1. San Francisco Bay Area – The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses the cities and metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco. The Bay Areas nine counties are Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma. The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the Bay Area has the second-most Fortune 500 Companies in the United States, and is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics, entrepreneurship, and diversity. The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay, the inner East Bay is more densely populated, with generally older buildings, and a more ethnically diverse population. The word Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes, Lafayette, Moraga, walnut Creek is situated east of Lamorinda and north of the San Ramon Valley and, together with Concord, Martinez, and Pleasant Hill comprises Central Contra Costa County. The cities of Antioch, Pittsburg, Brentwood, Oakley and the areas surrounding them comprise East Contra Costa County. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador, the Livermore, and the San Ramon Valleys, dublin and Pleasanton comprise the Amador Valley, Livermore lies in the Livermore Valley, and the San Ramon Valley consists of Alamo, Danville, Diablo and its namesake, San Ramon. The outer East Bay is connected to the inner East Bay by BART, Interstate 580 to the south, and State Routes State Route 4 to the north, the outer East Bays infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades, the region north of the Golden Gate Bridge is known locally as the North Bay. This area encompasses Marin County, Sonoma County, Napa County, the city of Fairfield, being part of Solano County, is often considered the easternmost city of the North Bay. With few exceptions, this region is affluent, Marin County is ranked as the wealthiest in the state. The North Bay is relatively rural compared to the remainder of the Bay Area, with areas of undeveloped open space, farmland. Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bays largest city, with a population of 167,815 and a Metropolitan Statistical Area population of 466,891, making it the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area. The North Bay is the section of the Bay Area that is not currently served by a commuter rail service. The area from San Francisco to the Silicon Valley, geographically part of the San Francisco Peninsula, is known locally as The Peninsula, many of these families are of foreign background and have significantly contributed to the diversity of the area. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local terms, San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides, the north, east, and west. The city squeezes roughly 870,000 people in under 47 square miles, on any given day, there can be as many as 1 million people in the city because of the commuting population and tourismSan Francisco Bay Area – San Francisco
2. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
3. San Jose, California – San Jose, officially the City of San José, is the economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2015 population of 1,026,908, it is the third most populous city in California and the tenth most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the shore of San Francisco Bay. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California. San Jose is the largest city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Ohlone people, San Jose was founded on November 29,1777, as the Pueblo of San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian town founded in Spanish Alta California. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose became the states first capital, following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 60s. The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from a center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had officially surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California, by the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries. San Jose is considered to be a city, notable for its affluence. San Joses location within the high tech industry, as a cultural, political. San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institute. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Brocade, Samsung, Acer, Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. The first lasting European presence began with a series of Franciscan missions established from 1769 by Junípero Serra, San Jose came under Mexican rule in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown. It then became part of the United States, after it capitulated in 1846, on March 27,1850, San Jose became the second incorporated city in the state, with Josiah Belden its first mayor. San Jose was Californias first state capital, and hosted the first, today the Circle of Palms Plaza in downtown is the historical marker for the first state capital. The city was a station on the Butterfield Overland Mail route, in the period 1900 through 1910, San Jose served as a center for pioneering invention, innovation, and impact in both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flight. These activities were led principally by John Montgomery and his peers, the City of San Jose has established Montgomery Park, a Monument at San Felipe and Yerba Buena Roads, and John J. Montgomery Elementary School in his honorSan Jose, California – Images, from top down, left to right: Downtown San Jose, Hotel De Anza, East San Jose suburbs, Lick Observatory, Plaza de César Chávez
4. Alameda County, California – Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region. The county was formed on March 25,1853, from a portion of Contra Costa County. The Spanish word alameda means a place where trees grow. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early explorers of a road lined with trees, the county seat at the time it was formed was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City. In 1856 it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault, the county seat was then re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, which has been the county seat since 1873, much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton, the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water. The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary, and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay, and is Oaklands most populous region, Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A2014 analysis found Alameda County to be the 4th most racially diverse county in the United States, the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271. The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons,16. 4% Mexican,0. 8% Puerto Rican,0. 2% Cuban,5. 1% Other Hispanic. 26. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was out with 24. 6% under the age of 18,9. 6% from 18 to 24,33. 9% from 25 to 44,21. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $55,946, and the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had an income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for femalesAlameda County, California
5. Marin County, California – Marin County /məˈrɪn/ is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 252,409 and its county seat is San Rafael. Marin County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco, Marin County is one of the wealthiest localities in the United States, known for its affluence. In May 2009, Marin County had the fifth highest income per capita in the United States at about $91,480, the county is governed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors. The county is well known for its natural beauty and liberal politics. San Quentin Prison is located in the county, as is George Lucas Skywalker Ranch, autodesk, the publisher of AutoCAD, is also located there, as well as numerous other high-tech companies. The Marin County Civic Center was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and draws thousands of visitors a year to guided tours of its arch, in 1994, a new county jail facility was embedded into the hillside nearby. Marin Countys natural sites include the Muir Woods redwood forest, the Marin Headlands, Stinson Beach, the Point Reyes National Seashore, the United States oldest cross country running event, the Dipsea Race, takes place annually in Marin County, attracting thousands of athletes. Mountain biking was invented on the slopes of Mount Tamalpais in Marin, According to General Mariano Vallejo, who headed an 1850 committee to name Californias counties, the county was named for Marin, great chief of the tribe Licatiut. Marin had been named Huicmuse until he was baptized as Marino at about age 20, Marin / Marino was born into the Huimen people, a Coast Miwok tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the San Rafael area. Vallejo believed that Chief Marin had waged several fierce battles against the Spanish, starting in 1817, he served as an alcalde at the San Rafael Mission, where he lived from 1817 off and on until his death. The Coast Miwok Indians were hunters and gatherers whose ancestors had occupied the area for thousands of years, about 600 village sites have been identified in the county. The Coast Miwok numbered in the thousands, today, there are few left and even fewer with any knowledge of their Coast Miwok lineage. Efforts are being made so that they are not forgotten, francis Drake and the crew of the Golden Hind was thought to have landed on the Marin coast in 1579 claiming the land as Nova Albion. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drakes claim to the new lands and this so-called Drakes Plate of Brass was revealed as a hoax in 2003. In 1595, Sebastian Cermeno lost his ship, the San Agustin, the Spanish explorer Vizcaíno landed about twenty years after Drake in what is now called Drakes Bay. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 828 square miles. It is the fourth-smallest county in California by land areaMarin County, California – Marin County Civic Center
6. Napa County, California – Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,484, the county seat is the City of Napa. Napa County was one of the counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the territory were given to Lake County in 1861. Napa County comprises the Napa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland. It is one of four North Bay counties, in prehistoric times, the valley was inhabited by the Patwin Native Americans, with possible habitation by Wappo tribes in the northwestern foothills. Most villages are thought to have been constructed near the floodplains of watercourses that drain the valley and their food consisted of wild roots, acorns, small animals, earthworms, grasshoppers, and bread made from crushed California buckeye kernels. In winter they would construct huts made of tree branches, in summer they camped near rivers and streams. In winter months, they were clad in wild animal skins. The maximum prehistoric population is not to have exceeded 5000 persons. In 1776, a fort was erected by the Spanish Governor, Felipe de Neve a short distance northwest of Napa, francis Castro and Father Jose Altimura were the first Europeans to explore the Napa Valley in 1823. When the first white settlers arrived in the early 1830s, there were six tribes in the valley speaking different dialects, the Mayacomos tribe lived in the area where Calistoga was founded. The Callajomans were in the area near where the town of St. Helena now stands, further south, the Kymus dwelt in the middle part of the valley. The Napa and Ulcus tribes occupied part of the area where the City of Napa now exists while the Soscol tribe occupied the portion that now makes up the end of the valley. Many of the native peoples died during an epidemic in 1838. Settlers also killed several over claims of cattle theft, during the era between 1836 and 1846, when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 13 ranchos were granted in Napa County, George C. Yount was a settler in Napa County and is believed to be the first Anglo-Saxon resident in the county. In 1836 Yount obtained the Mexican grant Rancho Caymus where he built what is said to be the first log house in California, soon afterward, he built a sawmill and grain mill, and was the first person to plant a vineyard in the countyNapa County, California
7. San Francisco County, California – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco County, California – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
8. San Mateo County, California – San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain. The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County then annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, marine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannahSan Mateo County, California
9. Santa Clara County, California – Santa Clara County, California, officially the County of Santa Clara, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,781,642, the county seat is San Jose, the tenth-most populous city in the United States. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is also known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area region, Santa Clara County is named after Mission Santa Clara, which was established in 1777, and is also named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the counties of California. The original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Coyote Creek, part of the countys territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries. The result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad,118 U. S.394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the Valley of the Hearts Delight due to its natural beauty, the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943, varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, and other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a presence in the area. The term Silicon Valley was coined in 1971, the trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and agriculture has since then been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. And Hewlett-Packard, and internet companies eBay, Facebook, Google, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. The San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the south, as of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. The vast majority of these Superfund sites were caused by associated with the high tech sector located in Silicon Valley. As of 2013, Santa Clara County has the highest median income of any county in California at $84,741. The 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Clara County had a population of 1,781,642. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 479,210 persons,22. 5% Mexican,0. 4% Puerto Rican,0. 1% Cuban,3. 8% Other HispanicSanta Clara County, California
10. Sonoma County, California – Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878 and its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is located to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County and it is west of Napa County and Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is the northwestern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which also includes Napa, Mendocino. It possesses thirteen approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries, in 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. More than 7.4 million tourists each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College, Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use, Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit largely divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007, grapes and pasturage. The voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, and other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, spaniards, Russians, and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber, fur, and farmland. The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County and this settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter, settler and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento. The Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846, Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat originally the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, the town of Sonoma had declined in importance in terms of commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, and it was relatively remote. As a result, elements in the newer, rapidly growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, the dispute ultimately was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa. Allegedly, several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, some of the countys land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860Sonoma County, California
11. National park – A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible. The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years later was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being also the worlds first national park. In some European countries, however, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territoryNational park – An elephant safari through the Jaldapara National Park in West Bengal, India
12. Commuter rail – Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used and they primarily serve lower density suburban areas, and often share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours, average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved, some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains distance varies between 15 and 200 km, sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are often available on trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs, however, frequently they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays, especially where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the standard gauge track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge, some countries, including Finland, India, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the USA and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters, most S-bahns typically behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, and long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city. The distances between stations however, are usually short, in larger systems there is usually a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into. Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Munich and Frankfurt, S-Bahns do also exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and very little exclusive trackage. A similar network exists in Copenhagen called the S-tog, in Hamburg and Copenhagen, other, diesel driven trains, do continue where the S-Bahn ends. Regional rail usually provides rail services between towns and cities, rather than purely linking major population hubs in the way inter-city rail does, Regional rail operates outside major cities. Unlike Inter-city, it stops at most or all stations between cities and it provides a service between smaller communities along the line, and also connections with long-distance services at interchange stations located at junctions or at larger towns along the line. Alternative names are local train or stopping train, examples include the former BRs Regional Railways, Frances TER, Germanys DB Regio and South Koreas Tonggeun servicesCommuter rail – The Long Island Rail Road operates electric and diesel service into New York City along with Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit Rail.
13. List of urban areas by population – This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population as of 2014/2015. The figures here have taken from Demographias World Urban Areas study. Demographia defines an area as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market. Except in Australia, the use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer. Demographia uses maps, satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization, Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units often includes large rural areas. Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, a, National census authority data agglomeration data. B, Demographia land area based upon map or satellite photograph analysis. C, Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas, D, Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate. E, Demographia population estimate from national census authority data, F, Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports. L, Demographia population estimate from local authority data, N, Combined urban area using national census authority data. W, Population estimate based upon the World Bank Urban Area 2015 estimate and this is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas. Urban areas are confined to a nation, unless there is freedom of movement between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland, thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Brinkhoff, The Principal Agglomerations of the World Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques insee. fr - Geopolis study of urban areas Gridded Population of the WorldList of urban areas by population – Population tables of world cities
14. Office of Management and Budget – The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, the OMB Director reports to the President, Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War. The Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration, the first OMB included Roy Ash, Paul ONeill, Fred Malek and Frank Zarb and two dozen others. OMB prepares the Presidents budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies, OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the presidents budget, OMB also oversees and coordinates the administrations procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. OMB manages other agencies financials, paperwork, and IT, the Office is made up mainly of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the presidents budget and they are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the presidents budget each February. The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and they are also responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the presidents signature. They also issue Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White Houses official position on proposed legislation. S. com, August 22,2005Office of Management and Budget – Office of Management and Budget
15. Combined Statistical Area – A combined statistical area is composed of adjacent metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas in the United States and Puerto Rico that can demonstrate economic or social linkage. These areas that retain their own designations as metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas within the larger combined statistical area. The primary distinguishing factor between a CSA and an MSA is that the social and economic ties between the individual MSAs within a CSA are at lower levels than between the counties within an MSA, cSAs represent multiple metropolitan or micropolitan areas that have an employment interchange of 25. CSAs often represent regions with overlapping labor and media markets, as of July 2012, there are 166 combined statistical areas in the United States, plus three in Puerto Rico. S. S. Combined Statistical Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, link United States Government United States Census Bureau 2010 United States Census USCB population estimates United States Office of Management and BudgetCombined Statistical Area – Population tables of U.S. cities
16. San Joaquin County, California – San Joaquin County /ˈsæn wɑːˈkiːn/ is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306, San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton-Lodi, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the more inclusive San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located in Northern Californias Central Valley, just east of the less extensive nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region, the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, the county was named for the San Joaquin River which runs through it. San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valleys first permanent residence and it was developed for ranching and agriculture. It attracted more miners and settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush, on August 7,1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Roysters Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out. The cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,426 square miles. The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54N 121°12W, San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons, the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, and as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people,181,629 households, the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at a density of 135 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58. 1% White,6. 7% Black or African American,1. 1% Native American,11. 4% Asian,0. 4% Pacific Islander,16. 3% from other races, and 6. 1% from two or more races. 30. 5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,9. 3% were of German,5. 3% Irish and 5. 0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66. 4% spoke English,21. 3% Spanish,2. 2% Tagalog,1. 8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian,1. 1% Vietnamese and 1. 1% Hmong as their first language. 20. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48San Joaquin County, California
17. San Benito County, California – San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,269, San Benito County is included in the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. El Camino Real passes through the county and includes one mission in San Juan Bautista, San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874. The county is named after the San Benito Valley, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,389 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Sharing a border with Santa Clara County, San Benito County lies adjacent to the San Francisco Bay Area and is considered a part of that region. The county also borders Merced County and Fresno County in the east, the county is also the location of the Mount Harlan and San Benito American Viticultural Areas. The latter contains the Cienega Valley, Lime Kiln Valley, there are a number of plant communities that occur in San Benito County including grasslands and chaparral, however, one of the more unusual is the Sargent cypress forest. Benitoite, the gem of the State of California, was discovered in San Benito County. The county is home to the San Benito evening primrose, and Illacme plenipes. The plant genus Benitoa was named for San Benito County, pinnacles National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that San Benito County had a population of 55,269. The racial makeup of San Benito County was 35,181 White,483 African American,895 Native American,1,443 Asian,94 Pacific Islander,14,471 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,186 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 53,234 people,15,885 households, the population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 16,499 housing units at a density of 12 per square mile. 56. 4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,7. 6% were of German,6. 3% Irish and 5. 4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 62. 8% spoke English and 35. 3% Spanish as their first language,14. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.32 and the family size was 3.64. In the county, the population was out with 32. 2% under the age of 18,8. 8% from 18 to 24,31. 5% from 25 to 44,19. 3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 31 years, for every 100 females there were 102.5 malesSan Benito County, California
18. Suisun Bay – Suisun Bay is a shallow tidal estuary in northern California. It lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, forming the entrance to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, Suisun Marsh, the tidal marsh land to the north, is the largest marsh in California. Grizzly Bay forms an extension of Suisun Bay. The bay is directly north of Contra Costa County, the bay was named in 1811, after the Suisunes, a Native American tribe of the area. The word originates with the Patwin, on the west, Suisun Bay is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which connects to San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay. In addition to the bridges at the Carquinez Strait, it is spanned in its center by the Benicia-Martinez Bridge. It is the anchorage of the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, a collection of U. S. Navy and merchant reserve ships, the Glomar Explorer was anchored here after recovering a sunken Soviet submarine in the mid-1970s. Many ships were removed and sold for scrap in the 1990s, in 2010, plans were announced to remove the mothball fleet in stages, with final removal by 2017. The Central Pacific Railroad built a ferry that operated between Benicia and Port Costa, California from 1879 to 1930. The ferry boats Solano and Contra Costa were removed from service when the nearby Martinez railroad bridge was completed in 1930, from 1913 until 1954 the Sacramento Northern Railway, an electrified interurban line, crossed Suisun Bay with the Ramon, a distillate-powered train ferry. Kinder Morgan pleaded guilty to operating a corroded pipeline and paid three dollars in penalties and restitution. Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet Kinder Morgan Information Regarding Pipeline Release Suisun Bays ghost fleet may finally R. I. PSuisun Bay – San Pablo Bay with Suisun Bay at upper right
19. Modern liberalism in the United States – Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. It is characterized by social liberalism, and combines ideas of liberty and equality with support for social justice. The term modern liberalism in this article refers only to the United States, in a global context, this philosophy is usually referred to as social liberalism. The American modern liberal philosophy strongly endorses public spending on such as education, health care. Important social issues today include addressing inequality, voting rights for minorities, affirmative action, reproductive and other rights, support for LGBT rights. American liberals oppose conservatives on most issues, but not all, Modern liberalism is historically related to social liberalism and progressivism, though the current relationship between liberal and progressive viewpoints is debated. John F. Kennedy defined a liberal as follows, keynesian economic theory has played an important role in the economic philosophy of modern American liberals. Modern American liberals generally believe that national prosperity requires government management of the macroeconomy, in order to keep unemployment low, inflation in check and they also value institutions that defend against economic inequality. In The Conscience of a Liberal Paul Krugman writes, I believe in an equal society, supported by institutions that limit extremes of wealth. I believe in democracy, civil liberties, and the rule of law and that makes me a liberal, and Im proud of it. Liberals often point to the prosperity enjoyed under a mixed economy in the years since World War II. They believe liberty exists when access to necessities like health care and economic opportunity are available to all, Modern American liberalism is typically associated with the Democratic Party, as modern American conservatism is typically associated with the Republican Party. Today the word liberalism is used differently in different countries, one of the greatest contrasts is between the usage in the United States and usage in Europe. According to Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. Liberalism in the American usage has little in common with the word as used in the politics of any European country, save possibly Britain. In Europe, liberalism, usually means what is called classical liberalism, a commitment to limited government, laissez-faire economics. This classical liberalism sometimes more closely corresponds to the American definition of libertarianism, in the United States, the general term liberalism will almost always refer to modern liberalism, a more social variant of classical liberalism. A2015 Gallup poll found that liberal views have consistently been on the rise in America since 1999. As of 2015, there is an equal number of socially liberal Americans and socially conservative AmericansModern liberalism in the United States – Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way
20. Demographics of California – California is the most populous U. S. state, with an estimated 2017 population of 39.497 million. It has many people from a variety of ethnic, racial, national. California is the most populous entity in North America. If it were an independent country, California would rank 34th in population in the world and it has a larger population than either Canada or Australia. Its population is one larger than that of the next largest state. California surpassed New York to become the most populous state in 1962, however, according to the Los Angeles Times, Californias population growth has slowed dramatically in the 21st century. The largest metro areas in California, as of 2010, are Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland, San Diego, Riverside-San Bernardino, Fresno also has a metropolitan area of over one million residents. As of 2006, California had an population of 37,172,015. This includes an increase since the last census of 1,557,112 people. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 1,415,879 people, California is the 13th fastest-growing state. As of 2008, the fertility rate was 2.15. The most recent census reports the population of California is 39,144,818, the center of population of California is located at 35. 463595°N119. 325359°W /35.463595, -119.325359 in Kern County, near the town of Shafter. No single racial or ethnic group forms a majority of Californias population, Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in the state. Spanish is the second most spoken language. Areas with especially large Spanish speaking populations include the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the California-Mexico border counties of San Diego and Imperial, nearly 43% of California residents speak a language other than English at home, a proportion far higher than any other state. California is home to almost 25% of the countrys undocumented residents, two-thirds of Californias undocumented residents have lived in the state for more than 10. California has eight of the 50 most populous cities in the U. S. the most of any state and it also has 3 of the 10 most populous cities, tied with Texas for the most of any state. Los Angeles, with close to 4 million people, is the largest city in California, other large cities in California are San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Sacramento, Fresno, Long Beach, and OaklandDemographics of California – Pedestrians walking on the Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica.
