1. Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Spain – Lady of Elche
2. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
3. Southern Europe – Some definitions of southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula, the Italian peninsula, Southern France, Greece and Malta. Different methods can be used to define southern Europe, including its political, cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features -- its geography, flora. Geographically, southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, with no clear limits. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees. Cooler climates can be found within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy. Additionally, the coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate. Southern Europe's flora is that of one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan. The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and Roman legions. It promoted trade, Greek culture. The Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire.Southern Europe – Geographic features of countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
4. Iberian Peninsula – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnᵻnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the third largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas. At that time, the name did not describe a distinct population of people. Strabo's Iberia included the entire land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks discovered the Iberian Peninsula by voyaging westward. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term around 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." Polybius identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are to be distinguished from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians".Iberian Peninsula – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
5. Southwestern Europe – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnᵻnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the third largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas. At that time, the name did not describe a distinct population of people. Strabo's Iberia included the entire land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks discovered the Iberian Peninsula by voyaging westward. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term around 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." Polybius identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are to be distinguished from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians".Southwestern Europe – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
6. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
8. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into South Atlantic Ocean at about 8 ° N. The Greek thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic late as the mid-19th century. Many British people refer to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", vice versa. The "Black Atlantic" refers in shaping black people's history, especially through the Atlantic slave trade. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term "The Green Atlantic" is used. Correspondingly, the number of oceans and seas varies. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded by North and South America. It connects through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean.Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
9. Parliamentary democracy – Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Nearly all Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a crowned republic and Ireland is a parliamentary republic. Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. Representative arguably allows by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of time effectiveness. Representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of vote counters, etc.. The government would have to cover the substantial cost of a direct democracy. Representative is a system in which people elect their lawmakers, who are then held accountable to them for their activity within government. Representative has been described by some political theorists including Robert A Dahl, Ian Liebenberg as polyarchy. In it the power is in the hands of the elected representatives who are elected by the people in elections. Representatives are elected for the national legislature.. . The constitution may also provide for direct popular measures. However, these usually require some legislative action -- legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him; high respect; their business, unremitted attention.Parliamentary democracy – The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
10. Constitutional monarchy – A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor, paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay, has defined a constitutional monarch as "a sovereign who does not rule". Constitutional monarchies still retain significant authorities or political influence however, such as through certain reserve powers, may also play an important political role. The other Commonwealth realms are all constitutional monarchies in the Westminster tradition of constitutional governance. Three states -- Malaysia, the Holy See -- are elective monarchies, wherein the ruler is periodically selected by a small electoral college. The oldest constitutional monarchy dating back to ancient times was that of the Hittites. These were scattered noble families that worked in an adjutant or subaltern federal-type landscape. The most recent country to move to a constitutional monarchy was Bhutan, between 2007 and 2008. In Scotland the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689, which placed similar limits on the Scottish monarchy. For instance George III constantly blocked Catholic Emancipation, eventually precipitating the resignation of William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister in 1801. This diminished over the course of her reign. The role of the British monarch is by convention effectively ceremonial. No person may accept public office without swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen. With few exceptions, the monarch is bound by constitutional convention to act on the advice of the Government. Constitutional Monarchy also occurred afterwards.Constitutional monarchy – Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in green. Other constitutional monarchies are shown in light green.
11. European Union – The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. The EU operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmental decision-making. The Maastricht Treaty introduced European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. Additionally, 26 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8, the G-20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a potential superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of Steel Community, declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe." The supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak.European Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
12. 1986 – The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations. Spain and Portugal enter the European Community, which later becomes the European Union. Aruba gains is separated from the Netherlands Antilles. The Province of Flevoland is established in the Netherlands. UNIDO becomes a specialised agency of the United Nations. January 9 – After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves the instant camera business. January 11 -- The Gateway Bridge in Brisbane, Australia, at this time the world's longest prestressed concrete bridge, is opened. January 12 – STS-61-C: Space Shuttle Columbia is launched with the first Hispanic American astronaut, Dr. Franklin Chang Díaz. January 13–24 – South Yemen Civil War. January 19 – The first PC virus, Brain, starts to spread. January 20 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel. January 24 – The Voyager 2 space probe makes its first encounter with Uranus. They will later use January 26 as the official date to avoid a coincidence of dates with Dictator Idi Amin's 1971 coup. Super Bowl XX was played on January 26, 1986, in New Orleans, Louisiana. January 29 – Yoweri Museveni is sworn in as President of Uganda.1986 – Disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger, January 28, 1986
13. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
14. Roman empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
15. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
16. Germanic peoples – The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Tribes referred to as "Germanic" by Roman authors generally lived to the north and east of the Gauls. The term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine from Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control. This usage of the word is the origin of the modern concept of Germanic languages, but it was not defined strictly by language. Under other classical authors this sometimes included regions of Sarmatia as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine. Also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar, Tacitus and others did note differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of tribes both as Belgic Gauls, Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant "noisy"; cf. Breton/Cornish garm "shout", Irish gairm "call".Germanic peoples – Germanic Thing (governing assembly), drawn after the depiction in a relief of the Column of Marcus Aurelius, 193 CE.
17. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire originated after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish -- American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies to the United States. Its African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits. The treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 in the papal bull Æterni regis. Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.Spanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
18. Tenerife Tram – Tenerife Tram is a light rail or tram service located on the island of Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands. It is operated by a limited company 80 % owned by the Cabildo of Tenerife. A second line between La Cuesta and Tíncer opened in 2009. It is the only existing train in the Canary Islands. A system had once existed on Tenerife. It was inaugurated on 7 April 1901, with a service that finished in La Laguna. It was designed by military man Julio Cervera Baviera. In 1904 the line was extended to Tacoronte. In 1927 the Cabildo of Tenerife took control of the operating company due to economic problems. After political debate on investment in trams versus buses, approval was eventually given to the $306 million budget. The last of the 20 tram units were handed over in August 2006. The phase officially ended on 2 June 2007 with the opening day tram on Line 1. Free service was provided from that weekend all the way through to the following Sunday, before tariffs and tickets were introduced. Floor lighted trams have a maximum speed of 70 kilometres per hour, are powered through a 750 V DC catenary. The trams are each made up of two driving carriages sandwiching three passenger/power carriages.Tenerife Tram – Two trams at the Gracia stop on Line 1
19. Tram – A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, also sometimes on a segregated right of way. The networks operated by tramcars are called tramways. The most common type historically, were once called electric street railways. However, trams were widely used before the universal adoption of electrification; other methods of powering trams are listed below under "History". Tram lines may also run between cities and/or partially grade-separated even in the cities. Very trams also carry freight. The size of trams is rapidly increasing. For all these reasons, the differences between the various modes of transportation are often indistinct. If necessary, they may have diesel in more rural environments. Trams are now included in the wider term "rail", which also includes segregated systems. The tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame, a Romanesque word meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, also the barrow itself. The identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is also used in the French language. The Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The streetcar is first recorded in 1840, originally referred to horsecars.Tram – Trams in Vienna, one of the largest existing networks in the world
20. Canary Islands – The Canaries are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper. It is also one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The main islands are Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, El Hierro. The archipelago also includes a number of islets: La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Este. In ancient times, the island chain was often referred to as "the Fortunate Isles". The Canary Islands is the most southerly region of Spain. The Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The islands have a subtropical climate, with long warm summers and moderately warm winters. The level of maritime moderation varies depending on elevation. Areas well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. The third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife.Canary Islands – Mount Teide on Tenerife, the highest mountain in Spain, is also one of the most visited National Parks in the world.
