1. San Francisco Bay Area – The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses the cities and metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco. The Bay Areas nine counties are Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma. The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the Bay Area has the second-most Fortune 500 Companies in the United States, and is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics, entrepreneurship, and diversity. The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay, the inner East Bay is more densely populated, with generally older buildings, and a more ethnically diverse population. The word Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes, Lafayette, Moraga, walnut Creek is situated east of Lamorinda and north of the San Ramon Valley and, together with Concord, Martinez, and Pleasant Hill comprises Central Contra Costa County. The cities of Antioch, Pittsburg, Brentwood, Oakley and the areas surrounding them comprise East Contra Costa County. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador, the Livermore, and the San Ramon Valleys, dublin and Pleasanton comprise the Amador Valley, Livermore lies in the Livermore Valley, and the San Ramon Valley consists of Alamo, Danville, Diablo and its namesake, San Ramon. The outer East Bay is connected to the inner East Bay by BART, Interstate 580 to the south, and State Routes State Route 4 to the north, the outer East Bays infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades, the region north of the Golden Gate Bridge is known locally as the North Bay. This area encompasses Marin County, Sonoma County, Napa County, the city of Fairfield, being part of Solano County, is often considered the easternmost city of the North Bay. With few exceptions, this region is affluent, Marin County is ranked as the wealthiest in the state. The North Bay is relatively rural compared to the remainder of the Bay Area, with areas of undeveloped open space, farmland. Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bays largest city, with a population of 167,815 and a Metropolitan Statistical Area population of 466,891, making it the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area. The North Bay is the section of the Bay Area that is not currently served by a commuter rail service. The area from San Francisco to the Silicon Valley, geographically part of the San Francisco Peninsula, is known locally as The Peninsula, many of these families are of foreign background and have significantly contributed to the diversity of the area. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local terms, San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides, the north, east, and west. The city squeezes roughly 870,000 people in under 47 square miles, on any given day, there can be as many as 1 million people in the city because of the commuting population and tourismSan Francisco Bay Area – San Francisco
2. San Francisco Bay – San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, estuaries, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later, wetlands and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space. As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, controversial, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary. The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hillsSan Francisco Bay – San Francisco Bay Area
3. San Pablo Bay – San Pablo Bay is a tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in the East Bay and North Bay regions of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California. San Pablo Bay was named after Rancho San Pablo, a Spanish land grant given to colonial Alta California settlers in 1815, the bay is approximately 10 mi across and has an area of approximately 90 sq mi. The bay is heavily silted from the contributions of the two rivers, which drain most of the Central Valley of California. All tributaries except for Sonoma Creek are commercially navigable and maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, two peninsulas separate San Pablo Bay from San Francisco Bay. The eastern is in the City of Richmond and the western in the City of San Rafael, the bay is shared between Contra Costa county on the southern and eastern shore, and Solano, Sonoma and Marin counties on the northern and western shores. The county boundaries meet near the center of the bay, communities on the shores of San Pablo Bay include, Richmond, San Pablo, Pinole, Hercules, Rodeo in Contra Costa County, Vallejo in Solano County, along with Novato and San Rafael in Marin County. Because the Bay is close to major and local airports. Because of its size but shallow waters, San Pablo Bay frequently has difficult boating conditions. There are many undeveloped shore lands with salt marshes and mudflats, the Bay is a primary wintering stop for the canvasback duck population on the Pacific Flyway, as well as a migratory staging ground for numerous species of waterfowl. Much of the shore of the bay is protected as part of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Endangered species that are found in the bay include the California brown pelican, California clapper rail and this is a popular destination for recreation fishing, with Saltwater species including, striped bass, surfperch, sturgeon, starry flounder, leopard shark, topsmelt, and anchovy. In the 1880s there was a village, where some 500 Chinese people lived. The location is now part of China Camp State Park, San Pablo Bay is the setting of alternative rock band Primuss four-part song series Fishermans Chronicles, and is also referenced in The Toys Go Winding Down and Harold of the Rocks. It is also mentioned in The Minus 5 song John Barleycorn Must Live, provides a brief history of the marshes of San Pablo BaySan Pablo Bay – San Pablo Bay, shown with San Francisco Bay
4. Northern California – Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, in 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a geographic designation. Californias north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco, popularly, though, Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, the term is also applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains. Because of Californias large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well, the state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the economic, scientific. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is also Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, Northern Californias largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno, Turlock and Modesto. The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any area in California. The states larger cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1542, beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, in 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of todays San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored Californias coast as far north as Monterey Bay, other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established. The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast, the mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776Northern California – Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
5. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo VespucciUnited States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
6. San Francisco County, California – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco County, California – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
7. Santa Clara County, California – Santa Clara County, California, officially the County of Santa Clara, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,781,642, the county seat is San Jose, the tenth-most populous city in the United States. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is also known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area region, Santa Clara County is named after Mission Santa Clara, which was established in 1777, and is also named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the counties of California. The original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Coyote Creek, part of the countys territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries. The result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad,118 U. S.394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the Valley of the Hearts Delight due to its natural beauty, the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943, varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, and other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a presence in the area. The term Silicon Valley was coined in 1971, the trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and agriculture has since then been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. And Hewlett-Packard, and internet companies eBay, Facebook, Google, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. The San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the south, as of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. The vast majority of these Superfund sites were caused by associated with the high tech sector located in Silicon Valley. As of 2013, Santa Clara County has the highest median income of any county in California at $84,741. The 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Clara County had a population of 1,781,642. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 479,210 persons,22. 5% Mexican,0. 4% Puerto Rican,0. 1% Cuban,3. 8% Other HispanicSanta Clara County, California
8. Sonoma County, California – Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878 and its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is located to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County and it is west of Napa County and Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is the northwestern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which also includes Napa, Mendocino. It possesses thirteen approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries, in 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. More than 7.4 million tourists each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College, Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use, Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit largely divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007, grapes and pasturage. The voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, and other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, spaniards, Russians, and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber, fur, and farmland. The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County and this settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter, settler and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento. The Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846, Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat originally the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, the town of Sonoma had declined in importance in terms of commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, and it was relatively remote. As a result, elements in the newer, rapidly growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, the dispute ultimately was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa. Allegedly, several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, some of the countys land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860Sonoma County, California
9. National park – A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible. The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years later was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being also the worlds first national park. In some European countries, however, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territoryNational park – An elephant safari through the Jaldapara National Park in West Bengal, India
10. Commuter rail – Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used and they primarily serve lower density suburban areas, and often share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours, average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved, some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains distance varies between 15 and 200 km, sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are often available on trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs, however, frequently they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays, especially where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the standard gauge track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge, some countries, including Finland, India, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the USA and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters, most S-bahns typically behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, and long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city. The distances between stations however, are usually short, in larger systems there is usually a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into. Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Munich and Frankfurt, S-Bahns do also exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and very little exclusive trackage. A similar network exists in Copenhagen called the S-tog, in Hamburg and Copenhagen, other, diesel driven trains, do continue where the S-Bahn ends. Regional rail usually provides rail services between towns and cities, rather than purely linking major population hubs in the way inter-city rail does, Regional rail operates outside major cities. Unlike Inter-city, it stops at most or all stations between cities and it provides a service between smaller communities along the line, and also connections with long-distance services at interchange stations located at junctions or at larger towns along the line. Alternative names are local train or stopping train, examples include the former BRs Regional Railways, Frances TER, Germanys DB Regio and South Koreas Tonggeun servicesCommuter rail – The Long Island Rail Road operates electric and diesel service into New York City along with Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit Rail.
11. List of urban areas by population – This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population as of 2014/2015. The figures here have taken from Demographias World Urban Areas study. Demographia defines an area as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market. Except in Australia, the use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer. Demographia uses maps, satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization, Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units often includes large rural areas. Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, a, National census authority data agglomeration data. B, Demographia land area based upon map or satellite photograph analysis. C, Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas, D, Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate. E, Demographia population estimate from national census authority data, F, Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports. L, Demographia population estimate from local authority data, N, Combined urban area using national census authority data. W, Population estimate based upon the World Bank Urban Area 2015 estimate and this is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas. Urban areas are confined to a nation, unless there is freedom of movement between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland, thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. Brinkhoff, The Principal Agglomerations of the World Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques insee. fr - Geopolis study of urban areas Gridded Population of the WorldList of urban areas by population – Population tables of world cities
12. San Joaquin County, California – San Joaquin County /ˈsæn wɑːˈkiːn/ is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306, San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton-Lodi, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the more inclusive San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located in Northern Californias Central Valley, just east of the less extensive nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region, the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, the county was named for the San Joaquin River which runs through it. San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valleys first permanent residence and it was developed for ranching and agriculture. It attracted more miners and settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush, on August 7,1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Roysters Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out. The cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,426 square miles. The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54N 121°12W, San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons, the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, and as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people,181,629 households, the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at a density of 135 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58. 1% White,6. 7% Black or African American,1. 1% Native American,11. 4% Asian,0. 4% Pacific Islander,16. 3% from other races, and 6. 1% from two or more races. 30. 5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,9. 3% were of German,5. 3% Irish and 5. 0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66. 4% spoke English,21. 3% Spanish,2. 2% Tagalog,1. 8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian,1. 1% Vietnamese and 1. 1% Hmong as their first language. 20. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48San Joaquin County, California
13. Santa Cruz County, California – Santa Cruz County, California, officially the County of Santa Cruz, is a county on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,382, the county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county is on the California Central Coast, south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast, Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of Branciforte after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797, a major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months later on April 5,1850, the name was changed to Santa Cruz, mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 607 square miles. It is the second-smallest county in California by land area and third-smallest by total area, of Californias counties, only San Francisco is physically smaller. The county is situated on a coastline with over 29 miles of beaches. It is a strip of about 10 miles wide between the coast and the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains at the end of the Monterey Bay. Agriculture is concentrated in the lowlands of the countys northern and southern ends. Most of the coastline is flanked by cliffs, like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. The 2010 United States Census reported Santa Cruz County had a population of 262,382, hispanic or Latino of any race were 84,092 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 255,602 people,91,139 households, the population density was 574 people per square mile. There were 98,873 housing units at a density of 222 per square mile. 25. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was out with 23. 8% under the age of 18,11. 9% from 18 to 24,30. 8% from 25 to 44,23. 5% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 99.7 malesSanta Cruz County, California
14. Sacramento County – Sacramento County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,418,788 and its county seat is Sacramento, which has been the state capital of California since 1854. Sacramento County is included in the Sacramento-Roseville-Arden-Arcade, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county covers about 994 square miles in the northern portion of the Central Valley, on into Gold Country. The southernmost portion of Sacramento County has direct access to San Francisco Bay, Sacramento County was one of the original counties of California, which were created in 1850 at the time of statehood. The county was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border, the river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santisimo Sacramento, referring to the Catholic Eucharist. Alexander Hamilton Willard, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, is buried in the old Franklin Cemetery. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 994 square miles. Most of the county is at a close to sea level. The highest point in the county is Carpenter Hill at 828 feet, Carpenter Hill is the lowest high point of any county in California. Major watercourses in the county include the American River, Sacramento River, Cosumnes River, a tributary of the Mokelumne River and Dry Creek, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 306,196 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,223,499 people,453,602 households, the population density was 1,267 people per square mile. There were 474,814 housing units at a density of 492/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 64. 0% White,10. 6% Black or African American,1. 09% Native American,13. 5% Asian,0. 6% Pacific Islander,7. 5% from other races, and 5. 8% from two or more races. 19. 3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,10. 2% were of German,7. 0% English,6. 7% Irish and 5. 1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 75. 7% spoke only English at home,10. 0% spoke Spanish,1. 5% Hmong,1. 4% Chinese or Mandarin,1. 3% Vietnamese,1. 2% Tagalog and 1. 2% Russian. 26. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.24. In the county, the population was out with 27. 6% under the age of 18,9. 5% from 18 to 24,31. 0% from 25 to 44,20. 9% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 95.9 malesSacramento County
15. Suisun Bay – Suisun Bay is a shallow tidal estuary in northern California. It lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, forming the entrance to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, Suisun Marsh, the tidal marsh land to the north, is the largest marsh in California. Grizzly Bay forms an extension of Suisun Bay. The bay is directly north of Contra Costa County, the bay was named in 1811, after the Suisunes, a Native American tribe of the area. The word originates with the Patwin, on the west, Suisun Bay is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which connects to San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay. In addition to the bridges at the Carquinez Strait, it is spanned in its center by the Benicia-Martinez Bridge. It is the anchorage of the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, a collection of U. S. Navy and merchant reserve ships, the Glomar Explorer was anchored here after recovering a sunken Soviet submarine in the mid-1970s. Many ships were removed and sold for scrap in the 1990s, in 2010, plans were announced to remove the mothball fleet in stages, with final removal by 2017. The Central Pacific Railroad built a ferry that operated between Benicia and Port Costa, California from 1879 to 1930. The ferry boats Solano and Contra Costa were removed from service when the nearby Martinez railroad bridge was completed in 1930, from 1913 until 1954 the Sacramento Northern Railway, an electrified interurban line, crossed Suisun Bay with the Ramon, a distillate-powered train ferry. Kinder Morgan pleaded guilty to operating a corroded pipeline and paid three dollars in penalties and restitution. Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet Kinder Morgan Information Regarding Pipeline Release Suisun Bays ghost fleet may finally R. I. PSuisun Bay – San Pablo Bay with Suisun Bay at upper right
16. Modern liberalism in the United States – Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. It is characterized by social liberalism, and combines ideas of liberty and equality with support for social justice. The term modern liberalism in this article refers only to the United States, in a global context, this philosophy is usually referred to as social liberalism. The American modern liberal philosophy strongly endorses public spending on such as education, health care. Important social issues today include addressing inequality, voting rights for minorities, affirmative action, reproductive and other rights, support for LGBT rights. American liberals oppose conservatives on most issues, but not all, Modern liberalism is historically related to social liberalism and progressivism, though the current relationship between liberal and progressive viewpoints is debated. John F. Kennedy defined a liberal as follows, keynesian economic theory has played an important role in the economic philosophy of modern American liberals. Modern American liberals generally believe that national prosperity requires government management of the macroeconomy, in order to keep unemployment low, inflation in check and they also value institutions that defend against economic inequality. In The Conscience of a Liberal Paul Krugman writes, I believe in an equal society, supported by institutions that limit extremes of wealth. I believe in democracy, civil liberties, and the rule of law and that makes me a liberal, and Im proud of it. Liberals often point to the prosperity enjoyed under a mixed economy in the years since World War II. They believe liberty exists when access to necessities like health care and economic opportunity are available to all, Modern American liberalism is typically associated with the Democratic Party, as modern American conservatism is typically associated with the Republican Party. Today the word liberalism is used differently in different countries, one of the greatest contrasts is between the usage in the United States and usage in Europe. According to Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. Liberalism in the American usage has little in common with the word as used in the politics of any European country, save possibly Britain. In Europe, liberalism, usually means what is called classical liberalism, a commitment to limited government, laissez-faire economics. This classical liberalism sometimes more closely corresponds to the American definition of libertarianism, in the United States, the general term liberalism will almost always refer to modern liberalism, a more social variant of classical liberalism. A2015 Gallup poll found that liberal views have consistently been on the rise in America since 1999. As of 2015, there is an equal number of socially liberal Americans and socially conservative AmericansModern liberalism in the United States – Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way
17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory – Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center, it is funded by the U. S. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it, LLNL is self-described as a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering. The Laboratory is located on a site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres remote experimental test site, called Site 300, LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees. LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore and it was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence, director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility, the new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than a university campus. Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a graduate student of his. Under York, the Lab had four programs, Project Sherwood, Project Whitney, diagnostic weapon experiments. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had close relationships on research projects, business operations. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley Laboratory, the Livermore Lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley Lab until 1971. The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1971, on October 1,2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the Laboratory has been controversial, in May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former Laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008. The jury found that LLNS breached an obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause. ”The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNSLawrence Livermore National Laboratory – Aerial view of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
18. University of California, Berkeley – The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservativesUniversity of California, Berkeley – View, from Memorial Glade, of Sather Tower (The Campanile), the center of UC Berkeley. The ring of its bells and clock can be heard from all over campus.