21. History of San Francisco – The history of the city of San Francisco, California, and its development as a center of maritime trade, were shaped by its location at the entrance to a large natural harbor. San Francisco is the name of both the city and the county, which share the same boundaries. Starting overnight as the base for the rush of 1849, the city quickly became the largest and most important population, commercial, naval. It was devastated by an earthquake and fire in 1906 but was quickly rebuilt. The San Francisco Federal Reserve Branch opened in 1914, and San Francisco is ranked sixth on the Global Financial Centres Index and has grown wealthier by its proximity to Silicon Valley. The earliest evidence of habitation in what is now the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Native Americans who settled in this region found the bay to be a resource for hunting and gathering, leading to the establishment of small villages. Collectively, these early Native Americans are now known as the Ohlone, and their trade patterns included places as far away as Baja California, the Mojave Desert and Yosemite. The earliest Europeans to reach the site of San Francisco were a Spanish exploratory party in 1769, led overland from Mexico by Don Gaspar de Portolà, the Spanish recognized the location, with its large natural harbor, to be of great strategic significance. A subsequent expedition, led by Juan Bautista de Anza, selected sites for military, the Presidio of San Francisco was established for the military, while Mission San Francisco de Asís began the cultural and religious conversion of some 10,000 Ohlone who lived in the area. The mission became known as Mission Dolores, because of its nearness to a named after Our Lady of Sorrows. The original plaza of the Spanish settlement remains as Portsmouth Square, todays city took its name from the mission, and Yerba Buena became the name of a San Francisco neighborhood now known as South of Market. The Moscone Center and Yerba Buena Gardens are in the Yerba Buena area, in addition, the name Yerba Buena was applied to the former Goat Island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, adjacent to Treasure Island. San Francisco became part of the United States with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, European visitors to the San Francisco Bay Area were preceded at least 8,000 years earlier by Native Americans. According to one anthropologist, the name for San Francisco was awaste, meaning. When the Spanish arrived, they found the area inhabited by the Yelamu tribe, the Ohlone speakers are distinct from Pomo speakers north of the San Francisco Bay, and are part of the Miwok group of languages. Their traditional territory stretched from Big Sur to the San Francisco Bay, miwok-speaking Indians also lived in Yosemite, and Ohlone-speakers intermarried with Chumash and Pomo speakers as well. The Spanish conquest of the San Francisco Bay area came later than to Southern California, a Spanish exploration party, led by Portolà and arriving on November 2,1769, was the first documented European sighting of San Francisco BayHistory of San Francisco – View of Presidio of San Francisco circa 1817 by Louis Choris
22. Maritime trade – Maritime history is the study of human activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that often uses a global approach, as an academic subject, it often crosses the boundaries of standard disciplines, focusing on understanding humankinds various relationships to the oceans, seas, and major waterways of the globe. Nautical history records and interprets past events involving ships, shipping, navigation, historians from many lands have published monographs, popular and scholarly articles, and collections of archival resources. A leading journal is International Journal of Maritime History, a refereed scholarly journal published twice a year by the International Maritime Economic History Association. Based in Canada with an editorial board, it explores the maritime dimensions of economic, social, cultural. For a broad overview, see the four-volume encyclopedia edited by John B, hattendorf, Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History. It contains over 900 articles by 400 scholars and runs 2900 pages, other major reference resources are Spencer Tucker, ed. Naval Warfare, An International Encyclopedia with 1500 articles in 1231, pages, and I. C. B. Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea with 2600 articles in 688 pages, typically, studies of merchant shipping and of defensive navies are seen as separate fields. Inland waterways are included within maritime history, especially inland seas such as the Great Lakes of North America, one approach to maritime history writing has been nicknamed rivet counting because of a focus on the minutiae of the vessel. But revisionist scholars are creating new turns in the study of maritime history and this includes a post-1980s turn towards the study of human users of ships, and post-2000 turn towards seeing sea travel as part of the wider history of transport and mobilities. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating to the late 5th millennium BC, the Indigenous of the Pacific Northwest are very skilled at crafting wood. Best known for totem poles up to 80 feet tall, they also construct dugout canoes over 60 feet long for everyday use, the earliest seaworthy boats may have been developed as early as 45,000 years ago, according to one hypothesis explaining the habitation of Australia. The Ancient Egyptians had knowledge of sail construction and this is governed by the science of aerodynamics. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Necho II sent out an expedition of Phoenicians, some current historians believe Herodotus on this point, even though Herodotus himself was in disbelief that the Phoenicians had accomplished the act. In early modern India and Arabia the lateen-sail ship known as the dhow was used on the waters of the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, the astrolabe was the chief tool of Celestial navigation in early maritime history. It was invented in ancient Greece and developed by Islamic astronomers, by at least 1117 AD, the Chinese used a magnetic needle that was submersed in a bowl of water, and would point in the southern cardinal direction. The first use of a needle for seafaring navigation in Europe was written of by Alexander Neckham. Around 1300 AD, the pivot-needle dry-box compass was invented in Europe, its cardinal direction pointed north, there was also the addition of the compass-card in Europe, which was later adopted by the Chinese through contact with Japanese pirates in the 16th centuryMaritime trade – The Clipper Ship "Flying Cloud" off the Needles, Isle of Wight, on the southern English coast. Painting by James E. Buttersworth.
23. Indigenous peoples of the Americas – The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, eventually, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence, North and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice ageIndigenous peoples of the Americas – Quechua women in Peru
24. Miwok – The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in their native language, anthropologists commonly divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups. These distinctions were unknown among the Miwok before European contact, plains and Sierra Miwok, from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Coast Miwok, from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County, Lake Miwok, from Clear Lake basin of Lake County. Bay Miwok, from location of Contra Costa County. The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs officially recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, the Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They had domesticated dogs and cultivated tobacco, but were otherwise hunter-gatherers, the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is partially due to cultivation by Miwok tribes. They burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine, nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs, seeds, and fungi. Animals were hunted with arrows, clubs or snares, depending on the species, grasshoppers were a highly prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River. The Miwok ate meals according to rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption, primarily in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California, Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated respectively with land and water. These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with men and women. Similarly to soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost, the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up. The 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, and the 1930 Census,491, see history of each Miwok group for more informationMiwok – Miwok
25. Point Reyes, California – Point Reyes is a prominent cape and popular Northern California tourist destination on the Pacific coast. It is located in Marin County approximately 30 miles west-northwest of San Francisco, the term is often applied to the Point Reyes Peninsula, the region bounded by Tomales Bay on the northeast and Bolinas Lagoon on the southeast. The headland is protected as part of Point Reyes National Seashore, the cape protects Drakes Bay on its southern side. The headland is largely drained by Drakes Estero, Drakes Bay and Drakes Estero are named after English seafarer Sir Francis Drake who possibly hauled his ship, the Golden Hinde, up onto the beach for repairs in June 1579. Inverness Ridge runs along the peninsulas northwest-southeast spine, with forested peaks around 430 meters, west of the ridge, the land flattens out and the vegetation turns to scrub. The Mount Vision fire in 1995 burned part of Inverness Ridge, Point Reyes lends its name to the town of Point Reyes Station. The point may once have known as Lobes Lighthouse by the sailors of clipper ships on the meat trade. The Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno named the land Punto de los Reyes when his ship, Point Reyes first inhabitants, the Coast Miwok, lived on the land for thousands of years. They left evidence of well over a hundred encampments on the peninsula, although they did not cultivate the land, they used the plentiful acorns as a staple part of their diet by removing the tannic acid and making a pulp that was stored in dry granaries. Although the exact location of Sir Francis Drakes 1579 anchorage at Point Reyes is still being debated, observations, presumably written by his chaplain, describe the genial welcome Drake and his men received, complete with ceremony and gifts. In 1992, Coast Miwok descendants established the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria and, today, they enjoy a rebirth of traditional customs and ceremonies, often held in Kule Loklo, Valley of the Bear, a replica Miwok village in Point Reyes National Seashore. The exact location of his landing, significant as the first European landing in Northern California, has sparked countless hours of spirited debate spanning four centuries, some experts believe, however, that he landed somewhere near the area on June 17,1579 and proclaimed it Nova Albion. Most likely, as validated by a National Historic Landmark designation, rumors of Drakes discovery of a safe harbor on the California coast intrigued the Spanish. Their trade between the Philippines and Mexico was booming, and they were constantly seeking safe harbors along their route, within a few days, a November storm beached the ship where it listed and was relentlessly pounded by the furious surf. It soon broke apart, killing men and dumping the precious cargo, some of which was eventually collected. Cermeno salvaged a small, open launch, likened to a large canoe, after a grueling two-month voyage, remembered as a remarkable feat of seamanship, Cermeno and all crew arrived safely in Acapulco in January 1596. Despite his amazing journey, Cermeno received no celebratory welcome, for he had not only lost his ship and cargo, despite reports of a lovely land populated by friendly tribes, Spain neglected California until the second half of the 18th century. By that time, trade had become an important source of income, when England, France, and Russia began to covet Californias coast, the King of Spain knew it was time to fortify itPoint Reyes, California – Much of the peninsula's coastline is made up of rocky cliffs, though there are also expansive sandy beaches.
