1. Royal family – A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, sometimes his or her extended family. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or "royals." It is also customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of...". As of July 2013, there are 26 sovereign monarchies in the world who reign over 43 countries in all. In some cases, royal membership may extend to more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, a royal family may also include one or more former monarchs. There is often a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. Such as in Canada, the royal family is defined by who holds Royal Highness. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts, potential successors to the throne. This is not always observed; some monarchies have operated by the principle of jure uxoris. In addition, certain relatives of the monarch are subject to certain statutes, special common law. The precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do noble styles held by members of the family. Conventions may also regulate the marriages, names, personal titles of royal family members.Royal family – The Royal Family of France in classical costume during the reign of Louis XIV.
2. Monarchy – The actual power of the monarch may vary to completely autocratic. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. Thus there are widely divergent traditions defining monarchy. It is no longer prevalent. The monarchs of Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia "do not rule" although there is considerable variation in the degree of authority they wield. The word "monarch" comes from monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the monarchy usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule, as elective monarchies are rare nowadays. Depending on the title held by the monarch, a monarchy may be known as a kingdom, principality, duchy, grand duchy, empire, tsardom, emirate, khaganate, etc.. The forms of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or kingship is prehistoric. The Greek monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus. The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as "king". The Chinese, Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where executive power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of Athens. Much of 19th century politics was characterised by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism.Monarchy – Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
3. Monarch – A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy. Others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a Regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite age to rule. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles -- king or queen, prince or princess, sultan. Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts. A queen can be a king's wife. If both people in a reign, neither person is generally considered to be a consort. Monarchy is generally associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been brought up within a royal family and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of Salic law, etc.. Some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and -- Lithuanian Commonwealth.Monarch – The nine European Monarchs who attended the funeral of King Edward VII of Britain, photographed at Windsor Castle on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria, King Manuel II of Portugal, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, King George I of Greece and King Albert I of Belgium. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King George V of Britain and King Frederick VIII of Denmark.
4. Emperor – An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. The female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated as "Emperor". Emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Some empires, such as the Russian Empire, derived their office from the authority of the Roman Emperors. The title was a conscious attempt by monarchs to link themselves as part of state ideology. Pre-Roman titles as "Great King" or "King of Kings", used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. However such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified by the mid-18th century. The title was first used as an honorific for a military leader in ancient Rome, meaning general. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below.Emperor – A statue of the dictator Julius Caesar.
5. Empress – An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. The female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated as "Emperor". Emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Some empires, such as the Russian Empire, derived their office from the authority of the Roman Emperors. The title was a conscious attempt by monarchs to link themselves as part of state ideology. Pre-Roman titles as "Great King" or "King of Kings", used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. However such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified by the mid-18th century. The title was first used as an honorific for a military leader in ancient Rome, meaning general. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below.Empress – A statue of the dictator Julius Caesar.
6. Duke – A duke or duchess can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. During the Middle Ages the title signified first among the Germanic monarchies. During the 19th century many of the Italian states were ruled by Dukes or Grand Dukes. But with the exception of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there are no dukes ruling as monarchs. Duke remains the highest hereditary title in Portugal, the United Kingdom. In Sweden, members of the Royal Family are given a personal dukedom at birth. The Pope, as a temporal sovereign, has also, though rarely, granted the title of Duke or Duchess to the Holy See. A woman, the wife of a duke, is normally styled duchess. Queen Elizabeth II, however, is known by tradition in Lancashire. A duchy is the territory or entity ruled by a duke. A dukedom is not necessarily attached to a duchy. This is a dukedom without a duchy. The Channel Islands are two of the last vestiges of the lands of the Duchy of Normandy. The Islanders in their loyal toast will say "La Reine, notre Duc". However, part of the lost Duchy, remained a self-governing possession of the English Crown.Duke – Royal, noble and chivalric ranks
7. Grand duke – The monarchic title of grand duke ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke. His successor Charles the Bold continued to use the same style and title. The grand duke has been used by the rulers of Lithuania, who after Jagiello also became Kings of Poland. The first monarchs officially titled grand duke were the Medici sovereigns of Tuscany, starting from the late 16th century. This official title was arguably illegally because the territory was under the vassalage of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus the 19th century saw a new group of monarchs titled Grand Duke in central Europe, especially in present-day Germany. A list of these is available in the article grand duchy. After the Russian conquests, the title continued to be used as rulers of both Lithuania and the autonomous Finland. The Holy Roman Empire under the House of Habsburg instituted a non-sovereign Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen in 1765. Grand princes were medieval monarchs who usually were feudal overlords of other princes. At the time, the title was usually translated as "king", sometimes also as "Minor King" or "Little King". Grand Princes reigned in Central and Eastern Europe, notably among Slavs and Lithuanians. The title "Grand Prince" translates to Velikiy Knjaz in Russian. The Lithuanian kunigas are cognates of the word King in its original meaning of "Ruler". Thus, the literal meaning of Didysis Kunigas was more like "Great Ruler" than "Grand Duke".Grand duke – Portrait of Grand Duchess Maria Fiodorovna by Heinrich von Angeli (1874) Saint Petersburg, Hermitage Museum
8. Prince – A prince is a male ruler, monarch, or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from primus + capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler, prince". , became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion. The term may be broadly used of persons in various cultures, eras. In Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy, Germany, Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank. This is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. Most small territories designated during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles. They reflect not only different but mutually exclusive concepts. This distinction had evolved before the 18th century for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany. Note that the princely title was used to his Christian name, which also became customary.Prince – Cicero attacks Catiline in the Senate of the Roman Republic.
9. Monarchy of the United Kingdom – The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The monarch's title is "King" or "Queen". Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on 6 February 1952. Her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The Act of Settlement 1701, still in force, excluded those who marry Catholics, to the English throne. The British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, effectively bringing the empire to an end. Elizabeth II, adopted the Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State. Oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. The monarch appears on postage stamps, banknotes.Monarchy of the United Kingdom – Queen of the United Kingdom
10. Sovereignty – Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity. It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation. The current notion of sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory, recognition. Sovereignty is a hypothetical trade, in which two potentially conflicting sides, respecting de facto realities of power, exchange such recognitions as their least costly strategy." The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that: The imperium of the people is transferred to the Emperor. The Emperor is not bound by the law. The Emperor's word is law. Emperor is the law making and abiding force. Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty, although he did not use the term expressly. Classical Ulpian's statements were known in medieval Europe, but sovereignty was an important concept in medieval times. Medieval monarchs were not sovereign, at least not strongly so, because they were constrained by, shared power with, their feudal aristocracy. Furthermore, both were strongly constrained by custom. Around c. 1380–1400, the issue of feminine sovereignty was addressed in Geoffrey Chaucer's Middle English collection of Canterbury Tales, specifically in The Wife of Bath's Tale.Sovereignty – The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes ' Leviathan, depicting the Sovereign as a massive body wielding a sword and crozier and composed of many individual people.
11. British overseas territory – The 14 British Overseas Territories are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are those parts of the British Empire that have not chosen independence or have voted to remain British territories. Most of the inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. The rest have a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. They share the British monarch as head of state. Prior to January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as British Crown Colonies. Collectively, the Territories encompass a land area of about 667,018 square miles. The vast majority of 660,000 square miles, constitutes the British Antarctic Territory. The other three territories are the responsibility of Minster of State for Europe and the Americas. The first, unofficial, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. It is now a province of Canada known as Newfoundland and Labrador. It retains cultural ties with Britain. English colonisation of North America began officially with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in "Virginia". St. George's town, founded in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World. Bermuda and Bermudians have played sometimes pivotal, but generally underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires.British overseas territory
12. Queen Elizabeth II – Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand since 1952. Elizabeth was born as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. She was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the presumptive. She began serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. Elizabeth's historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. She has seen constitutional changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. She has also reigned through various conflicts involving many of her realms. She is the world's oldest monarch as well as Britain's longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently head of state following the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. Support for the monarchy remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 April 1926 during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Elizabeth, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.Queen Elizabeth II – The Queen in March 2015
13. Heir apparent – An heir apparent is a person, first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. These terms most commonly describe heirs to hereditary titles, particularly monarchies. They are also used metaphorically to indicate an "anointed" successor to any position of power, e.g. a corporate leader. In France the title was le Dauphin. See prince for more examples. The example occurs in the case of a title-holder with no children. If at any time he were to produce children, they rank ahead of whatever more "distant" relative had been presumptive. Legal systems assume childbirth is always possible regardless of age or health. In such circumstances a person may be, in a practical sense, the heir apparent but still, legally speaking, presumptive. Adelaide was 44 at the time, so pregnancy was possible even if unlikely. Daughters may only in default of sons. Hence, she is an presumptive. In a system of absolute primogeniture that disregards gender, female heirs apparent occur. European monarchies that have adopted such systems in the last few decades furnish practical examples. Victoria herself has a female heir apparent in her oldest child, Princess Estelle.Heir apparent – Throngs before the Imperial Palace in Japan awaiting the appearance of the Crown Prince Hirohito for the recent proclamation of his official recognition as the heir apparent to the Japanese Imperial Throne – New York Times, 1916.