21. Intercambiador – The station was opened on 17 June 2006. It is located on Avenida Tres de Mayo in the centre of Santa Cruz. The facility is a six-level Park-and-Ride that with an area of 66,235 square metres. In December 2011, the main concourse was closed off for a issue. All the stands remain open.Intercambiador – Passengers and TITSA long-distance buses in the Santa Cruz station
22. Santa Cruz de Tenerife (City) – Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 within its administrative limits. The urban zone of Santa Cruz extends beyond the city limits with a population of 507,306 and 538,000 within urban area. Santa Cruz is located in northeast quadrant of Tenerife, about 210 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Africa within the Atlantic Ocean. The distance to the nearest point of mainland Spain is about 1,300 kilometres. The port is of great importance and is the communications hub between Europe, Africa and Americas, with cruise ships arriving from many nations. The city is the focus for domestic and inter-island communications in the Canary Islands. There are several faculties including the Naval Sciences Faculty. Its harbour is one of Spain's busiest; it comprises three sectors. It is important for traffic, well as for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean. The city also has one of the world's largest carnivals. The main landmarks of the city include the Iglesia la Concepción. Santa Cruz de Tenerife hosts the first headquarters of the Center UNESCO in the Canary Islands. In 2012, the British newspaper The Guardian included Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the list of the five best places in the world to live. The area where Santa Cruz currently lies belonged to Menceyato Guanche Anaga, the most easterly of the island. The area was known to the Guanches, the first inhabitants of the island, as Añazo.Santa Cruz de Tenerife (City) – From the top, left to right: Iglesia Matriz de la Concepción, Mercado Nuestra Señora de África, Puente Serrador, Torres de Santa Cruz, Panoramic city, Auditorio de Tenerife, Playa de Las Teresitas and Plaza de España.
23. La Laguna – The city is the second-most populous city of the island. La Laguna's historical center was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999. In 2003 the municipality started an ambitious Urban Plan to renew this area, carried out by the firm AUC S.L.. The city was the ancient capital of the Canary Islands. La Laguna is considered to be the cultural capital of the Canary Islands. Also there is for having been the first university city of the archipelago. Its economy is business-oriented while agriculture dominates the northeastern portion of the city. The urban area dominates the southern parts. Tourism covers the northern coast. The main industry includes some manufacturing. The industrial area is made up of the main subdivisions of Majuelos, Las Torres de Taco, Las Chumberas. Another emblematic building of the city is the Cathedral of La Laguna, the Catholic cathedral of its diocese. At first the place where the town was called "Aguere" by the aboriginal Guanches. Later he founded the city as "Villa de San Cristóbal La Gran Laguna". Today is known simply as "La Laguna".La Laguna – Clockwise from top: University of La Laguna, Shrine of Cristo de La Laguna, Forests, Cathedral of La Laguna, Panoramic city, Iglesia de la Concepción, Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, Plaza del Adelantado and city council.
24. Streetcar – A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, also sometimes on a segregated right of way. The networks operated by tramcars are called tramways. The most common type historically, were once called electric street railways. However, trams were widely used before the universal adoption of electrification; other methods of powering trams are listed below under "History". Tram lines may also run between cities and/or partially grade-separated even in the cities. Very trams also carry freight. The size of trams is rapidly increasing. For all these reasons, the differences between the various modes of transportation are often indistinct. If necessary, they may have diesel in more rural environments. Trams are now included in the wider term "rail", which also includes segregated systems. The tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame, a Romanesque word meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, also the barrow itself. The identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is also used in the French language. The Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The streetcar is first recorded in 1840, originally referred to horsecars.Streetcar – Trams in Vienna, one of the largest existing networks in the world
25. Julio Cervera Baviera – Julio Cervera Baviera was a Spanish engineer, pioneer in the development of radio, educator, explorer, military man. He also authored various geographic books and articles. Born in Segorbe, he abandoned these studies to join the Army. He first graduated at Guadalajara. He published Expedicion geografico-militar al interior y costas de Marruecos. At the beginning of 1886, Cervera was working in the photoengraving industry in Barcelona. They traversed the area between Cape Bojador, reaching Adrar after a journey of 900 km. It is considered the scientific expedition in that part of the Sahara. They also signed the treaties of Idjil with the emir of Adrar and Saharawi chiefs. In 1884, Cervera supervised the construction of a series of blockhouses around Melilla. Between 1890, he served as Military attaché in the Embassy of Spain in Tangiers. Cervera's work in Spanish Africa earned the promotion of commander. He was released two years later. During the Spanish -- American War, he was in charge of defense of a peak that commanded the road between Cayey and Guayama. He was responsible for repulsing an attack by American troops there.Julio Cervera Baviera – Julio Cervera Baviera
26. Tacoronte – Tacoronte is a city and municipality of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It is located in the north-east of the island. Mostly rural, the municipality stretches for 30 square kilometers from the volcanic peaks that rise to the Atlantic shore. The seat, also called Tacoronte, lies about 16 km west of the capital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Old manorial farms are situated here, as well as vineyards that produce the wine known as Tacoronte-Acentejo. The TF-5 motorway passes through the municipality. The Tenerife North Airport is 4 km to the east. Tacoronte is a toponym of Guanche origin, believed to be derived from Tagoror, meaning "place where the Council of Elders meets". Its territory constituted an ancient menceyato, as the Guanche kingdoms were known, ruled by the mencey Acaymo. In 1911, Alfonso XIII of Spain granted the town the status of municipio. List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official website Tacoronte Guide Tacoronte op Spanje vakantielandTacoronte – Tacoronte
27. Cabildo de Tenerife – Cabildo de Tenerife is the governing body of the island of Tenerife. It was established on 16 March 1913 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in a session held by the City Council. It was, at that time, the first corporation. The initial location of the Tenerife Town Hall was the Santa Cruz de Tenerife City building. A later transfer took the Town Hall support offices to Alfonso XII Street, where they remained until 1928. Although blueprints were already developed in 1920, these plans did not materialize. After ten years the first steps were taken to provide the corporation with a settled home. Negotiations began for authorization. Construction of the project in that area of the city began in 1933 under the direction of engineer, José Luis Escario. The offices of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife were quickly filled. In November 2011 these paintings were declared to the Canaries. The attendance to and legal, technical cooperation with the municipalities, especially with those of smaller economic capacity and management. The provision of supramunicipal public services. The approval of plans by insular offices for the provision of works and services in collaboration with the City Councils of each island. The promotion and administration of the peculiar interests of the island.Cabildo de Tenerife – View of the Insular Palace
28. Car – A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become widely available until the 20th century. One of the first cars, accessible to the masses was an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, navigation systems, in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal engine, fueled by deflagration of gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, convenience.Car – Benz "Velo" model (1894) by German inventor Carl Benz – entered into an early automobile race as a motocycle
29. Bus – A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. Many types such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence beyond a regular driver's licence. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel. As of the 2010s, manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the Latin omnibus. The first omnibus service was started by a businessman named Stanislas Baudry in the French city of Nantes in 1823. Nantes citizens soon gave the omnibus to the vehicle. Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April, 1828. A similar service was introduced in 1829. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on 22 April 1833. In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept.Bus – An Alexander Dennis Enviro400 double-decker bus, operating for Arriva on London Buses route 102
