1. Caribbean – The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest. The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, politically, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is also in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and AntiguaCaribbean – Cayo de Agua in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela.
2. Greater Antilles – The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands. The Greater Antilles constitute nearly 90% of the mass of the entire West Indies. The remainder of the land belongs to the archipelago of the Lesser Antilles, the Lucayan Archipelago is not considered to be a part of the Antilles archipelagoes but rather of the North Atlantic. Cohen, S. Groene, J. Werner, L. Vladimir, hiller, H. L. Caribbean, The Greater Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean, Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics, Ecology, Evolution, oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. A Brief History of the Caribbean, new York, Facts on File,1992. Media related to Greater Antilles at Wikimedia CommonsGreater Antilles – Location within the Caribbean.
3. Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainlandPuerto Rico – A Taíno Village at the Tibes Ceremonial Center.
4. Culebra, Puerto Rico – Isla Culebra is an island-municipality of Puerto Rico. It is located approximately 17 miles east of the Puerto Rican mainland,12 miles west of St. Thomas and 9 miles north of Vieques, Culebra is spread over 5 wards and Culebra Pueblo, the downtown area and the administrative center of the city. Residents of the island are known as Culebrenses, with a population of 1,818 as of the latest census, it is Puerto Ricos least populous municipality. Originally called Isla Pasaje and Isla de San Ildefonso, Culebra is also known as Isla Chiquita, some sources claim that Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive at the island during his second voyage in 1493. It is believed that the island was populated by Carib Indians during the colonization, after Agüeybaná and Agüeybaná II led the Taíno rebellion of 1511, Taíno Indians from the main island sought refuge on Culebra and allied with Caribs to launch random attacks at the island estates. After that, the island was abandoned for centuries. During the era of Spanish commerce through the Americas, it was used as a refuge for pirates, as well as local fishermen and sailors. Some sources mention an Englishman named Stevens, who was put in charge of Culebra in 1875 by the Spanish crown to protect the island from foreigners, Culebra was then settled by Cayetano Escudero Sanz on October 27,1880. This first settlement was called San Ildefonso, to honor the Bishop of Toledo, two years later, on September 25,1882, construction of the Culebrita Lighthouse began. It was completed on February 25,1886 which made it the oldest operating lighthouse in the Caribbean until 1975, in 1902, Culebra was integrated as a part of Vieques. One year later, on June 26, President Theodore Roosevelt established the Culebra Naval Reservation, a bird refuge was established on February 27,1909. In 1939, the U. S. Navy began to use the Culebra Archipelago as a gunnery and this was done in preparation for the United States involvement in World War II. In 1971 the people of Culebra began protests, known as the Navy-Culebra protests, four years later, in 1975, the use of Culebra as a gunnery range ceased and all operations were moved to Vieques. Culebra was declared an independent island municipality in 1917, the first democratically elected government was put into place in 1960. Prior to this, the government of Puerto Rico appointed delegates to administer the island, Culebra is an archipelago consisting of the main island and twenty-three smaller islands that lie off its coast. The largest of these cays are, Culebrita to the east, Cayo Norte to the northeast, the smaller islands include Cayo Ballena, Cayos Geniqui, Arrecife Culebrita, Las Hermanas, El Mono, Cayo Lobito, Cayo Botijuela, Alcarraza, Los Gemelos, and Piedra Steven. Islands in the archipelago are arid, meaning they have no rivers or streams, all of the fresh water is brought from Puerto Rico via Vieques. Culebra is characterized by an irregular topography resulting in a long intricate shoreline, the island is approximately 7 by 5 milesCulebra, Puerto Rico – M4A3E8 Sherman tank at Flamenco Beach.
5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. Treaty – A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty typically begins with a preamble describing the parties and their joint objectives in executing the treaty. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a very long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability. The end of the preamble and the start of the agreement is often signaled by the words have agreed as follows. After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the actual agreement. Each article heading usually encompasses a paragraph, a long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one nine hundred. If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, the signatures of the parties representatives follow at the very end. Bilateral treaties are concluded between two states or entities, each of these treaties has seventeen parties. These however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties, the parties are divided into two groups, the Swiss and the EU and its member states. The treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU, a multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes rights and obligations between each party and every other party, Treaties of mutual guarantee are international compacts, e. g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are essentially caveats to an acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i. e. a party cannot add a reservation after it has already joined a treatyTreaty – The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian
7. Saint John the Baptist – John the Baptist, also known as John the Baptizer, was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. John is revered as a religious figure in Christianity, Islam, the Baháí Faith. He is called a prophet by all of these traditions, and is honoured as a saint in many Christian traditions, John used baptism as the central symbol or sacrament of his messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus, scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus early followers had previously been followers of John. John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus, according to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, John is also identified with the prophet Elijah. John the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels and the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes, the Synoptic Gospels describe John baptising Jesus, in the Gospel of John it is implied in John 1, 32-34. The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah about a messenger being sent ahead, John is described as wearing clothes of camels hair, living on locusts and wild honey. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, and says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, Jesus comes to John, and is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how, as he emerges from the water, the heavens open, a voice from heaven then says, You are my Son, the Beloved, with you I am well pleased. Later in the gospel there is an account of Johns death and it is introduced by an incident where the Tetrarch Herod Antipas, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It then explains that John had rebuked Herod for marrying Herodias, Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who liked to listen to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a righteous and holy man. The account then describes how Herods daughter Herodias dances before Herod, when the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, and his head is delivered to her, at her request, Johns disciples take the body away and bury it in a tomb. There are a number of difficulties with this passage, the Gospel wrongly identifies Antipas as King and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod. Although the wording clearly implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as Herods daughter, Herodias. Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is difficult, many see this as the original version, corrected in later versions and in Matthew. Josephus says that Herodias had a daughter by the name of Salome, scholars have speculated about the origins of the storySaint John the Baptist – John the Baptist Preaching in the Wilderness by Anton Raphael Mengs, 1760
8. List of United States cities by population – The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States. As defined by the United States Census Bureau, an incorporated place includes a variety of designations, including city, town, village, borough, a few exceptional Census Designated Places are also included in the Census Bureaus listing of incorporated places. Consolidated city-counties represent a type of government that includes the entire population of a county. Some consolidated city-counties, however, include multiple incorporated places and this list presents only that portion of such consolidated city-counties that are not a part of another incorporated place. A different ranking is evident when considering U. S. metropolitan area populations, the following table lists the 304 incorporated places in the United States with a population of at least 100,000 on July 1,2015, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau. A city is displayed in if it is a state or federal capital. Five states—Delaware, Maine, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming—do not have cities with populations of 100,000 or more, smaller incorporated places are not included. The mean density is 4,128.21 inhabitants per square mile, the median is 3,160.85 inhabitants per square mile. The following table lists the five municipalities of Puerto Rico with a greater than 100,000 on July 1,2016. Census-designated places with populations of at least 100,000 according to the 2010 Census, a CDP is a concentration of population identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes. CDPs are delineated for each decennial census as the counterparts of incorporated places such as cities, towns. CDPs are populated areas that lack separate municipal government, but which otherwise physically resemble incorporated places, unlike the incorporated cities in the main list, the US Census Bureau does not release annual population estimates for CDPs. S. Cities that, in past censuses, have had populations of at least 100,000 but have since decreased beneath this threshold or have been consolidated with or annexed into a neighboring city. The percent decline in population from its peak Census count to the most recent Census estimate in 2015, any additional notes of significant importance. Demographics of the United States United States Census Bureau List of U. S. SList of United States cities by population – Population tables of U.S. cities
9. Guaynabo, Puerto Rico – Guaynabo is a municipality in the northern part of Puerto Rico, located in the northern coast of the island, north of Aguas Buenas, south of Cataño, east of Bayamón, and west of San Juan. Guaynabo is spread over 9 wards and Guaynabo Pueblo, Guaynabo is considered, along with its neighbors – San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón, Carolina, Cataño, Trujillo Alto and Toa Baja – to be part of the San Juan metropolitan area. It is also part of the larger San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area, the municipio has a land area of 27.13 square miles and a population of 97,924 as of the 2010 census. The first European settlement in Puerto Rico, Caparra, was founded in 1508 by Juan Ponce de León in land that is part of Guaynabo. Ponce de León resided there as first Spanish governor of Puerto Rico and this settlement was abandoned in 1521 in favor of San Juan. The ruins of Caparra remain and are a U. S. National Historic Landmark, the Museum of the Conquest and Colonization of Puerto Rico, which features artifacts from the site and others in Puerto Rico, is located on the grounds. The municipality of Guaynabo was founded in 1769 by Pedro R. Davila, previously, the municipality was known as Buinabo, a name that means in Taíno Aquí hay otro lugar de agua dulce or Here is another place of fresh water. El Nuevo Día, Chrysler, Santander Securities, Puerto Rico Telephone, wAPA-TV and Univision Puerto Rico have their main studios in Guaynabo. Iberias San Juan-area offices are in Guaynabo, the Conquistadores de Guaynabo, or Guaynabo Conquistadores, are the Guaynabo Mets replacement and still play in the Mario Morales Coliseum. The Mets de Guaynabo are the womens volleyball team that play in the LVSF. They have not won any championships yet and they also play in the Mario Morales Coliseum. Guaynabo Fluminense FC is Guaynabos professional soccer team plays in the Puerto Rico Soccer League. The league started in 2008 and Guaynabos current position in the league is 4th place and it was at the same year that the Puerto Rico Soccer League was starting to take place. In the 2009 season, Guaynabo Fluminense FC moved to the Sixto Escobar Stadium, the Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Metropolitan Detention Center, Guaynabo in Guaynabo. Some regions of the city belong to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district I while others belong to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district II, both of the Districts are represented by two Senators. Professional Hospital Guaynabo located on Felisa Rincón Avenue, is the newest hospital infrastructure built in Puerto Rico, Guaynabo is the only city in Puerto Rico to have a hospital specialized in advanced vascular surgery. Some of the first and newest procedures performed in Puerto Rico during 2009 were done in Professional Hospital Guaynabo, the Japanese Language School of Puerto Rico, a weekend Japanese school, previously held its classes in GuaynaboGuaynabo, Puerto Rico – Guaynabo's Central Business District
10. Caguas, Puerto Rico – Caguas is located 20 miles from San Juan and 40 miles from Ponce. It is known as El Valle del Turabo or La Ciudad Criolla, Caguas is both a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. Caguas was founded on January 1,1775 as San Sebastián del Piñal de Caguax, Caguax was a local Taíno chief and early convert to Christianity. Caguas construction was finished in 1779, in 1820 it was declared a valley, in 2002, Caguas was the site of the 2002 USAF Hercules air disaster. Caguas is located in the largest valley in Puerto Rico, the Valle de Caguas which it shares with Gurabo and part of Aguas Buenas. It is located approximately 30 minutes from the coastline both on the east and the north, and is divided from the Gurabo portion of the valley by the river of the same name. It is east of Aguas Buenas and Cidra, north of Cayey, south of San Juan and it also shares borders with Guayama and Patillas via a five-point border, with Cayey and San Lorenzo. At this point there are two tall antennas which provide signal to Puerto Ricos principal TV stations such as WKAQ-TV and WAPA-TV, no road passes exactly at this point, and it can be approached nearby through Puerto Rico Highway 184. Being a valley, Caguas has the distinction of being relatively flat except near the borders with all the mentioned municipalities except Gurabo, the Río Grande de Loíza divides this municipality from Gurabo. Other Rivers, Río Turabo, Río Caguitas, Río Cañaboncito, Río Bairoa and Río Cañas. The climate is classified as a Tropical monsoon climate, meaning the mean temperature from month to month is never less than 64.4 °F. Rainfall is common in relative abundance throughout most of the year, the land, however, is fertile and deep. Three of the first five Puerto Ricans that played Major League Baseball in the U. S. at one point in their careers played for the Criollos de Caguas, the Criollos de Caguas basketball team, founded in 1968 by Dr. Héctor Tato Dávila and Lcdo. Libertario Pérez Rodríguez, hasnt enjoyed as much success as their baseball counterparts, however in the early 2000s, they showed a lot of progress by reaching the national playoffs various times. The team is a member of the BSN, in 2006, the team won its first BSN national basketball championship, defeating Flor Melendez and his Santurce Crabbers in five games. The Criollas de Caguas womens volleyball team has won 9 national Puerto Rico titles and has made it to the more than 15 times. The team is a member of the Liga de Voleibol Superior Femenino, in September 2005 City Mayor William Miranda Marin levied the first Municipal tax in Puerto Rico via city ordinance. Area Merchants now charge a one cent tax for every dollar spent on all retail businesses, the tax has become known around the island as the Willie TaxCaguas, Puerto Rico – Flag
11. Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico – Trujillo Alto is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the Northern Coastal Plain and in the karst zone, north of Caguas, and Gurabo, southeast of San Juan, and west of Carolina. Trujillo Alto is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Area, which includes the municipalities of Bayamón, Guaynabo, Cataño, the city is spread over 6 wards and Trujillo Alto Pueblo. It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area, Trujillo Alto was officially founded in 1801, but gained more importance during the 20th Century. Due to its proximity to the capital, San Juan, the city has become a suburb of the metropolitan area, the population of Trujillo Alto has increased through the last century from 9,576 to 74,482. According to the 2010 Census, it is Puerto Ricos tenth most populated municipality, in 1953-54, the Carraízo hydroelectric dam was constructed in Trujillo Alto by the Sumner Sollitt Construction Company of Chicago, under contract by the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority. The dam forms the Loíza Lake, a reservoir which serves as the source of the water supply for San Juan. The region of what is now Trujillo Alto belonged to the Taíno region of Cayniabón, the region was led by cacique Canobaná. Archeological findings have identified two sites within the municipality of Trujillo Alto with archeological significance, Las Cuevas, which was studied by Irving Rouse, after the Spanish colonization, families started settling at both sides of the Río Grande de Loíza. During the 17th Century, Spanish crown granted Alonso Pizarro Hermona, from Trujillo in Spain, residents began using his family name to refer to the location. Eventually, the inhabitants went to the Governor and asked for permit to build a chapel, despite some opposition, Trujillo Alto was founded on January 8,1801 under the name of Santa Cruz de Trujillo. Around 1820, the name of Trujillo Alto was more used to differentiate the town from that of Trujillo Bajo, in 1826, communication to and from the town improved with the construction of two bridges, one into Río Piedras, and the other into Río Grande. In 1844, Trujillo Alto was composed of five wards. A few years later, the first school was built, during that time, population decreased notably due to an epidemic of cholera. In 1902, the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico approved a law for the consolidation of certain municipalities, as a result, Trujillo Alto was incorporated to the town of Carolina. However, in 1905 a new law revoked the previous one, the proximity of the city to the capital, San Juan, has sparked a significant growth and development in the region. During the 20th Century, the population of Trujillo Alto has increased dramatically, as of 2010, the city is the tenth most populous city of Puerto Rico. Mayor José Luis Cruz Cruz, who has been serving since 2009, has labeled the city as The New Metropolis, Trujillo Alto sits on the Northern Coastal Plain region of Puerto Rico. It is bordered by the municipalities of San Juan, Carolina, Gurabo, Trujillo Alto is a small municipality, covering only 21.47 square milesTrujillo Alto, Puerto Rico – Flag
12. San Juan ship dock – The Port of San Juan is a seaport facility located in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The Port of San Juan is the name used to call various passenger. The port is composed of a total of sixteen piers, of eight are used for passenger ships. The ports facilities, in addition to, Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, the municipalities of Cataño, Guaynabo and San Juan compose the south side of the bay and port. The Port of San Juans cargo facilities are located on the portion of San Juan Bay. Of the approximately eight cargo terminals, five are located in the Puerto Nuevo district of San Juan, the cargo facilities allow for more than 500,000 square feet of space for loading and unloading cargo. The Port of San Juans passenger facilities are located along San Antonio Canal, of the 15 piers in the channel, four accommodate cruise ships while others serve cargo vessels and the La lancha de Cataño. The Cataño ferry provides multiple daily round-trips from San Juan to Cataño, during the late 1980s, ferry service covered the San Juan area and the trip lasted approximately one hour. The service departed and arrived at the Old San Juan docks, while most cargo ships dock on the south side of the bay, cruise ships arrive at one of the four cruise piers located along San Antonio Canal. This arrangement allows tourists to walk to major attractions such as Old San Juan, the short distance between the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport and the cruise ship docks is 7 miles and makes the area a prime location for cruise companies. Cruise ship companies, such as Carnival Cruises and Royal Caribbean prefer this setting, some of the most recognized ships to have docked at the Port of San Juan during the late 1970s and early 1980s, were the Carla C, and Cunards Countess and Princess ships. Transportation in Puerto Rico Port of Mayagüez Port of Ponce Puerto Rico Port Authoritys page Estuario de la Bahia de San Juan Norwegian Cruises to San JuanSan Juan ship dock – The Port of San Juan is one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean and Latin America.