14. Charles, Prince of Wales – Charles, Prince of Wales, is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Cambridge, he served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, they had two sons: Prince William later to become Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced, following extramarital affairs. Diana died in a crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, he married Camilla Parker Bowles. He has sought to raise world awareness such as climate change. As an environmentalist, Charles has received numerous awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community. Charles has been outspoken on the role of the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, he created an experimental new town based on his theories, in Dorset in 1993. Charles was baptised in the palace's Music Room by the Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mother's accession as Queen Elizabeth II made her heir apparent. He attended his mother's coronation on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother and aunt.Charles, Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales in Jersey, July 2012
15. Duke of Rothesay – Duke of Rothesay is a title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, King of Scots, first held the dukedom from its creation in 1398. After his death, his brother James, later King James I, received the dukedom. Thereafter, the heir-apparent to the Scottish Crown held the dukedom; an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 1469 confirmed this pattern of succession. The Earldom of Carrick existed early as the twelfth century. In 1306, Earl of Carrick, became King Robert I of Scotland, with the earldom merging in the Crown. In the following years, successive Kings of Scots created heirs-apparent Earl of Carrick. The Act of 1469 finally settled the earldom on the eldest son of the Scottish monarch. The office of the Great Steward of Scotland dates back in the twelfth century. Robert, ascended the Scots throne as Robert II in 1371. Thereafter, only the heirs-apparent to the Crown held the office. The 1469 Act also deals with this. This may have been to Scotland. Another of the non-peerage titles belonging to the heir-apparent, that of Lord of the Isles, merits special mention. The Lords of the MacDonald family, originally functioned as vassals of the Scottish -- or Norwegian -- kings who ruled the Western Isles.Duke of Rothesay – HRH The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay
16. Prince consort – A prince consort is the husband of a queen regnant, not himself a king in his own right. However, one may have no royal title. Prince Consort is a formal title. Prince Albert is the only spouse of a British queen to have held it: it was awarded to him by his wife Queen Victoria. Duke of Edinburgh is a Prince of the United Kingdom but is not titled Prince Consort. Its Manchu equivalent e ` fu, are sometimes translated as "prince consort". This was originally an office of the imperial household, later evolving into the title reserved for husbands of imperial princesses. These princes consort could hold other titles in their own right. King consort Queen consort List of British consorts List of royal consorts of CanadaPrince consort – Royal, noble and chivalric ranks
17. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. He was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, he joined the Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. After an engagement of five months, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became Queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander. He was formally made a Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957. He has four children with Elizabeth: Prince Edward. He has eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He is a patron of over 800 organisations and serves as chairman of the Duke of Edinburgh's Award scheme for people aged 14 to 24.Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Prince Philip in March 2015
18. Head of the Commonwealth – By 1949, the then British Commonwealth was a group of eight countries, each having George VI as king. India, however, desired to become a republic, but not depart the Commonwealth by doing so. This was accommodated by the creation of the Head of the Commonwealth for the King and India became a republic in 1950. The title is currently held by the elder daughter of Queen Elizabeth II. The title was devised as a result of discussions at the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference. Since 1953, it has formed a part of the monarch's title in each Commonwealth realm. The Head of a representative attends the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, held at locations throughout the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth Secretariat asserts any successor will be chosen collectively by the Commonwealth heads of government. In the Daily Telegraph, it was reported "many leaders want an elected head to make the organisation more democratic." When India adopted a constitution on 26 January 1950, George VI ceased to be its monarch, but did regard him as Head of the Commonwealth. It is an entirely new conception built on the highest qualities of the spirit of man: the desire for freedom and peace." When the Queen visits the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat in London, this personal standard—not any of her royal standards—is raised. Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid in South Africa.Head of the Commonwealth – Incumbent Queen Elizabeth II since 6 Feb 1952
19. Commonwealth of Nations – The Commonwealth of Nations, or just the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire. The Commonwealth dates back to the mid-20th century through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II, the Head of the Commonwealth. The Queen is also the monarch of 16 members of the Commonwealth, known as Commonwealth realms. The other Commonwealth members have different heads of state: five are monarchies with a different monarch. Member states have no legal obligation to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history, their shared values of democracy, human rights, the rule of law. These values are promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. After 31 years of full membership, Maldives became the most recent nation to withdraw from the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth covers more than 29,958,050 km2, spans all six inhabited continents. She declared: "So, it also marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." Conferences of British and prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. Newfoundland later joined Canada in 1949.Commonwealth of Nations – Flag
20. Christian IX of Denmark – Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 to 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian acceded as the Danish monarch of the House of Glücksburg. Christian married his second cousin, Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, in 1842. Their six children married across Europe earning the sobriquet "the father-in-law of Europe". Also, the queens consort Anne of Romania, Anne-Marie of Greece, Queen Sofia of Spain are among his descendants. He was named after Prince Christian of Denmark, the later King Christian VIII, also his godfather. Christian's father was the head of the ducal house of a male branch of the House of Oldenburg. As such, Christian was eligible to succeed in the twin duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, but not first in line. Initially, Christian lived with his parents and many siblings at Gottorf Castle, where the family stayed with Duke Friedrich Wilhelm's parents-in-law. He subsequently founded the younger line. Subsequently, the family moved to Glücksburg Castle, where Christian was raised with his siblings under their father's supervision. Following the early death of the father in 1831, Christian grew up in Denmark and was educated in the Military Academy of Copenhagen. As a young man, Christian unsuccessfully sought the hand of his third cousin, Queen Victoria, in marriage. At the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842, he married his second cousin, Louise of Hesse-Kassel, a niece of Christian VIII.Christian IX of Denmark – Portrait by Hans Olrik
21. Andreas Frederik Krieger – Andreas Frederik Krieger was a Danish politician, government minister, professor of law and supreme court judge. Krieger graduated from with a legal degree at the age of 20, specializing in constitutional law. From 1845 to 1855 he was professor of law at the University of Copenhagen, lecturing primarily in civil law. He remained a member until 1852. He was its Speaker for a while in 1866. As Finance Minister, he administered Denmark's accession to the Scandinavian Monetary Union in 1873, replacing the former currency—the rigsdaler—with the krone. Krieger was acquitted. Bille, C. St. A.; Nellemann, J.. "Krieger, Andreas Frederik" in C. F. Bricka Dansk Biografisk Lexikon, tillige omfattende Norge for Tidsrummet 1537-1814. IX. bind, Jyde — Køtschau. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, pp. 483–94. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. Engelstoft, Povl. "Den grundlovgivende rigsforsamling" in Fabricius, Knud; Frisch, Hartvig; Hjelholt, Holger; Mackeprang, M.; Møller, Andr.Andreas Frederik Krieger – Andreas Frederik Krieger
22. Morganatic marriage – Generally, this is a marriage between a man of high birth and a woman of lesser status. Usually, neither the bride nor any children of the marriage have a claim on the bridegroom's succession rights, titles, precedence, or entailed property. The children are considered legitimate for all other purposes and the prohibition against bigamy applies. In some countries, a woman could marry a man of lower rank morganatically. The Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from a Germanic term, *morgangeba. Morgen is the German word for morning, while the Latin word is matutinus. The bride received property from the bridegroom's clan. It was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete possession. King Erik XIV of Sweden married the servant Karin Månsdotter morganatically in 1567, later secondly, but this time not morganatically, in 1568. Ludwig Wilhelm, Duke in Bavaria and Henriette Mendel. She was created Baroness von Wallersee, their daughter, Marie Louise, Countess Larisch von Moennich, was a confidante of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy in 1869 married morganatically his principal mistress Rosa Teresa Vercellana Guerrieri. Popularly known in Piedmontese as "Bela Rosin", she was born a commoner but made Countess di Mirafiori e Fontanafredda in 1858. Late in his life, the widowed ex-king Fernando II of Portugal married the opera singer Elise Hensler, created Countess von Edla. Queen Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, regent of Spain after her husband's death while their daughter, the future Isabella II was a minor.Morganatic marriage – Tsar Alexander II. photo by Sergei Lvovich Levitsky 1881. (The Di Rocco Wieler Private Collection, Toronto, Canada)
23. Frederick VII of Denmark – Frederick VII was King of Denmark from 1848 to 1863. During his reign, Frederick signed a constitution that made the country a constitutional monarchy. Frederick's motto was my strength. He was born to Christian VIII of Denmark and Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His maternal grandparents were Friedrich Franz I, Luise, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha. The king's first two marriages both ended in divorce. They divorced in 1837. On June 1841 Frederick married for a second time to Duchess Caroline Charlotte Mariane of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he divorced in 1846. This marriage seems to have been happy, although it aroused moral indignation among the nobility and the bourgeoisie. She also worked at maintaining his popularity by letting him meet the people of the provinces. Sources rarely state the reasons. Some speculate that Frederick was infertile. During the reign of King Christian VIII, the succession question was already being brought forward. This was brought forward in a book again in a book published in 2009. The letters are quoted in the book.Frederick VII of Denmark – Portrait by August Schiøtt, 1848-63
24. Henry VIII of England – Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding Henry VII. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Domestically, Henry is known to the English Constitution ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, thus initiating the English Reformation, he greatly expanded royal power. People such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. Besides ruling with considerable power, he was also an composer. This led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with the pope. His health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, harsh, insecure king. He was succeeded by Edward VI. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary – survived infancy. He was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, to the palace. At the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.Henry VIII of England – King Henry VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
25. Treason – In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign. Treason against the king was known as high treason against a lesser superior was petty treason. A person who commits treason is known as a traitor. Oran's Dictionary of the Law defines treason as"... citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, seriously injure the." The term "traitor" is often used by white supremacists, or directed at people in inter-racial relationships with regard to miscegenation. At times, the term "traitor" has been used as a political epithet, regardless of any verifiable action. In a civil insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors. In certain cases, as with the German Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a large group of people can be a political message. Treason is on many occasions a separate charge from ` Treasonable Felony' in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged, drawn and burnt at the stake, although beheading could be substituted by royal command. Those penalties were abolished in 1814, 1973 respectively. The penalty was used against people who could reasonably be called traitors, although most modern jurists would call it excessive. Many of them would just be considered dissidents. Political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God. Kings were considered chosen by God.Treason – A 17th century illustration of Guy Fawkes. Guy Fawkes tried to assassinate James I of England. He failed and was convicted of treason and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered.
26. Moika Palace – The Moika Palace or Yusupov Palace was once the primary residence in St. Petersburg, Russia of the House of Yusupov. The building was the site of Grigori Rasputin's murder in the early morning of December 1916. The palace was first built by the French architect Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe. Over the years well-known architects worked on the palace including the famous Italian sculptor Emilio Sala, producing a variety of architectural styles. Andrei Mikhailov reconstructed the building during the 1830s when the Yusupovs became owners of the building. This was the period that the palace achieved its present-day appearance. From 1830 to 1917, the palace belonged to the House of an immensely wealthy family of Russian nobles, known for their philanthropy and art collections. Thus in the time of Imperial Russia, the palace became known as the Yusupov Palace. The luxurious interiors of the palace were not inferior to those of contemporary royal palaces. More than 40,000 works of art, including works by Rembrandt, sculptures decorated the palace. Following the Russian Revolution, the Yusupov art collections were relocated in the Hermitage and other museums. Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, the curator of paintings at the Hermitage, had earlier painted the ceiling of the palace theatre. The palace on the Moika was the prince’s favorite residence in the capital. The exact events surrounding Rasputin's death are still in dispute. He took Rasputin to a small but lavishly furnished room of the palace.Moika Palace – The Yusupov Palace from across the Moika River
27. Grigori Rasputin – Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin was a Russian peasant, mystical faith healer, trusted friend of the family of Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia. He became an influential figure in Saint Petersburg, especially after August 1915, when Nicholas took command of the army fighting in World War I. Advising his wife Alexandra Feodorovna in countless political issues Rasputin became an easy scapegoat for Russian nationalists, liberals and aristocrats. There is uncertainty over the degree of influence that he exerted over the weak-willed Tsar and the strong-willed Tsarina. Accounts are often based on dubious memoirs, legend. Rasputin was murdered by monarchists who hoped to save Tsarism by ending his sway over the royal family. He was baptized and named after St. Gregory of Nyssa, whose feast day is on 10 January. Grigori was the fifth of nine children. Only two survived, Feodosiya. He never attended school, as there was not one in the area. One endowed with mysterious gifts. In those days Rasputin acquired a reputation as a brawler. Having a rude attitude towards the head, he was locked up in jail for two nights. This seems to be the only mention of Rasputin's criminal past. On 2 Rasputin married Praskovia Fyodorovna Dubrovina and they had three children: Dmitri, Matryona and Varvara.Grigori Rasputin – Grigori Rasputin
28. Felix Yusupov – He was born in the Moika Palace in Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire. His father was Count Felix Felixovich Sumarokov-Elston, the son of Count Felix Nikolaievich Sumarokov-Elston. Zinaida Yusupova, his mother, was the last of the Yusupov line, of Crimean Tatar origin, very wealthy. The Yusupov family, richer than any of the Romanovs, had acquired their wealth generations earlier. Felix led a flamboyant life. "At twelve he began wearing his mother's gowns. He describes in his autobiography often spending time with Gypsy bands and adopting female clothing. His older brother took him often to restaurants and cafés". Yusupov was living on 14 King Edward Street, had a housekeeper, he spent much time partying. He owned three horses, a macaw and a bulldog called Punch. He became friendly with Luigi Franchetti, Jacques de Beistegui, who both moved in. At some time, Yusupov got acquainted with Albert Stopford and Oswald Rayner. He rented an apartment in Curzon Street, Mayfair, met several times with the ballerina Anna Pavlova, who lived in Hampstead. Back in Saint Petersburg, he married Princess Irina of Russia, the Tsar's only niece, in the Anichkov Palace on 22 February 1914. The bride was wearing a veil that had belonged to Marie Antoinette.Felix Yusupov – Prince Felix Yusupov
29. Homicide – Homicide occurs when one human being causes the death of another. Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, depending on the circumstances of the death. Criminal homicide takes many forms including purposeful murder. The crime committed in a criminal homicide is determined by the extent of the crime. Murder, for example, is usually a godly crime. Instead, the individual is placed under the category of “insane”. In some jurisdictions, a homicide that occurs during the commission of a crime may constitute murder, regardless of the actor's intent to commit homicide. In the United States, this is known as the felony rule. Criminal homicides also include involuntary manslaughter. An example of voluntary manslaughter is hitting someone with an intent to kill them, whereas involuntary manslaughter is unintentionally causing their death. The perpetrator does not receive the legal action against them as a person convicted of murder. While most homicides by civilians are criminally prosecutable, a right of self-defense is widely recognized, including, in dire circumstances, the use of deadly force. Homicides may also be non-criminal when conducted with the sanction of the state. The most obvious examples are punishment, in which the state punishes a criminal with death. Homicides committed during war are usually not subject to criminal prosecution either.Homicide – A comparison of homicide rates, per 100,000 people, for some countries. Terror and war-related deaths are not included. Chinese homicide data is unavailable.