30. Cala FigueraCala Figuera – Harbour
31. Mallorca – Majorca or Mallorca is the largest island in the Balearic Islands archipelago, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. The Balearic Islands have been an autonomous region of Spain since 1983. The Cabrera Archipelago is administratively grouped with Majorca. The anthem of Majorca is La Balanguera. Palma de Mallorca Airport, is one of the busiest in Spain; it was used by 23.1 million passengers in 2014. The name derives from Latin maior, "larger island"; later Maiorica, "the larger one" in comparison to Minorca, "the smaller one". Little is recorded of the earliest inhabitants of the island. Burial traces of habitation from the Neolithic period have been discovered, particularly the prehistoric settlements called talaiots, or talayots. They raised Age megaliths as part of their Talaiotic Culture. The island eventually came in North Africa, which had become the principal Phoenician city. After the Second Punic War, the Romans took over. The island was occupied by the Romans in 123 BC under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus. It flourished under Roman rule, during which time the towns of Palmaria were founded. In addition, the northern town of Bocchoris, dating back to pre-Roman times, was a federated city to Rome.Mallorca – Example of prehistoric talaiot in Majorca
32. Balearic Islands – The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The four largest islands are Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. There are minor islets close to the larger islands, including Cabrera, Dragonera and S'Espalmador. The islands have a Mediterranean climate, the four major islands are all popular tourist destinations. Ibiza in particular is known as an international party destination, attracting many of the world's most popular DJs to its nightclubs. The islands' culture and cuisine are similar to that of the rest of Spain. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma de Mallorca as the capital. The 2007 Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish. Though now a part of Spain, throughout history the Balearic Islands have been under the rule of a number of different kingdoms and countries. The official name of the Balearic Islands in Catalan is Illes Balears, while in Spanish they are known as the Islas Baleares. The term "Balearic" derives from Greek. In Latin. Of the various theories on the origins of the two ancient Greek and Latin names for the islands—Gymnasiae and Baleares—classical sources provide two. According to the Lycophron's Alexandra verses, the islands were called Γυμνησίαι/Gymnesiae because its inhabitants were often nude, probably because of the year-round benevolent climate.Balearic Islands – Ramon Llull.
33. Palma de Mallorca – Palma is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of Majorca on the Bay of Palma. Almost half of the total population of Majorca live in Palma. The Cabrera Archipelago, though widely separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. Son Sant Joan, serves over each year. Palma was founded as a Roman camp upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement. Though present-day Palma has no significant remains from this period, archaeological finds are made in centre excavations. Between 902 and 1229, the city was under Islamic control. It remained the capital of the island and it was known as Medina Mayurqa, which in Arab means "City of Majorca". The arrival of the Moors in the Balearic Islands occurred at the beginning of the 8th century. During this period, the population developed an economy based on self-sufficiency and piracy, even showed evidence of a relative hierarchy. It appears that Abd Allah convinced the powers of the city to accept a peace treaty. For wide sectors of the city's population, the sacking of ships which passed through Balearic waters was a source of riches over the next fifteen decades. Eventually, continued piracy in the region lead by Al-Andalus which launched a naval fleet against the whole of the Islands. The Islands were defended from a Muslim incursion.Palma de Mallorca – Palma
34. 19th century – The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in mines, well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Europe's population doubled to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased in 1800 to million a century later. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful revolt in Haiti, Britain and France succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade.19th century – Antoine-Jean Gros, Surrender of Madrid, 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War, 1810
35. Federico Mayor – Federico Mayor Zaragoza is a Spanish scientist, scholar, politician, diplomat, poet. Federico Mayor served from 1987 to 1999. He is an Earth Charter International Commission member. Federico Mayor Zaragoza obtained a Ph.D. from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1958. He was appointed professor in biochemistry at the Autonomous University of Madrid. In 1974 Federico Mayor co-founded the Severo Ochoa Molecular Biology Centre at the Spanish High Council for Scientific Research. Federico Mayor is a member of the Club of Rome, a founder member of the Issyk-Kul Forum. In 2005 Federico Mayor received the Prize Creu de Sant Jordi from the Generalitat de Catalunya. Federico Mayor is a Member of several academies, among them, the World Academy of Art and Science. Federico Mayor has also received honorary doctorates. Federico Mayor is Honorary President of the University of Granada. In 1978 Federico Mayor Zaragoza became Deputy Director-General of UNESCO. In 1987 Federico Mayor was re-elected for a second mandate in 1993. In 2000, Federico Mayor Zaragoza founded the Foundation for a Culture of Peace, serving as its President. In 2002, Federico Mayor Zaragoza was appointed to chair the European Research Council Expert Group.Federico Mayor – At the Universidad Internacional de Andalucia in 2007.
36. 1934 – January 1 – International Telecommunication Union established. January 7 – The Flash Gordon comic strip is first published, in the United States. January 15 – The 8.0 Mw Nepal–Bihar earthquake strikes Nepal and Bihar with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI, killing an estimated 6,000–10,700 people. January 20 – The Japanese company Fuji Photo Film is established. January 26 -- The 10 year German -- Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed by the Second Polish Republic. February 6 – French political crisis: The French far-right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup d'état against the Third Republic. Gaston Doumergue forms a new government in France. Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia form the Balkan Pact. February 12–16 – Austrian Civil War: the Fatherland Front consolidates its power in a series of clashes across the country. February 16 – Commission of Government sworn in as form of direct rule for the Dominion of Newfoundland. February 21 – Augusto César Sandino is assassinated in Managua by the National Guard. March 1 – Manchuria becomes Manchukuo, following an invasion by the Japanese. Their actions are initially approved by the Riigikogu. March 20 – The Great Hakodate Fire kills at least 2,166 people in southern Hokkaido, Japan. March 24 – The Tydings–McDuffie Act is passed, allowing the Philippines a greater degree of self-government from the United States.1934 – Nuremberg Rally of 1934
37. Barcelona – Founded in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Besieged several times during its history, it is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is a major economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $ billion; it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand. Since 2011 it is a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club. The abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is ` BCN', also the IATA code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear.Barcelona – Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
38. UNESCO – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has nine associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, communication/information. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group. On 18 the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, a Preparatory Commission was established. The first General Conference elected Dr. Julian Huxley to the post of Director-General. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO in terms of how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.UNESCO – UNESCO offices in Brasília
39. Pharmacy – Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs. It is a profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. Pharmacists, therefore, are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients. An establishment in which pharmacy is practiced is called a chemist's. The pharmacy is derived from its root word pharma, which had first been used sometime in the 15th -- 17th centuries. However, the Greek roots from pharmakos imply sorcery or even poison. The pharma often operated through a retail shop which, in addition to ingredients for medicines, sold patent medicines. The pharmas also used other herbs not listed. The Greek Pharmakeia derives from pharmakon, meaning "drug", "medicine". Often, collaborative teams from various disciplines work together for patient care. However, pharmacy is not a biomedical science in its typical form. Medicinal chemistry is also a distinct branch of synthetic chemistry combining pharmacology, chemical biology. Pharmacology is sometimes considered as the 4th discipline of pharmacy. Although pharmacology is essential to the study of pharmacy, it is not specific to pharmacy. Both disciplines are distinct.Those who wish to practice both pharmacy and pharmacology receive separate training and degrees unique to either discipline.Pharmacy – The Apothecary or The Chemist by Gabriël Metsu (c. 1651–67)