13. Tourism in Puerto Rico – Tourism in Puerto Rico attracted 4.2 million visitors in 2013 and 4 million visitors in 2011, a notable increase over 2010 at 3. The fact that visitors from the United States do not need a passport to enter Puerto Rico attracts a number of tourists from the mainland United States each year. Other groups of tourists that visit Puerto Rico in significant numbers include French, German, Spaniards, Canadians, Mexicans, Venezuelan, Brazilians, the inauguration of the Condado Vanderbilt Hotel on 16 October 1919 marked the beginning of upscale tourism in Puerto Rico. The tourism industry is expected to moderate levels of growth in 2014, driven primarily by the introduction of new lines and airfare activity. Nonstop flights to Puerto Rico from Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Bogota, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, New direct routes from Europe and Latin America are in the works. Cuba and Puerto Rico have always been indirectly competing in the Caribbean for top tourist destination, however, due to Cuba and the U. S. resuming diplomatic relations, Puerto Ricos tourism industry could be in jeopardy in the near future. Luquillo, Home to several beaches, including Balneario La Monserrate, Playa Azul, La Pared, mayagüez, home of the Dr. Juan ATourism in Puerto Rico – Historic Old San Juan
14. Ponce, Puerto Rico – Ponce is both a city and a municipality in the southern part of Puerto Rico. The city is the seat of the municipal government, Ponce, Puerto Ricos most populated city outside the San Juan metropolitan area, is named for Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the great-grandson of Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce is often referred to as La Perla del Sur, La Ciudad Señorial, the city serves as the governmental seat of the autonomous municipality as well as the regional hub for various Government of Puerto Rico entities, such as the Judiciary of Puerto Rico. It is also the center for various other commonwealth and federal government agencies. The municipality has a total of 31 barrios, including 19 outside the urban area and 12 in the urban area of the city. Ponce is a city of both the Ponce Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Ponce-Yauco-Coamo Combined Statistical Area. The municipality of Ponce is the second largest in Puerto Rico by land area, the region of what is now Ponce belonged to the Taíno Guaynia region, which stretched along the southern coast of Puerto Rico. Agüeybaná, a cacique who led the region, was among those that greeted Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León when he came to the island in 1508. Archeological findings have identified four sites within the municipality of Ponce with archeological significance, Canas, Tibes, Caracoles, during the first years of the colonization, Spanish families started settling around the Jacaguas River, in the south of the island. For security reasons, these moved to the banks of the Rio Portugués. Starting around 1646 the whole area from the Rio Portugués to the Bay of Guayanilla was called Ponce, in 1670, a small chapel was raised in the middle of the small settlement and dedicated in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Among its earliest settlers were Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, on September 17,1692, the King of Spain Carlos II issued a Cédula Real converting the chapel into a parish, and in so doing officially recognizing the small settlement as a hamlet. It is believed that Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, Juan Ponce de Leóns great-grandson, was instrumental in obtaining the permit to formalize the founding of the hamlet. Captains Enrique Salazar and Miguel del Toro where also instrumental, the city is named after Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the great-grandson of Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. In the early 18th century Don Antonio Abad Rodriguez Berrios built a chapel under the name of San Antonio Abad. The area would receive the name of San Antón, a historically important part of modern Ponce. In 1712 the village was chartered as El Poblado de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Ponce, in the early 19th century, Ponce continued to be one of dozens of hamlets that dotted the Island. Its inhabitants survived by subsistence agriculture, cattle raising, and maritime contraband with foreigners, however, in the 1820s, three events took place that dramatically changed the size of the town foreverPonce, Puerto Rico – Ponce as seen from El Vigia, with the Caribbean Sea and Caja de Muertos in the background
15. Town plaza – A plaza /ˈplɑːzə/ is an open urban public space, such as a city square. The plaza might be enough to serve as a military parade ground. At times of crisis or fiesta, it was the space where a large crowd might gather, like the Italian piazza, the plaza remains a center of community life that is only equaled by the market-place. A plaza de toros is a bullring, in modern usage, a plaza can be any gathering place on a street or between buildings, a street intersection with a statue, etc. Todays metropolitan landscapes often incorporate the plaza as an element, or as an outcome of zoning regulations, building budgetary constraints. Sociologist William H. Plaza is a Spanish word, cognate to Italian piazza, Portuguese praça, Galician praza, Catalan plaça, Romanian piața, German Platz, the origin of all these words is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning broad. The first purpose-built shopping center in the United States, opened in Kansas City, Missouri in 1922, knowingly took the name of Country Club Plaza and adopted Spanish architectural details. More recently plaza has been used to describe a complex, similar to a shopping mall. Examples, Pantip Plaza, Bintang Plaza, Kuching Plaza, Plaza Las Américas, Plaza de las Estrellas, Central Plaza, Schiphol Plaza, Plazas del Centro Comercial Santafé, The Plaza, and Cityplaza. Central Plaza, in Hong Kong, was for four years the tallest building in Asia, at 78 storeys,374 mTown plaza – Plaza Mayor, Valladolid is a typical Spanish plaza.
16. 1928 Okeechobee hurricane – The Okeechobee hurricane, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin. The fourth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and only hurricane of the 1928 season. Initially a tropical depression, it strengthened into a storm later that day. Further intensification was slow and halted by late on September 7, about 48 hours later, the storm resumed strengthening and became a Category 1 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12, there, the storm brought great destruction and 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, and Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, around midday on September 13, the storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane and peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph. About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico, very strong winds resulted in severe damage in Puerto Rico. Throughout the island, an estimated 24,728 homes were destroyed and 192,444 were damaged, heavy rainfall also led to extreme damage to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were 312 deaths and about $50 million in damage, while crossing the island and emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. The storm began crossing through the Bahamas on September 16, due to preparations, minimal damage or loss of life occurred, with 18 fatalities reported. Early on September 17, the storm made landfall near West Palm Beach, in the city, more than 1,711 homes were destroyed. Elsewhere in the county, impact was severest around Lake Okeechobee, the storm surge caused water to pour out of the southern edge of the lake, flooding hundreds of square miles as high as 20 feet above ground. Numerous houses and buildings were swept away in the cities of Belle Glade, Canal Point, Chosen, Pahokee, at least 2,500 people drowned, while damage was estimated at $25 million. While crossing Florida, the system weakened significantly, falling to Category 1 intensity late on September 17 and it curved north-northeastward and briefly re-emerged into the Atlantic on September 18, but soon made another landfall near Edisto Island, South Carolina with winds of 85 mph. Early on the day, the system weakened to a tropical storm. Overall, the system caused $100 million in damage and at least 4,079 deaths, on September 6, ships reported a tropical depression developing just off the west coast of Africa near Dakar, Senegal. However, lack of observations for several days prevented the system from being classified in real time as it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean. Later that day, two ships confirmed the intensity of the storm, and the Hurricane Research Division estimated it strengthened into a hurricane at 18,00 UTC on September 101928 Okeechobee hurricane – 1928 Okeechobee hurricane
17. Puerto Rican amazon – The Puerto Rican amazon, also known as the Puerto Rican parrot or iguaca, is the only bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico belonging to the Neotropical genus Amazona. Measuring 28–30 cm, the bird is a green parrot with a red forehead. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes from Culebra Island and its closest relatives are believed to be the Cuban amazon and the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at three and four years of age. It reproduces once a year and is a cavity nester, once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks are fed by parents and will fledge 60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrots diet is varied and consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark, the species is the only remaining native parrot in Puerto Rico and has been listed as critically endangered by the World Conservation Union since 1994. Conservation efforts commenced in 1968 to save the bird from extinction, in 2012, the total estimated population was 58–80 individuals in the wild and over 300 individuals in captivity. The Puerto Rican amazon was described by Dutch ornithologist Pieter Boddaert in 1783, the indigenous Taíno people called it the iguaca, an onomatopoeic name that resembled the parrots flight call. There are two recognized subspecies, A. v. vittata is the nominate and only extant subspecies, inhabiting Puerto Rico and formerly nearby Vieques Island, a. v. gracilipes inhabited Culebra Island and is now extinct. It is unclear whether it was different from the nominate subspecies. Most Caribbean bird species originate from Central, North and South America, the Amazona species found in the Caribbean are divided in two groups, five mid-sized species found in the Greater Antilles and seven large species in the Lesser Antilles. All the Greater Antillean amazons display characteristics leading to suppositions of relatedness, including predominantly green-toned color patterns, subsequent studies showed that size and color patterns were not sufficient to assess evolutionary relationships, and that patterns changed with relative ease even within members of the same species. The research concluded that the Puerto Rican amazon may share an ancestor with the Jamaican A. agilis. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the Puerto Rican amazon is more related to the Hispaniolan amazon. The Puerto Rican amazon measures 28–30 cm and weighs 250–300 g, although small compared to amazons in general, it is similar in size to other Greater Antilles Amazona species. Both males and females have green plumage, though their feathers have blue edges. The primary flight feathers of the wings and the covert feathers are dark bluePuerto Rican amazon – Puerto Rican amazon
18. List of birds of Puerto Rico – The avifauna of Puerto Rico include a total of 349 species, of which 166 are accidental,42 are introduced by humans and 16 are endemic. Around 120 of these species breed in Puerto Rico while the majority of the others overwinter in the archipelago and this list does not include extinct species. This lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World,2016 edition, the family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced, accidental and extirpated species are included in the species counts for Puerto Rico. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, and those that do not are common occurring native species. These birds are adapted to an existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent. In general, they are plump and have broad, relatively short wings and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like and their long wings have black markings, as does the head. White-tailed tropicbird, Phaethon lepturus Red-billed tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus Order, Suliformes Family and they are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have colored inflatable throat pouches and they do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Puerto Rico. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, plumage coloration is varied with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being quite colorful. American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers and they are strong fliers and, rather surprisingly, given their size and weight, very capable soarers. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers, however, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcassesList of birds of Puerto Rico – The Puerto Rican spindalis (reina mora in Spanish) is the national bird of Puerto Rico.
19. List of Vieques birds – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. Vieques is a municipality of Puerto Rico located off the east coast of the main island of Puerto Rico, south of Culebra island. It has an area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is land area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques, some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but are, nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list and this list presents the following information for each species, common and scientific name of each species, preferred habitat, breeding status in Vieques and frequency of occurrence for each season. Tags are used to describe this information for each species and this lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, introduced, stray and extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat, thorn scrub Inhabited areas Mangrove lagoons Dry forest Shoreline Moist forest The following tags have been used to describe the breeding status of each species in Vieques. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order, Podicipediformes Family and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, Order, Phaethontiformes Family, Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head, Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Vieques. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, Order, Suliformes Family, Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings, the males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface, having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Pelecanidae Pelicans are very large birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbillsList of Vieques birds – Vieques Island from the air
20. Juncos, Puerto Rico – Juncos is spread over 9 wards and Juncos Pueblo. It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area, Juncos was founded on the request of Tomás Pizarro on August 2,1797, having previously been a village which evolved from a small ranch, the Hatillo de los Juncos. This ranch was part of the Hato del Valenciano, which gave its name to the Río Valenciano which bisects the city before joining the Río Gurabo to the north of the settlement. During the 17th century, large parts of the municipality were owned by the Hato Grande de los Delgado, another ranch, the Hato del Valenciano, was established and later divided into the Hatillo de los Lirios and the Hatillo de los Juncos. This second one became the village of Juncos in the 18th century and was given the status of a town on August 2,1797, reeds, which gave the city its name, feature in the center of its flag and the bottom of its Coat of Arms. On the flag of Juncos, on a field, blue waving stripes cross horizontally in the lower half. These represent the Río Valenciano which bisects the city, green reeds with red buds appear in a central point above the stripes, representing the citys name. The upper right quarter is blue with silver stars to represent the Virgin Mary. The lower right is split vertically between an image of a plant to represent the citys agriculture and a chimney to represent industrialization. Like the flag, a blue line representing the Río Valenciano crosses the shield horizontally. The shield is topped with a crown in the shape of a three-towered castle. Underneath the shield lie the red-budded green reeds which gave the city its name, the municipality of Juncos is divided into ten wards, Under the administration Of Alfredo Papo Alejandro, Juncos started a collective ferry-on-wheels transportation system. The lower left quarter of the municipal Coat of Arms pay homage to tobacco cultivation, Amgen Puerto Rico received FDA approval for bulk manufacturing facilities for Nepogen, Neulasta, Aranesp and Epogen. Amgen is also adding manufacturing capacity in Juncos to produce Denosumab, in addition to Amgen there is a Medtronic and Becton Dickinson Caribe Ltd. in Juncos. The Colgate pharmaceutical facility has closed and production shifted to Mexico, Alfredo Alejandro Carrión of the Peoples Democratic Party is the incumbent mayor of the municipality of Juncos. The city belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district VII, which is represented by two Senators, in 2012, Jorge Suárez and José Luis Dalmau were elected as District Senators. Roberto Clemente Walker, later a double-World Series winner for the Pittsburgh Pirates, as is the national norm, volleyball and basketball are biggest sports in Juncos. In the year 2006-2007 the Valencianas de Juncos won the basketball and volleyball superior league national championshipJuncos, Puerto Rico – Juncos Mayoral House.
21. Caparra Archaeological Site – Caparra is an archaeological site in the municipality of Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. It was declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1994, the site contains the remains of the first Spanish capital of the island, settled in 1508 and abandoned in 1521. It represents the oldest known European settlements on United States territory, the site is on the grounds of the Museum of the Conquest and Colonization of Puerto Rico, which features artifacts from the site and other archaeological sites in Puerto Rico. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León. a. k. a, el Durox founded the original Spanish settlement in Puerto Rico at Caparra, which today is known as the Pueblo Viejo sector of Guaynabo, just to the west of the present San Juan metropolitan area. But the air was not wholesome and the mendicant friars insisted on moving the settlement closer to the bay and they complained that the infants were dying. Their preferred area was that of the Islet of Puerto Rico and it was not until the end of Ponce de Leóns tenure as governor that they had their wish. By 1521, the move was complete and it was known as Villa de Puerto Rico, with time the name of the island, San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico, traded places with what is now the capital of Puerto Rico, John the Baptist. According to Floyd, Ponce built the stone house in the village, which for years functioned additionally as the Casa de Contratacion, the archive. It became his permanent home, where he was joined by his family in 1509, the Caparra Site was first identified as important during a survey in 1936, as part of a program to develop tourist facilities on the island. Further excavation identified the main plaza and the sites of other buildings, the property was acquired by the Puerto Rican government in 1948, which relocated the northern section of the house ruins in order to widen the road. The roadway was widened in 1963, destroying the southern portion of the structure excavated in 1936. The museum was established in 1958, the continues to be examined by archaeologistsCaparra Archaeological Site – Caparra
22. Diocese – The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided. With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though later subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, Illinois, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven diocesesDiocese – Sankt Laurentii kyrka Diocese of Linköping, Söderköpings kommun, Sweden
23. Battle of Silva Heights – The Puerto Rican Campaign was an American military sea and land operation on the island of Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War. The offensive began on May 12,1898, when the United States Navy attacked the archipelagos capital, though the damage inflicted on the city was minimal, the Americans were able to establish a blockade in the citys harbor, San Juan Bay. On June 22, the cruiser Isabel II and the destroyer Terror delivered a Spanish counterattack, but were unable to break the blockade and the Terror was damaged. The land offensive began on July 25, when 1,300 infantry soldiers led by Major General Nelson A. Miles disembarked off the coast of Guánica, after controlling the first skirmish, the Americans advanced to Coamo, where they engaged Puerto Rican and Spanish troops in battle. The battle concluded when the soldiers retreated after the battle left two dead on their side, and four on the American side. The Americans encountered larger opposition as they advanced towards the islands interior. They engaged in two crossfires in Guamani River and Coamo, both of which were inconclusive as the soldiers retreated. A battle in San Germán concluded in a fashion with the Spanish retreating to Lares. On August 9,1898, American troops that were pursuing units retreating from Coamo encountered heavy resistance in Aibonito and they returned three days later, reinforced with artillery units and attempted a surprise attack. In the subsequent crossfire, confused soldiers reported seeing Spanish reinforcements nearby and five American officers were gravely injured, all military actions in Puerto Rico were suspended on August 13, after U. S. This idea was not new, since William H, the idea of annexing the Dominican Republic failed to receive the approval of the U. S. Senate and Spain did not accept the 160 million dollars which the U. S. offered for Puerto Rico and Cuba. To provide resting places for them where they can coal and repair, since 1894, the Naval War College had been formulating plans for war with Spain. By 1896, the Office of Naval Intelligence had prepared a plan which included operations in Puerto Rican waters. Not only was Puerto Rico considered valuable as a station, Puerto Rico and Cuba were also abundant in a valuable commercial commodity which the United States lacked. On February 15,1898 the USS Maine exploded and sunk in Havana Harbor, however, the United States forwarded an ultimatum to Spain to withdraw from Cuba following the sinking of the Maine. In response, Spain broke off relations with the United States. On April 25, the U. S. Congress declared that a state of war between the United States and Spain had existed since April 20. On April 27, U. S. ships, the monitor USS Puritan, the armored cruisers USS New York, and the USS Cincinnati, bombarded the Spanish fortifications at Matanzas Bay in CubaBattle of Silva Heights – Alfred T. Mahan
24. Savio Vega – During the 1990s, he worked for the World Wrestling Federation, initially under a mask as Kwang. He later portrayed Savio Vega, the leader of a Puerto Rican stable. In 2011, he was featured in the first interpromotional angle between IWA and WWC, Rivera was born and raised in Vega Alta, Puerto Rico. After graduating from school, he went to Miami, Florida. He was managed by El Profe Ángel Pantoja Rivera, and first feuded with Chicky Starr and he won his first championship, the WWC North American Heavyweight Championship, on May 2,1987, by defeating Miguel Pérez. On July 11, he became a champion, winning the WWC World Tag Team Championship with Mr. Pogo. To close the year, he teamed up with Abdullah the Butcher in All Japan Pro Wrestling, losing to Hiroshi Wajima and he also wrestled early in his career at Mid-South Wrestling as the masked El Corsario. On January 30,1988, TNT lost the North American title to Abdullah the Butcher, on June 18, he won the WWC Caribbean Heavyweight Championship from Hercules Ayala. Two months later, he dropped it to Buddy Landel and he regained it 28 days later, and held it for another two months before dropping it to Jason the Terrible. On February 4,1989, he won the vacant WWC Puerto Rico Heavyweight Championship and he won his third Caribbean Heavyweight Championship on March 4, and dropped it to Rip Rogers on May 14. On June 17, he won the vacant WWC Television Championship, during the last half of 1989, TNT had a midcard feud with Leo Burke, which was interrupted midway through when Burke defeated Carlos Colón, Sr. for the WWC Universal Heavyweight Championship. TNT was originally expected to win the belt, given his status as a fan favorite, on February 9,1990, he defeated Burke for the Universal Heavyweight Championship, and vacated the Television Championship. He held the title for a month, before dropping it to Abdullah the Butcher, on April 25,1990, TNT won his second Television Championship, holding it until January 1991, when it was vacated. Prior to Aniversario 1990, the WWCs anniversary show, TNT turned heel and began feuding with Colón, the feud ended at Aniversario, where they wrestled to a sixty-minute draw. On September 30,1990, he lost to Masahiro Chono at New Japan Pro Wrestlings Antonio Inoki 30th Wreatling Anniversary event, in early 1991, he feuded with a wrestler who had originally used the name TNT, winning the rights to the name on March 2,1991. The feud concluded later that month, when Rivera defeated the wrestler for his third Television Championship, in the following three months, he lost and regained the championship, then lost it to David Sierra on October 19. The following week, he won it for a time by defeating Sierra in a rematch. This was his final WWC championship, having gained much wrestling experience, Rivera was recalled to the United StatesSavio Vega – Vega in 2013.