19. URS Corporation – URS Corporation was an engineering, design, and construction firm and a U. S. federal government contractor. Headquartered in San Francisco, California, URS was a full-service, global organization with offices located in the Americas, Europe, Africa, URS was acquired by AECOM on October 17,2014. URS Corporation’s oldest predecessor company was founded in 1904, URS was established in 1951 and incorporated in 1957 as Broadview Research – a research group active in the area of physical and engineering sciences. In 1967, management developed a strategy focused on building a multidisciplinary professional services firm. In 1968, Broadview Research acquired United Research Incorporated of Cambridge, during this period, the name Broadview Research was changed to United Research Services and later shortened to URS. URS was publicly traded as NYSE, URS from January 13,1978 through its acquisition by AECOM on October 17,2014 and it was originally traded as Thortec. As of June 2013, the firm had more than 50,000 employees worldwide, following announcements in early February 2014 that the fiscal year 2013 revenue and earnings were below expectations, URS made some management changes. URS had acquired Flint Energy Services for $1.25 billion in February 2012, creating an oil, issues in the oil and gas division were cited for the poor financial performance in fiscal year 2013 and URS announced the resignation of senior staff from that division. The final acquisition was decided on October 17,2014, in 1996, URS acquired Greiner Engineering for $73.5 million. Greiner Engineering had been established in 1908 by John E. Greiner, Greiner was a former engineer for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and worked at one time for Gustav Lindenthal, including on the Seventh Street Bridge. The Woodward-Clyde Group joined URS in 1997, bringing additional environmental capabilities, when Dames & Moore Group joined in 1999, URS further strengthened its program and construction management expertise and added to its FORTUNE500 client base. In February 1999, URS also acquired transport consultant Thorburn Colquhoun, in 2002, URS acquired EG&G Technical Services, positioning the company as a leading U. S. federal services contractor. In November 2007, URS acquired Washington Group International of Boise for $3. 1B and operated it as the Energy, on June 12,2009, URS Chief Executive Officer Martin Koffel indicated the company was still on the hunt for transformative acquisitions. An analyst with Gabelli & Co. stated that KBR, Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, on September 10,2010, URS completed its acquisition of the British engineering firm Scott Wilson Group. On June 2,2011, URS completed its acquisition of Apptis Holdings, URS announced its acquisition of Flint Energy Services, a provider of construction services in the oil and gas industry, based in Calgary, Alberta, on February 20,2012. On October 20,2014, URS was officially acquired by AECOM. S, sellafield is one of the largest and most complex nuclear sites in the U. K. storing and treating nuclear waste from both the U. K. s military and civil nuclear programs. URS was the contractor for the Port Washington Generating Station in Wisconsin, an 1100 MW combined-cycle power plant, URS also helped build the state-of-the-art Holcim cement manufacturing plant in Missouri, one of the world’s largest cement manufacturing facilities in the world. The I-35W bridge in Minneapolis collapsed in August 2007, killing 13 people, in 2003, URS had been retained by the Minnesota Department of Transportation to conduct a fatigue evaluation and a redundancy analysis of the bridgeURS Corporation – URS Corporation
20. Texas A&M University System – The Texas A&M University System is a state university system in Texas and is one of the states six independent university systems. A&M System members educate more than 140,000 students and reach another 22 million people through each year. With more than 26,000 faculty and staff, the A&M System has a presence in 250 of the state’s 254 counties. System-wide, externally funded research expenditures exceed $972 million, the Systems flagship institution is Texas A&M University in College Station. The oldest institution and founding member of the A&M System is Texas A&M University, many of the member universities and agencies joined the A&M System decades after being established. Its flagship institution is Texas A&M University, the institution now named The University of Texas at Arlington was a member from 1917 to 1965. With a direct presence in all 254 Texas counties, A&M System agencies offer research, the agencies focused on addressing and improving the social, economic, educational, health and environmental conditions of Texans. The HSC received full accreditation in December 2002 from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master’s and its components are accredited by accrediting organizations specific to their areas. The Health Science Center in 2013 was merged into Texas A&M University proper and is no longer an independent institution, each member is appointed by the Governor of Texas for a six-year term and the terms overlap. In addition, a student regent is appointed by the Governor for a one-year term. Martinez In addition to the Board of Regents, System governance is also assisted by the System Executive Committee, the Texas A&M University System Executive Committee provides the chancellor with assessment, advice and recommendations on issues within the A&M System and the System Offices. The 14-member committee may also aid the Board of Regents in implementing and overseeing strategic plans and policies as they relate to the system. Byington, M. D. Vice Chancellor for Health Services M. Katherine Banks, Vice Chancellor & Dean of Engineering Mark Hussey, Vice Chancellor & Dean of Agriculture, the Texas A&M University System Texas A&M Health Science CenterTexas A&M University System – The Texas A&M University System
21. Livermorium – Livermorium is a synthetic superheavy element with symbol Lv and atomic number 116. It is a radioactive element that has only been created in the laboratory and has not been observed in nature. The name of the laboratory refers to the city of Livermore, California where it is located, the name was adopted by IUPAC on May 30,2012. Four isotopes of livermorium are known, with numbers between 290 and 293 inclusive, the longest-lived among them is livermorium-293 with a half-life of about 60 milliseconds. In the periodic table, it is a transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in group 16 as the heaviest chalcogen, Livermorium is calculated to have some similar properties to its lighter homologues, and be a post-transition metal, although it should also show several major differences from them. In late 1998, Polish physicist Robert Smolańczuk published calculations on the fusion of atomic nuclei towards the synthesis of atoms, including oganesson. His calculations suggested that it might be possible to make these two elements by fusing lead with krypton under carefully controlled conditions. In June 2002, the director of the lab announced that the claim of the discovery of these two elements had been based on data fabricated by principal author Victor Ninov. Livermorium was first synthesized on July 19,2000, when scientists at Dubna bombarded a target with accelerated calcium-48 ions. A single atom was detected, decaying by alpha emission with decay energy 10.54 MeV to an isotope of flerovium, the results were published in December 2000. Later work in December 2002 indicated that the synthesized flerovium isotope was actually 289Fl, two further atoms were reported by the institute during their second experiment during April–May 2001. In the same experiment they detected a decay chain which corresponded to the first observed decay of flerovium in December 1998. No flerovium isotope with the properties as the one found in December 1998 has ever been observed again. Later it was found that 289Fl have different decay properties and that the first observed flerovium atom may have been its nuclear isomer 289mFl, neither possibility is certain, and research is required to positively assign this activity. The team repeated the experiment in April–May 2005 and detected 8 atoms of livermorium, the measured decay data confirmed the assignment of the first-discovered isotope as 293Lv. In this run, the team also observed the isotope 292Lv for the first time, in further experiments from 2004 to 2006, the team replaced the curium-248 target with the lighter curium isotope curium-245. Here evidence was found for the two isotopes 290Lv and 291Lv, in May 2009, the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party reported on the discovery of copernicium and acknowledged the discovery of the isotope 283CnLivermorium – Robert Livermore, the indirect namesake of livermorium
22. Brownie Mary – Mary Jane Rathbun, popularly known as Brownie Mary, was an American medical cannabis activist. As a hospital volunteer at San Francisco General Hospital, she became known for baking and distributing cannabis brownies to AIDS patients. She also contributed to the establishment of the San Francisco Cannabis Buyers Club, Rathbun was arrested on three occasions, with each arrest bringing increased local, national, and international media attention to the medical cannabis movement. Her grandmotherly appearance generated public sympathy for her cause and undermined attempts by the attorneys office to prosecute her for possession. The City of San Francisco eventually gave Rathbun permission to distribute cannabis brownies to people with AIDS and her arrests generated interest in the medical community and motivated researchers to propose one of the first clinical trials to study the effects of cannabinoids in HIV-infected adults. Brownie Mary was born Mary Jane Rathbun in Chicago, Illinois and her mother, a conservative Irish Catholic, named her Mary Jane. She was raised in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where she attended Catholic school, at the age of 13, she was involved in an altercation with a nun who tried to cane her, but Rathbun fought back. As a teenager, she moved out of her home and found a job as a waitress, Social activism appealed to her from a young age, she traveled from Chicago to Wisconsin to campaign for the right of miners to form unions. In the late 1940s, she worked as an activist promoting abortion rights for women in Minneapolis, during World War II, she moved to San Francisco, California, where she met a man at a United Service Organization dance. The marriage produced a daughter, Peggy, who was born in 1955 and she later moved to Reno, Nevada, but after Peggy was killed by a drunk driver in a car accident in the early 1970s, Rathbun returned to San Francisco. Rathbun first met fellow activist Dennis Peron in 1974 in the Castro district at Cafe Flore, Rathbun baked and sold cannabis brownies for profit out of her house. Peron also sold Rathbuns brownies at his Big Top pot supermarket on Castro Street and he was shot in the leg during a police raid on his business in 1977. In the early 1980s, Rathbun was baking about 50 dozen cannabis brownies per day and she advertised her original recipe brownies on San Francisco bulletin boards, calling them magically delicious. When Rathbun opened the door, she told the police. She was 57 years old when she was first arrested and it was at this time that the media began calling her Brownie Mary. She pleaded guilty to nine counts of possession and received three years probation, the judge also sentenced her to 500 hours of community service. Rathbun began working with the Shanti Project, a group for people with HIV/AIDS. According to Peron, Those first 500 hours she worked at a variety of places, from the gay thrift store to the Shanti project, Mary had lost her only daughter in an auto accidentBrownie Mary – Brownie Mary speaking at People's Park
23. San Francisco General Hospital – The hospital serves poor, elderly people, uninsured working families, and immigrants. About 80 percent of its patient population either receives publicly funded health insurance or is uninsured, SFGH also cares for the homeless, who make up about 8 percent of its patients. It is the largest acute inpatient and rehabilitation hospital for patients in the City. Additionally, it is the acute hospital in San Francisco that provides twenty-four-hour psychiatric emergency services in San Francisco. In addition to the approximately 3,500 San Francisco municipal employees, the hospital, especially its Ward 86, was instrumental in treating and identifying early cases of AIDS. The original brick building was replaced with a concrete one with construction started in 1971. The hospital is located at 1001 Potrero Avenue between the Mission District and Potrero Hill, U. S. Route 101 rounds its east side at “Hospital Curve”. A new San Francisco General Hospital acute care building is currently under construction on the site and is planned to be opened in May 2016 and it will be the only hospital in San Francisco built with a base-isolated foundation, the latest technology for protecting buildings during seismic activity. 1850, San Francisco Granted a city Charter and creates a Board of Health, cholera strikes,1857, City and County opens its first permanent hospital in the former North Beach schoolhouse at Stockton and Francisco streets. 1864, “In the fall of 1864, Dr. Hugh Toland opened his new medical school, the Medical School building was located on Stockton Street near Chestnut adjacent to the City and County Hospital. In 1865, Toland was granted permission to use the hospital for clinical instruction. ” 1872, “On August 28,1872, the New City-County Hospital on Potrero Street was opened. It was described as a two-story, wooden building with a brick foundation. ” 1873, Agreement allows City and County Hospital to serve as UC. 1906, “The Earthquake and Great Fire devastate the City in April 18,1906. The Hospital with its frame structure anchored on the firm rock of Potrero Hill survived more or less intact, with minimal injury to inmates or staff. ” 1907, Long needed children’s ward. 1924, Psychiatric ward opens to treat ill patients and reduce state hospital admissions. 1959, “In May 1959 in the first contract with the University of California was signed and amounted to 1% of the hospital budget or $154,000. The value of teaching programs to a hospital was emphasized by the university in their negotiations with the city. ” 1963. It was named the Briggs-Barnett library after two former chiefs of medicine on the UC and Stanford service. ” 1965, “The pressing need for more beds, the general overcrowdingSan Francisco General Hospital – San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center
24. Cannabis foods – A cannabis edible, also called cannabis-infused food, is a food product that contains cannabinoids, especially THC. Cannabis edibles are consumed for both medical and recreational purposes, during preparation, the cannabis or its extract must be heated sufficiently to cause decarboxylation of its most abundant cannabinoid, THCA, converting it into the psychoactive THC. The oil-solubility of cannabis extracts has been known since ancient times, making a tea by boiling cannabis in water is a highly inefficient way to extract psychoactive cannabinoids. Adding milk when steeping, however, makes it more efficient than using plain water. Modern interest in edible cannabis is credited to the publication of The Alice B, Toklas included a recipe for Haschich Fudge which was contributed by artist and friend Brion Gysin when it was published in 1954. Although it was omitted from the first American editions, Toklas name, whereas the effects from smoking cannabis are usually felt within a few minutes, it can take up to two hours to reach full effects after ingesting it. Cannabis produces THCA, an acid with the group attached. It is only when the group is removed that the THCA becomes THC. Liquid THC and other cannabinoids have a point of between 180-200 °C. Before it turns gaseous, the group is released from the molecule as carbon dioxide. In the cooking of edible products, some research indicates heating cannabis to a temperature of 122 °C for 27 minutes to be the optimum method to optimize THC. Because oral doses are processed by the liver before entering the bloodstream, oral THC produces high levels of active metabolite 11-Hydroxy-THC, 11-OH-THC is more potent than THC and crosses the blood–brain barrier more easily. Hash cookies are bakery products made using hashish, a mild flavor can be detectable if sufficient quantities are used. Many resources for recipes, preparation, and dosage are available online, though they vary greatly in effectiveness, toklass inclusion of her friend Brion Gysins recipe for Haschich Fudge in her 1954 literary memoir The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook caused a sensation at the time, and led to her name becoming associated with food with the use of the phrase Alice B. Toklas brownies for many years afterwards, space cakes is a common name for muffins, brownies, and cookies baked with marijuana, which are very popular in the Netherlands. It used to sometimes be popular to frost these with psilocybin mushroom frosting, cannabis-infused drinks have become an increasingly popular method of consuming cannabinoids, especially in U. S. states that have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Mirth Provisions is one of the largest companies in the emerging cannabis-infused beverage market, cannabis oils, or marijuana oils are products based in cooking oils that have been infused with cannabinoids by mixing cannabis with the heated oilCannabis foods – A cookie containing medical grade cannabis
25. Chocolate brownie – A brownie is a square baked dessert. It is a cross between a cake and a cookie in texture and comes in a variety of forms. Depending on its density, it may be either fudgy or cakey and may include chips, nuts. A variation made with sugar and chocolate bits but without melted chocolate in the batter is called a blonde brownie or blondie. The brownie was developed in the United States at the end of the 19th century and popularized in the U. S. and Canada during the first half of the 20th century. Brownies are typically eaten by hand, often accompanied by milk, served warm with ice cream, topped with whipped cream, or sprinkled with powdered sugar and they are common lunchbox treats, and also popular in restaurants and coffeehouses. One legend about the creation of brownies is that of Bertha Palmer, in 1893 Palmer asked a pastry chef for a dessert suitable for ladies attending the Chicago Worlds Columbian Exposition. She requested a cake-like confection smaller than a piece of cake that could be included in boxed lunches, the result was the Palmer House Brownie with walnuts and an apricot glaze. The modern Palmer House Hotel serves a dessert to patrons made from the same recipe, the name was given to the dessert sometime after 1893, but was not used by cook books or journals at the time. The earliest-known published recipes for a modern style chocolate brownie appeared in the Home Cookery, Service Club Cook Book, The Boston Globe, and these recipes produced a relatively mild and cake-like brownie. By 1907 the brownie was well established in a recognizable form and it added an extra egg and an additional square of chocolate, creating a richer, fudgier dessert. The name Bangor Brownie appears to have derived from the town of Bangor, Maine. Maine food educator and columnist Mildred Brown Schrumpf was the proponent of the theory that brownies were invented in Bangor. List of baked goods Chicagos Palmer House Chocolate Fudge Brownie, panel Gives Baking Mixes a High Score. The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, the Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Media related to Brownies at Wikimedia Commons Brownie at Wikibook CookbooksChocolate brownie – Chocolate brownie
