroin – Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opiate typically used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is occasionally used to relieve pain and as a form of opioid therapy alongside counseling. Heroin is typically injected, usually into a vein; however, it can also be smoked, inhaled. Onset of effects lasts for a few hours. Common side effects include about a quarter of those who use heroin become physically dependent. Other side effects can include abscesses, infected heart valves, blood borne infections, pneumonia. After a history of long-term use, withdrawal symptoms can begin within hours of last use. When given into a vein, heroin has two to three times the effect as a similar dose of morphine. It typically comes as a brown powder. Treatment of addiction often includes behavioral therapy and medications. Medications used may include naltrexone. A overdose may be treated with naloxone. An estimated million people as of 2015 use opiates such as heroin, which together with opioids resulted in 122,000 deaths. The total number of opiate users has increased from 1998 to 2007 after which it has remained less stable. In the United States about 1.6 percent of people have used heroin at some point in time.Heroin – Diamorphine ampoules for medicinal use
100. Puerto Ricans in the United States – Puerto Ricans, either born in the states, are American citizens. The portmanteau "Nuyorican" refers in the New York City metropolitan area. Important Puerto Rican institutions have emerged from this long history. ASPIRA is now one of the largest national Latino nonprofit organizations in the United States. The government of Puerto Rico has a long history of involvement with the stateside Puerto Rican community. In July 1930, Puerto Rico's Department of Labor established an service in New York City. The strength of stateside Puerto Rican identity is fueled by a number of factors. Since 1898, Puerto Rico has been under the control of the United States, fueling migratory patterns between the island. Even during Spanish rule, Puerto Ricans settled in the US. However, it was not until the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898 that a significant influx of Puerto Rican workers to the US began. With its 1898 victory, the United States has retained sovereignty since. The 1917 Jones–Shafroth Act made all Puerto Ricans US citizens, freeing them from immigration barriers. U.S. economic interventions in Puerto Rico created the conditions for emigration, "by concentrating wealth in the hands of US corporations and displacing workers." Policymakers promoted "colonization plans and labour programs to reduce the population. US employers, often with support, recruited Puerto Ricans as a source of low-wage labour to the United States and other destinations."Puerto Ricans in the United States – José Ferrer
101. NPR – These differ from combinations, which are selections of some members of a set where order is disregarded. For example, written as tuples, there are six permutations of the set, namely:, and. These are all the possible orderings of this three set. As another example, an anagram of a word, all of whose letters are different, is a permutation of its letters. In this example, the anagram is a reordering of the letters. The study of permutations of finite sets is a topic in the field of combinatorics. Permutations occur, in almost every area of mathematics. For similar reasons permutations arise in the study of sorting algorithms in science. In particularly in group theory, a permutation of a set S is defined as a bijection from S to itself. That is, it is a function from S to S for which every element occurs once as an image value. This is related to the rearrangement of the elements of S in which each s is replaced by the corresponding f. The collection of such permutations form a group called the symmetric group of S. The key to this group's structure is the fact that the composition of two permutations results in another rearrangement. Permutations may act on structured objects by certain replacements of symbols. In elementary combinatorics, partial permutations, are the ordered arrangements of k distinct elements selected from a set.NPR – In the 15 puzzle the goal is to get the squares in ascending order. Initial positions which have an odd number of inversions are impossible to solve.
102. List of municipalities in Puerto Rico – The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is divided into barrios, though the latter are not vested with political authority. Geographically, a municipality has an urban core that consists of either a city. Urban cores above are considered cities, while those under 50,000 inhabitants are termed towns. For U.S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered "county-equivalents." These do not possess administrative functions. Every municipality is composed except for Florida which has only one barrio. The municipality of Ponce has the largest number of 31. Every municipality also has an urban area made up of one or more barrios. When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, it is called "Barrio Pueblo". Some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios: Ponce's urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. Every municipality's urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has an urban zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities' urban zones are termed "pueblo" while others are termed "ciudad". If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, then its urban zone is called a ciudad.List of municipalities in Puerto Rico – Municipalities of Puerto Rico
103. List of Puerto Rico-related topics – The main island of Puerto Rico is the least extensive of the four Greater Antilles: Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans often call the Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name. The terms borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also popularly known as "La Isla del Encanto", which translated means "The Island of Enchantment." On August 1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León establishes Capárra, the first European settlement on the island of San Juan Bautista.List of Puerto Rico-related topics – An enlargeable satellite image of Puerto Rico
104. History of Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the archipelago of Puerto Rico by the Ortoiroid people between 3,000 and 2,000 BC. Other tribes, such as the Saladoid and Arawak Indians, populated the island between 1000 AD. At the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. During the Spanish -- American War, Puerto Rico was invaded and subsequently became a possession of the United States. The first years of the 20th century were marked by the struggle to obtain greater democratic rights from the United States. However, the political status of a Commonwealth controlled by the United States, remains an anomaly. The settlement of Puerto Rico began from the Orinoco region in South America. Some scholars suggest that their settlement dates back 4000 years. The Ortoiroid were displaced from the same region that arrived on the island between 430 and 250 BC. Between the 11th centuries, the Arawak are thought to have settled the island. By approximately 1000 AD, it had become dominant. At an estimated 30 to 60 thousand Taíno Amerindians, led by the cacique Agüeybaná, inhabited the island. They called it "Borinquen "the great land of the noble Lord". The natives lived in small villages subsisted on hunting, fishing and gathering of indigenous cassava root and fruit. When the Spaniards arrived in 1493, the Taíno were already with the raiding Carib, who were moving up the Antilles chain.History of Puerto Rico – Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886)
105. Black history of Puerto Rico – The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as the Spaniards' colonization efforts. Spain's royal government began to rely on slavery to staff their fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans. When the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown longer considered the island to be a colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to earn or buy their freedom; however, this did little to help their situation. The population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were many slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising against Spanish colonial rule in what is known as the "Grito de Lares". On March 22, 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, heritage have been instrumental to Puerto Rican culture. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between the Taíno and the Spaniards. Garrido was born on the West African coast, the son of an African king. In 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore Puerto Rico and prospect for gold. Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.Black history of Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
106. African immigration to Puerto Rico – The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as a result of new infectious diseases and the Spaniards' oppressive colonization efforts. Spain's royal government began to rely on slavery to staff their mining and fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans. When the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown longer considered the island to be a high colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to buy their freedom; however, this did little to help their situation. The slave population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were many slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising in what is known as the "Grito de Lares". On March 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, art, heritage have been instrumental to Puerto Rican culture. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between Taíno the Spaniards. Garrido was born on the son of an African king. In 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore prospect for gold. Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.African immigration to Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
107. Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico – Large-scale Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico and the Caribbean began during the 19th century. Chinese immigrants had to face different obstacles that restricted their entry in Puerto Rico. When Puerto Rico was a Spanish colony, the Spanish government did not encourage settlers of non-Hispanic origin. By the 19th century, the Spanish Crown had lost most of its possessions in the Americas. Two of its remaining possessions were Puerto Rico and Cuba, which had pro-independence movements. The Spanish government, believing that the independence movements would lose their popularity, initially gave settlers "Letters of Domicile". These restrictions were lifted in the latter part of the century. Uneducated men, driven by war and starvation, made their way from China to the Americas as laborers. A large number of these unskilled workers were sold in what became known as the "coolie" trade. Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic were the last stop for many of the "coolies" before reaching their final destinations. Many of these Chinese immigrants stayed in the other two Caribbean countries. They worked in restaurants and laundries. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law which implemented the suspension of Chinese immigration. After the Spanish–American War, Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States under the conditions established by the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Chinese workers in the United States were allowed to travel to Puerto Rico.Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico – Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
108. Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico – Those of Corsican descent have played an instrumental role in the development of the economy of the island, especially in the coffee industry. Juan Fantauzzi was the first documented Corsican to immigrate to Puerto Rico. He was born about 1734 in Morsiglia, Corsica. He immigrated in the 1760s. He married Josefa Martinez. Two known children of his, are Juan Maria Fantauzzi. He died November 1798. It is his certificate that confirms his Corsican origin. Corsica is an island located southeast of France. Corsica belonged in 1768 was ceded to France to pay off debt. The island relied largely on its agricultural economy for survival. One of those changes came with the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution. Also, there was a widespread failure due to long periods of drought and crop diseases, a cholera epidemic and a general deterioration of economic conditions. Thus, many of the farms in Corsica began to fail. There was also political discontent characterized by bitter armed conflict.Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico – First row:1. Mariana Bracetti 2. Luisa Capetillo Second row: 3. Antonio Paoli 4. Antonio Mattei Lluberas
109. French immigration to Puerto Rico – Important factors which encouraged French immigration to the island was the revival of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 in the later 1800s. Therefore, the decree was circulated widely through ports and coastal cities throughout Europe. They distinguished themselves as business people, merchants, tradesmen, politicians and writers. "Louisiana" was the name given to an administrative district of New France. These islands were part of the Spanish and New World Catholic Empire, which protected the French from their English and Protestant enemy. Among them was Corsair Captain and former Royal Naval officer of the French Navy, Capt. Antoine Daubón, owner and captain of the ship L'Espiégle and another Frenchman named Captain Lobeau of the ship Le Triomphant. Among the French surnames of those who fought on the Island were: Bernard, Hirigoyan, Chateau, Roussell, Larrac and Mallet. These Frenchmen joined the thriving other French immigrants who also had fought against the English invasion with these French prisoners. These newly arrived 400 Frenchmen all sent for their families to come from France. In 1697, the Spanish Crown ceded the western half of the island of Hispaniola to the French. The Spanish part of the island was named the French named their part Saint-Domingue. The French settlers owned plantations, which required a huge amount of manpower. They imported slaves from Africa to work in the fields. However, soon the population of the slaves outgrew those of the whites.French immigration to Puerto Rico – First row: Alejandrina Benítez de Gautier • José Gautier Benítez Second row: Manuel Gregorio Tavárez • Fermín Tangüis
110. German immigration to Puerto Rico – With the passage of the Jones Act of 1917 Puerto Ricans could be conscripted to serve in the Armed Forces of the United States. As a result, Puerto Ricans have served in U.S. military installations in said country since then. Many of these soldiers married German women who eventually moved to the island with their husbands. Puerto Ricans of German descent have distinguished themselves in different fields, among them the fields of science, military. According to Professor Ursula Schmidt-Acosta, German immigrants arrived during the early 19th century. Many of these German immigrants established warehouses and businesses in the coastal towns of Fajardo, Arroyo, Ponce, Mayagüez, Cabo Rojo and Aguadilla. Not all of the immigrants were businessmen, some were teachers, skilled laborers. One of those changes came with the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution. Many people who worked the farmlands moved to the larger industrialized cities with the hope of finding better paying jobs. Unemployment were on the rise. Soon, the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states erupted, leading to the Frankfurt Parliament. Ultimately, the rather non-violent "revolution" failed. Disappointed, many Germans immigrated to the Americas and Puerto Rico, dubbed as the Forty-Eighters. The majority of these came from Alsace-Lorraine, Baden, Hesse, Rheinland and Württemberg. The Spanish Crown had lost most of its possessions in the Americas.German immigration to Puerto Rico – First row: Salvador Brau • Federico Degetau • Luis R. Esteves Völckers Second row: Virgil R. Miller • Rudolph William Riefkohl • Frederick Lois Riefkohl
111. Irish immigration to Puerto Rico – From the 16th to the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. Many of these Irish settlers were instrumental in the development of the island's hugely successful industry, vital to the island's growing economy. These Irishmen were sent to fight in support of the Dutch United Provinces. However, in 1585, motivated by religious bribes offered by the Spaniards, Stanley defected to the Spanish side, taking his many Irish regiments with him. These Irishmen who fled the English Army to join the armies of foreign nations came to be known as "Wild Geese." In the King of Spain, Carlos III sent Field Marshal Alejandro O'Reilly to Puerto Rico, to assess the state of the defenses of that colony. Some of O'Reilly's other recommendations resulted in a 20-year program of revamping San Felipe del Morro Castle in San Juan, now a World Heritage Site. O'Reilly's civilian militias had become known as the "Disciplined Militia." O'Reilly was later appointed governor of colonial Louisiana in 1769 where he became known as "Bloody O'Reilly." Later he was granted land in the vicinity of Guaynabo and O'Daly developed it into a thriving hacienda. Another fellow Irishman Miguel Kirwan became business partners in the "Hacienda San Patricio," which they named after the patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. Easily, he joined an growing and thriving embryonic immigrant community in Puerto Rico that would come to be associated with the growth of commercial agriculture. Upon his untimely death in 1781, his Jaime took over the property and helped raise Tomás' children. Jaime O'Daly was named Director of the Real Fabrica de Tabaco in Puerto Rico by the Spanish Crown. Jaime O'Daly became a successful sugar and planter.Irish immigration to Puerto Rico – Cayetano Coll y Toste • Rafael O'Ferrall • Kenneth McClintock
112. Grito de Lares – The short-lived revolt was planned by Segundo Ruiz Belvis. It began on September 23, 1868, for which it is named, spread rapidly to various revolutionary cells throughout the island. In the 1860s, the government of Spain was involved across Latin America. It had to address slave revolts in Cuba. This board, the Junta Informativa de Reformas de Ultramar would be formed by representatives of each overseas province, in proportion to their collective population. The board would meet in Madrid, then report to the Minister of State, Emilio Castelar. The Puerto Rican delegation was freely elected by those eligible to vote, in what was one of the first exercises of political openness in Spain. However, Acosta could convince the Junta that abolition could be achieved without disrupting the local economy. Betances then suggested an outright, island-wide rebellion, as soon as possible. To horror, many of the meeting's attendees sided with Betances. The Lares uprising, commonly known as the Grito de Lares, was planned well before that date. Betances called for immediate insurrection. These statements soon circulated throughout the island as dissident groups began to organize. Among them, Los Diez Mandamientos de los hombres libres written in Saint Thomas in November 1867. Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances, provided Mariana Bracetti for the Revolutionary Flag of Lares.Grito de Lares – Original Lares Revolutionary Flag Municipality of Lares highlighted in red
113. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii – Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a worldwide shortage for the product from Hawaii. Sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit the jobless, but experienced, laborers in Puerto Rico. In the 19th century Puerto Rico depended mainly on its agricultural economy. The island together with Cuba was the Spanish Crown's leading exporter of sugar, coffee, cotton. Cheap labor was provided by Puerto Ricans who depended as their only source of income. On August 1899, Hurricane San Ciriaco, with winds of over 100 miles per hour, struck Puerto Rico and, on August 22, another hurricane followed. The floods caused by 28 days of continuous rain left 3,400 dead and thousands of people without shelter, food or work. To meet the demand, plantation owners began a campaign to recruit the jobless laborers in Puerto Rico. On November 1900, the first group of Puerto Ricans consisting of 56 men, began their long journey to Maui, Hawaii. The trip was unpleasant. They first set sail from San Juan harbor to Louisiana. Once in New Orleans, they were sent to Port Los Angeles, California. From there they set sail to Hawaii. According to the "Los Angeles Times" dated December 1901, the Puerto Ricans were mistreated and starved by the shippers and the railroad company.Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii – Puerto Rico Hawaii
114. Puerto Rican migration to New York – Puerto Ricans have both immigrated and migrated to New York City. The following wave of Puerto Ricans to move to New York City did so after the Spanish–American War in 1898. That was until 1917, when the United States Congress approved Jones-Shafroth Act which gave a U.S. citizenship with certain limitations. Two months later, when Congress passed the Selective Service Act, conscription was extended both in the island and in the mainland.. It was expected that Puerto Rican men older serve in the U.S. military during World War I. The Jones-Shafroth Act also allowed thereby becoming migrants. Similar to other eastcoast cities, Puerto Ricans were the first Hispanic group to move to New York City in large numbers. According to the 2010 census, Puerto Ricans represent 5.5 % of New York State as a whole. During the 19th century, commerce existed between the ports of the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico. Ship records show that many Puerto Ricans traveled on ships that sailed to the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Many of them settled in places such as New York, Massachusetts. The earliest Puerto Rican enclave in New York City was in Manhattan. By 1850, Puerto Rico and Cuba were the only two remaining Spanish colonies in the New World. The Spanish Crown would either banish any person who promoted the independence of these two nations. Two of these exiles were Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis who together founded "The Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico" in New York.Puerto Rican migration to New York – Top Row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • Jose Ferrer Nicholas Estavillo Bottom Row Aída Álvarez • Herman Badillo • Nelson Antonio Denis
115. Politics of Puerto Rico – Legislative power is vested upon the Legislature. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico, Tribunal de Primera Instancia. There is also a Federal Court to hear cases of a federal nature or with federal jurisdiction. Puerto Rico's governor, the members of the legislature are elected every four years by popular vote. Puerto Rico's legislature is a bi-cameral body consisting of a Camara de Representantes. The members of the judicial branch are appointed with the approval of the Senate to serve until they reach age 70. Due to the status of Puerto Rico as a territory of the United States, its residents cannot vote in the U.S. presidential elections. Politics in Puerto Rico revolve around a political system. The politics of Puerto Rico are dominated by three political parties: the Partido Nuevo Progresista, the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño. Dr. Barbosa had been the leader in the Autonomist Party that favored a government for Spain. In this context, Dr. Barbosa returned to the original idea of equal footing, but this time with the constituent members of the American Republic. During the last twenty years under the Spanish flag, the local parties, with the exception of the Partido Incondicional Español embraced the idea of autonomy. The Incondicionales accepted whatever Spain had for the Crown duly recognized their support by giving aristocratic titles to the leaders. The leader of the Canadian model supported a similar development for Puerto Rico under Spain. At about the same time that the Republican Party of Puerto Rico was organized under the U.S. Luis Muñoz-Rivera organized the Federal Party.Politics of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
116. Constitution of Puerto Rico – The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is the controlling government document of Puerto Rico. It is composed of nine articles detailing the structure of the government well as the function of several of its institutions. The document also contains an specific Bill of Rights. Since Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States, the Puerto Rico Constitution is bound to adhere to the postulates of the U.S. Constitution due to the Supremacy Clause, of relevant Federal legislation due to the Territorial Clause. It was ratified by Puerto Rico's electorate in a referendum on March 1952. The President approved it by Pub.L. 82–447, 66 Stat. 327, enacted July 1952, requiring that the Bill of Right's Section 20 be stricken and that language be added to Section 3 of Article VII. On July 1952 the Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico reconvened and approved a resolution accepting the conditions established by Pub.L. 82–447, which were later ratified in a referendum held in November, 1952, by the electorate. On July 1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the constitution was in effect. In a speech on July 2013, Governor Alejandro García Padilla, despite the conditions established in Pub.L. 82-447, proclaimed that, henceforth, Sec. 20 would be deemed by his administration to be in effect. The United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution by Pub.L.Constitution of Puerto Rico – Exhibition of the Constitution at the Capitol of Puerto Rico
117. Governor of Puerto Rico – He is also the commander-in-chief of the Puerto Rico National Guard. Since 1948, the governor has been elected by the people of Puerto Rico. Prior to that, the governor was appointed either by the President of the United States. Article IV of the Constitution of Puerto Rico empowers him with the faculty to appoint officers. Law No. 104 of 1956 empowers him with the faculty to delegate functions. These two faculties in conjunction allow the governor to delegate most of his functions while continuing to be the maximum head of government. The budget is delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget while centralized planning is delegated to the President of the Planning Board. It is believed that the cacique rank was apparently established through democratic means. His importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his tribe rather than his warlord skills, since the Taínos were mostly a pacifist culture. Juan Ponce de León assumed the post in 1510. He served until, who assumed that same year. In 1914 Howard Lewis Kern from Charles City, Iowa was appointed by Woodrow Wilson to be the general. During that time Governor Kern focused on cleaning up the riff-raff, providing public health and welfare. Kern was partner in starting the International Telephone and Telegraph Company from the failing Puerto Rican Radio and Telegraph Company. His wife, Edna Francis and their first daughter, Myrna Quail resided in the governor's mansion across the street from Fortaleza.Governor of Puerto Rico – La Fortaleza is the oldest Governor's Mansion in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere
118. Puerto Rican citizenship – Puerto Rican citizenship existed before the U.S. takeover of the islands of Puerto Rico and continued afterwards. Its affirmative standing was also recognized after the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952. The United States government also continues to recognize a Puerto Rican nationality. Puerto Rican citizenship is also recognized by the Spanish Government, which recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, not "American" citizenship. It also grants Spanish citizenship to Puerto Ricans on the basis of their Puerto Rican, not American, citizenship. Section VII of this act created a Puerto Rican citizenship for the residents "born in Puerto Rico and, therefore, subject to its jurisdiction". The Puerto Rican citizenship replaced the Spanish citizenship that Puerto Ricans held in 1898. Such Puerto Rican citizenship was granted in 1897. The Spanish Government recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, "and not American," citizenship. It also provides Puerto Rican privileges not provided to citizens of several other nations. On March 1917, the Jones -- Shafroth Act was signed, collectively making Puerto Ricans United States citizens without rescinding their Puerto Rican citizenship. He declared that "if the earth were to swallow the island, Puerto Ricans would prefer American citizenship to any citizenship in the world. But long as the island existed, the residents preferred Puerto Rican citizenship." Despite these arbitrary limitations, 287 residents completed the process to forfeit the statutory recognition. In 1952, upon U.S. Congress approving the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, also reaffirmed that Puerto Rican citizenship continued in full force.Puerto Rican citizenship – Front and back pages of a Certificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship application form as provided by the Puerto Rico State Department in the Summer of 2007.
119. Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico – Every bill must be signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico to become law. Each house has its unique powers. The constitution also states that each house shall be the unique judge on the legal capacity of its members. The constitution also grants parliamentary immunity to all elected members of the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly convenes at the Capitol in San Juan. The House of Representatives is the oldest legislative body in Puerto Rico. After Puerto Rico was granted to the United States as part of the Spanish -- American War, a military government took over the island. This was until April 1900 when the U.S. Congress approved the first civil government for Puerto Rico under the federal Foraker Act. The political arrangement under the Foraker Act continued until 1917. Puerto Rico was then divided into 35 representative districts. The first Puerto Rican Senate was elected in July 1917. With the approval by U.S. Congress in July 1950 of Public Law 600, the island was divided into 40 representatives. The Constitution of Puerto Rico vests all legislative powers in the Legislative Assembly. Each house has the sole power to by the judge of the legal capacities of its members. Each House holds exclusive powers that are not given to the other.Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico
120. Senate of Puerto Rico – The Senate of Puerto Rico is the upper house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The Senate, together with the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. Every bill must be signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico in order to become law. The Senate has exclusive power to decide impeachments. Justices of the Supreme Court can not assume office by the Senate. The Senate has been meeting after the enactment of the Jones -- Shafroth Act established the body formally. The Senate of Puerto Rico was established after the signing of the Jones Act. Signed in March 1917, the act made Puerto Ricans into U.S. citizens and empowered them to have a popularly-elected Senate. This came to improve the Foraker Act, signed in 1900, which granted limited administrative and executive powers to Puerto Ricans. From 1900 to 1917, Puerto Ricans made several attempts to convince the United States into amending the Foraker Act, so they could elect their own Senate. Finally, in January 1916, Representative William Jones presented the Jones Act for other territories. It was signed by Woodrow Wilson on March 1917. In August 1917, the first Senate of Puerto Rico was sworn in. Antonio R. Barceló was chosen with Eduardo Georgetti as his Pro tempore. Also, Manuel Palacios Salazar were selected as Secretary and Sergeant at Arms respectively.Senate of Puerto Rico
121. House of Representatives of Puerto Rico – The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the bicameral territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The House, together with the Senate, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. Every bill must be signed by the governor in order to become law. The House has exclusive power to bring an indictment. Financially, all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House. The House has been meeting since 1900, after the enactment of the Foraker Act established the body formally. The House of Delegates was controlled by the Republican Party through 1904. In January 1905, the House switched to control by the Union Party, which would remain until 1924. A former prosecutor and freshman representative from San Juan, was elected to the first of three stints as Speaker. Viera Martínez was elected to his second stint as Speaker. Since the new House in 1981 was tied, it was unable to elect a Speaker, as required, by an absolute majority. During Bernazard's incumbency, he required that all House decisions and legislation be approved by consensus. Edison Misla Aldarondo, became Speaker in 1997. After he left office in 2000, he was convicted of corruption charges in federal and state courts. He was succeeded by Carlos Vizcarrondo during the 2001 -- 2004 term.House of Representatives of Puerto Rico – House of Representatives of Puerto Rico
122. Supreme Court of Puerto Rico – The Supreme Court holds its sessions in San Juan. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico was maintained in the 1952 Constitution of Puerto Rico. It is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. However, since Puerto Rico is under United States sovereignty, there is also a Federal District Court for the island. The justices are confirmed by majority vote by the Senate. One of these nine justices serves as Chief Justice; the remaining members are designated Associate Justices. This provision has been used four times in Court history. Immediately after the Constitution's ratification, the Court asked for two additional judges. During the early 1960s, the Court again petitioned for the addition of two more judges, arguing that there was a case backlog on its docket. Subsequently, during the 1970s the Court asked for its number to be reduced back to seven members, arguing that the backlog had been attended to. Finally, in 2010 a 4 -- 3 majority of the justices petitioned the Legislative Assembly to again increase the Court's membership to 9. This decision has generated controversy since it is the first time that such a request has been done from the justices. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is defined by the laws of Puerto Rico. In general, the jurisdictional structure parallels that of the state Supreme Courts in the continental United States.Supreme Court of Puerto Rico – The Supreme Court Building is at the entrance of the city of San Juan.
123. List of political parties in Puerto Rico – This article lists political parties in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico has a hybrid ` first past the post' electoral system, in which a voter can vote by candidate or both. To qualify as an political party, a party must meet the criteria set forth by the Puerto Rico Electoral Law. Principal Party of the Majority - one that obtained the majority of governor candidate votes cast in the prior general election. These organizations span the political spectrum: Movimiento Socialista de Trabajadores - Socialist Revolutionary organization, with strong bases in the trade union and student movement. Libertarian Party of Puerto Rico - Partido Libertario de Puerto Rico - Pro-Libertarianism / Formerly affiliated to the US Libertarian Party United Statehooders - Estadistas Unidos. Socialist Front - An umbrella of socialist organizations. Democratic Party of Puerto Rico - The Democratic Party of Puerto Rico is an affiliate of the Democratic Party in Puerto Rico.List of political parties in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
124. Military of Puerto Rico – The military defense of Puerto Rico is the responsibility of the United States as part of the Treaty of Paris. At the national level, the commander-in-chief is the President of the United States, currently Barack Obama. No other Air Force Bases or Naval Air Stations remain. The Puerto Rico Air National Guard longer has any fighter planes within its jurisdiction. Responsibility for the defense of Puerto Rico now rests with USAF or US Navy fighters that would be flown in case of a military emergency. The former U.S. Navy facilities at Roosevelt Roads, Sabana Seca have been deactivated and partially turned over to the local government. The coastal defense of Puerto Rico is the responsibility from ships at sea and the U.S. Coast Guard. The United States Coast Guard has a significant presence in Puerto Rico. Located on what was formerly Ramey Air Force Base, the Coast Guard maintains what is now referred to as "Coast Guard Air Station Borinquen". HH-65C helicopters operate out of Borinquen performing search-and-rescue well as law-enforcement missions. U.S. Coast Guard cutters visit Puerto Rican waters periodically in their missions of coastal search-and-rescue. U.S. Navy ships visit Puerto Rican waters on an as-required basis, just like they visit all American waters, foreign ones, too. On "La Puntilla" in Old San Juan the Coast Guard base its small, but capable fleet of several 110-foot long cutters and other patrol boats. These cutters work hand in hand with the air station responding to any mission that they may be called upon to perform. A significant number of Puerto Ricans participate for the U.S..Military of Puerto Rico – Contents
125. Independence movement in Puerto Rico – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, since 1898, from the United States. A wide variety of groups, movements, organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island. During the second half of the 20th century, the movement has attracted neither widespread support nor support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a referendum in 2012, 5.5 % voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44 % of the votes cast. Independence also received the least support, less than 4.5 % of the vote, in 1967, 1993 and 1998. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the Taíno rebellion of 1511 led by Agüeybaná II. He was joined by cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the native born, or Criollos, occurred in the 19th century. These include the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán and Sabana Grande in 1898. Many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to include Puerto Rico and Cuba.Independence movement in Puerto Rico – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
126. Geography of Puerto Rico – The main island of Puerto Rico is most eastern of the Greater Antilles. With an area of 3,515 square miles, it is the 82nd largest island in the world. Mona is uninhabited except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. It is mostly mountainous with south regions of the island. Some popular beaches on the north-west side of the island are Jobos Beach, Maria's Beach, Sandy Beach. The main range is called La Cordillera Central. The highest point of Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta, is located in this range. Another important peak is El Yunque, located at the El Yunque National Forest, with a maximum elevation of 3,494 feet. San Juan, is located on the main island's north coast. The Cordillera Central extends through the entire island, dividing it into the southern region. The region accounts for approximately 60 % of the land area. Mainly mountainous, the island of Culebra possesses renowned beaches. Located in the tropics, Puerto Rico enjoys an average temperature of 27 °C throughout the year. The seasons do not change drastically. The minimum registration is 39 ° F in Aibonito.Geography of Puerto Rico – Satellite photo of Puerto Rico