25. Cayey, Puerto Rico – Cayey is spread over 21 wards plus Cayey Pueblo, the downtown area and the administrative center of the city. It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area, Cayey is notable for its surrounding mountains. The city has been growing since the 1990s, evidenced by its designation as a Metropolitan Area by the U. S. Census Bureau. It has experienced significant growth in commerce, and many major retailers, industries in Cayey include sugar, tobacco and poultry. For tobacco there is a well known company called Consolidated Cigar Corp, a new coliseum and hospital facilities have also been built. Coca-Cola is a corporation that has a manufacturing facility in the town. Cayey is also host to one of the campuses of the University of Puerto Rico, Cayey was founded on August 17,1773, by Juan Mata Vázquez, who became its first mayor. It is said that Cayey derives its name from the Taino Indian word for a place of waters and its original name was Cayey de Muesas in honor of Miguel de Muesas, the then governor of Puerto Rico. The town is located in a valley nestled between Puerto Ricos Cordillera Central mountain range and the Sierra de Cayey at roughly the midpoint of routes PR-1, the routes lead to a road that provides a panoramic view of the island. Cayeys economy has and remains based on tobacco, sugar cane. Unfortunately, its economy that evolved starting in the 1950s has diminished considerably to date. Most of its products are imported from other islands in the Caribbean or mainland United States. During the first half of the 20th century, Cayey was basically an area of small farmers. In the 1950s and 1960s some manufacturing concerns established plants in Cayey taking advantage of tax incentives offered by Operation Bootstrap, an industrial base, in 1947 Cayey saw the beginning of industrial entrepreneurship. There were three factories in town, the Caribe Flower Co. in the Palo Seco neighborhood, a Baseball Factory in the Toita neighborhood, by 1950 the men that worked agriculture became excess population and began migrating to the United States or join the military. In 1950 with the approval of Fomento Industrial and Operation Bootstrap there was a boom of light factories in Cayey, an education base began in the early to mid-1950s when the Inter-American University opened a branch in Cayey providing teacher training through a night class scheme. There are three private schools, Radians School, the long established Colegio de Nuestra Senora de la Merced. Cayeys health care base expanded in the mid-1960s with the Mennoite Medical Center and a Municipal Hospital along with laboratories, and urgent care centers that cater to the poor and the elderlyCayey, Puerto Rico – Cayey, Puerto Rico
26. National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum – The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 25 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, and operated by private interests. The Halls motto is Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations, the word Cooperstown is often used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by Stephen Carlton Clark, Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, and Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, and the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12,1939, the erroneous claim that U. S. Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall. An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994, dale Petroskey became the organizations president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, an exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years. The Hall of Fame has since also sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit, the Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005. The Hall of Fame also presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16,2008. In 2012, Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed a law ordering the United States Mint to produce and sell commemorative, non-circulating coins to benefit the private, non-profit Hall. The bill, House Bill H. R.2527, was introduced in the United States House of Representatives by Rep. Richard Hanna, a Republican from New York, the coins, which depict baseball gloves and balls, are the first concave designs produced by the Mint. The mintage included 50,000 gold coins,400,000 silver coins, the Mint released them on March 27,2014, and the gold and silver editions quickly sold out. The Hall receives money from surcharges included in the sale price,114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members,29 were inducted posthumously, the Hall of Fame includes one female member, Effa Manley. The newest inductees, enshrined on July 24,2016, are players Mike Piazza, the incoming class of 2017, to be formally enshrined on July 30, consists of executives John Schuerholz and Bud Selig and players Jeff Bagwell, Tim Raines, and Iván Rodríguez. In addition to honoring Hall of Fame inductees, the National Baseball Hall of Fame has presented 40 men with the Ford C, while Frick and Spink Award honorees are not members of the Hall of Fame, they are recognized in an exhibit in the Hall of Fames library. ONeil Award honorees are also not Hall of Fame members, but are listed alongside a permanent statue of the namesake and first recipient, Buck ONeil. From a final ballot typically including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players, until the late 1950s, any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player who is named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections, players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibilityNational Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum – The entrance to the Baseball Hall of Fame (2012)
27. Lighthouses in Puerto Rico – The lighthouses system of Puerto Rico consists of lighthouses that were built mostly during the last twenty years of the nineteenth century. These served as guides to important marine routes, in 1869 the Spanish government approved the first plan for Puerto Rico in order to serve the ships that sail through its waters. The lighthouses are located in prominent and isolated areas with good visibility towards the sea, the classification system of the lighthouses of Puerto Rico was based on the characteristics of the lens, and the structure. In 1898, the United States acquired the lighthouses of Puerto Rico as a result of the Spanish–American War, in 1900, the United States Lighthouse Board acquired responsibility for the aids to navigation. The lights are maintained by the Coast Guard since 1939, in 1981, the lighthouses of Puerto Rico were listed in the National Register of Historic Places. In 2000, they were included by the Puerto Rican government in the National Register of Historic Properties of Puerto Rico, the Coast Guard has been transferring responsibility of the lighthouses to local government and conservation organizations. Some of the lighthouses have been restored and are open to the public. In 2001, under the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act, Cape San Juan Light became the first lighthouse to be transfer to an organization in Puerto RicoLighthouses in Puerto Rico – Layout of lighthouses in Puerto Rico as planned by the Spanish government, circa 1885
28. Gustave Eiffel – Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was a French civil engineer and architect. A graduate of École Centrale Paris, he made his name with various bridges for the French railway network and he is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, and his contribution to building the Statue of Liberty in New York. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel focused on research into meteorology and aerodynamics, Gustave Eiffel was born in France, in the Côte-dOr, the first child of Catherine-Mélanie and Alexandre Bönickhausen. He was a descendant of Jean-René Bönickhausen, who had emigrated from the German town of Marmagen, the family adopted the name Eiffel as a reference to the Eifel mountains in the region from which they had come. Although the family used the name Eiffel, Gustaves name was registered at birth as Bönickhausen. The business was successful enough for Catherine Eiffel to sell it in 1843, both men spent a lot of time with the young Eiffel, teaching him about everything from chemistry and mining to theology and philosophy. During his second year he chose to specialize in chemistry, however, shortly afterwards Nepveus company went bankrupt, but Nepveu found Eiffel a job designing a 22 m sheet iron bridge for the Saint Germaine railway. These were constructed with the aid of compressed air caissons and hydraulic rams, Eiffel was initially given the responsibility of assembling the metalwork and eventually took over the management of the entire project from Nepveu, who resigned in March 1860. Following the completion of the project on schedule Eiffel was appointed as the engineer of the Compagnie Belge. Further promotion within the company followed, but the business began to decline, at the same time he was employed by Jean-Baptiste Kranz to assist him in the design of the exhibition hall for the Exposition Universelle which was to be held in 1867. Eiffels principal job was to draw up the arch girders of the Galerie des Machines, at the end of 1866 Eiffel managed to borrow enough money to set up his own workshops at 48 Rue Fouquet in Levallois-Perret. On 6 October 1868 he entered partnership with Théophile Seyrig, like Eiffel a graduate of the École Centrale. In 1875, Eiffel et Cie were given two important contracts, one for a new terminus for the line from Vienna to Budapest, the station in Budapest was an innovative design. The bridge over the Douro came about as the result of a competition held by the Royal Portuguese Railroad Company and this was greater than the longest arch span which had been built at the time. Eiffels proposal was for a bridge deck was supported by five iron piers. The price quoted by Eiffel was FF, the members included Jean-Baptiste Krantz, Henri Dion and Léon Molinos, both of whom had known Eiffel for a long time, their report was favorable, and Eiffel got the job. On-site work began in January 1876 and was complete by the end of October 1877, the Exposition Universelle in 1878 firmly established his reputation as one of the leading engineers of the time. As well as exhibiting models and drawings of work undertaken by the company, one of these, a pavilion for the Paris Gas Company, was Eiffels first collaboration with Stephen Sauvestre, who was later to become the head of the companys architectural officeGustave Eiffel – Eiffel in 1888, photographed by Félix Nadar
29. Explorer program – The Explorers program is a United States space exploration program that provides flight opportunities for physics, geophysics, heliophysics, and astrophysics investigations from space. Over 90 space missions have launched since 1958, and it is still active. Starting with Explorer 6, it has operated by NASA, with regular collaboration with a variety of other institutions. The Explorers program was the United Statess first successful attempt to launch an artificial satellite. It began as a U. S. Army proposal to place a satellite into orbit during the International Geophysical Year, however. The Explorers program was reestablished to catch up with the Soviet Union after that nations launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4,1957. Explorer 1 was launched on January 31,1958, besides being the first U. S. satellite, it is known for discovering the Van Allen radiation belt. Over the years, NASA has launched a series of Explorers spacecraft carrying a variety of scientific investigations. These missions have also investigated air density, radio astronomy, geodesy, various space telescopes have made a variety of discoveries, including the first known Earth Trojan asteroid. The Explorers Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Explorers categories have included MIDEX, SMEX, UNEX, and others. A subprogram called Missions of Opportunity has funded instruments on non-NASA missions, launchers used for these missions include Jupiter C, Juno II, various Thor rockets such as the Thor-Able, Scout, various Delta and Delta II rockets of the Delta rocket family, and Pegasus. The Medium-Class Explorer program is an effort within NASA to fund space exploration missions that cost no more than US$180 million, list of MIDEX missions The Small Explorer program is an effort within NASA to fund space exploration missions that cost no more than US$120 million. The first set of three SMEX missions were launched between 1992 and 1998, the second set of two missions were launched in 1998 and 1999. These missions were managed by the Small Explorer Project Office at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, list of SMEX missions Investigations characterized by definition, development, mission operations, and data analysis costs not to exceed $15. 0M total cost to NASA. UNEX missions will be launched by a variety of low cost methods, list of UNEX missions The Missions of Opportunity program provides funding for science instruments or hardware components of onboard non-NASA space missions. MO missions have a total NASA cost of under $55 million, list of MO missions Explorers name numbers can be found in the NSSDC master catalog, typically assigned to each spacecraft in a mission. These numbers were not officially assigned until after 1975, many missions are proposed, but not selected. For example, in 2011, the Explorers program received 22 full missions solicitations,20 Missions of Opportunity, Missions of Opportunity are small collaborative missions with spacecraft not operated by NASA, such as an additional instrumentExplorer program – An explorer mission observes the Milky Way's black hole flaring
30. Satellite – In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earths Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the worlds first artificial satellite, since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate,3,600 remained in orbit, of those, about 1,000 were operational, the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 500 operational satellites are in orbit,50 are in medium-Earth orbit. A few large satellites have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, Satellites are used for many purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, well-known classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit. A launch vehicle is a rocket that throws a satellite into orbit, usually it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a submarine or a mobile maritime platform, Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control, the first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon. The idea surfaced again in Jules Vernes The Begums Fortune, in 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices, which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the speed required for a minimal orbit. In 1928, Herman Potočnik published his book, The Problem of Space Travel — The Rocket Motor. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground, in a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications. He suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet, the first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4,1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States, Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphereSatellite
31. US Justice Department – The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan members, the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department has responsibility to investigate instances of fraud, to represent the United States in legal matters such as in the Supreme Court. The department also has responsibilities to review actions of law enforcement conduct by the Violent Crime Control. The Department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President, the current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions. The U. S. Attorney General was initially a one-person and it was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, but this grew with the bureaucracy. At one time the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, until March 3,1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salary by engaging in private practice of law. Following unsuccessful efforts to put the Attorney Generals Office on a footing, in 1869. On February 19,1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice, President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill into law on June 22,1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1,1870, just prior to the Civil War, in February 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as Americas first Solicitor General, both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grants first term in there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. The result was a decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was better or stronger then Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Akermans successor, George H. Williams, in December 1871, the law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, new facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary, upon Medarys death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the projectUS Justice Department – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
32. Puerto Rico Police Department – The Puerto Rico Police —also known in Puerto Rico as La Uniformada —is the state police of Puerto Rico. The Police is organized into thirteen regions within Puerto Rico for operational purposes with headquarters are 601 Franklin D. Roosevelt Avenue in San Juan and it provided police services to the entire island, although many municipalities maintained their own police force. Since invading and taking possession of Puerto Rico in July 1898, as a result of the Spanish–American War, the Insular Police of Puerto Rico was created on February 21,1899, under the command of Colonel Frank Thacher, with an authorized strength of 313 sworn officers. They were better known because of the raids that made in housing complexes or Caseríos with rapid force and precision and also. This program was put to the test from 1993 to 1996 and it was later activated again in 2004 by governor Sila María Calderón but not with the same intensity as in the early 1990s. In 2009, Police Superintendent José Figueroa Sancha re-organized the Puerto Rico Police in terms of commanding officers, every police zone was changed to have two commanding officers, one in charge of the field operations, and the other in charge of investigations. Also, the name was changed from Police Zones to Police Regions, also, a new policy of the agency was to get involved in the community. Officers must get out of their cars and sometimes patrol on foot in neighborhoods, so they can talk to citizens and socialize. In September 2009, the government of Puerto Rico suffered an economic crisis, many citizens concern was that the dismissals of public employees would cause the level of criminal incidents to increase. Governor Luis Fortuño dismissed this concern, but in the last 3 months of the year 2009, crime increased dramatically, leading to the lists murders, commercial and house burglaries, and carjackings. The year 2009 ended with a total of 894 murders, that would be 74 murders more than reported in 2008. The year 2010 began with a rise in type 1 crimes, leading the murder by family feuds, in the first 14 days of 2010, there were 30 murders reported, an average of 15 per week. As of 2009, the PRPD has over 18,222 officers, the Police Superintendent is the top commanding officer. He is one of five head of government agencies appointed by the governor of Puerto Rico and he leads the department and makes the orders to the agency, and also instructs the commanding officers for field operations. Since 1899, police chiefs in Puerto Rico were appointed by the United States Government, afterwards, police chiefs were named by the U. S. Appointed Governor of Puerto Rico and the Chief of Police could serve in that position for not more than 4 years, law #77 converted the Puerto Rico Insular Police into the Puerto Rico Police Department on June 22,1956. This converted the department from an organization into a civil police force. The Chief of Police position was replaced by a Superintendent, since then, the police superintendent has been named by the Governor of Puerto RicoPuerto Rico Police Department – The logo of the Puerto Rico Police
33. Police brutality – Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members. Widespread police brutality exists in countries and territories, even those that prosecute it. Although illegal, it can be performed under the color of law, the term police brutality was in use in the American press as early as 1872, when the Chicago Tribune reported on the beating of a civilian under arrest at the Harrison Street Police Station. Cases of police brutality appear to have been frequent then, with the bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks. Portions of the population may perceive the police to be oppressors, in addition, there is a perception that victims of police brutality often belonging to relatively powerless groups, such as minorities, the disabled, the young, and the poor. After facing federal trial, two of the four officers were convicted and received 32 months prison sentence, the case was widely seen as a key factor in the reform of the Los Angeles Police Department. According to data released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, between 2003 and 2009 at least 4,813 people died in the process of being arrested by local police. Of the deaths classified as law enforcement homicides,2,876 deaths occurred of which 1,643 or 57. 1% of the people who died were people of color, Police brutality entails serious violations of the human rights to life and physical security. In accordance with human rights law, victims have a right to forcibly resist police brutality where absolutely necessary to prevent serious and irreparable harm. Notably, police brutality entailing extrajudicial killings, torture and inhuman treatment may be resisted, incidents of police brutality in Austria seem to be largely influenced and triggered by racism and prejudice against foreign nationals and ethnic minorities within the community. This underlying issue has continued to be present and relevant when examining cases of police brutality within Austria, for example, in Vienna there tends to be an association made between Viennas drug problem and the citys African migrants. This has led to the existence of cultural stereotypes which have then led to the racial profiling of African migrants. There have been a number of highly publicised incidents in Austria where police have either tortured, publicly humiliated, the most notorious of these incidents occurred in the late 1990s, however recent reports in 2015 show that police are still treating civilians in this way. 24 April 1996, Mr Jevremovic, a Serbian Romani man and he escaped, and later a large group of police came into his home without a warrant, and violently beat him and his wife before taking them both into custody. May 1996, Marcus Omofuma, an Illegal Nigerian immigrant, was being deported from Vienna when the officers taped him to his chair like a mummy and he suffocated whilst in police custody. November 1998, Dr C, a black Austrian citizen, was stopped by police after reversing his car into a street and was asked Why are you driving the wrong way. He was beaten unconscious and handcuffed, Police continued beating him after he regained consciousness. After he was arrested, he spent 11 days in hospital recovering,28 July 2015, A 27-year-old man, suspected of being a pickpocket, was handcuffed and violently thrown into the ground whilst under police custodyPolice brutality – New York City Police Department officers violently attacking unemployed civilians in Tompkins Square Park, 1874.
34. Hurricane – Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon /taɪˈfuːn/, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface and this energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as noreasters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of momentum imparted by the Earths rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter, Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas. Cyclone refers to their nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect, in addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their energy source. For this reason, coastal regions are vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, however, can cause significant flooding inland, though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. They also carry heat away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes. Tropical cyclones are areas of low pressure in the troposphere. On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest ever observed at sea level, the environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as warm core systems. The near-surface wind field of a cyclone is characterized by air rotating rapidly around a center of circulation while also flowing radially inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm, however, due to the Earths rotation, as air flows radially inward, it begins to rotate cyclonically in order to conserve angular momentum. At an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere and this radius is typically coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, and has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm, consequently, it is known as the radius of maximum winds. Once aloft, air flows away from the center, producing a shield of cirrus cloudsHurricane – Hurricane Isabel (2003) as seen from orbit during Expedition 7 of the International Space Station. The eye, eyewall, and surrounding rainbands, characteristics of tropical cyclones, are clearly visible in this view from space.