26. Cannabinoid – A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for these proteins include the endocannabinoids, the phytocannabinoids. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol is another constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects, the discovery of the first cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s helped to resolve this debate. These receptors are common in animals, and have found in mammals, birds, fish. At present, there are two types of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2, with mounting evidence of more. The human brain has more cannabinoid receptors than any other G protein-coupled receptor type, CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain, more specifically in the basal ganglia and in the limbic system, including the hippocampus. They are also found in the cerebellum and in male and female reproductive systems. CB1 receptors are absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain responsible for respiratory. CB1 is also found in the anterior eye and retina. CB2 receptors are found in the immune system, or immune-derived cells with the greatest density in the spleen. While found only in the nervous system, a report does indicate that CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum. CB2 receptors appear to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and possibly other therapeutic effects of cannabis seen in animal models, the classical cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes. At least 113 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the Cannabis plant To the right, the best studied cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. All classes derive from cannabigerol-type compounds and differ mainly in the way this precursor is cyclized, the classical cannabinoids are derived from their respective 2-carboxylic acids by decarboxylation. CBG CBC CBL CBV THCV CBDV CBCV CBGV CBGM THC THCA CBD CBDA Tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive component of the Cannabis plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, mimic the actions of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol neurotransmitters produced naturally in the body and these cannabinoids produce the effects associated with cannabis by binding to the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brainCannabinoid – The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes
27. Robert Livermore – Robert Thomas Livermore was an English rancher and landowner influential in the early days of California. His holdings eventually formed the basis of the city bears his name, Livermore. Born in Springfield, Essex, Livermore was an apprentice as a youth. At the age of 17, he decided to go to sea, arriving in Baltimore, Maryland, he enlisted in the United States Navy and traveled to South America. He subsequently was part of Lord Cochranes crew in 1820 during the Peruvian War of Independence against Spain, after Peru, he signed on with an English trading ship bound for California. In 1822, he deserted from his ship in San Pedro, at that time, there were only a handful of English-speakers in Alta California, and Livermore probably also met the American Joseph John Chapman. Livermore worked for a time at Mission San Gabriel and then moved north, working as the mayordomo at Rancho Bolsa del Potrero y Moro Cojo of Joaquín de la Torre, near Castroville. On 20 June 1823, Robert was baptized at the Mission Santa Clara into the Catholic faith, at about the same time, in Monterey, he requested and was given permission by Governor Pablo Vicente de Solá to remain in California. In 1834 Livermore and his business partner José Noriega were keeping livestock at Rancho Las Positas and they purchased half of the land grant from William Gulnac in 1837, and officially received the grant in 1839. The only other inhabitant of the area at the time, besides the Ohlone, was José Amador, Livermore and Amador both helped each other build their adobes. On 5 May 1838, Livermore married the widow Maria Josefa de Jesus Higuera Molina, daughter of Jose Loreto Higuera, grantee of Rancho Los Tularcitos, at the Mission San José. Josefas grandfather, Ygnacio Higuera had been a member of Gaspar de Portolàs Expedition Sancta in 1769 and had accompanied Juan Bautista de Anza in his expedition of 1775–76. They first settled in the Sunol Valley, but later moved to Las Positas, as he was making trips there to manage his rancho. Initially an adobe built by Livermore and Amador served as their house on the rancho. In 1850, a wooden house was shipped around Cape Horn. Later the adobe structure was rented to Nathaniel Greene Patterson who used it as a small hotel, the ranchos economy was based on cattle, hides, and tallow, as well as agriculture. Livermore planted the first wine grapes in the area and today, Livermore studiously avoided involvement in politics, and all evidence indicates he got along well with both the Mexican and Anglo communities, even becoming a Mexican citizen in 1844. His only participation in the surrounding the conquest of California was to help carry word from Commodore John Drake Sloat to John CRobert Livermore – Robert Livermore
28. Periodic table – The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. This ordering shows periodic trends, such as elements with similar behaviour in the same column and it also shows four rectangular blocks with some approximately similar chemical properties. In general, within one row the elements are metals on the left, the rows of the table are called periods, the columns are called groups. Six groups have names as well as numbers, for example, group 17 elements are the halogens, and group 18, the noble gases. The periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the properties of the elements, and predict the properties of new elements yet to be discovered or synthesized, the periodic table provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical behaviour, and is widely used in chemistry and other sciences. The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first widely recognized periodic table in 1869 and he developed his table to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements. Mendeleev also predicted some properties of elements that would be expected to fill gaps in this table. Most of his predictions were proved correct when the elements in question were subsequently discovered, Mendeleevs periodic table has since been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour. The first 94 elements exist naturally, although some are only in trace amounts and were synthesized in laboratories before being found in nature. Elements with atomic numbers from 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories or nuclear reactors, synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is being pursued. Numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements have also produced in laboratories. Each chemical element has an atomic number representing the number of protons in its nucleus. Most elements have differing numbers of neutrons among different atoms, with variants being referred to as isotopes. Isotopes are never separated in the table, they are always grouped together under a single element. Elements with no stable isotopes have the masses of their most stable isotopes. In the standard periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number, a new row is started when a new electron shell has its first electron. Columns are determined by the configuration of the atom, elements with the same number of electrons in a particular subshell fall into the same columns. Thus, it is easy to predict the chemical properties of an element if one knows the properties of the elements around itPeriodic table – Dmitri Mendeleev
29. California's 12th congressional district – Californias 12th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013, currently, the 12th district is entirely within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, when the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County. As Californias population grew, however, the district generally shrank in area and progressed northward, richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. Nancy Pelosi, the 60th Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district, as of April 2015, there are five living former members of the House of Representatives from this district. The most recent representative to die was Tom Lantos, who died in office on February 11,2008, list of United States congressional districts GovTrack. us, Californias 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns, District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12California's 12th congressional district – Jerry Voorhis
30. Jeff Sessions – Jefferson Beauregard Jeff Sessions III is an American politician and lawyer who is the 84th Attorney General of the United States. Sessions served as the junior United States Senator from Alabama from 1997 until 2017, Sessions was elected Attorney General of Alabama in 1994, and to the U. S. Senate in 1996, being re-elected in 2002,2008, and 2014. During his time in Congress, Sessions was considered one of the most conservative members of the U. S. Senate and he opposed legal and illegal immigration and amnesty and supported expansion of the border fence with Mexico. He supported the legislative efforts of the George W. Bush administration, including the 2001 and 2003 tax cut packages, the Iraq War. He opposed the establishment of the Troubled Asset Relief Program, the 2009 stimulus bill, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, he opposed all three of President Obamas nominees for the Supreme Court. In November 2016, then-President-elect Donald Trump nominated Sessions for US Attorney General and he was confirmed on February 8,2017, with a 52–47 vote in the Senate, and was sworn in on February 9. In his Attorney General confirmation hearings, Sessions said that he did not have contact with Russian officials during the 2016 U. S. presidential campaign, in March 2017, news reports revealed that Sessions had twice met with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak in 2016. Sessions subsequently recused himself from any investigations into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election while some Democratic lawmakers called for his resignation. He was born in Selma, Alabama, on December 24,1946, the son of Jefferson Beauregard Sessions, Jr. and his father owned a general store in Hybart, Alabama, and then a farm equipment dealership. Both of Sessionss parents were of primarily English ancestry, with some Scots-Irish, in 1964, Sessions became an Eagle Scout, and later, he earned the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award for his many years of service. After attending Wilcox County High School in nearby Camden, Sessions studied at Huntingdon College in Montgomery and he was active in the Young Republicans and was student body president. Sessions attended the University of Alabama School of Law and graduated with a J. D. degree in 1973, Sessions entered private practice in Russellville and later in Mobile, where he now lives. He also served in the Army Reserve in the 1970s with the rank of captain, Sessions was an Assistant US Attorney in the Office of the US Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama beginning in 1975. In 1981, President Reagan nominated him to be the US Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama, the Senate confirmed him and he held that position for 12 years until Bill Clintons Attorney General, Janet Reno, asked for his resignation. Sessionss office filed civil charges in the 1981 killing of Michael Donald. Sessionss office did not prosecute the case, but both men were arrested and convicted, the prosecution stirred charges of selective prosecution of black voter registration. The defendants, known as the Marion Three, were acquitted of all charges by a jury after three hours of deliberation, interviewed in 2009, Sessions said he remained convinced that he did the right thing, but admitted he failed to make the case. In 1986, Reagan nominated Sessions to be a judge of the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Alabama, Sessionss judicial nomination was recommended and actively backed by Republican Alabama Senator Jeremiah DentonJeff Sessions – Jeff Sessions
31. Fremont, California – Fremont is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. It was incorporated on January 23,1956, from the merger of five communities, Centerville, Niles, Irvington, Mission San Jose. The city is named after American explorer John Charles Frémont, located in the southeast section of the San Francisco Bay Area in the East Bay region primarily, Fremont has a population of around 230,000. It is the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, and it is the closest East Bay city to Silicon Valley, and is thus sometimes associated with it. The area consisting of Fremont, Newark, and Union City, is now known as the Tri-City Area, Fremont is home to the largest population of Afghan Americans in the United States. The recorded history of the Fremont area began on June 6,1795, the Mission was established at the site of the Ohlone village of Oroysom. On their second day in the area, the Mission party killed a bear in Niles Canyon. The first English-speaking visitor to Fremont was the renowned trapper and explorer Jedediah Smith in 1827, the Mission prospered, eventually reaching a population of 1,887 inhabitants in 1831. The influence of the missionaries declined after 1834, when the Mexican government enacted secularization, José de Jesus Vallejo, brother of Mariano Vallejo, was the grantee of the Rancho Arroyo de la Alameda Mexican land grant. His family was influential in the Fremont area in the colonial era. In 1846 they were visited by the towns namesake John C, Frémont, who mapped a trail through Mission Pass to provide access for American settlers into the southeastern San Francisco Bay Area. The Fremont area grew rapidly at the time of the California Gold Rush, a town called Mission San Jose grew up around the old mission, with its own post office from 1850. Agriculture dominated the economy with grapes, nursery plants and olives as leading crops, in 1868 the 6. 8-magnitude Hayward earthquake on the Hayward Fault collapsed buildings throughout the Fremont area, ruining Mission San José and its outbuildings. Until the 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused its destruction, the Fremont areas Palmdale Winery was the largest in California, the ruins of the Palmdale Winery are still visible near the Five Corners in Irvington. From 1912 to 1915 the Niles section of the Fremont area was the earliest home of Californias motion picture industry, Charlie Chaplin filmed several movies in the Fremont area, most notably The Tramp. Fremont was incorporated under the leadership of Wally Pond in 1956, when the Glenmoor Gardens Homeowners Association was incorporated, in March 1953, there were no more than 75 houses in the subdivision. It was probably the first such organization in the Fremont area, in its scope, the five-member board of directors was set up to oversee a full range of services, from police and fire protection to street maintenance. Fremont became more industrialized between 1953 and 1962, a boom in high-tech employment in the 1980s to the late 1990s, especially in the Warm Springs District, caused rapid development in the city and linked the city with the Silicon ValleyFremont, California – A view of Mission Peak from Fremont Central Park
32. National Football League – The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four professional sports leagues in North America. The NFLs 17-week regular season runs from the week after Labor Day to the week after Christmas, with each team playing 16 games, the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, and the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season, the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. S. The NFLs executive officer is the commissioner, who has authority in governing the league. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen, the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Atlanta Falcons 34–28 in Super Bowl LI. Another meeting held on September 17,1920 resulted in the renaming of the league to the American Professional Football Association, the league hired Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of 14 teams. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain, the first event occurred on September 26,1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3,1920, the first full week of league play occurred, the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans. In 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League, in 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. This method had used since the leagues creation in 1920. The league quickly determined that a game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the leagues champion. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, the 1934 season also marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure, the NFL was always the foremost professional football league in the United States, it nevertheless faced a large number of rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues and the All-America Football Conference, on top of regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these leagues, including the Los Angeles RamsNational Football League – The headquarters of the National Football League at 345 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
33. Libby Schaaf – Elizabeth Beckman Libby Schaaf is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party. She is the mayor of Oakland, California and a member of the Oakland City Council. Schaaf won the November 4,2014, Oakland mayoral election in the 14th round in ranked choice voting with 62. 79% of the vote, before starting her political career, Schaaf was an attorney at the largest firm in Oakland at the time, Reed Smith LLP. She then became the director for the Marcus A. Foster Educational Institute in 1995. In 2009, Schaaf graduated from Emerge California, a training program for women who aspire to seek elected office. Before joining the Oakland City Council in 2010, Schaaf served as the Economic Policy Advisor for the council for a year, in 2010, Schaaf was elected to represent her home district, District 4, on the Oakland City Council. Schaaf also strove to increase government transparency and efficiency, build a safer city and she worked extensively on Oakland Police Department reform, hiring more civilian staff and pushing through a plan to unite both the Alameda and Oakland Police Departments. In the race for Oakland mayor, Schaaf was endorsed by Governor of California Jerry Brown, in June 2015, Mayor Schaaf announced the formation of Oakland’s first Department of Transportation. The Department of Transportation assumed some responsibilities formerly held by Oakland Public Works, such as design, resurfacing. In her announcement, Mayor Schaaf said that the focus will be on, “sustainable strategies that can bring needed change quickly to city streets. ”The Department of Transportation consists of 300 employees, previously working in the Department of Public Works and Oakland Police Departments Parking Enforcement operations. Funding for the Department of Transportation came from public resources, including Measure BB. Schaaf hired Matt Nichols as her Policy Director for Transportation and Infrastructure in March 2015, jeff Tumlin was named Interim Director of the department in June 2016. In May 2015, Mayor Schaaf instituted a ban on nighttime marches without permits in public roadways in Oakland, citing existing city policies. The first enforcement of this ban was on May 21, during a #SayHerName march, demonstrators met at Frank Ogawa Plaza before sunset for a rally. After the rally, demonstrators began to march onto the street, Police officers told them to keep to the sidewalks, and cited California Vehicle Code Section 2800, making it an arrestable offense not to comply with the police order. This was an interference with the demonstration given that there had been no serious crimes committed. Other legal experts pointed to similar policies in cities like New York, Schaaf was born in Oakland, California, on November 12,1965. Growing up in Oaklands District 4, Schaaf attended Head-Royce School and Skyline High School and she holds a B. A. in political science from Rollins College and a J. D. from Loyola Law SchoolLibby Schaaf – Oakland City Council member and Mayor-Elect Libby Schaaf commemorating the centennial of women gaining the right to vote in California.
34. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is the 45th and current President of the United States. Prior to entering politics he was a businessman and television personality, Trump was born and raised in Queens, New York City, and earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He then took charge of The Trump Organization, the estate and construction firm founded by his paternal grandmother, which he ran for four. During his real career, Trump has built, renovated, and managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos. Besides real estate, he started several ventures and has lent the use of his name for the branding of various products. He owned the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he hosted The Apprentice, as of 2017, Forbes listed him as the 544th wealthiest person in the world with a net worth of $3.5 billion. Trump first publicly expressed interest in running for office in 1987. He won two Reform Party presidential primaries in 2000, but withdrew his candidacy early on, in June 2015, he launched his campaign for the 2016 presidential election and quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 candidates in the Republican primaries. His final opponents suspended their campaigns in May 2016, and in July he was nominated at the Republican National Convention along with Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate. His campaign received unprecedented media coverage and international attention, many of the statements he made at rallies, in interviews, or on social media were controversial or false. Trump won the election on November 8,2016, in a surprise victory against Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton. His political positions have been described by scholars and commentators as populist, protectionist, Trump was born on June 14,1946 at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Queens, New York City. He was the fourth of five born to Frederick Christ Fred Trump. His siblings are Maryanne, Fred Jr. Elizabeth, and Robert, Trumps ancestors originated from the village of Kallstadt, Palatinate, Germany on his fathers side, and from the Outer Hebrides isles of Scotland on his mothers side. All his grandparents, and his mother, were born in Europe and his mothers grandfather was also christened Donald. On a visit to his village, he met Elisabeth Christ. He died from the flu pandemic of 1918 and Elizabeth incorporated the family real estate business, Elizabeth Trump and Son, which would later become The Trump Organization. Trumps father Fred was born in the Bronx, and worked with his mother since he was 15 as a real estate developer, primarily in the New York boroughs of Queens and he eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks and apartmentsDonald Trump – Donald Trump
35. Suicide barrier – A suicide barrier is a barrier on a bridge, observation deck or other structure designed to prevent people from attempting suicide by deliberately jumping. Many suicide barriers are tall and fence-like, in 2009 a barrier was built for the Humber Bridge, and in June 2014 California approved a $76 million funding plan to install a mesh barrier beneath the Golden Gate Bridge. The most intense debate, however, is on the subject of whether a suicide barrier will actually save lives, studies have shown that well-designed suicide barriers not only stop people from jumping at a particular site, but also decrease the overall suicide rate in the surrounding area. Another set of data comes from a built in 1983 on the Memorial Bridge over the Kennebec River in Augusta, Maine. The barrier eliminated suicides from the bridge, the study also mentions that suicide barriers may not be effective if there are comparable jumping points nearby or if the structure is not a strong suicide magnet. After a barrier was built at Duke Ellington Bridge in Washington, D. C. significantly cutting the suicide rate there, however, as one author of this study pointed out, there was no reason to believe that suicide attempters would be limited to these two bridges. Suicide barriers are installed on pedestrian bridges that run over train tracks and highways to prevent injurySuicide barrier – The Luminous Veil on Toronto 's Prince Edward Viaduct prevents people from jumping from that bridge, but has not been shown to affect jumping suicide rates.
36. Golden Gate Bridge – The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, one-point-seven-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and it has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed and it opened in 1937 and was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacifics automobile ferries became very profitable, the trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County, San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Franciscos City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009 and he asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strausss initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy, Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources, the Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs, in May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Another ally was the automobile industry, which supported the development of roads. The bridges name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. MGolden Gate Bridge – A view of the Golden Gate Bridge from Marshall's Beach
37. Digital Equipment Corporation – Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s. DEC was a vendor of computer systems, including computers, software. Their PDP and successor VAX products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales, DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence, however, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002, as of 2007 some of DECs product lines were still produced under the HP name. From 1957 until 1992, DECs headquarters were located in a wool mill in Maynard. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. Some parts of DEC, notably the business and the Hudson. Initially focusing on the end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them. Their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s, especially the PDP-8, looking to simplify and update their line, DEC replaced most of their smaller machines with the PDP-11 in 1970, eventually selling over 600,000 units and cementing DECs position in the industry. Originally designed as a follow-on to the PDP-11, DECs VAX-11 series was the first widely used 32-bit minicomputer and these systems were able to compete in many roles with larger mainframe computers, such as the IBM System/370. The VAX was a best-seller, with over 400,000 sold, at its peak, DEC was the second largest employer in Massachusetts, second only to the Massachusetts State Government. The rapid rise of the business microcomputer in the late 1980s, DECs last major attempt to find a space in the rapidly changing market was the DEC Alpha 64-bit RISC instruction set architecture. DEC initially started work on Alpha as a way to re-implement their VAX series, DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence, however, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, and soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002, as of 2007 some of DECs product lines were still produced under the HP nameDigital Equipment Corporation – DEC was headquartered at a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts, from 1957 until 1992
38. Palo Alto, California – Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The city shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Stanford, Portola Valley and it is named after a coast redwood tree called El Palo Alto. Palo Alto was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son and it has also served as an incubator to several other high-technology companies such as Google, Facebook, Logitech, Intuit, Pinterest, and PayPal. As of the 2010 census, the total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the most expensive cities in the United States, the recorded history of Palo Alto dates back to 1769, when Gaspar de Portolá noted an Ohlone settlement. This remains an area of known Indian mounds, a plaque at Middlefield Road and Embarcadero Road commemorates the area. The city got its name from a tall coast redwood tree, named El Palo Alto, a plaque there recounts the story of the Portolà expedition, a 63-man, 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey from November 7–11,1769. The group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, they ascended Sweeney Ridge, thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never becoming aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. Located south of the San Francisquito Creek, west of todays I-280, in 1835, Rafael Soto and family settled near the San Francisquito Creek near Newell and Middlefield, selling goods to travelers. Rafael Soto died in 1839, but his wife, Maria Antonia Mesa, was granted Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito in 1841, in 1839, their daughter María Luisa Soto married John Coppinger, who was the grantee of Rancho Cañada de Raymundo. Rancho Cañada de Raymundo was West of San Francisquito Creek, and began at Alambique Creek, the border of Rancho Corte de Madera. Bear Gulch Creek flowed on his land in Portola Valley, the rancho also abutted Buelnas grant near Skyline Boulevard and Matadero Creek. Upon Coppingers death, Maria inherited it and later married a visiting boat captain, Greer owned a home on the site that is now Town & Country Village on Embarcadero and El Camino Real. Greer Avenue and Court are named for him, to the west of Rafael Soto, near El Camino and following the Creek, was Rancho San Francisquito granted in 1839 to Antonio Buelna and wife Maria Concepcion. To the south of the Sotos, the brothers Secundino and Teodoro Robles in 1849 bought Rancho Rincon de San Francisquito from José Peña, where the Joness house was, then east down Arastradero Rd. to the north property line of Alta Mesa Memorial Park and Terman Park. The property then went along the bay to the Embarcadero, a boundary in the day, then up to the Stanford University gates, up Galvez. The grant was bounded on the south by Mariano Castros Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas grant across San Antonio Road, thats the Robles Rancho, about 80% of Palo Alto and Stanford University. It was whittled down by 1863 through courts to 6,981 acres, stories say their grand hacienda was built on the former meager adobe of José Peña near Ferne off San Antonio Road, midway between Middlefield and Alma StreetPalo Alto, California – Palo Alto
39. Bebe Stores – Bebe Stores, Inc is a womens retail clothier established in 1976. The brand develops and produces a line of apparel and accessories, which it markets under the Bebe, BebeSport. The company operates 312 stores, of which 215 are Bebe stores,32 are 2b Bebe stores,64 are BebeSport stores and these stores are located in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Canada. Bebe also has a division in Lebanon, Kuwait, Egypt, Israel, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Turkey. Mashouf owns approximately 55% of the company, in March 2017, bebe announced that it will close all stores in 2017, and become an online-only retailer. Founder Manny Mashouf came up with the name after a conversation that was had at a party he attended in San Francisco during the 1970s shortly before he established the brand, Bebe, the first store was opened in San Francisco in 1976. BebeSport, the company launched BebeSport in year 2003 to focus on active lifestyle via sportswear, tops, sweaters, outerwear, in 2009, BebeSport stores were converted to PH8 with BebeSport product now sold in Bebe and 2b Bebe stores. PH8, The company converted BebeSport stores to PH8 stores in November 2009, PH8 offers casual weekend apparel, work-out attire and accessories such as bags, shoes and seasonal items. 2b Bebe, Bebes outlet division provide clearance merchandise, Bebe logo merchandise, as of 2012, Bebe has launched a bridal wear line available in stores throughout United States. Additional bridal salons were under consideration however the venture was abandoned due to poor sales. The bridal wear line debuted with a designed by Project Runway runner up Rami Kashou. To further brand exposure, the company signs celebrities for ad campaigns, brenda Song was the face of Bebes 2007 ad campaign. The company signed actresses Rebecca Romijn as the face of Bebe from Spring 2007 through Spring 2008, mischa Barton was the face of Bebes 2006 ad campaign. In 2007, Bebe selected advertising agency MD70, with Creative Direction by Fredrik Peterhoff to produce Bebe Holiday and Spring 2009, Bebe Sports and Bebe Accessories Spring 2009 campaign. Photographed by Camilla Åkrans, styled by Julia von Boehm and shot in Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, the Bebe Spring campaign features model Anne Marie van Dijk. The spring campaign appeared in the February and March titles of Vogue, Elle, Cosmopolitan, and Glamour, as well as billboards and phone kiosks in New York, Los Angeles, a campaign video will run in stores and online at Bebe Video YouTube channel. Bebe has semi-annual collection preview events where clients are invited to preview the latest collections at bebe stores, additionally, the company partners with national and regional magazines to host events benefiting non-profit organizations. The company designs and develops the majority of merchandise in-house with outsourced manufacturing, on August 9,2010, Emilia Fabricant became president of Bebe StoresBebe Stores – Bebe stores headquarters in Brisbane
40. Earth Day – Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22. Worldwide, various events are held to support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, Earth Day events in more than 193 countries are now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network, on Earth Day 2016, the landmark Paris Agreement was signed by the United States, China, and some 120 other countries. This day of natures equipoise was later sanctioned in a written by McConnell. A month later a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22,1970, Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work. Numerous communities celebrate Earth Week, a week of activities focused on the environmental issues that the world faces. In 2017, the March for Science occurs on Earth day and is followed by the Peoples Climate Mobilization, the first Earth Day celebrations took place in two thousand colleges and universities, roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools, and hundreds of communities across the United States. More importantly, it brought 20 million Americans out into the sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform. Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day into a day of action to change human behavior, in the winter of 1969–1970, a group of students met at Columbia University to hear Denis Hayes talk about his plans for Earth Day. Among the group were Fred Kent, Pete Grannis, and Kristin and this group agreed to head up the New York City activities within the national movement. Fred Kent took the lead in renting an office and recruiting volunteers, the big break came when Mayor Lindsay agreed to shut down Fifth Avenue for the event. A giant cheer went up in the office on that day, from that time on we used Mayor Lindsays offices and even his staff. I was Speaker Coordinator but had help from Lindsay staffer Judith Crichton. In addition to shutting down Fifth Avenue, Mayor John Lindsay made Central Park available for Earth Day. In Union Square, New York Times estimated crowds of up to 20,000 people at any time and, perhaps. Since Manhattan was also the home of NBC, CBS, ABC, The New York Times, Time, Senator Edmund Muskie was the keynote speaker on Earth Day in Fairmount Park in Philadelphia. Unlike the first Earth Day in 1970, this 20th Anniversary was waged with stronger marketing tools, greater access to television and radio, and multimillion-dollar budgets. Two separate groups formed to sponsor Earth Day events in 1990, The Earth Day 20 Foundation, assembled by Edward Furia, Senator Gaylord Nelson, the original founder of Earth Day, was honorary chairman for both groupsEarth Day – U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking to an estimated 40–60,000 at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