40. Complutense University of Madrid – The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, consistently ranks as one of the top universities in Spain. According to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. In the course of over seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the sciences, fine arts, political leadership. Alumni include renowned philosophers, writers, scientists, many Prime Ministers of Spain. In the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the only institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire. On 13 April 1499, Cardinal Cisneros secured from Pope Alexander VI a Papal bull to expand Complutense into a full university. This Papal Bull conferred official recognition throughout Christendom to all degrees granted by the University. It also renamed the institution Universitas Complutensis, after Complutum, the Latin name of Alcalá de Henares, where the University was originally located. In the 1509 -- 1510 school the Complutense University already operated with five major schools: Arts and Philosophy, Theology, Medicine. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Complutense University became one of the greatest centers of Academic excellence in the world. Many of the leading figures in science, arts and politics of that Age studied or taught in Complutense's classrooms. Special colleges were created for students of foreign origin, such as Flemish or Irish. In 1824, Francisco Tadeo Calomarde further expanded Complutense by merging it with the University of Sigüenza.Complutense University of Madrid – Cardinal Cisneros expanded the existing Studium Generale into a large five-college University
41. University of Granada – The University of Granada is a public university located in the city of Granada, Spain, founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With approximately 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain. Apart from the city of Granada, UGR also has campuses in Northern Africa. Every year over 2,000 European students enroll through the Erasmus Programme making it the most popular European destination. The university's Center for Modern Languages receives over each year. In 2014, UGR was voted the best Spanish university by international students. In 1526 a college was founded by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for the teaching of logic, philosophy, theology and canon law. Furthermore, the university has new facilities committed to innovation, such as the Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud. According to several rankings, the University of Granada holds first place in Translation and Interpreting studies. It is considered the national leader in Telecommunications Engineering well. UGR is composed of 5 Schools, 116 Departments responsible for teaching and researching into specific subject areas. The UGR began admitting international students in 1992 for Modern Languages. As of 2009-2010, there were some 5,000 international students, including Erasmus exchange students from the European Union. Juan Francisco Casas, Spanish artist. José de Salamanca, Marquis of Salamanca, Spanish businessman and politician.University of Granada – University of Granada
42. Community of Madrid – The Community of Madrid is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. Madrid is located of the Castilian Central Plateau. Its capital is the city of Madrid, also the capital of the country. The Community of Madrid is bounded to the south and east by Castile -- La Mancha and west by Castile and León. Madrid was formally created in 1983, until then conventionally included in the historical region of New Castile. The Community of Madrid is the third most populous in Spain with 6,369,167 inhabitants mostly concentrated in the metropolitan area of Madrid. Madrid is also the most densely populated autonomous community. Madrid's economy is to Catalonia's, which remains Spain's largest. It thus has the highest GDP per capita in the country. Some notable discoveries of the region the bell-shaped vase of Ciempozuelos. During the Roman Empire, the region was part of the Citerior Tarraconese province, for the south-west portion of it, which belonged to Lusitania. It was crossed by two important Roman roads, the via xxiv-xxix (joining Astorga to laminium and via xxv, contained some important conurbations. The city of Complutum became an important metropolis, whereas Titulcia and Miaccum were crossroad communities. During the period of the Visigothic Kingdom, the region lost its importance. The population was scattered amongst small towns.Community of Madrid – Prehistoric vessel from Ciempozuelos, exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Spain (Madrid)
43. 1976 – January -- the first commercially developed supercomputer, is released by Seymour Cray's Cray Research. January 5 – The Pol Pot regime proclaims a new constitution for Democratic Kampuchea. January 15 – Would-be Gerald Ford presidential assassin Sara Jane Moore is sentenced to life in prison. January 16 – The trial against jailed members of the Red Army Faction begins in Stuttgart, West Germany. Full diplomatic relations are established between Bangladesh and Pakistan 5 years after the Bangladesh Liberation War. The Scottish Labour Party is formed. Super Bowl X: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys, 21–17, in Miami. January 19 – Jimmy Carter wins the Iowa Democratic Caucus. January 21 – The first commercial Concorde flight takes off. The United States vetoes a United Nations resolution that calls for an independent Palestinian state. The First Battle of Amgala breaks out in the Spanish Sahara. January 29 – Twelve Provisional Irish Republican Army bombs explode in the West End of London. January 30 – Live from Lincoln Center debuts on PBS. The 1976 Winter Olympics begin in Innsbruck, Austria. In Guatemala and Honduras an earthquake kills more than 22,000.1976 – Italian tall ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor during the United States Bicentennial celebration.
44. Canary Island Pine – Pinus canariensis, the Canary Island pine, is a species of gymnosperm in the coniferous family Pinaceae. It is a evergreen tree native and endemic to the outer Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a subtropical pine and does not tolerate low temperatures or hard frost, surviving temperatures down to about −6 to −10 °C. Under warm conditions, this is one of the most drought-tolerant pines, living even with less than 200 mm per year. It is the symbol of the island of La Palma. The native range has been somewhat reduced due to over-cutting so that only the islands of Tenerife, Gran Canaria still have large forests. Really big trees are still due to past over-cutting. It is the tallest tree in the Canary Islands. The green to yellow-green leaves are often drooping. This pine is one of the most fire-resistant conifers in the world. The cones are 10 -- 18 cm long, 5 frequently remaining closed for several years. Its closest relatives are the Chir Pine from the Himalaya, the Mediterranean pines Pinus pinea, Pinus halepensis, Pinus brutia from the eastern Mediterranean. The condensation then is quickly absorbed by the soil, eventually percolating down to the underground aquifers. Especially the heartwood, is among the finest of pine woods - hard, strong and durable. Pinus canariensis is a ornamental tree in warmer climates, such as in private gardens, public landscapes, as street trees in California.Canary Island Pine – Pinus canariensis Canary Island pine
45. Frost – Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight. Frost is composed of branched patterns of ice crystals formed as the result of fractal process development. The size of frost crystals varies the amount of water vapor available. If the water deposits as a liquid that then freezes, it forms a coating that may look glassy, crystalline, depending on its type. Depending on context, that process also may be called atmospheric icing. Icing will result instead of desublimation. The size of the crystals depends largely on the temperature, how long they have been growing undisturbed. For instance frost may be observed around cracks in wooden sidewalks when humid air escapes from the warmer ground beneath. The apparently erratic occurrence of frost in adjacent localities is due partly to differences of the lower areas becoming colder on calm nights. Hoar frost refers to white ice crystals, loosely attached to exposed objects such as wires or leaves. Under suitable circumstances, objects cool to below the frost point of the surrounding air, well below the freezing point of water. Such freezing may be promoted by effects such as frost pocket. These occur when ground-level radiation losses cool air till it accumulates in pockets of very cold air in valleys and hollows. Hoar frost may freeze in such cold air even when the air temperature a few feet above ground is well above freezing. Depth hoar crystals grow continuously at the expense of neighbouring smaller crystals, have faceted hollows.Frost – Hoar frost or soft rime on a cold winter day in Lower Saxony