35. 2011 Atlantic hurricane season – The 2011 Atlantic hurricane season is tied with 1887,1995,2010, and the following 2012 season for the third highest number of named storms since record-keeping began in 1851. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, however, the first tropical storm of the season, Arlene, did not develop until nearly a month later. The final system, Tropical Storm Sean, dissipated over the open Atlantic on November 11, despite unfavorable conditions, seven storms reached Category 1 strength and four of those storms reached major hurricane status. Katia and Ophelia reached Category 4 status and tied with strongest winds, due to the presence of a La Niña in the Pacific Ocean, many pre-season forecasts called for an above-average hurricane season. In Colorado State University s spring outlook, the called for 16 named storms and 9 hurricanes. On May 19,2011, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued their pre-season forecast, predicting 12–18 named storms, 6–10 hurricanes, many tropical cyclones affected land during the 2011 season, most impacts, however, did not result in a significant loss of life or property. On June 29, Arlene moved ashore near Cabo Rojo, Mexico, causing minor damage, roughly a month later, Tropical Storm Don made landfall in southern Texas, no fatalities nor damage was reported. Tropical Storm Harvey moved into the coastline of Central America in mid-August, as an extratropical cyclone, Lee caused significant damage in the form of flooding across the Northeast United States, especially in New York and Pennsylvania. The deadliest and most destructive cyclone of the season developed east of the Lesser Antilles on August 21, Hurricane Irene caused significant damage across many of the Caribbean Islands and United States Eastern Seaboard, ultimately resulting in the names retirement. Overall, the resulted in 114 deaths and $18.5 billion in damage. In advance of, and during, each season, several forecasts of hurricane activity are issued by national meteorological services, scientific agencies. The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes. The team called for 15.6 tropical storms,8.4 hurricanes, two days later, Colorado State University issued its first extended-range forecast for the 2011 season. In its report, the organization predicted an above-average hurricane season with 17 named storms,9 hurricanes, in addition, the team expected an Accumulated Cyclone Energy value of approximately 165, citing that El Niño conditions were unlikely to develop by the start of the season. The team also predicted that there was a chance of a tropical cyclone hitting the United States coastline when compared to 2010. On April 6,2011, CSU revised their December forecast slightly, predicting 16 named storms,9 hurricanes, in early April, CSU and TSR released yet another updated forecast for the season, lowering the number of predicted cyclones slightly. On May 19,2011, NOAA released their first forecast for the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season, NOAA also stated that, when looking at climate models, activity comparable to some of the active seasons since 1995 could occur. On May 26, the UK Met Office issued a forecast of a slightly above-average season and they predicted 13 tropical storms with a 70% chance that the number would fall between 10 and 172011 Atlantic hurricane season
36. Utah Jazz – The Utah Jazz are an American professional basketball team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Jazz compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Western Conference Northwest Division. Since 1991, the team has played its games at Vivint Smart Home Arena. The franchise began play in 1974 as the New Orleans Jazz, a team based in New Orleans. The Jazz were one of the least successful teams in the league in their early years, although 10 seasons elapsed before the Jazz qualified for their first playoff appearance in 1984, they did not miss the playoffs again until 2004. During the late 1980s, John Stockton and Karl Malone arose as the players for the team. Both Stockton and Malone moved on in 2003, after missing the playoffs for three consecutive seasons the Jazz returned to prominence under the on-court leadership of point guard Deron Williams. However, partway through the 2010–11 NBA season, the Jazz began restructuring after Sloans retirement, the team has made the playoffs once since then, in 2012 under coach Tyrone Corbin. Quin Snyder was hired as coach in June 2014. Valued in 2015 at $850 million by Forbes, the Jazz rank as the 20th most valuable franchise in the NBA ahead of the Indiana Pacers, on June 7,1974, the New Orleans Jazz were admitted as an expansion franchise into the National Basketball Association. Team officials selected the name because of its definition in the dictionary, the team began its inaugural season in New Orleans in the 1974–75 season. Maravich struggled with injuries from that season onward. Venue issues were a problem for the team while it was based in New Orleans. Later, they played games in the cavernous Louisiana Superdome, but things were no better, due to demand for the stadium, onerous lease terms. Years later, founding owner Sam Battistone claimed that there was no plan in case the Jazz ever qualified for the playoffs. The pick would have been the Jazzs had they not traded it to acquire Gail Goodrich two years earlier, despite being barely competitive, the Jazz drew well during their first five years. However, by 1979 the franchise was sinking financially, barry Mendelson, the teams executive vice president for most of the early years, said one factor in the financial trouble was an 11 percent amusement tax, highest in the U. S. at the time. The team also could not attract much local corporate support—an important factor even in those days—or local investors, Battistone concluded that the franchise could not be viable in New Orleans and decided to move elsewhereUtah Jazz – Pete Maravich played for the Jazz from 1974 to 1980.
37. Dallas Mavericks – The Dallas Mavericks are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas. The Mavericks compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Western Conference Southwest Division. The team plays its games at the American Airlines Center. According to a 2016 Forbes magazine report, they are the ninth most valuable franchise in the NBA. As of the 2013 season, the Mavericks have sold out 477 consecutive games since December 15,2001, since their inaugural 1980–81 season, the Mavericks have won three division titles, two conference championships, and one NBA Championship. In 1978, Californian businessman Garn Eckardt met Dallas lawyer Doug Adkins, asking for a possible partner, Adkins recommended him one of his clients, Home Interiors and Gifts owner Don Carter. Negotiations with Eckardt fell through, but Carter remained interested in the enterprise as a gift to his wife Linda, who played basketball while at Duncanville High School. At the same time, Buffalo Braves president and general manager Norm Sonju grew an interest in bringing the NBA to Dallas as he studied possible new locations for the ailing franchise. Sonju and Carter tried purchasing both the Milwaukee Bucks and the Kansas City Kings, but disagreement on relocation stalled the negotiations, leading them to instead aim for an expansion team. The league was initially reluctant to expand to Dallas, given Texas had both the Spurs and Houston Rockets, and the 1978–79 NBA season was proving unprofitable and unpopular. Still, during the 1979 NBA All-Star Game weekend, NBA commissioner Larry OBrien announced the league would add two new teams in the 1980–81 season, with teams in Dallas and Minneapolis. Once the Minnesota team backed out, only Dallas remained, and through negotiations with general counselor and future commissioner David Stern, Carter would provide half the amount. James Garner, who played the character, was a member of the ownership group. The University of Texas at Arlington, who uses the Mavericks nickname, had objections about a shared name. They joined the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, where they would stay until the league went to six divisions for the 2004–05 season, Dick Motta, who had guided the Washington Bullets to the NBA Championship in 1977–78, was hired as the teams first head coach. He had a reputation of being a stern disciplinarian, but was also a great teacher of the game. In the Mavericks debut game, taking place in the brand-new Reunion Arena, but the Mavs started the season with a 6–40 record on their way to finishing 15–67. However, the Mavericks did make an acquisition that, while it seemed minor at the timeDallas Mavericks – Mavs' founder Don Carter
38. 2011 NBA Finals – The 2011 NBA Finals was the championship series of the 2010–11 season of the National Basketball Association and the conclusion of the seasons playoffs. The Western Conference champion Dallas Mavericks defeated the Eastern Conference champion Miami Heat, 4–2 and it was also the first time in four years that the Los Angeles Lakers did not make the Finals, having been swept in the Western Conference Semifinals by the eventual champion, Dallas Mavericks. The series was held from May 31 to June 12, 2011—the first to start before June 1 since the 1986 NBA Finals. Under the 2–3–2 rotation, the Miami Heat had home-court advantage, the Heat hosted Games 1,2, and 6, German player Dirk Nowitzki was named the Finals MVP. Nowitzki was the second European to win the award after Tony Parker, going into the series, the Heat were heavy favorites with their newly acquired stars LeBron James and Chris Bosh along with returning star Dwyane Wade. The series was a rematch of the 2006 NBA Finals, which was won by the Heat in six games after Dallas blew a 2–0 series lead. The Dallas Mavericks became the first team in NBA history since the institution of the 2–3–2 format to enter Game 3 tied at one, lose Game 3, the previous 11 times this occurred, the Game 3 winner went on to win the series. The Dallas Mavericks also became just the 7th team, and the first since 1988, to come back, the previous six times this happened, the Finals ended in seven games, Dallas became the first team in NBA history to do it in six games. ABC averaged a 10.1 rating,11.7 million households and nearly 17.3 million viewers with the 2011 Finals, both the Mavericks and Heat made their second appearance in the NBA Finals, the first for both teams being the 2006 NBA Finals. This Finals marked a rematch of the 2006 Finals, won by Miami in six games, the Heat had home-court advantage by virtue of a better regular-season record than the Mavericks. This was only the time that the Eastern Conference had home court advantage during the Finals since the end of the Michael Jordan era in 1998. It also marks the first time since 1995 that the Eastern Conference team lost in the Finals despite having home court advantage, the 2011 series marked the first time a Finals match was played in the month of May since 1986. Among the players from teams, only Dirk Nowitzki and Jason Terry of Dallas, and Dwyane Wade and Udonis Haslem of Miami. Heat center Erick Dampier played for the Mavericks in 2006, aside from Dampier, Caron Butler, Juwan Howard and Shawn Marion are the only other players who have played for both the Mavericks and Heat. Eddie House, Žydrūnas Ilgauskas, LeBron James and Jason Kidd have appeared in the Finals with different teams, with House, Wade and Haslem winning a championship ring. Mavericks head coach Rick Carlisle won a championship as a reserve for Bostons 1986 championship team making him only the person in NBA history to win a Finals as both a player and a coach. The Dallas Mavericks won both games in the regular season, all times are in Eastern Daylight Time. The Heat made only 28.6 percent of their shots during the first quarter, the Heat changed course from this point on, outscoring the Mavs 22–10 and taking a 65–61 lead going into the 4th quarter2011 NBA Finals – 2011 NBA Finals
39. NBA Finals – The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association played between the Western and Eastern champions of the Conference Finals. The first team to win four games in the game series is declared the league champion and is awarded the Larry OBrien Championship Trophy. Winners from 1946 to 1983 received the Walter A. Brown Trophy redesigned in 1977 to the current form, the NBA Finals has been played at the end of every NBA and Basketball Association of America season in history, the first being held in 1947. Most NBA Finals series were played under the 2–2–1–1–1 format prior to 1985, the series was named the BAA Finals from 1947 to 1949 and then changed to the NBA World Championship Series from 1950 to 1982. The following two years, the league used Showdown 83 and Showdown 84 and it returned to NBA World Championship Series in 1985, before settling on NBA Finals in 1986. During the first decade the Minneapolis Lakers had the first NBA dynasty, the team also featured George Mikan, one of the greatest players in NBA history. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons and they won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957, Bill Russell became the star of the league, Game 7 of the NBA Finals was decided on a Celtics basket in the final seconds of the second overtime. For most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics always seemed to have the hand on Wilt Chamberlains teams. The following season, he joined the Philadelphia 76ers, the former Syracuse Nationals team that had moved to cover the vacancy created with the departure of the Warriors, a clash between the two stars in the playoffs was in 1966 and Boston won it 4–1. Chamberlains coach told him to play a game, not an individual game. His new-found team spirit brought them to a new record of 68 wins the season, and they defeated the Celtics and then advanced to, and won. In 1968, Boston overcame a 3–1 deficit against Philadelphia to once again arrive in the Finals and they went on to defeat the Los Angeles Lakers for the sixth straight time,4 games to 2. In 1969, the Celtics overcame even longer odds, Boston was an aging team and had injuries to a number of players. They barely qualified for the playoffs, finishing fourth in the East, the Lakers, who in the offseason added Chamberlain to join West and Elgin Baylor, won the West and were prohibitive favorites to finally win it all for the first time since relocating to L. A. They won the first two games at the Los Angeles Forum, however, when the series shifted to Boston Garden, the Celtics won Game 3 110–105. Game 4 was the point, as the Lakers led 87–86 and had the ball with 10 seconds to play. But after a turnover, Sam Jones put up a shot hit the front of the rim, the back heel, rolled aroundNBA Finals – The Shot O'Brien Championship Trophy.
40. National Basketball Association – The National Basketball Association is the major mens professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier mens professional basketball league in the world. It has 30 teams, and is a member of USA Basketball. The NBA is one of the four professional sports leagues in the United States. NBA players are the worlds best paid athletes by average annual salary per player, the league was founded in New York City on June 6,1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3,1949, the leagues several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in New York City. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada. On November 1,1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, the first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that leagues 1948 title, Following the 1948–49 season, the BAA took in the remainder of the NBL, Syracuse, Anderson, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan, Denver, and Waterloo. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as arenas and smaller gymnasiums. The process of contraction saw the leagues smaller-city franchises move to larger cities, the Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, and then to St. Louis in 1955. The Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957, japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks. He remained the only player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships, to encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954. If a team does not attempt to score a goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, russells rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports. The 1960s were dominated by the Celtics, led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966National Basketball Association – The headquarters of the National Basketball Association in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, USA.
41. NBA Development League – The NBA Development League, or NBA D-League, is the National Basketball Associations official minor league basketball organization. Known until the summer of 2005 as the National Basketball Development League, at the conclusion of the 2013–14 NBA season, 33% of NBA players had spent time in the NBA D-League, up from 23% in 2011. Beginning in the 2016–17 season, the league consists of 22 teams, in the 2017–18 season, the league will rebrand to become the NBA Gatorade League as part of multiyear partnership with Gatorade and its parent company, PepsiCo. The league began its play as the NBDL in the 2001–02 season, in 2005, some of these teams were purchased by private owners and relocated—at the same time the leagues name was changed—in a bid to appeal to more fans nationwide. As a result, franchises were established in or moved to Texas, New Mexico, Arkansas, Florida, in February 2006, the D-League expanded to California for the first time with the addition of the Bakersfield Jam. Shortly after, the league announced expansion teams in the Anaheim Arsenal, the D-Fenders became the first D-League team to be directly owned by an NBA parent team, the Los Angeles Lakers. However, the westward expansion contributed to the contraction of the NBA-owned Roanoke Dazzle and Fayetteville Patriots for that season, the Florida Flame suspended operations due to arena scheduling difficulties. After the 2006–07 season, there would be no more teams in the southeastern United States until the 2016 expansion team, after the 2006 to 2009 expansions, the league membership was fairly consistent with only a few relocations and suspensions. In 2009, the Houston Rockets entered into the first single-affiliation partnership, called the hybrid model and this began a wave of NBA and D-League teams entering into single-affiliation agreements of both the hybrid and parent-team owned varieties. With more NBA involvement, the once again began to expand. By 2015, the last multiple-affiliate team, the Fort Wayne Mad Ants, was purchased by the Indiana Pacers leading to the first season where all D-League teams were affiliated with only one NBA team. As there were no longer any unaffiliated D-League teams left, the remaining NBA teams began purchasing expansion franchises or hybrid partnership teams, in 2015, the Toronto Raptors placed their own team, Raptors 905, in the Greater Toronto Area in Mississauga, Ontario. In 2016, the D-League expanded by three more NBA parent club owned teams for the largest D-League expansion since 2007, the Charlotte Hornets created the Greensboro Swarm, the Brooklyn Nets created the Long Island Nets, and the Chicago Bulls created the Windy City Bulls. In the 2017–18 season, the D-League is set to enter into a partnership with Gatorade. Currently the league is split into two Conferences, Eastern and Western, in the Eastern Conference there are there are two divisions, Atlantic and Central. The Atlantic Division includes, the Delaware 87ers, the Erie BayHawks, the Greensboro Swarm, the Long Island Nets, the Maine Red Claws, and the Westchester Knicks. The Central Division includes, the Canton Charge, the Fort Wayne Mad Ants, the Grand Rapids Drive, Raptors 905, in the Western Conference there are two divisions, Southwest and Pacific. The Southwest Division includes, the Austin Spurs, the Iowa Energy, the Oklahoma City Blue, the Rio Grande Valley Vipers, the Sioux Falls Skyforce, and the Texas LegendsNBA Development League – NBA Development League logo
42. National Collegiate Athletic Association – The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations, and individuals. It also organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is then distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years later in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United StatesNational Collegiate Athletic Association – The current NCAA headquarters office in Indianapolis
43. Bowie Kuhn – Bowie Kent Kuhn was an American lawyer and sports administrator who served as the fifth Commissioner of Major League Baseball from February 4,1969, to September 30,1984. He served as counsel for Major League Baseball owners for almost 20 years prior to his election as commissioner. Kuhn was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2008, Kuhn was born in Takoma Park, Maryland, the son of Alice Waring and Louis Charles Kuhn, a fuel company executive. His father was a Bavarian immigrant, and his mother had deep roots in Maryland and he grew up in Washington, D. C. and graduated from Theodore Roosevelt High School. He then attended Franklin and Marshall College in the V-12 Navy College Training Program before going to Princeton University in 1945 and he graduated from Princeton with honors in 1947 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics. He then received his law degree in 1950 from the University of Virginia where he served on the board of the law review. Following his graduation from law school, Kuhn became a member of the New York City law firm Willkie Farr & Gallagher because the firm represented the National League, after the owners forced out William Eckert in 1968, Kuhn seemed like a logical replacement for the job of commissioner. He, unlike Eckert, was aware of the inner workings of Major League Baseball before taking office. Kuhn was the youngest, tallest, and heaviest commissioner in history, Kuhn suspended numerous players for involvement with drugs and gambling, and took a strong stance against any activity that he perceived to be not in the best interests of baseball. Also in 1970, Kuhn described Jim Boutons Ball Four as detrimental to baseball, the book has been republished several times and is now considered a classic. On October 13,1971, the World Series held a game for the first time. Kuhn, who thought that baseball could attract an audience by featuring a prime time telecast. An estimated 61 million people watched Game 4 on NBC, TV ratings for a World Series game during the daytime hours would not have approached such a record number. Through the rest of the 1970s and into the 1980s, weekday World Series games were played at night while most weekend games continued to be scheduled in the daytime, kuhns primetime vision has been fulfilled, however, as all World Series games are now shown in prime time. In 1980, during the Iranian hostage crisis, Kuhn sat at a game with Jeremiah Denton. Senator later that year from the state of Alabama, Flood forfeited a relatively lucrative US$100,000 contract by his refusal to be traded to the Phillies. In a letter to Kuhn, Flood demanded that the commissioner declare him a free agent, in response, Flood filed a lawsuit against Kuhn and Major League Baseball on January 16,1970, alleging that Major League Baseball had violated federal antitrust laws. Flood likened the reserve clause to slavery and it was a controversial analogy, even among those who opposed the reserve clauseBowie Kuhn – Kuhn in 1982
44. List of municipalities in Puerto Rico – The municipalities of Puerto Rico number seventy-eight and they make up the smallest electoral division in Puerto Rico. Each municipality is led by a mayor and divided into barrios, geographically, a municipality has an urban core that consists of either a town or a city. Urban cores with a population of 50,000 or above are considered cities, for U. S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered county-equivalents. The municipalities are grouped into eight districts, but these do not possess administrative functions. Every municipality is composed of several barrios, except for Florida which has only one barrio, the municipality of Ponce has the largest number of barrios,31. Every municipality also has an area made up of one or more barrios. When the urban area is made up of only one barrio, some urban areas are made up of multiple barrios, Ponces urban area, for example, is made up of 12 barrios. All of San Juans barrios are urban barrios, and the municipality of San Juan is composed of urban barrios only - thus, every municipalitys urban zone is named by the same name as the municipality. For example, the municipality of Caguas has a zone called Caguas - just like the municipality. Some municipalities urban zones are termed pueblo while others are termed ciudad, the difference resides in the population of the municipality, if the municipality has an urban zone below 50,000 inhabitants, then its urban zone is called a pueblo. If a municipality has a population above 50,000 inhabitants in its urban zone, the municipalities elect a Mayor and a Municipal Legislature in the general elections every four years. The following is an alphabetical list of the municipalities in Puerto Rico, and their foundation year, population. The following is an alphabetical list of the municipalities and their population together with a breakdown of their racial composition,36 of the 78 municipalities currently experience a budget deficit, putting 46% of the municipalities in financial stress. In total, the combined debt carried by the stands at about $590 million USD. In October 2009, a Puerto Rican legislator proposed a bill that would reduce the current 78 municipalities of Puerto Rico down to 20, the bill called for a referendum to take place on June 13,2010, which would let the people decide on the matter. However, the bill never made into law and it was not the first time that an attempt to consolidate municipalities had failed. In 1902 the Puerto Rico legislature, under pressure from the US. -appointed governor of Puerto Rico, the law was repealed three years later. diariodepuertorico. comList of municipalities in Puerto Rico – Municipalities of Puerto Rico
45. List of Puerto Rico-related topics – The commonwealth comprises an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands and keys, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona. The main island of Puerto Rico is the least extensive but the third most populous of the four Greater Antilles, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name. The terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, the island is also popularly known as La Isla del Encanto, which translated means The Island of Enchantment. On August 8,1508, Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León establishes Capárra, constitution in U. S. Insular Areas United Nations Declaration on Puerto Rico U. NList of Puerto Rico-related topics – An enlargeable satellite image of Puerto Rico