41. Mythbusters – MythBusters is a science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australias Beyond Television Productions. The series premiered on the Discovery Channel on January 23,2003, the series was transmitted by numerous international broadcasters, including SBS Australia, and other Discovery channels worldwide. The show was one of the oldest—and the most popular—on Discovery Channel, being preceded only by How Its Made and Daily Planet, from 2006 to 2016, the show was overseen by British show-runner Dan Tapster, working out of Sydney, San Francisco and Manchester. Filmed in San Francisco and edited in Artarmon, New South Wales, Australia, during the second season, members of Savage and Hynemans behind-the-scenes team were organized into a second team of MythBusters. They generally tested myths separately from the duo and operated from another workshop. On October 21,2015, it was announced that MythBusters would air its 14th, the show aired its final episode on March 6,2016. On March 25, Discoverys sister network, Science, announced its intention of continuing the series with new hosts, the show, currently airing, is titled Mythbusters, The Search. Adam Savage has confirmed that he and his former cohosts have no intentions of reuniting for future team projects, MythBusters refers both to the name of the documentary and also the cast members who test the experiments. The series concept was created for the Discovery Channel as Tall Tales or True by Australian writer and producer Peter Rees of Beyond Productions in 2002, Discovery rejected the proposal initially because they had just commissioned a series on the same topic. Rees refined the pitch to focus on testing key elements of the rather than just retelling them. Discovery agreed to develop and co-produce a three-episode series pilot, Jamie Hyneman was one of a number of special effects artists who were asked to prepare a casting video for network consideration. Rees had interviewed him previously for a segment of the science series Beyond 2000 about the British/American robot combat television series Robot Wars. The highest rated regular episode featured two stories, straw through a tree, and talking to plants. The highest rated two hour special was Hollywood Myths, the highest rated Shark Week special was Jaws Myths which screened in 2005. During July 2006, an edited version of MythBusters began airing on BBC Two in the UK. The episodes shown on the European Discovery Channel sometimes include extra scenes not shown in the United States version, the 14th season, which premiered in January 2016, was the final season for the series. Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman are the original MythBusters, and initially explored all the myths of the series using their experience with special effects. The two work at Hynemans effects workshop, M5 Industries, they use of his staffMythbusters – MythBusters
42. Leopard shark – The leopard shark is a species of houndshark, in the family Triakidae. It is found along the Pacific coast of North America, from the U. S. state of Oregon to Mazatlán in Mexico. Large schools of leopard sharks are a sight in bays and estuaries, swimming over sandy or muddy flats or rock-strewn areas near kelp beds. They are most common near the coast, in less than 4 m deep. Active-swimming predators, groups of leopard sharks often follow the tide onto mudflats to forage for food, mainly clams, spoon worms, crabs, shrimp, bony fish. This species is viviparous, meaning that the young hatch inside the uterus and are nourished by yolk. From March to June, the female gives birth to as many as 37 young after a period of 10–12 months. It is relatively slow-growing and takes years to mature. Harmless to humans, the shark is caught by commercial and recreational fisheries for food. However, Gray did not furnish the name with a proper description, in December 1854, American ichthyologist William Orville Ayres gave a lecture describing the species as Mustelus felis, which included the first scientific description of the species. His lecture was reprinted first in The Pacific, a San Francisco newspaper, in April 1855, French biologist Charles Frédéric Girard published another description of this species, naming it Triakis semifasciata. Despite M. felis being the senior synonym, an error in recording the dates of publication resulted in the use of T. semifasciata as the leopard sharks scientific name. As a result of this error, Triakis semifasciata came to be recognized as the valid name. The specific epithet comes from the Latin words semi and fasciatus. In older literature, this species may be referred to as tiger shark or catshark, the genus Triakis contains two subgenera, Triakis and Cazon. The leopard shark is placed within the subgenus Triakis along with the banded houndshark, a 2006 phylogenetic analysis by J. The leopard shark occurs in the cool to warm-temperater continental waters of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, from Coos Bay, Oregon to Mazatlán, Mexico, including the Gulf of California. It favors muddy or sandy flats within enclosed bays and estuaries, numbers have been known to gather near discharges of warm effluent from power plantsLeopard shark
43. Kevin Durant – Kevin Wayne Durant is an American professional basketball player for the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association. Durant has won an NBA Most Valuable Player Award, four NBA scoring titles, the NBA Rookie of the Year Award and he has also been selected to six All-NBA teams and eight All-Star teams. Durant was a heavily recruited high school prospect and he played one season of college basketball for the University of Texas, where he won numerous year-end awards and became the first freshman to be named Naismith College Player of the Year. In the 2007 NBA draft, he was selected with the second pick by the Seattle SuperSonics. After his rookie season, the relocated to Oklahoma City. Durant helped lead Oklahoma City to the 2012 NBA Finals, losing to the Miami Heat in five games and he played nine seasons for the Thunder organization before joining the Warriors in 2016. Durant was born on September 29,1988 in Washington, D. C. to Wanda, when Durant was an infant, his father deserted the family, Wanda and Wayne eventually divorced, and Durants grandmother Barbara Davis helped raise him. By age 13, his father re-entered his life and traveled the country with him to basketball tournaments, Durant has one sister, Brianna, and two brothers, Tony and Rayvonne. Growing up, Durant wanted to play for his team, the Toronto Raptors. During this time, he began wearing #35 as his number in honor of his AAU coach, Charles Craig. Prior to the start of the season, he committed to the University of Texas, at the conclusion of the year, he was named the Washington Post All-Met Basketball Player of the Year, as well as the Most Valuable Player of the 2006 McDonalds All-American Game. He was widely regarded as the second-best high school prospect of 2006, for the 2006–07 college season, Durant averaged 25.8 points,11.1 rebounds, and 1.3 assists per game. The Longhorns finished the year with a 25–10 record overall and a 12–4 record in conference, Durant was the first freshman ever to win any of the National Player of the Year awards. On April 11, he declared for the 2007 NBA draft. His jersey was retired by the Longhorns. Durant was selected with the second pick in the 2007 NBA draft by the Seattle SuperSonics. In his first career game, he registered 18 points,5 rebounds, on November 16, he made the first game-winning shot of his career in a game against the Atlanta Hawks. At the conclusion of the season, he was named the NBA Rookie of the Year behind averages of 20.3 points,4.4 rebounds, and 2.4 assists per gameKevin Durant – Durant with the Thunder in February 2014
44. Bill Russell – William Felton Bill Russell is an American retired professional basketball player. Russell played center for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association from 1956 to 1969, a five-time NBA Most Valuable Player and a twelve-time All-Star, he was the centerpiece of the Celtics dynasty, winning eleven NBA championships during his thirteen-year career. Along with Henri Richard of the National Hockey Leagues Montreal Canadiens, before his professional career, Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships. He also won a medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics as captain of the U. S. national basketball team. Russell is widely considered one of the best players in NBA history and he was listed as between 6 ft 9 in and 6 ft 10 in, and his shot-blocking and man-to-man defense were major reasons for the Celtics success. He also inspired his teammates to elevate their own defensive play, Russell was equally notable for his rebounding abilities. He led the NBA in rebounds four times, had a dozen consecutive seasons of 1,000 or more rebounds and he is one of just two NBA players to have grabbed more than 50 rebounds in a game. Though never the point of the Celtics offense, Russell also scored 14,522 career points. Playing in the wake of pioneers like Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and he also served a three-season stint as player-coach for the Celtics, becoming the first African American NBA coach. For his accomplishments in the Civil Rights Movement on and off the court, Russell is one of only seven players in history to win an NCAA Championship, an NBA Championship, and an Olympic gold medal. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, in 2007 he was enshrined in the FIBA Hall of Fame. In Russells honor the NBA renamed the NBA Finals Most Valuable Player trophy in 2009, Bill Russell was born to Charles Russell and Katie Russell in West Monroe, Louisiana. Like almost all towns and cities of that time, West Monroe was a highly segregated place. Once, Russells father was refused service at a gas station until the staff had taken care of all the white customers. When his father attempted to leave and find a different station, at another time, Russells mother was walking outside in a fancy dress when a policeman accosted her. He told her to go home and remove the dress, which he described as white womans clothing, while there the family fell into poverty, and Russell spent his childhood living in a series of public housing projects. Charles Russell is described as a stern, hard man who was initially a janitor in a paper factory, being closer to his mother Katie than to his father, Russell received a major emotional blow when she suddenly died when he was 12. His father gave up his job and became a steel worker to be closer to his semi-orphaned childrenBill Russell – Russell in February 2011
45. Steve Kerr – Stephen Douglas Steve Kerr is an American former professional basketball player and the current head coach of the Golden State Warriors. Kerr is a six-time NBA champion, winning three with the Chicago Bulls and two with the San Antonio Spurs as a player, and one with the Warriors as a head coach. Kerr has the highest career three-point percentage for any player with at least 250 three pointers made in NBA history, on June 2,2007, the Phoenix Suns named Kerr the teams President of Basketball Operations and General Manager. Kerr helped Managing Partner Robert Sarver buy the Suns in 2004, Kerr announced his retirement from the Suns in June 2010. Afterwards, Kerr returned as a commentator for NBA on TNT until 2014. On May 14,2014, the Golden State Warriors named Kerr the teams head coach, on April 4,2015, with a win over the Dallas Mavericks, Kerr broke the NBA record for the most regular season wins for a rookie coach. The Warriors went on to win the 2015 NBA Finals, making Kerr the first rookie coach to win a championship since Pat Riley in the 1982 NBA Finals, on April 13,2016, the Warriors broke the record for the most wins in an NBA season. Kerr was born in Beirut, Lebanon, a son of Malcolm H. Kerr, an American academic who specialized in the Middle East, and his wife Ann. His grandfather Stanley Kerr volunteered with the Near East Relief after the Armenian Genocide and rescued women and orphans in Aleppo, Kerr spent much of his childhood in Lebanon and other Middle Eastern countries. He attended Cairo American College in Egypt, the American Community School in Beirut, Lebanon and his 52-year-old father Malcolm was murdered by the Islamic Jihad, on the morning of January 18,1984, while he was serving as president of the American University of Beirut in Beirut. His father was twice in the back of his head, by gunmen using silencer-equipped revolvers. Kerr was 18 years old at the time, and a college freshman, Steve Kerr said, Before my father was killed, my life was impenetrable. Bad things happened to other people, the Kerr family sued the Iranian government under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. While warming up for a game at Arizona State in 1988, Kerr had to deal with a number of fans in the crowd chanting PLO, though teary-eyed, Kerr scored 20 points in the first half, making all six of his 3-point attempts. The athletic director of Arizona State, Charles Harris, sent a letter of apology to Kerr a few days later, Kerr graduated from the University of Arizona in 1988 with a Bachelor of General Studies, with emphasis on history, sociology and English. He married Margot Kerr, his sweetheart, in 1990. The couple have three children, Nick, Maddy and Matthew, minimally recruited out of high school, Kerr played basketball for the University of Arizona from 1983 to 1988. In the summer of 1986, Kerr was named to the USA Basketball team that competed in the FIBA World Championship in Spain, the team was the last American Mens Senior Team composed strictly of amateur players to capture a gold medalSteve Kerr – Kerr as Warriors head coach in February 2015
46. Gillig Corporation – Gillig Corporation is an American designer and manufacturer of buses. The company headquarters, along its manufacturing operations, is located in Hayward, by volume, Gillig is the second-largest transit bus manufacturer in North America. As of 2013, Gillig had an approximate 31% market share of the combined US and Canadian heavy-duty transit bus manufacturing industry, while currently a manufacturer of transit buses, from the 1930s to the 1990s, Gillig was a manufacturer of school buses. Alongside the now-defunct Crown Coach, the company was one of the largest manufacturers of buses on the West Coast of the United States. The oldest surviving bus manufacturer in North America, Gillig was founded in 1890 as Jacob Gillig, trained in building and upholstering. In 1896, his son Leo Gillig entered the business as a shop foreman, the shop was destroyed as part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but the Gilligs rebuilt the shop on a separate property, Chester Gillig joined the business as a bookkeeper. In 1907, Jacob Gillig died at the age of 54, following the earthquake, the company reopened as the Leo Gillig Automobile Works, which manufactured custom-built vehicle bodies. In 1914, two major achievements would happen to the company, after building a three-story factory, Leo and Chester Gillig re-organized the company as Gillig Brothers, its name for the next half-century. One of the first bodies built inside the new factory was one for a motor bus, during the 1910s, most cars in the United States were open touring cars, at the time, fully enclosed sedan bodies were expensive. To offer improvement over the weather protection, Gillig developed an add-on hardtop. The increase of closed car production in the 1920s would render the Gillig Top largely obsolete by 1925, while other hardtop manufacturers went out of business, Gillig survived largely on its body production, which became its primary source of revenue. In the late 1920s, the company would briefly produce pleasure boats and produce a prototype of a heavy truck, following the start of the Great Depression, Gillig Brothers began to look for a steady source of revenue to ensure its survival. Although the company had produced buses sporadically since 1914, in 1932, Gillig designed its first school bus body, a configuration it would produce for most of the next 60 years. In 1935, the company designed its first ambulance body, it became the West Coast distributor of Superior Coach Company. In 1937, Gillig introduced its first flat-front school bus, by 1938, demand for school buses had surpassed the capacity of the San Francisco facility, leading Gillig Brothers to move to Hayward, California, on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In 1940, as a response to the Crown Supercoach, the first Gillig Transit Coach was introduced, the first mid-engine school bus, the Transit Coach wore an all-steel body and was powered by a Hall-Scott gasoline engine. During World War II, Gillig halted school bus production, instead producing trailer buses to transport workers in defense factories, following the end of the war, Gillig resumed production of the Transit Coach, introducing a rear-engine version in 1948. In 1950, the body of the Transit Coach was redesigned, in 1953, Chester Gillig retired, following the death of Leo GilligGillig Corporation – Gillig headquarters in Hayward