30. Ahmose I – Ahmose I was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. During the reign of his grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. Ahmose I assumed the throne upon coronation became known as Neb-Pehty-Re. The Ahmose is a combination of the divine name'Ah' and the combining form' - mose'. This program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to the mid-16th BC. Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. Senakhtenre Ahmose and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children, including Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep. The sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married; their children were Kamose, Ahmose I and several daughters. Ahmose I married several of his sisters, making Ahmose-Nefertari his chief wife. They had several children including daughters Meritamun B, sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh, Amenhotep I and Ramose A. They may also have been the parents of Mutnofret, who would become the wife of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's 17th and 22nd regnal year. Ahmose was succeeded instead by Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short coregency.Ahmose I – Copper axe blade inscribed with the titulary of pharaoh Ahmose I, Ashmolean Museum.
31. Pharaoh – The pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-3, ꜥꜣ "column". It was used only with specific reference to the buildings of the palace. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as hm.f,'Majesty'. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign as pr-aa continued in Egyptian narratives. By this time, the Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derove the name of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה; from then Late Latin pharaō, both - n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it فرعون fir'awn with "n". English at first spelt it "Pharao", but the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ and then rro. Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos.Pharaoh – Den
32. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
33. Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt – The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt is the best known ancient Egyptian dynasty. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. The dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmosis. Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Akhenaten, the "heretic pharaoh", with his queen, Nefertiti. Dynasty XVIII is the first of the three dynasties of the Egyptian New Kingdom, the period in which ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power. Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC. The radiocarbon range for its beginning is 1570 -- the mean point of, 1557 BC. The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for approximately two hundred and fifty years. The dates and names in the table are taken from Dodson and Hilton. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Several diplomatic marriages are known for the New Kingdom. These daughters of foreign kings are often only mentioned in cuneiform texts and are not known from other sources. The marriages were likely a way to confirm good relations between these states. Dynasty XVIII was founded by the last ruler of the Dynasty XVII.Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt – Head of an Early Eighteenth Dynasty King, ca. 1539-1493 B.C.,37.38E, Brooklyn Museum
34. Thebes (Egypt) – Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. It was close to Nubia and the eastern desert, with their valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the wealthiest city of ancient Egypt at its heyday. Thebes is the Latinized form of the hellenized form of the Egyptian Ta-pe. This was the local name not for the Karnak complex on the northern east bank of the city. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as Niwt-Imn, the "City of Amun". Amun was the chief of the Theban Triad of gods whose other members were Mut and Khonsu. This name also as the "No" mentioned in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was seen as a form of Zeus. The name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, the "City of Zeus". To distinguish it from the numerous other cities by this name, it was known as the Great Diospolis. Thebes was located from the Delta. It was built largely on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile.Thebes (Egypt) – Egypt - Temple of Seti, east entrance, Thebes. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
35. Tao II the Brave – He probably was the successor to Senakhtenre Ahmose and Queen Tetisheri. He may have risen to power in the decade ending in 1560 BC or in 1558 BC. Seqenenre Tao is credited with starting the opening moves against the Hyksos, ended by his son Ahmose. New Kingdom literary tradition states that Seqenenre Tao came with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Apepi or Apophis. Seqenenre Tao participated in diplomatic posturing, which went beyond simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. On an adjacent hillside overlooking the river, the foundations of a building were found that certainly was a military observation post. It is thought that they were there against the Hyksos. Seqenenre's mummy was discovered in the Deir cache, revealed in 1881. The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 1886. There are no wounds on his hands, which suggests he was not able to defend himself. Until 2009 the main hypotheses have been that he was killed while sleeping. His mummy appears to have been hastily embalmed. He is the earliest mummy on display in the recently revamped Royal Mummies Hall at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs.Tao II the Brave – Fragment of the death shroud of Ahmose bearing Seqenenre Tao's titulary, Museo Egizio
36. Kamose – Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. He was possibly the full brother of Ahmose I, founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reign fell at the very end of the Second Intermediate Period. Kamose is usually ascribed a reign of three years, although some scholars now favor giving a longer reign of approximately five years. His reign is important for the military initiatives he took against the Hyksos, who had come to rule much of Ancient Egypt. Quite possibly, lost his life in battle with the Hyksos. Kamose was the final king in a succession of Egyptian kings at Thebes. Originally, the Theban Seventeenth dynasty rulers were at peace with the Hyksos kingdom prior to the reign of Seqenenre Tao. They ruled Middle Egypt as far north as Cusae. Kamose sought to extend his rule northward over all of Lower Egypt. This apparently was met by his courtiers. Kamose sought to regain by force what he thought was his by right, namely the kingship of Lower and Upper Egypt. Kamose states his reasons for an attack on the Hyksos was nationalistic pride. He was also likely merely continuing the military policies of his immediate predecessor, Seqenenre. In Kamose's third year, he embarked by sailing north out of Thebes on the Nile.Kamose – Sarcophagus of Kamose, Cairo Egyptian Museum
37. Hyksos – The Hyksos were a people of mixed origins from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta, some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Immigration by Canaanite populations preceded the Hyksos. The Canaanite rulers of the Delta, regrouped in the Fourteenth Dynasty, coexisted with the Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty, based in Itjtawy. The Hyksos eventually conquered both, albeit for only a short time in the case of Thebes. From on, the 17th Dynasty reigned for some time in peaceful coexistence with the Hyksos kings, perhaps as their vassals. Eventually, Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and Ahmose waged war against the Hyksos and expelled Khamudi, their last king, from Egypt c. 1550 BC. Their native storm god, Baal, became associated with the Egyptian storm and desert god, Set. The Hyksos were a people of mixed Asiatic origin with mainly Semitic-speaking components. Although some scholars have suggested that the Hyksos contained a Hurrian component, most other scholars have dismissed this possibility. The Hyksos brought technical innovations to Egypt, well as cultural infusions such as new musical instruments and foreign loanwords. The changes introduced include new crops. In warfare, they introduced the composite bow, advanced fortification techniques. Because of these cultural advances, Hyksos rule became decisive for Egypt’s later empire in the Middle East. There are various hypotheses as to the Hyksos' ethnic identity.Hyksos – A group of Asiatic peoples (perhaps the future Hyksos) depicted entering Egypt c.1900 BC from the tomb of a 12th Dynasty official Khnumhotep II under pharaoh Senusret II at Beni Hasan. The glyphs above are above the head of the first animal
38. Nile Delta – The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 kilometres in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo. From north to south, the delta is approximately 160 kilometres in length. From west-to-east, it covers some 240 kilometres of coastline. These have been lost due to flood control, silting and changing relief. One defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat. The Suez Canal runs to the east of the delta, entering the coastal Lake Manzala in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus, Lake Idku and Lake Maryut. The Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta, as it resembles Corpse flower as seen from above. Some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Topsoil in the delta can be as much as 70 feet in depth. It has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years. This ended with the construction of the Aswan Dam. The Rosetta Stone was found in the port city of Rosetta.Nile Delta – NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false color)
39. Thebes, Egypt – Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the Upper Egyptian nome. It was close to the eastern desert, with their valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was the wealthiest city of ancient Egypt at its heyday. Thebes is the Latinized form of the hellenized form of the Demotic Egyptian Ta-pe. This was the local name not for the Karnak temple complex on the northern east bank of the city. From the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known as Niwt-Imn the "City of Amun". Amun was the chief of the Theban Triad of gods whose other members were Mut and Khonsu. This name probably also as the "No" mentioned in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. In the graeca, Amun was seen as a form of Zeus. The name was therefore translated as Diospolis the "City of Zeus". To distinguish it by this name, it was known as the Great Diospolis. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River from the Delta. It was built largely on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile.Thebes, Egypt – Egypt - Temple of Seti, east entrance, Thebes. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
40. Nubia – Nubia is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt. Nubia was again united from 1899 to 1956. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, ancestral to Old Nubian. Old Nubian was mostly used in religious texts dating from the 15th centuries AD. Before throughout classical antiquity, Nubia was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, included under the name Ethiopia. Until at least 1970, the Birgid language is now extinct. Early settlements sprouted in both Upper and Lower Nubia. Egyptians referred to Nubia of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers. Modern scholars typically refer from this area as the "A-Group" culture. Fertile farmland just south of the Third Cataract is known as the “pre-Kerma” culture in Upper Nubia, as they are the ancestors. By the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems predating Stonehenge by almost 2,000 years. Around 3500 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the A-Group, arose. It was a contemporary of, culturally very similar to, the polities in predynastic Naqada of Upper Egypt. The A-Group people were engaged with the Egyptians.Nubia – Nubians in worship
41. Canaan – Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. References to Canaan in the Bible are usually backward-looking, referring to a region that had become something else. The Amarna Letters and other cuneiform documents use Kinaḫḫu, while other sources of the Egyptian New Kingdom mention military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na. Much of the modern knowledge about Canaan stems at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo, Gezer. The English term Canaan comes via Greek Χαναάν Khanaan and Latin Canaan. Knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium. It first occurs as Khna. Scholars connect the Canaan with knʿn, Kana'an, the general Northwest Semitic name for this region. The etymology is uncertain. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic knʿ "to be low, humble, subjugated". Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite commodity, mentioned in Exodus. The dyes may have been named after their place of origin. The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was associated by the Romans with nobility and royalty. However, according to Robert Drews, Speiser's proposal has generally been abandoned. In Biblical usage, the name was confined to the west of the Jordan.Canaan – A 1692 depiction of Canaan, by Philip Lea
42. Middle Kingdom of Egypt – Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish c. 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay c. 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The period comprises the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty onwards, centered on el-Lisht. After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, Egypt entered a period of decentralization called the First Intermediate Period. Towards the end of this period, two rival dynasties, known as the Tenth and Eleventh, fought for power over the entire country. The Theban 11th Dynasty only ruled southern Egypt to the Tenth Nome of Upper Egypt. To the north, Lower Egypt was ruled by the 10th Dynasty from Herakleopolis. The struggle was to be concluded by Mentuhotep II, who ascended the Theban throne in 2055 B.C. During Mentuhotep II's fourteenth he took advantage of a revolt in the Thinite Nome to launch an attack on Herakleopolis, which met little resistance. For this reason, Mentuhotep II is regarded as the founder of the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II commanded military campaigns south far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. He also restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region, lost since the end of the Old Kingdom. Mentuhotep III was succeeded by Mentuhotep IV, whose name significantly is omitted from all Egyptian king lists. The Turin Papyrus claims after Mentuhotep III came "seven kingless years."Middle Kingdom of Egypt – An Osiride statue of the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, Mentuhotep II
43. New Kingdom – Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570–1544 BC. The New Kingdom was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It marked the peak of its power. The later part of this period, under the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties is also known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the eleven pharaohs that took the name of founder of the 19th Dynasty. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. The Eighteenth Dynasty contained some of Egypt's most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypt's external trade by sending a commercial expedition to the land of Punt. Thutmose III wielded it with great success to consolidate the empire created by his predecessors. This resulted during the reign of Amenhotep III. During the reign of Thutmose III, Pharaoh, originally referring to the king's palace, became a form of address for the person, king. Akhenaten's religious fervor is cited as the reason why he was subsequently written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th BC, Egyptian art flourished and attained an unprecedented level of realism. Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had changed radically. Ramesses II sought to recover territories in the Levant, held by the 18th Dynasty.New Kingdom – New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BC.