127. Municipalities of Puerto Rico – The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is divided into barrios, though the latter are not vested with political authority. Geographically, a municipality has an urban core that consists of either a city. Urban cores above are considered cities, while those under 50,000 inhabitants are termed towns. For U.S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered "county-equivalents." These do not possess administrative functions. Every municipality is composed except for Florida which has only one barrio. The municipality of Ponce has the largest number of 31. Every municipality also has an urban area made up of one or more barrios. When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, it is called "Barrio Pueblo". Some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios: Ponce's urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. Every municipality's urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has an urban zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities' urban zones are termed "pueblo" while others are termed "ciudad". If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, then its urban zone is called a ciudad.Municipalities of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
128. Puerto Rican dry forests – The Puerto Rican dry forests are a subtropical dry forest ecoregion located in southwestern and eastern Puerto Rico and on the offshore islands. They cover an area of 1,300 km2. These forests grow in areas receiving less than 1,000 mm of rain annually. Many of the trees are deciduous, losing their leaves during the dry season which normally lasts from December to July. Dry forests also exist on the off-shore islands of Cayo Santiago. The vast majority of studies have focused on the south coast - almost nothing has been published about the northeastern dry forest. Studies of the offshore islands have been limited to species lists and qualitative descriptions of the vegetation. Puerto Rican dry forests consist of short-stature, multi-stemmed trees. The canopy is largely evergreen, while the emergent layer is considerably more dry-season deciduous. Guaiacum officinale, Capparis cynophallophora are common trees in coastal dry forests. Dry forest species include Pisonia albida, Plumeria alba. Although most of the forest was destroyed for agriculture prior to the 1940s, some patches of forest which pre-date that period still exist. In addition, large areas of secondary forest have grown back on abandoned agricultural land. Unlike areas which were only lightly used, these forests on abandoned farmland have far fewer species than do natural forests. Their path to recovery remains uncertain.Puerto Rican dry forests – Puerto Rican dry forest on Caja de Muertos, south of Ponce
129. Puerto Rico Trench – The Puerto Rico Trench is located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Scientific studies have concluded that an earthquake occurring along this zone could generate a significant tsunami. The Caribbean Plate is moving to the east while the North American Plate is moving to the west. This zone explains the presence of active volcanoes over the southeastern part of the Caribbean Sea. Volcanic activity is frequent along the island southeast from Puerto Rico to the coast of South America. The Puerto Rico Trench is capable of producing earthquakes greater than magnitude 8.0. Knowledge of the tsunami risks has not been widespread among the general public of the islands located near the trench. Local governments have begun planning. In the case of the U.S. Virgin Islands, the United States government has been studying the problem for years. It is developing tsunami warning systems. On 11 the western coast of the island was hit by a major earthquake which caused a tsunami. The 1918 earthquake was caused by an left-lateral strike-slip fault near the Mona Passage. In 1953, Dominican Republic, was affected by the Santo Domingo earthquake. A 1981 tremor was felt across the island, while another in 1985 was felt in the towns of Cayey and Salinas. "The January 13, 2014 M 6.4 north of Puerto Rico occurred as a result of oblique-thrust faulting.Puerto Rico Trench – Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Lesser Antilles are on the lower left side of the view and Florida is on the upper right. The purple sea floor at the center of the view is the Puerto Rico trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
130. Operation Bootstrap – Operation Bootstrap is the name given to a series of projects which transformed the economy of Puerto Rico into an industrial and developed one. Bootstrap is still considered the economic model of Puerto Rico as the island has not been able to evolve into a knowledge economy. The island's traditional economy was based around sugarcane plantations. The Administration of Economic Development invited investment of external capital, exporting the finished products to the mainland. To entice participation, differential rental rates were offered for industrial facilities. As a result, Puerto Rico's economy shifted labor to manufacturing and tourism. Through this project, a agricultural society was transformed into an industrial working class. Although initially touted by the 1960s, Operation Bootstrap was increasingly hampered by a growing unemployment problem. As living wages in Puerto Rico rose, manpower-intensive industries faced competition from outside the United States. As of 2005 the continental United States remains Puerto Rico's major trading partner, providing 69 % of its imports. United States Department of Agriculture Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc. Progress Island U.S.A. Puerto Rican Pottery Teodoro Moscoso and Puerto Rico's Operation Bootstrap by A.W. Maldonado. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997.Operation Bootstrap – Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
131. Tourism in Puerto Rico – Other groups of tourists that visit Puerto Rico in significant numbers include French, German, Spaniards, Canadians, Mexicans, Venezuelan, Brazilians and Asian tourists. The inauguration of the Condado Vanderbilt Hotel on 16 October 1919 marked the beginning of upscale tourism in Puerto Rico. Nonstop to Puerto Rico from Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Bogota, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and New York are currently available. New direct routes from Europe and Latin America are in the works. Puerto Rico have always been indirectly competing in the Caribbean for top tourist destination. However, due to the U.S. resuming diplomatic relations, Puerto Rico's tourism industry could be in jeopardy in the near future.Tourism in Puerto Rico – Historic Old San Juan
132. Puerto Rican peso – The currencies of Puerto Rico closely follow the historic development of Puerto Rico. As a colony of the United States, Puerto Rico was granted the use of both foreign and provincial currencies. Following the Spanish colonization in 1502, Puerto Rico became an important port, with its own supply of gold. However, as the mineral reserves ran empty within the century, the archipelago's economy suffered. Between 1637, Philip IV of Spain imposed a tax which had to be paid using a revenue stamp. The situado was discontinued during the 19th century, creating an economic crisis, as a result of Mexico gaining its independence from Spain. The colonial governor in office, ordered the issue of provincial banknotes, creating the Puerto Rican peso. However, printing of these banknotes ceased after 1815. During the following decades, foreign coins became the widespread currency. In the 1870s, banknotes reemerged. On February 1890, the Banco Español de Puerto Rico was inaugurated and began issuing banknotes. The bank placed three in circulation under Spanish rule. In 1895, a Royal Decree ordered the production of provincial peso coins. On August 1898, the Spanish -- American War ended with Spain ceding Puerto Rico to the United States. The Banco Español de Puerto Rico was issued bills equivalent to the United States dollar, creating the Puerto Rican dollar.Puerto Rican peso – Bilingual 200 pesos banknote (first issue, 1904 - 1907)
133. United States dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units. The circulating money consists of Federal Reserve Notes. The U.S. dollar is money. It is the currency is the world's primary reserve currency. In many others it is the de facto currency. Anthony dollar. Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U.S.C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued. These coins are both designated as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper dollar. The pure dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle.United States dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
134. Puerto Ricans – Puerto Ricans are the inhabitants or citizens of Puerto Rico. It equate their nationality with citizenship, allegiance and culture. Over 90 % of Puerto Ricans descend from these two southern regions of Spain. Puerto Rico has also been influenced by Afro-Puerto Ricans being a significant minority. For 2009, the American Community Survey estimates give a total of 3,859,026 Puerto Ricans classified as "Native" Puerto Ricans. It also gives a total of the population being born in Puerto Rico and 201,310 born in the United States. The total population born outside Puerto Rico is 322,773. Freed African slaves were in Puerto Rico. This interbreeding was far more common in Latin America because of those Spanish and Portuguese mercantile colonial policies exemplified by the male conquistadors. All of these factors would indeed prove detrimental for the Taínos in surrounding Caribbean islands. In 1791, the slaves in Saint-Domingue, revolted against their French masters. Some Puerto Ricans are of British heritage, English people who came to reside there in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were followed from other European countries and China. During the 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico. The large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German -- occupied Europe in the 1930s and 1940s.Puerto Ricans – Royal Decree of Graces, 1815
