1. San Francisco Bay Area – The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco, Oakland, along with smaller urban and rural areas. The Bay Area's nine counties are Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Sonoma. The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California, the 43rd-largest urban area in the world. The United States Office of Management and Budget does not use the nine-county definition of the Bay Area. The Bay Area is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics, entrepreneurship, diversity. The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay. The inner East Bay is more densely populated, with a more ethnically diverse population. The Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes: Lafayette, Moraga, Orinda. The cities of the unincorporated areas surrounding them comprise East Contra Costa County. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador, the San Ramon Valleys. The outer East Bay's infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades. The north of the Golden Gate Bridge is known locally as the North Bay. This area extends eastward into Solano County.San Francisco Bay Area – San Francisco
2. San Francisco Bay – The San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary that drains water from approximately 40% of California. Water from the Sierra Nevada mountains, passes through the bay to the Pacific Ocean. However, the entire group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The waterway entrance to San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean is called the Golden Gate. Across the strait spans the Golden Gate Bridge. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2013. The bay covers somewhere between 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, estuaries, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the Bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later, inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay.San Francisco Bay – San Francisco Bay Area
3. San Pablo Bay – The bay has an area of approximately 90 sq mi. The bay is heavily silted from the contributions of the two rivers, which themselves drain most of the Central Valley of California. All tributaries for Sonoma Creek are commercially navigable and maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Two peninsulas separate San Pablo Bay from San Francisco Bay. The eastern is in the western in the City of San Rafael. Solano, Sonoma and Marin counties on the northern and western shores. The county boundaries meet near the center of the bay. Because the Bay is close to several local airports, but outside of the main air traffic corridors, it is a popular pilot training area. Because of its great size but shallow waters, San Pablo Bay frequently has boating conditions. There are undeveloped shore lands with salt marshes and mudflats. Much of the northern shore of the bay is protected as part of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Endangered species that are found in the bay include the California brown pelican, salt marsh harvest mouse. This is a popular destination for recreation fishing, including: striped bass, surfperch, sturgeon, starry flounder, leopard shark, topsmelt, anchovy. In the 1880s there was a shrimp-fishing village, where some 500 Chinese people lived; they shipped approximately 90% of their catch to China. The location is now part of China Camp State Park.San Pablo Bay – San Pablo Bay, shown with San Francisco Bay
4. Estuary – Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences -- such as the influx of saline water -- and to riverine influences -- such as flows of fresh water and sediment. Estuaries are typically classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary. However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. This broad definition also includes fjords, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem with a connection with the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides. The water entering the estuary streams. Drowned river valleys also known as coastal plain estuaries. This is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border. The width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is typically large, deepening seaward. Water depths rarely exceed 30 m. San Francisco Bay is another good example of a drowned river valley. They are partially common in tropical and subtropical locations.Estuary – Estuary of the Klamath River in Northern California
5. Northern California – Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, did not establish European settlements in northern California. Northern California is not a geographic designation. California's midway division is around 37 ° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, "Northern California" usually refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35 ° ′ 28 ″ north latitude, which form the southern borders of Monterey, Kings, Tulare and Inyo counties. The term is also applied to the north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains. Because of diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. The state is often considered as having an additional north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, northern California has been a leader on the world's economic, cultural stages. In science, advances range from being the first to name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in training. It is also Home to one of the largest the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, their many suburbs.Northern California – Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
6. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
7. San Francisco – San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area. It is located on the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the smallest county in the state. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. As of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the independent homestead, near a anchorage around what is Portsmouth Square. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later.San Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
8. Oakland, California – Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. The city is located six miles east of San Francisco. Oakland was incorporated in 1852. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure. It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, shipyards, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that later became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons.Oakland, California – Oakland skyline, with the old eastern span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in background
9. San Jose, California – San Jose is the largest city in Northern California. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Ohlone people. San Jose was founded as San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian town in the Spanish colony of Alta California. The city served as a community to support Spanish military installations at San Francisco and Monterey. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose became the capital. It then began to experience much of it coming from veterans returning from World War II. San Jose then continued its aggressive expansion by annexing more land area. The rapid growth of the electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. By the 1990s, San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley". San Jose is now notable for its affluence and high cost of living. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population of the city to be 1,015,785 as of July 2014. Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. The first European presence began with a series of Franciscan missions established from 1769 by Junípero Serra. San Jose came under Mexican rule in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown. It then became part of the United States, after California was annexed.San Jose, California – Images, from top down, left to right: Downtown San Jose, Hotel De Anza, East San Jose suburbs, Lick Observatory, Plaza de César Chávez
10. Alameda County, California – Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state. Its county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region. The county was formed on March 25, 1853, from a large portion of Contra Costa County and a smaller portion of Santa Clara County. The Spanish word alameda means "a place where poplar trees grow," a name originally given to the Arroyo de la Alameda. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early explorers of a road lined with trees, also known as an alameda. The county seat was then re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, the county seat since 1873. The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton. The fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include live bands. The crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary, reach into the center of the county. A several miles wide the bay; and is Oakland's most populous region. Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county.Alameda County, California
11. Contra Costa County, California – Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025. The county seat is Martinez. The name means "opposite coast" in Spanish. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region and is primarily suburban. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in even earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions. The earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned. Extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were instead generally cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent. Early European settlers in the region, however, did not record much about the culture of the natives.Contra Costa County, California – The west face of Mount Diablo, the most notable natural landmark in Contra Costa County
12. Marin County, California – Marin County /məˈrɪn/ is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 252,409. Its county seat is San Rafael. Marin County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. Marin County is one of the wealthiest localities in the United States, known for its affluence. In May 2009, Marin County had the fifth highest income per capita in the United States at about $91,480. The county is governed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors. The county is also well known for its natural beauty and liberal politics. San Quentin Prison is located in the county, as is George Lucas' Skywalker Ranch. Autodesk, the publisher of AutoCAD, is also located there, as well as numerous other high-tech companies. In 1994, a new county jail facility was embedded into the hillside nearby. Marin County's natural sites include the Muir Woods redwood forest, the Marin Headlands, Stinson Beach, the Point Reyes National Seashore, Mount Tamalpais. The United States' oldest cross country running event, the Dipsea Race, takes place annually in Marin County, attracting thousands of athletes. Mountain biking was invented on the slopes of Mount Tamalpais in Marin. According to General Mariano Vallejo, who headed an 1850 committee to name California's counties, the county was named for "Marin", great chief of the tribe Licatiut".Marin County, California – Marin County Civic Center
13. Napa County, California – Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,484. The county seat is the City of Napa. Napa County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the county's territory were given to Lake County in 1861. Napa County comprises the Napa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is one of four North Bay counties. In prehistoric times, the valley was inhabited by the Patwin Native Americans, with possible habitation by Wappo tribes in the northwestern foothills. Most villages are thought to have been constructed near the floodplains of watercourses that drain the valley. Their food consisted of wild roots, bread made from crushed California buckeye kernels. In winter they would construct huts made of tree branches. In summer they camped near rivers and streams. In winter months, they were half clad in wild animal skins and at other times they wore no clothing. The maximum prehistoric population is thought not to have exceeded 5000 persons. In 1776, a fort was erected by the Spanish Governor, Felipe de Neve a short distance northwest of Napa, on an elevated plateau.Napa County, California
14. San Francisco County, California – San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area. It is located on the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the smallest county in the state. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. As of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the independent homestead, near a anchorage around what is Portsmouth Square. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later.San Francisco County, California – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
15. San Mateo County, California – San Mateo County is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451. The county seat is Redwood City. It covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the northern end of the county, Silicon Valley begins at the southern end. The county's built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, are home to several corporate campuses. San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the state's 18 original counties since California's statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Francisco's city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, south to 20th Street. In response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was then drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain. The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by a bill introduced by Horace Hawes, signed by the governor on 19 April 1856. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T.G. Phelps. San Mateo County then annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Redwood City's status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont.San Mateo County, California
16. Santa Clara County, California – Santa Clara County, California, officially the County of Santa Clara, is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,781,642. The county seat is San Jose, the tenth-most populous city in the United States. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is also known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area region, one of the most affluent counties in the United States. Santa Clara County is named after Mission Santa Clara, established in 1777, is also named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood. The original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Coyote Creek and Calaveras Creek. Part of the county's territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries. The first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943. Early innovators were located by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U.S. Navy had a large presence in the area and began giving large contracts to Silicon Valley electronics companies.Santa Clara County, California
17. Solano County, California – Solano County is a county located in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 413,344. The county seat is Fairfield. Solano County comprises the Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Solano County is the northeastern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. A portion of the South Campus at the University of California, Davis is in Solano County. Solano County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Chief Solano at one time led the tribes between the Petaluma River and the Sacramento River. The chief was also called Sem-Yeto, which signifies "brave or fierce hand." The Chief was given the Spanish name Francisco Solano during baptism at the Catholic Mission, is named after the Spanish Franciscan missionary, Father Francisco Solano. "Solano" is a common surname in the north of Spain, especially in Navarra, Zaragoza and La Rioja. Travis Air Force Base is located just east of Fairfield. Solano County is the easternmost county of the North Bay. As such, it is sometimes reported by news agencies as being in the East Bay. Additionally, a portion of the county extends into the Sacramento Valley, geographically.Solano County, California
18. Sonoma County, California – Sonoma County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878. Its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is located to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County. It is west of Napa County and Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is the northwestern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the southwestern county and largest producer of California's Wine Country region, which also includes Napa, Mendocino, Lake counties. It has 13 approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries. In 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. More than 7.4 million tourists visit each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College. Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit largely divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007: grapes and pasturage. Other Europeans settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber, fur, farmland.Sonoma County, California
19. National park – A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. The first area to use "national park" in its legislation was the US's Mackinac Island, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as national park status was consequently lost. As a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. No legal authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877. John Muir is today referred to due to his work in Yosemite. He published two influential articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation.National park – An elephant safari through the Jaldapara National Park in West Bengal, India
20. Commuter rail – Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Pricing may be used. They primarily serve suburban areas, often right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Others uses fewer departures during off peak weekends. Average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 15 and 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are usually much longer than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are often available on board trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce construction costs. Most such trains run on the standard track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters.Commuter rail – The Long Island Rail Road operates electric and diesel service into New York City along with Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit Rail.
21. List of urban areas by population – This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population as of 2014/2015. The figures here have been taken from Demographia's "World Urban Areas" study. Demographia defines an urban area as a continuously built up land mass of urban development, within a labor market, for administrative boundaries. Except in Australia, the authorities use a urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer. Demographia uses maps, satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units often includes rural areas. Sources for population estimates and area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively. A: National census authority data agglomeration data. B: Demographia land area estimate based upon map or satellite photograph analysis. C: Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including reduction for rural areas. D: Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate. E: Demographia population estimate from national census authority data. F: Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports.List of urban areas by population – Population tables of world cities
22. Office of Management and Budget – The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Donovan was confirmed by the Senate in a 75–22 vote. The OMB Director reports to the President, the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. OMB supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, procedures, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that rules, testimony, proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB also coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management, information, regulatory policies. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT. The Office is made up mainly of career appointed staff who provide continuity in the White House. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. These staff have dual responsibility for budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget. They are often called upon to provide information to any EOP staff member.Office of Management and Budget – Office of Management and Budget
23. Combined Statistical Area – These areas that combine retain their own designations within the larger combined statistical area. CSAs represent multiple micropolitan areas that have an employment interchange of 25. CSAs often represent regions with overlapping media markets. As of July 2012, there are 166 three in Puerto Rico. "Combined Statistical Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico". Link United States Government United States Census Bureau 2010 United States Census USCB population estimates United States Office of Management and BudgetCombined Statistical Area – Population tables of U.S. cities
24. San Joaquin County, California – San Joaquin County /ˈsæn wɑːˈkiːn/ is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306. The county seat is Stockton. San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton-Lodi, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, also included in the more inclusive San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located in Northern Californias Central Valley, just east of the less extensive nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. The City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. The county was named for the San Joaquin River which runs through it. San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valley's first permanent residence. It was developed for ranching and agriculture. It attracted more miners and settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush. On August 7, 1998, a tire fire ignited at S.F. Royster's Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd. The dump held over million illegally was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a better way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out.San Joaquin County, California
25. Santa Cruz County, California – Santa Cruz County, California, officially the County of Santa Cruz, is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 262,382. The county seat is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located on the California Central Coast, south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast. Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of "Branciforte" after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797. A major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months later on April 5, 1850, the name was changed to "Santa Cruz". Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1857, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931. It is the second-smallest county in California by land area and third-smallest by total area. Of California's counties, only San Francisco is physically smaller. The county is situated on a wide coastline with over 29 miles of beaches. Agriculture is concentrated in the coastal lowlands of the county's northern and southern ends.Santa Cruz County, California
26. San Benito County, California – San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,269. The county seat is Hollister. El Camino Real passes through the county and includes one mission in San Juan Bautista. San Benito County was formed from parts of Monterey County in 1874. The county is named after the San Benito Valley. The county also borders Merced County and Fresno County in the east, which lead onto California's San Joaquin Valley. The county is also the location of the Mount Harlan and San Benito American Viticultural Areas. The latter contains the Cienega Valley, Lime Kiln Valley, Paicines AVAs. Benitoite, the official gem of the State of California, was discovered in San Benito County. The plant genus Benitoa was named for San Benito County. Pinnacles National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that San Benito County had a population of 55,269. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,186 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 53,234 people, 15,885 households, 12,898 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile.San Benito County, California
27. Sacramento County – Sacramento County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,418,788. Its seat is Sacramento, the state capital of California since 1854. Sacramento County is included in CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county covers about 994 square miles in the northern portion of the Central Valley, on into Gold Country. The southernmost portion of Sacramento County has direct access to San Francisco Bay. Sacramento County was one of the original counties of California, which were created at the time of statehood. The county was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named for the Santisimo Sacramento referring to the Catholic Eucharist. A member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, is buried in the old Franklin Cemetery. Most of the county is at an elevation close with some areas below sea level. The highest point in the county is Carpenter Hill at 828 feet, in the part of Folsom. Carpenter Hill is the lowest high point of any county in California. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 306,196 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,223,499 people, 297,562 families residing in the county.Sacramento County
28. Suisun Bay – Suisun Bay is a shallow tidal estuary in northern California. It lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, forming the entrance to the Sacramento -- an inverted river delta. The tidal marsh land to the north, is the largest marsh in California. Grizzly Bay forms a northern extension of Suisun Bay. The bay is directly north of Contra Costa County. The bay was named after the Suisunes, a Native American tribe of the area. The word originates with the Patwin. On the west, Suisun Bay is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which connects to a northern extension of San Francisco Bay. The Glomar Explorer was anchored here after recovering a Soviet submarine in the mid-1970s. Many ships were sold for scrap in the 1990s. In 2010, plans were announced to remove the mothball fleet in stages, with final removal by 2017. The Central Pacific Railroad built a ferry that operated between Benicia and Port Costa, California from 1879 to 1930. Boats Solano and Contra Costa were removed from service when the nearby Martinez railroad bridge was completed in 1930. From 1913 until 1954 an electrified interurban line, crossed Suisun Bay with the Ramon, a distillate-powered train ferry. Kinder Morgan paid three million dollars in penalties and restitution.Suisun Bay – San Pablo Bay with Suisun Bay at upper right
29. Modern liberalism in the United States – Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. It combines ideas of civil equality with support for social justice and a mixed economy. The term "modern liberalism" in this article refers only to the United States. In a global context, this philosophy is usually referred to as social liberalism. The liberal philosophy strongly endorses public spending on programs such as education, health care, welfare. Today include addressing voting rights for minorities, reproductive and other women's rights, support for LGBT rights, immigration reform. American liberals oppose conservatives on most issues, but not all. Modern liberalism is historically related to social progressivism, though the current relationship between progressive viewpoints is debated. Economic theory has played an important role in the economic philosophy of American liberals. Modern American liberals generally believe that national prosperity requires management of the macroeconomy, in order to keep unemployment low, growth high. They also value institutions that defend against economic inequality. In The Conscience of a Liberal Paul Krugman writes: "I believe in a relatively equal society, supported by institutions that limit extremes of wealth and poverty. I believe in the rule of law. That makes me a liberal, I'm proud of it." Liberals often point to the widespread prosperity enjoyed under a mixed economy in the years since World War II.Modern liberalism in the United States – Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way
30. Demographics of California – California is the most populous U.S. state. It has many people from a wide variety of ethnic, racial, religious backgrounds. California is the most populous sub-national entity in North America. If it were an independent country, California would rank 34th in population in the world. It has a larger population than either Canada or Australia. Its population is one third larger than that of Texas. California surpassed New York to become the most populous state in 1962. However, according to the Los Angeles Times, California's growth has slowed dramatically in the 21st century. The largest metro areas in California, as of 2010, are Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland, San Diego, Sacramento. Fresno also has a metropolitan area of over million residents. As of 2006, California had an estimated population of more than 12 percent of the U.S. population. This includes a natural increase since the last census of an increase due to net migration of 751,419 people. Migration from within the U.S. produced a net decrease of 564,100 people. California is the fastest-growing state. As of 2008, the total rate was 2.15.Demographics of California – Pedestrians walking on the Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica.
32. BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant – Officer Johannes Mehserle and another officer were restraining Grant, lying face down. Mehserle was unable to remove Grant's arm from under his body in order to handcuff him. Mehserle drew his pistol and shot Grant once in the back, later claiming he intended to use a Taser, recently issued. Grant was unarmed; he was pronounced dead the next morning at Highland Hospital in Oakland. The events were captured on digital video and phone cameras. The footage was disseminated to media outlets and to various websites, where it was watched millions of times. The following days saw both peaceful and violent protests. The shooting has been variously labeled a execution. On January 2010, Alameda County prosecutors charged Mehserle for the shooting. He resigned his position and pleaded not guilty. The trial began on June 10, 2010. On July 2010, Mehserle was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter and not guilty of voluntary manslaughter. On November 2010, Mehserle was sentenced minus time served. He served his time in the Los Angeles County Jail protective custody, occupying a private cell for his own safety. On June 2011, Mehserle was released after serving 11 months.BART Police shooting of Oscar Grant – Fruitvale BART station, near where Grant was killed
33. New Year's Day – In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is also named. Other global New Years' Day traditions include calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC, celebrated new year in mid-March. The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the new year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March. That the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. But the new year was still sometimes celebrated on March 1. In 46 BC Julius Caesar extend year to 445 days. The normal number of 355 days had already been increased by the addition of the ordinary 23 days, inserted after February 23. As many as 67 days, divided into two menses intercalares, were now interposed between November and December. This year thus consisted of 15 months. After this “year of confusion,” the new calendar really started. Thus, by officially making January 1 start the New Year, it simply lined up with the year. Thus, it was naturally enough for the Romans to eventually decide to make the switch. However, whether this is the reason or not is very up for debate.New Year's Day – Fireworks in Mexico City at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Day, 2013
34. Bay Area Rapid Transit – Bay Area Rapid Transit is a public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The rapid transit elevated and system connects San Francisco with cities in the East Bay and the northern portion of San Mateo County. Additionally, BART operates a 3.2-mile AGT line to the Oakland International Airport which adds a 45th station to the system. A further line under BART jurisdiction in eastern Contra Costa County will utilize other rail technologies. Growth in ridership slowed rapidly in 2016, reflecting a national trend of declining use of public transit. The name is spoken as an acronym instead of an initialism; it is referred to unlike "B-A-R-T." BART combines the aesthetics and carrying capacity of commuter rail. As of 2016, the BART system is being expanded to San Jose with the Warm Springs and Silicon Valley BART extensions. Some of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System's current area was once served by an electrified streetcar and suburban train system called the Key System. This 20th-century system once had regular trans-bay traffic across the lower deck of the Bay Bridge. By the mid-1950s, that system had been dismantled in favor of travel. Construction began a few years later. Service began on September 11, 1972, initially just between MacArthur and Fremont. All nine Bay Area counties were envisioned to be connected by BART. Alameda County, The City and County of San Francisco are the original counties that BART serves.Bay Area Rapid Transit – A Pittsburg / Bay Point bound train at Walnut Creek in July 2008.
35. BART Police – The department has approximately hundred police personnel including over two-hundred sworn peace officers. The chief, Kenton Rainey commands the agency's: law enforcement, parking, community relations services. BART Police participates in a mutual agreement with other Bay Area law enforcement agencies. In 2012 the department came under national scrutiny due to several officers involved in fatalities of the rail system's patrons. When terrorism began to be treated as a more active threat after the September 11 attacks, BART increased its emphasis on protection. The department hosts drills and participates in counter-terrorism working groups. The agency has an officer assigned full-time to the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force. Furthermore, a officer is designated as a mutual-aid, counter-terrorism, homeland-security liaison. BART's police dogs are certified in explosives detection. The stated goal of the BART Police Department is to build a more community-oriented force, tough on crime and strong on customer service. Their personnel form working partnerships with BART riders, employees, community groups, educational institutions, businesses. Protection of property remain among BART's top priorities for the stakeholders in its community. The police sheriffs, forecasting that BART's proposal would create jurisdictional disputes and inconsistent levels of police service, rejected the board's proposal. As a result, legislation was passed to form the BART Police Department. During BART's first 13 years of service, police officers reported to the transit district's headquarters in Oakland.BART Police – Current patch of the BART Police Department
36. Fruitvale (BART station) – Fruitvale is a metro station of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system located in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California. The station consists of two elevated side platforms with the concourse mezzanine at ground level. Service at this station began on September 11, 1972. Alameda Bicycle operates a bike station here. On January 2009, BART officer Johannes Mehserle shot and killed Oscar Grant III at the Fruitvale BART station. At around 2:15 a.m. PST, BART Police were responding to reports of a fight on a BART train inbound from San Francisco. Mehserle later feared that he was reaching inside his waistband. Mehserle drew his service weapon and shot him in the back. Grant died seven hours later at Highland Hospital in Oakland. Video recorded by other riders at the scene were later aired on local television. In 2013 a movie was made about this incident, filmed on location, titled Fruitvale Station. List of Bay Area Rapid Transit stations List of United States bike stations BART - Fruitvale Station OverviewFruitvale (BART station) – Fruitvale BART Station and its "transit village."
37. Digital camera – A digital camera or digicam is a camera that encodes digital images and videos digitally and stores them for later reproduction. Digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones to vehicles. Digital and movie cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image device. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being store and delete images from memory. Digital cameras can also record moving videos with sound. Some digital cameras can perform other elementary image editing. His 1961 idea was to take pictures of the stars while travelling through space to give information about the astronauts' position. Unfortunately, as with Texas Instruments employee Willis Adcock's filmless camera in 1972, the technology had yet to catch up with the concept. Steven Sasson as an engineer at Eastman Kodak built the first electronic camera using a charge-coupled device image sensor in 1975. Earlier ones used a tube; later ones digitized the signal. Early uses were mainly scientific; followed by medical and news applications. In the mid to late 1990s digital cameras became common among consumers. Higher-end cell phones had an integrated digital camera. By the beginning of the 2010s, almost all smartphones had an integrated digital camera. The two major types of digital sensor are CCD and CMOS.Digital camera – Front and back of Canon PowerShot A 95, a typical pocket-size digital camera
38. Camera phone – A camera phone is a mobile phone, able to capture photographs. Most camera phones also record video. Most camera phones are simpler than digital cameras. Smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting. Lacking a physical shutter, some have a long lag. Photoflash is typically provided by an LED source which illuminates less intensely over a much longer time than a bright and near-instantaneous flash strobe. None has a hot shoe for attaching an external flash. Some also lack a removable memory card. Most can make geotagged photographs. In the smartphone era, the steady sales increase of camera phones caused point-and-shoot camera sales to decline thereafter. Most model lines improve two. Most smartphones only have a choice to start a camera application program and an on-screen button to activate the shutter. Some also have a separate button, for quickness and convenience. The principal advantages of camera phones are cost and compactness; indeed for a user who carries a mobile phone anyway, the addition is negligible. Smartphones that are camera phones may run mobile applications to add capabilities such as geotagging and stitching.Camera phone – Camera phone allows instant, automatic photo sharing. There is no need for a cable or removable media to connect to a personal computer.
39. Brownie Mary – Mary Jane Rathbun, popularly known as Brownie Mary, was an American medical cannabis activist. As a volunteer at San Francisco General Hospital, Rathbun became known for illegally baking and distributing cannabis brownies to AIDS patients. Rathbun also contributed in the United States. She was arrested with each arrest bringing increased local, national, international media attention to the medical cannabis movement. Her grandmotherly appearance undermined attempts by the district attorney's office to prosecute her for possession. The City of San Francisco eventually gave Rathbun permission to distribute cannabis brownies to people with AIDS. Brownie Mary was born Mary Jane Rathbun in Chicago, Illinois, on December 1922. A conservative Irish Catholic, named her "Mary Jane". Rathbun was raised in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where she attended Catholic school. Rathbun fought back. Social activism appealed from a young age; she traveled from Chicago to Wisconsin to campaign for the right of miners to form unions. In the late 1940s, Rathbun worked as an activist promoting abortion rights for women in Minneapolis. During World War II, Rathbun moved to California, where she met a man at a United Service Organization dance. They married, but soon divorced. The marriage produced Peggy, born in 1955.Brownie Mary – Brownie Mary speaking at People's Park
40. Medical cannabis – The use of cannabis as a medicine has not been scientifically tested, often due to production restrictions and other governmental regulations. Its use for medical applications, however, is insufficient for conclusions about safety or efficacy. Short-term use increases the risk of both minor and adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, hallucinations. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, the risk of children taking it by accident. The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. Its current use is controversial. They, along with the Minnesota Medical Association, call for moving cannabis out of DEA Schedule I to facilitate this research. Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries; examples include: nabilone. Australia is currently in the process of passing a law which would allow the use of marijuana for scientific purposes. Different cannabis strains are collectively called "medical cannabis." Since plant derivatives all share the same name, the term "medical cannabis" is ambiguous and can be misunderstood. A Cannabis plant includes more than 400 different chemicals, of which about 70 are cannabinoids. In comparison, government-approved medications contain only 1 or 2 chemicals.Medical cannabis – A dried bud of cannabis, which can be used for medical therapy.