47. Oakland Harbor Light – Oakland Harbor Light is a former lighthouse, now a restaurant in Embarcadero Cove, California. The original tower was built in 1890 at the entrance of Oakland Harbor, the wooden pilings on which the structure sat had deteriorated by 1902, and a larger replacement lighthouse was constructed on concrete pilings nearby, which began operation in 1903. The original structure was sold and removed. In 1966, the lighthouse was replaced by an automated beacon and it was eventually sold to a private party and relocated to Embarcadero Cove in Oakland, where it opened in 1984 as Quinn’s Lighthouse Restaurant. The lantern room was removed after deactivation in 1966, and was transferred to Mark Abbott Memorial Lighthouse in Santa Cruz, California, list of lighthouses in the United States United States Coast Guard Inventory of Historic Light Stations California Lighthouses Oakland Harbor Light Quinns Lighthouse RestaurantOakland Harbor Light – U.S. Coast Guard Archive
48. Dominican University of California – For other colleges with the same name, see Dominican College Dominican University of California is a 1, 863-student institution in San Rafael, California. Founded in 1890 as Dominican College by the Dominican Sisters of San Rafael, the history of Dominican University of California can be traced back to 1850. It was in year that Joseph Sadoc Alemany was appointed Bishop of Monterey. At the time of appointment, he was in Italy attending a meeting of the Dominican Order. A Belgian novice, Sister Mary of the Cross Goemaere volunteered to accompany the new bishop, within three years, nine women joined Sister Mary to form the Congregation of the Most Holy Name. In 1854, the Dominicans moved to Benicia, following the leadership of Mother Mary Goemaere, Mother Louis ODonnell moved the motherhouse, a school and novitiate from Benicia to San Rafael in 1889. In 1890 the Congregation of the Most Holy Name, under the auspices of Mother ODonnell, with the encouragement of faculty of the University of California in Berkeley, a junior college was opened in 1915, and in 1917 a four-year college, Dominican College, was formed. At that point Dominican College became the first Catholic college in California to grant the degree to women. Originally a female-only institution, Dominican College became coeducational in 1971,1917 – Dominican became the first Catholic college in California to grant the bachelors degree to women. 1924 – The State Board of Education certifies Dominican to recommend candidates for school teaching credentials. 1926 – Dominican was placed on the approved list of the Association of American Universities,1950 – Dominican opened its graduate program to men. 1963 – Archbishop Alemany Library opened,1971 – Dominican became fully coeducational. Barowsky School of Business 2016 - Working as an education partner for the Commission on Presidential Debates. The campus is located in San Rafael, California,15 miles north of San Francisco, class size averages 16, with a student to faculty ratio of 10,1. Dominican is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, four classifications of undergraduate degrees are offered, BA, BFA, BS, and BSN. In 2015-2016, total enrollment was 1,863 undergraduate and graduate students, Students from 27 states and 19 nations are represented in the student body with 3% from other nations. 91% of students are from California, 88% of freshmen and 33% of all undergraduates reside on campus. For the 2016-17 academic year, undergraduate tuition is $42,950, in 2015-2016, more than 90% of undergraduates received financial aidDominican University of California – Bishop Joseph Alemany
49. San Rafael, California – San Rafael is a city and the county seat of Marin County, California, United States. The city is located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, as of the 2010 census the citys population is 57,713. What is now San Rafael was once the site of several Coast Miwok villages, Awani-wi, near downtown San Rafael, Ewu, near Terra Linda,14,1817, four years before Mexico gained independence from Spain. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was located a donkeys day walk to the mission below it, the mission and the city are named after the Archangel Raphael, the Angel of Healing. The mission was planned as a hospital site for Central Valley American Indians who had become ill at the cold San Francisco Mission Dolores. Father Luis Gil, who spoke several Native American languages, was put in charge of the facility, in part because of its ideal weather, San Rafael was later upgraded to full mission status in 1822. The mission had 300 converts within its first year, and 1,140 converts by 1828, the Mexican government took over the California missions in 1834, and Mission San Rafael was abandoned in 1844, eventually falling into ruin. The current mission was built in 1949 in the style of the original, the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad reached San Rafael in 1879 and was linked to the national rail network in 1888. The United States Navy operated a San Pablo Bay degaussing range from San Rafael through World War II, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles. 16.5 square miles of it is land and 6.0 square miles of it is water, south of the county is San Francisco. Peacock Gap Golf Course which is open to the public, there are several public parks in the city. The San Rafael shoreline has been filled to a considerable extent to accommodate land development. At certain locations such as Murphys Point, the sandstone or shale rock outcrops through the mud, San Rafael has a wide diversity of natural habitats from forests at the higher elevations to marshland and estuarine settings. Its marshes are home to the endangered species Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse, there are also riparian areas including the San Rafael Creek and Miller Creek corridors. San Rafael has a Mediterranean climate, with winter lows seldom reaching the freezing mark. The National Weather Service reports that August is usually the warmest month with a high of 80. 1°, December, the coldest month, has an average high of 55. 1° and an average low of 41. 0°. The highest temperature on record is 110°, recorded in June 1961, the highest temperature in recent years, 108°, occurred on July 23,2006. The record lowest temperature was 20° on December 22,1990, there are an average of 17.9 days annually with a high of 90° or more and 1.2 days with a high of 100° or moreSan Rafael, California – Mission San Rafael Arcángel, one of the city's most recognizable landmarks
50. Napa Valley – Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,484, the county seat is the City of Napa. Napa County was one of the counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the territory were given to Lake County in 1861. Napa County comprises the Napa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland. It is one of four North Bay counties, in prehistoric times, the valley was inhabited by the Patwin Native Americans, with possible habitation by Wappo tribes in the northwestern foothills. Most villages are thought to have been constructed near the floodplains of watercourses that drain the valley and their food consisted of wild roots, acorns, small animals, earthworms, grasshoppers, and bread made from crushed California buckeye kernels. In winter they would construct huts made of tree branches, in summer they camped near rivers and streams. In winter months, they were clad in wild animal skins. The maximum prehistoric population is not to have exceeded 5000 persons. In 1776, a fort was erected by the Spanish Governor, Felipe de Neve a short distance northwest of Napa, francis Castro and Father Jose Altimura were the first Europeans to explore the Napa Valley in 1823. When the first white settlers arrived in the early 1830s, there were six tribes in the valley speaking different dialects, the Mayacomos tribe lived in the area where Calistoga was founded. The Callajomans were in the area near where the town of St. Helena now stands, further south, the Kymus dwelt in the middle part of the valley. The Napa and Ulcus tribes occupied part of the area where the City of Napa now exists while the Soscol tribe occupied the portion that now makes up the end of the valley. Many of the native peoples died during an epidemic in 1838. Settlers also killed several over claims of cattle theft, during the era between 1836 and 1846, when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 13 ranchos were granted in Napa County, George C. Yount was a settler in Napa County and is believed to be the first Anglo-Saxon resident in the county. In 1836 Yount obtained the Mexican grant Rancho Caymus where he built what is said to be the first log house in California, soon afterward, he built a sawmill and grain mill, and was the first person to plant a vineyard in the countyNapa Valley
51. Mantra-Rock Dance – The Mantra-Rock Dance was a counterculture music event held on January 29,1967, at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco. It was organized by followers of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness as an opportunity for its founder, Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, to address a wider public. It was also a promotional and fundraising effort for their first center on the West Coast of the United States, the bands agreed to appear with Prabhupada and to perform for free, the proceeds were donated to the local Hare Krishna temple. The Mantra-Rock Dance concert was called the ultimate high and the major spiritual event of the San Francisco hippie era. It led to favorable media exposures for Prabhupada and his followers, the 40th anniversary of the Mantra-Rock Dance was commemorated in 2007 in Berkeley, California. Mukunda and Janaki met up with friends from college, who would come to be known as Shyamasundar Das, Gurudas, Malati Dasi. Malati Dasi happened to hear Moby Grape, an unknown group at the time. Another leading countercultural figure, the beatnik poet Allen Ginsberg, was a supporter of Prabhupada and he had met the swami earlier in New York and assisted him in extending his United States visa. He made the part of his philosophy and declared that it brings a state of ecstasy. He was glad that Prabhupada, an authentic swami from India, was now trying to spread the chanting in America. Along with other countercultural ideologues like Timothy Leary, Gary Snyder, and Alan Watts, Ginsberg hoped to incorporate Prabhupada, Ginsberg agreed to take part in the Mantra-Rock Dance concert and to introduce the swami to the Haight-Ashbury hippie community. He wrote, The Haight-Ashbury district is soon to be honored by the presence of His Holiness, Bhaktivedanta Swami, who will conduct daily classes in the Bhagavad Gita, discussions, chanting, playing instruments, and devotional dancing in a small temple in the neighborhood. Swamijis use of the Hare Krishna Mantra is already known throughout the United States, swamijis chanting and dancing is more effective than Hatha or Raja Yoga or listening to Ali Akbar Khan on acid or going to a mixed media rock dance. Ginsberg helped plan and organize a reception for Prabhupada, who was scheduled to arrive from New York on January 17,1967, when the swami arrived at the San Francisco Airport,50 to 100 hippies chanting Hare Krishna greeted him in the airport lounge with flowers. A few days later the San Francisco Chronicle published an article entitled Swami in the Hippie Land in which Prabhupada answered the question, by saying, Hippies or anyone – I make no distinctions. The Mantra-Rock Dance was scheduled on Sunday evening, January 29,1967 – a day of the week that Chet Helms deemed odd, admission was fixed at $2.50 and limited to door sales. Despite the apprehensions of the organizers, by the beginning of the concert at 8 PM an audience of nearly 3,000 had gathered at the Avalon Ballroom, latecomers had to wait outside for vacancies in order to enter. Participants were treated on prasad consisting of slices and, regardless of the prohibition on drugs, many in the crowd were smoking marijuanaMantra-Rock Dance – The Mantra-Rock Dance poster by Harvey W. Cohen (created December 1966)
52. KQED – KQED is a public media outlet based in San Francisco, California, which operates the radio station KQED and the television stations KQED and KQEH. KQED was organized and created by veteran broadcast journalists James Day and Jonathan Rice on June 1,1953 and it was the sixth public broadcasting station in the United States, debuting shortly after WQED in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The stations call letters, Q. E. D. are taken from the Latin phrase, quod erat demonstrandum, kQED-FM was founded by James Day in 1969 as the radio arm of KQED Television. On May 1,2006, KQED, Inc. and the KTEH Foundation merged to form Northern California Public Broadcasting, the KQED assets including its television and FM radio stations were taken under the umbrella of that new organization. Both remained members of Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio, with this change, KQED and KTEH are considered as sister-stations today. The Northern California name did not become used, so in 2010. KTEH would change its call letters to KQEH and rebrand to KQED Plus on July 1,2011 after research found that most viewers were unaware that KTEH was affiliated with KQED. KQED is a Public Broadcasting Service-member public television station in San Francisco, California and this channel is also carried on Comcast cable TV and via satellite by DirecTV and Dish Network. Its transmitter is located on Sutro Tower, and has based in San Franciscos Mission District. KQED Public Television 9 is one of the nations most-watched public television stations during primetime, KQED airs more independent films than any other public broadcasting station in the country. KQED-FM is an NPR-member radio station owned by Northern California Public Broadcasting in San Francisco, KQED public radio is the most-listened-to public radio station in the nationKQED – KQED building on Mariposa Street in San Francisco
53. Modern architecture – Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II. The revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, the cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of very large windows. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass. These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, the iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower, then the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, in 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house in the suburbs of Paris. Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century. This break with the past was particularly urged by the architectural theorist, for each function its material, for each material its form and its ornament. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, at the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States. The Glasgow School of Art 1896-99) designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France, it introduced new styles of decoration, based on vegetal and floral forms. In 1903-1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete, previously used for industrial structures. Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectators view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style, in his book Moderne Arkchtekture he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on modern life. Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior, the reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum. The interior was purely functional and spare, an open space of steel, glass. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos also began removing any ornament from his buildings and his Steiner House, in Vienna, was an example of what he called rationalist architecture, it had a simple stucco rectangual facade with square windows and no ornament. The fame of the new movement, which known as the Vienna Secession spread beyond Austria. Josef Hoffmann, a student of Wagner, constructed a landmark of early modernist architecture and this residence, built of brick covered with Norwegian marble, was composed of geometric blocks, wings and a towerModern architecture – Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City (1959), interior, by Frank Lloyd Wright.