135. Demographics of Puerto Rico – The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization especially under the Spanish Empire, slavery and economic migration. The inhabitants of Puerto Rico immediately before the European contact were part of the Arawak group of Amerindians. They called the island, themselves "Boricuas". They were named the Taíno by Christopher Columbus in 1493. The Spanish conquered assuming government in 1508, colonized it, assumed hegemony over the natives. The Taíno population dwindled due to disease, forced labor, so the Spanish began importing large numbers of slaves from Africa. Spanish men arrived on the island disproportionately to Spanish women; African and Taíno women would sometimes marry them, resulting in a mulatto or "mixed" tri-racial ethnicity. In the 18th century the number of African slaves began to dwindle on the island. The British ban on slavery resulted on Puerto Rico. Many slaves also escaped to neighboring islands. This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 at the close of the century. Emigration has been a major part of Puerto Rico's recent history as well. This continued even as its birth rate declined. The 2010 Census in fact recorded Puerto Rico's first drop in history. Puerto Rico's demographics instead more resemble those of many Eastern European countries such as Romania or Lithuania.Demographics of Puerto Rico
136. Education in Puerto Rico – Education in Puerto Rico is overseen by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Education Council. Instruction in Puerto Rico is compulsory between the ages of 18, which comprises the elementary and high school grades. Students in Puerto Rico may attend either private schools. As of 2013, the island had 1,460 public schools, 764 private schools, 606,515 K-12 students, 250,011 university students. The first school in Puerto Rico was the Escuela de Gramática. The school was established in the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed. The school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, literature, history, science, art, philosophy and theology. The educational system in Puerto Rico consists of seven categories. Other schools are referred to as Nivel Secundario. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico grants the right to an education to every citizen on the island. To this end, public schools in Puerto Rico provide free and education at the elementary and secondary levels. The public system is funded by the state and is operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education. The remaining teachers contracted on a yearly basis. Preschool education, services are free for low income families with private daycares being common and within walking distance in urban areas. Secondary education is compulsory and free regardless of income through more than 1,400 public schools.Education in Puerto Rico – This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
137. Culture of Puerto Rico – The culture of Puerto Rico is the result of a number of international and indigenous influences, both past and present. A subgroup of the Arawakan aboriginals, inhabited the Greater Antilles (comprising Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola. The Taíno culture impressed modern sociologists. There was a hierarchy of deities who inhabited the sky; Yocahu was the supreme Creator. Jurakán, was perpetually angry and ruled the power of the hurricane. Mythological figures were the gods Zemi and Maboya. Taíno Indians believed that being in the good graces of their zemis protected them in war. They therefore served cassava bread as well as beverages and tobacco as propitiatory offerings. The Taíno aboriginals had a hierarchically arranged chiefs or caciques. At the time Juan Ponce de León took possession of the Island, yucayeques, Cacique Agüeybana, was chief of the Taínos. He lived on the Guayanilla River. There was no aristocracy of lineage, nor were their titles other than those given to individuals to distinguish their services to the clan. Their complexion were average stature, dark, flowing, coarse hair, large and slightly oblique dark eyes. Both sexes painted themselves on special occasions; they wore earrings, necklaces, which were sometimes made of gold. Taíno crafts were few; stone, marble and wood were worked skillfully.Culture of Puerto Rico – 'La escuela del Maestro Cordero' by Puerto Rican artist Francisco Oller.
138. List of Puerto Rican artists – The list is divided into categories and, in some cases, sub-categories, which best describe the field for which the subject is most noted. Some categories such as "Actors, directors" are relative since a subject, a comedian may also be an actor or director. However, the custom is to place the subject's name under the category for which he/she is most noted. He has won a Pulitzer Prize, two Grammys, three Tony awards, among others. Adalberto Rodríguez, a.k.a. Z Manuel Zeno Gandía, writer; wrote La Charca, the first Puerto Rican novel. "Aguila Blanca" revolutionary. Civil rights activist; pioneer in black history who; helped awareness of the contributions by Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-Americans to society. "Jellybean Benítez", music producer and remixer Lucecita Benítez, a.k.a. "El Father", reggaeton singer Rafael José Díaz, a.k.a. "Chencho", singer, producer Carmita Jiménez, a.k.a. Florencio Morales Ramos, a.k.a. Mark Morales, a.k.a. "Prince Markie Dee", rapper, producer Noro Morales, pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader Carli Muñoz, pianist, composer, arranger, bandleader, producer. Actor Pedro Ortiz Davila, a.k.a..List of Puerto Rican artists
139. Casals Festival – The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals. The festival was founded by Pablo Casals. After implementing Operation Bootstrap, Teodoro Moscoso employed advertiser David Ogilvy to propagate the image of a people engaged in a cultural renaissance. Pablo Casals, was born to a Puerto Rican mother Pilar Defilló. Casals went to live in the French village of Prades. There he established the Prades Festival. In 1956 In 1956, Casals moved permanently to the island. He was scheduled to inaugurate the festival which bears his name. The inauguration of the festival was held in the University of Puerto Rico Theater. Even though Casals was hospitalized, the event went on as scheduled with the performance of pianist Rudolf Serkin. When the festival first started, the majority of the musicians contracted by the orchestra for the event came from the United States. Some of the exceptions to this practice were Jesus Maria Sanroma, Henry Hutchinson Sr. Fernando Valenti and Narciso Figueroa and his brothers. By 1970, the majority of the members of the festival's orchestra were Puerto Ricans. Pablo Casals died on October 1973. These two Puerto Rican artists have continued to follow the legacy of Pablo and Marta Casals, attracting many musicians for a series of concerts.Casals Festival – Pablo Casals, 1922
140. Cinema of Puerto Rico – The history of the Cinema industry in Puerto Rico begins with the US invasion of the island in 1898. At that time, the American soldiers brought cameras to record what they saw. It was not until the 1912 that Puerto Ricans would begin to produce their own films. After this, Puerto Rican cinema has developed at a slow pace. Despite this, one Academy Award nominated film. Starting in the late 1990s the Puerto Rican industry saw significant growth and the number of local productions has been on the increase every year. After the early images recorded by the American soldiers in 1898, most of the films produced in the island were documentaries. It wasn't until 1912 that Rafael Colorado D'Assoy recorded the non-documentary film titled Un drama en Puerto Rico. Other film companies formed during the time were the Porto Rico Photoplays. The Tropical Film Company was founded by a veteran filmmaker that immigrated to Puerto Rico from Spain. Even though it is known that this company had produced four films, none of them have been retrieved. This however does not negate the founding base of the Tropical Film Company in Puerto Rican Cinema. In 1934, Juan Emilio Viguié Cajas directed the first Puerto Rican film with sound titled, Romance Tropical. There is little known of the whereabouts of this film or the ones mentioned above. Los Peloteros, featured a Puerto Rican cast and was based on a real story.Cinema of Puerto Rico – Romance Tropical the first Puerto Rican film with sound and the second Spanish-speaking film in the world
141. Puerto Rican cuisine – Puerto Rican Cuisine has its root in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe, Africa and the native Taínos. Puerto Rican cuisine has been influenced by an array of cultures including their current colonizers, The United States. Locals call their cuisine criolla. By the end of the nineteenth century, the traditional Puerto Rican cuisine was well established. By 1848 La Mallorquina, opened in Old San Juan. The island's first cookbook, was published in 1849. On November 2004 a book titled Puerto Rico: Grand Cuisine of the Caribbean, was released in Spanish and English. The cookbook is a dedication to chefs sharing old and new recipes. This is due to the frequent hurricanes that Puerto Rico experiences, which destroy crops of maíz, allowing more safeguarded plants like yuca conucos to flourish. See: Spanish Cuisine Spanish / European influence is also prominent in Puerto Rican cuisine. The tradition of cooking complex stews and rice dishes in pots such as rice and beans are also thought to have originated in Europe. Olives, olive oil play a big part in Puerto Rican cooking, but can not be grown under the tropical climate of the island. The island imported most of these foods from Spain along with some herbs. Early Dutch, French, Italian, Chinese immigrants influenced not only Puerto Rican cooking as well. This great variety of traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla.Puerto Rican cuisine – Cocina Criolla can be traced back to African, Taino and Spanish inhabitants of the island.