41. San Francisco General Hospital – The hospital serves poor, elderly people, immigrants. About 80 percent of its patient population is uninsured. SFGH also cares for the homeless, who make up about 8 percent of its patients. It is the largest acute inpatient and hospital for psychiatric patients in the City. Additionally, it is the only acute hospital in San Francisco that provides psychiatric emergency services in San Francisco. In addition to the approximately 3,500 San Francisco municipal employees, the University of California at San Francisco provides approximately 1,500 employees. The hospital, especially its 86, was instrumental in treating and identifying early cases of AIDS. The hospital is located at 1001 Potrero Avenue between the Mission District and Potrero Hill; U.S. Route 101 rounds its east side at “Hospital Curve”. A San Francisco General Hospital acute care building is currently under construction on the site and is planned to be opened in May 2016. It will be the only hospital in San Francisco built with the latest technology for protecting buildings during seismic activity. 1857: City and County opens its first permanent hospital in the former North Beach schoolhouse at Stockton and Francisco streets. 1864: “In the fall of 1864, Dr. Hugh Toland opened his new medical school, which in 1872 would become the University of California. The Medical School building was located on Stockton Street near Chestnut adjacent to the City and County Hospital... In 1865, Toland was granted permission to use the hospital for clinical instruction.” 1873: Agreement allows City and County Hospital to serve as UC and Stanford medical schools’ clinical facility.San Francisco General Hospital – San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center
42. Cannabis foods – A cannabis edible, also called cannabis-infused food, is a food product that contains cannabinoids, especially THC. Cannabis edibles are consumed for both medical and recreational purposes. Cannabis edibles are consumed for both medical and recreational purposes. During preparation, its extract must be heated sufficiently to cause decarboxylation of THCA, converting it into the psychoactive THC. Making a tea by boiling cannabis in water is a highly inefficient way to extract psychoactive cannabinoids. Adding milk when steeping, however, makes it much more efficient than using plain water. Modern interest in edible cannabis is credited to the publication of The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook. Toklas included a recipe for "Haschich Fudge", contributed by artist and friend Brion Gysin when it was published in 1954. Although it was omitted from the American editions, her "brownies" became synonymous with cannabis in the growing 1960s counterculture. Cannabis produces THCA, an acid with the carboxylic group attached. THCA is not very psychoactive. It is only when the carboxyl group is removed that the THCA becomes THC, psychoactive. Liquid THC and other cannabinoids have a boiling point of between 180-200 °C. Before it turns gaseous, the carboxyl group is released from the molecule as carbon dioxide and water vapor at around 106 °C.Cannabis foods – A cookie containing medical grade cannabis
43. Chocolate brownie – It comes in a variety of forms. Depending on its density, it may include chocolate chips, nuts, or other ingredients. A variation made without melted chocolate in the batter is called a blonde brownie or blondie. Brownies are typically eaten by hand, often accompanied by coffee. They are sometimes served warm with ice cream, fudge. They are common lunchbox also popular in restaurants and coffeehouses. One legend about the creation of brownies is that of a prominent Chicago socialite whose husband owned the Palmer House Hotel. In 1893 Palmer asked a chef for a dessert suitable for ladies attending the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. She requested a cake-like confection smaller than a piece of cake that could be included in boxed lunches. The result was the Palmer House Brownie with an apricot glaze. The modern Palmer House Hotel serves a dessert to patrons made from the same recipe. The name was not used by cook books or journals at the time. These recipes produced a relatively cake-like brownie. It added an additional square of chocolate, creating a richer, fudgier dessert. Columnist Mildred Brown Schrumpf was the main proponent of the theory that brownies were invented in Bangor.Chocolate brownie – Chocolate brownie
44. California Proposition 215 (1996) – It was passed against. The Act added Section 11362.5 to the California Health and Safety Code. In 1991, Peron organized the San Francisco medical initiative, which passed with 79 % of the vote. Prop P did not have force of law, but was simply a resolution declaring the city's support for medical marijuana. Santa Cruz and other cities followed suit with similar measures endorsing medical use of marijuana. Dennis Peron, suffering from his ill health, worked closely with Dr. Tod Mikuriya to organize Proposition 215. Dr. Mikuriya had worked to decriminalize cannabis as a Schedule 1 controlled substance. Dr. Mikuriya spoke worldwide during the 1980s and 1990s in an effort to garner support for the medical use of cannabis. Threats to Dennis Peron would cause Peron to leave the United States following the passage of Proposition 215. More than 15 medical doctors would be forced to fight to keep their medical licenses. Frustrated by the Governor's veto and by the Clinton administration's ongoing refusal to allow medical marijuana, Peron decided to turn to the voters. In 1995, Peron, Gieringer and Imler organized Californians for Compassionate Use, a PAC dedicated to putting medical marijuana on the ballot. Far more than just a safe place for patients to consume, the club was a cultural center for many purposes. Dennis Peron would describe 1996 as a year when "the stars aligned for medical marijuana." It was a presidential election year with a Democrat incumbent in a heavily Democratic state.California Proposition 215 (1996) – Medical cannabis card in Marin County, California, U.S.A.
45. Clinical trial – Clinical trials are experiments done in clinical research. Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy. They are conducted only after they have received health authority/ethics committee approval in the country where approval of the therapy is sought. Clinical trials can vary in size and cost, they can involve a single research center or multiple centers, in one country or in multiple countries. Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Trials can be quite costly, depending on a number of factors. The sponsor may be a governmental organization or a pharmaceutical, biotechnology or medical device company. Only 10 percent of all drugs started in human clinical trials become an approved drug. Some clinical trials involve healthy subjects with no pre-existing medical conditions. Other clinical trials pertain to patients with specific health conditions who are willing to try an experimental treatment. When participants are healthy volunteers who receive financial incentives, the goals are different than when the participants are sick. During dosing periods, study subjects typically remain under supervision for one to 40 nights. Usually pilot experiments are conducted to gain insights for design of the clinical trial to follow. The benefits must outweigh the risks. In the US, the elderly constitute only 14 percent of the population, while they consume over one-third of drugs.Clinical trial – Edward Jenner vaccinating James Phipps, a boy of eight, on 14 May 1796. Jenner failed to use a control group.
46. Cannabinoid – A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids. The most notable cannabinoid is the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids exhibiting varied effects. The discovery of the cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s helped to resolve this debate. These receptors have been found in mammals, birds, fish, reptiles. At present, there termed CB1 and CB2, with mounting evidence of more. The human brain has more cannabinoid receptors than any G protein-coupled receptor type. CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain, more specifically in the limbic system, including the hippocampus. They are also found in both male and female reproductive systems. CB1 receptors are absent in the oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions. CB1 is also found in retina. CB2 receptors are predominantly found in immune-derived cells with the greatest density in the spleen. While found only in the nervous system, a report does indicate that CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum.Cannabinoid – The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes
47. Alameda, California – Alameda is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. The city's estimated 2016 population was 79,277. Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city, allowing the city to provide for any form of government. Alameda became a charter city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916, which it retains to the present. The island Alameda occupies what was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "forest of evergreen oak". Alameda is Spanish for "grove of poplar trees" or "tree-lined avenue", was chosen in 1853 by popular vote. The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted in 1820 to Luis Peralta by the Spanish king who claimed California. The grant was later confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the place became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio. The city was founded on June 6, 1853, the town originally contained three small settlements. Eventually, the Central Pacific's ferry pier became the Alameda Mole, featuring transit connections between San Francisco ferries, local trollies and Southern Pacific commuter lines. The first post office opened in 1854. The first school, Schmermerhorn School, was opened in 1855, Encinal School was opened in 1860.Alameda, California – City Hall
48. Alameda (island) – Alameda Island is an island in the San Francisco Bay in California. It is west of, adjacent to Oakland, across the bay eastward from San Francisco. Located on the island is most of the city of a city in Alameda County. Also located on the island is the Naval Air Station Alameda, a defunct naval air station, as well as a small uninhabited part of San Francisco. The island is now separated from the mainland by the Oakland Estuary. The island is connected by four bridges: the Park Street Bridge, Fruitvale Bridge, High Street Bridge, Bay Farm Island Bridge. The Posey and Webster Street tubes also connect Oakland to Alameda Island. The island was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "grove". Alameda was chosen by popular vote. The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted to Luis Peralta under King Ferdinand VII of Spain. The grant was later confirmed from Spain. Over time, the place became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio.Alameda (island) – Aerial view of the north end of Alameda Island (left)
49. Bay Farm Island, Alameda, California – Its ZIP code is 94502. Marshes and other areas of the island were also reclaimed by landfill. Prior to 20th century development, Bay Farm Island was farmland with asparagus being the principal crop, thus it was also formerly known as Asparagus Island. In addition, the area was the site of large oyster beds which regularly supplied restaurants in nearby San Francisco. Bay Farm Island is home to the 36-hole Chuck Corica Golf Complex, the Oakland Raiders headquarters, several housing developments. A greenbelt is also present which encompasses the perimeter of the peninsula. Harbor Bay Isle has twenty homeowner's associations covering each of the Harbor Bay park. Harbor Bay Isle excludes the three southern townhome developments, Garden Isle, as well as the single-family homes to the east of Island Drive. Much of the development is built on reclaimed land There are two elementary schools on Bay Farm Island: Bay Farm Elementary and Amelia Earhart Elementary. The latter is named for aviator Amelia Earhart, who started many of her flights from the nearby Oakland Airport. In the weekday afternoons there are student only bus rides from neighborhoods on Bay Farm Island to local schools. In addition, the Harbor Bay Ferry provides commuter service to the San Francisco Ferry Building. Islands of San Francisco BayBay Farm Island, Alameda, California – Western shore of Bay Farm Island
50. South San Francisco – South San Francisco is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States, located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 63,632 at the 2010 census. Locals often refer in much the same way that San Francisco is called "The City." Despite its name, South San Francisco does not border San Francisco, with Brisbane being between them. Most of the valley faces affording bay views from higher levels. South San Francisco has dry cool summers. The hills to the west shield the city from much of the fog that prevails in neighboring areas. A tribute to the city's industrial past, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The area, now South San Francisco was originally part of a large Mexican land grant dating to 1827. In 1853 a business partner, Alfred Edmondson, purchased 1,700 acres of Rancho Buri Buri. Lux founded the town of Baden, now a neighborhood of South San Francisco. A plan was put forward in 1888 by Gustavus Franklin Swift, founder of the Swift & Company meat packing firm. The plan called for multiple meat-packing companies with a shared stockyard, as well as a residential area for employees. Swift proposed the name South San Francisco based on South Omaha, where the Swift company already had plants. The company installed lighting, sewer connections, water distributions in the residential areas.South San Francisco – South San Francisco as viewed from a nearby ridge
51. Oakland International Airport – Oakland International Airport is five miles south of downtown Oakland, in Alameda County, California. It is owned by the Port of Oakland. It is one of three international airports in the San Francisco Bay Area. The airport has service to cities in the United States, Mexico and Europe. Cargo flights fly to cities in the United States, Canada and Japan. OAK is the closest airport to financial district -- both geographically and by public transit. Oakland is a city for Southwest Airlines and Allegiant Air. As of August 2015 Southwest has 120 daily departures on peak-travel days of the week. Alaska Airlines combined with sister-carrier Horizon Air has been the second-busiest carrier at the airport through 2013. In January 2014, Delta overtook Alaska as the airport's No. 2 carrier. The top five airlines by count between October 2014 -- September 2015 were Southwest Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Spirit Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, JetBlue Airways. Between September 2015, 10,947,066 people traveled through OAK. Passengers declined to 9.3 million in 2011. An advantage of OAK over SFO is OAK's history of a on-time arrival percentage, despite many days of rainy and foggy weather in each city. In 2009 OAK had the highest on-time percentage among the 40 busiest North American airports.Oakland International Airport – Oakland International Airport
52. General law city – California has an extensive and complicated system of local government that manages public functions throughout the state. Like most states, California is divided into counties, of which there are 58 covering the entire state. Most urbanized areas are incorporated as cities, though not all of California is within the boundaries of a city. School districts, which are independent of counties, handle public education. The political subdivision of California are the 58 counties. Counties have police powers. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction. Thirteen counties are "charter" counties while the rest are "general law" counties. Most counties elect all of their supervisors by district except, Tehama. All counties elect their treasurers except Los Angeles, Sacramento, Glenn. This unfunded mandate was a perennial source of frustration for the counties. A LAFCO regulates annexation of unincorporated land to cities within the county. Special districts that span county lines must be specially approved by the state Legislature. California also uses grand juries, with at least one per county. These grand juries are often called civil grand juries because their primary focus is on oversight of government institutions at the county level and lower.General law city – San Francisco City Hall
53. Wine cellar – A wine cellar is a storage room for wine in bottles or barrels, or more rarely in carboys, amphorae, or plastic containers. In an active cellar, important factors such as temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. In contrast, passive wine cellars are usually built underground to reduce temperature swings. An aboveground cellar is often called a wine room, while a small wine cellar is sometimes termed a wine closet. The department responsible for the storage, care and service of wine in a great mediaeval house was termed the buttery. Large wine cellars date back over 3700 years. Wine cellars protect alcoholic beverages from potentially harmful external influences, providing darkness, constant humidity. Wine is a perishable food product. Left exposed to heat, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity, all types of wine can spoil. When properly stored, many actually improve in aroma, flavor, complexity as they mature. Wine can be stored satisfactorily between 7 -- ° C as long as any variations are gradual. Note that wine generally matures differently and more slowly at a lower temperature than it does at a higher temperature. Between ° C, wines will age normally. Wine cellars can be either active or passively cooled. Active wine cellars need to be properly constructed.Wine cellar – An underground wine cellar
54. Napa Valley – Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,484. The seat is the City of Napa. Napa County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood. Parts of the county's territory were given to Lake County in 1861. Napa County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is one of four North Bay counties. In prehistoric times, the valley was inhabited by the Patwin Native Americans, by Wappo tribes in the northwestern foothills. Most villages are thought to have been constructed near the floodplains of watercourses that drain the valley. Their food consisted of wild roots, acorns, small animals, earthworms, bread made from crushed California buckeye kernels. In winter they would construct huts made of tree branches. In summer they streams. In winter months, at other times they wore no clothing. The prehistoric population is thought not to have exceeded 5000 persons. In 1776, a fort was erected on an elevated plateau.Napa Valley
55. Hillary Clinton – Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, the 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, U.S. After serving as a legal counsel, Clinton married Bill Clinton in 1975. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families. As First Lady of Arkansas, Clinton led a force whose recommendations served on several corporate boards. As First Lady of the United States, she led the unsuccessful effort to enact the Clinton plan of 1993. In 1997 and 1999, she helped create the State Children's Health Insurance Program. She also tackled the problems of adoption and family safety and foster care. Her marriage survived the Lewinsky scandal, her role as first lady drew a polarized response from the public. She was elected as the female senator from New York, the only first lady ever to seek elective office. Following the September 11 terrorist attacks, she voted to approve the war in Afghanistan. She also voted for the Iraq Resolution. She took a leading role in investigating the health issues faced by 9/11 first responders. She further voted against the Bush tax cuts, against drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. She was re-elected to the Senate in 2006. Running for president in 2008, she won far more delegates than any previous female candidate, but lost the Democratic nomination to Barack Obama.Hillary Clinton – Clinton as Secretary of State in 2009
56. Berkeley, California – Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Anglo-Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley. It borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills. The 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. It also has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. It is one of the most politically liberal cities in the United States. The site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio." The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were also pursued. Eventually, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons.Berkeley, California – Downtown Berkeley viewed from the Berkeley Hills.
57. Donald Trump – Donald John Trump is an American politician, businessman, television personality, the President-elect of the United States. Trump is scheduled to take office as the 45th President on January 20, 2017. In 1971, Trump took control of Elizabeth Trump & Son, later renamed The Trump Organization. During his career, he has built, renovated or managed numerous office towers, hotels, casinos, golf courses. Trump has lent the use of his name to brand various products. Trump became a fixture of television as he hosted The Apprentice on NBC from 2004 to 2015. As of 2016, Forbes listed Trump with a net worth of $4.5 billion. He withdrew before voting began. Trump ultimately decided against it. In June 2015, Trump quickly emerged as the front-runner among 17 contenders in the Republican primaries. In July he was formally nominated at the Republican Convention. Trump's campaign received international attention. Many of his statements on social media, at campaign rallies were controversial or false. Anti-Trump protests occurred during his campaign and after the election. He won the general election on November 2016, gaining a majority of the U.S.Donald Trump – Donald Trump
58. Berkeley High School (Berkeley, California) – Berkeley High School is a public high school in the Berkeley Unified School District, the only public high school in the city of Berkeley, California. The school mascot is the Yellowjacket. It opened in the high graduation occurred in 1884. In 1895, the first high school annual was published entitled the Crimson and Gold. In 1900, the citizens of Berkeley voted in favor of a measure to establish the first public high campus in the city. In 1901, construction began on the northwest portion of the present site of the high school. The main school building stood on the corner of Grove and Allston Way, where the "H" building is located today. At that time, Kittredge Street ran through what is today's campus site instead of ending at Milvia. The tree is apparently no longer there, pending results from a future investigation. Professor Andrew Lawson of the University of California included one of his own photographs of the damage in his famous report issued in 1908. In 1955, Berkeley High School band director Bob Lutt, founded Cazadero Performing Arts Camp. It was turned over to the Berkeley Adult School in 1986 which used it until 2004. West Campus is currently closed, but the main building is being used as the administrative offices of the Berkeley Unified School District. A number of famous performers have played at the Berkeley Community Theater, located on the Berkeley High campus. On May 23, 1952, Paul Robeson sang, despite a small McCarthy-era furor.Berkeley High School (Berkeley, California)
59. Oakland Technical High School – It is one of six comprehensive public high school campuses in Oakland. Oakland Tech's jurisdiction includes several neighborhoods, including Temescal. Tech received the maximum 6-year accreditation from the Western Association of Schools and Colleges in 2009. Oakland Tech's main building was built in 1914 and resembles the main science building of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Instead, it was gutted and rebuilt on the inside, while its historic exterior was preserved. The school was declared the 99th historic landmark by the city of Oakland on July 23, 1985. While Tech was closed for earthquake retrofitting in the 1970s, the school was displaced to 5714 Martin Luther King Jr. Way. This location is sometimes erroneously referred to "Old Tech" but was actually the campus of the now defunct University High School. That campus had then served as Merritt College from 1954 to 1966 and is considered the birthplace of the Black Panthers. In 2008 two students at other Oakland high schools heard about the Apollos and made an award-winning short documentary film about their successful quest. Students at Oakland Technical High School have the option of enrolling in one of the school's academies, which operate as small subsets of the school. Students take one class within their academies, spend the rest of the day in normal classes. Paideia is an advanced History and English program. In the sophomore year, students have the option to take English 2 Paideia and World Cultures. In 11th grade, students, based on their grades, have the option to enroll in AP or HP English and US History.Oakland Technical High School – Front entrance to Oakland Technical High School
60. Bishop O'Dowd High School – The school requires all students to attend school liturgies, to complete its 4-year service learning program. O'Dowd is a Catholic high community of 1,186 students. The school has 125 faculty and staff members and more than 80 part-time coaches, moderators. Since then O'Dowd has had over 12,000 graduates. In June 2010, O'Dowd successfully completed a three-year, $ million comprehensive fundraising campaign and funds raised were split about evenly between capital development and program enhancement. In 2015 the men's team won the CIF Open Division Championship and the women's team won the Division 3 CIF State Championship. The woman's team was led by Asia Robertson. As of 2015, O'Dowd's team is ranked 13th nationally. In 2015, over 99 % of the graduating class enrolled in universities. 94 % of the graduates enrolled with 5 % enrolling in two-year colleges. Each year graduates disperse from East Coast Ivy League schools to the outstanding universities in California. Official Bishop O'Dowd High School websiteBishop O'Dowd High School – "Finding God in all things"
61. Walk outWalk out – Walk Out
62. Albany, California – Albany is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. The population was 18,539 at the 2010 census. In 1908, a group of local women protested the dumping of Berkeley garbage in their community. The women told the drivers of the horse-drawn garbage wagons to go home, which they did quickly and without complaint. Shortly thereafter, the residents of the town voted to incorporate as the City of Ocean View. Frank Roberts. The principal street in Albany is Solano Avenue, which cuts to east. Another important street is San Pablo Avenue, which travels from north to south. Albany's southern borders are defined by two creeks, Cerrito Creek on the north. Cerrito Creek takes its name from "El Cerrito de San Antonio", now known as Albany Hill. The hill's unusual location near the shore makes a prominent landmark in the East Bay. The rest of the city is relatively flat by Bay Area standards, except for a small area near the base of the Berkeley Hills. Albany's waterfront has undergone man-made changes; the most prominent landform is now a former garbage landfill jutting out into San Francisco Bay. A unit of the University of California Berkeley, is located in Albany. The 2010 United States Census reported that Albany had a population of 18,539.Albany, California – View of Albany from Albany Bulb, with Albany Hill on the left
63. Soda tax – A sugary drinks tax or soda tax is a tax or surcharge designed to reduce consumption of drinks with added sugar. Drinks covered under a soda tax often include, carbonated drinks, uncarbonated drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks. One beverage producers like Coca-Cola often oppose. Diabetes is developing countries around the world, with 1.5 million deaths directly due to diabetes in 2012 alone. Consumption of added sugar in sugar-sweetened beverages has been positively correlated with high intake, through it, with excess weight and obesity. Their appeal to younger consumers has made their consumption a subject of particular concern by public health professionals. In the United Kingdom, sugar sweetened drinks are the top calorie source in teenage diets. Growing rapidly in middle income economies such as Vietnam and India. In the United States, the single biggest market for carbonated consumers annual average per capita purchase of soda was 154 litres. France was one of the first countries to introduce a targeted tax on soft drinks in 2012. At a national level similar measures have also been announced in the United Kingdom in 2016. In November 2014, Berkeley, California was the first community in the United States to pass a targeted tax on soda. Proponents of soda taxes cite the success of tobacco taxes worldwide when explaining why they think a tax will work. Where the main concern with tobacco is cancer, the main concerns with soda are obesity. Denmark repealed the tax on soft drinks in 2014.Soda tax – Taxation
64. Lake Merritt – Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown. It is surrounded by city neighborhoods. A popular walking and path runs along its perimeter. Its area is 155 acres. The lake was originally an arm of the San Francisco Bay formed where several creeks empty into the bay. It was surrounded by 1,000 acres of wetlands when the Ohlone people fished, gathered food along its shores. The Peralta brothers had to pay legal fees and new property taxes. Oakland was incorporated with Carpentier as its first mayor and the estuary became the city's sewer. This has been steadily reduced with development of the region after 1869. Currently the tidal flows are managed for flood control. For years the lake acted as a collector. Sixty miles of brick and channeling sent the broken down sewage to the bottom of the lake to then be eaten by bottom feeders. Sewage was to be redirected elsewhere by two new city projects, though these weren't completed until 1875. The resulting body of water was called later Lake Merritt. It continued to attract large numbers of migratory birds.Lake Merritt – A view looking west toward the Lakeside Apartments District, the Tribune Tower and Downtown Oakland
65. Mayor of San Francisco – The Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the San Francisco city and county government. The mayor serves a four-year term and is limited to two successive terms. There have been 42 individuals sworn into office. John W. Geary, elected in 1850, was the first mayor of the city. Charles James Brenham, who served during the 1850s, is the only person who has served two non-consecutive terms. Gavin Newsom resigned to become the Lieutenant Governor of California on January 10, 2011. Ed Lee was appointed on the following day to finish out Newsom's term. Lee was elected to his own term on November 2011. The mayor of San Francisco is elected every four years; elections take one year before United States presidential elections on election day in November. Candidates must be registered to vote in San Francisco at the time of the election. The mayor is usually sworn on the January 8 following the election. The next election for the mayor will be in 2019. Under the California constitution, all city elections in the state are conducted on a non-partisan basis. Mayoral elections were originally run under a two-round system. In 2002, the system for city officials was overhauled as a result of a citywide referendum.Mayor of San Francisco – Incumbent Ed Lee since 2011
66. Tesla Motors – The company also produces battery charging equipment. Tesla first gained widespread attention following its production of the first electric sports car, in 2008. The company's second vehicle, an electric luxury sedan, debuted in 2012 and is built at the Tesla Factory in California. In Q1 2013, Tesla released its stock profits from its NASDAQ ticker symbol. As of November 2016, the Model S ranks after the Nissan Leaf. The Model S was then followed by a crossover SUV. Tesla has installed a network of high-powered Superchargers for Tesla cars. The company also operates a Destination Charging program, under which shops, other venues are offered fast chargers for their customers. Tesla builds the Gigafactory 1 near Reno, Nevada where Panasonic builds 21-70 cells for Tesla batteries. Tesla also manufactures the Tesla Powerwall and Powerpack batteries for industry. Tesla Motors is named after physicist Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Roadster uses an AC motor descended directly from Nikola Tesla's original 1882 design. Between March 2012, Tesla sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in 31 countries. Tesla stopped taking orders for the Roadster in the U.S. market in August 2011. In December 2012, Tesla employed almost 3,000 full-time employees.Tesla Motors – Tesla's global corporate headquarters in Palo Alto, California
67. SolarCity – SolarCity Corporation is an American company that specializes in solar energy services. Headquartered in California, it is the largest solar energy services provider in the US. SolarCity sells renewable energy with a focus on reducing the cost of solar energy. The company has over 15,000 employees. The company has diversified with the aim of lowering costs and boosting sales. Currently, SolarCity installs more solar energy systems with just under 110,000 new installations in 2015. It offers storage services through its parent company, Tesla, including a turnkey residential battery backup service that incorporates Tesla's Powerwall. In 2013, Solar Power World magazine listed 2 overall solar installation company in the U.S.. The company is one of TASC, a rooftop photovoltaic power station solar advocacy organization. SolarCity purchased Paramount Solar in 2013. In March 2016 SpaceX bought $ million of SolarCity stock. In June 2016, Tesla Motors, formally submitted an offer to acquire SolarCity for $2.5 -- 3 billion. According to Musk, the reason for this is "Creating solar power product that looks beautiful". On August 2016, SolarCity accepted Tesla Motors' offer of 2.6 billion. Other steps to finalize the merger will not complete in 2016.SolarCity – Original SolarCity headquarters in Foster City, California
68. Elon Musk – Elon Reeve Musk is a South African-born Canadian-American business magnate, investor, engineer, inventor. As of June 2016, he has an estimated net worth of US$ billion, making him the 83rd wealthiest person in the world. In December 2016, Musk was ranked 21st on Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People. Musk has stated that the goals of SolarCity, SpaceX revolve around his vision to change the world and humanity. He has a younger brother, a younger sister, Tosca. He also has Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly in locations in South Africa. At age 10, he developed an interest with the Commodore VIC-20. A version of the game is available online. Musk was initially educated at private schools, attending the English-speaking Waterkloof House Preparatory School. At the age of 19, Musk was accepted for undergraduate study. Musk extended his studies for one year to finish the second bachelor's degree. While at the University of Pennsylvania, fellow Penn student Adeo Ressi rented a 10-bedroom fraternity house, using it as an unofficial nightclub. In 2002, he became a U.S. citizen. In 1995, Kimbal, started Zip2, a web software company, with US$28,000 of their father's money.Elon Musk – Musk at the 2015 Tesla Motors Annual Shareholder Meeting
69. Fremont, California – Fremont is a city in Alameda County, California, western United States. It was incorporated on January 23, 1956, from the merger of five smaller communities: Centerville, Niles, Irvington, Mission San Jose, Warm Springs. The city is named after American explorer John Charles Frémont. Located in the southeast section of the San Francisco Bay Area in the East Bay region primarily, Fremont has a population of around 230,000. It is the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, the largest suburb in the metropolis. It is the closest East Bay city to Silicon Valley, is thus sometimes associated with it. The area consisting of Fremont, Newark, Union City, is now known as the Tri-City Area. Fremont is home to the largest population of Afghan Americans in the United States. The recorded history of the Fremont area began on June 6, 1795, when Mission San José was founded by the Spaniard Father Fermin de Lasuen. The Mission was established at the site of the Ohlone village of Oroysom. On their second day in the area, the Mission party killed a grizzly bear in Niles Canyon. The first English-speaking visitor to Fremont was the renowned trapper and explorer Jedediah Smith in 1827. The Mission prospered, eventually reaching a population of 1,887 inhabitants in 1831. The influence of the missionaries declined after 1834, when the Mexican government enacted secularization. Brother of Mariano Vallejo, was the grantee of the Rancho Arroyo la Alameda Mexican grant.Fremont, California – A view of Mission Peak from Fremont Central Park
70. Peace walk – One famous example was that of Vinoba Bhave, who undertook a peace walk with many of his followers throughout India for land reform. A recent peace walk campaign named Freedom Walk was organized in 2008. 4 volunteers walked 750 miles to the other to promote Free Software. Vinoba gave 2 gifts to his companion: pennilessness, i.e. voluntary poverty, vegetarianism. Early in 1984, peace campers walked 26 miles through country roads and countryside to raise money for The Angry Pacifist magazine. The King-Carter Freedom Peace Walk is a 1.5-mile walkway in Georgia's Freedom Park. It commemorates the only two Georgia winners of the Nobel Prize for Peace: Jimmy Carter. Sometimes these marches are coordinated to take place on the same day across the nation. Peace walk for the Unity on the 29th of March, 2014. It was led by Japanese Buddhist monks. The monks, however, were dwarfed by American, European, South American and Japanese lay people. The group walked to Vienna, then travelled through Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia. They held a day of vigil, fasting and prayer there. The next leg took them through Israel, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Iraq. They then visited war sites before going to Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Peace walk – About 7,000 San Diego Peace Marchers in Balboa Park Protest the Iraq War, March 15, 2003
71. Mission Peak – Mission Peak Regional Preserve is a public park east of Fremont, California, operated by the East Bay Regional Park District. It is the northern summit on a ridge that includes Monument Peak. Mission Peak is depicted on the logo of the City of Fremont. The Stanford Avenue entrance receives up to thousand visitors per day on weekends. It is the most popular attraction in Fremont. A six-mile round-trip ascent on a popular trail takes two to five hours for walkers, one to one-and-a-half hours for bicyclists and runners. Difficulty such as dehydration, is not uncommon. Guidelines recommend carrying two liters of water per person, sun protection. Some shortcuts have barbed wire fencing to reduce trespassing. Three trails climb the mountain's western faces. The Hidden Valley Trail which draws the Peak Meadow Trail both ascend the western face from Stanford Avenue. They are sun exposed with little shade. The Stanford Avenue entrance restrooms. No food, supplies are sold at the park. The Park District is directing visitors to the Peak Trail which starts at Ohlone College.Mission Peak – Mission Peak
72. Southern Poverty Law Center – The Southern Poverty Law Center is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation. In 1971, Morris Dees and Joseph J. Levin Jr. founded the SPLC as a civil rights firm based in Montgomery, Alabama. Leader Julian Bond joined Dees and Levin and served as president of the board between 1971 and 1979. The SPLC originally advocated for a broad range of civil rights issues. The SPLC has provided information about hate groups to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The SPLC has been criticized for some listings of individuals and groups. The SPLC does not accept government funds, nor does it share in their court-awarded judgments. Most of its funds come from direct mail campaigns which have helped it to build monetary reserves. In 1981, the Center began its Klanwatch project to monitor the activities of the KKK. That project, now called Hatewatch, has been expanded to include seven other types of hate organizations. In July 1983, the center's office was firebombed, destroying records. In February 1985 a Klan sympathizer pleaded guilty to federal and state charges related to the fire. At the trial, Klansmen Joe M. Garner and Roy T. Downs Jr. along with Charles Bailey pleaded guilty to conspiring to intimidate, oppress and threaten members of black organizations represented by SPLC. According to Dees, more than 30 people have been jailed in connection with plots to blow up the center.Southern Poverty Law Center – Southern Poverty Law Center
73. SAP Center – SAP Center at San Jose is an indoor arena located in San Jose, California. Its primary tenant is the San Jose Sharks of the National Hockey League, for which the arena has earned the nickname "The Shark Tank". It is also the home to the San Jose Barracuda of the American Hockey League. Plans for a San Jose arena began in the mid-1980s, when a group of local citizens formed Fund Arena Now. The group pursued potential sponsors and partners NHL and NBA. Construction began in 1991. The Sharks requested an upgrade including the addition of luxury suites, a press box and increased seating capacity. The arena was completed under the name San Jose Arena. In 2001, it was renamed Compaq Center at San Jose. After HP purchased Compaq in 2002, the arena was renamed the same name as one of its computer models. In June 2013, German company SAP purchased the naming rights to the facility in a five-year deal worth $3.35 million per year. The arena was renamed "SAP Center at San Jose" following the approval of the San Jose City Council. The SAP Center hosted events for WWE such as the 1998 Royal Rumble, 2007 Great American Bash. It also hosted the 2015 WWE Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony, well as the episode of WWE Raw the day after WrestleMania 31. It also hosted the first Raw after Rowdy Roddy Piper's death.SAP Center – SAP Center at San Jose
74. Kanye West – Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer, entrepreneur. Music. He went on to pursue a variety of different styles on subsequent albums Late Registration, Graduation, 808s & Heartbreak. West released his abrasive sixth album, Yeezus, to further critical praise in 2013. His seventh album, The Life of Pablo, was released in 2016. Outside of music have received significant attention. He has been a frequent source of controversy for his conduct in public settings. He is the head of the creative DONDA. His 2014 marriage to television personality Kim Kardashian has also been subject to widespread media coverage. Three of his albums have been included and ranked on Rolling Stone's 2012 update of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" list. He has also been included in a number of Forbes annual lists. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2005 and 2015. West was born on June 8, 1977 in Atlanta, Georgia. His parents divorced when he was three years old. After the divorce, he and his mother moved to Chicago, Illinois.Kanye West – West performing at Lollapalooza in 2011
75. Sacramento, California – Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, the 35th largest city in the United States. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutter's Fort, established by Sutter in 1839. The city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, referring to the Catholic Eucharist. University of the Pacific's Sacramento Campus is a private university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, Davis, is in nearby Davis, 15 miles west of the capital. The UC Davis Medical Center, a world-renowned research hospital, is located in the city of Sacramento. Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River.Sacramento, California
76. Sanskrit – It is a standardised dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European. It is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand. As one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of drama well as scientific, technical, philosophical and religious texts. Sanskrit continues to Buddhist practice in the form of chants. Spoken Sanskrit has been revived in some villages with traditional institutions, there are attempts to enhance its popularity. The Sanskrit verbal - may be translated as "put together, constructed, well or completely formed; refined, adorned, highly elaborated". Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out around the fourth BCE. Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form. The present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Pāṇinian" Sanskrit as separate dialects. Although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of Indian poetry -- Mahabharata.Sanskrit – Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century
77. University of California, Berkeley – The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. Lawrence Livermore Lab also co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world first among public universities. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. UC Berkeley professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Originally, Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.University of California, Berkeley – View, from Memorial Glade, of Sather Tower (The Campanile), the center of UC Berkeley. The ring of its bells and clock can be heard from all over campus.