46. African immigration to Puerto Rico – The history of Puerto Ricans of African descent begins with free African men, known as libertos, who accompanied the Spanish Conquistadors in the invasion of the island. The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as a result of new infectious diseases, spains royal government needed laborers and began to rely on slavery to staff their mining and fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans, when the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown no longer considered the island to be a high colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels, the Spaniards encouraged free people of color from British and French possessions in the Caribbean to emigrate to Puerto Rico, to provide a population base to support the Puerto Rican garrison. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to earn or buy their freedom, however, the expansion of sugar cane plantations drove up demand for labor and the slave population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported. Throughout the years, there were slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising against Spanish colonial rule in what is known as the Grito de Lares, on March 22,1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, art, language, when Ponce de León and the Spaniards arrived on the island of Borikén, they were greeted by the Cacique Agüeybaná, the supreme leader of the peaceful Taíno tribes on the island. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between the Taíno and the Spaniards, according to historian Ricardo Alegria, in 1509 Juan Garrido was the first free black man to set foot on the island, he was a conquistador who was part of Juan Ponce de Leóns entourage. Garrido was born on the West African coast, the son of an African king, in 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore Puerto Rico and prospect for gold. In 1511, he fought under Ponce de León to repress the Carib and the Taíno, Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Another free black man who accompanied de León was Pedro Mejías, Mejías married a Taíno woman chief, by the name of Yuisa. Yuisa was baptized as Catholic so that she could marry Mejías and she was given the Christian name of Luisa The peace between the Spanish and the Taíno was short-lived. The Spanish took advantage of the Taínos good faith and enslaved them, forcing them to work in the gold mines, many Taíno died, particularly due to epidemics of smallpox, to which they had no immunity. Other Taínos committed suicide or left the island after the failed Taíno revolt of 1511, friar Bartolomé de las Casas, who had accompanied Ponce de León, was outraged at the Spanish treatment of the Taíno. In 1512 he protested at the council of Burgos at the Spanish Court and he fought for the freedom of the natives and was able to secure their rights. The Spanish colonists, fearing the loss of their labor force and they complained that they needed manpower to work in the mines, build forts, and supply labor for the thriving sugar cane plantations. As an alternative, Las Casas suggested the importation and use of African slaves, in 1517, the Spanish Crown permitted its subjects to import twelve slaves each, thereby beginning the slave trade in their coloniesAfrican immigration to Puerto Rico – First row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • José Celso Barbosa • Pedro Albizu Campos Second row Juan Morel Campos • Juano Hernández • Roberto Clemente
47. Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico – The situation and opportunities offered, plus the fact that the geographies of the islands are similar, were ideal for the immigration of hundreds of families from Corsica to Puerto Rico. Corsicans and those of Corsican descent have played a role in the development of the economy of the island. Juan Fantauzzi was the first documented Corsican to immigrate to Puerto Rico and he was born about 1734 in Morsiglia, Corsica. He immigrated to what is now Aguadilla, in the 1760s, two known children of his, are Francisco, and Juan Maria Fantauzzi. It is his death certificate that confirms his Corsican origin, Corsica is an island located west of Italy and southeast of France. Corsica belonged to the Republic of Genoa and in 1768 was ceded to France to pay off debt, the island relied largely on its agricultural economy for survival. Certain changes occurred in Europe during the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century that would affect the lives of the French. One of those changes came about with the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution, with the Second Industrial Revolution, many of the people who worked in agriculture began to move to the larger cities with hopes of finding better jobs and better lives. Also, there was a crop failure due to long periods of drought and crop diseases, a cholera epidemic. Thus, many of the farms in Corsica began to fail, there was also widespread political discontent characterized by bitter armed conflict. King Louis-Philippe of France was overthrown in the Revolution of 1848, three new political groups emerged during that era, they were the liberals, radicals and the socialists. The combination of man-made and natural disasters in Corsica created a feeling of hopelessness. All this came about at a time when Spain was growing fearful of the possibility of a rebellion in her Caribbean possessions, which consisted of Puerto Rico and Cuba. By 1825, Spain had lost the entirety of her territories in South America and Central America and it was decided that an influx of Catholic immigrants from Ireland, Corsica and Italy would provide a loyal base for the Crown and appeals were made to encourage immigration. In 1815, the Spanish Crown had issued the Royal Decree of Graces which fostered the immigration of European Catholics that were not of Spanish origin to its Caribbean colonies. The island of Puerto Rico is very similar in geography to the island of Corsica, after five years they could request a Letter of Naturalization that would make them Spanish subjects. Island geographical similarities, Hundreds of Corsicans and their families immigrated to Puerto Rico from as early as 1830, however, it was Yauco whose rich agricultural area attracted the majority of the Corsican settlers. The three main crops in Yauco were coffee, sugar cane and tobacco, the new settlers dedicated themselves to the cultivation of these crops and within a short period of time some were even able to own and operate their own grocery storesCorsican immigration to Puerto Rico – First row:1. Mariana Bracetti 2. Luisa Capetillo Second row: 3. Antonio Paoli 4. Antonio Mattei Lluberas
48. French immigration to Puerto Rico – French immigration to Puerto Rico came about as a result of the economic and political situations which occurred in various places such as Louisiana, Saint-Domingue and in Europe. Other important factors which encouraged French immigration to the island was the revival of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 in the later 1800s, therefore, the decree was printed in three languages, Spanish, English and French and circulated widely through ports and coastal cities throughout Europe. The French who immigrated to Puerto Rico quickly became part of the Island immigrant communities which were predominantly Catholic also and settled in various places in the island. They were instrumental in the development of Puerto Ricos tobacco, cotton, tobacco and sugar industries and distinguished themselves as people, merchants, tradesmen, politicians. In the 17th century, the French settled an area of North America in what was referred to as the New World which they named New France. New France included an area of land along both sides of the Mississippi River between the Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains, including the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country. Louisiana was the given to an administrative district of New France. Upon the outbreak of the French and Indian War, also known as the Seven Years War and these islands were part of the Spanish and New World Catholic Empire, which welcomed and protected the French from their English and Protestant enemy. Among them was Corsair Captain and former Royal Naval officer of the French Navy, antoine Daubón, owner and captain of the ship LEspiégle and another Frenchman named Captain Lobeau of the ship Le Triomphant. Among the French surnames of those who fought on the Island were, Bernard, Hirigoyan, Chateau, Roussell, Larrac and Mallet. French Consul M. Paris, sent a letter addressed to the French soldiers being forced to fight for England and these Frenchmen were accepted immediately and joined the thriving other French immigrants who also had fought against the English invasion with these French prisoners. These newly arrived 400 Frenchmen all stayed and sent for their families to come from France, in 1697, the Spanish Crown ceded the western half of the island of Hispaniola to the French. The Spanish part of the island was named Santo Domingo and the French named their part Saint-Domingue, the French settlers dedicated themselves to the cultivation of the sugar cane and owned plantations, which required a huge amount of manpower. They imported slaves from Africa to work in the fields, however, soon the population of the slaves outgrew those of the whites. The slaves lived under conditions and were treated cruelly. In 1791, the slaves were organized into an army led by General Toussaint LOuverture who rebelled against the French in what is known as the Haitian Revolution, the ultimate victory of the slaves over their white masters came about after the Battle of Vertières in 1803. The French fled to Santo Domingo and made their way to Puerto Rico, once there, they settled in the western region of the island in towns such as Mayagüez. With their expertise, they helped develop the islands sugar industry, among the families who settled in Puerto Rico were the BeauchampsFrench immigration to Puerto Rico – First row: Alejandrina Benítez de Gautier • José Gautier Benítez Second row: Manuel Gregorio Tavárez • Fermín Tangüis
49. German immigration to Puerto Rico – German immigration to Puerto Rico began in the early part of the 19th century and continued to increase when German businessmen immigrated and established themselves with their families on the island. Puerto Rico was ceded by Spain to the United States under the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish–American War, with the passage of the Jones Act of 1917 Puerto Ricans could be conscripted to serve in the Armed Forces of the United States. As a result, Puerto Ricans fought in Germany during World War II and have served in U. S. military installations in said country since then, many of these soldiers married German women who eventually moved to the island with their husbands. Puerto Ricans of German descent have distinguished themselves in different fields, among them the fields of science, business, according to Professor Ursula Schmidt-Acosta, German immigrants arrived in Puerto Rico from Curaçao and Austria during the early 19th century. Many of these early German immigrants established warehouses and businesses in the towns of Fajardo, Arroyo, Ponce, Mayagüez, Cabo Rojo. One of the reasons that these businessman established themselves in the island was that Germany depended mostly on Great Britain for such products as coffee, sugar and tobacco. By establishing businesses dedicated to the exportation and importation of these and other goods, not all of the immigrants were businessmen, some were teachers, farmers and skilled laborers. Many economic and political changes occurred in Europe during the part of the 18th century. One of those changes came about with the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution, many people who worked the farmlands abandoned their homes and moved to the larger industrialized cities with the hope of finding better paying jobs. Starvation and unemployment were on the rise, Europe also faced a series of revolutionary movements known as the European Revolutions of 1848 which erupted in Sicily and then were further triggered by the French Revolution of 1848. Soon, the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states erupted, ultimately, the rather non-violent revolution failed. Disappointed, many Germans immigrated to the Americas and Puerto Rico, the majority of these came from Alsace-Lorraine, Baden, Hesse, Rheinland and Württemberg. The Spanish Crown had lost most of its possessions in the Americas, two of its remaining possessions were Puerto Rico and Cuba, who were demanding more autonomy and had pro-independence movements. The Spanish Crown issued the Royal Decree of Graces which was originated August 10,1815, after a period of five years, settlers were granted a Letter of Naturalization that made them Spanish subjects. In the early 19th century German immigrants introduced the Christmas Tree to the Americas, the custom of adorning Christmas trees in Puerto Rico began in the city of Bayamón in 1866 when Dr. Agustin Stahl adorned a Christmas tree in his back yard. The people of Bayamón baptized his tree El Arbol de Navidad del Doctor Stahl, in 1870, the Spanish Courts passed the Acta de Culto Condicionado, a law granting the right of religious freedom to all those who wished to worship another religion other than the Catholic religion. The Anglican Church, the Iglesia Santísima Trinidad, was founded by German, among the original founders was G. V. Wiecher, who wrote to the Anglican Bishop of Antigua, W. W. Jackson, requesting a Spanish speaking priest for their church. The church, which is located in La Calle Marina was the first non-Roman Catholic Church established in the Spanish Colonies and is currently an operating parish, albert and Betty Ostrom, began training Puerto Ricans for pastoral service in the Lutheran Church of Puerto Rico from 1905 to 1931German immigration to Puerto Rico – First row: Salvador Brau • Federico Degetau • Luis R. Esteves Völckers Second row: Virgil R. Miller • Rudolph William Riefkohl • Frederick Lois Riefkohl
50. Puerto Rican migration to New York – Puerto Ricans have both immigrated and migrated to New York City. The first group of Puerto Ricans immigrated to New York City in the century when Puerto Rico was a Spanish Province. The following wave of Puerto Ricans to move to New York City did so after the Spanish–American War in 1898. Puerto Ricans were no longer Spanish subjects and citizens of Spain, they were now Puerto Rican citizens of an American possession and needed passports to travel to the mainland of the United States. That was until 1917, when the United States Congress approved Jones-Shafroth Act which gave Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico a U. S. citizenship with certain limitations. Puerto Ricans living in the mainland United States however, were given full American citizenship and were allowed to seek office in the states which they resided. Two months later, when Congress passed the Selective Service Act and it was expected that Puerto Rican men 18 years and older serve in the U. S. military during World War I. The Jones-Shafroth Act also allowed Puerto Ricans to travel between Puerto Rico and the U. S. mainland without the need of a passport, thereby becoming migrants. The advent of air travel was one of the factors that led to the largest wave of migration of Puerto Ricans to New York City in the 1950s. Similar to many other eastcoast cities, Puerto Ricans were the first Hispanic group to move to New York City in large numbers. According to the 2010 census, Puerto Ricans represent 8.9 percent of New York City alone, and 5. 5% of New York State as a whole. Over a million Puerto Ricans in the state, about 70% are present in the city, with the remaining portion scattered in the citys suburbs and other major cities throughout New York State. During the 19th century, commerce existed between the ports of the East Coast of the United States and the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico, ship records show that many Puerto Ricans traveled on ships that sailed from and to the U. S. and Puerto Rico. Many of them settled in such as New York, Connecticut. The earliest Puerto Rican enclave in New York City was in Manhattan, by 1850, Puerto Rico and Cuba were the only two remaining Spanish colonies in the New World. The Spanish Crown would either imprison or banish any person who promoted the independence of two nations. Two of these exiles were Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis who together founded The Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico in New York and they were the planners of the short and failed 1868 revolt against Spain in Puerto Rico known as El Grito de Lares. Another prominent Puerto Rican who in 1871 immigrated to New York was Arturo Alfonso Schomburg and he too became a member of the Revolutionary Committee of Puerto Rico and was an outspoken promoter of not only the independence of Puerto Rico but of Cubas alsoPuerto Rican migration to New York – Top Row Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • Jose Ferrer Nicholas Estavillo Bottom Row Aída Álvarez • Herman Badillo • Nelson Antonio Denis
51. Politics of Puerto Rico – The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, which is headed by the Governor, advised by a cabinet of secretaries that are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Legislature, judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico, the Tribunal de Apelaciones, and Tribunal de Primera Instancia. There is also a Federal Court to hear cases of a nature or with federal jurisdiction. Puerto Ricos governor, who is the head of government, Puerto Ricos legislature is a bi-cameral body consisting of a Senate and a Camara de Representantes. The members of the branch are appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Senate to serve until they reach age 70. Due to the status of Puerto Rico as a territory of the United States, politics in Puerto Rico revolve around a multi-party political system. The politics of Puerto Rico are dominated by three parties, the Partido Nuevo Progresista, the Partido Popular Democratico, and the Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño. Since the 1898 invasion of Puerto Rico by the Americans during the Spanish–American War, the nature of Puerto Ricos political relationship with the United States is the subject of ongoing debate in Puerto Rico, in the United States, the United Nations and the International Community. Dr. Barbosa had been the leader in the Autonomist Party that favored a government for Spain. In this context, Dr. Barbosa returned to the idea of equal footing. During the last twenty years under the Spanish flag, the local parties, the Incondicionales accepted whatever Spain had for Puerto Rico and the Crown duly recognized their support by giving aristocratic titles to the leaders. The leader of the Canadian model developed by the British and supported a similar development for Puerto Rico under Spain, before Baldorioty de Castro, other leaders had mentioned the possibility of autonomy, generally as an answer to the Spanish insistence in instituting special laws to govern the colonies. At about the time that the Republican Party of Puerto Rico was organized under the U. S. Luis Muñoz-Rivera organized the Federal Party, like the Republican Party it supported statehood for Puerto Rico. Muñoz-Rivera had been the leader of the monarchist faction of the autonomists, not truly out of conviction, through this support he was able to get Sagasta, whose party was not in power in the early 1890s, to support an autonomous government for Puerto Rico. At about this time, the U. S. was pressuring Spain to grant autonomy to Cuba, Sagasta was then Prime Minister and he had made a compact with the Islanders to give them autonomy. Autonomy was granted, not through an Act of the Cortes, bickering between Muñoz-Rivera and Barbosa did not allow the autonomous government to be established immediately. Sagasta demanded that they put their differences aside and both, with their groups, became part of the first autonomous government of Puerto Rico immediately before the WarPolitics of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico
52. Constitution of Puerto Rico – The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is the controlling government document of Puerto Rico. It is composed of nine articles detailing the structure of the government as well as the function of several of its institutions, the document also contains an extensive and specific Bill of Rights. Since Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States, the Puerto Rico Constitution is bound to adhere to the postulates of the U. S, Constitution due to the Supremacy Clause, and of relevant Federal legislation due to the Territorial Clause. It was ratified by Puerto Ricos electorate in a referendum on March 3,1952, July 25, which had been an official holiday in Puerto Rico commemorating the invasion of United States troops in Puerto Rico on July 25,1898, is now known as Constitution Day. It was ratified by Puerto Ricos electorate in a referendum on March 3,1952, the United States Congress and the President approved it by Pub. L. 327, enacted July 3,1952, requiring that the Bill of Rights Section 20 be stricken, on July 10,1952 the Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico reconvened and approved a resolution accepting the conditions established by Pub. L. 82–447, which were ratified in a referendum held in November,1952. On July 25,1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the constitution was in effect, in a speech on July 25,2013, Governor Alejandro García Padilla, despite the conditions established in Pub. L. 82-447, proclaimed that, henceforth, Sec.20 would be deemed by his administration to be in effect, the United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution by Pub. L. The Constitutional Assembly met for a period of months between 1951 and 1952 in which the document was written. The framers had to only two basic requirements established under Pub. L. The first was the document must establish a form of government for the island. The second was the inclusion of a Bill of Rights, the constitution was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 82% of the voters in a popular referendum and ratified by the United States Congress with a few amendments. The United States maintains ultimate sovereignty over Puerto Rico while giving Puerto Ricans a high degree of autonomy, under this Constitution, Puerto Rico officially identifies as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. A continuing debate has dealt with the status of Puerto Rico under the Federal Government of the United States. Certain decisions by the Supreme Court of the United States appeared to have interpreted the Territorial Clause of the United States Constitution as still controlling over Puerto Rico, under this clause, the United States Congress is the recognized sovereign of the island. However on June 9,2016, as an outcome of the known as Puerto Rico v. Sanchez Valle. The Supreme Court ruling stated that, at least in the related to criminal offensesConstitution of Puerto Rico – Exhibition of the Constitution at the Capitol of Puerto Rico
53. Government of Puerto Rico – The Government of Puerto Rico is a republican form of government with separation of powers, subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States. Article I of the Constitution of Puerto Rico defines the government and its political power, said law mandated the establishment of a local constitution due to Puerto Ricos political status as a commonwealth of the United States. Ultimately, the powers of the government of Puerto Rico are all delegated by Congress, because of this, the head of state of Puerto Rico is the President of the United States. Structurally, the government is composed of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial branch, the executive branch is headed by the governor, currently Ricky Rosselló, who is also the head of government. The legislative branch consists of a legislature, namely the Legislative Assembly, composed by the Senate as its upper house. The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years, the judicial branch is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, currently Liana Fiol Matta. The legal system is a mix of the law and the common law systems. Members of the branch are appointed by the governor with advice. Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by Spain at the end of the Spanish–American War by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the Foraker Act of 1900 provided for an organization of the civilian government. The Jones–Shafroth Act of 1917 re-organized the government, the United States government authorized Puerto Rico to draft its own constitution by Pub. L. On 4 June 1951 the Puerto Ricans voted to hold a convention in a referendum. The convention adopted a constitution on 6 February 1952 and was ratified by Puerto Ricos electorate in a referendum on March 3,1952, the United States government approved an amended version by Pub. L. 327, enacted July 3,1952, and on July 10,1952 the Constitutional Convention of Puerto Rico reconvened and approved the conditions established by Pub. L, on July 25,1952, Governor Luis Muñoz Marín proclaimed that the Constitution of Puerto Rico was in effect. The executive branch is responsible for administering resources, as well as providing all necessary public services to the Puerto Rican general public. It is by far the largest branch in the government as well as the largest employer in Puerto Rico with more than 150,000 workers, the head of government is the Governor of Puerto Rico, who is elected every four years in a general election. The position is similar in nature, responsibility, and power as those of a governor of a U. S. state, the position of Governor has the overall responsibility of the state of the commonwealth, equivalent to the state of the union in the U. S. The official residence of the governor is La Fortaleza, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Western Hemisphere, similar to a U. S. State, the Governor has authority over the Puerto Rico National Guard. Puerto Rico does not have a post for lieutenant governor but the Chief of Staff performs a role as the officer charged with managing and overseeing all executive agenciesGovernment of Puerto Rico – The main offices of the Puerto Rico Department of State in front of Plaza de Armas in Old San Juan.