44. Diana, Princess of Wales – Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. She was born as The Honourable Diana Spencer. Diana was the fourth child and third daughter of the Honourable Frances Roche. Diana was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became Lady Diana Spencer. Her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Paul's Cathedral, reached a global audience of over million people. While married, she bore the titles Princess of Wales, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas. She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media public mourning were extensive after subsequent televised funeral. Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk. Diana was the fourth of five children of his first wife, Frances.Diana, Princess of Wales – The Princess of Wales raising money for cancer research in Chicago, Illinois, June 1996
45. Aldfrith of Northumbria – Aldfrith was king of Northumbria from 685 until his death. He is described by early writers such as Bede, Alcuin and Stephen of Ripon as a man of great learning. Some of his works and some letters written to him survive. His reign was relatively peaceful, marred only by disputes with Bishop Wilfrid, a major figure in the early Northumbrian church. Aldfrith was born on an uncertain date to Oswiu of Northumbria and an Irish princess named Fín. Oswiu later became King of Northumbria; he died in 670 and was succeeded by his son Ecgfrith. Aldfrith was educated for a career in the church and became a scholar. In his early-8th-century account of Aldfrith's reign, Bede states that he "ably restored the shattered fortunes of the kingdom, though within smaller boundaries". By the year 600, most of what is now England had been conquered by invaders from the continent, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes. Over the course of the 7th century, the two kingdoms were sometimes ruled by a single king, sometimes separately. The combined kingdom became known as the kingdom of Northumbria: it stretched from the River Humber in the south to the River Forth in the north. In 616, Æthelfrith was succeeded by Edwin of Northumbria, a Deiran. Edwin banished Æthelfrith's sons, including both Oswald and Oswiu of Northumbria. Both spent their exile in Dál Riata, a kingdom spanning parts of northeastern Ireland and western Scotland. Oswiu was a child when he came to Dál Riata, grew up in an Irish milieu.Aldfrith of Northumbria – Ezra in the Codex Amiatinus, an illuminated manuscript bible created at Wearmouth-Jarrow in the reign of Aldfrith
46. Bhumibol Adulyadej – Bhumibol Adulyadej, conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri Dynasty as Rama IX. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha. Although Bhumibol did invite public criticism in a 2005 speech, the majesté laws have not been revoked by the Thai parliament. In May 2014, Bhumibol's wealth was again listed as US$30 billion. Officially the assets managed by the CPB are owned as an individual. After 2006, Bhumibol spent extended periods at Siriraj Hospital, where he died on 13 October 2016. He was generally highly revered by the people in Thailand – many even saw him as close to divine. Thai citizens who criticized the king or the institution of monarchy were often forced to exile the country or suffered frequent imprisonments. The king chose Bhumibol Adulyadej, meaning "strength of incomparable power". Bhumibol was born on 5 December 1927. He was the youngest son of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, his commoner wife Mom Sangwan. His father was enrolled at Harvard University, why Bhumibol was the only monarch to be born in the US. Bhumibol had an older sister, an older brother, Prince Ananda Mahidol. Bhumibol came in 1928 after his father obtained a certificate from Harvard. His father died in September 1929 when Bhumibol was less than two years old.Bhumibol Adulyadej – Bhumibol Adulyadej ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช
47. Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia – Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, his wife, Tsarina Alexandra Fyodorovna. She was murdered with her family in an extrajudicial killing by members of the Cheka, the Bolshevik secret police at Yekaterinburg on July 17, 1918. Her possible survival has been conclusively disproved. Forensic analysis and DNA testing confirmed that the remains are those of the imperial family, showing that all four grand duchesses were killed in 1918. Several women falsely claimed to have been Anastasia; the best known impostor is Anna Anderson. When Anastasia was born, her parents and extended family were disappointed that she was a girl. They hoped for a son who would be heir apparent to the throne. Tsar Nicholas II went for a long walk to compose himself before going to visit Tsarina Alexandra and the newborn Anastasia for the first time. One meaning of her name is "the breaker of chains" or "the prison opener." Another meaning of the name is "of the resurrection", a fact often alluded to later in stories about her rumored survival. Anastasia's title is most precisely translated as "Grand Princess". "Grand Duchess" became the most widely used translation of the title into English from Russian. The Tsar's children were raised as simply as possible. She was occasionally called by the French version of her name, "Anastasie", or by the Russian nicknames "Nastya", "Nastas", or "Nastenka". Other family nicknames for Anastasia were "Malenkaya," meaning "little", or "shvibzik," the Russian word for "imp".Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia – Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna, c. 1914
48. Anne of Denmark – Anne of Denmark was Queen consort of Scotland, England, Ireland as the wife of King James VI and I. Anne appears to have loved James at first, but the couple gradually drifted and eventually lived apart, though mutual respect and a degree of affection survived. After 1612, she gradually withdrew from the centre of court life. Historians have traditionally dismissed Anne as a lightweight queen, self-indulgent. However, recent reappraisals acknowledge Anne's assertive independence and, in her dynamic significance as a patron of the arts during the Jacobean age. Anne was born on 12 December 1574 at the castle of Skanderborg in the Kingdom of Denmark. Her birth came to her father, King Frederick II of Denmark, desperately hoping for a son. But her mother, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, was only 17; three years later she did bear Frederick a son, the future Christian IV of Denmark. With her older sister, Elizabeth, Anne was sent to be raised by her maternal grandparents, the Duke and Duchess of Mecklenburg. Anne enjoyed a happy family upbringing in Denmark, thanks largely to Queen Sophie, who nursed the children through their illnesses herself. Anne herself seems to have been thrilled with the match. Whatever the truth of the rumours, James required a royal match to preserve the Stuart line. Her fleet was beset by a series of misadventures. According to a Scottish account, he presented himself to "with boots and all", disarming her protests, gave her a kiss in the Scottish fashion. They arrived on 1 May.Anne of Denmark – Portrait attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, c. 1612
49. Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom – King Felipe VI of Spain is her great-great-grandson. Beatrice was the last of Queen Victoria's children to die, 66 years after the first, her sister Alice. Beatrice's childhood coincided with Queen Victoria's grief following the death of her husband Albert, Prince Consort on 14 December 1861. Beatrice was brought up to stay with her mother always and she soon resigned herself to her fate. Queen Victoria was so set against her youngest daughter marrying that she refused to discuss the possibility. She was attracted to the Prince Imperial and there was talk of a possible marriage, but he was killed in the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879. After a year of persuasion, Queen Victoria agreed to the marriage, which took place at Whippingham on the Isle of Wight on 23 July 1885. Queen Victoria consented on condition that Beatrice and Henry make their home with her and that Beatrice continue her duties as the Queen's unofficial secretary. Beatrice remained at her mother's side until Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901. Beatrice devoted the next 30 years to editing Queen Victoria's journals as her designated literary executor and continued to make public appearances. Beatrice died at several nieces and nephews including George V and Wilhelm II. Beatrice was born at Buckingham Palace. Chloroform was frowned by the Church of England and the medical authorities. Queen Victoria was undeterred and used "that blessed chloroform" for her last pregnancy. She was christened in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace on 16 June 1857.Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom – Princess Beatrice
50. Anne, Queen of Great Britain – Anne became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. James, was first to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, on Charles's instructions Anne was raised as an Anglican. Three years after he succeeded Charles, James was deposed in the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. Anne's Dutch Protestant cousin William III became joint monarch with Anne's elder sister Mary II. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances, status and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children. After Mary's death in 1694, William continued as sole monarch until he was succeeded by Anne upon his death in 1702. As queen, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her religious views than the Whigs. The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until in 1710 Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life. From her thirties onwards, she grew increasingly lame and obese.Anne, Queen of Great Britain – Portrait by Michael Dahl, 1705
51. Charles Atangana – Although from an unremarkable background, Atangana's friendship with colonial priests and administrators secured him successively more prominent posts in the colonial government. He even accompanied the Germans on their escape from Africa in World War I. Atangana never advocated resistance to the European powers, preferring to embrace the European in the service of African interests. After his death in 1943, he was largely forgotten. However, since Cameroon's independence in 1960, Cameroonian scholars have rediscovered his story. He was born sometime in Mvolyé, a small village in what is today Yaoundé, Cameroon. His parents gave the drum name "He, known by the nations". Atangana was the eleventh of twelve children born to a headman of the Mvog Atemenge sublineage of the Ewondo ethnic group. His father died when Ntsama Atangana was about six years old. Little is known about Atangana's childhood. Like other Beti boys, Atangana would have memorised his family's genealogy and folk wisdom. The Ewondo opposed the foreigners at first, although Atangana was probably yet old enough to participate in the fighting. After the defeat of others like it, Ewondo resistance waned. Ewondo who learned were highly favoured in the early days of the colonial regime. Station commander Hans Dominik sent four such individuals to attend the school of the German Pallottine Fathers in Kribi, a settlement on the coast.Charles Atangana – Charles Atangana
52. Attalus I – Attalus I, surnamed Soter ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis, first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the son of his wife Antiochis. Attalus viewed himself as the champion of Greeks against barbarians. During his reign he established Pergamon in the Greek East. His wife were admired for their rearing of their four sons. He was succeeded by his son Eumenes II. Little is known about Attalus' early life. He was born a Greek, Antiochis. Attalus was a young child when his father died, sometime before 241 BC, after which he was adopted by the incumbent dynast. Antiochis, was related to the Seleucid royal family with her marriage to Attalus' father likely arranged by Philetaerus to solidify his power. According to Greek writer Pausanias, "the greatest of his achievements" was the defeat of the "Gauls". Eumenes I had, along with other rulers, dealt by paying these tributes. Attalus however refused being the first such ruler to do so. As a consequence, the Galatians set out to attack Pergamon. The victory brought Attalus legendary fame.Attalus I – A Hellenistic portrait bust of Attalus I king of Pergamon
53. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
54. Basiliscus – Basiliscus was Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476. A member of the House of Leo, he came to power when Emperor Zeno had been forced out by a revolt. Basiliscus was the brother of Empress Aelia Verina, the wife of Emperor Leo I. So, when Zeno tried to regain his empire, he found virtually no opposition, triumphantly entering Constantinople, capturing and killing Basiliscus and his family. Likely of Balkan origin, Basiliscus was the brother of wife of Leo I. It has been argued that Basiliscus was uncle to the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer. This link is based by John of Antioch, which states that Odoacer and Armatus, Basiliscus' nephew, were brothers. However, not all scholars accept this interpretation, since sources do not say anything about the foreign origin of Basiliscus. It is known that Basiliscus had a wife, at least one son, Marcus. Basiliscus' military career started under Leo I. The Emperor conferred in Thrace. In this country Basiliscus led a successful military campaign in 463. He had several successes against the Goths and Huns. Basiliscus's value rose in Leo's consideration. However, his rise was soon to meet a serious reversal.Basiliscus – Solidus of Emperor Basiliscus.
55. John Brooke-Little – He served until his death in 2006. John Brooke-Little was born in Blackheath, Kent. Constance Egan, was the author of many children's stories including the Epaminondas books and the adventures of Jummy the Baby Elephant. In the 1920s, Egan was the editor of Home Chat. This helped to prepare her with the Heraldry Society's journal, the Coat of Arms in the 1950s. She was the second wife of Raymond Brooke-Little, who worked as an electrical engineer. The Littles, came from Wiltshire and may be traced in the parish registers of Biddestone back to the late seventeenth century. A pedigree of his family appears under the heading "Brooke-Little of Heyford House". Brooke-Little was educated at a progressive co-educational public school in Dorset. He later sent his own children there. He oversaw the process of granting arms while serving as chairman of its board of governors from 1971 to 1983. As a boy, Brooke-Little's first contact with the College of Arms came when he went to see Sir Algar Howard, then Garter Principal King of Arms. Howard encouraged Brooke-Little's budding interest in the subject of heraldry. While still a student, he founded a heraldry society with his friends. Brooke-Little read history.John Brooke-Little – John Brooke-Little, Norroy and Ulster King of Arms.