78. Critical edition – Ancient scribes made alterations when copying manuscripts by hand. The same processes can be used to attempt to reconstruct recensions, of a document's transcription history. The ultimate objective of the textual critic's work is the production of a "critical edition" containing a curated text. There are three fundamental approaches to textual criticism: copy-text editing. Techniques from the biological discipline of cladistics are currently also being used to determine the relationships between manuscripts. Textual criticism has been practiced for over thousand years. Textual scholars have debated for centuries which sources are most closely derived from the original, hence which readings in those sources are correct. However, the application of textual criticism to non-religious works does not antedate the invention of printing. While Christianity has been relatively receptive to textual criticism, application of the Qur ` an is, to the devout, taboo. The business of textual criticism is to produce a text as as possible to the original." Maas comments further that "A dictation revised by the author must be regarded as equivalent to an manuscript". The lack of autograph manuscripts applies to many cultures other than Greek and Roman. In such a situation, a key objective becomes the identification of the first exemplar before any split in the tradition. That exemplar is known as the archetype. "If we succeed in establishing the text of, the constitutio is considerably advanced.Critical edition – Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century
79. Ramayana – Along with the Mahabharata, it forms the Sanskrit Itihasa. The Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of nearly 24,000 verses, divided into seven Kandas and about 500 sargas. In Hindu tradition, it is considered to be the adi-kavya. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal king. The Ramayana was an important influence on Hindu culture. Like the Mahabharata, the Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in allegory, interspersing ethical elements. The Ramayana is a compound of Rāma and ayana, translating to Rama's Journey. According to Hindu tradition—and according to the Ramayana itself—the epic belongs to the genre of itihasa like Mahabharata. The definition of itihāsa is a narrative of past events which includes teachings on the goals of human life. According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga. In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24,000 verses. A Times of India report dated December 2015 informs at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata. The Ramayana text has subrecensions. Textual scholar Robert P.Ramayana – Rama with Sita on the throne, with their children Lava and Kusha on their laps. Behind the throne, Lakshmana, Bharat and Shatrughna stand. Hanuman bows to Rama before the throne. Valmiki is to the left.
80. History of India – A technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Gautama Buddha and Mahavira propagated their Shramanic philosophies during the sixth century BCE. Most of the subcontinent was conquered during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From the 3rd century BC onwards Prakrit and Pali literature in the Sangam literature in southern India started to flourish. Wootz steel was exported to foreign countries. Various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties among which the Gupta Empire stands out. This period, witnessing a Hindu intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". Cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The Chola dynasty successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Bengal in the 11th century. The medieval period Indian mathematics influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world and the Hindu numerals were introduced. The 15th century saw the emergence of Sikhism. In the 16th century, Mughals gradually covered most of India. From the 18th century to the mid-19th century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company of the British Empire. James Mill, in his The History of British India, distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu, Muslim and British civilisations. This periodisation has also been criticised for the misconceptions it gave rise to.History of India – Bhimbetka rock painting, Madhya Pradesh, India (c. 30,000 years old)
81. Vedic period – The Vedic period was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. During the early part of the Vedic period, the Indo-Aryans settled into northern India, bringing with them their religious traditions. Scholars consider Vedic civilisation to have been a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures. The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of urbanised states as well as of shramana movements which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy. Around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called "Hindu synthesis". The commonly proposed period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to 2nd millennium BCE. The knowledge about the Aryans comes mostly from the Rigveda-samhita, composed between c. 1500–1200 BCE. They brought with them practices. The Vedic practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, the Indo-Iranian religion. According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River and Iran. It was "a syncretic mixture of Central Asian and new Indo-European elements", which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" from the Bactria -- Margiana Culture. At least 383 non-Indo-European words were borrowed from this culture, including the ritual drink Soma. Indra was the subject of a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a drug probably borrowed from the BMAC religion.Vedic period – Aryans settling in India
82. Islamophobia – Islamophobia or Muslimophobia refers to the rational fear, prejudice, hatred or dislike directed against Islam or Muslims, or towards Islamic politics or cultural behaviour. The causes and characteristics of Islamophobia are still debated. Some people also question the validity of the term. In German, Islamophobie and Islamfeindlichkeit are used. The Scandinavian term Muslimhat literally means ‘hatred of Muslims’. , anti-Sufism and anti-Sunni. The compound form Islamo- contains the thematic vowel -o-, is found in earlier coinages such as Islamo-Christian from the 19th century. Islamophobia reaffirms a racial structure through which distribution disparities are maintained and extended." In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex. Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was published by Jack Straw. The symposium was an early attempt to bring insights from critical race theory, postcolonial and decolonial thought to bear on the question of Islamophobia. The presentations from the symposium were turned into an edited volume: Sayyid and Vakil eds. Thinking Through Islamophobia: Global Perspectives New York, Columbia University Press. Nonetheless, he argued that the term is here to stay, that it is important to define it precisely. The exact definition of Islamophobia continues to be discussed with academics such as Chris Allen saying that it lacks a clear definition.Islamophobia – An American protester holding a sign saying he's Islamophobic.
83. Islamic Center – A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. Many mosques have elaborate domes, prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques are now found in all inhabited continents. The mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat well as a center for information, education, social welfare, dispute settlement. The imam leads the congregation in prayer. The first mosque in the world is often considered to be the area around the Kaaba in Mecca now known as the Masjid al-Haram. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to establish another mosque in Medina, now known as the Masjid an-Nabawi, or the Prophet's Mosque. The Masjid al-Nabawi was also constructed with a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa as Islam spread outside the Arabian Peninsula with early caliphates. The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was reportedly the first mosque in Egypt, serving during its prime. Like the Imam Husayn Shrine, though, nothing of its original structure remains. With the later Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools, tombs. It includes naves akin to a basilica. Still, some elements like horseshoe arches, were infused into the mosque architecture of Spain and the Maghreb. The first mosque in East Asia was reportedly established in the 8th century in Xi'an.Islamic Center – The Masjid al-Haram surrounds the Kaaba, and it is the holiest site in Islam.
84. Long Beach, California – Long Beach is the 36th most populous city in the United States and the 7th most populous in California. It is located within the Greater Los Angeles area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257. Long Beach is the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. The Port of Long Beach is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city also maintains a robust industry with wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is approximately 22 miles south of Downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles. Several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group were the Tongva people. They had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto. The Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory.Long Beach, California – Images from top, left to right: Long Beach skyline from Bluff Park, RMS Queen Mary, Aquarium of the Pacific Blue Cavern exhibit, Hanjin Terminal at Port of Long Beach, Villa Riviera, Metro Blue Line, Long Beach Lighthouse
85. Claremont, California – Claremont is a city on the eastern edge of Los Angeles County, California, 30.3 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is located in the eastern San Gabriel Valley, at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. The Claremont Colleges are located in the city. The population, as of the 2015 United States Census estimate, is 36,283. Claremont is known for its historic buildings. Due to its large number of trees and residents with doctoral degrees, it is sometimes referred to as "The City of Trees and PhDs". Some critics say that the expansion negatively altered the original, small-town feel of The Village. Claremont has been a winner of the National Arbor Day Association's Tree City USA award for 22 consecutive years. When the city incorporated in 1907, local citizens started what has since become the city's tree-planting tradition. Claremont is one of the few remaining places in North America with American Elm trees that have not been exposed to Dutch elm disease. The stately trees line Indian Hill Boulevard in the vicinity of the city's Memorial Park. A conservative tank, is located there. Several retirement communities, among them Mt. San Antonio Gardens, are also located in Claremont. The citrus groves and open space which once dominated the northern portion of the city have been replaced by residential developments of large homes. The foothill area also includes a historic site constructed in 1930.Claremont, California – Claremont City Hall
86. Concord, California – Concord is the largest city in Contra Costa County, California. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 122,067 making it the 8th largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Founded by Salvio Pacheco, the name was changed within months. The city is a major regional suburban East Bay center within the San Francisco Bay Area, is 29 miles east of San Francisco. Concord is located at 20 ″ W. It is 29 miles northeast of San Francisco, 22 miles northeast from Oakland, 65 miles southwest of Sacramento, 51 miles north of San Jose. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.5 square miles, all of it land. Despite this, some crime and homelessness remain issues in the downtown area. To the north and east of downtown is the older residential area of Concord, with many homes dating back to before World War II. In the far northern edge of town is a primarily industrial area, dominated by the Tesoro Golden Eagle Refinery. The southeastern area of the city, centered along Clayton Road, is primarily residential and was mostly developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Though it shares no border with Concord, Martinez is located almost immediately adjacent to Concord on the northwest. The North Concord BART station is also known as Martinez BART. Concord has a hot summer Mediterranean climate. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 87.8 °F and a minimum of 58.2 °F.Concord, California – Todos Santos Plaza
87. Political positions of Donald Trump – Donald Trump is an American businessman, politician, actor, television personality, author, current President-elect of the United States. Trump's proposals include elements from across the political spectrum. His anti-globalization policies of immigration reduction cross party lines. Trump has said that he is "totally flexible on very many issues." Trump's in particular building or expanding a border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. As of October 2016, Trump's campaign had posted fourteen categories of policy proposals on his website. During October 2016, Trump outlined a series of steps for his first 100 days in office. His descriptions of his beliefs, have frequently changed, often been dishonest or contradictory. Politico has described his positions as "improvisational and often contradictory." Over the course of his campaign Trump made "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues." In July 2016, PolitiFact counted 17 times when Trump then denied having said it. ... Richard Nixon was nothing, in terms of lying, compared to what we have seen from Donald Trump." Trump registered as five times. In 1999, Trump changed his affiliation to the Independence Party of New York.Political positions of Donald Trump – Donald J. Trump for President
88. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency – Board members are limited to three terms. The SFMTA Board of Directors is responsible for, among other things, hiring the agency's executive director. At its inception, the SFMTA's Director of Transportation was Michael T. Burns. On July 2005 he left the SFMTA with Santa Clara VTA. The board selected the head of the San Francisco Department of Public Works, as the permanent director, effective August 15, 2011. The first chair of the SFMTA Board of Directors was H. Welton Flynn; he was succeeded by Cleopatra Vaughns. When Vaughns left the board, James McCray, Jr. was elected chairman. Like two of his then-colleagues, McCray previously served on the Parking and Traffic Commission, abolished when the department merged into the SFMTA. The Board of Supervisors rejected Stern by a 7–4 vote on September 27, 2005. Stern was an official with the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Proposition E also established a 15-member SFMTA Citizens Advisory Council which makes recommendations on policy. The mayor appoints four members of the SFMTA Citizens Advisory Council and each member of the Board of Supervisors appoints one. Proposition E allowed for the SFMTA to take over the functions of the Taxicab Commission. In 2009, the agency did so, as a result of legislation passed by the Board of Supervisors and signed by the mayor. In February 2006, the MTA Board adopted a resolution adding "CEO" to the title.San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency – San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA)
89. Ransomware – More advanced malware demands a ransom payment to decrypt them. The ransomware may also encrypt the entire hard drive. Thus, ransomware is a denial-of-access attack that prevents computer users from accessing files since it is intractable to decrypt the files without the key. Ransomware attacks are typically carried out using a Trojan that has a payload disguised as a legitimate file. File encrypting ransomware was presented at the 1996 IEEE Security & Privacy conference. It is the following 3-round protocol carried out between the attacker and the victim. The attacker places the corresponding public key in the malware. The malware is released. To carry out the cryptoviral attack, the malware generates a random symmetric key and encrypts the victim's data with it. It uses the public key in the malware to encrypt the symmetric key. It results in a small asymmetric ciphertext as well as the symmetric ciphertext of the victim's data. It zeroizes the original plaintext data to prevent recovery. It puts up a message to the user how to pay the ransom. The victim sends the asymmetric e-money to the attacker. The attacker receives the payment, sends the symmetric key to the victim.Ransomware – A Reveton payload, fraudulently claiming that the user must pay a fine to the Metropolitan Police Service
90. Bitcoin – Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and a payment system:3 invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin was introduced on 31 October 2008 to a cryptography mailing list, released as open-source software in 2009. There have been various claims and speculation concerning the identity of Nakamoto, none of which are confirmed. The system is peer-to-peer and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain, which uses bitcoin as its unit of account. Since the system works without single administrator, the U.S. Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a virtual currency. It is more correctly described as the first digital currency. Bitcoin is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value. Bitcoins are created as a reward in a competition in which users offer their power to record bitcoin transactions into the blockchain. This activity is referred to as successful miners are rewarded with newly created bitcoins. Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for services. When sending bitcoins, users can pay an optional transaction fee to the miners. This may expedite the transaction being confirmed. In February 2015, the number of merchants accepting bitcoin for products and services passed 100,000. Instead of 2–3% typically imposed by credit card processors, merchants accepting bitcoins often pay fees in the range from 0% to less than 2%.Bitcoin – A mining farm in Iceland
91. Gregory Lee Johnson – Gregory Johnson was born in Richmond, Indiana. His father spent several years of Gregory's childhood in prison. Sally, was a supporter of the civil rights movement who married a staff sergeant in the United States Army. Johnson grew up in a racially mixed, low-income neighborhood of Richmond. His family returned to the United States in 1971. After moving to Tampa, Florida in 1976, he joined USA. The demonstration was timed to coincide with the 1984 Republican National Convention being held in downtown Dallas. During the demonstration, approximately hundred protestors marched in the streets, staged anti-nuclear weapons and anti-war die-ins at various corporate offices. Some protestors vandalized businesses by knocking over potted ashtrays. At the culmination of the protest outside Dallas City Hall, Johnson poured kerosene on the flag and set it on fire. While the flag burned, he chanted political slogans, including "Reagan, Mondale which will it be? Some witnesses testified that they were seriously offended. No one was hurt or threatened with injury during the protest. Johnson was the only protestor to be charged with a crime. Johnson appealed his conviction to the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas, but lost.Gregory Lee Johnson – Johnson (on right) with attorney William Kunstler, circa 1989
92. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. Once appointed, justices have tenure unless they resign, are removed after impeachment. In modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. The Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court is sometimes colloquially referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789. Its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the only court specifically established by the Constitution, all the others were created by Congress. The Court first convened on February 2, 1790, by which time five of its six initial positions had been filled. Nothing did. They had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, everyone went home." The sixth member was not confirmed until May 12, 1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was also made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four judges in 1789.Supreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
93. Texas v. Johnson – Johnson was represented by attorneys David D. Cole and William Kunstler. The demonstrators were protesting based in Dallas. At one point, another demonstrator handed Johnson an American flag stolen from a flagpole outside one of the targeted buildings. When the demonstrators reached Dallas City Hall, Johnson poured kerosene on the flag and set it on fire. Either one means World War III." Some witnesses to the burning said they were extremely offended. Johnson was charged with violating the Texas law that prohibits vandalizing respected objects. He was fined $2,000. He appealed his conviction to the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas, but he lost this appeal. Therefore that same government can not prescribe a set of approved messages to be associated with that symbol." The court also concluded that the burning in this case did not threaten to cause a breach of the peace. Texas asked the Supreme Court of the United States to hear the case. In 1989, the Court handed down its decision. The Court found that, "Under the circumstances, Johnson's burning of the flag constituted expressive conduct, permitting him to invoke the First Amendment. ...Texas v. Johnson – Johnson (to right) with attorney Kunstler, c. 1989
94. History of Oakland, California – Oakland was first incorporated as a town in 1852. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun tribe, who lived there for thousands of years. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In the 19th century, the Spanish crown deeded the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The Peraltas called a Spanish word that means "oak grove." The Treaty also provided for the safeguarding of the property of Mexican citizens. This provision was regularly ignored by squatters and land speculators, some of whom began settling on the Peralta Ranch, particularly during the Gold Rush. Carpentier got the Town of Oakland incorporated on May 4, 1852. By the time the Land Commission got around to confirming the Peraltas' claims in 1854, Oakland was quickly being further developed. The Peraltas in the meantime had been persuaded to sell various parcels of their vast holdings. On March 1854, Oakland was re-incorporated as the City of Oakland.History of Oakland, California – Depiction of Oakland in 1900.
95. Galago – Galagos /ɡəˈleɪɡoʊz/, also known as bushbabies, bush babies, or nagapies, are small nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, make up the family Galagidae. They are sometimes included as a subfamily within the Lorisidae or Loridae. According to some accounts, the name "bushbaby" comes from either the animal's cries or its appearance. In both variety and abundance, the bushbabies are the most successful primitive primates in Africa, according to the African Wildlife Foundation. Galagos have large eyes that give good night vision, strong hind limbs, long tails that help them balance. Their ears are bat-like and allow them to track insects in the dark. They catch insects on the ground or snatch them out of the air. They are fast, agile creatures. As they bound through the thick bushes, they fold their delicate ears back to protect them. They also fold them during rest. They have nails on most of their digits, except for the second toe of the hind foot, which bears a grooming claw. Their diet is a mixture of insects and tree gums. After a few days, the mother carries the infant in her mouth, places it on branches while feeding. Females may have singles, twins, or triplets, may become very aggressive. Each newborn weighs less than half an ounce.Galago – Galagos
96. San Francisco Superior Court – The San Francisco County Superior Court is a branch of the California Superior Court with jurisdiction over the City and County of San Francisco. Katherine Feinstein had been the presiding judge through 2012. Judge Cynthia Ming-Mei Lee was elected the new presiding judge on June 2012. The court is composed of twelve commissioners. The court currently has two commissioners. We thought it was the right thing to do." Official website http://judgepedia.org/Cynthia_Ming-Mei_LeeSan Francisco Superior Court – View of trial court, Superior Court for San Francisco County
97. Silicon Valley – Silicon Valley is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northern part of the U.S. state of California. It was in the Valley that the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other key technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million technology workers. The term is now generally used as a synecdoche for the American economic sector. Report for Silicon Valley is attributed to a local entrepreneur. The series, entitled "Silicon Valley in the USA", began in January 11, 1971, issue. These firms slowly replaced the fruits which gave the area its initial nickname -- the "Valley of Heart's Delight." Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its success. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose that "California first heard the click of a key on September 11, 1853. It was known as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire." Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line to Marysville via San Jose, Stockton, Sacramento." Delays to construction occurred until September 1853; but, "…San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15.Silicon Valley – Silicon Valley, as seen from over north San Jose, facing southbound towards Downtown San Jose
98. Muslims in the United States – Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism. According to a new estimate in 2016, there are million Muslims living in the United States, about 1 % of the total U.S. population. American Muslims come from various backgrounds and, according to a 2009 poll, are one of the most racially diverse religious groups in the United States. Native-born American Muslims are mainly African Americans who make up about a quarter of the Muslim population. Many of these have converted during the last seventy years. Conversion to Islam in urban areas has also contributed to its growth over the years. While an estimated 10 to 30 percent of the slaves brought from Africa arrived as Muslims, Islam was stringently suppressed on plantations. Prior to the 19th century, most documented non-enslaved Muslims in North America were merchants, travelers, sailors. From the 1880s to 1914, several thousand Muslims immigrated from the former territories of the Ottoman Empire and the former Mughal Empire. About 72 % of American Muslims are "second generation". In 2005, more people from Muslim-majority countries became permanent United States residents -- nearly 96,000 -- than there had been in any other year in the previous two decades. In 2009, more than 115,000 Muslims became legal residents of the United States. Four survivors subsequently traveled through much of the American southwest and the Mexican interior before reaching Mexico City. According to this tradition, an Egyptian named "Norsereddin" settled in the vicinity of the Catskill Mountain House. He sought the hand of his daughter Lotowana in marriage.Muslims in the United States – Islamic Center of Washington at Washington, D.C. was opened in 1957.
99. Uber (company) – Uber Technologies Inc. is an American worldwide online transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Uber drivers use their own personal cars. As of August 2016, the service was available in over 66 countries and 507 cities worldwide. The Uber app automatically calculates the fare and transfers the payment to the driver. Since Uber's launch, several other companies have replicated its business model, a trend that has come to be referred to as "Uberification". Uber was founded as UberCab by Garrett Camp, the founder of StumbleUpon, Travis Kalanick in 2009. The company received $200,000 in seed funding that same year. In 2010, Uber raised $1.25 million in additional funding. Following a beta launch in the summer of 2010, Uber's services and mobile app officially launched in San Francisco in 2011. Initially, Ryan Graves was appointed as CEO, however, Kalanick replaced him in the role later that year. Graves stepped down to become the company's COO. By the end of 2011, Uber had raised $44.5 million in funding. That year, the company changed its name from UberCab to Uber. The name "Uber" is a reference to the common word "uber", meaning "super", having its origins in the German word über. On December 12, 2014, TechCrunch reported that the Chinese search engine Baidu, the mainland's largest, is expected to make a significant investment in Uber.Uber (company) – Travis Kalanick, co-founder and CEO of Uber, in 2013
100. Self-driving car – An autonomous car is a vehicle, capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Autonomous cars can detect surroundings using a variety of techniques such as radar, GPS, vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Some demonstrative systems, precursory to autonomous cars, date back to the 1920s and 30s. Since then, numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles. Autonomous means having the power for self-governance. The term "autonomous" was chosen "because it is the term, currently in more widespread use. However, the latter term is arguably more accurate. ` Automated' connotes operation by while'autonomous' connotes acting independently. Thus, the term'automated' would more accurately describe these vehicle concepts". A system based on six different levels was published by an automotive standardisation body. This system is based on the amount of intervention attentiveness required, rather than the vehicle capabilities, although these are closely related. In the United States, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released in 2013 a formal classification system. The NHTSA abandoned this system when it adopted the SAE standard in September 2016. SAE automated vehicle classifications: Level 0: Automated system has no vehicle control, but may issue warnings.Self-driving car – Junior, a robotic Volkswagen Passat, at Stanford University in October 2009.
101. California Department of Motor Vehicles – The California Department of Motor Vehicles is the state agency that registers motor vehicles and boats and issues driver's licenses in the U.S. state of California. It regulates new car dealers, commercial cargo carriers, private traffic schools. It issues driver's licenses. The DMV also issues identification cards to people who are ineligible for, or do not wish to have, a driver's license. The DMV is part of the California State Transportation Agency. It operates local offices in nearly every part of the state. As of December 2011, the DMV 64 % at 169 field offices. Also, as of December 2011, it maintained records for 26,913,515 persons, 31,802,483 vehicles. As of 2010, California has 23,753,441 licensed drivers. From 1905 to 1913, the California Secretary of State was authorized to implement a uniform statewide registration and system for motor vehicles. In 1913, the California State Treasurer became the custodian of vehicle records. Licenses for drivers of motor vehicles became mandatory on December 13, 1913. In 1929, the Division in 1931 DMV again became a full Department. The nation's modern "credit card style" driver's licenses were introduced by the California DMV in January 1991. Magnetic information strips readable by law enforcement.California Department of Motor Vehicles – DMV headquarters in Sacramento as of 2009 (prior to completion of renovation in 2012 which dramatically changed exterior appearance)
102. Yahoo – Yahoo Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. Yahoo was incorporated on March 2, 1995. Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early era in the 1990s. A former Google executive, serves as CEO and President of the company. It is globally known for its Web portal, search engine Yahoo! Search, related services, including Yahoo! Directory, Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! News, Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo! Groups, Yahoo! Answers, advertising, online mapping, video sharing, fantasy sports, its social media website. It is one of the most popular sites in the United States. According to news sources, roughly million people visit Yahoo websites every month. Yahoo itself claims it attracts "every month in more than 30 languages".Yahoo – Jerry Yang and David Filo, the founders of Yahoo
103. Apple, Inc – Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, iCloud. It was founded by Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers. Apple joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. It is the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer. The company employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015 and maintains 478 retail stores in seventeen countries as of March 2016. It operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of, the world's largest music retailer. There are over billion actively used Apple products worldwide of March 2016. Apple's annual revenue totaled $ billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015. This revenue generation accounts for approximately 1.25% of the total United States GDP. The corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials. It was established by Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. The Apple I kits were computers first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard, less than what is now considered a complete personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66.Apple, Inc – Apple Campus (1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California)
104. GoogleGoogle – The Googleplex, Google's original and largest corporate campus
105. Twitter – Twitter is an online news and social networking service where users post and read short 140-character messages called "tweets". Registered users can post and read tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them. Users access Twitter through mobile app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". As of March 2016, Twitter had more than 310 million monthly active users. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group. The developers initially considered "10958" as a short code, but later changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds'. And that's exactly what the product was. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.Twitter – A blueprint sketch, c. 2006, by Jack Dorsey, envisioning an SMS -based social network.