46. Jon Stewart – Jon Stewart is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, actor, media critic, former television host. Stewart was the host of a satirical news program on Comedy Central, until 2015. He branched into television for Comedy Central. He went on to host his own show on MTV, The Jon Stewart Show, then hosted You Wrote It, You Watch It, also on MTV. Stewart has done cinematic projects since becoming the host of The Daily Show in 1999. He was also a writer and co-executive producer of the show. After Stewart joined, The Daily Show steadily gained popularity and critical acclaim, his work won 22 Primetime Emmy Awards. Critics say Stewart benefits from a double standard: he critiques other news shows from the safe, removed position of his "fake news" desk. He agrees, saying that neither his channel purports to be anything other than comedy. In spite of its self-professed mandate, The Daily Show has been nominated for journalism awards. Stewart hosted the 78th and 80th Academy Awards. Stewart's final show aired on August 6, 2015. Stewart's family emigrated from Poland, Ukraine and Belarus; one of his grandfathers was born in Manzhouli. He is the second of four sons, with Dan and Matthew. Stewart's parents divorced when Stewart was eleven years old, Stewart was apparently largely estranged from his father.Jon Stewart – Stewart interviewing Admiral Michael Mullen on The Daily Show
47. Battle of Bicocca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands. Having been driven by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonna's lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen were halted at a sunken road backed by earthworks. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated. Meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonna's position proved equally ineffective. It was also one of the first engagements in which firearms played a decisive role on the battlefield. A large Papal force under Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched a attack on the city, overwhelming the Venetian troops defending one of the walls. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew with about 12,000 men. The French proceeded hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself of the city. Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them in Lombardy.Battle of Bicocca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
48. Battle of Ceresole – Despite having inflicted substantial casualties on the Imperial troops, the French subsequently failed to exploit their victory by taking Milan. The battle opened with several hours of skirmishing between opposing bands of an ineffectual artillery exchange, after which d'Avalos ordered a general advance. In the center, Imperial landsknechts clashed with both sides suffering terrific casualties. Ceresole was one of the pitched battles during the latter half of the Italian Wars. By the winter of 1543 -- 44, a stalemate had developed in the Piedmont between the French, under the Imperial army, under d'Avalos. The two armies occupied themselves primarily with attacking each other's outlying strongholds. In January 1544, Enghien laid siege to Carignano, defended under the command of Pirro Colonna. Montluc, returning to Italy, brought with him nearly a hundred volunteers including the young Gaspard de Coligny. D'Avalos, having waited for the arrival a large body of landsknechts dispatched by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, set off towards Carignano. Enghien and Montluc felt that the open ground would give a significant tactical advantage. The French army was divided into right and left wings of the French line. To their left was Enghien himself with three companies of heavy cavalry, a company of light horse, the volunteers from Paris—in total, around 450 troopers. The Imperial line formed up on a similar ridge facing the French position. In the center were the 7,000 landsknechts under the command of Eriprando Madruzzo. To their right was d'Avalos himself, together with the small force of about 200 heavy cavalry under Carlo Gonzaga.Battle of Ceresole – Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos, Marchese del Vasto, in Armor with a Page (oil on canvas by Titian, c. 1533)
49. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was born in Crete, at that part of the center of Post-Byzantine art. He became a master before traveling at age 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done. In 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Greco's expressionistic style found appreciation in the 20th century. El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for often phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting. Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and collector. Nothing is known about also Greek. Manoússos Theotokópoulos, spent the last years of his life in El Greco's Toledo home. El Greco received his initial training as an painter of a leading center of post-Byzantine art. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name as μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος.El Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
50. Lince (tank) – The Lince was a Spanish development programme for a proposed main battle tank that unfolded during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The intention was to replace the M47 and M48 Patton tanks that the Spanish Army had received under the U.S. Mutual Defense Assistance Act between 1954 and 1975, to complement the AMX-30E tanks manufactured for the army during the 1970s. Companies such as German Krauss-Maffei, French GIAT, made bids for the development contract. The main priorities were firepower, with secondary priority placed on protection; the Lince tank was to have been faster than its competitors. The vehicle's size would also have been restricted by the Spanish network. The Spanish government decided to upgrade its fleet of AMX-30Es in the late 1980s. These tanks replaced the M47s and M48s, fulfilled Spain's need to modernize its tank forces in the short term. No prototype of the planned Lince tank was manufactured, no announcements were made on who would receive the contract. Four years later the Spanish government locally manufactured the Leopard 2, fulfilling the long-term goal established in the Lince programme. The first tanks were delivered in 1954, the fleet was upgraded in the 1970s to equal the capabilities of M60 Patton tanks. Spain was, however, interested in replacing these tanks as early as the 1960s with the French AMX-30 or German Leopard 1. Spain eventually decided to buy the French tank and by 1975 the Spanish Army had 299 AMX-30s, designated as AMX-30Es. Of these, 280 tanks were manufactured by the local company Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara who received the patent from the French GIAT. In fielding the AMX-30E, the army found its upgraded M48s to be outdated; its earliest tank was more than 30 years old.Lince (tank) – Mock-up of the German-Spanish Lince
51. T-26 – The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II. It was produced in greater numbers with more than 11,000 manufactured. Twenty-three of these were series-produced, others were experimental models. The T-26 and BT were the main tanks of the Red Army's armoured forces during the interwar period. Soviet light tanks last saw use in August 1945, during the defeat of the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria. The T-26 was used extensively by Spain, China and Turkey. Captured T-26s were used by the Finnish, German, Hungarian armies. Its design was continually modernised between 1931 and 1941. No new models of the T-26 were developed after 1940. The T-26 was a Soviet development of the Vickers 6-Ton tank, designed by the Vickers-Armstrongs company in 1928 -- 29. Both the Soviet Union and Poland expressed interest in the Vickers design. The Vickers 6-Ton was among four models of tanks selected by Soviet representatives to Vickers-Armstrongs. Soviet engineers participated in assembly of the tanks at the Vickers Factory in 1930. The first four Vickers 6-Ton tanks arrived at the end of 1930. The last tanks arrived in 1932, when production of the T-26 was already in progress.T-26 – T-26 mod. 1933 at the museum "Breaching of the Leningrad Blockade " near Kirovsk, Leningrad Oblast. This tank was raised from a river bottom at Nevsky Pyatachok in May 2003.
52. War of the League of Cambrai – Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; Julius then allied himself against France. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned with an offer of alliance. On 10 representatives of the Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the Republic. On 15 Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved rapidly into Venetian territory. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement; his army was eventually destroyed. The Venetian collapse was complete. D'Este, having been appointed Gonfalonier on 19 April, seized the Polesine for himself. The newly arrived Imperial governors, however, quickly proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, revolted. Padua was restored to Venetian control on 17 July 1509. The success of the revolt finally pushed Maximilian into action. In early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive; Venetian troops easily defeated the remaining Imperial forces, capturing Vicenza, Este, Feltre and Belluno. Although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano destroyed a Papal army in the process. Francesco Guicciardini credited the decisive victory to Alfonso himself.War of the League of Cambrai – Pope Julius II, painted by Raphael (oil on wood, c. 1511). Julius attempted to secure Papal authority in Italy by creating the League of Cambrai, an alliance aimed at curbing Venetian power.