26. Francis Drake – Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. With his incursion into the Pacific he inaugurated an era of privateering, Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588 and he died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits made him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards, King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4 million by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, England, although his birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith and this would date his birth to 1544. A date of c.1540 is suggested from two portraits, one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42 and he was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye. The first son was alleged to have named after his godfather Francis Russell. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, there the father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the Kings Navy. He was ordained deacon and was vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway. Drakes father apprenticed Francis to his neighbour, the master of a used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France. The ship master was so satisfied with the young Drakes conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, Francis Drake married Mary Newman in 1569. She died 12 years later, in 1581, in 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham, who was the High Sheriff of Somerset. After Drakes death, the widow Elizabeth eventually married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham. At age 23, Drake made his first voyage to the Americas, sailing with his cousin, Sir John Hawkins, on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives. In 1568 Drake was again with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulúa, following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa, Drake vowed revenge. He made two voyages to the West Indies, in 1570 and 1571, of which little is known, in 1572, he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish MainFrancis Drake – Sir Francis Drake in Buckland Abbey 16th century, oil on canvas, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
27. Pasadena, California – Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of 2013, the population of Pasadena was 139,731. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, Pasadena was incorporated on June 19,1886, becoming one of the first cities be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, the only one being incorporated earlier being its namesake. It is one of the cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges and they lived on a diet of acorn meal, seeds and herbs, venison, and other small animals. They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island, the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area. The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, Altadena, before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, also owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles and he was the grandfather of WWII General George S. Patton, Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it. The newcomers were able to purchase a portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks AvenuePasadena, California – Pasadena City Hall
28. Bodega Bay – Bodega Bay is a shallow, rocky inlet of the Pacific Ocean on the coast of northern California in the United States. It is approximately 5 mi across and is located approximately 40 mi northwest of San Francisco and 20 mi west of Santa Rosa, the bay straddles the boundary between Sonoma County to the north and Marin County to the south. The bay is a marine habitat used for navigation, recreation, Bodega Bay is protected on its north end from the Pacific Ocean by Bodega Head, which shelters the small Bodega Harbor and is separated from the main bay by a jetty. The San Andreas Fault runs parallel to the coastline and bisects Bodega Head, which lies on the Pacific Plate, the village of Bodega Bay sits on the east side of Bodega Harbor. The bay connects on its end to the mouth of Tomales Bay. Streams flowing into Bodega Bay include the Estero de San Antonio, accessible beaches on Bodega Bay include Doran Regional Park and Pinnacle Gulch. Apart from the harbor, all of Bodega Bay lies within the boundaries of the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, Coast Miwok Native Americans lived on the shores of Bodega Bay. Documented village names include, Helapattai, Hime-takala, Ho-takala, there is speculation that Bodega Bay may have been Sir Francis Drakes Nova Albion landing location on the California coast. His ship, the Sonora, anchored in the lee of Tomales Point on October 3,1775, Bodega y Quadra named Tomales Bay Puerto de la Bodega. There is no evidence in the journal or on the charts that Bodega y Quadra ever saw the entrance to Bodega Harbor or knew of the lagoon to the north, Bodega y Quadra planned to return, but was not able to. Later, as commandant of the base at San Blas, New Spain, Bodega y Quadra sent other expeditions to Bodega Bay with the intention of establishing a colony. It was decided, however, that the location was non-ideal, the first Russians to see Bodega Bay were the supervisors of the Aleut hunting parties aboard the American otter hunting ship Peacock in 1807. Timofei Osipovich Tarakanov of the Russian-American Company returned to Novo Arkhangelsk, Alaska and reported the location to Alexander Andreyevich Baranov, Baranov instructed his assistant Ivan Kuskov to survey the area for a settlement. Kuskov, the Commerce Counselor of the Russian-American Company sailing in the Kodiak, temporary buildings were erected to house the ships complement of 190 crew The Kodiak remained in Bodega Bay until October 1809, returning to Alaska with more than 2,000 otter pelts. Kuskov returned to Novo Arkhangelsk, reporting abundant fur bearing mammals, fish, timber, Baranov instructed Kuskov to return and establish a permanent settlement in the area. In 1811 Kuskov returned, this time aboard the Chirikov but found fewer otter in Bodega Bay, three American ships were also operating in the area from a base in Drakes Bay, sending hunters into San Francisco Bay and the surrounding bays. Zaliv Rumyantsev appears on the earliest Russian charts of Bodega Bay identifying present day Bodega Bay, Bodega Head was named Mouis Rumyantsev. Tomales Point was named Point Great Bodega and Tomales Bay Great Bodega Bay, on his return Kuskov found otter now scarce in Bodega Bay, the harbor having been frequented by numerous American and English otter-hunting expeditionsBodega Bay – Bodega Bay
29. Beat Generation – The Beat Generation is a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s, Allen Ginsbergs Howl, William S. Burroughss Naked Lunch and Jack Kerouacs On the Road are among the best known examples of Beat literature. Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the focus of obscenity trials that helped to liberalize publishing in the United States. The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, later, in the mid-1950s, the central figures ended up together in San Francisco where they met and became friends of figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance. In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the hippie, Neal Cassady, the driver for Ken Keseys bus Further, was the primary bridge between these two generations. Allen Ginsbergs work also became an element of early 1960s hippie culture. Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase Beat Generation in 1948 to characterize a perceived underground, the name arose in a conversation with writer John Clellon Holmes. Kerouac allows that it was street hustler Herbert Huncke who originally used the phrase beat, the origins of the Beat Generation can be traced to Columbia University and the meeting of Kerouac, Ginsberg, Lucien Carr, Hal Chase and others. Jack Kerouac attended Columbia on a football scholarship, though the beats are usually regarded as anti-academic, many of their ideas were formed in response to professors like Lionel Trilling and Mark Van Doren. Classmates Carr and Ginsberg discussed the need for a New Vision, to counteract what they perceived as their teachers conservative, Burroughs had an interest in criminal behavior and got involved in dealing stolen goods and narcotics. He was soon addicted to opiates, Burroughs guide to the criminal underworld was small-time criminal and drug-addict Herbert Huncke. The Beats were drawn to Huncke, who started to write himself. The police attempted to pull Ginsberg over while he was driving with Huncke, Ginsberg crashed the car while trying to flee and escaped on foot, but left incriminating notebooks behind. He was given the option to plead insanity to avoid a term, and was committed for 90 days to Bellevue Hospital. Carl Solomon was arguably more eccentric than psychotic, a fan of Antonin Artaud, he indulged in self-consciously crazy behavior, like throwing potato salad at a college lecturer on Dadaism. Solomon was given shock treatments at Bellevue, this one of the main themes of Ginsbergs Howl. Solomon later became the contact who agreed to publish Burroughs first novel Junky in 1953. Beat writers and artists flocked to Greenwich Village in New York City in the late 1950s because of low rent, folksongs, readings and discussions often took place in Washington Square ParkBeat Generation – Lawrence Ferlinghetti
30. South San Francisco, California – South San Francisco is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States, located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 63,632 at the 2010 census, locals often refer to the town as South City, in much the same way that San Francisco is called The City. Despite its name, South San Francisco does not border San Francisco, most of the valley faces San Francisco Bay, affording bay views from higher levels. South San Francisco has mild winters and dry cool summers, the hills to the west shield the city from much of the fog that prevails in neighboring areas. The city is noted for the South San Francisco Hillside Sign on Sign Hill, the sign, a tribute to the citys industrial past, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The area which is now South San Francisco was originally part of Rancho Buri Buri, in 1853 Charles Lux and a business partner, Alfred Edmondson, purchased 1,700 acres of Rancho Buri Buri. Lux bought out Edmonson’s interest in 1856 and founded the town of Baden, in 1855 Lux bought another 1,464 acres of Rancho Buri Buri land and became a partner of fellow San Francisco butcher and entrepreneur Henry Miller, forming the firm of Miller & Lux. A city plan was put forward in 1888 by Gustavus Franklin Swift, the plan called for multiple individual meat-packing companies with a shared stockyard, as well as a residential area for employees. Swift proposed the name South San Francisco based on South Chicago and South Omaha, where the Swift company already had plants. In 1890 Peter E. Iler of Omaha, Nebraska, an agent of the Beef Trust, purchased Luxs property, the area was divided into industrial and residential districts, and the company installed lighting, sewer connections, and water distributions in the residential areas. A second corporation, eventually known as the Western Meat Company, set up stock yards and meat packing facilities on 80 acres of bayfront property, other industries soon moved in, including a pottery works, two brick companies, the paint manufacturer W. P. Fuller & Company, the South San Francisco Lumber Company, following incorporation additional industries moved into the town, including two steel mills. A new City Hall was opened on November 11,1920, by the 1920s the city was the smokestack capital of the Peninsula. South San Francisco proudly called itself The Industrial City, a motto immortalized in 1923 by a sign on a hillside overlooking the city. Industry remained the main economic focus through the 1950s. During World War II shipbuilding also became a significant operation, at the end of the war the citys focus shifted away from smokestack industries toward light industry, warehousing, and residential development. The major manufacturers closed, and new development was focused on office parks, housing, high-rise hotels, the biotechnology giant Genentech opened in 1976, leading to South San Franciscos new identity as the birthplace of biotechnology. The population grew to 63,632 as of the 2010 census, South San Francisco is located at 37°39′22″N 122°25′32″WSouth San Francisco, California – South San Francisco as viewed from a nearby ridge
31. San Bruno – San Bruno is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States, incorporated in 1914. The population was 41,114 at the 2010 United States Census, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, all of it land. San Bruno City Hall sits at an elevation of 41 feet above sea level. Portions of Mills Park, Crestmoor, and Rollingwood are very hilly, featuring canyons, creeks, many of them now in culverts, flow from springs in the hills toward San Francisco Bay. Just west of Skyline Boulevard and outside of city limits is San Andreas Lake, the lake is one of several reservoirs used by the San Francisco Water Department, providing water to San Francisco and several communities in San Mateo County, including San Bruno west of I-280. San Bruno enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, dry summers and chilly, since 1927, the National Weather Service has maintained a weather station at the nearby San Francisco International Airport. According to the records, January is the coldest month with an average high of 55.9 °F. Frost occurs occasionally during the months, snowfall is very rare. Measurable snowfalls also occurred on December 11,1932, and February 5,1976, in recent years, traces of snow have been reported on December 27,1988, January 8,1989, and February 24,1996. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of only 1.3 days annually, the coldest winter temperature on record was 20 °F on December 11,1932, the same day 1.0 inch of snow fell. September is the warmest month with a high of 72.7 °F. Temperatures exceed 90 °F on an average of 4.0 days annually, fog and low overcast are common during the night and morning hours in the summer months, which are generally very dry except for occasional light drizzle from the fog. On rare occasions moisture moving up from tropical storms has produced thunderstorms or showers in the summer, gusty westerly winds are also common in the afternoon during the summer. The highest summer temperature was 106 °F on June 14,1961, a high of 105 °F was recorded on July 17,1988, and a high of 103 °F was recorded on September 14,1971. Until August 1,1993, it had never reached 100 °F in August, due to thermal inversions, summer temperatures in the higher hills are often much higher than at the airport. Thunderstorms occur several times a year, mostly during the winter months, the annual average days with measurable precipitation is 65.2 days. The most rainfall in a month at the airport was 13.64 inches in February 1998, nylund reported 6.09 inches in Crestmoor during a 24-hour period in January 1967. Winter storms are accompanied by strong southerly windsSan Bruno – San Bruno in 2010 
32. Brisbane, California – Brisbane is a small city located in California in the northern part of San Mateo County on the lower slopes of San Bruno Mountain. It is located on the border of San Francisco, on the northeastern edge of South San Francisco, next to the San Francisco Bay. The population was 4,282 as of the 2010 census, Brisbane is called The City of Stars because of a holiday tradition established over 65 years ago. Many of the stars are kept up all year. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 20.1 square miles, of which 3.1 square miles is land and 17.0 square miles is water. A remnant of San Francisco Bay, the Lagoon was formed by the construction of the U. S. Highway 101 causeway, Brisbane sits at the southeast corner of the Guadalupe Valley. Guadalupe Valley Creek is a creek which flows east through Brisbane along the north flank of San Bruno Mountain. The first recorded inhabitants were the Costanoan Indians and they built dome-shaped dwellings of boughs and tules. By 1776, Spanish explorers had arrived and the Franciscan missionaries soon followed leaving numerous large land grants in their wake, with Mexican rule, the lands controlled by the Mission were released to private enterprise. Visitacion City, as it was known, was platted in 1908 adjacent to a new rail line that had been completed in 1907 to the east of the town site. The Southern Pacific Railroad built the new line to create a faster, the railroad also planned to build extensive terminal facilities just north of the town site. The Visitacion Valley rail yard and locomotive works were expected to employ over 1,000 workers, the town site remained largely undeveloped for many years. The railroad resumed construction of the yard and shops during World War I, the city is served by San Mateo County Libraries. In the 1920s Arthur Annis proposed the change from Visitacion City to Brisbane. Accounts of how the city acquired its name vary, according to his daughter, the city was named for Brisbane, Queensland, perhaps due to the areas resemblance to that port city at the time. Another story holds that it was named for newspaper columnist Arthur Brisbane, in the 1930s, the city was home to several slaughterhouses. Animals kept at the nearby Cow Palace were butchered in Brisbane, the 2010 United States Census reported that Brisbane had a population of 4,282. The population density was 213.3 people per square mileBrisbane, California – Downtown Brisbane
33. Santa Cruz Mountains – The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central and northern California, United States. The range passes through San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, the highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak 3,786 feet, near which is the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum 3,486 feet, Mount Bielawski 3,231 feet, El Sombroso 2,999 feet, Eagle Rock 2,488 feet, Black Mountain 2,800 feet, and Sierra Morena 2,417 feet. The San Andreas Fault runs along or near the line throughout the range. The east side of the mountains drops abruptly towards this fault line especially near Woodside, for much of the length of the range on the San Francisco Peninsula, State Route 35 runs along its ridge, and is known as Skyline Boulevard. The Santa Cruz Mountains have been a legally defined American Viticultural Area since 1981, wine has been produced here since at least the 1840s. The Santa Cruz Mountain AVA has emerged as premier producer of top wines, there are over 30 wineries located in this area. The Santa Cruz Mountains are largely the result of uplift caused by a leftward bend of the San Andreas Fault. The Salinian Block basement rocks are overlain by Miocene rock strata of the Lompico Sandstone, the Vaqueros Sandstone, the Santa Cruz Mountains are a region of large biological diversity, encompassing cool, moist coastal ecosystems as well as warm, dry chaparral. Much of the area in the Santa Cruz mountains is considered temperate rainforest, there do exist several small and isolated stands of old-growth forest, most notably at Henry Cowell Redwoods and Portola Redwoods State Parks and one sizeable old-growth redwood forest at Big Basin. At higher elevations and on sunny south slopes a more drought-resistant chaparral vegetation dominates, manzanita, California scrub oak, chamise, spring wildflowers are also widespread throughout the range. The area welcomes a number of species of birds. Black-tailed deer, a subspecies of deer are common, as are western gray squirrels, chipmunks. Periodic sightings of black bears indicate they frequent the mountains or wander north from Big Sur, foxes, coyotes, bobcats, cougars and human-introduced Virginia opossums also inhabit the region but are rarely seen. Rattlesnakes are also inhabitants, mostly in the high, dry chaparral, the Santa Cruz Mountains have a Mediterranean type climate typical of most of California, with the majority of the annual precipitation falling between November and April. According to the National Weather Service, this more than 50 inches annually. Due to a shadow effect, precipitation on the eastern side of the range is significantly less. Snow falls a few times a year on the highest ridges, no temperature records were kept at these stationsSanta Cruz Mountains – Skyline Blvd runs through the Santa Cruz Mountains, here in Portola Valley.
34. Sea Ranch, California – The Sea Ranch is a planned unincorporated community and census-designated place located in Sonoma County, California, United States. It is a vacation spot. The communitys development played a role in the establishment of the California Coastal Commission, the population was 1,305 at the 2010 census. The Sea Ranch is located along the Pacific Coast, about 100 mi north of San Francisco and 120 mi west of Sacramento, the Sea Ranch is reached by way of State Route 1. About 4 mi northwest of The Sea Ranch is Gualala, a town which supports and is in turn supported by Sea Ranch. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 16.2 square miles,99. 74% of it land and 0. 26% of it water, the 2010 United States Census reported that The Sea Ranch had a population of 1,305. The population density was 80.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of The Sea Ranch was 1,220 White,15 African American,3 Native American,10 Asian,0 Pacific Islander,37 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 117 persons. The Census reported that 100% of the lived in households. There were 27 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 21 same-sex married couples or partnerships,197 households were made up of individuals and 113 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.89, there were 435 families, the average family size was 2.25. The median age was 63.7 years, for every 100 females there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males, there were 1,818 housing units at an average density of 112.4 per square mile, of which 85. 8% were owner-occupied and 14. 2% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3. 4%, the vacancy rate was 38. 8%. 81. 5% of the lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18. 5% lived in rental housing units. In 2000, of the residents in the census tabulation,365 were male and 386 were female, the median age was 61.3 years. Nine residents were aged five years,713 residents were aged 18 years or more. The census categorized 732 as white,8 as black or African American,2 as Asian, the census counted 13 residents as Hispanic or LatinoSea Ranch, California – Panoramic view of The Sea Ranch
35. Nancy Pelosi – Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi is an American politician who is the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, representing Californias 12th congressional district. A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi represents Californias 12th congressional district, the district was numbered as the 5th during Pelosis first three terms in the House, and as the 8th from 1993 to 2013. She served as the House Minority Whip from 2002 to 2003, Pelosi is the first woman, the first Californian and first Italian-American to lead a major party in Congress. On November 17,2010, Pelosi was elected as the Democratic Leader by House Democrats, Pelosi is Italian-American and was born Nancy Patricia DAlesandro in Baltimore, Maryland. She is the youngest of six children of Annunciata M. Nancy, who was born in Campobasso, South Italy, on 25 March 1909, Congressman from Maryland and a Mayor of Baltimore. Pelosis brother, Thomas DAlesandro III, also a Democrat, was mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971, Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age. In her outgoing remarks as the 60th Speaker of the House and she graduated from the Institute of Notre Dame, a Catholic all-girls high school in Baltimore, and from Trinity College in Washington, D. C. in 1962 with a B. A. in political science. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and she met Paul Frank Pelosi while she was attending Trinity College. They married in Baltimore at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen on September 7,1963, after moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics. She became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, in 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996. She was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30,1977, and for the California Democratic Party, Pelosi was appointed Finance Chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, the campaign arm of the U. S. Senate Democrats, in 1985. That same year, she ran to succeed Chuck Manatt as chair of the Democratic National Committee, Pelosi left her post as DSCC finance chair in 1986. Phillip Burton died in 1983 and was succeeded by his wife, in late 1986, Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in 1988. She picked Pelosi as her successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons contacts. Sala died on February 1,1987, just a month after being sworn in for a full term. Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country, Democrats have held the seat since 1949 and Republicans, who currently make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early 1960s. She won the seat in her own right in 1988 and has been reelected 10 more times with no substantive opposition and she has not participated in candidates debates since her 1987 race against Harriet Ross. The strongest challenge Pelosi has faced was in 2008 when anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan polled 16%, in the House, she served on the Appropriations and Intelligence Committees, and was the ranking Democrat on the Intelligence Committee until her election as Minority LeaderNancy Pelosi – Nancy Pelosi
36. Jeff Sessions – Jefferson Beauregard Jeff Sessions III is an American politician and lawyer who is the 84th Attorney General of the United States. Sessions served as the junior United States Senator from Alabama from 1997 until 2017, Sessions was elected Attorney General of Alabama in 1994, and to the U. S. Senate in 1996, being re-elected in 2002,2008, and 2014. During his time in Congress, Sessions was considered one of the most conservative members of the U. S. Senate and he opposed legal and illegal immigration and amnesty and supported expansion of the border fence with Mexico. He supported the legislative efforts of the George W. Bush administration, including the 2001 and 2003 tax cut packages, the Iraq War. He opposed the establishment of the Troubled Asset Relief Program, the 2009 stimulus bill, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, he opposed all three of President Obamas nominees for the Supreme Court. In November 2016, then-President-elect Donald Trump nominated Sessions for US Attorney General and he was confirmed on February 8,2017, with a 52–47 vote in the Senate, and was sworn in on February 9. In his Attorney General confirmation hearings, Sessions said that he did not have contact with Russian officials during the 2016 U. S. presidential campaign, in March 2017, news reports revealed that Sessions had twice met with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak in 2016. Sessions subsequently recused himself from any investigations into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election while some Democratic lawmakers called for his resignation. He was born in Selma, Alabama, on December 24,1946, the son of Jefferson Beauregard Sessions, Jr. and his father owned a general store in Hybart, Alabama, and then a farm equipment dealership. Both of Sessionss parents were of primarily English ancestry, with some Scots-Irish, in 1964, Sessions became an Eagle Scout, and later, he earned the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award for his many years of service. After attending Wilcox County High School in nearby Camden, Sessions studied at Huntingdon College in Montgomery and he was active in the Young Republicans and was student body president. Sessions attended the University of Alabama School of Law and graduated with a J. D. degree in 1973, Sessions entered private practice in Russellville and later in Mobile, where he now lives. He also served in the Army Reserve in the 1970s with the rank of captain, Sessions was an Assistant US Attorney in the Office of the US Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama beginning in 1975. In 1981, President Reagan nominated him to be the US Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama, the Senate confirmed him and he held that position for 12 years until Bill Clintons Attorney General, Janet Reno, asked for his resignation. Sessionss office filed civil charges in the 1981 killing of Michael Donald. Sessionss office did not prosecute the case, but both men were arrested and convicted, the prosecution stirred charges of selective prosecution of black voter registration. The defendants, known as the Marion Three, were acquitted of all charges by a jury after three hours of deliberation, interviewed in 2009, Sessions said he remained convinced that he did the right thing, but admitted he failed to make the case. In 1986, Reagan nominated Sessions to be a judge of the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Alabama, Sessionss judicial nomination was recommended and actively backed by Republican Alabama Senator Jeremiah DentonJeff Sessions – Jeff Sessions
37. Bay Area Rapid Transit – Bay Area Rapid Transit is a public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The rapid transit elevated and subway system connects San Francisco with cities in Alameda, Contra Costa, BART operates 5 routes on 104 miles of track connecting 45 stations, plus a 3. 2-mile automated guideway transit line to the Oakland International Airport which adds an additional station. A spur line in eastern Contra Costa County will utilize other rail technologies, with an average of 433,000 weekday passengers and 128.5 million annual passengers in fiscal year 2016, BART is the fifth-busiest heavy rail rapid transit system in the United States. The systems acronym is pronounced Bart, like the name, BART is operated by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, formed in 1957. As of 2017, it is being expanded to San Jose with the consecutive Warm Springs, some of the Bay Area Rapid Transit Systems current coverage area was once served by an electrified streetcar and suburban train system called the Key System. This early 20th-century system once had regular trans-bay traffic across the deck of the Bay Bridge. By the mid-1950s, that system had been dismantled in favor of highway travel, a new rapid-transit system was proposed to take the place of the Key System during the late 1940s, and formal planning for it began in the 1950s. Some funding was secured for the BART system in 1959, passenger service began on September 11,1972, initially just between MacArthur and Fremont. All nine Bay Area counties were involved in the planning and envisioned to be connected by BART, before the system began revenue service, serious problems in the design and operation of the Automatic Train Control system were observed. Three engineers working for BART, Max Blankenzee, Robert Bruder, BART management was dismissive of their concerns, so the three took the issue to the board of directors. All but two of the directors voted in February 1972 to support management and reject the safety concerns, management retaliated against the engineers, firing them in March 1972. The IEEE later filed the first amicus brief in its history to support the engineers. The California Society of Professional Engineers reported to the California State Senate in June 1972 that there were serious safety risks with the ATC. Legislative analyst A. Alan Post, opened an investigation immediately, an ATC failure caused the train to run off the end of the elevated track and crash to the ground, injuring four people on-board, and drawing national and international attention. The “Fremont Flyer” led to a redesign of the train controls. The California State Public Utilities Commission imposed stringent oversight over train operations, the legislative analyst issued the first of three “Post Reports” in November 1972. The report was “sharply critical” of BART, finding that the ATC system was unreliable, the ATC program was mismanaged, and “no solution was in sight. ”The report accused BART of paying excessive fees for engineering services. BART’s general manager called the indictment of safety in the Post Report “not only disappointing, telephone calls were placed manually between stations, insteadBay Area Rapid Transit – A Pittsburg / Bay Point bound train at Walnut Creek in July 2008.