54. Puerto Rican citizenship – Puerto Rican citizenship was first legislated by the United States Congress in Article 7 of the Foraker Act of 1900 and later recognized in the Constitution of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican citizenship existed before the U. S. takeover of the islands of Puerto Rico and its affirmative standing was also recognized before and after the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952. Puerto Rican citizenship was recognized by the United States Congress in the twentieth century. The United States government also continues to recognize a Puerto Rican nationality, Puerto Rican citizenship is also recognized by the Spanish Government, which recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican, and not American citizenship. It also grants Spanish citizenship to Puerto Ricans on the basis of their Puerto Rican, not American, on November 18,1997, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, through its ruling in Miriam J. Ramirez de Ferrer v. On April 12,1900, the United States Congress enacted the Foraker Act of 1900, Section VII of this act created a Puerto Rican citizenship for the residents born in Puerto Rico and, therefore, subject to its jurisdiction. The Puerto Rican citizenship replaced the Spanish citizenship that Puerto Ricans held at the time of the American invasion in 1898, such Puerto Rican citizenship was granted by Spain in 1897. Are satisfied with our own beloved Porto Rican citizenship, and proud to have been born, the official 1916 Report by the American colonial governor of Puerto Rico to the U. S. The Spanish Government recognizes Puerto Ricans as a people with Puerto Rican and it also provides Puerto Rican citizens privileges not provided to citizens of several other nations. On March 2,1917, the Jones–Shafroth Act was signed, luis Muñoz Rivera, who participated in the creation of the Jones-Shafroth Act, gave a speech in the U. S. House floor that argued in favor of Puerto Rican citizenship. He declared that if the earth were to swallow the island, but as long as the island existed, the residents preferred Puerto Rican citizenship. The Jones Act allowed locals to renounce the United States citizenship and remain exclusively Puerto Rican citizens, despite these arbitrary limitations,287 residents completed the process to forfeit the statutory recognition. In 1952, upon U. S. Congress approving the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and this was further reaffirmed in 2006 while the U. S. Senate probed into the Presidents Task Force on Puerto Ricos status. In 1994, Puerto Rican activist Juan Mari Brás flew to Venezuela, Mari Brás, through his renunciation of U. S. citizenship, sought to redefine Section VII as a source of law that recognized a Puerto Rican nationality separate from that of the United States. In December 1995, his denaturalization was confirmed by the US State Department, among the arguments that ensued over his action was whether he would now be able to vote in elections in Puerto Rico. In a 2006 memorandum, the Secretary of Justice of Puerto Rico concluded, based on the Mari Brás case, each is distinct from the others, and has citizens of its own who owe it allegiance, and whose rights, within its jurisdiction, it must protect. This is the integral juridical tie between the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and their citizens, the court stated that Puerto Rican political community is defined better by the citizenship of Puerto Rico than by US citizenship. That is a fact not subject to historical rectifications and a reality which no law can change, on November 17,1997, Governor Pedro Rosselló signed Law 132 amending Puerto Ricos Political CodePuerto Rican citizenship – Front and back pages of a Certificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship application form as provided by the Puerto Rico State Department in the Summer of 2007.
55. Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico – The Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico is the territorial legislature of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, responsible for the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico. Eleven members of each house are elected at-large rather than from a legislative district with all members being elected for a four-year term without term limits. The structure and responsibilities of the Legislative Assembly are defined in Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico which vests all legislative power in the Legislative Assembly, every bill must be passed by both houses and signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico to become law. Each house has its unique powers, the constitution also states that each house shall be the unique judge on the legal capacity of its members. The constitution also grants immunity to all elected members of the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly convenes at the Capitol in San Juan, the House of Representatives is the oldest legislative body in Puerto Rico. It was formed on November 25,1897, when the Spanish government of Prime Minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta granted autonomy to the island, creating a House that was composed of 32 members. After Puerto Rico was granted to the United States on July 25,1898 as part of the Spanish–American War and this was until April 12,1900 when the U. S. Congress approved the first civil government for Puerto Rico under the federal Foraker Act. S. President, and six sitting members consisting of the governors cabinet, the political arrangement under the Foraker Act continued until 1917. Puerto Rico was then divided into 7 senatorial districts and 35 representative districts, the first Puerto Rican Senate was elected in July 1917. With the approval by U. S. Congress in July 1950 of Public Law 600, two years later on July 25,1952 the Constitution of Puerto Rico was formally adopted, establishing the modern House of Representantes and Senate as the bicameral houses of the Legislative Assembly. The Constitution of Puerto Rico vests all legislative powers in the Legislative Assembly, each house has the sole power to by the judge of the legal capacities of its members. The members of houses are protected by parliamentary immunity, which Article III, Section 14 states no member of the Legislative Assembly shall be imprisoned. They also shall not be accountable for anything said in the floor. Each House holds exclusive powers that are not given to the other, the House of Representatives has the exclusive power to initiate an impeachment process and the Senate the exclusive power to pass judgement. All laws dealing with the budget or taxes must originate in the House of Representatives. The Senate retains the power to extend its consent to appointments to government offices made by the governor as stated by law or Constitution. The Legislative Assembly, with the consent of two-thirds of each chamber may propose amendments to the constitution, proposed amendments are then subject to approval by the people of Puerto Rico in a referendumLegislative Assembly of Puerto Rico
56. House of Representatives of Puerto Rico – The House of Representatives of Puerto Rico is the lower house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the bicameral territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The House, together with the Senate, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico, the structure and responsibilities of the House are defined in Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, which vests all legislative power in the Legislative Assembly. Every bill must be passed by the Senate and by the House, the House has exclusive power to initiate impeachments and bring an indictment. Financially, all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House, the House has been meeting since 1900, after the enactment of the Foraker Act established the body formally. The House of Delegates was controlled by the Republican Party from its creation in 1900 through 1904, in January 1905, the House switched to control by the Union Party, which would remain in power until 1924. A coalition of the Republican Party and Socialist Party of Puerto Rico controlled the House until 1944, Ángel Viera Martínez, a former prosecutor and freshman representative from San Juan, was elected to the first of three stints as Speaker. In 1973, the Popular Democratic Party reacquired control of the House but was ousted as the majority party in the 1976 elections, Viera Martínez was elected in 1977, to his second stint as Speaker. Since the new House in 1981 was tied, it was unable to elect a Speaker, as required, during Bernazards incumbency, he appointed co-chairs to the House standing committees and required that all House decisions and legislation be approved by consensus. Hernandezs Speaker pro Tempore, Edison Misla Aldarondo, became Speaker in 1997, after he left office in 2000, he was convicted of corruption charges in federal and state courts. He was succeeded in office by Carlos Vizcarrondo during the 2001–2004 term, aponte was defeated for re-election as Speaker in the House caucus held after the 2008 general elections, and Jenniffer A. González Colón became the Speaker, taking office on January 12,2009. The current Speaker, as of 2017, is Carlos Johnny Méndez, the House of Representatives, along with the Senate of Puerto Rico, are in charge of the legislative power of the Government of Puerto Rico. The House has exclusive power to initiate impeachment proceedings and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the number of members of which it is composed. The Constitution also establishes that all bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House, the appointment of the Secretary of State shall in addition require the advice and consent of the House. The last election was held on November 6,2012 where the members of the 29th House of Representatives of Puerto Rico were elected, the next election is scheduled for November 8,2016 where the members of the 30th House of Representatives of Puerto Rico will be elected. Members of the House are elected for a four-years term, citizens cast their votes in colleges which are simply usually the nearest public school to where the voter declared as residence. Votes are required by law to be cast in secret, unless the citizen has a physical impairment that does not allow him to and those citizens unable to travel to colleges due to medical impairments may vote at their place of residence or wherever they are convalescing. Ballots are redacted in both English and Spanish regardless of whether English is a language or not. To elect the members of the House, Puerto Rico is divided into forty representative districts that do not follow a particular pattern and these districts are in turn divided into one or more precincts, an electoral division which, in turn, is constituted by collegesHouse of Representatives of Puerto Rico – House of Representatives of Puerto Rico
57. Supreme Court of Puerto Rico – The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico —Spanish, Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico — is the highest court of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority to interpret and decide questions of Puerto Rican law. Article V of the Constitution of Puerto Rico vests the judicial power in the Supreme Court—which by its nature forms the branch of the government of Puerto Rico. The Supreme Court holds its sessions in San Juan, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico was established by the Foraker Act in 1900 and maintained in the 1952 Constitution of Puerto Rico. It is the appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, however, since Puerto Rico is under United States sovereignty, there is also a Federal District Court for the island. The justices are appointed by the Governor of Puerto Rico and confirmed by majority vote by the Senate, one of these nine justices serves as Chief Justice, the remaining members are designated Associate Justices. This provision has been used four times in Court history, immediately after the Constitutions ratification, the Court asked for two additional judges. During the early 1960s, the Court once again petitioned for the addition of two judges, arguing that there was a case backlog on its docket. Subsequently, during the 1970s the Court asked for its number to be reduced back to seven members, finally, in 2010 a 4–3 majority of the justices petitioned the Legislative Assembly to once again increase the Courts membership to 9. This decision has generated controversy since it is the first time such a request has been done without unanimity from the justices. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is defined by the Constitution, in general, the jurisdictional structure parallels that of the state Supreme Courts in the continental United States. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico has concurrent jurisdiction with federal courts to federal laws. The Court has the power of review and its decision are considered binding precedent within the jurisdiction of Puerto Rico. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico also regulates the practice of law in Puerto Rico, the term of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court begins on the first Monday of October and ends in the last week of June of the following year. However, during the months of July through September, an alternating panel of three justices are allowed to hear cases and their decisions are considered binding precedent. The justices decide whether or not to hear arguments for the case. If the case is controversial or carries high public interest, an argument may be scheduled. When oral argument occurs, each side has twenty-five minutes to state its respective claims, after the sides have ended their argument, each justice has ten minutes to ask questions to each sideSupreme Court of Puerto Rico – The Supreme Court Building is at the entrance of the city of San Juan.