142. Puerto Rican literature – Puerto Rican literature evolved from the art of oral story telling to its present-day status. Written works by the native islanders of Puerto Rico were repressed by the Spanish colonial government. Only those who were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the chronological history of the island were allowed to write. The first writers to express their political views to Spanish colonial rule of the island were journalists. With the Puerto Rican diaspora of the 1940s, Puerto Rican literature was greatly influenced by a phenomenon known as the Nuyorican Movement. Many Puerto Ricans have distinguished themselves as authors, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists and in all the fields of literature. The influence of Puerto Rican literature has transcended the boundaries of the rest of the world. Puerto Rican literature got off to a late start. Therefore, written works by the native islanders were punishable by prison terms or banishment. The island, which depended on an agricultural economy, had an rate of over 80 % in the beginning of the 19th century. The only people who could afford books were either appointed Spanish government officials or wealthy land owners. The poor had to resort in what are traditionally known in Puerto Rico as Coplas and Decimas. The island's first writers were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the chronological history of the island. Ponce de León II, included information on Taíno culture, particularly their religious ceremonies and language. He also covered the early exploits of the conquistadors.Puerto Rican literature – First row: Alejandro Tapia y Rivera • Alejandrina Benitez de Gautier José Gautier Benítez Second row: Eugenio María de Hostos • Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira Teresita A. Levy
143. Music of Puerto Rico – The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. Puerto Rican music today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from essentially indigenous genres like bomba to recent hybrids like reggaeton. Their music, from salsa to the boleros of Rafael Hernández, can not be separated from culture of Puerto Rico itself. Nevertheless, this entry will emphasize culture as it has flourished on the island; readers should naturally consult other entries for genres like salsa. Culture in Puerto Rico during the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries is poorly documented. Certainly it included Spanish church music, diverse genres of dance music cultivated by the jíbaros and enslaved Africans and their descendants. While these later never constituted more than 11% of the island's population, they contributed some of the island's most dynamic musical features becoming distinct indeed. The African people of the island used drums made of carved harwood covered with an untreated rawhide on one side, commonly made from goatskin. Jibaros are small farmers of primarily Hispanic descent—constituted the overwhelming majority of the Puerto Rican population until the mid-twentieth century. They are traditionally recognized as romantic icons of land cultivation, self-sufficiency, hospitality, love of song and dance. Their instruments were relatives of the lesser known tiple. A typical group nowadays might feature a cuatro, guitar, percussion instrument such as the güiro scraper and/or bongo. Lyrics to music are generally in the décima form, consisting of ten octosyllabic lines in the rhyme scheme abba, accddc. Décima form derives from 16th-century Spain. In between the décimas, lively improvisations can be played on the cuatro.Music of Puerto Rico – Manuel Gregorio Tavárez
144. Sports in Puerto Rico – One of the sports which the Taíno's played was a game called "Batey". The Spanish Conquistadores who conquered the island introduced various sports such as horse racing, cockfighting, a game similar to "Bowling" called "Boliche". The Spaniards however did not participate in team sports. Spain ceded Puerto Rico as a result of their defeat in the 1898 Spanish -- American War. Puerto Rico participates in the Olympics as an independent nation even though it is a territory of the United States. Puerto Rico has participated as such since the 1948 Summer Olympics celebrated in London. On March 2, 1917, Puerto Ricans became citizens of the United States as a result of the enactment of the Jones–Shafroth Act (Pub.L. 64–368, 39 Stat. 951. However, the two most important of these sports were ball playing. The game was played in a field, which they called "Batey", situated in the middle of the village. The fields were either shaped like a triangle or like a "U". The ball was made of vegetable leaves, which gave flexibility. Two teams played against each other. The objective of the game was to keep the ball in constant motion. The players were allowed to use their heads, elbows, knees.Sports in Puerto Rico – First row: Wilfredo Gómez • Orlando Cepeda Ivan Rodriguez • Juan Evangelista Venegas Second row: Gigi Fernández • Lisa Fernandez • Carlos Arroyo • Victor Cruz Third row: Félix Trinidad
145. List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico – This is a list of the endemic fauna of Puerto Rico. This list is sorted by the scientific name of the species, which are in parentheses. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press. ISBN 0-8477-0243-X.List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico – Elfin-woods warbler
147. List of birds of Vieques – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. It has a total area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques. Some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list. Tags are used to describe this information for each species. This list's taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of each species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. Order: Phaethontiformes Family: Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers.List of birds of Vieques – Vieques Island from the air
148. Monito gecko – The Monito gecko is a lizard, a species of gecko endemic to the island of Monito, in the archipelago of Puerto Rico. It was discovered in May 1974 when an egg were collected from the island of Monito. In 1982, a survey was conducted to establish the population size of the species. A total of 18 individuals were observed. For these reasons the species was placed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Subsequent studies proved that the Monito gecko is more closely related to a species common throughout the Puerto Rican Bank. Due to the rarity of the species biological information is limited. The Monito gecko is light-gray to tan with darker spots on top of the body. The maximum length for this species is 36 mm from snout to vent. Information on the diet of the Monito gecko is currently unavailable but it is believed that, similar to other geckos, it carnivore. It is estimated that breeding season lasts from March to November. It is believed that females lay two eggs that hatch in 2 to 3 months. Contrary to the majority of geckos, it is diurnal. List of amphibians and reptiles of Puerto Rico Fauna of Puerto Rico List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico Tolson. "Sphaerodactylus micropithecus".Monito gecko – Monito gecko
149. Puerto Rican crested anole – The Puerto Rican crested anole is the nominate subspecies of a species of anole belonging to the Polychrotidae family of reptiles. This lizard has been introduced into eastern Hispaniola, Dominica, Florida. These lizards typically spend their time perched on tree trunks, coming to the ground to forage for insects and fruit. Coloration can shift in reaction to temperature and behavioral state. They are not related to true chameleons. They have a crest along the tail, probably serving as means for males to demonstrate dominance in a contest for a female. The male has a yellow-orange dewlap, also used in determining dominance when attempting to control territory. They can occasionally grow up to 10 inches. When defending its territory, this anole will display its dewlap and perform "push-ups" to establish dominance. Males aggressively defend territories when mating, but only rarely does this result in physical combat. As a defense against predators, they autotomize their tails. The Puerto Rican crested anole is found throughout Puerto Rico, excepting some of the mountainous regions of the island. They are also found on some offshore islands of Puerto Rico. Anoles have been introduced into eastern Dominican Republic. They are sold globally in the pet trade.Puerto Rican crested anole – Puerto Rican crested anole
150. Mona ground iguana – The Mona ground iguana is a subspecies of the rhinoceros iguana. It is the largest native terrestrial lizard in Puerto Rico. The Mona iguana is a subspecies of rhinoceros iguana belonging to the genus Cyclura. It was named by Thomas Barbour and G.K. Noble as a species in 1916. In 1937, Barbour considered it to be a subspecies of Cyclura cornuta. Its generic name is derived from the Greek cyclos meaning "circular" and ourá meaning "tail", after the thick-ringed tail characteristic of all Cyclura. Stejnegeri honors Leonhard Hess Stejneger, who, when writing his Herpetology of Porto Rico in 1902, suspected this was a new species. Debate continues as to whether this is a valid subspecies and not a different species in its own right. It is known in some scientific circles as Cyclura stejnegeri. Still, others consider a regional variant of the parent species. The Mona iguana is a large-bodied, heavy-headed lizard with strong legs and a vertically flattened tail, capable of reaching 1.22 metres in length. A crest of horned scales extends from the nape of the neck to the tip of the tail. The color is a gray to olive drab with slight brown or blue colorations. Juveniles differ from adults in that they have gray transverse bands across their bodies.Mona ground iguana – Mona ground iguana