56. Ceawlin of Wessex – Ceawlin was a King of Wessex. The chronology of Ceawlin's life is highly uncertain. Ceawlin died in 593, having been deposed the year before, possibly by his successor, Ceol. The history of the sub-Roman period in Britain is poorly sourced and the subject of a number of important disagreements among historians. It appears, however, that in the fifth century raids on Britain by continental peoples developed into migrations. The newcomers included Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians. Gildas provides little in the way of dates. He appears, however, to state that peace had lasted from the year of his birth to the time he was writing. That list shows a gap in the early sixth century that matches Gildas's version of events. Ceawlin's reign belongs to the period of Anglo-Saxon expansion at the end of the sixth century. The two written sources for early West Saxon history are the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List. The Chronicle is a set of annals which were compiled during the reign of Wessex. Almost twenty annals describing Cerdic's campaigns, those of his descendants appear interspersed through the next hundred years of entries in the Chronicle. Although these annals provide most of what is known about Ceawlin, the historicity of many of the entries is uncertain. The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List is a list of rulers of Wessex, including the lengths of their reigns.Ceawlin of Wessex – A map of places mentioned by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in annals relating to Ceawlin; modern versions of the place names are given here, rather than the Anglo-Saxon names used in the chronicle.
57. Charles II of England – Charles II was king of England, Scotland, Ireland. Charles I, was executed at Whitehall January 1649 at the climax of the English Civil War. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On his 30th birthday, he was received to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The foreign issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the secret treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed "Popish Plot" sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir was a Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses.Charles II of England – Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 1660–1665
58. List of French monarchs – The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon. With the House of Bonaparte "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th century France, again between 1852 and 1871. It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century. They used the title "Emperor of the French". This article lists all rulers to have held "King of the Franks", "King of France", "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings. In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Nevertheless, then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves in 1801. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul well as the Roman provinces of Germania. The Carolingian dynasty was a noble family of the 7th century AD. In 751, Pepin the Younger, dethroned the Merovingians and with the consent of the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks. The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat.List of French monarchs – Clovis I (Clovis Ier)
59. List of Portuguese monarchs – Through the nearly 800 years which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the House of Habsburg came into power, the Kings of Spain, Naples, also became Kings of Portugal. The House of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then Emperor of Brazil. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed King of Portugal by their monarchist groups. The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I of Portugal, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed. The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal died without an heir, the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian I of Portugal died, the throne passed to his uncle, Henry I of Portugal. When Henry I died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato was proclaimed António I of Portugal.List of Portuguese monarchs – O Rei D. Manuel II
60. List of Sultans of Zanzibar – The Sultans of Zanzibar were of a cadet branch of the Al Said Dynasty of Oman. In 1698, Zanzibar became part of the overseas holdings of Oman, falling under the control of the Sultan of Oman. In 1840, Said bin Sultan moved his capital from Muscat in Oman to Stone Town. He encouraged the development of clove plantations, using the island's slave labour. Zanzibar's commerce fell increasingly from the Indian subcontinent, whom Said encouraged to settle on the island. During his 14-year reign as Sultan, Majid consolidated his power around the East African trade. Barghash bin Said, helped abolish the slave trade in Zanzibar and largely developed the country's infrastructure. Khalifa bin Said, also furthered the country's progress toward abolishing slavery. The British and Germans secretly met and re-established the area under the Sultan's rule. Over the few years, most of the mainland possessions of the Sultanate were taken by European imperial powers. With the signing of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty in 1890 during Ali bin Said's reign, Zanzibar became a British protectorate. The British had wanted believing that he would be much easier to work with. The British gave an hour to vacate the Sultan's palace in Stone Town. Khalid failed to do so, instead assembled an army of 2,800 men to fight the British. The British launched an attack around the city.List of Sultans of Zanzibar – Majid Bin Said, first Sultan
61. Mohammed Alim Khan – In 1896, having received formal confirmation by the Russian government, he returned home. After two years in Bukhara assisting in his father's administration, he was appointed governor of Nasef region for the next twelve years. He was then transferred to the northern province of Karmana, which he ruled until receiving word in 1910 of his father's death. Alim Khan's rule began with promise. However, as time went by the Emir's attitude towards bribes, state salaries changed. The conflict between the reformists ended with the traditionalists in control, the reformers in exile in Moscow or Kazan. Like his predecessors, Alim Khan was a traditional ruler. Sadriddin Ayniy, wrote vivid accounts of life under the Emir. He later wrote about the life under the Emirs in the Bukhara Executioners. The Red Army demanded that the emir surrender the city to the Young Bukharans. The majority of Bukharans did not support the ill-equipped and ill-disciplined Bolshevik army fled back to the Soviet stronghold at Tashkent. However, the emir had won only a temporary respite. As the civil war in Russia wound down, Moscow sent reinforcements to Central Asia. On an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city. He is buried at the Shuadoi Solehin cemetery.Mohammed Alim Khan – Alim Khan, photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii in 1911
62. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii – Sergey Mikhaylovich Prokudin-Gorsky was a Russian chemist and photographer. He is best known for his pioneering work in color photography of early 20th-century Russia. Prokudin-Gorsky was born in the ancestral estate in what is now Vladimir Oblast. The family had a military history. They moved to Saint Petersburg, where Prokudin-Gorsky enrolled in Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology to study chemistry under Dmitri Mendeleev. He also studied music and painting at the Imperial Academy of Arts. In 1890, Prokudin-Gorsky married Anna Aleksandrovna Lavrova, later the couple had a daughter, Ekaterina. Anna was the daughter of the Russian industrialist Aleksandr Stepanovich Lavrov, an active member in the Imperial Russian Technical Society. Prokudin-Gorsky subsequently became the director of the executive board of Lavrov's metal works near Saint Petersburg and remained so until the October Revolution. He also joined the section of the IRTS, presenting papers and lecturing on the science of photography. In 1901, he established a laboratory in Saint Petersburg. The Tsar enjoyed the demonstration, and, with his blessing, Prokudin-Gorsky got the permission and funding to document Russia in color. In the course of ten years, he was to make a collection of 10,000 photos. Prokudin-Gorsky continued his photographic journeys until after the October Revolution. He was appointed to a new professorship under the new regime, but he left the country in August 1918.Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii – Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky in 1912
63. Prussia – Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, centered on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually effective army. Prussia, from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918 -- 19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic -- the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany until 1933. Prussia existed de jure by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights -- an organized Catholic military order of German crusaders -- conquered the lands inhabited by them. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk. In the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a major say in international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany" which excluded the Austrian Empire.Prussia – ... during the Renaissance period
64. George IV of the United Kingdom – From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the Regency era. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister, with little help from George. His ministers found his behaviour selfish, unreliable and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending at a time when Britons were fighting in the Napoleonic Wars. He did not provide national leadership in time of crisis, nor act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it. His only child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury. His godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.George IV of the United Kingdom – Coronation portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1821
65. Thomas Lawrence (painter) – Sir Thomas Lawrence PRA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and the fourth president of the Royal Academy. Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. He stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, in 1830. Self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint. Lawrence became president in 1820. Lawrence's love affairs were not happy and, in spite of his success, he spent most of life deep in debt. He never married. At his death, Lawrence was the most fashionable portrait painter in Europe. His reputation waned during Victorian times, but has since been partially restored. Visitors would be greeted with the words "Gentlemen, here's my son – will you have him recite from the poets, or take your portraits?" Among those who listened to a recitation from Tom, or Tommy as he was called, was the actor David Garrick. Lawrence also became accomplished in boxing and billiards. The family moved to Bath.Thomas Lawrence (painter) – Thomas Lawrence, Self-portrait, 1788
66. NASA – President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The new agency became operational on October 1958. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1. In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. This led to an agreement that a federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. Many of ARPA's early space programs were also transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.NASA – 1963 photo showing Dr. William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James Webb in background. They are discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
67. Edward VI of England – Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. Edward was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Jane Seymour, Edward was England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority. Edward's reign was marked by social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal in exchange for peace. The transformation of the Church into a Protestant body also occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. The architect of these reforms was Archbishop of Canterbury, whose Book of Common Prayer is still used. At age 15, he fell ill. He named Lady Jane Grey, as his heir and excluded his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. He was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex. Edward was the son of King Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with relief.Edward VI of England – Edward VI, by William Scrots, c. 1550
68. Mary of Teck – Mary of Teck was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, of Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known after her birth month. She became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became King. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Princess of Wales. She supported Albert, who succeeded to the throne as George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned. Princess Victoria Mary of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at London. Her father was Prince Francis, Duke of the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the third child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel. She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Archbishop of Canterbury. Before she became Queen, she was known to her family, friends and the public after her birth month. May's upbringing was "merry but fairly strict". They played with the children of the Prince of Wales, who were similar in age.Mary of Teck – Queen Mary of the United Kingdom, formal portrait
69. Wilhelmina of the Netherlands – She was Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948. She was his second wife Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Wilhelmina became presumptive to the Dutch throne, after her half brother and great uncle had died, when she was 4 years old. Wilhelmina became queen when her father died, when she was 10 years old. As she was still a minor, her mother served as regent until Wilhelmina became 18 years old. In 1901, Wilhelmina married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin with whom she had a Juliana. Wilhelmina reigned for nearly 58 years, longer than any Dutch monarch. Her reign saw World War I and World War II, the decline of the Netherlands as a major colonial power. Princess of Orange-Nassau, was born on 31 August 1880 in The Hague, Netherlands. Wilhelmina was his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a close relationship with her parents, especially with her father, 63 years of age when she was born. King William III had three sons with Sophie of Württemberg. When Prince Frederick died a year later in 1881, Wilhelmina became second in line. The young girl became heir presumptive. King William III died on 23 November 1890.Wilhelmina of the Netherlands – Queen Wilhelmina in 1948
70. Juliana of the Netherlands – Juliana was Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980. Juliana was the only child of Prince Henry. From birth she was presumptive to the Dutch throne. She was educated privately. In 1937, she married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld with whom she had four children: Christina. She reigned for nearly 32 years. Her reign saw the decolonization of their independance from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Upon her death at the age of 94, she was the former reigning monarch in the world. Juliana was born in The Hague on 30 April 1909, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was the Dutch royal baby since Wilhelmina herself was born in 1880. Wilhelmina had suffered one stillbirth, raising the prospect that the House of Orange-Nassau would die with her. Juliana's birth thus assured the royal family's survival. Her mother suffered two further miscarriages after her birth, leaving Juliana as the royal couple's only child. Juliana spent her childhood in The Hague. These children were Baroness Elise Bentinck, Jonkvrouwe Miek de Jonge.Juliana of the Netherlands – Juliana in 1981
71. Elizabeth I – Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Elizabeth was the daughter of Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two and a half years after Elizabeth's birth. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558, Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by 1st Baron Burghley. One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir to continue the Tudor line. She never did, despite numerous courtships. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits, literature of the day. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been.Elizabeth I – The "Darnley Portrait" of Elizabeth I (c. 1575)
72. Steven van der Meulen – Steven van der Meulen was a Flemish artist active c. 1543-1564. He gained prominence in the first decade of the reign of Elizabeth I as one of many Flemish artists active at the Tudor court. A recently discovered will indicates that he died between October 1563 and January 1564. Little is known about van der Meulen's personal life. His father was Rinnold van der Meulen. It is generally accepted that this was van der Meulen. In 1935, W. G. Constable identified this portrait at Gripsholm Castle, Mariefred, near Stockholm. His will indicates that children Rinnold and Eric were resident in London with him at the time of his death. A pattern of Queen Elizabeth dating to the mid-1560s is confidently attributed to van der Meulen. In the Spring 2009 issue of The British Art Journal Bendor Grosvenor proposed an alternative identification of the painter "Steven" with the medallist Steven van Herwijck. Of the identification of the painter, the NPG says "The style of painting is consistent with an Anglo-Netherlandish artist from this period.... Constable, W. G.. "A New Work by'The Famous Paynter Steven'". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs.Steven van der Meulen – An early full-length portrait of Elizabeth I attributed to Steven van der Meulen, c. 1563
73. Akhenaten – Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his name was not to be included in the king lists. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, but its identification as Akhenaten has been questioned. The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. In February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the inscriptions found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb. There he started a program. He decorated the southern entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a temple dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten. The Gempaaten consisted of a series including a structure called the Hwt Benben, dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Aten temples constructed during this time include the Rud-menu and the Teni-menu which may have been constructed near the Ninth Pylon. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes: the tomb of Parennefer.Akhenaten – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
74. Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia – Amda Seyon was Emperor of Ethiopia, a member of the Solomonic dynasty. His conquests of Muslim borderlands greatly expanded Ethiopian territory and power in the region, maintained for centuries after his death. Amda Seyon asserted the strength of the newly installed Solomonic dynasty and therefore legitimized it. These expansions further provided to frontier areas sparking a long era of integration of previously peripheral areas. It is argued that there is sufficient evidence to show that Amda Seyon was the son of Wedem Arad. It is not known how Amda Seyon became Emperor. However, there are a few pieces of information that indicate that he may have been involved in the succession struggle against Wedem Arad. Emperor Amda Seyon's army was remarkably similar to the organization of the army during ancient Aksumite times. The central army was divided into each with its specialized name, such as Qeste-Nihb, Tekula. The independent regiments competed for the king's favor, who "raised" and "nourished" them from childhood. The regiments were led by an intimately loyal commander directly responsible to Amda Seyon. His own son, Saf-Asegid, commanded one of these divisions, as did Amda Seyon's brother-in-law. The specialized regiments tied their fortune to that of the Emperor and were most likely taken from the best soldiers from around the country. His central army further consisted of regional regiments similar to those of his local militias. They were drawn mainly from newly conquered provinces and shared a cultural and linguistic heritage.Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia – Map of medieval Ethiopian provinces, with sub-provinces in smaller lettering and neighboring groups in italics.