106. Stanford University – Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8,180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States. Stanford also has land and facilities elsewhere. Stanford was a former Governor of California and U.S. Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanford's death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. The rise of Silicon Valley helped Stanford become one of the world's most prestigious universities. There are three academic schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires, 17 astronauts, 20 Turing Award laureates. It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated as alumni, staff. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child.Stanford University – Leland Stanford, the university's founder, as painted by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier in 1881 and now on display at the Cantor Center
107. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory – The main accelerator has been operational since 1966. In 1984 the laboratory was named an IEEE Milestone. SLAC developed and, in December 1991, began hosting the first World Wide Web outside of Europe. In the early-to-mid 1990s, the Stanford Linear Collider investigated the properties of the Z boson using the Stanford Large Detector. In October 2008, the Department of Energy announced that the Center's name would be changed to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The reasons given include a better representation of the new direction of the ability to trademark the laboratory's name. Stanford University had legally opposed the Department of Energy's attempt to trademark "Stanford Linear Accelerator Center". The main accelerator is an RF linear accelerator that can accelerate positrons up to 50 GeV. At 3.2 km long, the accelerator is claimed to be "the world's most straight object." The main accelerator passes underneath Interstate Highway 280. The above-ground gallery atop the beamline is the longest building in the United States. The Stanford Linear Collider was a linear accelerator that collided positrons at SLAC. The center of mass energy was about 90 GeV, equal to the mass of the Z boson, which the accelerator was designed to study. The bulk of the data was collected by the SLAC Large Detector, which came online in 1991. The SLAC Large Detector was the main detector for the Stanford Linear Collider.SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory – The entrance to SLAC in Menlo Park.
108. Diamondoids – In chemistry, diamondoids are variants of the carbon cage molecule known as adamantane, the smallest unit cage structure of the diamond crystal lattice. Diamondoids also known as condensed adamantanes may include one or more cages well as numerous isomeric and structural variants of adamantanes and polymantanes. These species are as molecular approximations of the cubic framework, terminated with C-H bonds. Cyclohexamantane may be thought of as a nanometer-sized diamond of approximately 5.6 * 10−22 grams. Examples include: Adamantane Iceane BC-8 Diamantane also diadamantane, two face-fused cages Triamantane, also triadamantane. Diamantane has 4 identical faces available for anchoring a new C4H4 unit. Isotetramantane. Triamantane has 8 faces on to which a new C4H4 unit can be added resulting in 4 isomers. One of these isomers displays a helical twist and is therefore prochiral. The P and M enantiomers have been separated. Longer diamondoids have been formed from diamantane dicarboxylic acid. In one study a tetramantane compound is fitted with thiol groups at the bridgehead positions. This allows their anchorage to a gold surface and formation of self-assembled monolayers. Additionally, functionalized diamondoids have been proposed as molecular building blocks for self-assembled molecular crystals. Organic chemistry of diamondoids even extends to pentamantane.Diamondoids – Adamantane (C 10 H 16)
109. Russian River (California) – The Russian River, a southward-flowing river, drains 1,485 square miles of Sonoma and Mendocino counties in Northern California. The Russian River springs from the Laughlin Range about 5 mi east of Willits in Mendocino County. From there the Russian River crosses into Sonoma County north of Cloverdale. Closely paralleled by U.S. Route 101, it descends into the Alexander Valley, where it is joined by Big Sulphur Creek. It flows south past Cloverdale, Asti, Geyserville. East of Healdsburg, Maacama Creek joins the Russian River. It receives water from Lake Sonoma via Dry Creek. The river passes Rio Nido and Guerneville. In that area, State Route 116 parallels the river, bordering it past Guernewood Park and Monte Rio. Austin Creek enters from the north before the River passes through Duncans Mills. State Route 1 crosses over the river before it flows into the Pacific Ocean between Jenner and Goat Rock Beach. The Russian River estuary is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. The mouth is about 60 mi north of the San Francisco Bay's Golden Gate bridge. The lower Russian River is fall destination for navigation and recreation. It is very safe at that time for swimming and boating, with a gentle current.Russian River (California) – The estuary of the Russian River, north of Bodega Bay
110. Calistoga, California – Calistoga is a city in Napa County, California, United States. During the 2010 census, the population was 5,155. With abundant oak trees providing acorns as a ground Calistoga was the site of several villages. The first Anglo settlers began arriving in the 1840s, with several taking up lands in the Calistoga area. Samuel Brannan was the leader of a expedition on the Brooklyn landing in Yerba Buena in 1846. He published San Francisco's first English language newspaper, the California Star. Fascinated by Calistoga’s natural hot springs, Brannan purchased more than 2,000 acres with the intent to develop a spa reminiscent of Saratoga Springs in New York. He is said to have intended to say "I'll make this place the Saratoga of California," but to have in fact said "the Calistoga of Sarifornia". His Hot Springs Resort surrounding Mt Lincoln with the Spa/Hotel located at what is now Indian Springs Resort, opened to California's rich and famous in 1862. In 1868 Brannan's Napa Valley Railroad Company's track was completed to Calistoga. This provided an easier travel option for ferry passengers making the journey from San Francisco. A 6-meter diorama of this early Calistoga can be seen in the Sharpsteen Museum. Calistoga's economy was based on tourism. One of the early visitors was Robert Louis Stevenson. Desiring to stay in the area, they moved from the hotel to an abandoned cabin at the nearby Silverado Mine on Mount Saint Helena.Calistoga, California – Looking north on 1200 block of Lincoln Ave
111. Mount St. Helena – Mount Saint Helena is a peak in the Mayacamas Mountains with flanks in Napa, Sonoma, Lake counties of California. The mountain has five peaks, arranged in a rough "M" shape. North Peak, is in Sonoma County. The second-tallest, immediately east of the main summit, is the highest point in Napa County. The headwaters of the Napa River are on the slope of Mount Saint Helena. Mount Saint Helena has had an explosive history of pyroclastic flows that resulted in The Petrified Forest. The plate also bore the name of wife of Count Alexander G. Rotchev, the commanding officer of Fort Ross. Fanny Vandegrift Osbourne spent the summer of 1880 honeymooning in an abandoned mining camp on Mount Saint Helena. Stevenson's book The Silverado Squatters includes his experiences while living there. The mount is also described by Ambrose Bierce in his story The Death of Halpin Frayser. The peak is reachable by hiking trails leading from Robert Louis Stevenson State Park. The trails are approximately 6 miles long. List of summits of the San Francisco Bay Area "Mount Saint Helena". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-07.Mount St. Helena – Mount Saint Helena, viewed from Northern Napa Valley
112. Robert Louis Stevenson State Park – Robert Louis Stevenson State Park is a California state park, located in Sonoma, Lake and Napa counties United States. The park offers a 5-mile hike to the summit of Mount Saint Helena from which much of the Bay Area can be seen. On clear days it is possible to see the peak of 192 miles distant. The park is named after the author of Treasure Island and Kidnapped. Although nothing remains of the cabin, the site is identified to the summit. Stevenson's book Silverado Squatters contains stories he wrote about his experiences to the area. The area chaparral on the south-facing slopes. Robert Louis Stevenson State Park is located off State Route 29 between Calistoga and Middletown. The park is registered as # 710. Robert Louis Stevenson State Park websiteRobert Louis Stevenson State Park – One of the peaks of Mount Saint Helena
113. Kevin Starr – Kevin Starr is an American historian, best known for his multi-volume series on the history of California, collectively called "Americans and the California Dream." After graduation he served in Germany. Upon release from the service, Starr entered Harvard University where he earned a PhD in 1969 in American Literature. Then moved to California where he has lived since 1974. He received a Masters in 1974 while he was San Francisco City Librarian. In 1989 Starr was promoted to University Professor of History in 1998. Starr sometimes teaches in Sacramento, California. Starr served to April 1, 2004 when Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger named him State Librarian Emeritus. Starr is the author of the multi-volume history of California collectively entitled "Americans and the California Dream". The first volume in "Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915" was published in 1973. In 2006, Starr was made a member of the College of Fellows of the Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology in Berkeley, California. In November 2006 he was awarded a National Humanities Medal. He was presented with The Robert Kirsch Award as part of the 2012 Los Angeles Times Book Prizes. Composer John Adams was inspired by the "Dream" series of books to write City Noir in 2009. The California Dream, 1850 -- 1915.Kevin Starr – Kevin Starr
114. Historian – A historian is a person who researches, studies, writes about the past, is regarded as an authority on it. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians, though, are recognized by training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere. Modern historical analysis usually draws upon social sciences, including economics, sociology, politics, psychology, anthropology, philosophy and linguistics. While ancient writers do not normally share historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. The telling of history has emerged independently in civilizations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. The historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region. The earliest known historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who later became known as the "father of history". Herodotus attempted to distinguish between less reliable accounts, personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the characters of men, he also attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition. Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of places known to his era.Historian – Herodotus was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives.
115. History of California – California was settled from the North by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years. It was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. After contact with Spanish explorers, most of the Native Americans died out from European diseases. After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts and three small towns. Two of the pueblos would eventually grow into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. After Mexican Independence was won in 1821, California fell under the jurisdiction of the First Mexican Empire. Fearing the influence of the Roman Catholic church over their newly independent nation, the Mexican government closed all of the missions and nationalized the church's property. They left with a military garrisons. After the Mexican–American War of 1846-48, Mexico was forced to relinquish any claim to California to the United States. Only a few struck it rich, many returned home disappointed. Most appreciated the other economic opportunities in California, especially in agriculture, brought their families to join them. California became the 31st US state in 1850 and played a small role in the American Civil War. Chinese immigrants increasingly came under attack from nativists; they were forced out of industry and agriculture and into Chinatowns in the larger cities. As gold petered out, California increasingly became a highly productive agricultural society.History of California – A 1562 map of the Americas, which applied the name California for the first time.
116. Golden Gate Bridge – The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, three-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, the United States. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommer's guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as "possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world." It was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet. A service began as early as 1820, with a regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. Once for railroad customers only, Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy. The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city's rate was below the national average. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent operation. San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $ million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009, impractical for the time. He asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. Joseph Strauss, was an ambitious engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55-mile-long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait.Golden Gate Bridge – A view of the Golden Gate Bridge from Marshall's Beach
117. Port of Oakland – The Port of Oakland is a major container ship facility located in Oakland, California on San Francisco Bay. It was the major port on the Pacific Coast of the United States to build terminals for container ships. It is now the fifth busiest container port behind Long Beach, Los Angeles, Newark, Savannah. Originally, the estuary, 500 feet wide, had a depth of two feet at low tide. 22 years later, in 1874, the previously dredged channel was deepened to make Oakland a deep water port. In the 19th century, the Southern Pacific was granted exclusive rights to the port, a decision the city soon came to regret. This act, protested by the SP and later held up in court, broke the railroad's grip on the port area. The courts ruled that all landfill since the date of the agreement did not belong to the SP. This ruling made the modern Port of Oakland possible. On May 1915, the Admiral Dewey became the first vessel to dock at the foot of Clay street. Captain J. Daniels, master of the vessel, was greeted by Commissioner of Public Works Harry S. Anderson and Harbor Manager W.W. Keith, the two men who had so much to do with the upbuilding of the city's waterfront, were the first aboard the boat. Anderson asked that official as he shook Captain J. Daniels hand. "I certainly do realize Mr. Anderson." Returned Captain Daniels, "and I assure you that I appreciate the honor.Port of Oakland – Aerial view of the port of Oakland
118. Jerry Brown – Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. is an American politician and lawyer who has served as the 39th Governor of California since 2011. A member of Brown previously served as the 34th governor from 1975 to 1983, is the longest-serving governor in California history. Elected governor at age 36, Brown was the youngest California governor in 111 years. Brown ran against fellow Democrat and incumbent President Jimmy Carter in the 1980 primaries. While challengers to incumbent presidents seldom gain traction, the challenge by Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts did, leaving Brown without any significant support. Brown declined instead running for the United States Senate in 1982. However, many considered his political career to be over. After six years out of politics, Brown returned to public life, serving as Mayor of Oakland, then Attorney General of California. The law limited a governor to two terms; however, the four living governors when the law was passed were still eligible for the election. Brown was re-elected with sixty percent of the vote. Brown's father was of half half German descent. Brown's great-grandfather August Schuckman, a German immigrant, settled during the California Gold Rush. Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, where he graduated in 1955. Brown graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1964. After school, Brown worked as a law clerk for California Supreme Court Justice Mathew Tobriner.Jerry Brown – Jerry Brown
119. Immigration and Customs Enforcement – ICE has two primary components: Enforcement and Removal Operations. ICE is the second-largest criminal investigative agency following the FBI. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement was formed pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 following the events of September 2001. Consequently, ICE is the second largest contributor to the nation's Joint Terrorism Task Force. The Federal Protective Service was later transferred to the National Protection and Programs Directorate effective October 28, 2009. At one point, the Federal Air Marshals Service was eventually moved back to the TSA. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for eliminating border, economic, transportation, infrastructure security vulnerabilities. ICE has an estimated 15,000 employees in 50 international offices, though another official figure counts 20,000 employees. The organization is composed of several support divisions each headed by a director who reports to an Executive Associate Director. The divisions of ICE provide investigation, interdiction and security services in the federal and local sectors. HSI agents can be requested to provide security for VIPs, also augment the U.S. Secret Service during overtaxed times such as special security events and elections. HSI was formerly known as the ICE Office of Investigations. Collectively, these intelligence professionals collect, disseminate intelligence for use by the operational elements of DHS. The Office of Intelligence works closely with the intelligence components of local agencies.Immigration and Customs Enforcement – Badge of a Homeland Security Investigations Special Agent
120. Pacific Gas and Electric – PG&E provides natural gas and electricity to most of the northern two-thirds of California, from Bakersfield almost to the Oregon border which represents 5.2 million households. PG&E is overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission. It is the leading subsidiary of the holding company PG&E Corporation which has a market capitalization of $29.37 billion. It was founded by George H. Roe during the period after California's Gold Rush and by 1984 was the United States "largest electric utility business". In 1952 Charles M. Coleman—who worked for PG&E's publicity department—completed his book entitled P. G. And E. of California: The Centennial Story of Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 1852-1952. PG&E is one of three regulated, investor-owned utilities s in California—the other two being Southern California Edison and Sempra Energy's San Diego Gas & Electric. In the 1850s, manufactured gas was introduced in the United States as a means of lighting. Gasworks were built in the larger eastern American cities, but there was no gas industry in the West, however. In San Francisco, street lighting was available only on Merchant Street, in the form of oil lamps. Joseph G. Eastland, an engineer and clerk at the foundry, joined them in gathering as much information on gas making as they could find. The Donahue brothers and Eastland incorporated the San Francisco Gas Company on August 31, 1852, with $150,000 of authorized capital. The company became the first gas utility in the West. Its official seal bore the inscription "Fiat Lux"—let there be light—the same slogan later adopted by the University of California. There were 11 original stockholders, the three Donahue brothers subscribed for 610 of the 1,500 shares.Pacific Gas and Electric – Pacific Gas and Electric Company plant in Sacramento, 1912
121. Thelton Henderson – Thelton Eugene Henderson is currently a federal judge in the Northern District of California. He has played an important role in the field of civil rights as jurist. Henderson received both his undergraduate and law degrees from University of California, Berkeley. In 1962, he became the Justice Department's first African-American lawyer in the Civil Rights Division. After a stint in private practice, he served in California. During this time, he also served as consultant to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Office of Economic Opportunity, Carnegie Corporation, Ford Foundation. In June 1980, he was appointed by President Jimmy Carter as U.S. District Court Judge. From 1990 to 1997, Henderson served as Chief Judge for the Northern District of California. Since 1998, he has served as Senior Judge. In the late 1980s, Henderson presided over a long-running case over the fishing industry's practice of snaring dolphins in its tuna nets. Environmental groups charged that millions of dolphins had drowned because of the industry's refusal to follow existing safety regulations. He rejected attempts by the Clinton and Bush administrations to relax legal standards on fishing practices and loosen dolphin safe labeling on tuna. During its federal process, Henderson was known to visit the prison personally. The Thelton E. Henderson Center for Social Justice at Boalt Hall is named for him.Thelton Henderson – Thelton Eugene Henderson
122. 2010 San Bruno explosion – It took nearly an hour to determine it was a gas explosion. As of September 2010, the toll was eight people. The United States Geological Survey registered the explosion and resulting shock wave as a magnitude 1.1 earthquake. Eyewitnesses reported the initial blast "had a wall of fire more than 1,000 feet high". This caused a fire, which quickly engulfed nearby houses. Emergency responders from nearby cities evacuated surrounding neighborhoods. Strong winds fanned the flames, hampering fire fighting efforts. The blaze was fed by a ruptured gas pipe, large clouds of smoke soared into the sky. It took 60 to 90 minutes to shut off the gas after the explosion, according to San Bruno Fire Chief Dennis Haag. The explosion and resulting fire leveled 35 houses and damaged many more. Three of the damaged houses, deemed uninhabitable, were torn down in December, bringing the total to 38. About 200 firefighters battled the eight alarm fire that resulted from the explosions. The fire continued to burn for several hours after the initial explosion. The explosion compromised a water main and required firefighters to truck in water from outside sources. Firefighters were assisted by residents who dragged fire hoses nearly 4,000 feet to working hydrants.2010 San Bruno explosion – Remains of a portion of the natural gas pipeline after the explosion.
123. Google, Inc. – Google was founded by Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University, California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. Google moved in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet. Alphabet's leading subsidiary, will continue to be the company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became CEO of Alphabet. Rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. Google has also experimented with becoming an operator. An August 2011 report estimated that Google had almost one million servers in data centers around the world. It processed over about 20 petabytes of each day in 2008. A company that monitors commercial traffic, lists Google.com as the most visited website in the world. Other Google services also figure including YouTube and Blogger. Google has a valuation at $133 billion. In October 2015, the motto was replaced by the phrase: "Do the thing".Google, Inc. – The Googleplex, Google's original and largest corporate campus
124. San Francisco International Airport – It is a major gateway to Europe and Asia. In 2014, it was the twenty-first busiest airport in the world by passenger count. It is functions as United Airlines's primary transpacific gateway. It also serves as Virgin America's principal base of operations. It houses the Louis A. Turpen Aviation Museum and Library. SFO is in San Mateo County. Between 2004 the San Francisco Airport Commission operated city-owned SFO Enterprises, Inc. to oversee its business purchases and operations of ventures. San Francisco held a dedicated ceremony on 150 acres of cow pasture. The land was leased from Ogden L. Mills who had leased it from his grandfather Darius O. Mills. San Francisco International Airport was named Mills Field Municipal Airport until 1931, when it became San Francisco Municipal Airport. "Municipal" was replaced in 1955. United Airlines served Oakland Municipal Airport beginning in the 1930s. The March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows 18 airline departures on weekdays -- one TWA flight. The aerial view c. 1940 looks west along the runway, now 28R; the seaplane harbor at right is still recognizable north of the airport. Competition with United led Pacific Seaboard to rename itself Chicago and Southern Air Lines.San Francisco International Airport
125. Sergey Brin – Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin is a Soviet-born American computer scientist, internet entrepreneur, philanthropist. Together with Larry Page, he co-founded Google. Brin is the President of Google's company Alphabet Inc.. In October 2016, he is the 12th richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$ billion. Brin immigrated to the United States at the age of 6. He earned his bachelor's degree following in his father's and grandfather's footsteps by studying mathematics, as well as computer science. After graduation, he moved to Stanford University to acquire a PhD in science. There he met Page, with whom he later became friends. They applied Brin's data mining system to build a web search engine. They suspended their PhD studies to start up Google in a rented garage. Brin was born to Russian Jewish parents, Yevgenia and Mikhail Brin, both graduates of Moscow State University. His mother a researcher at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. In May 1979, when Brin was five years old, his family felt compelled to emigrate out of the Soviet Union. Mikhail Brin therefore changed his major to mathematics where he received nearly straight A's. In another interview with Dominic Lawson of The Independent, Mikhail said: "No one would consider me for graduate school because I was Jewish."Sergey Brin – Sergey Brin in 2008
126. Alphabet (company) – It is the parent company of Google and several other companies previously owned by them. The company is based at Googleplex. The reorganization of Google into Alphabet was completed on October 2015. Alphabet's portfolio encompasses several industries, including technology, life sciences, research. Some of its subsidiaries include Google Fiber. Following the restructuring Page became CEO of Alphabet while Sundar Pichai took his position as CEO of Google. Shares of Google's stock have been converted into Alphabet stock, which trade under Google's former ticker symbols of "GOOG" and "GOOGL". On August 2015, Google Inc. announced plans to create a new public holding company, Alphabet Inc.. Google CEO Larry Page made this announcement in a blog post on Google's official blog. Alphabet would be created narrowing Google's scope. The company would consist of Google well as other businesses including X, CapitalG, GV. Product Chief, became the new CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page. In his announcement, Page described the planned holding company as follows: Alphabet is mostly a collection of companies. The largest of course, is Google. This newer Google is a bit slimmed down, with the companies that are far afield of our main internet products contained in Alphabet instead.Alphabet (company) – Alphabet Inc.
127. Milo Yiannopoulos – He wrote previously using the pseudonym Milo Andreas Wagner. He founded an tabloid magazine about technology, which he sold to Daily Dot Media in 2014. He rose to notability that year when he began to provide media coverage and commentary surrounding the Gamergate controversy. Yiannopoulos has been called a spokesperson for the alt-right. Yiannopoulos considers sympathizer with the movement. Yiannopoulos was permanently banned for what the company cited as "engaging in the targeted abuse or harassment of others". Yiannopoulos was raised in a small town in Kent in southern England. His mother is British. His father is Greek. He is a practising Catholic. He was educated at Simon Langton Grammar School for Boys. He attended the University of Manchester, dropping out without graduating. Yiannopoulos then attended Cambridge, where he studied English literature before dropping out. He originally became interested in technology journalism whilst investigating women in computing in 2009. He also appeared on Sky News discussing social media, on BBC Breakfast discussing Pope Benedict XVI's visit to the United Kingdom.Milo Yiannopoulos – Milo Yiannopoulos at LeWeb13 Conference
128. UC Berkeley – The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. Lawrence Livermore Lab also co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world first among public universities. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. UC Berkeley professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Originally, Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.UC Berkeley – View, from Memorial Glade, of Sather Tower (The Campanile), the center of UC Berkeley. The ring of its bells and clock can be heard from all over campus.
129. White nationalism – White nationalism is an ideology that advocates a racial definition of national identity. Proponents of the ideology are attached to the concept of a white nation. It ranges to feelings of superiority, including calls for national citizenship to be reserved for white people. White supremacy are subgroups of white nationalism. Separatists seek a white-only state, while supremacists add ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism to their ideology. Both subgroups generally avoid the supremacy because it has negative connotations. White nationalists argue that every nationality feels a natural affection for its own kind. They advocate racial claim that culture is a product of race. A white nationalist, claims that similar racial views were held by many mainstream American leaders before the 1950s. They argue that with this demographic shift comes immigrant ghettos and declining educational standards. Most white nationalists say immigration should be restricted to people of European ancestry. Most white nationalists define white people in a restricted way. Some white nationalists draw on racial taxonomy. Some white nationalists, such as Jared Taylor, have argued that Jews can be considered "white". Racial theories, such as Nordicism and Germanism, define different groups as white, both excluding some southern and eastern Europeans because of a perceived racial taint.White nationalism – Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928.
130. Civic Center, San Francisco – It has a number of buildings in classical architectural style. It is also where the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco was signed. The San Francisco Civic Center was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on October 10, 1978. The Civic Center was built in the 20th century after an earlier city hall was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire. The current civic center was planned by a group of local architects, chaired by John Galen Howard. The current City Hall was completed in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, Army barracks and Victory gardens were constructed in the main plaza in front of the Library. The Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall and Harold L. Zellerbach Rehearsal Hall were added in 1980. In 1998, the city officially renamed part of the plaza the Joseph L. Alioto Performing Arts Piazza after the former mayor. Its central location, the collection of government buildings have made and continue to make Civic Center the scene of massive political rallies. It has been the scene of massive anti-war rallies since the Korean War. It was also the scene of major moments of the Gay Rights Movement. Activist Harvey Milk gave speeches there. After his assassination on November 1978, a massive candlelight vigil was held there. Later, it was the scene of the White Night Riots in response to the lenient sentencing of Milk's assassin.Civic Center, San Francisco – Graham Auditorium & Fox Plaza.
131. Mike Honda – Michael Makoto "Mike" Honda is an American politician. He serves as the U.S. Representative for California's 17th congressional district, known as Silicon Valley, the only Asian American-majority district in the continental United States. The district encompasses all or part of the cities of Cupertino, Fremont, Milpitas, Newark, Santa Clara, Sunnyvale. Honda has been serving in Congress since 2001. A third-generation Japanese American, Honda was born in 1941 in Walnut Grove, California, the son of Fusako and Giichi Byron Honda. Both of his parents were born in California. When he was one year old, his family were sent to Camp Amache, a Japanese American internment camp in southeastern Colorado. In 1953 his family returned to California, where they became strawberry sharecroppers in San Jose. He started at Andrew P. Hill High School, graduated from, San Josė High Academy. Honda returned to San Jose State, where in 1968 he received a bachelor's degree in Biological Sciences and Spanish. Honda earned a master's degree from San Jose State in 1974. Jeanne, was a kindergarten teacher at Baldwin Elementary School in San José. She died in 2004. Michelle, a marketing and communications manager, in San Jose.Mike Honda – Mike Honda
132. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals – Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals. Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington. However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States. The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. According to the most current count, the Ninth Circuit has the highest percentage of sitting judges appointed by Democratic presidents. Republicans argue the court is biased because of its relatively high proportion of Democratic appointees. Others argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases. Critics of the Ninth Circuit claim there are several adverse consequences of its large size. Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. The court thus provides for a “limited en banc review of a randomly selected 11 judge panel.9th Circuit Court of Appeals – Ninth Circuit Court House in 1905
133. Article Two of the United States Constitution – Article Two of the United States Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, which carries out and enforces federal laws. It includes the President, the Vice President, the Cabinet, executive departments, independent agencies, other boards, committees. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. Similar clauses are found in Article III. The latter grants judicial power solely to the Supreme Court. These three articles create a separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government. The President's executive power is subject to two important limitations. First, the President lacks executive authority explicitly granted to Congress. Hence the President can not declare war, regulate commerce, even though executives had often wielded such authority in the past. In these instances, Congress retained portions of the executive power that the Continental Congress had wielded under the Articles of Confederation. Nor were they retained by the U.S. Congress as leftovers from the Articles of Confederation. Second, constitutional provisions may check customary executive authority. Notwithstanding his executive power, the President can not make appointments without the advice and consent of the Senate. Likewise, the President's power is limited to offenses against the United States and does not extend to impeachments or violations of state law. As treaties are with foreign governments recognized as such only after Senate ratification, the President obviously can not make treaties unilaterally.Article Two of the United States Constitution – President Barack Obama signing legislation at the Resolute desk
134. Pineapple Express – Each of these low-pressure systems brings enhanced rainfall. The conditions are often created by the Madden–Julian oscillation, an equatorial rainfall pattern which feeds its moisture into this pattern. They are also present during an El Niño episode. Pineapple Express systems typically generate heavy snowfall in the mountains and Interior Plateau, which often melts rapidly because of the warming effect of the system. Examples of this are the Christmas flood of 1964 and the Willamette Valley Flood of 1996. Early in 1862, extreme storms riding the Pineapple Express battered the west coast for 45 days. Both the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys flooded, there was extensive flooding and mudslides throughout the region. The San Francisco Bay Area is another locale along the Pacific Coast, occasionally affected by a Pineapple Express. When it visits, the persistent rainfall typically causes flooding of local streams well as urban flooding. In the decades before about 1980, the local term for a Pineapple Express was "Hawaiian Storm". During the second week of January, 1952, a series of "Hawaiian" storms swept into Northern California, causing widespread flooding around the Bay Area. The same storms brought a blizzard of wet snow to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, notoriously stranding the City of San Francisco on January 13. A Pineapple Express battered Southern California through January 2005. This storm was the largest to hit Southern California since the storms that hit during the 1997–98 El Niño event. In some areas the storm was followed by over a month of near-continuous rain.Pineapple Express – Unusually high precipitation caused an ephemeral lake to occur in the Badwater Basin of Death Valley National Park, 2005.