38. Fremont, California – Fremont is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. It was incorporated on January 23,1956, from the merger of five communities, Centerville, Niles, Irvington, Mission San Jose. The city is named after American explorer John Charles Frémont, located in the southeast section of the San Francisco Bay Area in the East Bay region primarily, Fremont has a population of around 230,000. It is the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, and it is the closest East Bay city to Silicon Valley, and is thus sometimes associated with it. The area consisting of Fremont, Newark, and Union City, is now known as the Tri-City Area, Fremont is home to the largest population of Afghan Americans in the United States. The recorded history of the Fremont area began on June 6,1795, the Mission was established at the site of the Ohlone village of Oroysom. On their second day in the area, the Mission party killed a bear in Niles Canyon. The first English-speaking visitor to Fremont was the renowned trapper and explorer Jedediah Smith in 1827, the Mission prospered, eventually reaching a population of 1,887 inhabitants in 1831. The influence of the missionaries declined after 1834, when the Mexican government enacted secularization, José de Jesus Vallejo, brother of Mariano Vallejo, was the grantee of the Rancho Arroyo de la Alameda Mexican land grant. His family was influential in the Fremont area in the colonial era. In 1846 they were visited by the towns namesake John C, Frémont, who mapped a trail through Mission Pass to provide access for American settlers into the southeastern San Francisco Bay Area. The Fremont area grew rapidly at the time of the California Gold Rush, a town called Mission San Jose grew up around the old mission, with its own post office from 1850. Agriculture dominated the economy with grapes, nursery plants and olives as leading crops, in 1868 the 6. 8-magnitude Hayward earthquake on the Hayward Fault collapsed buildings throughout the Fremont area, ruining Mission San José and its outbuildings. Until the 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused its destruction, the Fremont areas Palmdale Winery was the largest in California, the ruins of the Palmdale Winery are still visible near the Five Corners in Irvington. From 1912 to 1915 the Niles section of the Fremont area was the earliest home of Californias motion picture industry, Charlie Chaplin filmed several movies in the Fremont area, most notably The Tramp. Fremont was incorporated under the leadership of Wally Pond in 1956, when the Glenmoor Gardens Homeowners Association was incorporated, in March 1953, there were no more than 75 houses in the subdivision. It was probably the first such organization in the Fremont area, in its scope, the five-member board of directors was set up to oversee a full range of services, from police and fire protection to street maintenance. Fremont became more industrialized between 1953 and 1962, a boom in high-tech employment in the 1980s to the late 1990s, especially in the Warm Springs District, caused rapid development in the city and linked the city with the Silicon ValleyFremont, California – A view of Mission Peak from Fremont Central Park
39. National Football League – The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four professional sports leagues in North America. The NFLs 17-week regular season runs from the week after Labor Day to the week after Christmas, with each team playing 16 games, the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, and the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season, the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. S. The NFLs executive officer is the commissioner, who has authority in governing the league. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen, the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Atlanta Falcons 34–28 in Super Bowl LI. Another meeting held on September 17,1920 resulted in the renaming of the league to the American Professional Football Association, the league hired Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of 14 teams. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain, the first event occurred on September 26,1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3,1920, the first full week of league play occurred, the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans. In 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League, in 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. This method had used since the leagues creation in 1920. The league quickly determined that a game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the leagues champion. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, the 1934 season also marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure, the NFL was always the foremost professional football league in the United States, it nevertheless faced a large number of rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues and the All-America Football Conference, on top of regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these leagues, including the Los Angeles RamsNational Football League – The headquarters of the National Football League at 345 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
40. Oakland Raiders – The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders currently compete in the NFL as a club of the leagues American Football Conference West division. At the end of the NFLs 2015 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime record of 444 wins,397 losses. The Raiders plan to remain in Oakland through 2018 – and possibly 2019 –, the Raiders off-field fortunes have varied considerably over the years. The teams first three years of operation were marred by poor performance, financial difficulties, and spotty attendance. In 1963, however, the Raiders fortunes improved dramatically with the introduction of head coach Al Davis, in 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time. The team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year, in doing so, the Raiders advanced to Super Bowl II, the Raiders run of success intensified during the 1970s. From 1970 to 1977, the team won six division titles, in 1976, the team captured its first NFL Championship with a convincing victory over the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl XI. In 1982, amidst much controversy, the Raiders relocated to Los Angeles, the team finished with the NFLs best regular season record that year, one year later, the Raiders beat the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII to capture their third Super Bowl championship. The Raiders fortunes declined following the 1985 season, they would win just one division title. In 1995, the Raiders returned to Oakland, after several years of continued mediocrity, the team entered a brief period of pronounced success in the early 2000s. From 2000 to 2002, the Raiders won three division titles and four playoff games, their renaissance culminated with a lopsided 2002 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in Super Bowl XXXVII. The Super Bowl loss marked the beginning of a period of futility for the Raiders, from 2003 through 2015. In 2016, the Raiders finally ended their postseason drought with a victory over the division rival San Diego Chargers. At the end of the 2016 NFL season, the finished with a 12–4 record. The Raiders are known for their fan base and distinctive team culture. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, fourteen former members of the team have been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Having enjoyed a successful coaching career at Navy during the 1950sOakland Raiders – John Madden (right, shown with Senator Susan Collins) was head coach of the Raiders for 10 seasons. Madden's overall winning percentage including playoff games ranks second in league history. He won a Super Bowl and never had a losing season as a head coach.
41. Libby Schaaf – Elizabeth Beckman Libby Schaaf is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party. She is the mayor of Oakland, California and a member of the Oakland City Council. Schaaf won the November 4,2014, Oakland mayoral election in the 14th round in ranked choice voting with 62. 79% of the vote, before starting her political career, Schaaf was an attorney at the largest firm in Oakland at the time, Reed Smith LLP. She then became the director for the Marcus A. Foster Educational Institute in 1995. In 2009, Schaaf graduated from Emerge California, a training program for women who aspire to seek elected office. Before joining the Oakland City Council in 2010, Schaaf served as the Economic Policy Advisor for the council for a year, in 2010, Schaaf was elected to represent her home district, District 4, on the Oakland City Council. Schaaf also strove to increase government transparency and efficiency, build a safer city and she worked extensively on Oakland Police Department reform, hiring more civilian staff and pushing through a plan to unite both the Alameda and Oakland Police Departments. In the race for Oakland mayor, Schaaf was endorsed by Governor of California Jerry Brown, in June 2015, Mayor Schaaf announced the formation of Oakland’s first Department of Transportation. The Department of Transportation assumed some responsibilities formerly held by Oakland Public Works, such as design, resurfacing. In her announcement, Mayor Schaaf said that the focus will be on, “sustainable strategies that can bring needed change quickly to city streets. ”The Department of Transportation consists of 300 employees, previously working in the Department of Public Works and Oakland Police Departments Parking Enforcement operations. Funding for the Department of Transportation came from public resources, including Measure BB. Schaaf hired Matt Nichols as her Policy Director for Transportation and Infrastructure in March 2015, jeff Tumlin was named Interim Director of the department in June 2016. In May 2015, Mayor Schaaf instituted a ban on nighttime marches without permits in public roadways in Oakland, citing existing city policies. The first enforcement of this ban was on May 21, during a #SayHerName march, demonstrators met at Frank Ogawa Plaza before sunset for a rally. After the rally, demonstrators began to march onto the street, Police officers told them to keep to the sidewalks, and cited California Vehicle Code Section 2800, making it an arrestable offense not to comply with the police order. This was an interference with the demonstration given that there had been no serious crimes committed. Other legal experts pointed to similar policies in cities like New York, Schaaf was born in Oakland, California, on November 12,1965. Growing up in Oaklands District 4, Schaaf attended Head-Royce School and Skyline High School and she holds a B. A. in political science from Rollins College and a J. D. from Loyola Law SchoolLibby Schaaf – Oakland City Council member and Mayor-Elect Libby Schaaf commemorating the centennial of women gaining the right to vote in California.
42. Burlingame, California – Burlingame is a city in San Mateo County, California. It is located on the San Francisco Peninsula and has a significant shoreline on San Francisco Bay, the city is named after diplomat Anson Burlingame and is often referred to as the City of Trees due to the number of trees within the city and its numerous eucalyptus groves. Burlingame is known for its high quality of life with a walkable downtown area. The current median value in Burlingame is $1. 8M+ and as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Burlingame is situated on land owned by San Francisco-based merchant William Davis Merry Howard. Howard planted many trees on his property and retired to live on the land. Howard died in 1856 and the land was sold to William C, in 1868, Ralston named the land after his friend, Anson Burlingame, the United States Ambassador to China. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, hundreds of lots in Burlingame were sold to people looking to new homes. In 1910, the town of Easton was annexed and this area is now known as the Easton Addition neighborhood of Burlingame. City of Trees Burlingame is known as the City of Trees due to the number of trees within the city, in 1908, the Burlingame board of trustees passed an ordinance prohibiting cutting, injuring, or destroying trees. The city also has parks and Eucalyptus groves that add to the overall tree numbers. There are four highways passing through Burlingame, highway 101 runs near the bay running from San Jose to San Francisco. Highway 82, also known as El Camino Real, follows a parallel course, highway 35 connects with Interstate 280. Caltrain has been serving Burlingame since 1985 when it bought out Southern Pacific and it used the same depot that was used in the early 20th century. Bay Area Rapid Transit has its stop in Millbrae, just north of Burlingame. BARTs tracks are within Burlingame city limits, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles. 4.4 square miles of it is land and 1.7 square miles of it is water and this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Burlingame has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, the 2010 United States Census reported that Burlingame had a population of 28,806Burlingame, California – Burlingame Avenue
43. William H. Orrick III – William Horsley Orrick III is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. He formerly served as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division of the United States Department of Justice, Orrick was born in San Francisco, California on May 15,1953. He received his Bachelor of Arts cum laude, from Yale University in 1976 and he received his Juris Doctor cum laude, from Boston College Law School in 1979. After graduating, he worked for the Georgia Legal Services Program from 1979 to 1984 and he joined the San Francisco law firm of Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass LLP in 1984 and continued there for twenty five years, becoming a partner in 1988. From June 2009 to June 2010, he served as counselor to the Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division of the United States Department of Justice, from 2010 to 2012, he served as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division. He briefly rejoined Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass LLP as special counsel, breyer, who took senior status on December 31,2011. The Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on his nomination on July 11,2012, on January 2,2013, his nomination was returned to the President, due to the adjournment sine die of the Senate. On January 3,2013, he was renominated to the same office. His nomination was reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee on February 28,2013, by a vote of 11 ayes to 7 nays, mostly party lines. The U. S. Senate confirmed his nomination on May 15,2013 and he received his commission on May 16,2013. On Friday, July 31,2015 Judge Orrick blocked the release of videos of Planned Parenthood, william H. Orrick III at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial CenterWilliam H. Orrick III – William Orrick
44. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is the 45th and current President of the United States. Prior to entering politics he was a businessman and television personality, Trump was born and raised in Queens, New York City, and earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He then took charge of The Trump Organization, the estate and construction firm founded by his paternal grandmother, which he ran for four. During his real career, Trump has built, renovated, and managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos. Besides real estate, he started several ventures and has lent the use of his name for the branding of various products. He owned the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he hosted The Apprentice, as of 2017, Forbes listed him as the 544th wealthiest person in the world with a net worth of $3.5 billion. Trump first publicly expressed interest in running for office in 1987. He won two Reform Party presidential primaries in 2000, but withdrew his candidacy early on, in June 2015, he launched his campaign for the 2016 presidential election and quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 candidates in the Republican primaries. His final opponents suspended their campaigns in May 2016, and in July he was nominated at the Republican National Convention along with Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate. His campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention, many of the statements he made at rallies, in interviews, or on social media were controversial or false. Trump won the election on November 8,2016, in a surprise victory against Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. His political positions have been described by scholars and commentators as populist, protectionist, Trump was born on June 14,1946 at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Queens, New York City. He was the fourth of five born to Frederick Christ Fred Trump. His siblings are Maryanne, Fred Jr. Elizabeth, and Robert, Trumps ancestors originated from the village of Kallstadt, Palatinate, Germany on his fathers side, and from the Outer Hebrides isles of Scotland on his mothers side. All his grandparents, and his mother, were born in Europe and his mothers grandfather was also christened Donald. On a visit to his village, he met Elisabeth Christ. He died from the flu pandemic of 1918 and Elizabeth incorporated the family real estate business, Elizabeth Trump and Son, which would later become The Trump Organization. Trumps father Fred was born in the Bronx, and worked with his mother since he was 15 as a real estate developer, primarily in the New York boroughs of Queens and he eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks and apartmentsDonald Trump – Donald Trump
45. Digital Equipment Corporation – Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a vendor of computer systems, including computers, software. Their PDP and successor VAX products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales, DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence, however, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002, as of 2007 some of DECs product lines were still produced under the HP name. From 1957 until 1992, DECs headquarters were located in a wool mill in Maynard. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. Some parts of DEC, notably the business and the Hudson. Initially focusing on the end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them. Their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s, especially the PDP-8, looking to simplify and update their line, DEC replaced most of their smaller machines with the PDP-11 in 1970, eventually selling over 600,000 units and cementing DECs position in the industry. Originally designed as a follow-on to the PDP-11, DECs VAX-11 series was the first widely used 32-bit minicomputer and these systems were able to compete in many roles with larger mainframe computers, such as the IBM System/370. The VAX was a best-seller, with over 400,000 sold, at its peak, DEC was the second largest employer in Massachusetts, second only to the Massachusetts State Government. The rapid rise of the business microcomputer in the late 1980s, DECs last major attempt to find a space in the rapidly changing market was the DEC Alpha 64-bit RISC instruction set architecture. DEC initially started work on Alpha as a way to re-implement their VAX series, DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence, however, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002, as of 2007 some of DECs product lines were still produced under the HP nameDigital Equipment Corporation – DEC was headquartered at a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts, from 1957 until 1992
46. DEC Systems Research Center – The Systems Research Center was a research laboratory created by Digital Equipment Corporation in 1984, in Palo Alto, California. DEC SRC was founded by a group of scientists, led by Robert Taylor. SRC survived the takeover of DEC by Compaq in 1998 and it was renamed to Compaq Systems Research Center. When Compaq was acquired by Hewlett-Packard in 2002, SRC was merged with other HP corporate research labs, after Taylors retirement, the lab was directed by Roy Levin and then by Lyle Ramshaw. Among the researchers at SRC, there are Butler Lampson, Chuck Thacker, a later inhabitant of this building is A9. com, a research part of Amazon. com. Archive of original site) HP SRC Classic Lab Firefly workstationDEC Systems Research Center – Former location of DEC SRC in Palo Alto, CA.