75. Amenhotep I – His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. However, Amenhotep became crown prince. He then ruled for about 21 years. Although his reign is poorly documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. After his death, he was deified as a god of Deir el-Medina. Amenhotep I was the son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari. The crown prince Ahmose Sapair and Ahmose-ankh, died before him, thus clearing the way for his ascension to the throne. Amenhotep took his Ahmose-Meritamon as his Great Royal Wife. Sitkamose, is attested on a nineteenth dynasty stele. Beyond this, the relationships between other possible family members are unclear. Ahhotep II is usually called his sister, despite an alternate theory that she was his grandmother. He is thought to have had one son by Amenemhat, who died while still very young. This remains the consensus, although there are arguments against that relationship well. With no living heirs, Amenhotep was succeeded by Thutmose I, whom he married to Aahmes. Since Aahmes is never given the title "King's Daughter" in any inscription, some scholars doubt whether she was a sibling of Amenhotep I.Amenhotep I – Relief of Amenhotep I from Karnak.
76. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by a minor Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. A minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC. He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye. Their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child -- briefly ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Nebetah. They appear frequently during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects -- with the exception of Nebetah. Nebetah is attested once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters -- Sitamun and Isis -- during the last decade of his reign. Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women: the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign.Amenhotep III – Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
77. Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke – Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was a Franco-English nobleman. Though primarily active in England, he also had strong connections with the French royal house. Pembroke was one of the Lords Ordainers appointed to restrict the power of Edward II and his favourite Piers Gaveston. This led Pembroke into close and lifelong cooperation with the King. Later in life, however, political circumstances combined with financial difficulties would cause him problems, driving him away from the centre of power. Pembroke was married twice, left no legitimate issue, though he did have a bastard son. He was also an important figure in the wars against Robert the Bruce. He was Isabella of Angoulême. William was Henry III's half-brother through his mother’s prior marriage to King John, as such gained a central position in the Kingdom of England. Aymer had come to granddaughter of William Marshal. Aymer was the third son of his family, so little is known of his birth and early years. He is believed to have been born some time between 1270 and 1275. As his father was on crusade with Lord Edward until January 1273, a date towards the end of this period is more likely. With the death in battle in Wales of his remaining brother William in 1282, Aymer found himself heir to the Earldom of Pembroke. In 1297 he accompanied Edward I on a campaign to Flanders, seems to have been knighted by this time.Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke – Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales
78. Berenice of Cilicia – It was a member of the Herodian Dynasty that ruled the Roman province of Judaea between 92 AD. She was a sister of King Herod Agrippa II. Aurelius Victor and Juvenal, also tell about her. She is also mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. However, Berenice is for her tumultuous life that she is primarily known from the Renaissance. Her reputation was based on the bias of the Romans like Cleopatra or later Zenobia. During the First Jewish-Roman War, she began a affair with the future emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus. However, her unpopularity among the Romans compelled Titus to dismiss her as emperor in 79. When he died two years later, she disappeared from the historical record. It was born in 28 as granddaughter to Aristobulus IV and great-granddaughter to Herod the Great. Her younger sisters were Mariamne and Drusilla. According to Josephus, there was also a younger brother called Drusus, who died before his teens. Her family constituted part of what is known as the Herodian Dynasty, who ruled the Judaea Province between 92. On his early death in 44, she was married to Herod of Chalcis, with whom she had two sons, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. She soon returned to the court of her brother.Berenice of Cilicia – Berenice depicted with her brother Agrippa II during the trial of St. Paul. From a stained glass window in St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne.
79. Anne Boleyn – Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII, Marquess of Pembroke in her own right. In February/March 1526, Henry VIII began his pursuit of Anne. She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress – which her sister Mary had been. It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry's desires to annul his marriage to Queen Catherine so he would be free to marry Anne. When it became clear that Pope Clement VII would not annul the marriage, the breaking of the power of the Catholic Church in England began. In 1532, Henry granted Anne the Marquessate of Pembroke. Henry and Anne married on 25 January 1533, after a secret marriage on 14 November 1532. Shortly afterwards, the Pope decreed sentences of excommunication against Henry and Cranmer. Anne was crowned Queen of England on 1 June 1533. On 7 September, she gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I. Henry was disappointed to have a daughter rather than a son but hoped a son would follow and professed to love Elizabeth. Anne subsequently had three miscarriages, by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour. Henry had Anne investigated for high treason in April 1536. She was beheaded four days later. Modern historians view the charges against her, which included plotting to kill the king, as unconvincing.Anne Boleyn – Copy of a portrait painted c. 1534
80. Caligula – Caligula, properly Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was Roman emperor in AD 37–41. Born Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He was the great-nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius. The young Gaius earned the nickname "Caligula" while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. The conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, as the sole male survivor. With the death of Tiberius in AD 37, Caligula succeeded his grand uncle and adoptive grandfather as emperor. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, courtiers. See Julio-Claudian tree. Gaius had two older brothers, Drusus, as well as three younger sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla. He was also a nephew of Claudius, future emperor. Agrippina the Elder was the daughter of Julia the Elder. She was a granddaughter of Augustus and Scribonia on her mother's side. Through Agrippina, Augustus was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius.Caligula – Bust of Caligula at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek museum in Copenhagen
81. Caroline of Ansbach – Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, commonly known as Caroline of Ansbach, was Queen of Great Britain as the wife of King George II. Caroline was moved to the enlightened court of her guardians, King Frederick I and Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia. As a young woman, Caroline was much sought-after as a bride. They had eight children, seven of whom grew to adulthood. Caroline moved permanently to Britain in 1714 when her husband became Prince of Wales. As Princess of Wales, she joined her husband in rallying political opposition to his King George I. In 1717, her husband was expelled after a family row. Caroline came to be associated with an opposition politician, a former government minister. Walpole rejoined Caroline's husband and King George I reconciled publicly, on Walpole's advice. Over the few years, Walpole rose to become the leading minister. Caroline succeeded as queen and electress consort in 1727, when her husband became King George II. Frederick, became Prince of Wales. Caroline's relationship with him was strained. As as queen, Caroline was known for her political influence, which she exercised through and for Walpole. Caroline was widely mourned not only by the public but also by the King, who refused to remarry.Caroline of Ansbach – Portrait by Jacopo Amigoni, painted in 1735
82. Caroline Lacroix – Blanche Zélia Joséphine Delacroix, better known as Caroline Lacroix was the most prominent and notorious of Leopold II of Belgium's mistresses. Delacroix, of French origin, met the king as a young girl when she was only 16 and he was 65. At that time, she earned her living as a prostitute. They soon embarked upon a relationship, to last until his death in 1909. Leopold lavished upon her large sums of money, estates, a noble title, Baroness Vaughan. As Caroline largely profited off the income from the colony, she became known as La reine du Congo. For years Leopold's three estranged daughters attempted to seize some of this wealth, with their success varying depending on the case. Caroline died on 12 February 1948 in Cambo-les-Bains, France. There remains a small degree of mystery concerning Caroline's early life. One account states that Jules Delacroix, was a janitor of the French Legation at Bucharest. She was born there as the thirteenth child of her parents. In her youth, Caroline worked as a barmaid. Various sources assert that Caroline was a living in Paris. As a young woman, she was the mistress of a former officer in the French army. They frequently left debts unpaid.Caroline Lacroix – Caroline Lacroix
83. Charlemagne – Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. Charlemagne laid the foundations for modern France, the Low Countries. He took the Frankish throne in 768 and became King of Italy in 774. From 800, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor—the first recognised emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Recognition from the pontiff granted divine legitimacy in the eyes of his contemporaries. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following the death of his father, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne also campaigned to his east leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred a period of energetic intellectual activity within the Western Church. These were but two of the machinations that led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. He died in 814, having ruled over thirteen years. Charlemagne was laid to rest in what is Germany.Charlemagne – A coin of Charlemagne with the inscription KAROLVS IMP AVG (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
84. Cyrus the Great – Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. He was succeeded by Cambyses II, who managed to add by conquering Egypt, Nubia, Cyrenaica during his short rule. Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. Establishing a government working to the profit of its subjects. In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus. The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from the Greek Kūros itself from the Old Persian Kūruš. The name and its meaning has been recorded in ancient inscriptions in different languages. This may also point to a fascinating relationship to the mythological "first king" of Persia, Jamshid, whose name also incorporates the element "sun". Karl Hoffmann has suggested a translation based on the meaning of an Indo-European-root "to humiliate" and accordingly "Cyrus" means "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest". In the Persian language and especially in Iran, Cyrus's name is spelled as کوروش. In the Bible, he is known as Koresh. The eponymous founder of this dynasty was Achaemenes.Cyrus the Great – Cyrus the Great with a Hemhem crown
85. David III of Tao – Kuropalates was a Byzantine courtier title bestowed upon him in 978 and again in 990. Yet he was able to secure for his heir, Bagrat III, an opportunity to become the first ruler of a unified Georgian kingdom. He succeeded his brother, Bagrat II, as a duke of Tao in 966, through his expansionist policy and flexible diplomacy began assembling a larger state. However, the integrity of the empire itself was under serious threat after a full-scale rebellion, led by Bardas Skleros, broke out in 976. Following a series of successful battles the rebels swept across Asia Minor and threatened Constantinople itself. On this occasion, he was granted the high Byzantine court title of kouropalates. Basil II also rewarded the valor of David’s commander Tornikios by funding a Georgian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos. Although populated now chiefly with Greek monks, it is to this day known as Iviron, "of the Iberians". These formidable acquisitions made David the most influential ruler in the Caucasus, enabling him to interfere in and arbitrate dynastic disputes in both Georgia and Armenia. For in his day it was as the prophecy states: everyone reposed under his vine and his fig tree. Being in control of highly important commercial centers, his principality profited from taxing the major trading routes running through southwestern Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. David invested these revenues in extensive building projects: constructing towns, forts and churches, promoting Georgian monastic communities and cultural activities both in Georgia and abroad. Having no children of his own, David adopted his kinsman, the young prince Bagrat, heir to the Bagratid throne of Kartli. He did so at the request of the energetic Georgian nobleman Iovane Marushis-dze. Through his fortunate bloodlines Bagrat was destined to sit upon two thrones.David III of Tao – David III the Great as depicted on a bas-relief from the Oshki Monastery. It was David’s use of Byzantine imagery that influenced the appearance of royal power of Georgia in the following two centuries.