135. California State Route 17 – State Route 17 is a freeway and expressway that runs between San Jose and Santa Cruz in the U.S. State of California. SR 17 carries the rest of the San Francisco Bay Area. SR 17 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. However, it has not been designated by Caltrans. From its southern terminus in Santa Cruz, Route 17 begins as a four-lane freeway. From there, it proceeds through Scotts Valley. At Los Gatos, Route 17 becomes a freeway again. It expands after an interchange with SR 85. This interchange has three levels; it is unusual in that the top level is at-grade, with the other levels below-grade. The number of lanes later expands shortly before reaching its northern terminus at Interstate 280 where it continues as Interstate 880. Some sections of SR 17 are so dangerous that they have been nicknamed. The most infamous is called "Big Moody Curve". This curve is named after Big Moody Creek below, bracketed by additional 90 degree turns. The inside surfaces of the median barriers in both of these turns are normally black with tire rubber. The portion between Scotts Valley has been designated the Highway 17 Safety Corridor by Caltrans and the California Highway Patrol.California State Route 17 – Looking downhill from the Summit Road overpass; brake lights can be seen as cars slow down before the curve known as "The Valley Surprise".
136. California State Route 35 – It also provides scenic views of the Silicon Valley Metropolitan Area. This was changed with the creation of Interstate 5 in 1964, to avoid confusion. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. However, only the portion from the Santa Cruz-Santa Clara County line to the SR 92 junction is actually a state scenic highway. The highway begins at the junction of State Route 17. From Black Road going north the road has been upgraded. The road reaches its highest elevation near Sanborn Skyline County Park at about 3,000 ft. The ridge that the road follows forms the border between Santa Cruz and Santa Clara counties. However, the boundary is so irregular that the road weaves out of the two counties. Because of winding roadway, Skyline Boulevard and surrounding roads see substantial recreational motoring and bicycling use. Motorcycles can be found congregating near the intersections with State Route 9 and State Route 84, particularly on weekends. Mountain bikers are also commonly found at the many trailheads along the road. Numerous hiking trails originate off Skyline in these open spaces. For most of the route, State Route 35 offers vistas of both Silicon Valley's skyline, also the Pacific Ocean. Among the bayside streams are San Francisquito Creek, San Bruno Creek.California State Route 35 – Skyline Boulevard stretches through the Santa Cruz Mountains, here near Palo Alto
137. California State Route 37 – State Route 37 is a state highway in the northern part of California that runs 21 miles along the northern shore of San Pablo Bay. Route 37 has been proposed to be built since the early 1950s. However, the proposal was met with many environmental obstacles, making the task all but impossible for much of the route. This stretch of highway was given the nickname of "Blood Alley" for its high-rate of fatal accidents. With the middle lane removed, accidents dropped dramatically. SR 37 becomes a four-lane freeway on Mare Island, approaching northern Vallejo. In the early 1990s, the stretch between Fairgrounds Drive, which serves to Discovery Kingdom, Mini Drive was upgraded to a freeway. Following over fifty years of complications, the remaining non-freeway section in Vallejo was upgraded as well. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. However, it is not designated by Caltrans. The stretch of road east of Sears Point was once part of the historical El Camino Real. This highway followed the current alignment east of Sears Point, before diverting northeast along present-day Route 121. It was first designated Legislative Route 8, later being signed as State Route 37. When it was purchased by the State in 1938, tolls were removed; it then became signed until 1964. The whole of SR 37 has been proposed to be built since the early 1950s.California State Route 37 – SR 37 at sunset; Raceway Hill in background
138. Interstate 80 in California – Interstate 80 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, running between the U.S. states of California and New York. The highway has its western terminus in San Francisco. I-80 then traverses the Sierra Nevada, cresting at Donner Summit, before crossing within the Truckee River Canyon. I-80 has portions designated as Alan S. Hart Freeway. Throughout California, I-80 was built along the corridor of U.S. Route 40, eventually replacing this designation entirely. The prior US 40 corridor itself was built along historic corridors in California, notably the California Trail and Lincoln Highway. The route has changed from the original plans in San Francisco due to freeway revolts canceling segments of the originally planned alignment. I-80 is recognized as the Dwight D. Eisenhower Highway for its entire length. In California, it follows the original corridor of the Lincoln Highway from Sacramento to Reno. According to the California State Highway system, I-80 begins in San Francisco. The Interstate designation is interpreted by some to actually beginning at the location of the Fremont Street off-ramp. Thus, the first 1.20 miles of the signed Interstate is secretly defined as State Route 80. The Eastshore Freeway is a segment along the northeast shoreline of San Francisco Bay in northern California. It ends at the MacArthur Maze interchange just east of the eastern end of the San Francisco -- Oakland Bay Bridge. Interstate 580 joins the Eastshore Freeway at an interchange known locally in Albany.Interstate 80 in California – The western terminus of Interstate 80 in San Francisco, viewed from northbound US 101.
139. California State Route 12 – It is constructed to freeway standards to its partial interchange with Farmers Lane. The segment to the overlap with SR 99 is on Kettleman Lane. SR 12 begins with SR 116 in Sebastopol. It winds on surface streets where the historic Vallejo Estate and Sonoma Mission, both part of the Sonoma State Historic Park, are. After a brief merge with Interstate 80, SR 12 branches off to the east as an expressway through Fairfield and Suisun City. It becomes two lanes again and crosses south of Travis Air Force Base, through rolling fields with numerous wind turbines. Just past Braid's Bridge is the Western Railway Museum. At Rio Vista, SR 12 crosses the Helen Madere Memorial Bridge over the Sacramento River, entering the California Delta. In 1985 Humphrey the whale swam about far as the Rio Vista Bridge. Through Lodi it becomes a wide four lane route. Before the 1964 renumbering, this route was signed for most of its length. However, SR 12 was designated as Legislative Route 51 before the 1964 renumbering. The portion from I-80 to then-US 99 was designated in 1919; from US 99 to SR 49, it was designated as LR 24. In 1976, the discontinuity resulting from the concurrency with State Route 84 was removed. Plans call to State Route 1 near Bodega Bay.California State Route 12 – SR 12 in Sonoma (Broadway)
140. California State Route 1 – State Route 1 is a major north-south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U.S. state of California. At a total of just over 655.8 miles, Highway is the longest route in California. Highway 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Coast Highway. The highway is designated as an All-American Road. SR 1 was built piecemeal with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s. However, portions of the route had several numbers over the years as more segments opened. Highway was not until the 1964 highway renumbering that the entire route was officially designated as Highway 1. Highway 1 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. However, only a few stretches between San Francisco have officially been designated as a scenic highway. The Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway. The entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 as the Pacific Coast Highway. The legislature has also designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned other names by the state and municipal governments. The route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the state's industry.California State Route 1 – Southbound PCH in Crystal Cove State Park near Laguna Beach
141. California State Route 84 – State Route 84 is a split-section California State Highway consisting of two sections. The route overlaps the freeway segment between Woodside Road in Redwood City and Marsh Road in Menlo Park. The segment between the Dumbarton Bridge has been upgraded to an expressway and is known as the Bayfront Expressway. The segment from the eastern end of the Dumbarton Bridge to the interchange with I-880 has been upgraded to a freeway. A ferry provides the crossing over Cache Slough from Rio Vista to Ryer Island. A diesel-powered boat operated by Caltrans, is in operation twenty-four hours per day and charges no toll. A plan to build a $600 million road called the Mid-State Tollway along the proposed route was suspended in 2001 due to local opposition. This route is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. It is designated as a State Scenic Highway to I-680 in Alameda County. The route begins on the Pacific coast near San Gregorio. It then heads northeast through San Mateo County crossing the Santa Cruz Mountains. Where it intersects SR 35, also known as Skyline Boulevard, then I-280. It then enters Redwood City, where it intersects SR 82, which carries El Camino Real through the South Bay. A few miles later, it interchanges with US 101, which it overlaps for a few miles. The SR 114 intersection was the site of the crash in which author David Halberstam was killed on April 23, 2007.California State Route 84 – The I-80 East bound freeway signage indicating the California State Route 84 (unsigned) Eastern terminus at the Reed Ave interchange in West Sacramento
142. California State Route 9 – Daily traffic is between 34,500 cars. SR 9 between the intersection with SR 35 is part of the Scenic Highway System. SR 9 begins in the city of Santa Cruz where River Street intersects with SR 1. It heads north, paralleling the San Lorenzo River. The road is a winding two road for the majority of its length until it approaches Fruitvale Avenue in Saratoga. SR 236 later rejoins SR 9 near Castle Rock State Park. At the summit of the Santa Cruz mountains, there is a point offering a view of the Bay Area. The point is the route's highest point at around 2,608 feet. At this junction, SR 9 passes into Santa Clara County. SR 9 descends from the mountains heading east into Saratoga as Congress Springs Road. In Saratoga, SR 9 becomes Saratoga-Los Gatos Road. At Fruitvale Avenue in Saratoga, SR 9 briefly becomes a four-lane highway with a large divider. However, as the road enters Monte Sereno, it again becomes a two-lane road. This particular narrowing has caused backups in the past; however, they have become more infrequent since the completion of SR 85. SR 9 resumes being a four road through downtown Los Gatos until its terminus at the junction with SR 17.California State Route 9 – A view of SR 9
143. California State Route 152 – Its western portion provides the best access toward southern California for motorists in or near San Jose. This route is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. This point marks the start of a two-lane highway that crosses the Santa Cruz Mountains through Hecker Pass to reach Gilroy. Headlights are required at all times along this portion. This segment is a significant bottleneck for traffic traveling between the San Francisco Bay area and the Central Valley. Route 152 continues as a four-lane divided expressway, descending along the eastern shore of the massive San Luis Reservoir. The route passes between the San Luis Dam and the O'Neill Forebay. The route then meets Interstate 5 as an expressway. It becomes Pacheco Blvd. while passing through Los Banos. It then returns until its eastern terminus at Route 99. Here, eastbound 152 traffic merges on to southbound 99 a few miles northwest of the city of Madera, approximately 25 miles northwest of Fresno. Motorists wishing to travel north on Route 99 are advised to take 233 north through Chowchilla to connect to northbound 99. The landmarks located on Route 152 include the Pacheco Pass, the Gilroy Gardens, the San Luis Reservoir, the Merry Cherries. The road became popular as a route east during the California Gold Rush. The Butterfield Overland Mail ran from 1858 to 1861.California State Route 152 – Eastbound traffic and signs on Route 152 at its interchange with Route 156.
144. ATP Challenger Tour – The ATP Challenger Tour, known until the end of 2008 as the ATP Challenger Series, is a series of international men's professional tennis tournaments. The ATP Challenger Tour is administered by the Association of Tennis Professionals. The first challenger events were held in 1978, with eighteen events taking place. Two were held on the week beginning January 8, one in Auckland and another in Hobart. Events continued after a one-month hiatus with two begun September 24 and 25, one in Tinton Falls, New Jersey and in Lincoln, Nebraska respectively. A final event was played a month later in Kyoto. In comparison, the 2008 schedule saw 178 events played in more than 40 countries. In contrast, the ATP-level tournaments offer total prize money from $400,000 to over $6 million and points to the overall winners from 250 to 2000. So rankings points earned in Challengers can help a player to move up in the rankings quickly. Players have usually had success at the Futures tournaments of the ATP Tour before competing in Challengers. They renewed the sponsorship with the ATP in 2010 and extend it all the way through until the end of 2011.ATP Challenger Tour – Logo of the Challenger Tour pre 2009.
145. United States Patent Office – The USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates solely on fees collected by its users, not on taxpayer dollars". The USPTO is based from the Crystal City area of Virginia. The head of the USPTO is Michelle K. Lee. She took up her new role on January 13, 2014, initially in a temporary Deputy role. On March 13, she formally took office as Director after being nominated by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. She formerly served as the Director of the USPTO's Silicon Valley satellite office. The USPTO cooperates with the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office as one of the Trilateral Patent Offices. The legal basis for the United States patent system is Article 1, Section 8, wherein the powers of Congress are defined. An additional building in Arlington, Virginia, was opened in 2009. The first office opened on July 2012. However, renovation and infrastructure updates continued after the sequestration, the Silicon Valley location is due to open in San Jose City Hall in mid-2015. Of those, 6,242 were patent examiners and 388 were trademark examining attorneys; the rest are support staff. They are generally newly graduated scientists and engineers, recruited from various universities around the nation. They hold degrees in various scientific disciplines, but who do not necessarily hold law degrees. Unlike patent examiners, trademark examiners must be licensed attorneys.United States Patent Office – Relief representing the Patent Office at the Herbert C. Hoover Building.
146. Broad Institute – The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, often referred to as the Broad Institute, is a biomedical and genomic research center located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Formerly the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, evolved from a decade of research collaborations among MIT and Harvard scientists. One cornerstone was the Center for Genome Research of Whitehead Institute at MIT. Founded in 1982, the Whitehead became a major center for the Human Genome Project. Another cornerstone was the Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology established by Harvard Medical School in 1998 to pursue chemical genetics as an academic discipline. Its facility was one of the first high-throughput resources opened in an academic setting. It facilitated small screening projects for more than 80 research groups worldwide. The Broad Institute was formally launched in May 2004. In November 2005, the Broads announced an additional $ million gift to the Institute. On September 2008, the Broads announced an endowment of $400 million to make the Broad Institute a permanent establishment. In November 2013, they invested an additional $ million to fund a second decade of research at the institute. The Broad Institute has 11 core faculty and 195 associate members from Harvard, the Harvard-affiliated hospitals. The Broad Institute is made up of three types of organizational units: core member laboratories, platforms. The platforms include: The staff of the Broad Institute include physicians, geneticists, molecular, chemical, computational biologists.Broad Institute – Broad Institute
147. CRISPR – Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed to foreign DNA. CRISPR associated proteins use the CRISPR spacers to cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in 90 % of sequenced archaea. Cas9 was the first nuclease discovered, followed by Cpf1, discovered in the CRISPR/Cpf1 system of Francisella novicida. Such systems are thought to exist. The complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. Genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, food crops. The use of CRISPR complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015. Bioethical concerns have been expressed about the prospect of using this nascent biotechnology for editing the human germline. The discovery of clustered DNA repeats began in three parts of the world. The organization of the repeats was unusual because repeated sequences are typically arranged consecutively along DNA. The function of the interrupted clustered repeats was not known at the time. In 1993 researchers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Netherlands published two articles about a repeat cluster in this bacterium, named "direct repeat" region. From that time on the two researchers working on CRISPR were in contact.CRISPR – Simplified diagram of a CRISPR locus. The three major components of a CRISPR locus are shown: cas genes, a leader sequence, and a repeat-spacer array. Repeats are shown as grey boxes and spacers are colored bars. The arrangement of the three components is not always as shown. In addition, several CRISPRs with a similar [clarification needed] can be present in a single genome, only one of which being associated with cas genes.
148. Eukaryotic cell – A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes belong to the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ and κάρυον. Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. In addition, plants and algae contain chloroplasts. Eukaryotic organisms may be unicellular or multicellular. Only eukaryotes form multicellular organisms consisting of many kinds of tissue made up of different cell types. Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion. In mitosis, one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells. These act as sex cells resulting from genetic recombination during meiosis. The domain Eukaryota appears to be monophyletic, so makes up one of the three domains of life. The two other domains, Bacteria and Archaea, are prokaryotes and have none of the above features. Eukaryotes represent a tiny minority of all living things. However, due to their much larger size, eukaryotes' collective worldwide biomass is estimated at about equal to that of prokaryotes. Eukaryotes first developed approximately 1.6–2.1 billion years ago.Eukaryotic cell – Had'n
149. Prokaryotic cell – A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle. The word prokaryote comes from the Greek πρό "before" and καρυόν "nut or kernel". Prokaryotes can be divided into two domains, Archaea and bacteria. In contrast, species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the domain Eukaryota. In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments. Bacteria, however, do possess protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles enclosed in protein shells. Some prokaryotes, such as cyanobacteria may form large colonies. Others, such as myxobacteria, have multicellular stages in their life cycles. Molecular studies have provided insight into the evolution and interrelationships of the three domains of biological species. Eukaryotes are organisms, including humans, whose cells have a well defined membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. The division between prokaryotes and eukaryotes reflects the existence of two very different levels of cellular organization. Distinctive types of prokaryotes include extremophiles and methanogens; these are common in some extreme environments. Prokaryotes have a prokaryotic cytoskeleton, albeit more primitive than that of the eukaryotes. At least some prokaryotes also contain intracellular structures that can be seen as primitive organelles. Membranous organelles are known in some groups of prokaryotes, such as vacuoles or membrane systems devoted to special metabolic properties, such as photosynthesis or chemolithotrophy.Prokaryotic cell – A diagram of a typical prokaryotic bacteria cell.
150. Ocean Beach, San Francisco – Ocean Beach is a beach on the west coast of San Francisco, California, United States, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It is adjacent to Golden Gate Park, the Sunset District. The Cliff House and the site of the former Sutro Baths sit at the northern end. The beach is a part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service. During the late summer, San Francisco's characteristic foggy weather frequently envelops the beach. The average temperature for the last 5 years has been 13.2 ° C However, the beach is popular with participants in bonfire parties. More beach-friendly weather occurs in early spring, when fog is less prevalent. The water at Ocean Beach is noteworthy for its strong waves, which makes it popular among serious surfers. Nevertheless, the beach is one of the Bay Area's top surfing spots. The southern portion of the beach by Sloat Boulevard is one of the cleanest in the state. Other swimmers have died at Ocean Beach; one example occurred in May 2006, with the next-previous death taking place in January 2006. Prior to that, it had been about five years since a death at Ocean Beach. In 1998, a record seven people lost their lives there. The Ocean Beach community is served by four surf shops and several popular beach-themed cafes. Seal Rock is a local feature of the area.Ocean Beach, San Francisco – Cliff House from Ocean beach
151. Civil resistance – Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Cases of civil resistance can be found against both tyrannical rulers and democratically elected governments. The phenomenon of civil resistance is often associated with the advancement of democracy. Civil resistance is a widespread phenomenon in human history. Several works on civil resistance adopt a historical approach to the analysis of the subject. Opposing the 2014-15 Hong Kong electoral reform in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Other campaigns, both successful and unsuccessful, could be included in a longer listing. In 1967 Gene Sharp produced a list of 84 cases. He has followed this with further surveys. In 2013 Maciej Bartkowski authored a long list of cases in the past 200 years, arranged alphabetically by country. It is not easy to devise a method of proving the relative success of different methods of struggle. Often there are problems in identifying a given campaign as successful or otherwise. Their article noted particularly that "resistance campaigns that compel loyalty shifts among civilian bureaucrats are likely to succeed." Some of the authors' decisions on this are debatable. Similar difficulties arise in deciding whether a campaign is non-violent, when on the ground both strategies may co-exist in several ways.Civil resistance
152. Great American Boycott – Supporters of the boycott rallied across the U.S. to demand general amnesty and legalization programs for illegal aliens. Though some demonstrations were peaceful, a Vista, California rally took a violent turn at day's end when crowds began throwing bottles at sheriff's deputies. There were also two arrests made at a demonstration in Los Angeles's MacArthur Park. A stabbing that occurred in San Jose, California, may or may not have been related to the day's events. While the economic effects of the boycott are unknown, most initial reports indicated that the boycott failed to halt "business as usual". It was later reported that this boycott had little, if any, effect on the U.S. economy. Demonstrations were also held across Mexico. The boycott was announced by the March 25 Coalition of Catholic groups, immigration advocacy organizations, labor unions. It was coordinated nationally by the May Day Movement for Worker & Immigrants Rights. This bill would have imposed stiffer penalties on those who knowingly employ and harbour noncitizens illegally. It also called along portions of the 2,000-mile United States -- Mexico border. 2006 protests were noted for their peaceful nature, despite the controversy surrounding the immigration issue. The strike provoked controversy as soon as they were proposed. Prominent figures split over whether to support the boycott, with many moderates endorsing demonstrations but withholding support for the boycott. President George W. Bush urged immigrants after work and on the weekend.Great American Boycott – Protesters waving various flags in San Francisco
153. INRIX – INRIX is a global SaaS and DaaS company which provides a variety of Internet services and mobile applications pertaining to road traffic and driver services. It also gathers, reports roadway incidents such as traffic collisions, road closures and road works. INRIX was founded by Craig Chapman in July 2004. The headquarters is located in Kirkland, Washington, United States. Data retrieved from consumer GPS-based devices including the iPhone, Android, BlackBerry and Windows Phone phones, Ford SYNC and Toyota Entune. INRIX uses software exclusively licensed from Microsoft to turn those variables into traffic predictions. In July 2011 -- INRIX announced its intent to acquire Manchester, United Kingdom-based ITIS Holdings for approximately $ million. Previously, ITIS Holdings had acquired the company best known for providing traffic reporting services to the BBC and other UK-based radio stations. The company distributes INRIX Traffic, a free mobile application for iOS, Android, BlackBerry, Windows Phone smartphones and Windows 8. INRIX homepage ParkMe homepageINRIX – INRIX, Inc. logo as of Dec 2012
154. Anderson Lake (California) – Anderson Lake, informally called Anderson Reservoir, is an artificial lake along Coyote Creek in Santa Clara County, California, United States, near Morgan Hill. Anderson Dam was built in 1950 to provide water for Santa Clara County; the lake has also become a place for recreation for nearby residents. The lake were named after the key founder and first president of the water district, Leroy Anderson. Anderson Lake is the largest artificial lake in Santa Clara County. The 3,144-acre Anderson Lake County Park provides fishing, picnicking, hiking activities. Boating, jet-skiing are permitted in the reservoir. The high earthen Leroy Anderson Dam sits on Cochrane Road, east of Morgan Hill, along the Calaveras Fault, which runs from Hollister to Milpitas. It holds 90,000 acre feet of water when more than the other nine reservoirs in the county combined. In response SCVWD has lowered the water to 54 % full, 60 feet below the crest. In July 2011 the Santa Clara Valley Water District issued a report stating that the seismic study on Anderson Dam was completed. The district has initiated a capital project for a seismic retrofit by the end of 2018. The operating restriction will remain in place until the project is completed. According to the SCVWD, remediation of the problem will cost as much as US$ million. The 3,144-acre Anderson Lake County Park is managed by the Santa Clara County Parks and Recreation Department. List of lakes in California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area List of dams and reservoirs in CaliforniaAnderson Lake (California) – Anderson Lake
155. 100-year flood – A one-hundred-year flood is a flood event that has a 1% probability of occurring in any given year. The 100-year flood is also referred to as the 1 % flood, since its annual probability is 1 %. For river systems, the 100-year flood is generally expressed as a flowrate. Based on the expected 100-year flood rate, the flood water level can be mapped as an area of inundation. The resulting map is referred to as the 100-year floodplain. Estimates of other streamflow statistics for any stream in the United States are available. Maps of coastal 100-year floodplain may figure importantly in building permits, environmental regulations, flood insurance. A common misunderstanding exists that a 100-year flood is likely to occur once in a 100-year period. In fact, there is approximately a 63.4 chance of one or more 100-year floods occurring in any 100-year period. On the Danube River at Passau, Germany, the actual intervals between 100-year floods during 1501 to 2013 ranged from 37 to 192 years. The probability of exceedance Pe is also described as the natural, hydrologic risk of failure. However, the expected value of the number of 100-year floods occurring in any 100-year period is 1. Ten-year floods have a 10% chance of occurring in any given year; 500-year have a 0.2% chance of occurring in any given year; etc. The chance of an X-year flood occurring in a single year can be calculated by dividing 100 by X. A similar analysis is commonly applied to coastal rainfall data.100-year flood – Mississippi River at Kaskaskia, Illinois during the Great Flood of 1993.