47. Palo Alto, California – Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The city shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Stanford, Portola Valley and it is named after a coast redwood tree called El Palo Alto. Palo Alto was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son and it has also served as an incubator to several other high-technology companies such as Google, Facebook, Logitech, Intuit, Pinterest, and PayPal. As of the 2010 census, the total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the most expensive cities in the United States, the recorded history of Palo Alto dates back to 1769, when Gaspar de Portolá noted an Ohlone settlement. This remains an area of known Indian mounds, a plaque at Middlefield Road and Embarcadero Road commemorates the area. The city got its name from a tall coast redwood tree, named El Palo Alto, a plaque there recounts the story of the Portolà expedition, a 63-man, 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey from November 7–11,1769. The group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, they ascended Sweeney Ridge, thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never becoming aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. Located south of the San Francisquito Creek, west of todays I-280, in 1835, Rafael Soto and family settled near the San Francisquito Creek near Newell and Middlefield, selling goods to travelers. Rafael Soto died in 1839, but his wife, Maria Antonia Mesa, was granted Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito in 1841, in 1839, their daughter María Luisa Soto married John Coppinger, who was the grantee of Rancho Cañada de Raymundo. Rancho Cañada de Raymundo was West of San Francisquito Creek, and began at Alambique Creek, the border of Rancho Corte de Madera. Bear Gulch Creek flowed on his land in Portola Valley, the rancho also abutted Buelnas grant near Skyline Boulevard and Matadero Creek. Upon Coppingers death, Maria inherited it and later married a visiting boat captain, Greer owned a home on the site that is now Town & Country Village on Embarcadero and El Camino Real. Greer Avenue and Court are named for him, to the west of Rafael Soto, near El Camino and following the Creek, was Rancho San Francisquito granted in 1839 to Antonio Buelna and wife Maria Concepcion. To the south of the Sotos, the brothers Secundino and Teodoro Robles in 1849 bought Rancho Rincon de San Francisquito from José Peña, where the Joness house was, then east down Arastradero Rd. to the north property line of Alta Mesa Memorial Park and Terman Park. The property then went along the bay to the Embarcadero, a boundary in the day, then up to the Stanford University gates, up Galvez. The grant was bounded on the south by Mariano Castros Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas grant across San Antonio Road, thats the Robles Rancho, about 80% of Palo Alto and Stanford University. It was whittled down by 1863 through courts to 6,981 acres, stories say their grand hacienda was built on the former meager adobe of José Peña near Ferne off San Antonio Road, midway between Middlefield and Alma StreetPalo Alto, California – Palo Alto
48. Woodside, California – Woodside is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, United States, on the San Francisco Peninsula. It has a system of government. The population of the town was 5,287 at the 2010 census, Woodside is home to many horses and is among the wealthiest communities in the United States. The median household income in the town is $212,917, the Woodside area was originally home to natives belonging to the Ohlone tribe. In 1769, led by Gaspar de Portolá, Spanish explorers searching for San Francisco Bay camped at a site near Woodside, Woodside is located on the Rancho Cañada de Raymundo Mexican Land grant. Woodside is said to be the oldest English-speaking settlement in the part of the San Francisco Peninsula. The first English-speaking settlers arrived in the early 19th century to log the rich stands of redwoods, charles Brown constructed the first sawmill in Woodside on his Mountain Home Ranch around 1838. His adobe house, built in 1839, still stands today, by mid-century, the Woodside area had a dozen mills producing building materials for a booming San Francisco. In 1849, during the California Gold Rush, 20-year-old Mathias Alfred Parkhurst purchased 127 acres of timberland and named it “Woodside, of course, by the late 19th century, Woodside was home to country estates. The Sequoia Redwood trees in Woodside are currently 3 generation growth, the first generation of the Redwood trees were used to build San Francisco original homes. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the returned to Woodside to cut the second growth of redwood so they could be used for the rebuilding of San Francisco. In 1909, the Family, a club, set up camp facilities and rustic buildings in Woodside at the Family Farm. Gatherings at the Family Farm include an annual Farm Play, written, in 1912, the Family pooled funds to build Our Lady of the Wayside Church in Portola Valley, designed by 19-year-old Timothy L. Pflueger, his first commission. The historic building was repaired at a cost of US$600,000 after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Woodside was incorporated in 1956 to prevent urbanization, and it still retains a rural residential character, though it is a short commute to Silicon Valley. Today, Woodside is among the wealthiest small towns in the United States, outside of the business district are the Stillheart Institute educational event center, Skywood Trading Post and the Mountain Terrace event center. Horses are part of the local culture, numerous residents keep horses, and the town government maintains a network of horse trails. Some residents homes are even considered farms, the town is also popular among local cyclists and draws them in large numbers on weekends. The most popular road cycling routes include Old La Honda Road, Kings Mountain Road, Cañada Road, Southgate Drive, Skyline Boulevard, the Tour of California bicycle race includes several roads along and adjacent to CA-84 and Skyline BoulevardWoodside, California – Downtown Woodside business district on Woodside Road
49. Bebe Stores – Bebe Stores, Inc is a womens retail clothier established in 1976. The brand develops and produces a line of apparel and accessories, which it markets under the Bebe, BebeSport. The company operates 312 stores, of which 215 are Bebe stores,32 are 2b Bebe stores,64 are BebeSport stores and these stores are located in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Canada. Bebe also has a division in Lebanon, Kuwait, Egypt, Israel, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Turkey. Mashouf owns approximately 55% of the company, in March 2017, bebe announced that it will close all stores in 2017, and become an online-only retailer. Founder Manny Mashouf came up with the name after a conversation that was had at a party he attended in San Francisco during the 1970s shortly before he established the brand, Bebe, the first store was opened in San Francisco in 1976. BebeSport, the company launched BebeSport in year 2003 to focus on active lifestyle via sportswear, tops, sweaters, outerwear, in 2009, BebeSport stores were converted to PH8 with BebeSport product now sold in Bebe and 2b Bebe stores. PH8, The company converted BebeSport stores to PH8 stores in November 2009, PH8 offers casual weekend apparel, work-out attire and accessories such as bags, shoes and seasonal items. 2b Bebe, Bebes outlet division provide clearance merchandise, Bebe logo merchandise, as of 2012, Bebe has launched a bridal wear line available in stores throughout United States. Additional bridal salons were under consideration however the venture was abandoned due to poor sales. The bridal wear line debuted with a designed by Project Runway runner up Rami Kashou. To further brand exposure, the company signs celebrities for ad campaigns, brenda Song was the face of Bebes 2007 ad campaign. The company signed actresses Rebecca Romijn as the face of Bebe from Spring 2007 through Spring 2008, mischa Barton was the face of Bebes 2006 ad campaign. In 2007, Bebe selected advertising agency MD70, with Creative Direction by Fredrik Peterhoff to produce Bebe Holiday and Spring 2009, Bebe Sports and Bebe Accessories Spring 2009 campaign. Photographed by Camilla Åkrans, styled by Julia von Boehm and shot in Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, the Bebe Spring campaign features model Anne Marie van Dijk. The spring campaign appeared in the February and March titles of Vogue, Elle, Cosmopolitan, and Glamour, as well as billboards and phone kiosks in New York, Los Angeles, a campaign video will run in stores and online at Bebe Video YouTube channel. Bebe has semi-annual collection preview events where clients are invited to preview the latest collections at bebe stores, additionally, the company partners with national and regional magazines to host events benefiting non-profit organizations. The company designs and develops the majority of merchandise in-house with outsourced manufacturing, on August 9,2010, Emilia Fabricant became president of Bebe StoresBebe Stores – Bebe stores headquarters in Brisbane
50. Weed Day – 420,4,20, or 4/20 is a code-term that refers to the consumption of cannabis, especially smoking cannabis around the time 4,20 p. m. /a. m. and smoking and celebrating cannabis on the date April 20. The Waldos designated the Louis Pasteur statue on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, the Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase 4,20 Louis. Several failed attempts to find the crop eventually shortened their phrase to simply 4,20, hager wrote Stoner Smart or Stoner Stupid. in which he called for 4,20 p. m. to be the socially accepted hour of the day to consume cannabis. He attributes the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers, April 20 has become a counterculture holiday in North America, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. Some events have a nature to them, advocating for the legalization of cannabis. Events have also occurred in London, United Kingdom, in Hyde Park, snapchat has a 420 face filter option on April 20. The filter shall show the text 420 on April 20 and this filter disappears the day after April 20. Signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen, in Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery. The Idaho Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on U. S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur dAlene and that marker was eventually stolen as well, leading ITD to just post the marker with spray paint on the pavement. In Goodhue County, Minnesota, officials have changed 420 St street signs to 42x St, in 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420Weed Day – Statue of Louis Pasteur at San Rafael High School, said to be the site of the original 4:20 gatherings.
51. Cleveland Cavaliers – The Cleveland Cavaliers, also known as the Cavs, are an American professional basketball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Cavs compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the leagues Eastern Conference Central Division, the team began play in 1970. Many past and present top NBA players, including LeBron James, Mark Price, Brad Daugherty, the franchise has won five Central Division championships, three Eastern Conference championships, one NBA championship, and have reached the playoffs 20 times in their 46-year history. The 2016 NBA Finals victory over the Golden State Warriors marked the first time in Finals history a team had come back to win the series after trailing three games to one, the Cavaliers began play in 1970 as an expansion team. Their 46-year history has been marked by stretches of strong play and periods of poor play. In the 1970s, under the ownership of Nick Mileti, the team won its first division title in 1976 and they won Game 7, 87–85, on a shot by Snyder with four seconds to go. Injuries, particularly an ankle injury to Chones, led to this teams demise, as the Cavaliers would lose the Eastern Conference Finals to the Boston Celtics, 4–2. It is widely believed among both Cavaliers fans and players that the Miracle team would have won the 1976 NBA Championship had Chones stayed healthy, the remainder of the 1970s were marked by early playoff losses and eventually Fitchs resignation. The early 1980s were marked by Ted Stepiens ownership, Stepien also oversaw the hiring and firing of a succession of coaches and was involved in making a number of poor trade and free agent signing decisions. The ensuing chaos had an effect on both the Cavaliers on-court performance and lack of local support, losing over 50 games in three straight years. The 1981–82 and 1982–83 combined to lose 24 straight games, which at the time was the NBAs all-time longest losing streak, george and Gordon Gund purchased the Cavaliers from Stepien in 1983. The team was in a transition as they went through nine head coaches from 1980 to 1986, during the 1986 offseason, the Cavaliers acquired Brad Daugherty, Mark Price, Ron Harper and Larry Nance. The Cavaliers entered into a period of decline from the mid-1990s through the early 2000s, the team appeared in the playoffs the next two years, but could not get past the first round. In the 1997 off-season, the team added Shawn Kemp and Wesley Person, as well as a class that included Derek Anderson, Cedric Henderson, Žydrūnas Ilgauskas. This team lost in the first round of the playoffs in 1998, in the early 2000s, the team added Andre Miller, Lamond Murray, Chris Mihm and Carlos Boozer, but could not make it to the playoffs. The 2002–03 season saw the Cavaliers finish 17–65, tied for the worst record in the NBA, the Cavaliers luck changed as they landed the number 1 pick in the 2003 NBA draft. With it, the team selected heralded forward and future NBA MVP LeBron James, in 2005, the team would be sold to businessman Dan Gilbert. That year, the team also hired head coach Mike Brown, over the next few years, the Cavaliers built a team around James and Žydrūnas Ilgauskas by adding players including Drew Gooden, Larry Hughes, and Anderson VarajaoCleveland Cavaliers – Austin Carr —the first overall pick in the 1971 NBA draft, a 1974 NBA All-Star, and longtime TV color analyst for the Cavs
52. Bill Russell – William Felton Bill Russell is an American retired professional basketball player. Russell played center for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association from 1956 to 1969, a five-time NBA Most Valuable Player and a twelve-time All-Star, he was the centerpiece of the Celtics dynasty, winning eleven NBA championships during his thirteen-year career. Along with Henri Richard of the National Hockey Leagues Montreal Canadiens, before his professional career, Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships. He also won a medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics as captain of the U. S. national basketball team. Russell is widely considered one of the best players in NBA history and he was listed as between 6 ft 9 in and 6 ft 10 in, and his shot-blocking and man-to-man defense were major reasons for the Celtics success. He also inspired his teammates to elevate their own defensive play, Russell was equally notable for his rebounding abilities. He led the NBA in rebounds four times, had a dozen consecutive seasons of 1,000 or more rebounds and he is one of just two NBA players to have grabbed more than 50 rebounds in a game. Though never the point of the Celtics offense, Russell also scored 14,522 career points. Playing in the wake of pioneers like Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and he also served a three-season stint as player-coach for the Celtics, becoming the first African American NBA coach. For his accomplishments in the Civil Rights Movement on and off the court, Russell is one of only seven players in history to win an NCAA Championship, an NBA Championship, and an Olympic gold medal. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, in 2007 he was enshrined in the FIBA Hall of Fame. In Russells honor the NBA renamed the NBA Finals Most Valuable Player trophy in 2009, Bill Russell was born to Charles Russell and Katie Russell in West Monroe, Louisiana. Like almost all towns and cities of that time, West Monroe was a highly segregated place. Once, Russells father was refused service at a gas station until the staff had taken care of all the white customers. When his father attempted to leave and find a different station, at another time, Russells mother was walking outside in a fancy dress when a policeman accosted her. He told her to go home and remove the dress, which he described as white womans clothing, while there the family fell into poverty, and Russell spent his childhood living in a series of public housing projects. Charles Russell is described as a stern, hard man who was initially a janitor in a paper factory, being closer to his mother Katie than to his father, Russell received a major emotional blow when she suddenly died when he was 12. His father gave up his job and became a steel worker to be closer to his semi-orphaned childrenBill Russell – Russell in February 2011
53. Tesla Factory – The Tesla Factory is an automobile manufacturing plant in south Fremont, California, and the principal production facility of Tesla, Inc. The facility was known as New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. a joint venture between General Motors and Toyota. The plant is located in the East Industrial area of Fremont between Interstates 880 and 680, and employed around 6,000 people in June 2016, Tesla had planned for an assembly factory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as a central location for shipping. Construction was supposed to begin in April 2007, but was canceled, a separate greenfield factory to be built in San Jose, California was also announced. However, the cost was prohibitive, and the company looked for alternatives, the plant is located in the South Fremont District between the Warm Springs BART station and the California State Route 262 connecting I880 and I680. Union Pacific Railroad has tracks at the plant delivering finished cars, rail freight transport is also to be used to receive batteries from Gigafactory 1. This included Teslas partial purchase of the former NUMMI site, mainly consisting of the factory building, Tesla officially took possession of the site on October 19,2010, and opened it on October 27. The state of California has supported the renewal, expecting tax income from sustained jobs, the first retail delivery of the Tesla Model S took place during a special event held at the Tesla Factory on June 22,2012. Much of the 370-acre site was unused in 2013, with most activity concentrated in the 5,500, there were 4,500 parking spaces in 2016. Over $17 million of manufacturing equipment and spare parts were acquired from NUMMI and Toyota in 2011, various parts of the NUMMI plant were planned to be modified to support Tesla vehicle production. For example, the passenger vehicle paint equipment was to be modified through late 2011. Two paint lines were constructed from 2015, the floors, walls and ceiling are painted white with skylights and high-efficiency lighting to create an environment similar to a laboratory. Tesla is building a casting foundry in Lathrop supporting the Fremont production, Tesla started production with 1,000 workers. By 2013, this had risen to 3,000, the plants first series production vehicle is the Tesla Model S full-sized battery electric sedan. In 2011, Tesla transitioned from hand-assembled alpha builds to beta builds and these cars would also be used for system integration, engineering testing, and federal crash-testing and certification. Tesla expected to produce about 5,000 Model S sedans in 2012, the first retail delivery of the Model S took place during a special event held at the Tesla Factory on June 22,2012. Production grew from 15–20 cars completed/week in August 2012 to over 200 by November 5 and 400 by late December, in late December Tesla revised their 2012 delivery projections down to 2,500 cars. Deliveries reached 6,892 units in the last three months of 2013, in December 2013, California announced it would give Tesla a US$34.7 million tax break to expand production by an estimated 35,000 vehicles annually from its Fremont, California plantTesla Factory – The former NUMMI (now Tesla) plant in Fremont, California