86. Edwin of Northumbria – He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627; after he fell at the Battle of Hatfield Chase, he was venerated as a saint. Edwin was the son of Ælle king of Deira and seems to have had two siblings. His Acha was married to king of neighbouring Bernicia. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported that on Ælle's death a certain "Æthelric" assumed power. The exact identity of Æthelric is uncertain. He may have been a brother of Ælle, the father of Æthelfrith. Æthelfrith himself appears to have been king of "Northumbria"—both Deira and Bernicia—by no later than 604. During the reign of Æthelfrith, Edwin was an exile. By the 610s he was certainly under the protection of Cearl, whose daughter Cwenburg he married. By around 616, Edwin was in East Anglia under the protection of king Raedwald. Æthelfrith faced Raedwald in battle by the River Idle in 616, Æthelfrith was defeated; Raedwald installed Edwin as king of Northumbria. The exact manner of Raedwald's death are not known. The efficacy of Edwin's kingship ostensibly depended greatly to Raedwald. Edwin was installed as king of Northumbria, effectively confirming Raedwald as bretwalda: Æthelfrith's sons went in Pictland. Edwin's reign marks an interruption of the otherwise consistent domination of Northumbria by the Bernicians and has been seen as "contrary to the prevailing tendency".Edwin of Northumbria – St. Edwin of Northumbria depiction at St Mary, Sledmere, Yorkshire.
87. Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – Ernest II was the sovereign duke of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, reigning from 1844 to his death. He was born as the eldest child of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, his duchess, Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Fourteen months later, Prince Albert was born, who later became consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Ernest's father became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha through an exchange of territories. In 1842, he married Princess Alexandrine of Baden in what was to be a childless marriage. Soon after, Ernest succeeded as duke on 29 January 1844. After King Otto of Greece was deposed in 1862, the British government put Ernest's name forward as a possible successor. A supporter of Ernest watched the various political movements with great interest. He was no longer viewed as the possible leader of a political movement. According to historian Charlotte Zeepvat, he became "increasingly lost in a whirl of private amusements which earned only contempt from outside". Ernest's position was often linked to husband of Queen Victoria. Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, was born at Ehrenburg Palace in Coburg on 21 June 1818. Ernest was the elder son of Ernest III, his first wife Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Ernest was soon joined by Prince Albert, who would later become the husband of Queen Victoria. Though Duke Ernest fathered numerous children in various affairs, the two boys would have no legitimate siblings.Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – Ernest II, c. 1880.
88. GDRT – GDRT was a King of the Kingdom of Aksum, known for being the first king to involve Axum in the affairs of what is now Yemen. His son BYGT. GDRT has been equated with the anonymous king of the Monumentum Adulitanum, which would date c. 200 -- c. 230. 230. However, the two rulers are usually thought to be distinct. The inscriptions of GDR represent the oldest surviving royal inscriptions in the Ge'ez alphabet. The oldest of these was found in the regions of Atsbi and Dar' a in eastern Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Inscriptions of a pre-Aksumite kingdom called Dʿmt have been found in the region. Drewes therefore interprets mzlt as meaning a royal emblem. The South Arabian expert W.F. Alexander Sima translates the text slightly differently, specifying that it was GDRT who "sent a diplomatic mission to in order to form an alliance." Both interpret "Zararan" or "Zrrn" at the time, parallel to "Sahlen," the palace of Saba in Marib. This Sahlen-Saba parallel, along with the Dhu-Raydan-Ḥimyar parallel, was often used by Aksumite kings in their inscriptions enumerating the territories under their control. Qatabān were all allied against Ḥimyar. ` Alhan Nafhan's son Sha`irum Awtar later abandoned the alliance with GDRT after he became king of Saba'.GDRT – The Horn of Africa and South Arabia at the end of GDRT's reign, after the loss of Zafar.
89. Hammurabi – Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC. He was preceded by his father, Sin-Muballit, who abdicated due to failing health. He extended Babylon's control throughout Mesopotamia through military campaigns. Hammurabi is known for the Code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest surviving codes of law in recorded history. The name Hammurabi derives from the Amorite term ʻAmmurāpi, itself from ʻAmmu and Rāpi. Hammurabi was an Amorite First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon, inherited the power from his father, Sin-Muballit, in c. 1792 BC. Though many cultures co-existed in Mesopotamia, Babylonian culture gained a degree of prominence among the literate classes throughout the Middle East under Hammurabi. The kings who came before Hammurabi had founded a relatively minor City State in 1894 BC which controlled little territory outside of the city itself. Babylon was overshadowed by older, larger and more powerful kingdoms such as Elam, Assyria, Isin, Eshnunna and Larsa for a century or so after its founding. Thus Hammurabi ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation. The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta. To the east of Mesopotamia lay the powerful kingdom of Elam which regularly invaded and forced tribute upon the small states of southern Mesopotamia. The first few decades of Hammurabi's reign were quite peaceful. Hammurabi used his power to undertake a series of public works, including heightening the city walls for defensive purposes, expanding the temples. In c. 1801 BC, the powerful kingdom of Elam, which straddled important trade routes across the Zagros Mountains, invaded the Mesopotamian plain.Hammurabi – Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash (or possibly Marduk). Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer (relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws).
90. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed." Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh. Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manetho's king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis, identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus' work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, while Africanus stated it was twenty-two years. Dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however.Hatshepsut – Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
91. Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster – He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348, in 1351 was created duke. Grosmont was also the author of the Livre de a highly personal devotional treatise. Thomas of Lancaster, was the heir of Edward I's brother Edmund Crouchback. Having no heir, Thomas's possessions and titles went to his younger brother Henry – Grosmont's father. Little is known of Grosmont's early years, but that he was born at Grosmont Castle in Grosmont, Monmouthshire, Wales, that he was born c. 1310, not around the turn of the century as previously held. According to his own memoirs, he did not learn to read in life. In 1330 he was knighted, represented his father in parliament. The next year he is recorded as participating in a royal tournament at Cheapside. After further service in the north, he was appointed the King's lieutenant in Scotland in 1336. The next year he was one of the six men Edward III promoted to the higher levels of the peerage. One of his father's lesser titles, that of Earl of Derby, was bestowed upon Grosmont. With the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War in 1337, Grosmont's attention was turned towards France. He was present at the English victory in the naval Battle of Sluys in 1340. Later he was required to commit himself for the king's considerable debts.Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster – Henry of Grosmont, from the Bruges Garter Book (1430) by William Bruges
92. Henry II of England – Henry was the son of daughter of Henry I of England. He shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty to England in 1153: Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry and Eleanor had eight children. As they grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 "Young Henry", rebelled in protest; he was joined by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey and by their mother, Eleanor. Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, resulting in Young Henry's death. A final rebellion broke out in 1189. Suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon in Anjou, where he died. Henry's empire quickly collapsed during the reign of John.Henry II of England – Detail from Henry's effigy in Fontevrault Abbey, Normandy
93. James I of Scotland – James I, King of Scotland from 1406, was the son of King Robert III and Annabella Drummond. He was the last of three sons. Although parliament exonerated Albany, fears for James's safety grew during the winter of 1405 -- plans were made to send him to France. Two weeks later, on 4 the 12-year-old uncrowned King of Scots began his 18-year detention. The Scottish King's cousin, Albany's son, a captive in England since 1402, was traded for Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland in 1416. Eight more years passed before James was ransomed, by which time Murdoch had succeeded his father to the governorship of Scotland. James married Joan Beaufort, daughter of the Earl of Somerset shortly before his release in April when they journeyed to Scotland. Noble families would also have to provide hostages as security. Despite this, James held qualities that were admired. The contemporary Scotichronicon by Walter Bower described James as excelling at appreciative of literature and music. Unlike his grandfather he did not take mistresses, but had many children by his consort, Queen Joan. The King applied it selectively at times. In 1428 James detained Alexander, Lord of the Isles, while attending a parliament in Inverness. 5th Earl of Douglas, was arrested in 1431, followed by George, Earl of March, in 1434. Queen Joan, although wounded, was eventually reunited with her son James II in Edinburgh Castle.James I of Scotland – 16th century portrait of James.
94. Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz – Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was Queen consort of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I. She was already well loved by her subjects, but her meeting with Napoleon led Louise to become revered as "the soul of national virtue". The Order of Louise was founded by her grieving husband four years later as a female counterpart to the Iron Cross. Duchess Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was born on 10 March 1776 in a one story villa, just outside the capital in Hanover. The family subsequently moved to Leineschloss, the residence of Hanoverian kings, though during the summer they usually lived at Herrenhausen. Louise was particularly close to her sister Frederica, two years younger, as well as with their only brother George. Louise and her siblings were under the care of their governess Fraulein von Wolzogen, a friend of their mother's. After Duchess Charles' death, the family left Leineschloss for Herrenhausen, sometimes called a "miniature Versailles". Duke Charles remarried two years later to his first wife's younger sister Charlotte, producing a son, Charles. Louise and her new stepmother became close until Charlotte's early death the year after their marriage. Their grandmother preferred to raise them simply, they made their own clothes. She received religious instruction from a clergyman of the Lutheran Church. Louise would often accompany her governess when visiting the houses of the needy. In 1793, Marie Louise took the two youngest duchesses with her to Frankfurt, where she paid her respects to her nephew King Frederick William II.Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz – Signature
95. Macbeth of Scotland – Mac Bethad mac Findlaích was King of the Scots from 1040 until his death. Macbeth is best known as the subject of William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth and the many works it has inspired. Shakespeare's play is not historically accurate. The name Mac-Bethad, from which the anglicized "MacBeth" is derived, means "son of life". An alternative proposed derivation is that it is a corruption of macc-bethad meaning "one of the elect". Some sources make Macbeth a grandson of King Malcolm II and thus a cousin to Duncan I, whom he succeeded. He was possibly also a cousin to Thorfinn the Mighty, Earl of Orkney and Caithness. Nigel Tranter, in his novel Macbeth the King, went as to portray Macbeth as Thorfinn's half-brother. However, this is speculation arising from the lack of historical certainty regarding the number of daughters Malcolm had. When Cnut the Great came north in 1031 to accept the submission of King Malcolm II, Macbeth too submitted to him:... Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Iehmarc... The Prophecy of Berchan, apparently alone in near contemporary sources, says Malcolm died a violent death, calling it a "kinslaying" without actually naming his killers. Tigernach's chronicle says only: Máel Coluim son of Cináed, king of Alba, the honour of western Europe, died. Malcolm II's grandson Duncan, later I, was acclaimed without opposition. Previous successions had involved strife between various rígdomna – men of royal blood.Macbeth of Scotland – Imagined 19th century portrait of Macbeth
96. Malcolm II of Scotland – Malcolm, was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. Malcolm II was born to Kenneth II of Scotland. He was grandson of Malcolm I of Scotland. In 997, the killer of Constantine is credited as being Kenneth, son of Malcolm. Whether Malcolm killed Constantine or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Constantine's successor Kenneth III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn. John of Fordun writes that Malcolm defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation", but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians. Malcolm demonstrated a rare ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man. His middle daughter, Donada, was married to Finlay, Earl of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The work De obsessione Dunelmi claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Malcolm II, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army to Rome.Malcolm II of Scotland – Fanciful 17th century depiction of the king (his actual appearance is unknown)
97. Malcolm III of Scotland – Malcolm was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. He was later nicknamed Canmore in Scottish Gaelic, "Great Chief". Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth. These wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's second wife, Margaret of Wessex, was eventually canonized and is Scotland's only royal saint. Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety; with the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey, he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms. Malcolm's father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II, Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's great-grandfather. Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth on 15 August 1040. Malcolm's family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt. Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm was sent to England, his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. This Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the later Malcolm III. The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf.Malcolm III of Scotland – Victorian depiction of Malcolm and his second wife, Margaret
98. Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia – Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia was the third daughter of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Fyodorovna. Her murder following the Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in her canonization as a passion bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church. Throughout her lifetime she was noted for her interest in the lives of the soldiers. The flirtatious Maria had a number of innocent crushes on the young men she met, beginning in early childhood. She hoped to marry and have a large family. However, it was later proven that Anastasia did not escape. However, further remains were discovered in 2007, DNA analysis subsequently proved that the entire Imperial family had been murdered in 1918. Her French tutor Pierre Gilliard said Maria was tall and well-built, with rosy cheeks. Tatiana Botkina thought the expression in Maria's eyes was "soft and gentle." As an infant and toddler, her physical appearance was compared to one of Botticelli's angels. Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia nicknamed her "The Amiable Baby" because of her good nature. However, on occasion the sweet-natured Maria could be mischievous. Once, as a little girl, she stole some biscuits from her mother's tea table. I am glad to see she is only a human child." Eagar noted that Maria's love for her father was "marked" and she often tried to escape from the nursery to "go to Papa."Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia – Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, c. 1914.