53. Verdeja (tank) – The Verdeja was considered a superior tank to the T-26 after a lengthy testing period, yet was never put into mass production. Three light tank prototypes were manufactured including the Verdeja 2. Interest in the vehicle's development waned after the end of the Second World War. A prototype of the 75 millimetre self-propelled howitzer and of the Verdeja 2 were put on display in the early 1990s. Spain received its first tank in mid-1919, a French Renault FT, for testing purposes, later received ten more tanks on 18 December 1921. These prototypes influenced a subsequent indigenous attempt to produce a tank, named the Trubia-Naval. This design also failed to get past the stage. The lack of armor prompted the Soviet Union to supply the Popular Front and Nazi Germany and Italy to supply the Nationalist Front with light tanks. Between 1939, the Italians provided 155 L-3-35s. Meanwhile, the Soviets issued Republican Spain 281 T-26s and 50 BT-5s. In order to armored forces with the T-26, German Major Ritter von Thoma offered Spanish troops 500 pesetas for each tank captured. Despite four successfully converted vehicles, designated Panzer I Breda, there was no widespread program to retrofit the gun into the Panzer I. Instead, the Nationalists began to press captured T-26s into service against their previous owners, with the first Nationalist T-26 unit formed in June 1937. This latter requirement was based on experiences with existing light tanks, which frequently lost their tracks in combat. These solutions were presented to Colonel Díaz de la Lastra, commanding officer of the Agrupación de Carros de Combate.Verdeja (tank) – Verdeja 75 mm self-propelled howitzer, based on the Verdeja 1 prototype chassis
54. War of the Spanish Succession – The Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. France faced invasion and ruin, but Allied unity broke first. British ministers prepared the groundwork in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. By the terms of of Rastatt the Spanish empire was partitioned between the major and minor powers. The European balance of power was assured. The empire was still active and influential on the European and global stage. Unlike the French throne, the Spanish thrones could all be inherited by, or through, a female in default of a male line. The next in line after Charles II, therefore, were his two sisters: the younger. By him she had Louis, Dauphin of France. However the French, using in part the excuse that the dowry promised Maria Theresa was never paid, insisted that her renunciation was invalid. Nor was it clear whether a princess could waive the rights of her unborn children. Leopold I married Margaret Theresa in 1666. At her death in 1673 she left one living heir, Maria Antonia, who in 1685 married Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. Shortly before her death in 1692, she gave birth to a son, Joseph Ferdinand. England and the Dutch Republic had their own commercial, strategic and political interests within the Spanish empire, they were eager to return to peaceful commerce.War of the Spanish Succession – Philip V of Spain and the Duke of Vendôme pictured after the victory at the 1710 Battle of Villaviciosa.
55. Falange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista was the sole legal party of the Francoist dictatorship in Spain. With the eruption of the Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist side against the Second Spanish Republic. Expanding rapidly from several thousand to several hundred thousand, the Falange's male membership was accompanied by a female auxiliary, the Sección Femenina. The command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla, as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was Primo de Rivera, a Government prisoner. As a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his Parliamentary immunity, after his party did not have enough votes during the last elections. Despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange and many Carlists did not join the unified party. None of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. Sixty per cent of the pre-war Falange membership lost their lives in the war. However, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all trade unions were unified under Falangist command. After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology for Franco's regime. Membership in the Falange/FET reached a peak of 932,000 in 1942.Falange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista
56. El Paso (La Palma) – El Paso is a town and a municipality on the island of La Palma, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It is situated in the middle of the island. The area is 135.92 km ², making it the largest municipality on the island of La Palma. The mean elevation is 600 m. The territory of the municipality includes a giant caldera constituting a national park. Many footpaths already crisscrossed La Palma before the Spanish conquest. A number of mountain passes east of present-day El Paso enabled cross-island communications. The village of El Paso was named after this mountain pass by association. To this goal, Fernandez deceitfully invited its Tanausú to an interview, to have him imprisoned on appearance. The island was made directly subject to a situation which would last until 1812. In this year the new Spanish Constitution paved the way into municipalities. List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife El Paso Municipality WebsiteEl Paso (La Palma) – El Paso
57. History of Spain – The history of Spain dates back to the Early Middle Ages. After the completion of the Reconquista, the kingdoms of Spain were united under Habsburg rule in 1516. The war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco, which controlled the Spanish government until 1975. The country experienced rapid economic growth in the 1960s and early 1970s. Only with the death of Franco in 1975 did Spain return to Bourbon constitutional monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos and to democracy. Spain entered the Eurozone in 1999. Spain is part of the G6. The Iberian Peninsula was first inhabited by modern humans about 32,000 years BP. Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. The Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the northeast coast in the 9th century BC, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the Iberia, apparently after the river Iber. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova. The Celts mostly inhabited the north-west part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians.History of Spain – A painting of bison dating from the Upper Paleolithic era in the Altamira caves
58. Hispania – Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed Callaecia. The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania. One theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning "Island of the rabbit". Others "far-distant land". Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Another theory holds that the name derives from the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning place. The Iberian peninsula has long been inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo antecessor. In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the advancing migrations of modern humans. During the last ice age, the first large settlement of Europe by modern humans occurred. These were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia.Hispania – Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.
59. Francoism – Franco chose to avoid becoming heavily involved in the Second World War. Franco's regime evolved into a more autocratic regime. The Spanish Civil War started by the Spanish military on the peninsula and in Spanish Morocco on July 17, 1936. However, its ideology, National Syndicalism, remained the official ideology of the State. Large numbers of those captured were interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen. Political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship. With the death of Franco on 20 November 1975, Juan Carlos became the King of Spain. He initiated the country's subsequent transition to democracy, ending with Spain becoming a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. As all ministers were dismissed by Franco as the "Chief" of state and government, he was effectively the only source of legislation. Municipal councils were appointed similarly by heads of families and local corporations through elections, while mayors were appointed by the government. However, Carrero Blanco was assassinated on the same year and Franco named a civilian, Carlos Arias Navarro as the country's new Prime Minister. Concerns about the international situation, threats of invasion led him to undo some of these reductions. The army maintained a strength of about 400,000 men until the end of the war. Spain attempted to retain control of the last remnants of its colonial empire throughout Franco's rule.Francoism – By decision of King Juan Carlos I, Franco is entombed in the monument of Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos.
60. Geography of Spain – With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the fourth largest country in Western Europe and with an average altitude of 650 m. Its total area is 504,782 km2 of which 499,542 km2 is land and 5,240 km2 is water. Spain lies between latitudes 36° and 44° N, longitudes 19° W and 5° E. Its Atlantic coast is 710 km long. The Pyrenees range extends 435 km from the Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay. Most of Spain's boundaries are the Atlantic Ocean on the northwest and southwest. The affiliation of Gibraltar has continued to be a contentious issue between Spain and Britain. The sovereignty of the plazas de soberanía on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is disputed by Morocco. Spain also has a small exclave inside France called Llívia. The majority of Spain's region consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges. Other landforms include some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of, the Andalusian Plain in the southwest. These are commonly associated mountains, other mountainous regions, lowland regions, islands. The Meseta Central is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain, which has elevations that range from 610 to 760 m. Rimmed by mountains, the Meseta Central slopes gently to the west and to the series of rivers that form some of the border with Portugal. West of the Sistema Central shows its highest peak, Pico Almanzor, of 2,592 m.Geography of Spain – Map of Spain and Portugal, Corrected and Augmented from the Map Published by D. Tomas Lopez. 1810.