54. 1964 Republican National Convention – The 1964 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States took place in the Cow Palace, Daly City, California, on July 13 to July 16,1964. Before 1964, there had only one national Republican convention on the West Coast, the 1956 Republican National Convention. Many believed that a convention at San Francisco indicated the power of the Republican party in the west. The Republican primaries of 1964 featured liberal Nelson Rockefeller of New York, an anti-Goldwater organization called for the nomination of Governor William Scranton of Pennsylvania, but the effort failed. Although former President Dwight Eisenhower only reluctantly supported Goldwater after he won the nomination, by the end of the primaries, Goldwaters nomination was secure. Senator Margaret Chase Smiths name was entered for nomination at the Convention and it was the only Republican convention between 1948 and 2008 that failed to feature Richard Nixon, Bob Dole or a Bush on the ticket. The Republican National Convention of 1964 was a tension-filled contest, Goldwaters conservatives were openly clashing with Rockefellers moderates. Goldwater was regarded as the leading spokesman. As a result, Goldwater was not as popular with the moderates, when Rockefeller attempted to deliver a speech, he was booed by the conventions conservative delegates, who regarded him as a member of the eastern liberal establishment. Despite the infighting, Goldwater was easily nominated and he chose William E. Miller, a Congressman from New York, as his running mate. In his acceptance speech, he declared communism as a disturber of the peace in the world today and said. And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue, some people, including those within his own campaign staff, believed this weakened Goldwaters chances, as he effectively severed ties with the moderates and liberals of the Republican Party. According to Emmy award-winning television journalist, Belva Davis, she, Goldwater stated that he chose Miller to be his running mate simply because he drives Johnson nuts with his Republican activism. But by some accounts, Johnson was barely aware of Millers existence. Millers Eastern roots and Catholic faith balanced the ticket in some ways and his relative obscurity—he was better known for snipes at President Kennedy than for anything else—gave birth to the refrain Heres a riddle, its a killer / Who the hell is William Miller. He was replaced as Chairman of the RNC by Dean Burch, Republican Party platform of 1964 at The American Presidency Project Goldwater acceptance speech at The American Presidency Project 1964 Republican National Convention at Smithsonian Magazine1964 Republican National Convention – Nominees Goldwater and Miller
55. Christmas flood of 1964 – The Christmas flood of 1964 was a major flood in the Pacific Northwest and some of Northern California between December 18,1964, and January 7,1965, spanning the Christmas holiday. It also affected parts of southwest Washington, Idaho, and Nevada, in Oregon,17 or 18 people died as a result of the disaster, and it caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damage. The flooding on the Willamette covered 152,789 acres, the National Weather Service rated the flood as the fifth most destructive weather event in Oregon in the 20th century. California Governor Pat Brown was quoted as saying that a flood of similar proportions could happen once in 1,000 years. An atypical cold spell began in Oregon on December 13,1964, that froze the soil, subsequently, a Pineapple Express storm brought persistent, heavy, warm rain. The temperature increased by 30 to 40 °F and this melted the snow, but left the soil frozen and impermeable. Some places received the equivalent of a rain in just a few days. Albany received 13 inches of rain in December, almost double its average December rainfall of 7 inches, detroit recorded an extra 18 inches of rain, and at Crater Lake, where the average normal December rainfall is 12 inches, there was over 38 inches of rain. As rivers and streams overflowed and the soil saturated, mudslides occurred, roads closed. By the end of the flood, every river in Oregon was above flood stage, heavy warm rain and melting snow caused more flooding in late January 1965, after the waters had begun to recede from the December flood. More mudslides occurred in places that had withstood the December flooding, many streams in the northern San Joaquin Valley reached higher flows than they had in December. Some of the worst mudslides occurred in the Mount Hood Corridor, other deaths occurred from drowning and electrocution, and one man died when the new John Day bridge collapsed. The bridge between Newberg and St. Paul and the road between Newberg and Wilsonville were closed, trapping hundreds of people, on the Oregon Coast, downtown Reedsport was flooded with 8 feet of water, and in Coos Bay, a massive logjam contributed to severe flooding. The ports at Gold Beach and Brookings were destroyed, at Oregon City, Willamette Falls was unrecognizable as a waterfall, and the city was flooded by several feet of water. In Portland, the deck of the Steel Bridge was underwater and had also been hit by a log raft consisting of around 1,000 logs. The impact of the severely damaged the Hawthorne Bridge, closing it for a year. At 12 feet above flood stage, the flooding of the Willamette River at Portland in 1964 was second only to the 1948 flood that wiped out Vanport City, at its peak, the water was at the top of Downtown Portlands seawall. Starting on December 21, intense downpours all across Northern California caused numerous streams to flood, California Governor Brown declared 34 counties in the region disaster areasChristmas flood of 1964 – Map of California showing the 34 counties declared disaster areas during the flood. The six red counties sustained more damage than the other 28 counties combined.
56. Free Speech Movement – In 1958, activist students organized SLATE, a campus political party meaning a slate of candidates running on the same level – a same slate. The students created SLATE to promote the right of student groups to support off-campus issues, according to existing rules at the time, fundraising for political parties was limited exclusively to the Democratic and Republican school clubs. There was also a mandatory loyalty oath required of faculty, which had led to dismissals, on October 1,1964, former graduate student Jack Weinberg was sitting at the CORE table. He refused to show his identification to the police and was arrested. There was a movement of students to surround the police car in which he was to be transported. The police car remained there for 32 hours, all while Weinberg was inside it, at one point, there may have been 3,000 students around the car. The car was used as a podium and a continuous public discussion was held which continued until the charges against Weinberg were dropped. Among other grievances was the fact that four of their leaders were being singled out for punishment, the demonstration was orderly, students studied, watched movies, and sang folk songs. Joan Baez was there to lead in the singing, as well as moral support. Freedom classes were held by teaching assistants on one floor, on the steps of Sproul Hall, Mario Savio gave a famous speech. But were a bunch of raw materials that dont mean to be — have any process upon us, Dont mean to be made into any product. Dont mean — Dont mean to end up being bought by some clients of the University, be they the government, be they industry, be they organized labor, be they anyone. Theres a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious — makes you so sick at heart — that you cant take part and you cant even passively take part. And youve got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and youve got to make it stop. And youve got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that youre free. At midnight, Alameda County deputy district attorney Edwin Meese III telephoned Governor Edmund Brown, Sr, shortly after 2 a. m. on December 4,1964, police cordoned off the building, and at 3,30 a. m. began the arrest. Close to 800 students were arrested, most of which were transported by bus to Santa Rita Jail in Dublin and they were released on their own recognizance after a few hours behind bars. About a month later, the university brought charges against the students who organized the sit-in, resulting in a larger student protest that allFree Speech Movement – Memorial to the Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley
57. San Ramon, California – San Ramon is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States, located 34 miles east of San Francisco, and within the San Ramon Valley. San Ramons population was estimated as 76,134 in mid-2015 by the US Census Bureau, making it the 4th largest city in Contra Costa County, behind Richmond, Concord and Antioch. San Ramon is home to the headquarters of Chevron, 24-Hour Fitness, the Global Software Center of GE, as well as the San Ramon Medical Center. Major annual events include the Art and Wind Festival on Memorial Day weekend, on April 24,2001, San Ramon received the title Tree City USA. San Ramon is adjacent to Danville, California, to the north and Dublin, California, unincorporated county lands border San Ramon to the east and west. It is located around 500 feet above sea level, mount Diablo flanks the city to the northeast and is prominently visible from almost all parts of the city. The Las Trampas Regional Wilderness borders San Ramons extreme northwest, at the end of Bollinger Canyon. The smaller Bishop Ranch Regional Preserve straddles San Ramons western border, the topography of San Ramon is varied, featuring a mix of the rolling hills of the Diablo Range and the flatter basin of the San Ramon Valley. The city is urban and residential, however much of the land around the city’s perimeter regions remains undeveloped. San Ramon’s weather typifies Mediterranean climate, seasonal, and moderate, summers are warm and dry, while winters are mild, damp and rather short. Its weather is similar to the adjacent cities of Danville, Dublin and it usually burns off by mid-to-late morning. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 58 °F and a minimum of 32 °F, average July temperatures are a maximum of 89 °F and a minimum of 56 °F. January is normally the wettest month, averaging 5.20 inches of precipitation, July is usually the driest month, with an average of only 0.06 inches of precipitation. Snow is very rare, but Hail occurs a few times in the winter, the lands now occupied by the City of San Ramon were formerly inhabited by Seunen people, an Ohlone/Costanoan group who built their homes near creeks. Sometime around 1797 they were taken by Mission San José for use as grazing land, in 1834, they were part of the Rancho San Ramon land grant to José María Amador. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Ramon had a population of 72,148, the population density was 3,991.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Ramon was 38,639 White,2,043 African American,205 Native American,25,713 Asian,156 Pacific Islander,1,536 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,250 persons. The Census reported that 72,073 people lived in households,52 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 1,067 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 187 same-sex married couples or partnershipsSan Ramon, California – View of San Ramon, at the corner of Bollinger Canyon Rd. and San Ramon Valley Blvd. Mount Diablo is in the background on the left.
58. Don Edwards – William Donlon Don Edwards was an American politician of the Democratic Party and a member of the United States House of Representatives from California. Edwards was born in San Jose, California and he attended the public schools in the city, graduating from San Jose High School, before earning a B. A. from Stanford University in 1936, where he was member of the Stanford golf team. Edwards then attended Stanford Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1940, Edwards was a special agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1940 to 1941, when he joined the United States Navy as a naval intelligence and gunnery officer during World War II. In 1950, he was elected president of the California Young Republicans, but he had switched parties by the time he was first elected to the House in 1962. He was the president of Valley Title Company of Santa Clara County from 1951 to 1975, Edwards was elected as a member of the Democratic Party to the 88th from the 10th Congressional District and to the fifteen succeeding Congresses. In his first year in the House, Edwards voted to abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee, Edwards was involved in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Edwards was a member of the House Judiciary Committee during the investigation of the Watergate scandal, Edwards opposed the U. S. military involvement in the Vietnam War, the invasion of Panama, and the Persian Gulf War. Edwards was the chairman of the House Subcommittee on Civil Liberties, Edwards was not a candidate for reelection to the 104th Congress. Don Edwards was married to Edith Wilkie Edwards until her death and he turned 100 in January 2015. He died later that year on October 1,2015, Edwards received the Congressional Distinguished Service Award in 2003. The Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in the end of San Francisco Bay is named in his honor. Don Edwards Congressional Papers United States Congress, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. American Bar Association Human Rights Magazine biography Voting record maintained by the Washington Post Spartacus Educational BiographyDon Edwards – Don Edwards
59. Oakland California Temple – The Oakland California Temple is the 15th constructed and 13th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. During a January 23,1961 meeting, plans for the temple were announced by David O. McKay, ground was broken on May 26,1962, with the cornerstone laid May 25,1963, and dedication on November 19,1964. Located in the city of Oakland, California, at 4770 Lincoln Ave, it is the only LDS temple built with a modern five-spire design and its architect was Harold W. Burton. The exterior of the temple is reinforced concrete faced with white granite from Raymond. On the north and south faces of the temple are two friezes, it is the last LDS temple to have such. The back is a depiction of Christ descending from heaven to the people of the American continent soon after his resurrection in the Holy Land, the front illustrates Christ preaching his gospel to the people. The temple sits on a prominent site in the Oakland hills and has become a local landmark, through the front courtyard are stairways which lead to the temple terrace situated above the ground floor of the temple. From the temple grounds and terrace are spectacular views of the Bay Area, including downtown Oakland, the Bay Bridge, Yerba Buena Island, downtown San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge. The grounds are accented by flowers, palm trees, and a formal-style man-made river running from one fountain to the other. The temple was built on an 18. 3-acre plot, has four rooms, seven sealing rooms. The visitors center has free tours around the grounds and atop the temple daily, the building of the Oakland Temple, as well as other temples in California was planned as early as 1847. The site where the Oakland Temple now stands was inspected by David O. McKay, then second counselor in the First Presidency, the 14.5 acres were purchased by the church on January 28,1943. Ground was broken for the temple in 1962, on February 23,2017 the LDS Church announced that beginning February 2018, the temple will close for renovations that are anticipated to be completed during 2019. Notable presidents of the temple have included Lorenzo N. Hoopes, in the nearby Interstake Center, local members performed a Latter-day Saint pageant for many years. The pageant, commonly known as the Temple Pageant, was a stage production rehearsing the history. It was one of only a few temple pageants around the country, others include the Easter Pageant in Mesa, Arizona, until its retirement, it was the only such pageant performed indoors as well as the only one to be fully accompanied by a live orchestra. Initially, the pageant consisted of three acts performed over three nights, however, it was eventually shortened to an hour and a half. In November 2007, a letter sent to stake and mission presidents in the region from D, todd Christofferson, then of the Presidency of the Seventy, indicated that the pageant would no longer be heldOakland California Temple – Oakland California Temple