151. Flag of Puerto Rico – The flag of Puerto Rico represents and symbolizes the island of Puerto Rico and its people. This flag was used in the island, known as "El Grito de Lares". The color of the triangle, used by the administration of Luis Muñoz Marín was the dark blue. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see the flag of Puerto Rico with different shades of blue displayed in the island. Several Puerto Rican flags, with darker shades than blue were aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during its flight into outer space on March 15, 2009. The conquistadores under the command of Juan Ponce de León proceeded to settle the island. They carried as their military standard the "Expedition Flag". The Spanish Army designed the "Cross of Burgundy Flag" and adopted it as their standard. This flag flew wherever there was a military installation. The movement in Puerto Rico gained momentum with the liberation successes of Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín in South America. The materials for the flag were provided by Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, named Treasurer of the revolution by Betances. The "Revolutionary Flag of Lares" was used in what became known as El Grito de Lares. The original Lares flag was taken by a Spanish officer as a war prize. Many years later it was transferred to the Puerto Rican people. It is now exhibited in the University of Puerto Rico's Museum.Flag of Puerto Rico – A photograph of the Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
152. Transportation in Puerto Rico – It is funded primarily with both federal government funds. Puerto Rico has a total including one in each of the smaller islands of Vieques and Culebra. The main airport consists of two runways and three concourses. Puerto Rico has 21 airports of which: 3 airports with more than 10,000 ft of runway. 3 airports with runways ranging between 5,000 ft and 8,000 ft. 15 airports with less than 5,000 ft of runway. Puerto Rico also has 8 airports with unpaved runways, all of which have less than 5,000 ft of runway. This transportation/trade restriction includes Puerto Rico per the Jones Act of 1920. It is the main port of the island. Port of Ponce - The second largest port in Puerto Rico and can handle both freight/cargo and cruise ships. It is currently undergoing a significant expansion, with plans to convert it to an international hub. Port of Mayagüez - The third largest port in Puerto Rico. It is mainly used for freight/cargo ships but has also been used for cruise ships. The following are minor harbors used for small freight/cargo ships, fishing vessels, private boats/yachts: Guánica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Fajardo, Culebra, Vieques. There are ferries between Fajardo, Culebra and Vieques; between San Juan and Cataño; and between Caja de Muertos.Transportation in Puerto Rico – 19th century train station in Yauco
153. Rail transport in Puerto Rico – This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series. Rail transport in Puerto Rico currently consists of a 10.7-mile passenger system in the island's metropolitan area of San Juan. Its history can be traced back with the construction of a limited passenger line in Mayagüez. However, the entire system was soon overshadowed by the 1950s was completely abandoned. Small remnants of this system still exist in some parts of some conserved for tourism purposes. The simple street system consisted of small wagons on rails pulled by horses, connected the center part of the town with the Playa sector. It faced numerous difficulties, including poor street conditions, which were troublesome for the animals. The new system operated more efficiently, offering more stops, including one in the town Market Place and another in the Guanajibo neighborhood. It lasted until 1912, when the Mayagüez Tramways Anonymous Society was replaced by the Mayagüez Tramway Company in 1913. The third operator of the system introduced new larger electric-powered cars, although the service was now limited from the Playa sector directly to the Balboa neighborhood. This system was the beginning of colonization of the hinterland of the walled city of San Juan. In 1901, the San Juan Light & Transit Co. replaced the tram by a new electric tram system. The paradas along the avenue were numbered, from 1 in Old San Juan to 40 in Río Piedras. The numbers became so identified with the locations that some street maps still show them today. In 1911 a new line going through Condado in Santurce is constructed by the Porto Rico Railway, Light & Power Co.Rail transport in Puerto Rico – Railroad map of Puerto Rico, 1924.
154. List of Puerto Ricans – In some cases, sub-categories, which best describe the field for which the subject is most noted. Some categories such as "Actors, actresses, directors" are relative since a subject, a comedian may also be an actor or director. However, the custom is to place the subject's name under the category for which he/she is most noted. He has won a Pulitzer Prize, two Grammys, an Emmy, three Tony awards, among others. Adalberto Rodríguez, a.k.a. Z Manuel Zeno Gandía, writer; wrote La Charca, the first Puerto Rican novel. "Aguila Blanca" revolutionary. Civil rights activist; pioneer in black history who; helped raise awareness of the contributions by Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-Americans to society. "Jellybean Benítez", music producer and remixer Lucecita Benítez, a.k.a. "El Father", reggaeton singer Rafael José Díaz, a.k.a. "Chencho", singer, producer Carmita Jiménez, a.k.a. Florencio Morales Ramos, a.k.a. Mark Morales, a.k.a. "Prince Markie Dee", rapper, producer Noro Morales, pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader Carli Muñoz, pianist, composer, arranger, bandleader, producer. "Shalim", actor Pedro Ortiz Davila, a.k.a..List of Puerto Ricans
156. Scouting in Puerto Rico – Scouting in Puerto Rico has a long history, from the 1920s to the present day, serving both boys and girls. Several campsites are maintained by these organizations. Puerto Rican Boy Scouting is served by the Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America. The council serves 3,500 volunteers in more than 300 units. Borikén District, based in Caguas, covers the eastern area of Puerto Rico, from Aibonito to Ceiba. Caribe District, based in Ponce, covers the southern area of Puerto Rico from Yauco to Patillas. Guaitiao District, based in San Juan, covers the northeastern area of Puerto Rico, from Guaynabo to Fajardo. Majagua District, based in Bayamón covers the north-northeastern area of Puerto Rico from Vega Alta to Bayamón. Yagüeka District, based in Mayagüez, covers the western area of Puerto Rico, from Isabela to Sabana Grande. Puerto Rico is the only council of the BSA where the Spanish translation is in primary usage. 1938 marked the inauguration of Puerto Rico's main camp center. It is located on the shores of Guajataca Lake, from which the camp takes its name. Since then the camp has seen many changes, both in structure and program. Leaders who visit are lodged in one of the ten campsites, in-campsite cabins or stand-alone cabin campsites of the reservation. These campsites feature a series of concrete-and-wood cabins that house its campers.Scouting in Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico Council of the Boy Scouts of America
157. Piragua (food) – A Piragua /pɪˈrɑːɡwə/ is a Puerto Rican shaved ice dessert, shaped like a pyramid, consisting of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup. Piraguas are sold by vendors, known as piragüeros, in colorful pushcarts. Besides Puerto Rico, Piraguas can be found in the United States mainland areas, such as Central Florida, which have large Puerto Rican communities. In most Spanish-speaking countries, the piragua means pirogue, a small, flat-bottomed boat. In Puerto Rico the piragua refers to a frozen treat made of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup. Unlike the American cone, round and resembles a snowball, the piragua is pointy and shaped like a pyramid. The piragua is derived from the combination of the Spanish words "pirámide" and "agua". In Latin America, frozen treats similar to the piragua are known by different names. The vendor is known as the "piragüero". Most piragüeros sell their product from a wooden pushcart that carries an umbrella, instead of from a fixed stand or kiosk. The piragüero makes the treats from the shavings off a block of solid ice, located inside his cart and mixtures of fruit-flavored syrups. The tropical syrup flavors vary to passion fruit and guava. In the process of preparing a piragua, the piragüero shaves the ice from the block of ice with a Hand Ice Shaver. He then uses a funnel shaped tool, which resembles a cone-pyramid, to give it the distinctive pyramid shape. The piragüero finishes making the piragua when he pours the desired flavored syrup.Piragua (food) – Young girl eating a "Piragüa" in Puerto Rico