61. List of cities in Spain – This is a list of lists of the municipalities of Spain. The municipalities list links are listed below, by autonomous province. Burgos is the province with the least. Notes:*Single-province autonomous communities. Spain has a population of 46,745,807 inhabitants, distributed to 8,117 municipalities. Municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain by population List of submerged places in SpainList of cities in Spain – Madrid, capital of Spain
63. List of municipalities of Spain – This is a list of lists of the municipalities of Spain. The municipalities list links are listed below, by autonomous province. Burgos is the province with the least. Notes:*Single-province autonomous communities. Spain has a population of 46,745,807 inhabitants, distributed to 8,117 municipalities. Municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain by population List of submerged places in SpainList of municipalities of Spain – Madrid, capital of Spain
64. Comarcas of Spain – In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a clearly defined status, are regulated by law and even their comarcal councils have some power. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, county, area or zone. Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Cuéllar. Sepúlveda. Or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón.Comarcas of Spain – Comarcas of Andalusia
65. Provinces of Spain – Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. The layout of Spain's provinces closely follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the sub-division of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one. Historically, the provinces served mainly for policies enacted in Madrid as Spain was a highly centralised state for most of its history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities to democracy. They nevertheless remain electoral districts as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would normally be identified as being in, say, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León. The provinces were the "building-blocks" from which the autonomous communities were created. Consequently, no province is divided between more than one of these communities. Only two capitals of autonomous communities—Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia—are not also the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra. These are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. The names of their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish-language names are the same; locally valid names in Spain's co-official languages are also indicated where they differ.Provinces of Spain – Provinces of Spain
66. Government of Spain – Spain is a constitutional monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain. This was approved in 1978. The final interpretation in the case of dispute, is the business of the Constitutional Court of Spain. The king, currently Felipe VI, has held June 2014. Juan Carlos I, abdicated the throne. This is a hereditary post. Daughters can inherit only if the monarch has no sons. The presumptive is Leonor, Princess of Asturias. The Military Chief of Staff is General Admiral Fernando García Sánchez. President of the Government, misleadingly called "the Spanish President", is the first minister and is elected by the Congress of Deputies. He is informally but commonly referred to as the "Prime Minister". The current holder is Mariano Rajoy Brey, elected on 21 December 2011. He appoints a number of vice-presidents ordered numerically according to rank and responsible for their major ministries such as Finance, Foreign affairs, Domestic administration, etc.. The following is the list of Spain formed after the 2016 general election. Shown here is the official logo of the Government of Spain.Government of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
67. Constitution of Spain – The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain. It is a furtherance of the Spanish transition to democracy. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 was preceded by other constitutions. The Constitution was signed by King Juan Carlos on 27 December 1978. This led to the country undergoing a series of historical changes that transformed the Francoist regime into a democratic state. The Constitution states that the King of Spain is the head of state. However, the king's function does not have any executive power. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the Constitution of 1812. A seven-member panel was selected among the elected members of the Cortes to work on a draft of the Constitution to be submitted to the body. These came to be known, as the media put it, as "fathers of the Constitution". However, since much of the consensus depended on keeping the ambiguous, few of Cela's proposed re-wordings were approved. One of those accepted was the substitution of the archaic gualda for the plain amarillo in the description of the flag of Spain. The constitution was approved by the Spanish people in a referendum on 6 December 1978. 88% of voters supported the new constitution. Finally, it was promulgated by King Juan Carlos on 27 December.Constitution of Spain – Copy of the Spanish Constitution displayed at the Palace of the Cortes.
68. Foreign relations of Spain – Spain has established itself as a major participant in international security activities. Spain's European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms. Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries. Spain maintains cultural exchanges with Latin America, both bilaterally and within the EU. Meanwhile, Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large program. More recently Madrid has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali and others to find solutions for the issue of illegal immigration to the Canary Islands. Spain is also known as a broker in the Middle East. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues. The Arab countries are a interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain. Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three European neighbours, France, Portugal. The accession to the EU has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Bilateral cooperation is enhanced by joint action against Basque ETA violence. Ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue.Foreign relations of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
69. Military of Spain – The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a military force charged with defending the Kingdom's integrity and sovereignty. They consist of the Army, Air Force. The Armed Forces also provide peace keeping troops to the United Nations. The 30 Years War along with financial problems, well as a lack of reforms, weakened Spain's power by the mid 17th century. The occupation of a great part of Spain by the French during the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the so-called war of Spanish independence. Which was characterised due to the wars devastation on Spain's economy. The armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2012 of 123,300 active personnel and 16,400 reserve personnel. The country also has the 80,000 strong Civil Guard which falls in times of a national emergency. The Spanish budget is 5.71 billion euros a 1 % increase for 2015. The increase comes due to security concerns in the country. The Spanish army consists of 6 military regions. They are headed by the head of state, the king of Spain. This is reflected in the varied roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil: air assault, armoured infantry, light role infantry.Military of Spain – Tri-service badge
70. Elections in Spain – There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament. Elections to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates. The plurality system is used for the Senate. The Congress and Senate serve concurrent terms that run for a maximum of four years. The Congress is composed of 350 members directly elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term of office. The remaining 248 seats are allocated to their populations. Parties, federations, agrupaciones de electores may present candidates or lists of candidates. The lists are closed, so electors may not alter the order of such lists. Electors cast a ballot in Ceuta and Melilla. The seats in each constituency are apportioned according to the largest average method of proportional representation, conceived by the Belgian mathematician Victor d'Hondt in 1899. At the time, Zaragoza province had seven seats in Congress, while both Huesca and Teruel had three. As indicated, the PSOE won three seats, the PP two, IU one. Finally, the outcome of the election in Teruel was the following: The effective representation threshold in Teruel was 18,163 votes, or 20.2% of the valid vote. The proportional allocation of seats in each constituency appeared to favor the major parties in general and specifically the party. The system for electing the Senate was first used in 1979, though with regard to the provinces the system is unchanged since 1977.Elections in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
71. Autonomous communities of Spain – Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary state. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies". The two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet used this right. This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown by the 16th century, this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation. The constituent territories -- be dominions -- retained much of their institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories also exhibited a variety of local customs, laws, languages and currencies until the mid nineteenth century. From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries. This culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served mostly as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. These were the Basque Country and Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism. Therefore, economic and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain.Autonomous communities of Spain – A map of Iberia in 1757