156. Richmond, California – Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, California, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7, 1905. Under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the city's population is at 103,710, making it the second largest city in the United States named Richmond. The largest, Richmond, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city. The Ohlone Indians were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago. The name "Richmond" appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years. The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond. The first post office opened in 1900. Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name. In the 1920s the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city. In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in the 1960s. Standard Oil set up operations here in 1901, including a what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm, which are still operated by Chevron. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers. Many of these workers lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond, Berkeley and Albany.Richmond, California – Point Richmond seen from nearby Nicholl Knob
157. United States Congress – The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, only as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative. Each state, regardless of size, has two senators. Currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants some unique powers. The Senate ratifies approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.United States Congress
158. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the end of the document. All four pages of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 1774 to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. Ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the central government's power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures.United States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
159. Anti-Defamation League – The Anti-Defamation League is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. The ADL has 29 offices in the United States and three offices in other countries, with its headquarters located in New York City. Abraham Foxman had been the national director since 1987. In November 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Greenblatt would succeed Foxman as national director in July 2015. The national chair is Barry Curtiss-Lusher. The Anti-Defamation League has drawn both criticism and controversy over its priorities. Noam Chomsky accuses them of "having lost entirely its focus on civil rights issues in order to become solely an advocate for Israeli policy". Journalist Mark Arax has criticized the organization's failure to recognize the Armenian Genocide. The ADL publishes reports on a variety of countries, regarding alleged incidents of anti-Jewish attacks and propaganda. The ADL maintains that some forms of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel cross the line into anti-Semitism. The Anti-Defamation League states: Criticism of Israeli policies in and of itself does not constitute anti-Semitism. Certainly the sovereign State of Israel can be legitimately criticized just like any other country in the world. However, it is undeniable that there are those whose criticism of Israel or of "Zionism" is used to mask anti-Semitism. The ADL gives out its Courage to Care Award to honor rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust era. In October 2010, the ADL condemned remarks by Haham Ovadia Yosef that the sole purpose of non-Jews was to serve the Jews.Anti-Defamation League – Logo of the Anti-Defamation League
160. Jewish community – Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel. With between 14.5 and million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, forms of organization. Modern branches such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Orthodox Judaism maintains that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. Special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary. The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East during the Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions. Judaism's texts, values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have also indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Jews include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism.Jewish community – Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
161. House Minority Leader – The current party leaders are: Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, Majority Whip Steve Scalise, Minority Whip Steny Hoyer. Typically, the Speaker does not participate in debate and rarely votes on the floor. In some cases, Majority Leaders have been more influential than the Speaker; notably Tom DeLay, more prominent than Speaker Dennis Hastert. In addition, Speaker Newt Gingrich delegated to Dick Armey an unprecedented level of authority over scheduling legislation on the House floor. Unlike the Majority Leader, the Minority Leader is during the convening of the Congress. The Minority Leader usually meets with the Speaker to discuss agreements on controversial issues. The Speaker, Majority Leader, Minority Leader, Minority Whip all receive special office suites in the United States Capitol. The floor whips of each party are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot. The Speaker-elect is also chosen in a closed-door session although they are formally installed by a public vote when Congress reconvenes. Like the Speaker of the House, the Minority Leaders are typically experienced lawmakers when they win election to this position. Gephardt's predecessor in the minority position was Robert Michel, R-IL, who became GOP Leader in 1981 after spending 24 years in the House. Republican John Rhodes of Arizona, was elected Minority Leader in 1973 after 20 years of House service. Johnson, William F. Knowland, Bill Frist. Former House Majority Leader Eric Cantor also was the youngest House Majority Leader in American history. Cantor was also the Jewish party leader in either chamber.House Minority Leader – Incumbent Kevin McCarthy (Republican Leader) since August 1, 2014
162. Nancy Pelosi – Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi is an American politician, the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, representing California's 12th congressional district. A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi represents California's 12th congressional district, which consists of four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco. The district was numbered as the 5th during Pelosi's first three terms in the House, as the 8th from 1993 to 2013. Pelosi is the first woman, the first Californian and first Italian-American to lead a major party in Congress. Pelosi is Italian-American and was born Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro in Baltimore, Maryland. Congressman from Maryland and a Mayor of Baltimore. Pelosi's brother, Thomas D'Alesandro III, also a Democrat, was mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971, when he declined to run for a second term. Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer. She met Paul Frank Pelosi while she was attending Trinity College. They married in Baltimore at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen on September 7, 1963. After moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics. She became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, 5th District Congressman Phillip Burton. In 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996. She was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30, 1977, for the California Democratic Party, which she held from 1981 until 1983.Nancy Pelosi – Nancy Pelosi
163. California's 12th congressional district – California's 12th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California. A Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013. Currently, the 12th district is entirely within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting of 2011, the 12th district consisted of portions of both San Mateo County and San Francisco. When the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County. As California's population grew, however, the district progressed northward, eventually reaching the San Francisco peninsula. The 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. The 60th Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district. As of April 2015, there are five living former members of Representatives from this district. The most recent representative to die was Tom Lantos, who died on February 11, 2008. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12California's 12th congressional district – Jerry Voorhis
164. United States Attorney General – The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U.S.C. § 503, concerned with legal affairs, is the chief law enforcement officer and chief lawyer of the United States government. The Attorney General is appointed by the President and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate. The office of Attorney General was established by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. Only in 1870 was the Department of Justice established to support the attorney general in the discharge of their responsibilities. Loretta Lynch was nominated after serving as the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York. She was sworn by Vice President Biden on April 27, 2015. Parties Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of December 2016, there are nine living the oldest being Ramsey Clark. The most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7, 2016. Both subsequently served as general, -- 1991 and Holder 2009 -- 2015. 4 Assistant Attorney General for the DOJ Civil Division Stuart M. Gerson was acting general to March 12, 1993. Gerson was fourth in the line of succession at the Justice Department. During his time as Acting AG, Gerson supported the Brady bill and was in office in the beginnings of the Waco siege. Janet Reno, President Clinton's nominee for attorney general, was confirmed on March 12, he resigned the same day. Acting Attorney General Gerson's last day at the Justice Department was March 19.United States Attorney General – Incumbent Loretta Lynch since April 27, 2015
165. Jeff Sessions – Jefferson Beauregard "Jeff" Sessions III is the junior United States Senator from Alabama. Sessions is a member of the Republican Party. From 1981 to 1993 Sessions served for the Southern District of Alabama. He was elected Attorney General of Alabama to the U.S. Senate in 1996, being re-elected in 2002, 2008, 2014. He was ranked by National Journal in 2007 strongly with the Republican Party on political issues. As a senator, Sessions is noted to illegal immigration and advocacy of reducing legal immigration. As the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, Sessions opposed all three of President Barack Obama's nominees for the Supreme Court. On November 2016, it was announced that President-elect Donald Trump plans to nominate Sessions for Attorney General of the United States when he takes office. He was born on December 24, 1946, the son of Jefferson Beauregard Sessions Jr. and the former Abbie Powe. His father owned a general store in Hybart, then a farm equipment dealership. Both of Sessions' parents were with some Scots-Irish. In 1964, he earned the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. After attending school in nearby Camden, he studied at Huntingdon College in Montgomery, graduating in 1969. Sessions was student body president. He graduated with a J.D. degree in 1973.Jeff Sessions – Jeff Sessions
166. National Football League – The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL was formed before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner, who has broad authority in governing the league. The current NFL champions are the Denver Broncos, who defeated the Carolina Panthers 24–10 in Super Bowl 50. Another meeting held on September 1920 resulted in the renaming of the league to the American Professional Football Association. The league consisted of 14 teams. The Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. The first event occurred on September 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48-0 at Douglas Park. On October 1920, the first full week of league play occurred. The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans. In 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. No situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion.National Football League – The headquarters of the National Football League at 345 Park Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
167. Oakland Raiders – The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders currently play their home games at the Oakland -- Alameda County Coliseum. The Raiders' on-field fortunes have varied considerably over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, spotty attendance. In 1963, however, the Raiders' fortunes improved dramatically with the introduction of coach Al Davis. After several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time. The Raiders' run of success intensified during the 1970's. From 1970 to 1977, the team reached the AFC Championship Game six times. In 1976, the team captured its first NFL Championship in Super Bowl XI. In amidst much controversy, the Raiders relocated to Los Angeles. The Raiders' fortunes declined considerably following the 1985 season; they would win just one division title and two playoff games to 1994. In 1995, the Raiders returned to Oakland. After several years of continued mediocrity, the team entered a brief period of pronounced success in the early 2000's. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, three Super Bowl Championships, one AFL Championship.Oakland Raiders – John Madden (right, shown with Senator Susan Collins) was head coach of the Raiders for 10 seasons. Madden's overall winning percentage including playoff games ranks second in league history. He won a Super Bowl and never had a losing season as a head coach.
168. Libby Schaaf – Elizabeth Beckman "Libby" Schaaf is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party. She is a former member of the Oakland City Council. Schaaf won the November 2014, Oakland mayoral election in the 14th round in ranked choice voting with 62.79 % of the vote. Before starting her political career, Schaaf was an attorney at the largest firm in Oakland at Reed Smith LLP. In 2009, Schaaf graduated from an intensive training program for women who aspire to seek elected office. Before joining the Oakland City Council in 2010, Schaaf served for the council for a year. In 2010, Schaaf was elected to represent District 4, on the Oakland City Council. Schaaf also strove to increase government transparency and efficiency, strengthen Oakland neighborhoods in her time on city council. She worked extensively on Oakland Police Department reform, pushing through a plan to unite both the Alameda and Oakland Police Departments. In the race for Oakland mayor, Schaaf was endorsed by Governor of US Senator Barbara Boxer. In June 2015, Mayor Schaaf announced the formation of Oakland’s first Department of Transportation. The Department of Transportation assumed some responsibilities formerly held by Oakland Public Works, such as resurfacing and maintenance. In her announcement, Mayor Schaaf said that the focus will be on, “sustainable strategies that can bring needed change quickly to city streets.” The Department of Transportation consists of previously working in the Department of Public Works and Oakland Police Department's Parking Enforcement operations. Schaaf hired Matt Nichols in March 2015.Libby Schaaf – Oakland City Council member and Mayor-Elect Libby Schaaf commemorating the centennial of women gaining the right to vote in California.
169. Arthur Szyk – Arthur Szyk was a Polish-Jewish artist who worked primarily as a book illustrator and political artist throughout his decades-long career. Arthur Szyk was born into a prosperous middle-class Jewish family in the part of Poland, under Russian rule in the 19th century. An acculturated Polish Jew, Szyk proudly regarded himself both as a Pole and a Jew. From 1921, in 1937 he moved to the United Kingdom. In 1940, Szyk settled permanently in the United States, where he was granted American citizenship in 1948. Arthur Szyk became a renowned artist and illustrator as early as the interwar period. His works were published not only in Poland, but also in France, the United Kingdom, Israel and the United States. After the war, Szyk also devoted himself to especially the support of the creation of the state of Israel. Unlike most caricaturists, he always showed great attention in his works. Szyk is an increasingly well-known and often exhibited artist only in his last home country, the United States. However, exhibitions in Poland and Germany are familiarizing Europe of the most prolific artists of World War II. The son of Solomon Szyk and his wife Eugenia, was born in Łódź, in Russian-occupied Poland, on June 16, 1894. Szyk showed artistic talent as a child; when he was six years old, he reportedly drew sketches of the Boxer Rebellion in China. Even though his family did not practice Orthodox Judaism, Arthur also liked drawing biblical scenes from the Hebrew Bible. In Paris, Szyk was exposed to all modern trends in art; however, he decided to follow his own way, which hewed closely to tradition.Arthur Szyk – Studio portrait of Arthur Szyk (1930s). Photo credit Louvre Studio, Paris.
170. Burlingame, California – Burlingame is a city in San Mateo County, California. It has a significant shoreline on San Francisco Bay. Burlingame is known with an excellent public school system. The median home value in Burlingame is $1,800,000 + and as of the 2010 U.S. Census, Burlingame had a population of 28,807. Burlingame is given by Governor Pio Pico to his secretary, Cayetano Arena in 1845. Cayetano soon sold the land to San Francisco-based merchant William Davis Merry Howard. Howard retired to live on the rancho for the remaining eight years of his life. Howard planted many eucalyptus trees on his property. Howard's early death in 1856 led to the sale of most of the land to William C. Ralston, a prominent banker. In 1866, by the time he left he was the owner of 1,043 acres of land. In 1868, Ralston named the settlement after Anson Burlingame. However, Burlingame would not come back to the area again because on a visit to Russia in 1870, Burlingame died. With his death the land reverted to Ralston. He died in 1875 without many of his plans being realized.Burlingame, California – Burlingame Avenue
171. William H. Orrick III – William Horsley Orrick, III is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. He formerly served as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division of the United States Department of Justice. Orrick was born in California on May 1953. He received his Bachelor of Arts cum laude, from Yale University in 1976. He received his Juris Doctorate laude, in 1979. After graduating, he worked for the Georgia Legal Services Program from 1979 to 1984. From June 2009 to June 2010, he served for the Civil Division of the United States Department of Justice. From 2010 to 2012, he served as a Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Civil Division. He briefly rejoined Coblentz, Patch, Duffy & Bass LLP as special counsel, before accepting appointment to District Court. The Senate Judiciary Committee reported it to the floor on August 2012. On January 2013, his nomination was returned to the President, due to the adjournment die of the Senate. On January 3, 2013, he was renominated to the same office. The U.S. Senate confirmed his nomination on May 15, 2013, by a vote of 56 ayes to 41 nays. He received his commission on May 16, 2013. On Friday, July 31, 2015 Judge Orrick blocked the release of videos of Planned Parenthood, granting the injunction requested by the National Abortion Federation.William H. Orrick III – William Orrick
172. Constitution of the United States – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand civil protections. Others modify government procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the end of the document. All four pages of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 1774 to March 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the central government's power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures.Constitution of the United States – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
173. Suicide barrier – A suicide barrier is a barrier on a bridge, observation deck or other structure designed to prevent people from attempting suicide by deliberately jumping. Many suicide barriers are fence-like. The most intense debate, however, is on the subject of whether a barrier will actually save lives. The barrier eliminated suicides from the bridge. However, as one author of this study pointed out, there was no reason to believe that suicide attempters would be limited to these two bridges. Suicide barriers are commonly installed on pedestrian bridges that run over train highways to prevent injury and trauma to those below.Suicide barrier – The Luminous Veil on Toronto 's Prince Edward Viaduct prevents people from jumping from that bridge, but has not been shown to affect jumping suicide rates.
174. Digital Equipment Corporation – DEC was a leading vendor of computer systems, including computers, software, peripherals. Their PDP and successor VAX products were the most successful of all minicomputers in terms of sales. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, in what was at that time the largest merger in the history of the computer industry. At the time, Compaq was focused on the enterprise market and had recently purchased several other large vendors. DEC was a major player overseas where Compaq had less presence. However, Compaq had little idea what to do with its acquisitions, soon found itself in financial difficulty of its own. The company subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. As of 2007 some of DEC's product lines were still produced under the HP name. From 1957 until 1992, DEC's headquarters were located in a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. Some parts of DEC, notably the compiler business and the Hudson, Massachusetts facility, were sold to Intel. Initially focusing on the small end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them. Their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s, especially the PDP-8, widely considered to be the first successful minicomputer. Originally designed as a follow-on to the PDP-11, DEC's VAX-11 series was the first widely used 32-bit minicomputer, sometimes referred to as "superminis". These systems were able to compete in many roles with larger mainframe computers, such as the IBM System/370.Digital Equipment Corporation – DEC was headquartered at a former wool mill in Maynard, Massachusetts, from 1957 until 1992
175. DEC Systems Research Center – The Systems Research Center was a research laboratory created by Digital Equipment Corporation in 1984, in Palo Alto, California. SRC survived the takeover of DEC by Compaq in 1998. It was renamed to "Compaq Systems Research Center". When Compaq was acquired in 2002, SRC was relocated there. After Taylor's retirement, the lab was directed by Roy Levin and then by Lyle Ramshaw. Among the researchers at SRC, there are Butler Lampson, Chuck Thacker, Leslie Lamport, all recipients of the ACM A.M. Turing Award. A later inhabitant of this building is a part of Amazon.com. SRC Research Reports archive. Archive of original site) HP SRC Classic Lab Firefly workstationDEC Systems Research Center – Former location of DEC SRC in Palo Alto, CA.
176. Palo Alto, California – Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States. The city shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Menlo Park. It is named after a coast redwood tree called El Palo Alto. Palo Alto was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son, Leland Stanford Jr. It has also served to high-technology companies such as Google, Facebook, Logitech, Intuit, Pinterest, PayPal. As of the 2010 census, the city's total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the most expensive cities in the United States and its residents are amongst the most educated in the country. The recorded history of Palo Alto dates back to 1769, when Gaspar de Portolá noted an Ohlone settlement. This remains an area of known Indian mounds. A plaque at Middlefield Road and Embarcadero Road commemorates the area. A plaque there recounts the story of a 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey from November 7 -- 1769. The group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, they ascended Sweeney Ridge and saw the San Francisco Bay. Thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never becoming aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. In 1835, Rafael Soto and family settled near the San Francisquito Creek near Newell and Middlefield, selling goods to travelers. Rafael Soto died in 1839, but his wife, Maria Antonia Mesa, was granted Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito in 1841.Palo Alto, California – Palo Alto
177. Woodside, California – Woodside is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, United States, on the San Francisco Peninsula. It has a council–manager system of government. The population of the town was 5,287 at the 2010 census. Woodside is home to many of the Silicon Valley elite and is among the wealthiest communities in the United States. The median income is $246,042. The Woodside area was originally home to natives belonging to the Ohlone tribe. In 1769, led by Gaspar de Portolá, Spanish explorers searching for San Francisco Bay camped at a site near Woodside. Woodside is located on the Rancho Cañada de Raymundo Mexican Land grant. Woodside is said to be the oldest English-speaking settlement in the southern part of the San Francisco Peninsula. The English-speaking settlers arrived in the 19th century to log the rich stands of redwoods. Charles Brown constructed the first sawmill in Woodside on his Mountain Home Ranch around 1838. His adobe house, built in 1839, still stands today. By mid-century, the Woodside area had a dozen mills producing building materials for a booming San Francisco. In 1849, during the California Gold Rush, 20-year-old Mathias Alfred Parkhurst purchased 127 acres of timberland and named it “Woodside"; of course, this name was kept. By the late 19th century, Woodside was home to country estates.Woodside, California – Downtown Woodside business district on Woodside Road
178. Bebe Stores – Bebe Stores, Inc is a women's retail clothier established in 1976. The brand produces a line of women's apparel and accessories, which it markets under the Bebe, BebeSport, Bebe Outlet names. These stores are located in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada. Bebe also has UAE. Mashouf owns approximately 55% of the company. Bebe: the first store was opened in San Francisco in 1976. BebeSport: the company launched BebeSport in year 2003 to focus on active lifestyle via sportswear, tops, sweaters, outerwear, accessories. In 2009, BebeSport stores were converted with BebeSport product now sold in Bebe and 2b Bebe stores. PH8: The company converted BebeSport stores to PH8 stores in November 2009. PH8 offers casual weekend apparel, accessories such as bags, shoes and seasonal items. 2b Bebe: Bebe's outlet division provide clearance merchandise, Bebe logo merchandise and special cuts produced under the 2b Bebe label exclusively for the outlet stores. As of 2012, Bebe has launched a bridal line available in stores throughout United States. Bridal salons were under consideration however the venture was eventually abandoned due to poor sales. The bridal line debuted with a collection designed by Project Runway runner up Rami Kashou. To further exposure, the company signs celebrities for ad campaigns.Bebe Stores – Bebe stores headquarters in Brisbane
179. Weed Day – The Waldos designated the Louis Pasteur statue on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, 4:20 p.m. as their meeting time. The Waldos referred with the phrase "4:20 Louis". Hager wrote "Stoner Smart or Stoner Stupid?" in which he called for 4:20 p.m. to be the socially accepted hour of the day to consume cannabis. He attributes the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers, who were also linked to the city of San Rafael. April 20 has become a counterculture holiday in North America, where people gather to consume cannabis. Some events have a political nature to them, advocating for the legalization of cannabis. Events have also occurred in London, United Kingdom, at the University of Otago. Signs bearing the number "420" have been frequently stolen. The Idaho Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on U.S. Highway 95, south of Coeur d'Alene, with Mile Marker 419.9. That marker was eventually stolen well, leading ITD to just post the marker with spray paint on the pavement. In Minnesota, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St". In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical use, in deliberate reference to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420.Weed Day – Statue of Louis Pasteur at San Rafael High School, said to be the site of the original 4:20 gatherings.
180. Golden Gate Park – Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, United States, is a large urban park consisting of 1,017 acres of public grounds. It is administered by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department, which began in 1871 to oversee the development of Golden Gate Park. Configured as a rectangle, it is 20 percent larger than Central Park in New York, to which it is often compared. It is over three miles about half a mile north to south. Conceived ostensibly for recreation, the underlying purpose of the park was the westward expansion of the city. The tireless engineer William Hammond Hall prepared a survey and topographic map of the park site in 1870 and became its commissioner in 1871. He developed an integrated flood control system for the Sacramento Valley. The park drew its name from nearby Golden Gate Strait. It was Gus Mooney who claimed land adjacent to the park on Ocean Beach. Many of Mooney's friends also staked built shanties on the beach to sell refreshments to the patrons of the park. The remaining park commissioners followed. He found support with the San Francisco Police for park security. Pixley favored Stanford's company by granting a fifty-year lease on the route that closed the park to competition. The original plan, however, was back on track by 1886, when streetcars delivered to Golden Gate Park on one weekend afternoon. Hall selected McLaren in 1887.Golden Gate Park – Golden Gate Park
181. Earth Day – Earth Day is an annual event, celebrated on April 22, on which day events worldwide are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. It is now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network and celebrated in more than 193 countries each year. On Earth the landmark Paris Agreement is scheduled to be signed by the United States, China, some 120 other countries. This day of nature's equipoise was later sanctioned in a proclamation signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations. A separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work. Numerous communities celebrate an entire week of activities focused on the environmental issues that the world faces. More importantly, it "brought million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform." Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day into a day of action to provoke policy changes. In the winter of 1969–1970, a group of students met at Columbia University to hear Denis Hayes talk about his plans for Earth Day. Among the group were Fred Kent, Pete Grannis, Kristin and William Hubbard. This group agreed to head up the New York City activities within the national movement. Fred Kent took the lead in recruiting volunteers. "The big break came when Mayor Lindsay agreed to shut down Fifth Avenue for the event. A giant cheer went up in the office" according to Kristin Hubbard.Earth Day – U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking to an estimated 40–60,000 at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
182. Mythbusters – MythBusters is a science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australia's Beyond Television Productions. The series premiered on the Discovery Channel on January 23, 2003. The series was transmitted by numerous international broadcasters, including SBS Australia, other Discovery channels worldwide. The show was one of the oldest—and the most popular—on Discovery Channel, being preceded only by How It's Made and Daily Planet, both in Canada. From 2006 to 2016, the show was overseen by British show-runner Dan Tapster, working out of Sydney, San Francisco and Manchester. During the second season, members of Savage and Hyneman's behind-the-scenes team were organized into a second team of MythBusters. They generally tested myths separately from the main duo and operated from another workshop. On October 21, 2015, it was announced that MythBusters would air its 14th and final season in 2016. The show aired its final episode on March 6, 2016. Adam Savage has confirmed that he and his former cohosts have no intentions of reuniting for future team projects. MythBusters refers both to the name of the documentary and also the cast members who test the experiments. The series concept was created for the Discovery Channel as Tall Tales or True by Australian writer and producer Peter Rees of Beyond Productions in 2002. Discovery rejected the proposal initially because they had just commissioned a series on the same topic. Rees refined the pitch to focus on testing key elements of the stories rather than just retelling them. Discovery agreed to develop and co-produce a three-episode series pilot.Mythbusters – MythBusters
183. Adam Savage – His model work has appeared in major films, including Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones and The Matrix Reloaded. Savage is a prominent member of the skeptic community. Savage lives in his wife, Julia. Born in New York City, he was raised in Sleepy Hollow in New York. Savage graduated in 1985. Cushman Haagensen, was a surgeon who pioneered in breast-cancer surgery. Whitney Lee was also known for directing Mickey Mouse in Vietnam. His mother is a psychotherapist. Savage was the second youngest of 6 children, with the 4 older children coming from his parents' previous marriages. Savage has 2 older brothers, 1 younger sister. His sister Kate Savage is also an artist. As a teenager in Sleepy Hollow, Savage routinely visited the local shop to have flat tires fixed. The shop showed him how to do himself. He has had five years of acting school. It was the perfect marriage of two things, performance and special effects."Adam Savage – Savage in July 2011
184. Contra Costa Times – The Contra Costa Times was a daily newspaper based in Walnut Creek, California, U.S.. The paper served Contra Costa and eastern Alameda counties, in the eastern part of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Times also published four other editions with essentially the same content serving distinct communities within its area. The original Contra Costa Times was founded by Dean Lesher in 1947, served central Contra Costa, especially Walnut Creek. Lesher died May 13, 1993. On August 1995, his widow Margaret sold the privately held company to the Knight Ridder chain for $360 million. Knight Ridder was later purchased in a deal valued at $ billion. The deal was contingent on McClatchy selling off 12 of the 32 newspapers it had just purchased, including the Contra Costa Times. The suit, which sought to undo the purchase of the four newspapers, was scheduled to go on April 2007. On April 25, 2007, days before the trial was scheduled to begin, the parties reached a settlement in which MediaNews Group preserved its acquisitions.Contra Costa Times – Front page of the Contra Costa Times
185. Walnut Creek, California – Its active neighborhood features extensive high-end retail establishments, entertainment venues. As of 2014, the city's total estimated population is 67,673. Today's Walnut Creek is located amidst the earlier site of four Mexican land grants. One of these land grants – measuring 18,000 acres – belonged to Juana Sanchez de Pacheco, who deeded it to her two grandsons. One of the grandsons, created the roofed home in about 1850. The Arroyo de las Nueces was named for the occurrence in the valley of the native species of walnut tree, the California Walnut. The site of this first American settlement is found today at the intersection of Mt. Diablo Boulevard and North Main Street. In the year 1855, Milo Hough of Lafayette built the hotel named "Walnut Creek House" in the corners. Two decades later, the community changed its name from The Corners to Walnut Creek. In December 1862 a United States Post Office was established, the community was named "Walnut Creek". Walnut Creek began to grow with the arrival of Southern Pacific Railroad service in 1891. On October 21, 1914, the town and the surrounding area of 500 acres ), were incorporated as the 8th city in Contra Costa County. A branch line of the Southern Pacific railroad ran through Walnut Creek until the late 1970s. The East Bay Regional Park District's Iron Horse Trail, used by bikers, runs over what were portions of that line. The mainline of the Sacramento Northern Railway passed through Walnut Creek.Walnut Creek, California – Walnut Creek as seen from Acalanes Open Space
186. Mel's Drive-In – Mel’s Drive-In is an American restaurant chain founded in 1947 by Mel Weiss and Harold Dobbs in San Francisco, California. It is closely associated with the film American Graffiti. There are a number in Northern California that share the same general American Graffiti nostalgia theme and the similarly styled Mel's logo. These restaurants are called “Original Mels”. Their locations are not listed on the official Mel’s Drive-In website, although an article from the Sacramento Business Journal shows that they are related. A rift caused the Weisses to part ways and form two chains. The elder Weiss in 1994 sold his company to Larry Spergel, who formed a group of about 50 stockholders that now owns the chain. The Walnut Creek, California, location features a history of the original San Francisco Mel's. Some Mel’s Drive-In locations are not actually drive-ins, but rather diners. For example, while originally founded in San Francisco, none of the locations in the city currently serve food to patrons’ cars. Menus on the original Mel's Diners did not have a possessive apostrophe in the name, as would be expected. More than 100 protesters were arrested. In 1972, the restaurant was selected by George Lucas for his 1973 film American Graffiti. The Mel's used was located at 140 South Van Ness in San Francisco. The prominent play given to the location has been credited with having saved the company from possibly going out of business.Mel's Drive-In – Mel's Drive-In neon sign, Los Angeles, CA
187. Trans International Airlines – Trans International Airlines was an airline that offered charter service from and within the United States. It also operated scheduled service flying as Transamerica Airlines as well as charter flights during its last decade. Its headquarters were on the grounds of Oakland International Airport in Oakland, California. Future travel and mogul Kirk Kerkorian purchased Los Angeles Air Service, a small charter operator, in 1947 for $60,000. As tourism to Las Vegas, Nevada, boomed, so did the fortunes of the airline. To better reflect its growing structure, the airline was renamed Trans International Airlines in 1960. Between 1986 TIA operated regular charter flights between the U.S. and Europe. International destinations were Paris Orly, London Gatwick, Frankfurt. TIA contributed to cheap transatlantic flights which did not exist at the time. In 1962 the Studebaker Corporation quixotically purchased the airline, retaining Kerkorian as president. Financial circumstances forced it to sell TIA back to him in 1964. Kerkorian took the company public in 1965, then sold his interests in 1968 to insurance conglomerate Transamerica Corporation, profiting an estimated $85 million. He reinvested proceeds in Las Vegas property, notably the International Hotel. Transamerica Corporation later purchased Universal Airlines and merged their operations into TIA. In 1979 the airline was renamed Transamerica Airlines and on November 2 of that year it commenced scheduled passenger flights to Shannon and Amsterdam.Trans International Airlines – The first production Douglas DC-8 in service with TIA at London Gatwick Airport in 1966
188. University of California Police Department – Police departments in the University of California system are charged with providing law enforcement to each of the system's campuses. The University of California moved its first campus to Berkeley in 1873. The San Francisco and Los Angeles campuses followed in 1919, respectively. The original UCPD department at Berkeley was founded after World War II. In September 1947, the Regents of the University of California established UCPD as a state agency. The UCPD is one of several police agencies in California having a statewide authority. The department consists of ten departments, each led by its own chief of police. Unlike other police departments in the state, there is no single chief of the UCPD, however one chief is selected as the department's central coordinator. However, each department sets its own Standard Operating Policies. Still, the UCPD is more coordinated than this organization would suggest. The department shares a central philosophy, including that of community oriented policing. UCPD officers wear LAPD-style blue uniforms with departmental patches; in the 1960s and earlier uniforms were Highway Patrol-style tan. The badge is a seven-point star with a colored California state seal in the center, a common badge style used by various other state agencies. Almost all of the departments have a Community Service Officer program. CSOs are non-sworn student employees that perform various tasks for the department.University of California Police Department – Logo of the University of California Police Department
189. Lefty O'Doul – Born in San Francisco, California, O'Doul began his professional career as a left-handed pitcher with the minor-league San Francisco Seals of the Triple-A Pacific Coast League. He had some major-league success with the New York Yankees and Boston Red Sox from 1919 to 1923 as a reliever. He pitched in one notable game on July 1923 that would go down in the record books. Relieving for starter Curt Fullerton, O'Doul gave up 16 runs over 3 innings of relief, with 14 of those runs coming in the 6th inning alone. Following the season, O'Doul developed a sore arm, which forced him to give up pitching. After the 1923 season, the New York Giants returned O'Doul to the Pacific Coast League, where he was converted to a power-hitting outfielder. O'Doul returned in 1928 where he batted.319 as a platoon player. His total broke the previous National League record of 250 by Rogers Hornsby of the 1922 St. Louis Cardinals. The record was tied by Bill Terry in 1930. After.383 with 22 homers during the 1930 season, O'Doul was traded to the Brooklyn Robins. In 1932, he batted.368 for Brooklyn to win another league title. After a slow start in 1933, when he batted just.252 through 43 games, O'Doul was again traded, this time back to the Giants. He rallied to hit.306 the rest of that season, but played just one more year before ending his career in 1934. O'Doul refused saying "I was just smart enough to leave him alone." O'Doul was instrumental in serving as the sport's goodwill ambassador before and after World War II.Lefty O'Doul – Lefty O'Doul
190. Racial segregation in the United States – All legally enforced public segregation was abolished by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It passed after demonstrations during the Civil Rights Movement resulted in public opinion turning against enforced segregation. De facto segregation—segregation "in fact", without sanction of law—persists in varying degrees to the present day. The racial segregation seen in residential neighborhoods has been shaped by public policies, mortgage discrimination, redlining, among other factors. Hypersegregation is a form of racial segregation that consists of the geographical grouping of racial groups. As a result, Federal occupation troops in the South assured blacks the right to elect their political leaders. The Reconstruction amendments asserted the supremacy of the formal equality within it. However it did not prohibit segregation in schools. When the Republicans came after 1867, they created the first system of public schools. Southern Blacks wanted public schools for their children but they did not demand racially integrated schools. Almost all the new public schools were segregated, apart from a few in New Orleans. After the Republicans lost power in the mid-1870s, conservative whites retained the public school systems but sharply cut their funding. Almost all private academies and colleges in the South were strictly segregated by race. The American Missionary Association supported the establishment such as Fisk University and Shaw University. In this period, a handful of northern colleges accepted black students.Racial segregation in the United States – An African-American man drinking at a "colored" drinking fountain in a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City, 1939.