58. Military of Puerto Rico – The military defense of Puerto Rico is the responsibility of the United States as part of the Treaty of Paris. At the national level, the commander-in-chief is the President of the United States, the former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla has been closed for decades, and no other Air Force Bases or Naval Air Stations remain. The Puerto Rico Air National Guard no longer has any fighter planes within its jurisdiction, responsibility for the air defense of Puerto Rico now rests with USAF or US Navy fighters that would be flown in case of a military emergency. At different times in the 20th century, the U. S. had about 25 military or naval installations in Puerto Rico, some small ones. Air Force Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla, and the Puerto Rico Air National Guard at Muñiz Air Force base in San Juan. The former U. S. Navy facilities at Roosevelt Roads, Vieques, the coastal defense of Puerto Rico is the responsibility of the U. S. Navy from ships at sea, and the U. S. Coast Guard. The United States Coast Guard has a significant presence in Puerto Rico, located on what was formerly Ramey Air Force Base, the Coast Guard maintains what is now referred to as Coast Guard Air Station Borinquen. HH-65C helicopters operate out of Borinquen performing search-and-rescue as well as law-enforcement missions, on a continual basis, Coast Guard fixed-wing airplanes, such as the C-130 Hercules search-and-rescue plane, stationed primarily in Florida fly to Puerto Rico to support these missions. U. S. Coast Guard cutters visit Puerto Rican waters periodically in their missions of coastal patrol, U. S. Navy ships visit Puerto Rican waters on an as-required basis, just like they visit all American waters, international oceans, and foreign ones, too. On La Puntilla in Old San Juan the Coast Guard base its small and these boats and cutters work hand in hand with the air station responding to any mission that they may be called upon to perform. A significant number of Puerto Ricans participate as members and work for the U. S, armed Services, largely as National Guard members and civilian employees. The size of the overall military-related community in Puerto Rico is estimated to be 100,000 individuals, Fort Buchanan has about 4,000 military and civilian personnel. In addition, approximately 17,000 people are members of the Puerto Rico Army and Puerto Rico Air National Guard, or the U. S. Puerto Rican soldiers have served in every US military conflict from World War I to the current military engagement known by the United States, a number of Puerto Rican colleges and universities have the Reserve Officers Training Corps programs. The U. S. military has sought to form alliances with Hispanic organizations to promote military recruitment, in January 1999, leaders of National Hispanic organizations in collaboration with the U. S. Army held the Hispanic Leadership Summit 99. LNESC promotes military recruitment in educational service centers in several US cities, the US military installations in Puerto Rico are part of the US Atlantic Command. LANTCOM has authority over all US military operations take place throughout the Atlantic. Puerto Rico has been seen as crucial in supporting LANTCOMs mission, both the Naval Forces Caribbean and the Fleet Air Caribbean were formerly based at the Roosevelt Roads Naval StationMilitary of Puerto Rico – Contents
59. Independence movement in Puerto Rico – The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain independence for the island people. First from the Spanish Empire, and since 1898, from the United States, a wide variety of groups, movements, political parties, and organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of autonomous, Nationalist, and Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island, during the second half of the 20th century, the independence movement has attracted neither widespread support nor support at elections from the Puerto Rican people. In a status referendum in 2012,5. 5% voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 44% of the votes cast, Independence also received the least support, less than 4. 5% of the vote, in the status referendums in 1967,1993 and 1998. A fourth referendum was held in 2012, with 54% voting to change Puerto Ricos status, the fifth plebiscite is due to be held on June 11,2017. The two options at that time will be Statehood and Independence/Free Association and it will be the first referendum not to offer the choice of retaining the current status as a Commonwealth. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the 16th century and he was joined by Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Agüeybaná IIs people, who were armed only with spears, bows, and arrows, were no match for the guns of the Spanish forces, the revolt ultimately failed, and many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the born, or Criollos. These include the conspiracy at San Germán in 1809, and the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán, many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to create a federation of Latin American nations, to include Puerto Rico, the Spanish occupation forces were the object of more than thirty conspiracies. Some, like the Lares uprising, the riots and sedition of 1897, the most widespread popular revolts, however, were the one in Lares in 1868, and the one in Yauco in 1897. In 1868, the Grito de Lares took place, in which occupied the town of Lares. Ramón Emeterio Betances was the leader of this revolt, earlier, Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Betances had founded the Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances wrote several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish colonial system and these statements were rapidly circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. The critical state of the economy, along with the repression imposed by the Spanish. The stronghold of the movement were located on the mountains of the west of the islandIndependence movement in Puerto Rico – Roman Catholic Church and Plaza de la Revolución in Lares, where the 1868 Grito de Lares took place
60. Puerto Rican dry forests – The Puerto Rican dry forests are a subtropical dry forest ecoregion located in southwestern and eastern Puerto Rico and on the offshore islands. They cover an area of 1,300 km2 and these forests grow in areas receiving less than 1,000 mm of rain annually. Many of the trees are deciduous, losing their leaves during the dry season which lasts from December to July. Dry forests also exist on the adjacent off-shore islands of Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Monito, Desecheo, Caja de Muertos, the vast majority of studies have focused on the south coast - almost nothing has been published about the northeastern dry forest. Studies of the islands have been limited to species lists. Puerto Rican dry forests consist of short-stature, multi-stemmed trees, the canopy is largely evergreen, while the emergent layer is considerably more dry-season deciduous. Guaiacum officinale, Coccoloba venosa, Ceiba pentandra, and Capparis cynophallophora are common trees in dry forests. Dry limestone forest species include Pisonia albida, Guaiacum sanctum, although most of the forest was destroyed for agriculture prior to the 1940s, some patches of forest which pre-date that period still exist. In addition, large areas of secondary forest have grown back on abandoned agricultural land, unlike areas which were only lightly used, these forests on abandoned farmland have far fewer species than do natural forests. Their path to recovery remains uncertain, Puerto Rican dry forests are dominated by plants in the families Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Myrtaceae. In this regard they are similar to Jamaican dry forests, but differ sharply from dry forests on the mainland of South and Central America, the best example of dry forests in Puerto Rico are in the Guánica State Forest outside the town of Guánica. This site has also been the focus of the vast majority of studies of dry forests, archived from the original on 2010-03-08Puerto Rican dry forests – Puerto Rican dry forest on Caja de Muertos, south of Ponce
61. El Yunque National Forest – El Yunque National Forest, formerly known as the Caribbean National Forest, is a forest located in northeastern Puerto Rico. It is the tropical rain forest in the United States National Forest System. The second-tallest mountain within El Yunque is also named El Yunque, El Yunque National Rainforest is located on the slopes of the Sierra de Luquillo mountains, encompassing 28,000 acres of land, making it the largest block of public land in Puerto Rico. El Toro, the highest mountain peak in the forest rises 1,065 metres above sea level, ample rainfall creates a jungle-like setting — lush foliage, crags, waterfalls, and rivers are a prevalent sight. The forest has a number of trails from which the jungle-like territorys flora, El Yunque is also renowned for its unique Taíno petroglyphs. The forest region was set aside in 1876 by the King Alfonso XII of Spain. It was established as the Luquillo Forest Reserve on 17 January 1903 by the General Land Office with 65,950 acres and it was renamed Caribbean National Forest on 4 June 1935. It is home to over 200 species of trees and plants,23 of which are nowhere else. Because Puerto Rico is south of the Tropic of Cancer, it has a tropical climate, there is no distinct wet or dry season in El Yunque, it rains year round. The temperature and length of daylight remain fairly constant throughout the year, the average temperature year-round is 80 degrees Fahrenheit and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. All of these provide a year-round growing season. Its ecosystem is specifically surveyed by the Management Team of Ecosystems and this process is called orographic lift and accounts for the intense rainfall and constant cloud presence in this mountainous region. El Yunque is composed of four different forest vegetation areas, Tabonuco Forest, Palo Colorado Forest, Sierra Palm Forest, the following image shows the green wilderness of El Yunque from one of its peaks, Pico El Yunque. The Dwarf forest ecosystem is located at around 900 metres and composes the smallest sub-region in El Yunque, the forest is characterized by the variation of vegetation that is only found in Puerto Rico. The vegetation shows stunted growth in which the diameter of the trunk is widened, other specific factors that affect the growth of this sub-region are the high level of acidity and poor water runoff from the soil. The other abundant type of plants in the dwarf forest are epiphytes, El Yunque supports a vast array of animal and plant life that varies depending on the altitude range in the rainforest. The great amount of competition in the canopy does not allow lower level plants to develop, the characteristic of having a widened tree trunk is ideal for epiphytes that require a host to live. Approximately 15 species of coqui, members of the diverse neotropical frog genus Eleutherodactylus, are known on Puerto RicoEl Yunque National Forest – El Yunque National Forest
62. Economy of Puerto Rico – The economy of Puerto Rico is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and as the most competitive economy in Latin America by the World Economic Forum. S. In comparison to the different states of the United States, Puerto Rico is poorer than the poorest state of the United States, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. It is essential for Puerto Rico to reach restructuring deals with creditors to avoid a bankruptcy-like process under PROMESA. Its main trading partners are the United States itself, Ireland, and Japan, with most products coming from East Asia, mainly from China, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, like many other countries, has transitioned from an agricultural economy to an industrial one. Its economy is experiencing a transformation caused by the Information Age. Not much is known about the history of Puerto Rico prior to the arrival of Spaniards. The little that is known about its inhabitants, the Taíno, is that their economy was a mixture of hunting and gathering with agriculture, the Taíno captured and ate small animals, such as mammals, earthworms, lizards, turtles, and birds. Manatees were speared and fish were caught in nets, speared, poisoned, trapped in weirs, or caught with hook, wild parrots were decoyed with domesticated birds, and iguanas were taken from trees and other vegetation. Livestock was not practiced as there were no large animals native to Puerto Rico that could be raised in a setting in order to produce commodities such as food, fiber. Fields for important root crops, such as the staple yuca, were prepared by heaping up mounds of soil and this improved soil drainage and fertility as well as delaying erosion, and it allowing for longer storage of crops in the ground. Less important crops such as corn were raised in simple clearings created by slash, typically, conucos were three feet high and nine feet in circumference and were arranged in rows. The primary root crop was yuca/cassava, a woody shrub cultivated for its edible and it was planted using a coa, a kind of hoe made completely from wood. Women processed the poisonous variety of cassava by squeezing it to extract the toxic juices, then they would grind the roots into flour for baking bread. Batata was the next most important root crop, contrary to mainland practices, corn was not ground into flour and baked into bread. It was cooked and eaten off the cob, corn bread becomes moldy faster than cassava bread in the high humidity of the West Indies. The Taíno grew squash, beans, peppers, peanuts, tobacco, calabashes and cotton were grown around the houses. Other fruits and vegetables, such as nuts, guavas. The economy of Puerto Rico was transformed drastically upon the arrivals of Spaniards in 1493 until their departure in 1898, the economy during that period was driven by slavery of the native population, the Taíno, and by slaves brought from AfricaEconomy of Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP) by economic sector.
63. Operation Bootstrap – Operation Bootstrap is the name given to a series of projects which transformed the economy of Puerto Rico into an industrial and developed one. Bootstrap is still considered the model of Puerto Rico as the island has still not been able to evolve into a knowledge economy. The islands traditional economy was based around sugarcane plantations, the Administration of Economic Development invited investment of external capital, importing the raw materials, and exporting the finished products to the mainland. To entice participation, tax exemptions and differential rental rates were offered for industrial facilities, as a result, Puerto Ricos economy shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing and tourism. Through this project, an agricultural society was transformed into an industrial working class. Although initially touted as a miracle, by the 1960s. As living standards and wages in Puerto Rico rose, manpower-intensive industries faced competition from outside the United States, as of 2005 the continental United States remains Puerto Ricos major trading partner, received 86% of Puerto Ricos exports and providing 69% of its imports. United States Department of Agriculture Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc, Puerto Rican Pottery Teodoro Moscoso and Puerto Ricos Operation Bootstrap by A. W. Gainesville, University Press of Florida,1997, ISBN 0-8130-1501-4 Las campañas de control de la natalidad contra las mujeres, by Gloria Arimón en Servir al pueblo, número 233,1984. Economic History of Puerto Rico, Institutional Change and Capitalist Development, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press,1986. The Disenchanted Island, Puerto Rico and the United States in the Twentieth Century, 2ª ed. Westport CT, Praeger,1996. Factories and Food Stamps, The Puerto Rico Model of Development, baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press,1985. Democracy at Work in Rural Puerto Rico A Puerto Rican resource Young Lords in Lincoln ParkOperation Bootstrap – Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
64. Puerto Rican peso – The currencies of Puerto Rico closely follow the historic development of Puerto Rico. As a colony of Spain and the United States, Puerto Rico was granted the use of foreign and provincial currencies. Following the Spanish colonization in 1502, Puerto Rico became an important port, however, as the mineral reserves ran empty within the century, the archipelagos economy suffered. The Spanish Crown issued the Situado Mexicano, which meant that a shipment of gold from the Viceroyalty of New Spain would be sent to the island. Between 1636 and 1637, Philip IV of Spain imposed a tax which had to be using a revenue stamp. The situado was discontinued during the 19th century, creating an economic crisis, Salvador Meléndez Bruna, the colonial governor in office, ordered the issue of provincial banknotes, creating the Puerto Rican peso. However, printing of these banknotes ceased after 1815, during the following decades, foreign coins became the widespread currency. In the 1860s and 1870s, banknotes reemerged, on February 1,1890, the Banco Español de Puerto Rico was inaugurated and began issuing banknotes. The bank designed four series and placed three in circulation under Spanish rule, in 1895, a Royal Decree ordered the production of provincial peso coins. On August 13,1898, the Spanish–American War ended with Spain ceding Puerto Rico to the United States, the Banco Español de Puerto Rico was renamed Bank of Porto Rico and issued bills equivalent to the United States dollar, creating the Puerto Rican dollar. In 1902, the First National Bank of Porto Rico issued banknotes in a parallel manner, two more series were issued until 1913. The peso and dollar have been followed by other issues, including commemorative banknotes, private currency. After Juan Ponce de León began the process of Puerto Rico. Vessels used it as a point for resupplying before attempting long voyages. However, this aid failed to arrive often, contributing to the economical instability and this was exacerbated by other factors, including the costs of running an efficient military and a lack of commercial prosperity. Natural conditions and disasters also contributed, multiplying the costs of maintaining fortresses while hurricanes damaged haciendas, destroying crops, municipalities suffered most, being forced to implement taxes, including the alcaba del viento, which was imposed on foreign suppliers. However, these taxes barely helped, this was because one had to receive a Royal certification. Once they reached an established deadline, the process would have to be repeated, from January 1,1636, to December 15,1637, Philip IV of Spain imposed an obligatory payment to the treasuries in Puerto RicoPuerto Rican peso – Bilingual 200 pesos banknote (first issue, 1904 - 1907)
65. United States dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or also accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, there, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more commonUnited States dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
66. Demographics of Puerto Rico – The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by Amerindian settlement, European colonization especially under the Spanish Empire, slavery and economic migration. Sometime between 400 B. C. E. and 100 A. C. E, the Arawak group of Amerindians inhabited Puerto Rico. The Arawak no longer lived on the island, perhaps because they had integrated with another culture and they called the island, Borikén, which means land of the valiant one, and later, Puerto Ricans called themselves Boricua to embrace their indigenous identity. In the 15th century, the Carib lived on nearby islands, the Spanish conquered the island, assuming government in 1508, colonized it, and assumed hegemony over the natives. The Taíno population dwindled due to disease, tribal warfare, and forced labor, Spanish men arrived on the island disproportionately to Spanish women, African and Taíno women would sometimes marry them, resulting in a mulatto or mixed tri-racial ethnicity. In the late 18th century the number of African slaves began to dwindle on the island, the British ban on slavery resulted in slave raids on Puerto Rico. Many slaves also escaped to neighboring islands, during the 19th century large numbers of immigrants from Spain, as well as numerous Spaniards living in former Spanish colonies in South America, also arrived in Puerto Rico. During the early 20th century Jews began to settle in Puerto Rico, the first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German–occupied Europe in the 1930s. Puerto Ricos economic boom of the 1950s attracted a number of Jewish families from the U. S. mainland. This mass immigration during the 19th century helped the population grow from 155,000 in 1800 to almost a million at the close of the century, emigration has been a major part of Puerto Ricos recent history as well. C. This continued even as Puerto Ricos economy improved and its birth rate declined. Structure of the population, The first census by the United States in 1899 reported a population of 953,243 inhabitants,61. 8% of them classified as white,31. 9% as mixed, and 6. 3% as black. A strong European immigration wave and large importation of slaves from Africa helped increase the population of Puerto Rico over sixfold during the 19th century, no major immigration wave occurred during the 20th century. The Naturalization Act of 1870, passed during Reconstruction, allowed for peoples of African descent to become U. S, citizens but it excluded other nonwhites. European Jews and Gypsies, although of Asiatic Ancestry, were not affected by the Asiatic Barred Zone, the Johnson-Reed act of 1924 applied only to the Eastern Hemisphere. The Act imposed immigration quotas on Europe, which allowed for easy immigration from Northern and Western Europe, Africa and Asia were excluded altogether. The Western Hemisphere remained unrestricted to immigrate to the United States, thus under the Immigration Act of 1924 all Hispanics and Caribbeans could immigrate to the United States, but a White family from Poland or Russia could not immigrate. Puerto Rican Citizenship was created under the Foraker Act, Pub. L, 56–191,31 Stat.77 but it wasnt until 1917 that Puerto Ricans were granted full American Citizenship under the Jones–Shafroth Act (Pub. LDemographics of Puerto Rico
67. Education in Puerto Rico – Education in Puerto Rico is overseen by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Education Council. Instruction in Puerto Rico is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 18, which comprises the elementary and high school grades, students in Puerto Rico may attend either public or private schools. As of 2013, the island had 1,460 public schools,764 private schools,606,515 K-12 students,64,335 vocational students, and 250,011 university students. The literacy rate of the Puerto Rican population was 94. 1% in 2002, when divided by gender, this is distributed as 93. 9% for males and 94. 4% for females. According to the 2000 Census,60. 0% of the population attained a high degree or higher level of education. The first school in Puerto Rico was the Escuela de Gramática, the school was established by Bishop Alonso Manso in 1513, in the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed. The school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, literature, history, science, art, philosophy, the educational system in Puerto Rico consists of seven categories. Other schools offer seventh grade to grade at the same institution and are referred to as Nivel Secundario. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico grants the right to an education to every citizen on the island, to this end, public schools in Puerto Rico provide free and secular education at the elementary and secondary levels. The public school system is funded by the state and is operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education, the remaining teachers are either temporary or contracted on a yearly basis. Preschool education, care, and services are free for low income families with private daycares being common, primary and secondary education is compulsory and free regardless of income through more than 1,400 public schools. Ten public schools are considered prestigious locally, all of them being magnet schools, which graduate the highest scores on the island of the College Boards PEAU. Two examples of these are CIMATEC and CROEM which focus on science, technology, public schools in Puerto Rico are subject to the federal laws of the United States. The NCLB, No Child Left Behind Act included Puerto Rico until president Obama approved a waiver in October 22,2013, unlike most schools in the United States, public school instruction in Puerto Rico is conducted entirely in Spanish. English is taught as a language and is a compulsory subject at all levels. In the early years following the 1898 American occupation of the island, the opposite was true, public schooling was conducted in English. In 2012, pro-statehood Governor Luis Fortuño caused controversy when he proposed that all courses in Puerto Rico public schools be taught in English instead of Spanish as they currently are, private schools in Puerto Rico are operated by non-governmental institutions. Accredited elementary and secondary schools in Puerto Rico must meet minimum public education requirements for academic workEducation in Puerto Rico – This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
68. Casals Festival – The Casals Festival is a classical music event celebrated every year in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of classical musician Pablo Casals. The festival was founded in 1956 by Pablo Casals and it was promoted by Teodoro Moscoso and David Ogilvy with the objectives of changing the image of Puerto Rico and promoting tourism to the island during off-peak tourism time. After implementing Operation Bootstrap, Teodoro Moscoso employed advertiser David Ogilvy to propagate the image of a people engaged in a cultural renaissance. Teodoro Moscosos decisive actions at critical junctures and his personal persuasiveness, as with Pablo Casals, Pablo Casals, was born in Spain to a Puerto Rican mother Pilar Defilló. He was a player and a supporter of the Spanish Republican Government. Casals went to live in the French village of Prades, there he established the Prades Festival. Casals visited Puerto Rico in 1955 and in 1956 In 1956 and he was scheduled to inaugurate the festival which bears his name. The inauguration of the festival was held in the University of Puerto Rico Theater, Casals, who was supposed to perform Suite Number 3 in C major, for solo cello by Johann Sebastian Bach, fell ill and suffered a heart attack during the rehearsals. Even though Casals was hospitalized, the event went on as scheduled with the performance of pianist Rudolf Serkin, when the festival first started, the majority of the musicians contracted by the festival orchestra for the event came from the United States. Some of the exceptions to this practice were Jesus Maria Sanroma, Henry Hutchinson Sr. Fernando Valenti and Narciso Figueroa, by 1970, the majority of the members of the festivals orchestra were Puerto Ricans. Pablo Casals died on October 22,1973 and his widow Marta Casals who was the president of the musical committee and Co‑Chairman of the Board and Music Director until 1979, undertook to continue the annual event. The festival has now taken on a new dimension with the appointment of pianist and scholar Elías López-Sobá and bass/baritone Justino Díaz as artistic and these two Puerto Rican artists have continued to follow the legacy of Pablo and Marta Casals, attracting many musicians for a series of concerts. The Prades Festival established by Casals in France in 1950 was renamed the Pablo Casals Festival in 1982, list of artists who have participated in the Casals Festival Official Web SiteCasals Festival – Pablo Casals, 1922