60. Arnold Genthe – Arnold Genthe was born in Berlin, Prussia, to Louise Zober and Hermann Genthe, a professor of Latin and Greek at the Graues Kloster in Berlin. After emigrating to San Francisco in 1895 to work as a tutor for the son of Baron and Baroness J. Henrich von Schroeder and he also sometimes removed evidence of Western culture from these pictures, cropping or erasing as needed. About 200 of his Chinatown pictures survive, and these comprise the only known depictions of the area before the 1906 earthquake. After local magazines published some of his photographs in the late 1890s and he knew some of the citys wealthy matrons, and as his reputation grew, his clientele included Nance ONeil, Sarah Bernhardt, Nora May French, and Jack London. In 1904 he traveled to Western Europe and Tangier with the famous watercolorist, in 1906, the San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed Genthes studio, but he rebuilt. His photograph of the aftermath, Looking Down Sacramento Street, San Francisco. Here he was able to pursue his work in color photography, of his new residence, he wrote, The cypresses and rocks of Point Lobos, the always varying sunsets and the intriguing shadows of the sand dunes offered a rich field for color experiments. In 1911 he moved to New York City, where he remained until his death of an attack in 1942. He worked primarily in portraiture, and Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and his photos of Greta Garbo were credited with boosting her career. He also photographed modern dancers, including Anna Pavlova, Isadora Duncan, and Ruth St. Denis, Genthe was an early adopter of the autochrome color photography process. He began experimenting with the process in 1905 in Carmel, California and he claimed credit for the first exhibition of color photographs in America, later scholars determined this is not accurate, but he was undoubtedly one of the earliest. His subjects included portraits, artistic nudes, and landscapes, Genthe owned a cat called Buzzer. Buzzer often appeared in portraitures with Genthes subjects, most notably Broadway actresses to whom the cat warmed, one such sitting in autochrome was with actress Ann Murdock. Text by Will Irwin, images by Arnold Genthe, Pictures of old Chinatown, New York, Moffat, Yard and Co.1908 Arnold Genthe, The Book of the Dance, Boston, Mass. 1984 ISBN 0-486-24592-6 William Bronson, The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned, Garden City, NY,1959, many images of the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906 taken by Arnold Genthe Mel Byars, N. Elizabeth Schlatter, Genthe, ArnoldArnold Genthe – Arnold Genthe's self-portrait
61. Victor Wong (actor born 1927) – Yee Keung Victor Wong was an American character actor of Chinese descent who appeared in supporting roles throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Victor Wong studied political science and journalism at the University of California, Berkeley and Theology at the University of Chicago under Paul Tillich, Reinhold Niebuhr, when he returned to San Francisco, Wong resumed his studies at the San Francisco Art Institute under Mark Rothko. After his news career ended, Wong turned to acting, starting in the local Asian American theatre, in October 1980, Wong made his Asian American Theater Company debut in San Francisco by appearing in their production of Paper Angels by Genny Lim. He was on Social Security Disability Insurance at the time and his stage work led to television work and eventually, into movies. In between film roles, Wong lived in Sacramento, California, where he supported the performing arts. In 1992, he acted in the Hong Kong film, Cageman and he later starred as the grandfather, Mori Tanaka, in the popular 3 Ninjas franchise, and the cult-classics, Big Trouble in Little China and Tremors. Film director Wayne Wang called Victor Wong his role model for living life and he retired from acting in 1998 after suffering two strokes, which also contributed to his death on September 12,2001 from heart failure. In the 1950s, while studying art under Mark Rothko, Victor Wong had his first art exhibition at the City Lights Bookstore, during this time, Wong befriended Lawrence Ferlinghetti. He illustrated Oranges, Dick McBrides first collection of poetry, which was handset and printed at the Bread and he met Jack Kerouac in the early 1960s, who chronicled their meeting in his novel Big Sur. In the novel, Wong is characterised as Arthur Ma, Wongs parents both came from China. His father, Sare King Wong, was born and raised in Guangdong province and his siblings were Sara Wong Lum, Zeppelin Wong, Shirley Wong Frentzel, Betty Wong. He was fluent with both English and Cantonese, which helped lead his acting career to Hong Kong, Victor Wong lived in Sacramento, California. Wong was married four times, to Olive Thurman Wong, Carol Freeland, Robin Goodfellow and he had two daughters, Emily and Heather, and three sons, Anton, Lyon, and Duncan. His son, Lyon Wong, died in 1986 after being attacked by a man while walking home in Sacramento. On the morning of September 11,2001 Wong had turned on the television to watch the news when he learned of the terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D. C. He and his wife Rose spent all day watching the news and trying to discern the fate of Wongs sons, Rose finally went to bed in the evening, but Wong stayed up and continued to follow the news. The resulting exhaustion and the two strokes he had suffered years earlier took their toll, and Wong died of an attack at some point during the morning of September 12. Victor Wong at the Internet Movie Database Victor Wong Asian Week obituary Victor Wong at Find A GraveVictor Wong (actor born 1927) – Victor Wong
62. KQED – KQED is a public media outlet based in San Francisco, California, which operates the radio station KQED and the television stations KQED and KQEH. KQED was organized and created by veteran broadcast journalists James Day and Jonathan Rice on June 1,1953 and it was the sixth public broadcasting station in the United States, debuting shortly after WQED in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The stations call letters, Q. E. D. are taken from the Latin phrase, quod erat demonstrandum, kQED-FM was founded by James Day in 1969 as the radio arm of KQED Television. On May 1,2006, KQED, Inc. and the KTEH Foundation merged to form Northern California Public Broadcasting, the KQED assets including its television and FM radio stations were taken under the umbrella of that new organization. Both remained members of Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio, with this change, KQED and KTEH are considered as sister-stations today. The Northern California name did not become used, so in 2010. KTEH would change its call letters to KQEH and rebrand to KQED Plus on July 1,2011 after research found that most viewers were unaware that KTEH was affiliated with KQED. KQED is a Public Broadcasting Service-member public television station in San Francisco, California and this channel is also carried on Comcast cable TV and via satellite by DirecTV and Dish Network. Its transmitter is located on Sutro Tower, and has based in San Franciscos Mission District. KQED Public Television 9 is one of the nations most-watched public television stations during primetime, KQED airs more independent films than any other public broadcasting station in the country. KQED-FM is an NPR-member radio station owned by Northern California Public Broadcasting in San Francisco, KQED public radio is the most-listened-to public radio station in the nationKQED – KQED building on Mariposa Street in San Francisco
63. Modern architecture – Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II. The revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, the cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of very large windows. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass. These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, the iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower, then the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, in 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house in the suburbs of Paris. Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century. This break with the past was particularly urged by the architectural theorist, for each function its material, for each material its form and its ornament. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, at the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States. The Glasgow School of Art 1896-99) designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France, it introduced new styles of decoration, based on vegetal and floral forms. In 1903-1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete, previously used for industrial structures. Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectators view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style, in his book Moderne Arkchtekture he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on modern life. Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior, the reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum. The interior was purely functional and spare, an open space of steel, glass. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos also began removing any ornament from his buildings and his Steiner House, in Vienna, was an example of what he called rationalist architecture, it had a simple stucco rectangual facade with square windows and no ornament. The fame of the new movement, which known as the Vienna Secession spread beyond Austria. Josef Hoffmann, a student of Wagner, constructed a landmark of early modernist architecture and this residence, built of brick covered with Norwegian marble, was composed of geometric blocks, wings and a towerModern architecture – Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City (1959), interior, by Frank Lloyd Wright.
64. Redwood City, California – Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern Californias Bay Area, approximately 27 miles south of San Francisco, and 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood Citys history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods, the county seat of San Mateo County, it is the home of several technology companies such as Box, Oracle, Evernote, Wealthfront, and Electronic Arts. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 76,815, the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, the Malibu Grand Prix long time landmark was recently demolished along with the citys only Mini Golf, Go-Kart, Video Game Arcade, and Batting Cages. Malibu Grand Prixs previous location is currently the site of a new additional Jail. The Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, a major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of which is Westpoint Slough. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood that is part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City highly resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up. El Camino Real, a northwest/southeast arterial street and Woodside Road and it is a very diverse cosmopolitan city in the Bay Area, a newly popular destination in the peninsula and the Bay as a whole. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool, relatively wet winters. The National Weather Service, which both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month. The record highest temperature of 110 °F and was recorded on July 14 and 15,1972, the record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11,1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher, the normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998, the record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13,1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation, snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions, there was some minor snow accumulation in May 1935, January 1962, and February 1976. The 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815, the population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White,1,881 African American,511 Native American,8,216 Asian,795 Pacific Islander,14,967 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 personsRedwood City, California – The skyline of downtown Redwood City
65. Pacific Mail Steamship Company – These merchants had acquired the right to transport mail under contract from the United States Government from the Isthmus of Panama to California awarded in 1847 to one Arnold Harris. The first three steamships constructed for Pacific Mail were the SS California, the SS Oregon, and the SS Panama. During the California Gold Rush in 1849, the company was a key mover of goods and people and played a key role in the growth of San Francisco, California. In addition to their maritime activities Pacific Mail also ran some of the earliest steamboats on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, domingo Marcucci came from Philadelphia in the Pacific Mail steamship SS Oregon with a knocked-down steamboat in its hold. He started a shipyard in San Francisco on September 18,1849, on the beach at Happy Valley, at the foot of Folsom Street, marcuccis company assembled the Captain Sutter in six weeks. Subsequently in March 1850, for the company, he assembled the Georgiana. In 1850, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company established a steamship line competing with the U. S, Mail Steamship Company between New York City and Chagres. George Law placed a line of steamers in the Pacific. In April 1851, the rivalry was ended when the U. S, Mail Steamship Company purchased Pacific Mail steamers on the Atlantic side, and George Law sold his new company and its ships to the Pacific Mail. One of the steamships, the SS Winfield Scott, acquired when the New York and California Steamship Company went out of business. All officers were armed for the protection of their ships, detachments of Union soldiers sailed with Pacific Mail steamers. In 1867, the company launched the first regularly scheduled trans-Pacific steamship service with a route between San Francisco, Hong Kong, and Yokohama, and extended service to Shanghai and this route led to an influx of Japanese and Chinese immigrants, bringing additional cultural diversity to California. As the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Utah in 1869, many of its ships were sold or put on other routes. While docked at San José de Guatemala, the Pacific Mail steamship SS Acapulco was involved in the Barrundia Affair of 1890, the affair led to the recall of the U. S. Minister to Central America, Lansing Bond Mizner, by President Benjamin Harrison, the company was a charter member of the Dow Jones Transportation Average. In 1925, the company was purchased by Robert Dollar, of the Dollar Steamship Company, with the government bail-out of the Dollar Line in 1938, ownership passed to American President Lines, but by this time, PMSS essentially existed only on paper. It was formally closed down in 1949, after just over a century of existence, SS California, Built for the company, it was launched May 19,1848 by William H. Webb, New York. It left New York on October 6,1848 for Valparaiso, Panama City and San Francisco and she was used as a spare steamer at San Francisco in 1856 and at Panama City in 1857Pacific Mail Steamship Company – SS California, Pacific Mail's first ship
66. Chinatown, San Francisco, California – The Chinatown centered on Grant Avenue and Stockton Street in San Francisco, California, is the oldest Chinatown in North America and the largest Chinese community outside Asia. It is the oldest of the four notable Chinatowns in the city, since its establishment in 1848, it has been highly important and influential in the history and culture of ethnic Chinese immigrants in North America. Chinatown is an enclave that continues to retain its own customs, languages, places of worship, social clubs, there are two hospitals, numerous parks and squares, a post office, and other infrastructure. Chinatown has been defined by the neighborhoods of North Beach, and Telegraph Hill areas as bound by Bush Street, Taylor Street, Bay Street. Officially, Chinatown is located in downtown San Francisco, covers 24 square blocks, within Chinatown there are two major thoroughfares. It is dominated by buildings that are three to four stories high, with shops on the ground floor and residential apartments upstairs. A major focal point in Chinatown is Portsmouth Square, since it is one of the few open spaces in Chinatown and sits above a large underground parking lot, Portsmouth Square bustles with activity such as Tai Chi and old men playing Chinese chess. A replica of the Goddess of Democracy used in the Tiananmen Square protest was built in 1999 by Thomas Marsh and it is made of bronze and weighs approximately 600 lb. According to the San Francisco Planning Department, Chinatown is the most densely populated area west of Manhattan. In the 1970s, the density in Chinatown was seven times the San Francisco average. The estimated total population in the 2000 Census was at 100,574 residents, during the time from 2009 to 2013, the median household income was $20,000 - compared to $76,000 citywide - with 29% of residents below the national poverty threshold. The median age was 50 years, the oldest of any neighborhood, as of 2015, two thirds of the residents lived in one of Chinatowns 105 single room occupancy hotels,96 of which had private owners and nine were owned by nonprofits. Most residents are speakers of Mandarin or Cantonese, in 2015. Many of those Chinese immigrants who gain some wealth while living in Chinatown leave it for the Richmond District, working-class Hong Kong Chinese immigrants began arriving in large numbers in the 1960s. Despite their status and professional qualifications in Hong Kong, many took low-paying employment in restaurants, an increase in Cantonese-speaking immigrants from Hong Kong and Mainland China has gradually led to the replacement in Chinatown of the Hoisanese/Taishanese dialect by the standard Cantonese dialect. These outer neighborhoods have been settled largely by Chinese from Southeast Asia, there are also many suburban Chinese communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially in Silicon Valley, such as Cupertino, Fremont, and Milpitas, where Taiwanese Americans are dominant. Despite these developments, many continue to commute in from these neighborhoods and cities to shop in Chinatown, causing gridlock on roads and delays in public transit. To address this problem, the public transit agency, Muni, is planning to extend the citys subway network to the neighborhood via the new Central SubwayChinatown, San Francisco, California – The Gateway Arch (Dragon Gate) on Grant Avenue at Bush Street in Chinatown
67. San Francisco, California – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco, California – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
68. Castro Street Fair – The Castro Street Fair is a San Francisco LGBT street festival and fair usually held on the first Sunday in October in the Castro neighborhood, the main gay neighborhood and social center in the city. The fair features multiples stages with live entertainment, DJs, food vendors, the Castro Street Fair was founded by Harvey Milk, and the group he led, the Castro Valley Association, in 1974. The events popularity grew quickly and by 1977, the attendance reached 70,000, the influx of visitors helped promote the Castro districts growing tourist industry. Castro Street Fair is one of San Franciscos many street fairs, including the North Beach Festival, Union Street Festival and these fairs run throughout the summer, from spring to fall. The Castro Street fair takes place on the afternoon of the first Sunday in October, LGBT culture in San Francisco Official site Castro Street Fair 2008 VIDEOCastro Street Fair – 2008 Castro Street Fair artwork noting the 35th anniversary of the event founded by gay activist and politician Harvey Milk portraying him in iconic Superman style.