191. El Cid – Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, better known as El Cid, or simply Rodrigo, was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain. The Moors called El Cid, which meant the Lord, the Christians, El Campeador, which stood for Outstanding Warrior. He was born in a town near the city of Burgos. After his death, he became the protagonist of the most significant medieval Spanish epic poem, El Cantar de Mio Cid. He rose to become the commander and standard-bearer of Castile upon Sancho's ascension in 1065. He became renowned for his military prowess in these campaigns, which helped expand Castilian territory at Sancho's brothers' kingdoms. When conspirators murdered Sancho in 1072, Rodrigo found himself in a tight spot. Since Sancho had no legitimate heir, the throne passed to Alfonso, the same whom El Cid had helped remove from power. Although Rodrigo continued to serve the Castilian sovereign, he lost his ranking in the new court which treated him at arm's suspiciously. Finally, in 1081, he was ordered into exile. El Cid found fighting for the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, whom he defended from their traditional enemies, Aragon and Barcelona. While in exile, he regained his reputation as formidable military leader. In 1086, an expeditionary army of North African Almoravids inflicted a severe defeat to Castile, compelling Alfonso to overcome the resentments he harbored against El Cid. The terms for the return to the Christian service must have been attractive enough since Rodrigo soon found himself fighting for his former Lord. He gradually increased his control over Valencia; al-Qadir, became his tributary in 1092.El Cid – Silhouette of the San Francisco 's Anna Hyatt Huntington copy of her El Cid statue.
192. Anna Hyatt Huntington – Anna Vaughn Hyatt Huntington was an American sculptor and was once among New York City's most prominent sculptors. At a time when very few women were successful artists, she had a thriving career. She exhibited often, won awards and commissions. During the first two decades of the 20th century, Hyatt Huntington became famous for her animal sculptures, which combine vivid emotional depth with skillful realism. Huntington was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Anna Hyatt first studied with Henry Hudson Kitson in Boston, who threw her out after she identified equine anatomical deficiencies in his work. Later she studied with Hermon Atkins MacNeil and Gutzon Borglum at the Art Students League of New York. In addition to these formal studies she spent many hours doing extensive study of animals in various zoos and circuses. She was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949. In 1932, Huntington became one of the earliest woman artists to be elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Between the years of 1937, Huntington survived tuberculosis. Archer Milton Huntington, founded Brookgreen Gardens near South Carolina. Of her husband's enormous wealth and the shared interests of the couple, four wildlife preserves. They also gifted Collis P. Huntington State Park, consisting of approximately 800 acres of land in Redding, Connecticut, to the State of Connecticut. She was the aunt of the art historian A. Hyatt Mayor.Anna Hyatt Huntington – Anna Hyatt Huntington
193. California Palace of the Legion of Honor – The Legion of Honor is a part of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. The name is used in which it is housed. Hollein's tenure began on June 2016. The Legion of Honor was the gift of Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, wife of the sugar magnate and thoroughbred racehorse owner/breeder Adolph B. Spreckels. The building occupies an elevated site in Lincoln Park in the northwest of the city, with views over the Golden Gate Bridge. The bodies were relocated to Colma. During seismic retrofitting in the 1990s, however, skeletal remains were unearthed. An interpretive plaque are located in the southwest corner of the plaza and fountain, just to the left of the Palace. Dominating the Classical plaza is "Pax Jerusalemme," a modern sculpture by Mark di Suvero, widely criticized as art. The museum contains a representative collection of European art, the largest portion of, French. Its most distinguished collection is by Auguste Rodin. Casts of some of his most famous works are including one of The Thinker in the Court of Honor. There are also works of contemporary artists like Gottfried Helnwein and Robert Crumb. Symphonic music is especially effective on the organ with its battery of pneumatically operated percussion instruments and set of tubular chimes.California Palace of the Legion of Honor – Legion of Honor
194. Environmental art – Environmental art is a range of artistic practices encompassing both historical approaches to nature in art and more recent ecological and politically motivated types of works. Integrated ecological approaches developed as an ethical, restorative stance emerged in the 1990s. The term "environmental art" is not specific to them. It primarily celebrates an artist's connection with nature using natural materials. The concept is best understood in the evolving field of ecological art. The field is interdisciplinary in the fact that environmental artists embrace ideas from philosophy. The practice encompasses traditional media, critical social forms of production. The work embraces a full range of landscape/environmental conditions from the rural, to the urban as well as urban/rural industrial. It can be argued that environmental art began with the cave paintings of our ancestors. While no landscapes have been found, the cave paintings represented other aspects of nature important to early humans such as human figures. "They are prehistoric observations of nature. In another, nature for centuries remained the preferential theme of creative art." More modern examples of environmental art stem from landscape representation. When artists painted onsite they brought these close observations into their canvases. John Constable’s sky paintings “most closely represent the sky in nature.”Environmental art – Edith Meusnier, Artefact, Bois de Belle Rivière, Québec, 2010
195. Herb Caen – A special Pulitzer Prize called him the "voice and conscience" of San Francisco." After high school he covered sports for The Sacramento Union. In 1936 Caen began writing a radio column for the San Francisco Chronicle. When that column was discontinued in 1938, Caen proposed a daily column on the city itself; "It's News to Me" first appeared July 5. Readers who turned on Feb. 14, 1966, learned that Willie Mays' home was on the market for $110,000. The Bank of America now owned the block where it wanted to build its headquarters. Dr. Zhivago director David Lean was in town. Meanwhile, ` Mike Connolly is ready to concede that the situation in Vietnam is complex: "Even my cab driver can't come up with a solution."" Caen had considerable influence on popular culture, particularly its language. He popularized hippie during San Francisco's 1967 Summer of Love. He ribbed nearby Berkeley as Berserkeley for its often-radical politics. By the way, there is no Sam Wo at Sam Wo. The name means something analogous to "Three Happiness," but there is only sadness there this week. Though Caen relied on "an army of reliable tipsters" all items were fact-checked. Then an item was credited to a mysterious "Strange de Jim", whose first contribution appeared in 1972.Herb Caen – "Mr. San Francisco" in his Chronicle office early in the 1990s
196. French Laundry – The French Laundry is a French restaurant located in Yountville, California, in the Napa Valley. The owner of the French Laundry is Thomas Keller. The building dates from 1900, is in the National Register of Historic Places. The French Laundry is frequently honored by inclusion in the annual Restaurant Magazine list of the World. Since 2006, it has been awarded three stars in the Michelin Guide to San Francisco. It was called "the best restaurant in the world, period" by Anthony Bourdain. Since 2007, the restaurant has been the recipient of the Wine Spectator Grand Award. The restaurant reopened on April 2015 following demolition of a number of buildings on the site. During the remainder of the project, the staff is working out of a temporary kitchen. The building was built by a Scottish stonesman for Pierre Guillaume. When a law was passed in 1906 prohibiting sale of alcohol within a mile of a veteran's home, Guillaume sold the building. In the 1920s, the building was owned by John Lande who used it as a French laundry, the origin of the restaurant's name. In 1978, the mayor of Yountville renovated the building into a restaurant. Sally Schmitt owned the French Laundry for much of the 1980s, the early 1990s. In 1994, Keller bought the restaurant.French Laundry – Exterior of The French Laundry
197. Kendall-Jackson – Kendall-Jackson Vineyard Estates is a vineyard and winery, under the Kendall-Jackson brand, located in Santa Rosa, California in the Sonoma Valley wine country. As of 2010 Kendall-Jackson was the highest-selling brand of "super-premium" wine in the United States. In 1982, the Kendall-Jackson brand was established. That label now continues under Jackson Family Wines, that Jackson later created. In the 1980s, Kendall-Jackson rejected the California industry's trend toward vineyard-specific wine labeling. It ignored the concept of terroir in favor of blending wines from different regions to achieve desired wine characteristics. They reversed that direction in the mid-2000s, along with a push to upgrade their quality. After retiring from Hewlett-Packard, Lew Platt was the company's CEO from 2000 to mid-2001. In late 2006, the Jackson family launched White Rocket Wine Co. in Napa Valley to target the millennial generation of wine drinkers. In April 2011 Jess Jackson died after a battle with cancer. He was 81. Don Hartford, had been already serving as chief executive officer of the company. The company disclosed a plan in March, announcing that president Rick Tigner would be transitioning into the position of CEO. Don Hartford and Barbara Banke will oversee the family's interests on the board of directors.Kendall-Jackson – The Kendall-Jackson Wine Center in Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, California; August 2007.
198. Galilee (ship) – The Galilee was a brigantine, built in 1891, designed by Matthew Turner. She was reckoned a very fast ship. In 1905 she was converted into a magnetic observatory. The part of the bow are preserved in two different places in California. The Galilee was built in 1891 at the Matthew Turner Shipyard. She began her career on the line between San Francisco and Tahiti, carrying freight, passengers and French and US mail. On her maiden voyage she set a record of 21 days for the trip from Tahiti. The department was founded by Louis Agricola Bauer in 1904, becoming its first director. He looked for a suitable vessel to make magnetic observations. In 1905 the Galilee was chartered by the Carnegie Institution's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism to be converted into a magnetic observatory. The amount of magnetic materials on the ship was reduced to a minimum. Additional space was also provided to accommodate the scientists. The need to carry out such swings regularly caused delays in later office work. The deviation coefficients for the ship were obtained by swinging the ship using a tug in San Francisco Bay, from August 2–4. On August 1905, the Galilee left San Francisco on a shakedown cruise.Galilee (ship) – Galilee on her first cruise as a magnetic observatory, the added observation platform is clearly visible
199. Brigantine – The main mast is taller of the two masts. Modern American definitions include vessels without the square sails on the main mast. In the Mediterranean Basin during the 13th century, a brigantine referred to a sail - and oar-driven vessel. It had between eight and twelve oars on each side. Its speed, ease of handling made it a favourite of Mediterranean pirates. Its name is derived from the Italian brigantino, which in turn is derived from brigante "brigand". Other than in this vessel has no relation to the later brigantines developed in Northern Europe. By the 17th century the term was adapted by Atlantic maritime nations. The vessel had no lateen sails but had a gaff-rigged mainsail with square rig above it on the mainmast. The main mast of a brigantine is the aft one. The brigantine was the second most popular rig for ships built before 1775. The brigantine could be of various sizes, ranging from 50 to 200 tons burden. The brigantine was generally larger than a sloop or schooner but smaller than a brig. The last sailing true brigantine in the world is the Eye of the Wind. The definition given above describes the international usage of the brigantine.Brigantine – The steamship Columbia, an example of a late 19th century auxiliary brigantine rig vessel.
200. Matthew Turner (shipbuilder) – Matthew Turner was an American sea captain, shipbuilder and designer. He constructed 228 vessels, of which 154 were built in the Matthew Turner shipyard in Benicia. He can be considered "the ` grandaddy' of big time wooden shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast." Matthew Turner was born on June 17, 1825, the fourth child of George Turner and Emily Atkins. Matthew, after watching the construction of the Geneva and a later vessel the Philena Mills, designed his first ship, the schooner G.R. Roberts. His father was sufficiently impressed with the design to build the boat, launched in 1848. Matthew later that year married Amanda Jackson. Amanda died with their first child. On a trip down the Mississippi river in late 1849 he set off for the West Coast in 1850. He was quite successful. Turner later travelled to New York where he bought the schooner Toronto, sailing her back to California. There he started shipping timber to San Francisco from the Mendocino coast. A few years later they purchased the brig Temandra. Meanwhile, Turner also set up a company to trade with Tahiti.Matthew Turner (shipbuilder) – The barquentine Benicia at sea
201. Sonoma wine – Sonoma County wine is wine made in Sonoma County, California, in the United States. Sonoma County is one of wine grapes, far outproducing the Napa Valley AVA. Grapes were planted in Sonoma County at Fort Ross as early as 1812. Padre Jose Altimira planted several thousand grape vines in southern Sonoma County. Cuttings from the Sonoma mission vineyards were carried throughout the northern California area to start new vineyards. The vineyards of military Governor of Mexican California and based in Sonoma, were producing an annual income of $20,000 at that time. The grape varietals planted would not be considered varietals today. In 1855, a Hungarian named Agoston Haraszthy arrived in Sonoma Valley. Upon his arrival, he purchased the Salvador Vallejo vineyard, which he then renamed Buena Vista. Commissioned in 1861 to study viticulture in Europe, he returned with more than 100,000 cuttings of premium grape varietals. Many of the immigrants to the area were Northern Italian or from other wine-growing regions of Europe. After the Civil War and before Prohibition, wineries such as Bundschu, Foppiano, Korbel, Simi, Gundlach, Quitzow and Sebastiani were established that still exist. In the 1920s there were 256 wineries in Sonoma County, with more than 22,000 acres in production. During the Prohibition period, however, commercial winemaking declined. At the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, fewer than 50 wineries in Sonoma County survived.Sonoma wine – Vineyards in the Dry Creek Valley AVA in central Sonoma County
202. Hanzell Vineyards – Hanzell Vineyards is a California wine producer located just outside the town of Sonoma. At the time, the entire state of California had fewer than 200 acres planted to Chardonnay. Hanzell was also among the first vineyards to plant the Wente Clone of Chardonnay. The first plantings of Hanzell took place in 1953, when Zellerbach planted four acres of Chardonnay. Webb commissioned what are believed to be the first small temperature-controlled stainless steel fermenters, an electrode to measure dissolved oxygen. The original vines planted at Hanzell are purported to be the oldest continually producing Chardonnay and Pinot noir vines in the Western Hemisphere. The original noir vines planted at Hanzell were derived from Martin Ray estate cuttings. As of 2010, the grapes are typically blended with grapes from the vines planted in subsequent years. From time to time, Hanzell wines derived solely from these original blocks and dubs them "Ambassador's 1953 Vineyard" wines. A total 42 acres have been planted over the years ranging from 1953 to 2001. Careful monitoring and selection have yielded a their own "Hanzell Clone." This clonal selection is used by such wineries as ZD and Brewer Clifton, among others. Three families have owned four winemakers have been involved there since its founding. The second continues to advise as Winemaker Emeritus after nearly 30 years overseeing production. Zellerbach, James D. and Hana Day, Douglas and Mary de Brye, Jacques and Barbara, then Alexander Brad Webb Bob Sessions Michael Terrien Michael McNeillHanzell Vineyards – Hanzell Chardonnay from Sonoma Valley.
203. California wine – California wine is wine made in the U.S. state of California. Almost three quarters the size of France, California accounts for nearly 90 percent of American production. The production of wine in California alone is one third larger than that of Australia. If California were a separate country, it would be the world's fourth largest producer. The state's viticultural history dates back to the 18th century when Spanish missionaries planted the first vineyards to produce wine for Mass. There are more than 1,200 wineries in the state, ranging from small boutique wineries to large corporations with distribution around the globe. The wine was used for religious sacraments well as for daily life. The California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century brought waves of new settlers to the region, increasing the population and local demand for wine. The newly growing industry took hold in Northern California around the counties of Sonoma and Napa. Buena Vista Winery, was founded in 1857 by Agoston Haraszthy and is located in Sonoma, California. John Patchett opened the commercial winery in the area, now Napa County in 1859. During this period some of California's oldest wineries were founded including Buena Vista Winery, Gundlach Bundschu, Inglenook Winery, Schramsberg Vineyards. Some even assisted prior to the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act which severely affected the Chinese community in favor of encouraging "white labor." By 1890, most of the Chinese workers were out of the industry. Many smaller operations went out of business.California wine – Vineyards in the Napa Valley AVA
204. Barrel-aged (wine) – Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, flavor, tannin profile and texture of wine. Oak barrels can impart other qualities through evaporation and low level exposure to oxygen. In early history, the amphora was the vessel of choice for the storage and transportation of wine. Due to the perishable nature of material it is difficult to trace the usage of barrels in history. The Greek historian Herodotus noted that ancient Mesopotamians used barrels made of wood to transport wine along the Euphrates. The use of oak has been prevalent in winemaking for at least two millennia, first coming during the time of the Roman Empire. The porous nature of an barrel allows evaporation and oxygenation to occur in wine but typically not at levels that would cause oxidation or spoilage. The 59-gallon barrel can lose anywhere from 5 1/2 to 6 1/2 gallons in a year through evaporation. This allows the wine to concentrate its aroma compounds. Small amounts of oxygen are allowed to act as a softening agent upon the wine's tannins. The chemical properties of oak can have a profound effect on wine. Phenols within the wood can give the impression of tea notes or sweetness. The degree of "toast" on the barrel can also impart different properties affecting the tannin levels well as the aggressive wood flavors. The hydrolyzable tannins present in wood, known as ellagitannins, are derived from lignin structures in the wood. They help protect the wine from reduction.Barrel-aged (wine) – Oak wine barrels
205. Chardonnay – Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. It originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France, but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions, growing Chardonnay is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy entry into the international wine market. The Chardonnay grape itself is very neutral, with many of the flavors commonly associated with the grape being derived from such influences as terroir and oak. It is vinified in many different styles, from the lean, crisply mineral wines of Chablis, France, to New World wines with oak, tropical fruit flavors. In cool climates, Chardonnay tends to be medium to light body with noticeable acidity and flavors of green plum, apple, pear. Wines that have gone through malolactic fermentation tend to have softer acidity and fruit flavors with buttery mouthfeel and hazelnut notes. Chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including Champagne. For much of its history, a connection was assumed between Chardonnay and Pinot noir or Pinot blanc. In addition to being found in the same region of France for centuries, ampelographers noted that the leaves of each plant have near-identical shape and structure. Pierre Galet disagreed with this assessment, believing that Chardonnay was not related to any other major grape variety. Viticulturalists Maynard Amerine and Harold Olmo proposed a descendency from a wild Vitis vinifera vine, a step removed from white Muscat. Another theory stated that it originated from an ancient indigenous vine found in Cyprus. The Romans are thought to have brought Gouais blanc from Croatia, it was widely cultivated by peasants in eastern France. The Pinot of the French aristocracy grew in close proximity to the Gouais blanc, giving both grapes ample opportunity to interbreed.Chardonnay – Chardonnay grapes
206. Charles Stetson Wheeler – Charles Stetson Wheeler was an American attorney, working in Northern California. Wheeler was active in Republican Party politics. Wheeler was born on December 12, 1863. His parents were the former Angelina Stetson from Kingston, Massachusetts. The parents were married on April 17, 1859. Wheeler attended public schools. Wheeler was raised alongside a brother who never sought higher education. Concurrently, he graduated in 1886, the same year he advanced to the bar. As an attorney, Wheeler continued with the law firm Garber, Boalt and Bishop. In 1892, Wheeler was made partner. After the deaths of Judge John R. Garber, the firm was reconstituted as Bishop, Wheeler and Hoefler. In 1904, Wheeler headed his own firm, with no partners. In 1912 he took on a partner: some fifteen years younger. By 1918, Wheeler worked occasionally as co-counsel. Wheeler's clients included the Bank of British North America, the Barron Estate Co. and the First Federal Trust Co. of San Francisco.Charles Stetson Wheeler – Charles Stetson Wheeler
207. McCloud River – The McCloud River is a river that flows east of and parallel to the Sacramento River, 77.1 miles long, in northern California in the United States. It drains a mountainous area of the Cascade Range, especially Mt. Shasta. The river is a tributary of the Sacramento River. It rises from spring-fed streams in the Cascades approximately 10 miles southeast of Mount Shasta in Siskiyou County. It flows initially west, passing south of Mt. Shasta and receiving streams that drain the southern slope of the peak. From Mt. Shasta it flows generally southwest through the Shasta-Trinity National Forest. The McCloud arm joins in at the Pit River Bridge on Interstate 5, 5 miles north of the city of Shasta Lake. The river is well known for a series of waterfalls which tumble over basaltic lava flows, known collectively as the Falls of the McCloud River. The McCloud is generally divided into two sections. The Lower McCloud stretches from the reservoir to Lake Shasta. The waterfalls mentioned above are all found on the Upper McCloud. The Upper McCloud is a popular destination for kayakers. There is an improved campground called Fowlers on the Upper McCloud. Release fishing is greatly encouraged. The upper 3 miles of the club's river holdings were purchased by Silicon Valley real estate magnate John Arrillaga.McCloud River – Middle McCloud Falls on the McCloud River
208. Ralph Stackpole – Ralph Ward Stackpole was an American sculptor, painter, muralist, etcher and art educator, San Francisco's leading artist during the 1920s and 1930s. His son Peter Stackpole became a well-known photojournalist. She became his first girlfriend. The daughter of wealthy Jewish art lovers and one year Stackpole's senior, described him as "a remarkable draftsman" who painted and sketched constantly. She was less impressed with his sense of color with his precision in line. Stackpole polished his craft by working with artists at the Montgomery Block, playfully called "Monkey Block", a bohemian hangout which included studios for painting and sculpture. It was in Paris that he became friends with painter Diego Rivera He painted in New York in 1911. Adele Stackpole was a perfectionist in many ways, including the demands she placed on her relationships. On June 1913, the Stackpoles' son Peter was born in San Francisco. Stackpole was part of the foursome that founded, early in 1913, the California Society of Etchers. The other founders were Robert B. The CSE grew to 78 artist members and five associate after two years. In 1926, the annual publication listed 156 associate members: Stackpole was still a member. Decades later, the CSE merged with another group to become the California Society of Printmakers. Stackpole's design replaced the original figures of Catholic saints with figures of industry.Ralph Stackpole – Stackpole in his studio in 1940 photo by Peter Stackpole for LIFE magazine
209. Pacifica (statue) – Pacifica was a statue created by Ralph Stackpole for the 1939–1940 Golden Gate International Exposition held on Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay. Stackpole's largest sculpture, it towered 81 feet to the Cavalcade of the Golden West in the Court of Pacifica. The Court of Pacifica was dedicated to the heroic explorers of Pacific Ocean territories. Pacifica was the statue for the exposition, representing world peace, neighborliness, the power of a unified Pacific coast. It took two years to complete the statue, it starting out as a three inch figure. Stackpole went before settling upon the final model, 10 feet tall. The model was then divided into cross sections. Each cross section was enlarged eight-fold though a process using a pantograph. Scaffolding was prepared for the precise assembly of the enlarged sections. Iron was used around the proper contours of the statue. Next, wire was layered over the entire iron frame, then covered in a final blanket of plaster. Such a construction was always meant for temporary placement. By November 1938, when Life photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt was capturing images to promote the event, Pacifica was ready for his camera. The magazine carried the image of Stackpole's most monumental work, "a peaceful, contemplative, almost prayer-like female figure". Pacifica was physically the most conspicuous statue at the exposition.Pacifica (statue) – Ralph Stackpole with a model of Pacifica
210. Phoenix (fireboat) – Phoenix is a fireboat owned by State of California and operated by the city of San Francisco in the San Francisco Bay since 1955. Phoenix is known for helping to save Marina District buildings by fire following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Her worthy assistance resulted in a vintage fireboat obtained for the city. Both Guardian and Phoenix are based at Firehouse No. 35 at Pier 1/2 of the Port of San Francisco. Phoenix often takes part in welcoming ceremonies. The city of San Francisco operated two fireboats in the 1900s: Governor Markham. Both were capable of pumping about 1,000 US gallons per minute. These two, assisted by military fireboats, tried but failed to stop the horrific fires which swept the city after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. In 1909, two new fireboats were placed in service -- Dennis T. Sullivan -- steam-powered boats each rated for 9,000 -- 10,000 US gallons per minute. A firehouse was built at the edge of the Panama -- Pacific International Exposition in 1915. The two fireboats were scrapped in 1954. The mythical firebird which rose anew from ashes, seemed appropriate because the city of San Francisco had risen seven times from great fires. Phoenix is 89 feet long with a 7-foot draft. She can make 15 knots. When put in 1955, Phoenix was the only fireboat based in San Francisco.Phoenix (fireboat) – Phoenix
211. 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake – The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in Northern California on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time. With a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX, the shock was responsible for 3,757 injuries. No faulting occurred, though a large number of other ground landslides were present, especially in the Summit area of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The 1989 Loma Prieta event originated on an oblique-slip fault, located adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. Since many forecasts had been presented for the region near Loma Prieta, seismologists were not taken by surprise by the October 1989 event. Their study indicated that the shocks affected the mainshock's process. The June 27, 1988, shock occurred with a maximum intensity of VI. Its effects included light damage in Holy City, where increased flow was observed at a water well. More moderate damage resulted from the August 1989, shock when chimneys were toppled in Cupertino, Redwood Estates. Other damage included cracked walls and foundations and broken underground pipes. At the office of the Los Gatos City Manager, a window, cracked had also been broken in the earlier shock. Also in Los Gatos, one man died when he exited a building through a window and fell five stories. The Loma Prieta earthquake was named for Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, which lies just to the east of the mainshock epicenter. The strong motion records also allowed for the causative fault to be determined – the rupture was related to the San Andreas Fault System. In a general way, the location of aftershocks of the event delineated the extent of the faulting, which extended about 24 miles in length.1989 Loma Prieta earthquake – 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
212. California State Assembly – The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. It consists with each member representing at least 465,000 people. Members of the assembly are generally referred to using the titles assemblyman, assemblymember. The State Assembly convenes at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. In the current session, the Democrats control 55 seats, forming a supermajority of the chamber. Republicans control 25 seats. The Speaker presides over the State Assembly in the chief position, controlling the flow of legislation and committee assignments. The Speaker is elected by the majority caucus, followed by confirmation of the full assembly. Other leaders, such as the minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses according to each party's strength in the chamber. The current Speaker is Democrat Anthony Rendon. The leader is Democrat Ian Calderon, while the minority leader is Republican Chad Mayes. The chamber's green tones are based on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The dais rests along a wall shaped like an "E", with its central housing the rostrum. Along the cornice appears a portrait of a Latin quotation: legislatorum est justas leges condere. Almost every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber.California State Assembly
213. San Jose State University – San José State University is a comprehensive public university located in San Jose, California, United States. Located in downtown San Jose, the main campus is situated on 154 acres, or roughly 19 square blocks. SJSU offers 134 bachelor's and master's degrees with 19 concentrations. The university also offers one independent doctoral program as of 2014. SJSU is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. SJSU's total enrollment was 32,773 in fall 2015, including nearly 6,000 graduate students. As of fall 2015, graduate enrollment at SJSU was the highest of any campus in the CSU system. As of fall 2014, the top five most popular undergraduate majors at SJSU were psychology, accounting, marketing, biological sciences. As of fall 2014, the top five most popular graduate programs were software engineering, electrical engineering, library and information sciences, occupational therapy. SJSU teams are known as the Spartans, compete in the Mountain West Conference in NCAA Division I. What is now San José State University was originally established in San Francisco, founded by George W. Minns. By act of the California legislature, Minns Evening Normal School became the California State Normal School and graduated 54 women from a three-year program. In 1881, a large bell was forged to commemorate the school. The original bell is still associated with various student traditions and rituals. In August 1882, a southern campus of the California State Normal School opened in Los Angeles, which later became the University of California, Los Angeles.San Jose State University – An 1880s lithograph of the original California State Normal School campus in San Jose.