99. Maria Theresa – Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. Maria Theresa was the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Holy Roman Empress. Maria Theresa started her 40-year reign when Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI spent his entire reign securing it. Upon the death of her father, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Prussia subsequently conquered it. She would later unsuccessfully try to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Of the sixteen, ten survived to adulthood. Maria Theresa had five sons. Maria Theresa disapproved of many of Joseph's actions. She was able to simultaneously evoke both esteem and affection from her subjects. However, contemporary travelers thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious. Her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate-Neuburg, were her godmothers. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna; Charles never managed to overcome this feeling.Maria Theresa – Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759
100. Nerva – Nerva was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98. Nerva became Emperor after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he played a vital part in exposing the Pisonian conspiracy of 65. Later, as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships during the reigns of Vespasian and Domitian respectively. On 18 Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy involving members of the Praetorian Guard and several of his freedmen. On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. This was the first time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. As the new ruler of the Roman Empire, he vowed to restore liberties, curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. Nerva's brief reign was marred by his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army. A revolt by the Praetorian Guard in October 97 essentially forced him to adopt an heir. After some deliberation Nerva adopted a young and popular general, as his successor. After barely fifteen months in office, Nerva died of natural causes on 27 January 98. Upon his death he was deified by Trajan. Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a moderate emperor by ancient historians. Nerva's greatest success was his ability to ensure a peaceful transition of power after his death, thus founding the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.Nerva – Bust of emperor Nerva, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome
101. Oleg of Novgorod – Oleg of Novgorod was a Varangian prince who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the early 10th century. He also launched at least one attack on Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. According to East Slavic chronicles, Oleg was supreme ruler of the Rus' from 882 to 912. Oleg gradually finally moved his capital from Novgorod there. The new capital was a convenient place to launch a raid against Constantinople in 907. Having fixed his shield to the gate of the imperial capital, Oleg won a favourable treaty, which eventually was to both nations. Although Byzantine sources did not record these hostilities, the text of the treaty survives in the Chronicle. The Novgorod First Chronicle does not give the date of the commencement of Oleg's reign, but dates his death to 922 rather than 912. Scholars have contrasted this dating scheme with the "epic" reigns of roughly thirty-three years for both Oleg and Igor in the Primary Chronicle. Kievan sources place Oleg's grave in Kiev, while Novgorodian sources identify a funerary barrow in Ladoga as Oleg's final resting place. In the Primary Chronicle, Oleg is known as the Prophet, an epithet alluding to the sacred meaning of his Norse name. To defy the prophecies, Oleg sent the horse away. Many years later he asked where his horse was, was told it had died. He asked to see the remains and was taken to the place where the bones lay. When he touched the horse's skull with his boot a snake slithered from the skull and bit him.Oleg of Novgorod – Oleg of Novgorod by Viktor Vasnetsov
102. Oswald of Northumbria – After eight years of rule, in which he was the most powerful ruler in Britain, Oswald was killed in the Battle of Maserfield. This defeat meant that an exiled member of Edwin, became king of Northumbria; his brothers fled to the north. Oswald thus spent the remainder of his youth in the Scottish kingdom of Dál Riata in northern Britain, where he was converted to Christianity. He may also have fought in Ireland during this period of exile. He was killed after attempting to negotiate peace. Subsequently, Oswald, at the head of a small army, met Cadwallon in battle at Heavenfield, near Hexham. He then prayed and asked his army to join in. Adomnán in his Life of Saint Columba offers a longer account, which Abbot Ségéne had heard from Oswald himself. Oswald, he says, had the night in which he was told Be strong and act manfully. Behold, I will be with thee. All agreed that they would accept Christianity after the battle. In the battle that followed, the British were routed despite their superior numbers; Cadwallon himself was killed. Following the victory at Heavenfield, Oswald reunited Northumbria and re-established the Bernician supremacy, interrupted by Edwin. Bede says that Oswald held imperium for the eight years of his rule, was the most powerful king in Britain. In the 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle he is referred to as a Bretwalda.Oswald of Northumbria – A 12th-century painting of St Oswald in Durham Cathedral
103. Otto of Greece – Otto, also spelled Otho, was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London. He reigned until he was deposed in 1862. The second son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended the newly created throne of Greece while still a minor. His government was initially run by a three-man council made up of Bavarian court officials. Upon reaching his majority, Otto removed the regents when he ruled as an absolute monarch. In the face of an armed but peaceful insurrection Otto in 1843 granted a constitution. However he rigged elections using terror. Throughout his reign Otto was unable to prevent economic meddling from outside. To remain strong, Otto had to play the interests of each of the Great Powers' Greek adherents against the others, while not aggravating the Great Powers. As a result, finally in 1862 Otto was deposed while in the countryside. He died in 1867. His father served there as Bavarian governor-general. Through the Bavarian Duke John II, Otto was a descendant of the Greek imperial dynasties of Komnenos and Laskaris. When he was elected king, the Great Powers extracted a pledge from Otto's father to restrain him from hostile actions against the Ottoman Empire. Aged not quite 18, the young prince arrived in Greece aboard the British frigate HMS Madagascar.Otto of Greece – Otto
104. Ramesses II – Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Ramesses is often regarded as the greatest, most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. Later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses II led military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. Ramesses also led expeditions into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. At age fourteen, he was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. Ramesses is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Estimates of his age at death vary; 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, monuments. Ramesses established the city of Pi-Ramesses in Syria. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to secure Egypt's borders. Ramesses was also responsible for carrying out a campaign in Libya. During Ramesses II's reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men; a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from south-west Anatolia or also from the island of Sardinia.Ramesses II – One of the four external seated statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.
105. Romulus Augustus – Romulus Augustus was an emperor reigning over the Western Roman Empire from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476. He is mostly known by his nickname "Romulus Augustulus", though he ruled officially as Romulus Augustus. The Latin suffix -ulus is a diminutive; hence, Augustulus effectively means "Little Augustus". The historical record contains few details of Romulus's life. He was proclaimed as emperor by his father Orestes, the magister militum of the Roman army after forcing Emperor Julius Nepos to leave Italy. Little more than a child, reigned for only ten months. Romulus was soon deposed by Odoacer, who had executed Orestes. Odoacer sent Romulus to live in the Castellum Lucullanum in Campania, after which he disappears from the historical record. The future emperor was named Romulus after his maternal grandfather, a nobleman from Poetovio in Noricum. Orestes was appointed Magister militum by Julius Nepos in 475. Shortly after his appointment, Orestes captured the capital of the Western Roman Empire since 402, on 28 August 475. Nepos fled to Dalmatia, where his uncle had ruled a semi-autonomous state in the 460s. Orestes, however, refused to become emperor, "from some secret motive", said historian Edward Gibbon. Instead, he installed his son on the throne on 31 October 475. The empire Augustus ruled was a shadow of its former self and had shrunk significantly over the previous 80 years.Romulus Augustus – Tremissis of Romulus Augustus
106. Rudolf Duala Manga Bell – Rudolf Duala Manga Bell was a Duala king and resistance leader in the German colony of Kamerun. He was educated, although his father left a substantial debt. In 1910 the German Reichstag developed a plan by which the riverain Duala would be moved inland to allow for wholly European riverside settlements. Manga Bell became the leader of pan-Duala resistance to the policy. These were rebutted. Sultan Ibrahim Njoya of the Bamum people reported his actions to the authorities, the Duala leader was arrested. After a summary trial, Manga Bell was hanged for high treason on 8 August 1914. His actions made him a martyr in Cameroonian eyes. Writers such as Helmuth Stoecker view his actions as an early example of Cameroonian nationalism. Manga Bell was born in 1873 in Douala in the German colony of Kamerun. He was the eldest son of Manga Ndumbe Bell, king of the Bell lineage of the Duala people. Manga Bell was raised to appreciate both African and European ways of life. His Westernized uncle David Mandessi Bell had a great impact on him, as a youth he attended school in both Douala and Germany. During the 1890s he attended the Gymnasium of Ulm, Germany, although no direct record of his time there survives. When the prince returned to Kamerun, he was one of the most highly educated men in the colony by Western standards.Rudolf Duala Manga Bell – Rudolf Duala Manga Bell
107. Thutmose I – Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. Thutmose received the throne after the death of the previous king, Amenhotep I. During his reign, Thutmose campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than before. Thutmose was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Hatshepsut. It has been speculated Thutmose's father was Amenhotep I. His mother, Senseneb, was of non-royal parentage and may have been a lesser wife or concubine. Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession. However, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhotep's bark built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with Thutmose's name well before Amenhotep's death. Secondly, Thutmose's first-born son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmose's coronation. He had another son, two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Nefrubity died as an infant. He had one son by Mutnofret. This son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to Hatshepsut. It was later recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to Hatshepsut.Thutmose I – A stone head, most likely depicting Thutmose I, at the British Museum
108. Titus – Titus was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving during the First Jewish -- Roman War. When Vespasian was declared July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he destroyed the city and the Second Temple. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph: the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. Titus was born in Rome, probably on December 39 AD, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus -- commonly known as Vespasian -- and Domitilla the Elder. He had one younger sister, one younger brother, Titus Flavius Domitianus, commonly referred to as Domitian. Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar's civil war. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield in 48 BC. Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. Culminated with a consulship in 51, the year Domitian was born. As a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in 43. From c. 57 to 59 he was a military tribune in Germania.Titus – Bust of Emperor Titus, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.
109. Zita of Bourbon-Parma – Zita of Bourbon-Parma was the wife of Emperor Charles of Austria. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia. Charles and Zita left for exile in Switzerland and later Madeira, where Charles died in 1922. After her husband's death, Zita and her son Otto served as the symbols of unity for the exiled dynasty. A devout Catholic, she raised a large family after being widowed at the age of 29, never remarried. Asteroid 689 Zita is named in her honour. Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma was born at the Villa Pianore in the Italian Province of Lucca, 9 May 1892. The unusual Zita was given her after a Italian Saint who had lived in the 13th century. Zita's father had lost his throne as a result of the movement for Italian unification in 1859 when he was still a child. He fathered twelve children during his first marriage to Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies. Duke Robert became a widower in 1882, two years later he married Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zita's mother. The second marriage produced a further twelve children. Zita was the 17th child among Duke Robert's 24 children. Robert moved his large family between Villa Pianore and his castle in Schwarzau in lower Austria. It was mainly in these two residences that Zita spent her formative years.Zita of Bourbon-Parma – Empress Zita after her coronation as Queen of Hungary