69. Harvey Milk – Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 amid a migration of gay men to the Castro District and he took advantage of the growing political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and three times ran unsuccessfully for political office. His theatrical campaigns earned him increasing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, his election made possible by, and a key component of, a shift in San Francisco politics. Milk served almost 11 months in office and was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city, despite his short career in politics, Milk became an icon in San Francisco and a martyr in the gay community. In 2002, Milk was called the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States, anne Kronenberg, his final campaign manager, wrote of him, What set Harvey apart from you or me was that he was a visionary. He imagined a world inside his head and then he set about to create it for real. Milk was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009, Milk was born in Woodmere, New York, to William Milk and Minerva Karns. He was the son of Lithuanian Jewish parents and the grandson of Morris Milk. As a child, Harvey was teased for his ears, big nose, and oversized feet. He played football in school, and developed a passion for opera, in his teens, he acknowledged his homosexuality to himself, under his name in the high school yearbook, it read, Glimpy Milk—and they say WOMEN are never at a loss for words. Milk graduated from Bay Shore High School in Bay Shore, New York, in 1947 and attended New York State College for Teachers in Albany from 1947 to 1951 and he also wrote for the college newspaper. One classmate remembered, He was never thought of as a possible queer—thats what you called them then—he was a mans man, after graduation, Milk joined the United States Navy during the Korean War. He served aboard the rescue ship USS Kittiwake as a diving officer. He later transferred to Naval Station, San Diego to serve as a diving instructor, in 1955, he was discharged from the Navy at the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. Milks early career was marked by frequent changes, in years he would take delight in talking about his metamorphosis from a middle-class Jewish boy. He began teaching at George W. Hewlett High School on Long Island, in 1956, he met Joe Campbell, at the Jacob Riis Park beach, a popular location for gay men in Queens. Campbell was seven years younger than Milk, and Milk pursued him passionately, Even after they moved in together, Milk wrote Campbell romantic notes and poems. Campbell and Milk separated after almost six years, it would be his longest relationship, Milk tried to keep his early romantic life separate from his family and workHarvey Milk – Milk in 1978
70. San Francisco Police Department – The San Francisco Police Department is the city police department of the City and County of San Francisco, California. The departments motto is the same as that of the city and county, Oro en paz, fierro en guerra, archaic Spanish for Gold in peace, iron in war. The SFPD should not be confused with the San Francisco Sheriffs Department and it is the 11th largest police department in the United States. The SFPD began operations on August 13,1849, during the Gold Rush under the command of Captain Malachi Fallon, at the time, Chief Fallon had a force of one deputy captain, three sergeants and thirty officers. In 1851, Albert Bernard de Russailh wrote about the nascent San Francisco police force, As for the police, the police force is largely made up of ex-bandits, and naturally the members are interested above all in saving their old friends from punishment. Policemen here are quite as much to be feared as the robbers and you pay them well to watch over your house, and they set it on fire. In short, I think that all the people concerned with justice or the police are in league with the criminals, the city is in a hopeless chaos, and many years must pass before order can be established. In a country where so many races are mingled, a severe and inflexible justice is desirable, on October 28,1853, the Board of Aldermen passed Ordinance No. 466, which provided for the reorganization of the police department, sections one and two provided as follows, The People of the City of San Francisco do ordain as follows, Sec.1. The Police Department of the City of San Francisco, shall be composed of a day and night police, consisting of 56 men, each to be recommended by at least ten tax-paying citizens. There shall be one Captain and one assistant Captain of Police, who shall be elected in joint convention of the Board of Aldermen and assistant Aldermen. The remainder of the force, viz.54 men, shall be appointed as follows, By the Mayor,2, by the City Marshal,2, by the City Recorder,2, in July 1856, the Consolidation Act went into effect. This act abolished the office of City Marshal and created in its stead the office of Chief of Police, the first Chief of Police elected in 1856 was James F. Curtis a former member of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance. The SFPD is known for being one of the forces for modern law enforcement. In early August 1975, the SFPD went on strike over a pay dispute, the city quickly obtained a court order declaring the strike illegal and enjoining the SFPD back to work. The court messenger delivering the order was met with violence and the SFPD continued to strike, only managers and African-American officers remained on duty, with 45 officers and 3 fire trucks responsible for a city population of 700,000. Supervisor Dianne Feinstein pleaded Mayor Joseph Alioto to ask Governor Jerry Brown to call out the National Guard to patrol the streets, when enraged civilians confronted SFPD officers at the picket lines, the officers arrested them. Again, the SFPD ignored the court order, on August 20 a bomb detonated at the Mayors home with a sign reading Dont Threaten Us left on his lawnSan Francisco Police Department – Modern SFPD Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor
71. House of Wisdom – The House of Wisdom was a major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age. The House of Wisdom was founded by Caliph Harun al-Rashid and culminated in prominence under his son al-Mamun who is credited with its formal institution, Al-Mamun is also credited with bringing many well-known scholars to share information, ideas, and culture in the House of Wisdom. Based in Baghdad from the 9th to 13th centuries, beside Muslim scholars, besides translating books into Arabic and preserving them, scholars associated with the House of Wisdom also made many remarkable original contributions to diverse fields. Drawing primarily on Greek, but also Syriac, Indian and Persian texts, the scholars accumulated a collection of world knowledge. By the middle of the century, the House of Wisdom had the largest selection of books in the world. It was destroyed in the sack of the city following the Mongol Siege of Baghdad, throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, scholarly work in the Greek and Syriac languages was either newly initiated, or carried on from the Hellenistic period. Through the Umayyad era, founded by Caliph Muawiyah I, during the reign of Caliph Al-Mamun and he then formed a library that were referred by the name of Bayt al-Hikma. These were fundamental elements that directly to the flourishing of scholarship in the Arab world. In 750, the Abbasid dynasty replaced the Umayyad as the dynasty of the Islamic Empire, and, in 762. Baghdads location and cosmopolitan population made the location for a stable commercial and intellectual center. For this purpose, al-Mansur founded a library, modeled after the Sassanian Imperial Library. He also invited delegations of scholars from India and other places to share their knowledge of mathematics, in the Abbasid Empire, many foreign works were translated into Arabic from Greek, Chinese, Sanskrit, Persian and Syriac. The Translation Movement gained great momentum during the reign of caliph al-Rashid, originally the texts concerned mainly medicine, mathematics and astronomy, but, other disciplines, especially philosophy, soon followed. Al-Rashids library, direct predecessor to the House of Wisdom, was known as Bayt al-Hikma or, as the historian Al-Qifti called it. Under the sponsorship of caliph al-Mamun, economic support of the House of Wisdom, moreover, Abbasid society itself came to understand and appreciate the value of knowledge, and support also came from merchants and the military. It was easy for scholars and translators to make a living, Wisdom was so valuable that books and ancient texts were sometimes preferred as war booty instead of other riches. Indeed, Ptolemys Almagest was claimed as a condition for peace after a war between the Abbasids and the Byzantine Empire, the House of Wisdom was much more than an academic center removed from the broader society. Its experts served several functions in Baghdad, scholars from the Bayt al-Hikma usually doubled as engineers and architects in major construction projectsHouse of Wisdom – Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad 1237
72. East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) – The eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area, commonly referred to as the East Bay, includes cities along the eastern shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay. The region has grown to include inland communities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, with a population of roughly 2.5 million in 2010, it is the most populous subregion in the Bay Area. Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay and the third largest in the Bay Area, the city serves as a major transportation hub for the U. S. West Coast, and its port is the largest in Northern California, increased population has led to the growth of such large edge cities as Berkeley, Hayward, Concord and Fremont. The Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 with its terminus at the newly constructed Oakland Long Wharf. Today the Port of Oakland is the Bay Areas largest port, in 1868, the University of California was formed from the private College of California and a new campus was built in what would become Berkeley. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake saw a number of refugees flee to the relatively undamaged East Bay. As the East Bay grew, the push to connect it with a permanent link than ferry service resulted in the completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936. The Bay Area saw further growth in the decades following World War II, the 1937 completion of the Caldecott Tunnel through the Berkeley Hills fueled growth further east, where there was undeveloped land. Cities in the Diablo Valley, including Concord and Walnut Creek, the addition of the BART commuter rail system in 1972 further encouraged development in increasingly far-flung regions of the East Bay. Today, the valleys east of the Berkeley Hills contain large affluent suburban communities such as Walnut Creek, San Ramon, the East Bay is not a formally defined region, aside from its being described as a region inclusive of Alameda and Contra Costa counties. As development moves generally eastward, new areas are described as being part of the East Bay, beyond the borders of Alameda County, the large population of Tracy is connected as a bedroom community housing commuters traveling to or through the East Bay. Except for some hills and ridges which exist as parklands or undeveloped land, and some farmland in eastern Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, the East Bay is highly urbanized. The East Bay shoreline is a corridor with several cities exceeding 100,000 residents, including Oakland, Hayward, Fremont, Richmond. In the inland valleys on the east side of the Berkeley Hills, the land is developed, particularly on the eastern fringe of Contra Costa county. In the inland valleys, the density is less and the cities smaller. The only cities exceeding 100,000 residents in the valleys are Antioch. The free East Bay Monthly has been published since 1970, in the early years of the evolution of USA Today, during the early 1980s, they operated regional newspapers, with the regions paper entitled East Bay TodayEast Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) – A satellite image of most of the East Bay
73. Santa Clara Valley – The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. The northern, urbanized end of the valley is part of a locally known as the South Bay and also part of the electronics, research. Most of the Santa Clara Valley is in Santa Clara County, including its county seat, the valley, named after the Spanish Mission Santa Clara, was for a time known as the Valley of Hearts Delight for its high concentration of orchards, flowering trees, and plants. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit production and packing region in the world with 39 canneries, once primarily agricultural because of its highly fertile soil, Santa Clara Valley is now largely urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian. The most northern areas are considered part of Silicon Valley. As Silicon Valley is not a valley, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula farther north are included in the Silicon Valley region as well. Locally, the areas of Santa Clara Valley are also referred to as part of the South Bay. Few traces of its agricultural past can still be found, and it was one of the first commercial wine-producing regions in California, utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France. The northern end of the Santa Clara Valley is at the tip of the San Francisco Bay. The valley is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest, which separate Santa Clara Valley from the Pacific Ocean, the valley is approximately 30 miles long by 15 miles wide. Its largest city, by an 86. 7% margin, is San Jose, the population of the valley is 1.81 million people along with approximately 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate, Mission Santa Clara de Asís with control over a vast tract of land stretching from Palo Alto to Gilroy was founded by Franciscans in 1777. San Jose was also founded in 1777 by Spain as an agricultural pueblo and it is the oldest town in California. In Spanish and Mexican times the land was devoted to cattle, following the Mexican–American War San Jose was briefly the Capital of California. In 1860, as an American town, the population of San Jose was 4,579, for a time wheat became the main crop, but in the 1870s fruit gradually became the main crop and processing of fruit by drying or canning the predominant industry. The railroad reached San Jose in 1860, the valley with its scenic beauty, mild climate, and thousands of acres of blooming fruit trees was known as The Valley of Hearts Delight. Prunes were the crop and were shipped internationally. Water was supplied from an artesian aquifer, when the water table dropped wells were pumpedSanta Clara Valley – "Valley of the Heart's Delight", mid 20th century
74. Silicon Valley – Silicon Valley is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. The valley in its name refers to the Santa Clara Valley in Santa Clara County, which includes the city of San Jose and surrounding cities and towns, where the region has been traditionally centered. The region has expanded to include the half of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Mateo County. It was in the Valley that the integrated circuit, the microprocessor. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of an information technology workers. The term is now used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector. The first published use of Silicon Valley is credited to Don Hoefler, hostler used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News. The series, titled Silicon Valley in the USA, began in the papers January 11,1971, the term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. The silicon part of the name refers to the concentration of companies involved in the making of semiconductors. These firms slowly replaced the orchards and the fruits which gave the area its initial nickname — the Valley of Hearts Delight, Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valleys early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success, the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckles History of San Jose that California first heard the click of a key on September 11,1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants Exchange members named George Sweeney and it was known as the Inner Station, the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs, Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchantss Exchange by electric telegraph Wire. According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baughs line was strictly an intra-city, San Francisco-based service, allen and C. Burnham led the way to build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento. Delays to construction occurred until September 1853, but, …San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15, the line was completed when Gambles northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24. The Bay Area had long been a site of United States Navy research. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San JoseSilicon Valley – Silicon Valley, as seen from over north San Jose, facing southbound towards Downtown San Jose
75. Wine Country (California) – The Wine Country is an area of Northern California in the United States known worldwide as a premium wine-growing region. Viticulture and wine-making have been practiced in the region since the mid-19th century, Wine grapes are also grown at higher elevations, such as Atlas Peak and Mount Veeder AVAs. The region is defined not only by its viticulture, but also its ecology, geology, architecture, cuisine, the majority of the grape harvest, by both area and value, derives from Sonoma County. Helena and Calistoga in Napa County, and Hopland and Ukiah in Mendocino County, Wine Country is generally regarded as the combined counties of Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, and Lake. In Lake County, Clear Lake, Guenoc Valley, High Valley, the six-county North Coast AVA overlaps with the Wine Country as defined here. In addition, the names of the counties themselves are legal for use as appellation names, the earliest prehistory of the Wine Country involves habitation by several Native American tribes from approximately 8000 BC. During the Mexican Colonial period and after, European settlers brought in more intensive agriculture to the Wine Country, including growing grapes, some of the historical events that led to the establishment of California as a state transpired in the Wine Country. In particular, the town of Sonoma, is known as the birthplace of American California, agoston Haraszthy is credited with being one of the forefathers of the California wine industry in Sonoma by his planting of grapes in the lower Arroyo Seco Creek watershed of Sonoma County. A diversity of aquatic and terrestrial organisms populate the Wine Country, winter-run Chinook salmon, Delta smelt and steelhead are the most prominent fishes. A variety of salamanders, snakes and frogs are present in the Wine Country. The federally listed as threatened California red-legged frog is present in the northern reach draining the slopes of Annadel State Park. Several endangered species present include Ridgways rail, California black rail, California brown pelican, California freshwater shrimp, salt marsh harvest mouse, Suisun shrew, the above are endangered species with the exception of the splittail, steelhead and black rail, which are federally designated as threatened. Upland ecosystems drained include mixed California oak woodland, chaparral and savannah woodland, in these upland reaches one finds plentiful black-tailed deer, coyote, skunk, raccoon, opossum, wild turkey, turkey vulture, red-tailed hawk and occasionally bobcat and mountain lion. Prominent higher elevation trees include, Coast live oak, Garry oak, Pacific madrone, California buckeye, Douglas fir, the Wine Country has undergone a boom in tourism. In 1975 there were only 25 Napa Valley wineries, today there are well over 400 wineries in Napa and Sonoma Counties. Tourists come to the not only for wine tasting, but also for hiking, bicycling, hot air ballooning. Numerous notable chefs and restaurateurs are present in the Wine Country, including Thomas Keller, John Ash, the Napa Valley is also experiencing pressures for increased urbanization and roadway upgrading. Central Coast AVA Lake County wine Mendocino County wine Napa County wine Sonoma County wine Wine Country at DMOZWine Country (California) – Alexander Valley - Sonoma
76. Islands of San Francisco Bay – This list of islands of California is organized into sections, generally arranged from north to south. The islands within each section are listed in alphabetical order, the Geographic Names Information System lists 527 named islands in the state. All three islands in Humboldt Bay are located in the midsection of the bay. This portion of the bay is located within the City of Eureka and they consist of over twenty small islets divided into north, south and middle sections, as well as a major bank, Fanny Shoal. The surrounding waters were used as a disposal site for radioactive waste. Suisun Bay is an arm of the San Francisco Bay estuary which connects the Sacramento, the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an inverted delta at the juncture of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. There are about 57 named islands in the Delta, the Channel Islands are a group of eight main islands and several minor islands in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, and Ventura counties in Southern California. The four northern islands are protected in Channel Islands National Park and these Islands are part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. The Greater Los Angeles Area is an area on the Pacific coast of southern California. The bay associated with Newport Harbor and the city of Newport Beach, geography of California List of coastal islands of the Californias List of islands of the United States Outline of California Martin, James A. Lee, Michael T. The Islands of San Francisco Bay, San Rafael, CA, Down Window Press. California Department of Water Resources. ca. gov, Delta WaterwaysIslands of San Francisco Bay – Sugarloaf Island,
77. Mount Tamalpais State Park – Mount Tamalpais State Park is a California state park, located in Marin County, California. The primary feature of the park is the 2,571 feet Mount Tamalpais, the park contains mostly redwood and oak forests. The mountain itself covers around 25,000 acres, there are about 60 miles of hiking trails, which are connected to a larger,200 miles network of trails in neighboring public lands. The park received 564,000 visitors in as of 2003, Muir Woods National Monument is surrounded by the state park. From the peak of the mountain, visitors can see up to 25 miles, in a view that encompasses San Francisco, most of the North and East Bay, occasionally, the Sierra Nevada are visible,125 miles away. The Mountain Theater was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, the natural-stone amphitheater seats 3,750 people and features the Mountain Play each spring, produced every year since 1913. In the summer, monthly astronomy programs are held in the theater, - http, //www. parks. ca. gov/. page_id=471 Mount Tamalpais and Muir Woods Railway Official California State Parks department site describing the parkMount Tamalpais State Park – Hiking trail in Mount Tamalpais State Park
78. Henry Coe State Park – Henry W. Coe State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving a vast tract of the Diablo Range. The park is located closest to the city of Morgan Hill, the park contains over 87,000 acres, making it the largest state park in northern California, and the second-largest in the state. Managed within its boundaries is a wilderness area of about 22,000 acres. This is officially known as the Henry W. Coe State Wilderness, the 89, 164-acre park was established in 1959. Joaquin Murrieta and his gang used the route to drive stolen horses south from Contra Costa County, horses were held at several locations now contained within the park, including Mustang Flat and Coit Camp. Both Mustang Peak and Mustang Flat derive their names from the activities of Murrieta, the park began as the Pine Ridge Ranch, a private cattle ranch of 12,230 acres. It was the home of Henry Willard Coe, Jr. Coe left the ranch to his son, Henry Sutcliffe Coe, who sold it to the Beach Land and Cattle Company of Fresno County in 1948. The ranchs road network was expanded during this time. Coes daughter, Sada Coe Robinson, re-purchased the ranch in 1950 and donated it to Santa Clara County in 1953 and it became a state park in 1958. Additional adjacent lands were added, and for years, the parks size stood at 13,000 acres. Indeed, many currently available road maps still show the park in its 13,000 acre configuration. The park expanded considerably in the early 1980s with the purchase of adjacent properties to the east and south, in the early 1990s the Redfern Ranch added some 11,000 acres in the south, and since 2000 lands to the west have been purchased for inclusion. The northern part of the park, including the Orestimba Wilderness, was swept by a massive wildfire starting on September 3,2007, fire officials blamed the fire on burning debris within a barrel at a hunting club adjacent to the park. The person responsible for the fire forward, pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor charge. All areas affected by the fire were re-opened to unrestricted public access on February 16,2008, most of the ridges run around 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation, with canyon bottoms usually around 1,000 to 1,500 feet above sea level. The highest point in the park is on the northernmost boundary and this point may be considered to be on the slopes of Mt. Stakes, a mile north of the parks northern boundary. The lowest point in the park is at the Bell Station access point in the southeast, since this is a mere strip of land along a road right-of-way, it is often not thought of as an integral part of the state park. The lowest point in the body of the park is the place where the North Fork of Pacheco Creek flows out, at about 710 feet elevationHenry Coe State Park – Ponderosa Pines on summit of Pine Ridge
79. Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District – Formed in 1972 by voter initiative, the Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District is a non-enterprise special district in the San Francisco Bay Area. It has acquired and preserved a regional green belt of open land and provides opportunities for ecologically-sensitive public enjoyment. The Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District has permanently preserved over 62,000 acres of mountainous, foothill, of the Districts 26 preserves,24 are open to the public free of charge,365 days a year from dawn until one-half hour after sunset. The Districts tax and voter base consists of about 550 square miles and 741,000 people, mostly in Santa Clara, District revenues for fiscal year 2012-2013 were $33 million, with $30.3 million coming directly from a portion of property taxes. The District also occasionally receives state and federal grants, as well as private donations, most of the preserves are open to recreation. Popular activities are hiking, cycling, and horseback riding, camping is generally prohibited, though the Monte Bello Open Space Preserve does have a backpacking camp available by permit only. In total, the District has 226 mi of hiking trails, of which 150 mi is open to bicycles,182 mi to equestrians, preserves are relatively undeveloped, with most having only a parking area, trail signs, and possibly an outhouse. All preserves are open dawn to one-half hour after sunset. Berkeley, Heyday Books ISBN 978-1-59714-199-4 Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District openspace. org Home Page Information on District PreserveMidpeninsula Regional Open Space District – Monte Bello Open Space Preserve.