214. California Republican Party – The California Republican Party is the California affiliate of the United States Republican Party. The chairman is Jim Brulte, is based in Burbank, California, a suburb of Los Angeles. The CRP also has a headquarters in Sacramento. The party's stated goals are to enhance economic prosperity within the state, eliminate government waste. The party prides itself on "providing common sense solutions to the most troubling issues." Crime and justice—The California Republican Party supports the government's protecting the welfare of the people and creating fair and just laws in society. The party advocates victim's rights under the position that the victim is just as important as the offender in a crime. They believe overcrowding is a major issue that should be solved by the creation of both public prisons. The party also supports the use of punishment for heinous crimes. The party call for a cut on unnecessary spending in order to create infrastructure that will boost the economy. The party also supports Right-to-work law opposes closed shop establishments. Education— The California Republican Party believes that all children have the right to a first-class education. The party supports local school boards being the primary regulators of the education system. Programs should be solely merit based. The party opposes tenure.California Republican Party – California Republican Party
215. King Curtis – Variously a bandleader, session musician, he was also a musical director and record producer. The son of Ethel Montgomery, he was born Curtis Montgomery in Fort Worth, Texas, was adopted, by Josie and William Ousley. Curtis Ousley studied and performed music with schoolmate Ornette Coleman. Curtis started playing saxophone in the Fort Worth area. He took popular music. As a student pursuing music, he turned down college scholarships in order to join the Lionel Hampton Band. During his time with Hampton, he was able to learn guitar. In 1952 Curtis became a session musician, recording for such labels as Prestige, Enjoy, Capitol, Atco. He recorded with Nat Adderley, Wynton Kelly, Buddy Holly, Andy Williams. Stylistically, Curtis took inspiration from saxophonists Lester Young, Louis Jordan, Illinois Jacquet, Gene Ammons. Known for his percussive style, he was both versatile and powerful as a musician. He put together a group as a session musician that included Richard Tee, Cornell Dupree, Jerry Jemmott, Bernard Purdie. Buddy Holly hired him for work, during which they recorded "Reminiscing." Holly gave Curtis the songwriting credit for flying down to the session. In 1965, he recorded his most successful singles, "Memphis Soul Stew" and "Ode to Billie Joe".King Curtis – King Curtis
216. Live at Fillmore West – Live at Fillmore West is an album by King Curtis, released in 1971. A week after its release in August 1971, Curtis was stabbed outside his brownstone apartment in New York City. It was released in an expanded edition in 2006. This edition was limited to 5000 numbered copies. Recorded over three nights, March 5, 6 and 7, 1971. His band the Kingpins were supporting Aretha Franklin as well as being her backing band. The film is set before its performance. Professionally Curtis was having that year. It was in this climate that his album Live at Fillmore West was released in August 1971. A week after its release, Curtis was stabbed in New York City following an argument with two junkies. The day after he died the album peaked on the Billboard 200 album chart, his greatest success as a solo artist. Released August 1971 Released July 2006, featuring 5 additional tracks. 4 CD Box-set. Released May 2005 by Rhino Handmade in a limited edition of 5000.Live at Fillmore West – King Curtis Live at Fillmore West
217. Santa Rosa, California – Santa Rosa is a city in and the county seat of Sonoma County, California, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 174,170. Before the arrival of Europeans, the wide valley containing Santa Rosa was home to a strong and populous tribe of Pomo natives known as the Bitakomtara. The Bitakomtara controlled the valley closely, barring passage to others until permission was arranged. Those who entered without permission were subject to harsh penalties. The tribe gathered at ceremonial times on Santa Rosa Creek near present-day Spring Lake Regional Park. Upon the arrival of Europeans, the Pomos were decimated by smallpox brought unintentionally from Europe, by the eradication efforts of Anglo settlers. By 1900 the Pomo population had decreased by 95%. By the 1850s, a Wells Fargo post and general store were established in what is now downtown Santa Rosa. Growth and development after that were steady but never rapid. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake essentially destroyed the entire downtown, but the city's population did not greatly suffer. However, after that period the population growth of Santa Rosa, as with most of the area, was very slow. Famed director Alfred Hitchcock filmed his thriller Shadow of a Doubt in Santa Rosa in 1943; the film gives glimpses of Santa Rosa in the 1940s. Many of the downtown buildings seen in the film no longer exist due to major reconstruction following the strong earthquakes in October 1969. However, some, like the rough-stone Northwestern Pacific Railroad depot and the prominent Empire Building, still survive.Santa Rosa, California – Old Courthouse Square, Downtown Santa Rosa
218. Luther Burbank – Luther Burbank was an American botanist, horticulturist and pioneer in agricultural science. He developed more than 800 varieties of plants over his 55-year career. Burbank's varied creations included fruits, flowers, grains, vegetables. He developed the plumcot. A genetic variant of the Burbank potato with russet-colored skin later became known as the Russet Burbank potato. This large, white-fleshed potato has become the world's predominant potato in food processing. The Russet Burbank potato was in fact invented to help during the Irish Potato famine. This particular variety was created by Burbank to help "revive the country's leading crop" as it is blight-resistant. Born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, Burbank received only an elementary school education. The thirteenth of eighteen children, he enjoyed the plants in his mother's large garden. Burbank used his inheritance to buy a 17-acre plot of land near Lunenburg center. There, he developed the Burbank potato. Burbank used the money to travel to Santa Rosa, California, in 1875. Later, a natural sport of Burbank potato with russetted skin was selected and named Russet Burbank potato. The Russet Burbank potato is the most widely cultivated potato in the United States.Luther Burbank – Luther A. Burbank
219. Luther Burbank Home and Gardens – Luther Burbank Home and Gardens is a city park containing the former home, greenhouse, gardens, grave of noted American horticulturist Luther Burbank. It is located at the intersection of Santa Rosa Avenue and Sonoma Avenue in Santa Rosa, California, in the United States. The park is open daily without charge; a fee is charged for guided tours. It is designated as a National Historic Landmark as well as a California Historical Landmark. Burbank lived in Santa Rosa for more than 50 years, performed the bulk of his life's work at this location. From 1884 to 1906 he lived in this park's Greek house; he then moved to a house that no longer exists. After Burbank's death in 1926, his widow Elizabeth moved back to the house, where she remained until her death in 1977. The gardens include many of Burbank's horticultural introductions, with collections of cactus, fruit trees, ornamental grasses, walnuts. Most plants are labeled with botanic and common names. The garden's greenhouse was designed and built by Burbank in 1889; Burbank's grave is nearby. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Gold Ridge Farm — Burbank's 18-acre experimental farm nearby in Sebastopol. Luther Burbank Rose Parade and Festival Botanical gardens in California List of botanical gardens in the United States Official Luther Burbank Home and Gardens websiteLuther Burbank Home and Gardens – Luther Burbank House and Garden
220. Ambrose Bierce – Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce was an American editorialist, journalist, short story writer, fabulist, satirist. He compiled a satirical lexicon, The Devil's Dictionary. Bierce employed a distinctive style of writing, especially in his stories. His style often embraces an abrupt beginning, dark imagery, vague references to time, limited descriptions, the theme of war. In 1913, Bierce traveled to Mexico to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution. He was not seen again. His mother was a descendant of William Bradford. His parents were a literary couple who instilled in him a deep love for books and writing. Bierce grew up in Indiana, attending high school at the county seat, Warsaw. He left home at 15 to become a "printer's devil" at a small Ohio newspaper. At the outset of the American Civil War, Bierce enlisted in the Union Army's 9th Indiana Infantry. He was discharged from the army in January 1865. His military career resumed, however, when in mid-1866 he rejoined General Hazen as part of the latter's expedition to inspect military outposts across the Great Plains. The expedition proceeded from Omaha, Nebraska arriving toward year's end in San Francisco, California. Bierce married Mary Ellen "Mollie" Day on December 1871.Ambrose Bierce – Ambrose Bierce, c. 1866
221. San Francisco cable car system – The San Francisco cable car system is the world's last manually operated cable car system. An icon of the system forms part of the intermodal urban transport network operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway. While the cable cars are used to a certain extent by commuters, the vast majority of their 7 million annual passengers are tourists. They are among the most significant tourist attractions in the city, along with Alcatraz Island, the Golden Gate Bridge, Fisherman's Wharf. The cable cars are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The cable cars are not to be confused with San Francisco's heritage streetcars, which operate on Market Street and the Embarcadero. The cable-operated railway was the Clay Street Hill Railroad, which opened on August 2, 1873. The promoter of the line was Hallidie, the engineer was William Eppelsheimer. The term "grip" became synonymous with the operator. Its success led it to become the template for other transit systems. It was a financial success, Hallidie's patents were enforced on other cable car promoters, making him wealthy. Accounts differ as to exactly how involved Hallidie was in the inception of the line, to the exact date it first ran. The next line to open was the Sutter Street Railway, which converted from operation in 1877. This line introduced the side grip, lever operation, both designed by Henry Casebolt and his assistant Asa Hovey, patented by Henry Casebolt. This idea was brought about because Casebolt did not want to pay Hallidie royalties of $50,000 a year for use of his patent.San Francisco cable car system – Cable Car No. 15 on Powell Street
222. East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) – The region has grown to include inland communities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. With a population of roughly 2.5 million in 2010, it is the most populous subregion in the Bay Area. Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay and the third largest in the Bay Area. The city serves as a major transportation hub for the U.S. West Coast, its port is the largest in Northern California. Increased population has led to the growth of such large edge cities as Berkeley, Hayward, Concord and Fremont. The Port of Oakland is the the fifth largest port in the United States. In 1868, the University of California was formed from the private College of California and a new campus was built in what would become Berkeley. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake saw a large number of refugees flee to the relatively undamaged East Bay, the region continued to grow rapidly. The Bay Area saw further growth in the decades following World War II, with the population doubling between 1940 and 1960, doubling again by 2000. The 1937 completion of the Caldecott Tunnel through the Berkeley Hills fueled growth further east, where there was undeveloped land. Cities in the Diablo Valley, including Concord and Walnut Creek, saw their populations increase tenfold or more between 1950 and 1970. The addition of the BART commuter rail system in 1972 further encouraged development in increasingly far-flung regions of the East Bay. The valleys east of the Berkeley Hills contain suburban communities such as Walnut Creek, Dublin. The East Bay is not a formally defined region, aside from its being described as a region inclusive of Alameda and Contra Costa counties.East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) – A satellite image of most of the East Bay
223. North Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) – The North Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States. The largest city is Santa Rosa, the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area. It is the location of the Napa and Sonoma wine regions, is by far the least populous and least urbanized part of the Bay Area. It consists of Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma counties, with a combined population of more than 1.2 million. Several ferry routes operate between the North Bay and San Francisco, from terminals located in Sausalito, Tiburon, Larkspur, Vallejo and Angel Island. Commuter rail service from Fairfield to Sacramento and Oakland is provided by Amtrak on its Capitol Corridor line. The area is said to have been populated by Pomo Native Americans before European intervention. The Russians first settled the area at Fort Ross as a fur-trading post, but the area was later settled by the Spanish-Mexican Alta California. The Bear Flag Revolt took place in the town of Sonoma, also the location of the last of the California Missions. The North Bay remained isolated and rural well into the 20th Century. The opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in the 1930s transformed Marin County from a dairy farming region into an upscale suburban area. Until the 1990s, the region's growth was at a gradual pace, with significant restrictions on development being imposed in Marin and Napa Counties in the 1970s. The largest city in the North Bay is Santa Rosa. Other major cities include: Vallejo San Rafael Fairfield Napa Novato Petaluma Rohnert Park North Coast AVA North Coast San Pablo Bay National Wildlife RefugeNorth Bay (San Francisco Bay Area) – San Francisco is in the foreground in this picture looking north. San Pablo Bay continues north surrounded by parts of (left to right) Marin, Sonoma, Napa, and Solano Counties.
224. San Francisco Peninsula – The San Francisco Peninsula is a peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area that separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. On its northern tip is the City and County of San Francisco. Its southern base is including the cities of Palo Alto, Mountain View and Los Altos. Whereas the peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local jargon, "The Peninsula" does not include the city of San Francisco. In 1795, Governor Diego de Borica gave a Spanish land grant known as Rancho de las Pulgas. This rancho was the largest grant on the peninsula consisting of 35,260 acres. A substantial portion of Silicon Valley is located on the peninsula. In Silicon Valley sits some of the largest tech companies in the world with the likes of Google, Yahoo, Facebook and Apple. New ones are created every day. The east side of the peninsula is a largely urban area that includes portions of Silicon Valley. It forms a area between San Francisco to the north and San Jose to the south. The Caltrain commuter line runs roughly parallel to the El Camino Real and Highway 101 corridors. The bridges in the Peninsula include the Dumbarton Bridge, the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge. In the middle of the Peninsula along the fault is the Crystal Springs Reservoir. Just north of the Crystal Springs reservoir is San Andreas Lake after which the geologic fault was originally named.San Francisco Peninsula – USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. The San Francisco peninsula protrudes northward. San Francisco is at its tip.
225. Santa Clara Valley – The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. Most of the Santa Clara Valley is including its county seat, San Jose. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit production and region in the world with 39 canneries. Once primarily agricultural because of its highly fertile soil, Santa Clara Valley is now largely urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian. The most northern urban areas are considered part of Silicon Valley. As Silicon Valley is not an actual valley, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula farther north are included in the Silicon Valley region well. Locally, the urbanized areas of Santa Clara Valley are also referred to as part of the South Bay. The Santa Clara Valley American Viticultural Area remains a large wine-making region. It was one of the first wine-producing regions in California, utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France. The valley is approximately 30 miles long by 15 miles wide. Its largest city, by an 86.7 margin, is San Jose. The population of the valley is million people along with approximately 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Mission Santa Clara de Asís with control over a vast tract of land stretching from Palo Alto to Gilroy was founded by Franciscans in 1777. It served the Ohlone people.Santa Clara Valley – "Valley of the Heart's Delight", mid 20th century
226. Wine Country (California) – The Wine Country is an area of Northern California in the United States known worldwide as a premium wine-growing region. Wine-making have been practiced in the region since the mid-19th century. Wine grapes are also grown at higher elevations, such as Mount Veeder AVAs. The region is defined not only by its viticulture, but also its ecology, geology, architecture, culture. The majority of the grape harvest, by both value, derives from Sonoma County. Wine Country is generally regarded as the combined counties of Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, Lake. In Lake County: Clear Lake, Guenoc Valley, High Valley, Red Hills Lake County. The six-county North Coast AVA overlaps with the Wine Country as defined here. In addition, the names of the counties themselves are legal for use as appellation names. The earliest prehistory of the Wine Country involves habitation by several American tribes from approximately 8000 BC. During after, European settlers brought in more intensive agriculture to the Wine Country, including growing grapes and wine production. Some of the historical events that led as a state transpired in the Wine Country. In particular, the town of Sonoma, is known as the birthplace of American California. A diversity of terrestrial organisms populate the Wine Country and its riparian zones. Delta smelt and steelhead are the most prominent fishes.Wine Country (California) – Alexander Valley - Sonoma
227. West Marin – West Marin is the largest rural region of Marin County, California. West Marin is generally considered to be west of Muir Beach and Nicasio on the Pacific Ocean side of Mount Tamalpais. The website of the Marin Independent Journal has a category for West Marin news. The Environmental Action Committee of West Marin, active since the 1970s, focuses on environmental issues such as protecting vulnerable species. The Straus Family Creamery is north of Marshall. West Marin official site West Marin Citizen homepage West Marin NewsWest Marin – West Marin landscape
228. Islands of San Francisco Bay – This list of islands of California is organized into sections, generally arranged from north to south. The islands within each section are listed in alphabetical order. The Geographic Names Information System lists 527 named islands in the state. All three islands in Humboldt Bay are located in the narrow midsection of the bay. This portion of the bay is located entirely within Humboldt County. They consist over twenty small islets divided into north, south and middle sections, as well as a major bank, Fanny Shoal. The surrounding waters were once used as a site for radioactive waste. Suisun Bay is an arm of the San Francisco Bay estuary which connects the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers to the Carquinez Strait. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is an inverted delta at the juncture of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. There are about 57 named islands in the Delta. The four northern islands are protected in Channel Islands National Park, while two are used by the U.S. Navy. These Islands are part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. The Greater Los Angeles Area is an urban area on the Pacific coast of southern California. The bay associated with the city of Newport Beach, California. Geography of California List of coastal islands of the Californias List of islands of the United States Outline of California Martin, James A.; Lee, Michael T..Islands of San Francisco Bay – Sugarloaf Island,
229. Marin Headlands – The entire area is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. The Headlands are famous for their views of the Bay Area, especially of the Golden Gate Bridge. The hills also get more precipitation than at level, for the same reason. However, despite being relatively wet, gusty Pacific winds prevent dense forests from forming. The many gaps, valleys in the hills increase the wind speed and periodically, during powerful winter storms, these winds can reach hurricane force. In summer, breezes can still be very gusty, when fog cross the hills. Gray, rainy days often are interspersed with cool but extremely clear ones. As winter turns to spring, the April-to-June weather tends to be dominated by powerful winds, clearer skies. Summer days alternate between warm intervals, giving way to foggy and cool periods. September and October bring the longest stretches of clear skies. Hawks avoid flight over water since warm thermals that provide lift are rare. Volunteers with the Golden Gate Raptor Observatory track this fall migration using bird-banding and radio-tracking techniques, all in cooperation with the National Park Service. The Marin Headlands are home to black tail deer, mountain lions, bobcats, two types of fox, coyotes, wild turkeys, hares, rabbits, raccoons, skunks. River otters streams. The Headlands' status as a park protects the habitat and populations of these animals within just a few miles of its suburbs.Marin Headlands – The Marin Headlands, as seen from the Golden Gate Bridge.
230. Diablo Range – The Diablo Range is a mountain range in the California Coast Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Coast Ranges. It is located in the eastern San Francisco Bay area south to the Salinas Valley area of northern California, the United States. Geologically, the range corresponds to the California Coast Ranges east of the Calaveras Fault in this northern section. The plateaus are usually at about 2,000–3,000 feet. The hills rolling around inland plateaus go from 1,500 -- 2,500 feet. Foothills, such as the which are found near the Santa Clara Valley, San Joaquin Valley, are lowest, from 400 -- 1,000 feet. Canyons usually are 300 -- 400 feet valleys are deeper but gentler. The peaks often have topographic prominence because they are typically surrounded by hills, valleys, or lower plateaus. Some streams draining the eastern slopes of the Diablo Range include Alameda Creek, Coyote Creek, Ingram Creek. The Diablo Range's following ridges are between 2,517 -- 5,241 feet and are distinct landmarks. Mount Diablo, San Benito Mountain, Mount Hamilton Ridge, Mount Stakes. The Diablo Range is paralleled for much of its distance to the west and by I-5 to the east. The Diablo Range is largely unpopulated outside of the San Francisco Bay Area. Nearby communities include Antioch, Concord, Walnut Creek, San Ramon, Pleasanton, Livermore, Fremont and the Central Valley city of Tracy. In the South Bay, communities near the range are Milpitas, eastern San Jose, Gilroy.Diablo Range – The Diablo Range in the vicinity of San Benito Mountain
231. Berkeley Hills – The Berkeley Hills are a range of the Pacific Coast Ranges that overlook the northeast side of the valley that encompasses San Francisco Bay. The Berkeley Hills are bounded by the minor Wildcat fault on their eastern side. The highest peaks are Vollmer Peak, Grizzly Peak and Round Top, William Rust Summit 1,004 feet. Vollmer Peak was named for the first chief of the City of Berkeley, August Vollmer. It was formerly known as "Bald Peak". From the top on a clear winter Davis, Sacramento and the snowy Sierra are visible. Much of the west slope of the Berkeley Hills has residential neighborhoods of mostly single family homes, on the land of University of California. Other roads to the ridgeline wind their way up the canyons. Grizzly Peak and Skyline Blvds follow the top of the ridge. The Berkeley Hills are pierced by several tunnels. Two are aqueducts of EBMUD; the Berkeley Hills Tunnel serves the Pittsburg/Bay Point–SFO/Millbrae line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system. The four bores of the Caldecott Tunnel carry State Highway 24 between Contra Costa County. However, the south end of the usage "Berkeley Hills" is unclear. It does not, in any case, correspond to any political boundaries, only to a geographic feature. In the section above East Oakland to Castro Valley, the ridge appears as the San Leandro Hills.Berkeley Hills
232. Santa Cruz Mountains – The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central California, United States. The range passes with the Pajaro River forming the southern boundary. The highest point in the range is 3,786 feet, near, the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The San Andreas Fault runs throughout the range. The east side of the mountains drops abruptly towards this line especially near Woodside and Saratoga. For much of the length of the range on the San Francisco Peninsula, State Route 35 is known as "Skyline Boulevard". The Santa Cruz Mountains have been a legally defined American Viticultural Area since 1981. Wine has been produced here since at least the 1840s. The Santa Cruz Mountain AVA has emerged as premier producer of top wines, recognized on May 26, 1976. There are over 30 wineries located in this area. The Santa Cruz Mountains are largely the result of compressive uplift caused by a leftward bend of the San Andreas Fault. The Salinian Block basement rocks are overlain by Miocene strata of the Lompico Sandstone, the Vaqueros Sandstone and the Santa Margarita Formation. The Santa Cruz Mountains are a region of biological diversity, encompassing cool, moist coastal ecosystems as well as warm, dry chaparral. Much of the area in the Santa Cruz mountains is considered temperate rainforest. At higher elevations and on sunny south slopes a more drought-resistant chaparral vegetation dominates: manzanita, California scrub oak, chaparral pea.Santa Cruz Mountains – Skyline Blvd runs through the Santa Cruz Mountains, here in Portola Valley.
233. Golden Gate National Recreation Area – Much of the park is land formerly used by the United States Army. The park was created thanks to the legislative efforts of cosponsors Congressman William S. Mailliard and Congressman Phillip Burton. In 1972, President Richard Nixon signed into law "An Act to Establish the Golden Gate National Recreation Area." The bill allocated $ million for land acquisition and development. The National Park Service first purchased Alcatraz and Fort Mason from the U.S. Army. The Nature Conservancy then transferred the land to the GGNRA. These properties formed the initial basis for the park. Decommissioned Army bases and fortifications were incorporated into the park, including Fort Funston, four Nike missile sites, The Presidio and Crissy Field. The latest acquisition by the National Park Service is a small parcel of land on the Pacifica coast. In 1988, UNESCO designated the Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve. The property, surrounding the communities of Moss Beach and Montara, is home to many diverse plant and animal species. The bill did not pass the House of Representatives. Nike Missile Site SF-88 - a decommissioned Army surface-to-air missile site located near Fort Barry. Located at the southwestern corner of the Presidio Battery Chamberlin - one of the last remaining coastal defense "disappearing guns" on the U.S. Trails lead across the ridge and to Sharp Park beach.Golden Gate National Recreation Area – View of the Golden Gate from Lands End
234. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary – In response to a growing awareness of the value of our coastal waters, Congress passed the National Marine Sanctuaries Act. In 2015, changed their name to Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. GFNMS maintains public Visitor Center on Crissy Field in the Presidio of San Francisco. GFNMS is a globally significant, productive marine ecosystem that supports abundant wildlife and valuable fisheries. GFNMS adjoins two other National Marine Sanctuaries, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary. It comprises part of the United Nations' Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve. Within the sanctuary are the Farallon Islands and associated National Wildlife Refuge. The network includes a system of Papahānaumokuākea and Rose Atoll marine national monuments. Few places on the planet can compete with the diversity of the National Marine Sanctuary System, which protects cultural marine resources. The system works with diverse stakeholders to promote responsible, sustainable ocean uses that ensure the health of our most valued ocean places. A healthy ocean is the basis for thriving recreation, tourism and commercial activities that drive coastal economies. . Edited by Herman A. Karl, John L. Chin, Edward Ueber, James W. Hendley II. U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 1198. Online at.Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary
235. Point Reyes National Seashore – Point Reyes National Seashore is a 71,028-acre park preserve located on the Point Reyes Peninsula in Marin County, California, United States. As a national seashore, it is maintained by the US National Park Service as an important nature preserve. Some existing agricultural uses are allowed to continue within the park. All of the park's beaches were listed as the cleanest in the state in 2010. The peninsula includes wild coastal beaches and headlands, uplands. The Seashore also administers the parts such as the Olema Valley, that are adjacent to the Seashore. The northernmost part of the peninsula is maintained as a reserve for Tule Elk, which are readily seen there. The preserve is also very rich in shorebirds. The Point Reyes Lighthouse attracts whale-watchers looking for the Gray Whale migrating south in north in mid-March. The Point Reyes Lifeboat Station is a National Historic Landmark. It is the last remaining example of a rail launched station, common on the Pacific coast. This encompasses 5,965 acres along the coast of Drakes Bay. A recreated Coast Miwok village, is a short walk from the visitor center. The Point Reyes National Seashore attracts million visitors annually. Hostelling International USA maintains a 45-bed hostel at the Seashore.Point Reyes National Seashore – Headlands of the Point Reyes Peninsula from Chimney Rock, looking North. Elephant seals lie in the sand at the bottom right.
236. Mount Tamalpais State Park – Mount Tamalpais State Park is a California state park, located in Marin County, California. The primary feature of the park is Mount Tamalpais. The park contains mostly oak forests. The mountain itself covers around 25,000 acres. There are about 60 miles of hiking trails, which are connected to a larger, 200 miles network of trails in neighboring public lands. The park received 564,000 visitors of 2003. Muir Woods National Monument is surrounded by the park. Occasionally, the Sierra Nevada are visible, 125 miles away. "The Mountain Theater was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. The natural-stone amphitheater seats 3,750 people and features the Mountain Play each spring, produced every year since 1913. In the summer, monthly astronomy programs are held in the theater, free to the public." - http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=471 Mount Tamalpais and Muir Woods Railway Official California State Parks department site describing the parkMount Tamalpais State Park – Hiking trail in Mount Tamalpais State Park
237. Henry Coe State Park – Henry W. Coe State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving a vast tract of the Diablo Range. It is located in Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties. The park contains over 89,000 acres, making the largest state park in northern California, the second-largest in the state. Managed within its boundaries is a designated area of about 22,000 acres. This is officially known as the Henry W. Coe State Wilderness, but locally as the Orestimba Wilderness. The 89,164-acre park was established in 1959. His gang used the route to drive stolen horses south from Contra Costa County, passing into the area via the San Antonio Valley. Horses were held at several locations now contained within the park, including Coit Camp. Both Mustang Peak and Mustang Flat derive their names from the activities of his gang. The park began as a private cattle ranch of 12,230 acres. It was the home of Henry Willard Coe, Jr. and his family until his death in 1943. Coe left the ranch to Henry Sutcliffe Coe, who sold it to the Beach Land and Cattle Company of Fresno County in 1948. The ranch's network was greatly expanded during this time. It became a park in 1958. For many years, the park's size stood at 13,000 acres.Henry Coe State Park – Ponderosa Pines on summit of Pine Ridge
238. Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District – Formed in 1972 by voter initiative, the Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District is a non-enterprise special district in the San Francisco Bay Area. It has acquired and preserved a regional green belt of open space land and provides opportunities for ecologically-sensitive public enjoyment and education. The Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District has permanently preserved over 62,000 acres of open space, creating 26 open space preserves. Of the District's 26 preserves, 24 are open to the public free of charge, 365 days a year from dawn until one-half hour after sunset. The District's base consists of 741,000 people, mostly in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties. District revenues for fiscal 2012-2013 were $ million, with $ million coming directly from a portion of property taxes. The District also occasionally receives state and federal grants, as well as private donations. Most of the preserves are open to recreation. Popular activities are hiking, cycling, horseback riding. Camping is generally prohibited, though the Monte Bello Open Space Preserve does have a backpacking camp available by permit only. Preserves are relatively undeveloped, with most having only a parking area, trail signs, possibly an outhouse. All preserves are open from dawn to one-half hour after sunset. Berkeley:Heyday Books ISBN 978-1-59714-199-4 Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District openspace.org Home Page Information on District PreserveMidpeninsula Regional Open Space District – Monte Bello Open Space Preserve.
239. East Bay Regional Park District – It operates a system of regional parks, the largest regional park district in the United States. The administrative office is located in Oakland. As of 2015, EBRPD spans 120,000 acres with 65 parks and over 1,200 miles of trails. Some of these parks are wilderness areas; others include a variety of visitor attractions, with opportunities for camping. The trails are frequently used for non-motorized transportation such as biking, riding. Nearly 150 miles of paved trails through urban areas link the parks together. The founders of the district included Robert Sibley, a hiking enthusiast, Charles Lee Tilden, among others. William Penn Mott, Jr. served as director of the agency from 1962 to 1967, oversaw a doubling of the system's acreage from 10,500 to 22,000. In June 2013, EBRPD purchased a 1,900 acres tract of land formerly known as Roddy Ranch in east Contra Costa County. West of Brentwood.The cost was reported as $ million. Funding will also be provided by an private foundation. The acquisition does not include about 240 acres of privately owned land inside the boundary. The East Contra Costa County Habitat Conservancy will install gates, fencing and signs around the tract in the coming year, while the sale is in escrow. The new area will likely be named Deer Valley Regional Park. The parks administered by the EBRPD vary greatly in size and character.East Bay Regional Park District – East Bay Regional Park District
240. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014