69. Puerto Rican literature – Puerto Rican literature evolved from the art of oral story telling to its present-day status. Written works by the islanders of Puerto Rico were prohibited and repressed by the Spanish colonial government. Only those who were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the history of the island were allowed to write. It wasnt until the late 19th century with the arrival of the first printing press, the first writers to express their political views in regard to Spanish colonial rule of the island were journalists. With the Puerto Rican diaspora of the 1940s, Puerto Rican literature was influenced by a phenomenon known as the Nuyorican Movement. Puerto Rican literature continued to flourish and many Puerto Ricans have distinguished themselves as authors, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists, the influence of Puerto Rican literature has transcended the boundaries of the island to the United States and the rest of the world. Puerto Rican literature got off to a late start, therefore, written works by the native islanders were prohibited and were punishable by prison terms or banishment. The island, which depended on an economy, had an illiteracy rate of over 80% in the beginning of the 19th century. Even though the first library in Puerto Rico was established in 1642, in the Convent of San Francisco, the only people who had access to the libraries and who could afford books were either appointed Spanish government officials or wealthy land owners. The poor had to resort to oral story-telling in what are known in Puerto Rico as Coplas and Decimas. The islands first writers were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the history of the island. The first native-born Puerto Rican governor, Ponce de León II, included information on Taíno culture, particularly their religious ceremonies and he also covered the early exploits of the conquistadors. These documents were sent to the National Archives in Sevilla, Spain, Puerto Rican history, however, was to change forever with the arrival of the first printing press from Mexico in 1806. That same year Juan Rodríguez Calderón wrote and published the first book in the island, in 1851, the Spanish appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Juan de la Pezuela Cevallo, founded the Royal Academy of Belles Letters. This institution contributed greatly to the intellectual and literary progress of the island, the school licensed primary school teachers, formulated school methods, and held literary contests. However, only those with government positions and the wealthy benefited from the formation of the institution, the first Puerto Rican writers came from some of the islands wealthiest families, and they were critical of the injustices of the Spanish Crown. In 1806, the Spanish Colonial Government established La Gaceta de Puerto Rico, the newspaper was biased as to the ideals of the government. The first written works in Puerto Rico were influenced by the Romanticism of the time, Journalists were the first writers to express their political views in the newspapers of the day and later in the books which they authoredPuerto Rican literature – First row: Alejandro Tapia y Rivera • Alejandrina Benitez de Gautier José Gautier Benítez Second row: Eugenio María de Hostos • Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira Teresita A. Levy
70. List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico – This is a list of the endemic fauna of Puerto Rico. This list is sorted in order by the scientific name of the species. Snelling & Juan A. Torres Solenopsis torrei-was first described by Juan A. S. A, U. S. territories and Canada since 1492 Rivero, Juan A. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico, san Juan, Puerto Rico, University of Puerto Rico PressList of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico – Elfin-woods warbler
71. List of birds of Vieques – This is a list of birds recorded in the island of Vieques. Vieques is a municipality of Puerto Rico located off the east coast of the main island of Puerto Rico, south of Culebra island. It has an area of 348.15 km2, of which only 135 km2 is land area. There are a total of 142 species recorded from the island of Vieques, some species, such as the Puerto Rican parrot, have been extirpated from the island but are, nonetheless, included in this list. Extinct species are not included in this list and this list presents the following information for each species, common and scientific name of each species, preferred habitat, breeding status in Vieques and frequency of occurrence for each season. Tags are used to describe this information for each species and this lists taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, introduced, stray and extirpated species are included in the total species counts for Vieques. The following tags have been used to describe the frequency of occurrence of species in Vieques. Species may inhabit more than one type of habitat, thorn scrub Inhabited areas Mangrove lagoons Dry forest Shoreline Moist forest The following tags have been used to describe the breeding status of each species in Vieques. Breeder Probable breeder Non-breeder Winter visitor Migrant Stray Order, Podicipediformes Family and they have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, Order, Phaethontiformes Family, Phaethontidae Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head, Order, Suliformes Family, Sulidae The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies with only boobies occurring in Vieques. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish, Order, Suliformes Family, Fregatidae Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black-and-white, with long wings, the males have colored inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface, having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Pelecanidae Pelicans are very large birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes. Order, Pelecaniformes Family, Ardeidae The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secretive, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbillsList of birds of Vieques – Vieques Island from the air
72. Puerto Rican crested anole – The Puerto Rican crested anole is the nominate subspecies of a species of anole belonging to the Polychrotidae family of reptiles. This lizard is found throughout Puerto Rico and has introduced into eastern Hispaniola, Dominica. Another subspecies, Anolis cristatellus wileyae, is found on islands off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico, such as Culebra and Vieques and these lizards typically spend their time perched on tree trunks, coming to the ground to forage for insects and fruit. Coloration may vary significantly from a brownish-red to a black or a very light gray. They are often referred to as chameleons because of their ability to slightly change color. They have a crest along the tail, probably serving as means for males to demonstrate dominance in a contest for a female, the male has a bright yellow-orange dewlap which is also used in determining dominance when attempting to control territory. They are usually 5-8 inches in length, but can grow up to 10 inches. When looking for a mate or defending its territory, this anole will display its dewlap, males aggressively defend territories when mating, but only rarely does this result in physical combat. As a defense against predators, they autotomize their tails, the Puerto Rican crested anole is found throughout Puerto Rico, excepting some of the mountainous regions of the island. They are also found on offshore islands of Puerto Rico. Anoles have been introduced into southern Florida and eastern Dominican Republic and they are sold globally in the pet trade. Anoles mainly eat spiders and small invertebrates, but will eat fruit on the ground. They will sometimes eat other anoles, due to territorial disputes or food scarcity. List of amphibians and reptiles of Puerto Rico List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico List of Anolis lizards Kingsnake. com CaribHerp. netPuerto Rican crested anole – Puerto Rican crested anole
73. Mona ground iguana – The Mona ground iguana is a subspecies of the rhinoceros iguana. It is endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico and is the largest native terrestrial lizard in Puerto Rico, the Mona ground iguana is a subspecies of rhinoceros iguana belonging to the genus Cyclura. It was named by Thomas Barbour and G. K, noble as a species in 1916. In 1937, Barbour considered it to be a subspecies of Cyclura cornuta and its generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek cyclos meaning circular and ourá meaning tail, after the thick-ringed tail characteristic of all Cyclura. The Mona ground iguanas specific name, cornuta, is the form of the Latin adjective cornutus, meaning horned. Its subspecific name, stejnegeri honors Leonhard Hess Stejneger, who, debate continues as to whether this is a valid subspecies and not a different species in its own right. It is known in scientific circles as Cyclura stejnegeri. Still, others consider it a variant of the parent species. The Mona ground iguana is a large-bodied, heavy-headed lizard with strong legs, a crest of pointed, horned scales extends from the nape of the neck to the tip of the tail. The color is a gray to olive drab with slight brown or blue colorations. Juveniles differ from adults in that they have gray transverse bands across their bodies and these bands last until they are sexually mature at about three years of age. Males possess bony, prominent turbicles on their snouts resembling horns, adipose pads in the form of a helmet on the region of their heads. Mona ground iguanas are diurnal and spend most of the day basking in the sun conserving energy, Mona ground iguanas are endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico. They are scattered through the island, though the Southwest part of the island is only used during the nesting season. They live a considerable portion of their lives underground, and are found in talus slopes, caves. The average depth underground that they can be found is 1.5 metres, the females bury their eggs in the sand and the sunlight incubates the eggs. Males reach sexual maturity at a size of 28–31 cm in length from snout to vent, usually in their third to fourth year, nesting season begins in the second week of June. Usually, one female mates with more than one male in the two weeks the mating season lasts, copulation may last from 15 sec to 2 mins and 15 secMona ground iguana – Mona ground iguana
74. Flag of Puerto Rico – The flag of Puerto Rico represents and symbolizes the island of Puerto Rico and its people. Ramón Emeterio Betances and embroidered by Mariana Brazos de Oro Bracetti and this flag was used in the short-lived Puerto Rican revolt against Spanish rule in the island, known as El Grito de Lares. The use and display of the Puerto Rican flag was outlawed and the only permitted to be flown in Puerto Rico were the Spanish flag. In 1952, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico adopted the flag design. The color of the triangle that was used by the administration of Luis Muñoz Marín was the dark blue, therefore, it is not uncommon to see the flag of Puerto Rico with different shades of blue displayed in the island. Several Puerto Rican flags, with darker shades than sky blue were aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery during its flight into space on March 15,2009. The conquistadores under the command of Juan Ponce de León proceeded to conquer and they carried as their military standard the Spanish Expedition Flag. After the island was conquered and colonized, the flag of Spain was used in Puerto Rico, the Spanish Army designed the Cross of Burgundy Flag and adopted it as their standard. This flag flew wherever there was a Spanish military installation, the independence movement in Puerto Rico gained momentum with the liberation successes of Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín in South America. The materials for the flag were provided by Eduvigis Beauchamp Sterling, the flag was divided in the middle by a white Latin cross, the two lower corners were red and the two upper corners were blue with a white star in the upper left blue corner. The Revolutionary Flag of Lares was used in the rebellion against Spain in what became known as El Grito de Lares. The original Lares flag was taken by a Spanish army officer as a war prize, many years later it was returned and transferred to the Puerto Rican people. It is now exhibited in the University of Puerto Ricos Museum, in 1873, following the abdication of Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, as King and with Spains change from Kingdom to Republic, the Spanish government issued a new colonial flag for Puerto Rico. The new flag, which was used until 1873, resembled the flag of Spain, Juan de Mata Terreforte, a leader of the Grito de Lares revolt who fought alongside Manuel Rojas, was exiled to New York City. He joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee and was named its Vice-President, Terreforte and the members of the Revolutionary committee adopted the Flag of Lares as their standard. In 1892, the Committee was presented with the design of the current flag of Puerto Rico, the new flags design has been attributed to various Puerto Ricans who were members of the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City. Some sources document Francisco Gonzalo Marín with presenting a Puerto Rican flag prototype in 1895 for adoption by the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee in New York City, Marín has since been credited by some with the flags design. There is a written by Juan de Mata Terreforte which gives credit to MarinFlag of Puerto Rico – A photograph of the Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
75. Transportation in Puerto Rico – Transportation in Puerto Rico includes a system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ports and harbors, and railway systems, serving a population of approximately 4 million inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with local and federal government funds. Puerto Rico has a total of 30 airports, including one in each of the islands of Vieques. The main airport is Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, and consists of two runways and three concourses. It is by far the busiest airport in Puerto Rico, with connections to most major cities in the mainland United States, Latin America, the Caribbean. Puerto Rico has 21 airports with paved runways, of which,3 airports with more than 10,000 ft of runway,3 airports with runways ranging between 5,000 ft and 8,000 ft.15 airports with less than 5,000 ft of runway. Puerto Rico also has 8 airports with unpaved runways, all of which have less than 5,000 ft of runway. S, points—either directly or indirectly via one or any number of foreign points—U. S. Federal Law requires that said items or persons must travel in U. S. -built, U. S. -crewed and this transportation/trade restriction includes Puerto Rico per the Jones Act of 1920. Strictly construed, the Jones Act refers only to Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 and it is the main port of the island. Port of Ponce - The second largest port in Puerto Rico and it is currently undergoing a significant expansion, with plans to convert it to an international shipping hub. Port of Mayagüez - The third largest port in Puerto Rico and it is mainly used for freight/cargo ships but is also home to the Dominican Republic-Puerto Rico passenger ferry and has also been used for cruise ships. The following are minor ports and harbors used for small ships, fishing vessels, and private boats/yachts, Guánica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Fajardo, Culebra. There are ferries between Fajardo, Culebra and Vieques, between San Juan and Cataño, and between Ponce and Caja de Muertos, there are several private marinas in Puerto Rico for boats and yachts, the largest being Puerto del Rey in Fajardo and Club Nautico de Ponce. The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports. S. Instead, they must proceed directly to U. S. ports, the local government of Puerto Rico has requested several times to the U. S. Congress to exclude Puerto Rico from the Jones Act restrictions without success. The most recent measure has been taken by the 17th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico through R. Conc and these measures have always received support from all the major local political parties. S. -flag competition could lower costs. Tren Urbano - Provides passenger train service between points of the San Juan Metropolitan Area, between Bayamón, Guaynabo and several important sections of San Juan. Port of Ponce Railroad - The only industrial railroad operating on the island and located within the Puerto de Las Américas in PonceTransportation in Puerto Rico – 19th century train station in Yauco
76. Rail transport in Puerto Rico – This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series. Rail transport in Puerto Rico currently consists of a 10. 7-mile passenger metro system in the metropolitan area of San Juan. Its history can be traced back to the century with the construction of a limited passenger line in Mayagüez. However, the system was soon overshadowed by the arrival of the automobile. Small remnants of this still exist in some parts of Puerto Rico. It was originally proposed by Jose A. Gonzalez y Echevarría in 1870 under the company El Ferrocarril Urbano de la Villa de Mayagüez, with the line being built between 1872 and 1875. The simple street railway system consisted of small wagons on rails pulled by horses and it faced numerous difficulties, including inclined routes and poor street conditions, which were troublesome for the animals. The new system operated more efficiently, offering more comfortable cars and more stops, including one in the town Market Place and another in the Guanajibo neighborhood. The routes were altered to pass through McKinley Street, which was less inclined and it lasted until 1912, when the Mayagüez Tramways Anonymous Society ceased operations and was replaced by the Mayagüez Tramway Company in 1913. The third operator of the system introduced new larger electric-powered cars and it remained active for 13 years, but after a major earthquake hit Mayagüez in 1918, coupled with the recent arrival of the automobile, it was shut down permanently in 1926. In 1878, engineer-entrepreneur Don Pablo Ubarri was granted a permit to build and this interurban system was the beginning of colonization of the hinterland of the walled city of San Juan. In 1901, the San Juan Light & Transit Co. replaced the tram by a new electric tram system. The stops or paradas along the avenue were numbered, from 1 in Old San Juan to 40 in Río Piedras, the numbers became so identified with the locations that some street maps still show them today. In 1911 a new line going through Condado in Santurce is constructed by the Porto Rico Railway, the main Puerto Rico rail system was created during the late 19th century and was significantly expanded during the early 20th century due to a growing sugar cane industry in the island. Its origins can be traced back to 1874, when a Spanish engineer proposed building a railroad line along the coast of Puerto Rico. The study for this project served as a base for the definitive construction and it would take almost 20 years to complete the whole route from San Juan to Ponce. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico in 1898, the system already had approximately 168 mi of railroad tracks, passenger travel began to flourish in 1902 when the American Railroad Company from New York acquired the system. In 1904, a line was constructed between Hormigueros and YaucoRail transport in Puerto Rico – Railroad map of Puerto Rico, 1924.
77. List of Puerto Ricans – This is a list of notable people from Puerto Rico which includes people who were born in Puerto Rico, people who are of full or partial Puerto Rican background. The list is divided into categories and, in cases, sub-categories. Some categories such as Actors, actresses, comedians and directors are relative since a subject who is a comedian may also be an actor or director. In some cases a subject may be notable in more than one field, such as Luis A. Ferré, however, the custom is to place the subjects name under the category for which he/she is most noted. Herger, television host, psychologist Daisy Martinez, host of PBS cooking show Daisy Cooks. and ¡Parriba, Papi, giannina Braschi, a National Endowment for the Arts Fellow, author of the bestselling Spanglish classic Yo-Yo Boing. k. a. k. a. Clara Lair, poet whose work dealt with the struggles of the common Puerto Rican O Judith Ortiz Cofer, poet, writer and essayist, in 1994. Z Manuel Zeno Gandía, writer, wrote La Charca, the first Puerto Rican novel, President and founder of Ramirez and Co. Puerto Ricos largest brewery Salvador Vassallo, founder of Vassallo Industries Inc. Navy bombing zones after the 1999 death of Puerto Rican civilian and Vieques native David Sanes, who was killed during a U. S. Naval bombing exercise. Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, civil rights activist, pioneer in black history who, elías Beauchamp, Political activist and nationalist who in 1936, assassinated Elisha Francis Riggs, the United States appointed police chief of Puerto Rico. Beauchamp is considered a hero by the members of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement, blanca Canales, political activist, nationalist leader who led the Jayuya Uprising in 1950 against US colonial rule of Puerto Rico. Truman Rosa Collazo a. k. a Rosa Cortéz Collazo, political activist and he was one of the four members of a group of nationalists, who proceeded to attack the United States House of Representatives in 1954. Irvin Flores, political activist, Nationalist leader and activist and he was one of the four members of a group of nationalists, who proceeded to attack the United States House of Representatives in 1954. Lolita Lebrón, political activist, Nationalist leader and activist, the leader of a group of nationalists, Rosado and his comrade Beauchamp are considered heroes by the members of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement. Isabel Rosado, political activist, imprisoned multiple times, a Mary Ann Acevedo Rivera, singer, songwriter Juan F. k. a. Jellybean Benítez, music producer and remixer Lucecita Benítez, a. k. a. k. a. k. a. k. a. S. Reality series The Voice Willie Colón, salsa composer César Concepción, orchestra leader Ernesto Cordero, composer, El Father, reggaeton singer Rafael José Díaz, a. k. a. k. a. k. a. Chencho, singer, producer Carmita Jiménez, a. k. a. k. a, prince Markie Dee, rapper, producer Noro Morales, pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader Carli Muñoz, pianist, composer, arranger, bandleader, producer. Rafael Muñoz, orchestra leader Luis Miguel, a. k. a. sol de Mexico, shalim, singer, actor Pedro Ortiz Davila, a. k. a. k. aList of Puerto Ricans
78. Piragua (food) – A Piragua /pɪˈrɑːɡwə/ is a Puerto Rican shaved ice dessert, shaped like a pyramid, consisting of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup. Piraguas are sold by vendors, known as piragüeros, in small colorful pushcarts, besides Puerto Rico, Piraguas can be found in the United States mainland areas, such as New York and Central Florida, which have large Puerto Rican communities. In most Spanish-speaking countries, the word piragua means pirogue, a small, in Puerto Rico the word piragua refers to a frozen treat made of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup. Unlike the American snow cone which is round and resembles a snowball, the word piragua is derived from the combination of the Spanish words pirámide and agua. In Latin America, frozen treats similar to the piragua are known by different names. The piragua vendor is known as the piragüero, most piragüeros sell their product from a colorful wooden pushcart that carries an umbrella, instead of from a fixed stand or kiosk. The piragüero makes the treats from the shavings off a block of ice which is located inside his cart. The tropical syrup flavors vary from lemon and strawberry to passion fruit, in the process of preparing a piragua, the piragüero shaves the ice from the block of ice with a Hand Ice Shaver. He then puts the shaved ice into a cup and uses a shaped tool. The piragüero finishes making the piragua when he pours the desired flavored syrup, unlike the typical American snow cone, which is often eaten with a spoon, the piragua is eaten straight out of the cup or is sipped through a straw. Piragüeros are only out on hot sunny days because those are the days when they can expect good business. Among those terms used are the flavors china, which in most other Spanish speaking locales is referred to as naranja and melón, whose name in standard Spanish is sandía. In the 1940s, during the Puerto Rican Great Migration in which numbers of Puerto Ricans moved to New York, they took with them their customs, traditions. According to Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia, by Winston James, in his book, he describes the presence of piragua pushcarts during the Harlem Riots against the Puerto Rican migrants in July 1926. The agencys reference to the piragua is in a report titled What is in your piragua. of August 2007, piragüeros with their piragua pushcarts can be found in Hispanic neighborhoods in Bridgeport, Chicago, Jersey City, Miami, Newark, Philadelphia and elsewhere. The Puerto Rican piragua has been the subject of paintings and a book, the painting Carrito de Piraguas is a mixed media piece by an unknown artist, on exhibit at El Museo del Barrio in New York. Puerto Rican artist Iván Moura Limardo created various paintings related to the piragua, among them are Piragüero 5 and Piragüero 10, which are on display in the Siena Art Gallery in San Juan. The town of Coamo commissioned the creation of a monument in the honor of the piragüeros, the statue which is called Monumento al Piragüero is located in the town plazaPiragua (food) – Young girl eating a "Piragüa" in Puerto Rico