54. Stanford University – Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8, 180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States, Stanford also has land and facilities elsewhere. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Stanford was a former Governor of California and U. S. Senator, he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1,1891, Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanfords death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country. There are three schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a number of companies that produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires,17 astronauts and it is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanfords previous Palo Alto farm, despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I, the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which was established in 1962, in 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Besides the central campus described below, the university also operates at more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus. Stanfords main campus includes a place within unincorporated Santa Clara County. The campus also includes land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park, Woodside. The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, the United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes,94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mailStanford University – Leland Stanford, the university's founder, as painted by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier in 1881 and now on display at the Cantor Center
55. Redwood City, California – Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern Californias Bay Area, approximately 27 miles south of San Francisco, and 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood Citys history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods, the county seat of San Mateo County, it is the home of several technology companies such as Box, Oracle, Evernote, Wealthfront, and Electronic Arts. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 76,815, the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, the Malibu Grand Prix long time landmark was recently demolished along with the citys only Mini Golf, Go-Kart, Video Game Arcade, and Batting Cages. Malibu Grand Prixs previous location is currently the site of a new additional Jail. The Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, a major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of which is Westpoint Slough. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood that is part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City highly resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up. El Camino Real, a northwest/southeast arterial street and Woodside Road and it is a very diverse cosmopolitan city in the Bay Area, a newly popular destination in the peninsula and the Bay as a whole. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool, relatively wet winters. The National Weather Service, which both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month. The record highest temperature of 110 °F and was recorded on July 14 and 15,1972, the record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11,1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher, the normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998, the record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13,1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation, snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions, there was some minor snow accumulation in May 1935, January 1962, and February 1976. The 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815, the population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White,1,881 African American,511 Native American,8,216 Asian,795 Pacific Islander,14,967 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 personsRedwood City, California – The skyline of downtown Redwood City
56. Pacific Mail Steamship Company – These merchants had acquired the right to transport mail under contract from the United States Government from the Isthmus of Panama to California awarded in 1847 to one Arnold Harris. The first three steamships constructed for Pacific Mail were the SS California, the SS Oregon, and the SS Panama. During the California Gold Rush in 1849, the company was a key mover of goods and people and played a key role in the growth of San Francisco, California. In addition to their maritime activities Pacific Mail also ran some of the earliest steamboats on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, domingo Marcucci came from Philadelphia in the Pacific Mail steamship SS Oregon with a knocked-down steamboat in its hold. He started a shipyard in San Francisco on September 18,1849, on the beach at Happy Valley, at the foot of Folsom Street, marcuccis company assembled the Captain Sutter in six weeks. Subsequently in March 1850, for the company, he assembled the Georgiana. In 1850, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company established a steamship line competing with the U. S, Mail Steamship Company between New York City and Chagres. George Law placed a line of steamers in the Pacific. In April 1851, the rivalry was ended when the U. S, Mail Steamship Company purchased Pacific Mail steamers on the Atlantic side, and George Law sold his new company and its ships to the Pacific Mail. One of the steamships, the SS Winfield Scott, acquired when the New York and California Steamship Company went out of business. All officers were armed for the protection of their ships, detachments of Union soldiers sailed with Pacific Mail steamers. In 1867, the company launched the first regularly scheduled trans-Pacific steamship service with a route between San Francisco, Hong Kong, and Yokohama, and extended service to Shanghai and this route led to an influx of Japanese and Chinese immigrants, bringing additional cultural diversity to California. As the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Utah in 1869, many of its ships were sold or put on other routes. While docked at San José de Guatemala, the Pacific Mail steamship SS Acapulco was involved in the Barrundia Affair of 1890, the affair led to the recall of the U. S. Minister to Central America, Lansing Bond Mizner, by President Benjamin Harrison, the company was a charter member of the Dow Jones Transportation Average. In 1925, the company was purchased by Robert Dollar, of the Dollar Steamship Company, with the government bail-out of the Dollar Line in 1938, ownership passed to American President Lines, but by this time, PMSS essentially existed only on paper. It was formally closed down in 1949, after just over a century of existence, SS California, Built for the company, it was launched May 19,1848 by William H. Webb, New York. It left New York on October 6,1848 for Valparaiso, Panama City and San Francisco and she was used as a spare steamer at San Francisco in 1856 and at Panama City in 1857Pacific Mail Steamship Company – SS California, Pacific Mail's first ship
57. San Francisco, California – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco, California – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
58. William Rulofson – William Herman Rulofson was a Canadian-American photographer, who along with his partner, H. W. Bradley, was considered one of the leading photographers in the city of San Francisco, California. He was also the brother of Edward H. Rulloff, a murderer who was hanged for his crime in 1871. Born the youngest of six children in Hampton, New Brunswick, Canada, Rulofson left his family and came to California during the Gold Rush. After a year of mining around Sonora, he journeyed back across the U. S. to Missouri to meet his wife Amelia and son, the reunited family then returned to Sonora. In Sonora, Rulofson established the first permanent photograph gallery in the state, at one time, the city of Sonora was destroyed by fire, but the mobile studio was saved thanks to a team of oxen. In 1861, Rulofson moved to San Francisco and joined Bradleys studio, the pair were responsible for numerous portraits of leading Californians and also were noted for publishing the works of Eadweard Muybridge. He even testified on Muybridges behalf when the latter was on trial for the murder of his wifes lover, in 1873, he won gold prize at a competition in Vienna, and he was also elected president of the National Photographic Association in 1874. He was also a member as well as the official photographer of the Bohemian Club. On one occasion, when taking photographs of the fortress Alcatraz Island for the Department of War. Rulofson also gained notoriety for his role in the publication of the satirical The Dance of Death. Written by his son-in-law Thomas A. Harcourt and Ambrose Bierce and released under the pseudonym William Herman, a man engaged in the dance is described, his eyes, gleaming with a fierce intolerable lust, gloat satyr-like over. Suggested the scheme and supplied the sinews of sin, Rulofson himself said of the book, I have shown society what a loathsome ulcer festers in its midst. Over the years, Rulofson and his wife had five children, after Amelias death in 1867, Rulofson married Mary Jane Morgan, who had been working as a secretary in the photography studio. They also had five children together, Morgan apparently had an eye for the art and was influential in many of his works, although she was never credited as photographer. After Rulofsons death, Morgan would take control of his share of the studio, Rulofson was rumored to have a vicious temper. He became estranged from his son, who went to sea after Amelias death to escape the severity of his fathers punishment. Upon his return at age 19, father and son agreed that the boy would be adopted by the ships captain and his family was not immune to violence, either. In 1875, the youngest daughter of his first marriage died, William Rulofson died on November 2,1878, after falling from the roof of the Bradley & Rulofson studio in San FranciscoWilliam Rulofson – William Herman Rulofson
59. Adolph B. Spreckels – Adolph Bernard Spreckels was a California businessman who ran Spreckels Sugar Company and who donated the California Palace of the Legion of Honor art museum to the city of San Francisco in 1924. His wife Alma was called the grandmother of San Francisco. His 55-room mansion, built in 1913 in Pacific Heights is the current home of novellist Danielle Steel, Spreckels was born in San Francisco, California. His parents were Anna Christina Mangels and Claus Spreckels, founder of the Spreckels Sugar Company, at the age of 12, Adolph studied abroad in Hanover, Germany for two years, returning to San Francisco to finish his studies. When the company was founded in 1881, he was named a vice-president, Spreckels succeeded his father as company president upon the latters death in 1908. He was intensely loyal to both his father and his brother John, in 1884, he shot Michael H. de Young, co-founder of the San Francisco Chronicle, supposedly because of an article in that newspaper suggesting his sugar company defrauded its shareholders. Spreckels pleaded temporary insanity to the charge of attempted murder and was acquitted, the California Palace of the Legion of Honor was championed by his wife Alma and paid for from the Spreckels fortune. It was merged with the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in 1972 to become the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Spreckels Lake, in the park, is named after him. Spreckels Organ Pavilion in San Diegos Balboa Park, housing the largest outdoor pipe organ in the world, was built by Spreckels. Furthermore, his brother John commissioned Spreckels Organ in honor of Adolph, Spreckels was also fond of horse racing and owned and bred a number of race horses, most famously Morvich, the first California-bred horse to win the Kentucky Derby. He and Alma were married on May 11,1908 after a five-year courtship and they had three children, daughter Alma Emma, son Adolph Bernard, Jr. and another daughter, Dorothy Constance. The familys 1913 mansion, located at 2080 Washington Street in the Pacific Heights neighborhood of San Francisco, is currently the home of novelist Danielle Steel, after the birth of their last daughter, Spreckels health began to deteriorate due to syphilis he had contracted before his marriage. He had known about the disease and had kept it secret from his wife, Spreckels died in 1924 from pneumoniaAdolph B. Spreckels – Adolph Bernard Spreckels
60. M. H. de Young Memorial Museum – The de Young, a fine arts museum located in San Franciscos Golden Gate Park, is one of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco along with the Legion of Honor. The de Young is named for its founder, early San Francisco newspaperman M. H. de Young, holleins tenure began on June 1,2016. The museum opened in 1895 as an outgrowth of the California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894 and it was housed in an Egyptian revival structure which had been the Fine Arts Building at the fair. The building was damaged in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and was closed for a year. Before long, the steady development called for a new space to better serve its growing audiences. Michael de Young responded by planning the building that would serve as the core of the de Young facility through the 20th century, louis Christian Mullgardt, the coordinator for architecture for the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, designed the Spanish-Plateresque-style building. The new structure was completed in 1919 and formally transferred by de Young to the park commissioners. In 1921, de Young added a section, together with a tower that would become the museums signature feature. Michael de Youngs great efforts were honored with the changing of the name to the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum. Another addition, a west wing, was completed in 1925, in 1929 the original Egyptian-style building was declared unsafe and demolished. By 1949, the elaborate cast concrete ornamentation of the original de Young was determined to be a hazard, as part of the agreement that created the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco in 1972, the de Youngs collection of European art was sent to the Legion of Honor. In compensation, the de Young received the right to display the bulk of the organizations anthropological holdings and these include significant pre-Hispanic works from Teotihuacan and Peru, as well as indigenous tribal art from sub-Saharan Africa. The building was damaged by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. It in turn was demolished and replaced by a new building in 2005, the only remaining original elements of the old de Young are the vases and sphinxes located near the Pool of Enchantment. The palm trees in front of the building are original to the site. The de Young showcases American art from the 17th through the 21st centuries, international art, textiles, and costumes, and art from the Americas. The American art collection consists of over 1,000 paintings,800 sculptures, in 1978, the American art collections were transformed by the decision of John D. His bequest in 1979 together with her bequest in 1993 are among the Fine Arts Museums’ single most important gifts of artM. H. de Young Memorial Museum – de Young
61. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco – The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the M. H. With a total value of over $1 billion, the permanent collection of the Fine Arts Museums is organized into six areas, each with a curatorial staff. There are 150,000 objects in the permanent collection, of which 90% are digitally photographed and cataloged, unlike most other major art museums, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco do not have a large endowment on which it can draw. As of June 2011, the endowment amounted to $120 million, the museums operate on an annual budget of about $55 million, most of which is funded by membership dues, ticket sales, donations and purchases in its stores as well as contributed revenue. In fiscal year 2012, the museum drew nearly 1.6 million visitors, in 2012, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and the Louvre signed an agreement that provides for collaborative exhibitions and the sharing of art works. Holleins tenure began on June 1,2016, media related to Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco at Wikimedia Commons Official websiteFine Arts Museums of San Francisco – The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, part of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.
62. Arturo Sandoval – Arturo Sandoval is a Cuban American jazz trumpeter, pianist and composer. Sandoval, while still in Cuba, was influenced by jazz musicians Charlie Parker, Clifford Brown, Gillespie became a mentor and colleague, playing with Sandoval in concerts in Europe and Cuba and later featuring him in the United Nations Orchestra. Sandoval defected while touring with Gillespie in 1990, and he became a citizen in 1998. His life was the subject of the film For Love or Country, The Arturo Sandoval Story, Sandoval has won ten Grammy Awards and been nominated nineteen times, he has also received six Billboard Awards and one Emmy Award. On August 8,2013, President Barack Obama announced that Sandoval would receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom, as a twelve-year-old boy in Cuba, Sandoval played trumpet with street musicians. He helped establish the Orquesta Cubana de Musica Moderna, which became the band Irakere in 1973 and he toured worldwide with his own group in 1981. The following year he toured with Dizzy Gillespie, who became his friend, in 1989, Gillespie invited Sandoval to be part of the United Nations Orchestra. During a tour with this group, Sandoval visited the American Embassy in Rome to defect from Cuba and he became an American citizen on December 7,1998. Sandoval has performed Latin jazz with Paquito DRivera, Tito Puente, and Chico OFarrill, Cuban music in Miami, in the 1990s, he was a member of the GRP All-Star Big Band. Sandovals song A Mis Abuelos received Grammy Award nominations for Best Instrumental Composition and this composition was featured on his Grammy-winning album, Danzon. Other highlights from Sandovals discography featuring his compositions include Dear Diz, Live at the Blue Note, Rumba Palace, when HBO Films developed a movie based on Arturo Sandovals life, he was asked to score the movie, which earned him his first Emmy award. In 1996, Sandoval was commissioned by the Kennedy Center Ballet to score Pepitos Story, Sandoval also composed a classical trumpet concerto that he performed and recorded with the London Symphony Orchestra. Sandovals compositions and performances can be heard in The Mambo Kings, in 2015, Arturo Sandoval joined the 14th annual Independent Music Awards judging panel to assist independent musicians careers. He was also a judge for the 2nd, 12th and 13th Independent Music Awards, a.1996, Mr. coms biography Streaming music Arturo Sandoval, A Time for Love by Billboard Arturo Sandoval Interview NAMM Oral History Program, July 26,2011Arturo Sandoval – Arturo Sandoval
63. Big Game (football) – First played 125 years ago in 1892, it is one of the oldest college rivalries in the United States. The game is played in late November or early December. In even-numbered years, the game is played at Berkeley, while in odd-numbered years it is played at Stanford, Stanford has won the last seven games, the latest at Memorial Stadium 45–31. The Big Game is the oldest college football rivalry in the West, while an undergraduate at Stanford, future U. S. President Herbert Hoover was the student manager of both the baseball and football teams. He helped organize the inaugural Big Game, along with his friend Cal manager Herbert Lang, only 10,000 tickets were printed for the game but 20,000 people showed up. Hoover and Lang scrambled to find pots, bowls and any other available receptacles to collect the admission fees, the term Big Game was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Fred Lilly, the last victim of the disaster, died on December 4,1900, to this day, the Thanksgiving Day Disaster remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U. S. sporting event. In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in football, both schools dropped football in favor of rugby, which was played for the Big Games of 1906–14, the first incidence of card stunts was performed by Cal fans at the halftime of the 1910 Big Game. California resumed playing football in 1915, but Stanfords rugby teams continued until 1917, from 1915–1917, Californias Big Game was their game against Washington, while Stanford played Santa Clara as their rugby Big Game. The game resumed as football in 1919, and has played as such every year since, except from 1943 to 1945. A handful of Stanford starters—including guards Jim Cox, Bill Hachten and Fred Boensch, running back George Quist, Quist returned to Stanford, playing against Cal in the 1946 Big Game. Scenes for the Harold Lloyd silent classic The Freshman were filmed at California Memorial Stadium during halftime of the 1924 Big Game, since 1933, the victor of the game has been awarded possession of the Stanford Axe. If a game ended in a tie, the Axe stayed on the side that already possessed it, this rule became obsolete in 1996 when the NCAA instituted overtime. In 2013, the new Levis Stadium in Santa Clara was proposed as the site of the 2014 Big Game, the 2015 game would then be held in Berkeley, reversing the current rotation of odd-numbered years at Stanford and even-numbered years at Cal. But several days later Cal declined the offer, both teams came into the game unbeaten with a berth in the 1925 Rose Bowl on the line. With its star Ernie Nevers sidelined due to injuries, Stanford trailed 20–6 with under 5 minutes to go, but rallied to score twice to force a 20–20 tie and earn the Rose Bowl bid. In the 50th Big Game, winless Stanford led the 8–1 Bears with less than three minutes left in the game, but Cal scored on an 80-yard touchdown pass to clinch a 21–18 victory. Stanford quarterback Dick Norman threw for 401 yards, but it was not enough to hold off the Bears, Cal drove 62 yards in the final 1,13, culminating in a Vince Ferragamo touchdown pass to Steve Sweeney for a last-second 24–22 Cal victoryBig Game (football) – Stanford players lift the Stanford Axe after winning the 2010 Big Game
64. 1906 San Francisco earthquake – The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet. The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina1906 San Francisco earthquake – 1906 San Francisco earthquake
65. Library of Congress – The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacementLibrary of Congress – Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May 15, 1894.
66. San Francisco Peninsula – The San Francisco Peninsula is a peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area that separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. On its northern tip is the City and County of San Francisco and its southern base is in northern Santa Clara County, including the cities of Palo Alto, Mountain View and Los Altos. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local jargon, in 1795, Governor Diego de Borica gave José Darío Argüello a Spanish land grant known as Rancho de las Pulgas. This rancho was the largest grant on the peninsula consisting of 35,260 acres, as a local geographic term, the area referred to as The Peninsula is disjoint from that denoted by The City, and refers to the portion south of San Francisco. A substantial portion of Silicon Valley is located on the peninsula, in Silicon Valley sits some of the largest tech companies in the world with the likes of Google, Yahoo, Facebook and Apple. Over the last decade or so there has been an influx of immigration into the Bay Area from places like India, there are well over 6,600 tech startups in the Valley and new ones are created every day. The east side of the peninsula is a densely populated. It forms an area between San Francisco to the north and San Jose to the south. The Caltrain commuter rail line runs parallel to the El Camino Real. The bridges in the Peninsula include the Dumbarton Bridge, the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge, the San Mateo-Hayward Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge. Along the center line of the Peninsula is the half of the Santa Cruz Mountains. In the middle of the Peninsula along the fault is the Crystal Springs Reservoir, just north of the Crystal Springs reservoir is San Andreas Lake after which the famous geologic fault was originally named. The San Francisco Peninsula contains a variety of habitats including estuarine, marine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savanna. The county is home to endangered species including the San Francisco garter snake, the Mission blue butterfly. The endangered California clapper rail is found on the shores of San Francisco Bay, in the cities of BelmontSan Francisco Peninsula – USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. The San Francisco peninsula protrudes northward. San Francisco is at its tip.
67. Silicon Valley – Silicon Valley is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. The valley in its name refers to the Santa Clara Valley in Santa Clara County, which includes the city of San Jose and surrounding cities and towns, where the region has been traditionally centered. The region has expanded to include the half of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Mateo County. It was in the Valley that the integrated circuit, the microprocessor. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of an information technology workers. The term is now used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector. The first published use of Silicon Valley is credited to Don Hoefler, hostler used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News. The series, titled Silicon Valley in the USA, began in the papers January 11,1971, the term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. The silicon part of the name refers to the concentration of companies involved in the making of semiconductors. These firms slowly replaced the orchards and the fruits which gave the area its initial nickname — the Valley of Hearts Delight, Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valleys early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success, the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckles History of San Jose that California first heard the click of a key on September 11,1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants Exchange members named George Sweeney and it was known as the Inner Station, the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs, Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchantss Exchange by electric telegraph Wire. According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baughs line was strictly an intra-city, San Francisco-based service, allen and C. Burnham led the way to build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento. Delays to construction occurred until September 1853, but, …San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15, the line was completed when Gambles northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24. The Bay Area had long been a site of United States Navy research. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San JoseSilicon Valley – Silicon Valley, as seen from over north San Jose, facing southbound towards Downtown San Jose
68. West Marin – West Marin is the largest rural region of Marin County, California. The West Marin Chamber of Commerce includes seven unincorporated communities in its definition of West Marin, Point Reyes Station, Olema, Stinson Beach, Bolinas, Tomales, Dillon Beach, and Inverness. West Marin is generally considered to be west of Muir Beach, the Point Reyes Light is a weekly newspaper covering West Marin, and the website of the Marin Independent Journal has a category for West Marin news. Unlike the rest of the county, which is served by Golden Gate Transit, West Marin is served by Marin Transit, the Environmental Action Committee of West Marin, active since the 1970s, focuses on environmental issues such as preserving open space and protecting vulnerable species. The Straus Family Creamery is just north of Marshall, West Marin official site West Marin Citizen homepage West Marin NewsWest Marin – West Marin landscape
69. Berkeley Hills – The Berkeley Hills are a range of the Pacific Coast Ranges that overlook the northeast side of the valley that encompasses San Francisco Bay. They were previously called the Contra Costa Range/Hills, but with the establishment of Berkeley and the University of California, the Berkeley Hills are bounded by the major Hayward Fault along their western base, and the minor Wildcat fault on their eastern side. The highest peaks are Vollmer Peak, Grizzly Peak and Round Top, an extinct volcano, Vollmer Peak was named for the first police chief of the City of Berkeley, August Vollmer. It was formerly known as Bald Peak, from the top on a clear winter day Davis, Sacramento and the snowy Sierra are visible. Much of the west slope of the Berkeley Hills has residential neighborhoods of single family homes. Most streets are narrow and tend to follow the contours of the land, other roads to the ridgeline wind their way up the canyons. Grizzly Peak and Skyline Blvds follow the top of the ridge, the east slope of the Berkeley Hills is mostly preserved or partially developed wildland, much of it owned by the East Bay Regional Park District and the East Bay Municipal Utility District. Claremont Canyon Regional Preserve, and Temescal Regional Park are lower on the western slopes while Las Trampas Regional Wilderness is lower on the slope above Danville. The Berkeley Hills are pierced by several tunnels, two are aqueducts of EBMUD, the Berkeley Hills Tunnel serves the Pittsburg/Bay Point–SFO/Millbrae line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system. The four bores of the Caldecott Tunnel carry State Highway 24 between Oakland and Contra Costa County and it is common to hear the term, Oakland Hills to refer to that section of the Berkeley Hills that runs along the east side of Oakland. In colloquial usage, the Oakland hills are south of Claremont Avenue or Highway 24, as a proper name or recognized toponym, it is technically incorrect. When used on maps, the south end of the Berkeley Hills is unclear. It does not, in any case, correspond to any political boundaries, the ridge extends south through Oakland and San Leandro to the drainage of San Leandro Creek called Castro Valley, and geologically, continues southward above the line of the Hayward Fault. In the section above East Oakland to Castro Valley, the ridge appears on most maps as the San Leandro Hills, the eastern slopes of the Berkeley Hills lie entirely outside of the city of Berkeley within Contra Costa County. Another common usage is East Bay Hills, but its application to any particular range is unclear and it may refer to all of the ranges east of the Bay, from the Berkeley Hills to the Diablo Range and all the ranges between. The Berkeley Hills affect the climate by their elevation. The oceanic marine layer, which develops during the summer, bringing fog and low clouds with it, is less than 2,000 feet deep. This produces a fog shadow effect to the east, which is warmer than areas west of the hills, especially cold storms occasionally deposit wet snow on the peaksBerkeley Hills
70. Santa Cruz Mountains – The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central and northern California, United States. The range passes through San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, the highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak 3,786 feet, near which is the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum 3,486 feet, Mount Bielawski 3,231 feet, El Sombroso 2,999 feet, Eagle Rock 2,488 feet, Black Mountain 2,800 feet, and Sierra Morena 2,417 feet. The San Andreas Fault runs along or near the line throughout the range. The east side of the mountains drops abruptly towards this fault line especially near Woodside, for much of the length of the range on the San Francisco Peninsula, State Route 35 runs along its ridge, and is known as Skyline Boulevard. The Santa Cruz Mountains have been a legally defined American Viticultural Area since 1981, wine has been produced here since at least the 1840s. The Santa Cruz Mountain AVA has emerged as premier producer of top wines, there are over 30 wineries located in this area. The Santa Cruz Mountains are largely the result of uplift caused by a leftward bend of the San Andreas Fault. The Salinian Block basement rocks are overlain by Miocene rock strata of the Lompico Sandstone, the Vaqueros Sandstone, the Santa Cruz Mountains are a region of large biological diversity, encompassing cool, moist coastal ecosystems as well as warm, dry chaparral. Much of the area in the Santa Cruz mountains is considered temperate rainforest, there do exist several small and isolated stands of old-growth forest, most notably at Henry Cowell Redwoods and Portola Redwoods State Parks and one sizeable old-growth redwood forest at Big Basin. At higher elevations and on sunny south slopes a more drought-resistant chaparral vegetation dominates, manzanita, California scrub oak, chamise, spring wildflowers are also widespread throughout the range. The area welcomes a number of species of birds. Black-tailed deer, a subspecies of deer are common, as are western gray squirrels, chipmunks. Periodic sightings of black bears indicate they frequent the mountains or wander north from Big Sur, foxes, coyotes, bobcats, cougars and human-introduced Virginia opossums also inhabit the region but are rarely seen. Rattlesnakes are also inhabitants, mostly in the high, dry chaparral, the Santa Cruz Mountains have a Mediterranean type climate typical of most of California, with the majority of the annual precipitation falling between November and April. According to the National Weather Service, this more than 50 inches annually. Due to a shadow effect, precipitation on the eastern side of the range is significantly less. Snow falls a few times a year on the highest ridges, no temperature records were kept at these stationsSanta Cruz Mountains – Skyline Blvd runs through the Santa Cruz Mountains, here in Portola Valley.
71. Point Reyes National Seashore – Point Reyes National Seashore is a 71, 028-acre park preserve located on the Point Reyes Peninsula in Marin County, California. As a national seashore, it is maintained by the US National Park Service as an important nature preserve, some existing agricultural uses are allowed to continue within the park. All of the beaches were listed as the cleanest in the state in 2010. The fact that the peninsula is on a different tectonic plate than the east shore of Tomales Bay produces a difference in soils and therefore to some extent a noticeable difference in vegetation. The even smaller town of Olema, about 3 miles south of Point Reyes Station, serves as the gateway to the Seashore and its visitor center, the peninsula includes wild coastal beaches and headlands, estuaries, and uplands. The Seashore also administers the parts of the Golden Gate National Recreation area, such as the Olema Valley, the northernmost part of the peninsula is maintained as a reserve for Tule Elk, which are readily seen there. The preserve is very rich in raptors and shorebirds. The Point Reyes Lighthouse attracts whale-watchers looking for the Gray Whale migrating south in mid-January, the Point Reyes Lifeboat Station is a National Historic Landmark. It is the last remaining example of a rail launched lifeboat station that was common on the Pacific coast and this encompasses 5,965 acres along the coast of Drakes Bay. Kule Loklo, a recreated Coast Miwok village, is a walk from the visitor center. The Point Reyes National Seashore attracts 2.5 million visitors annually, hostelling International USA maintains a 45-bed youth hostel at the Seashore. Point Reyes National Seashore Association, formed in 1964, collaborates with the Seashore on maintenance, restoration, like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. A large shellfish farm raising Japanese oysters, Crassostrea gigas, was located in Drakes Estero until, under court order, Court appeals to keep the operation in place were dropped in December,2014. The farm was purchased by the National Park Service in 1972, a federal law enacted in 2009 authorized, but did not require, Interior Secretary Ken Salazar to renew the permit. The NPS and conservation groups viewed the farm as an inappropriate and environmentally-insensitive use of the estero, the farms supporters argued that it was not ecologically harmful and was important to the local economy. Salazar visited the farm the previous week and later phoned the farms owner to give him the news. The oyster farm closure was challenged in U. S. District Court on January 25,2013, the challenge was rejected by a federal court judge, who ruled that the law gave Salazar unfettered discretion to approve or deny a renewal of the permit. The California Coastal Commission voted on February 7,2013 to unanimously approve cease and desist, an attempt to have the appeals court rehear the case was rejected on January 14,2014 and a petition to the United States Supreme Court was denied on June 30,2014Point Reyes National Seashore – Headlands of the Point Reyes Peninsula from Chimney Rock, looking North. Elephant seals lie in the sand at the bottom right.
72. Henry Coe State Park – Henry W. Coe State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving a vast tract of the Diablo Range. The park is located closest to the city of Morgan Hill, the park contains over 87,000 acres, making it the largest state park in northern California, and the second-largest in the state. Managed within its boundaries is a wilderness area of about 22,000 acres. This is officially known as the Henry W. Coe State Wilderness, the 89, 164-acre park was established in 1959. Joaquin Murrieta and his gang used the route to drive stolen horses south from Contra Costa County, horses were held at several locations now contained within the park, including Mustang Flat and Coit Camp. Both Mustang Peak and Mustang Flat derive their names from the activities of Murrieta, the park began as the Pine Ridge Ranch, a private cattle ranch of 12,230 acres. It was the home of Henry Willard Coe, Jr. Coe left the ranch to his son, Henry Sutcliffe Coe, who sold it to the Beach Land and Cattle Company of Fresno County in 1948. The ranchs road network was expanded during this time. Coes daughter, Sada Coe Robinson, re-purchased the ranch in 1950 and donated it to Santa Clara County in 1953 and it became a state park in 1958. Additional adjacent lands were added, and for years, the parks size stood at 13,000 acres. Indeed, many currently available road maps still show the park in its 13,000 acre configuration. The park expanded considerably in the early 1980s with the purchase of adjacent properties to the east and south, in the early 1990s the Redfern Ranch added some 11,000 acres in the south, and since 2000 lands to the west have been purchased for inclusion. The northern part of the park, including the Orestimba Wilderness, was swept by a massive wildfire starting on September 3,2007, fire officials blamed the fire on burning debris within a barrel at a hunting club adjacent to the park. The person responsible for the fire forward, pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor charge. All areas affected by the fire were re-opened to unrestricted public access on February 16,2008, most of the ridges run around 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation, with canyon bottoms usually around 1,000 to 1,500 feet above sea level. The highest point in the park is on the northernmost boundary and this point may be considered to be on the slopes of Mt. Stakes, a mile north of the parks northern boundary. The lowest point in the park is at the Bell Station access point in the southeast, since this is a mere strip of land along a road right-of-way, it is often not thought of as an integral part of the state park. The lowest point in the body of the park is the place where the North Fork of Pacheco Creek flows out, at about 710 feet elevationHenry Coe State Park – Ponderosa Pines on summit of Pine Ridge
73. Drake's Bay – The bay is approximately 8 miles wide. It is formed on the lee side of the current by Point Reyes. The bay is fed by Drakes Estero, an estuary on the Point Reyes peninsula. The estuary is protected by Estero de Limantour State Marine Reserve & Drakes Estero State Marine Conservation Area, Point Reyes State Marine Reserve & Point Reyes State Marine Conservation Area lie within Drakes Bay. Like underwater parks, these protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife. The bay is named after Sir Francis Drake and has long been considered Drakes most likely landing spot on the west coast of North America during his circumnavigation of the world by sea in 1579, an alternative name for this bay is Puerto De Los ReyesDrake's Bay – Drakes Bay Historic Archaeological District