72. Spanish nobility – Spanish nobles are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility according to the laws and traditions of the Spanish monarchy. A system of the former kingdoms that constitute it comprise the Spanish nobility. The creation and recognition of titles is legally a prerogative of the King of Spain. Families still exist which have transmitted that status since time immemorial. Some aristocratic families use the nobiliary de before their family name. During the rule of General Francisco Franco, the titles granted by the Carlist pretenders were officially recognized. Noble titleholders are subjected to taxation, whereas under Spain's régime they were exempt. Spanish nobles are classified as untitled nobles. At one time however, each class held special privileges such as: those who received his reply with their heads covered. Those who addressed the king put on their hats to hear his answer. Those who awaited the permission of the king before covering themselves. Additionally, all grandees were addressed by the king as mi Primo, whereas ordinary nobles were only qualified as mi Pariente. An individual may hold a grandeeship, whether in possession of a title of nobility or not. However, each grandeeship is attached to a title. A grandeeship is always attached to the grant of a ducal title.Spanish nobility – Portrait of a Spanish Noble at the height of their Empire. D. Gabriel de la Cueva
73. Politics of Spain – The politics of Spain takes place under the framework established by the Constitution of 1978. Spain is established as a democratic state, wherein the national sovereignty is vested in the people, from which the powers of the state emanate. Legislative power is vested in the Cortes Generales, a bicameral parliament constituted by the Congress of the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the legislature, administering justice on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, there have not been coalition governments; when a party has failed to obtain absolute majority, minority governments have been formed. Exercising the right to self-government granted by the constitution, regions" have been constituted as 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities. His title is King of Spain, although he can use all other titles of the Crown. The Crown, as a symbol of the nation's unity, has a two-fold function. Secondly, it represents the Spanish State as a whole in relation to the autonomous communities, whose rights he is constitutionally bound to respect. Foreign representatives in Spain are accredited to him. The king has only symbolic, rather than actual, authority over the Spanish military. The Spanish Constitution, promulgated in 1978, established explicitly that Juan Carlos I is the legitimate heir of the historical dynasty. This statement served two purposes. First, it established that the position of the King emanates from the source from which its existence is legitimized democratically. Juan Carlos I was constitutional king of Spain from 1978 to 2014.Politics of Spain – King Felipe VI of Spain
74. List of political parties in Spain – This article lists political parties in Spain. Spain has a multi-party system at both the regional level. Regional parties are often essential for national government coalitions. People's Party -- centre-right, is a conservative, Catholic and economically liberal party. Spanish Socialist Workers' Party — mainstream centre-left social democratic party linked to General Union of Workers trade union. Citizens — a centrist, business-friendly party. It rejects autonomous communities' right to self-determination. Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals — a centre-left party focused on the fight for animal rights, the environment and social justice. The party seeks to ban all sorts of bullfighting events. Union, Progress and Democracy — a recently established progressive party which ideologically combines social liberalism with centralism from the centre of political spectrum. It strongly supports the unity of Spain, thereby being an enemy of Spain's peripheral nationalism. Por una Europa de los Trabajadores y los Pueblos - No a la Constitucion Europea - coalition of PCPE and LI-LIT.CI? Prepal? Unidad Regionalista Asturiana? Unión Centrista Liberal?List of political parties in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
75. Spanish Socialist Workers' Party – The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, is a social-democratic political party in Spain. PSOE ruled in democratic Spain between 1982 and 1996, between 2004 and 2011. It is the currently the oldest political party in Spanish history. The party, under Felipe González, formed a majority government after its victory in the 1982 election and stayed in power until 1993 elections. The party then formed a minority government until 1996. PSOE has had strong ties with the General Union of Workers, a Spanish trade union. For decades, UGT membership was a requirement for PSOE membership. However, since the 1980s, UGT has frequently criticized the economic policies of PSOE, even calling for a general strike on 14 December 1988. PSOE was last in power between 2004 and 2011 with José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero serving as leader of the government. The PSOE is a member of the Party of European Socialists, Progressive Alliance and the Socialist International. In the European Parliament, PSOE's 14 Members of the European Parliament sit in the Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group. PSOE was founded with the purpose of representing and defending the interests of the working class formed during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The ideology of the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party has evolved throughout the 20th Century according to relevant historical events and the evolution of Spanish society. This allowed for the consolidation of the leftist forces in PSOE. Currently, PSOE defines itself as "social democratic, center-left and progressive".Spanish Socialist Workers' Party – Pablo Iglesias founded the party back in 1879.
76. People's Party (Spain) – The People's Party is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain. It is one of the four major parties of Spanish politics. The new party combined the conservative AP with liberal parties. In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman". Its organization is New Generations of the People's Party of Spain. In the elections of November 2011 the PP won a majority in the Deputies. In the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is also a member of the International Democrat Union. The PP was also one of the founding organizations for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The party has its roots in the People's Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga. Although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an extremely gradual transition to democracy. However, he badly underestimated the public's distaste for Francoism. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, putting it in fourth place. In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga's wing won the struggle, prompting most of the disenchanted reactionaries to leave the party.People's Party (Spain) – Headquarters on Calle Genova in Madrid. As the party seat, the term Genova often used as a metonym for the Party leadership.
77. Prime Minister of Spain – The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the largest party in the Congress. The Spanish head of government is known, as the Presidente del Gobierno. In Spain the head of the government is often called meaning "President". Before 1833 the figure was known as Secretario de Estado, a denomination used today for junior ministers. Once a general election has been announced by the king, political parties nominate their candidates to stand for the presidency of the party leader. Constitutionally, the cabinet are responsible to the monarch, not the Cortes. On paper, the monarch is free to name anyone he sees fit as his prerogative to form a government. For this reason, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Congress. However, there is no legal requirement for this. The monarch is normally able to announce his nominee on the day following a general election. A simple majority confirms his program. After the nominee is confirmed, the Speaker of the Congress formally reports to the king of the congressional confirmation. The king then appoints the candidate as the new President of the Government. The king's order of appointment is countersigned by the Speaker.Prime Minister of Spain – Incumbent Mariano Rajoy since 21 December 2011
78. Economy of Spain – Spain has the fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP in the world, it is also among the largest in the world by purchasing power parity. The country is a member of the European Union, the World Trade Organization. The Spanish economy is the fourth-largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP statistics. In 2012, Spain was the twelfth-largest exporter in the sixteenth-largest importer. According to The Economist, Spain has the world's 10th highest quality of life. Spain has also the biggest expectancy in Europe. Following the financial crisis of 2007 -- 08, the Spanish economy's plunged into recession, entering a cycle of macroeconomic performance. Compared to the EU's and US. average, the Spanish economy entered recession later, but stayed there for longer. The economic boom of the 2000s was reversed, leaving by 2012. In aggregated terms, the Spanish GDP contracted during the 2009-2013 period. The economic situation started improving by 2013-2014. During the boom years, Spain had built up a deficit eventually reaching a record amounting to 10 % of GDP. Exports in 2014 were 34% of GDP, up from 24% in 2009. When Spain joined the EEC in 1986 its GDP per capita was about 72% of the average of its members. Three regions were included in the leading EU group exceeding 125 % of the GDP per capita level: Basque Country leading with Madrid and Navarre.Economy of Spain – Cuatro Torres Business Area in Madrid
79. Transport in Spain – Transport in Spain is characterised by an extensive network of roads, railways, rapid transit, air routes, ports. Its geographic location makes an important link between Europe, Africa, the New World. Major forms of transit generally radiate from Madrid, located in the centre of the country, to link with the capitals of the autonomous communities. Spain is currently working to improve linkage with the rail systems of France and Portugal, including high-speed rail between Madrid and Lisbon. Spain possesses a highly developed system, with both tolled and freeways. Air traffic is routed through several regional airports, the largest of, Barajas International Airport in Madrid. Spanish railways date from 1848. A high-speed line between Madrid and Seville was completed in 1992. In 2003, high-speed service was extended to Barcelona in 2008. Lines from Madrid to Valladolid and from Córdoba to Málaga were inaugurated. In 2010, AVE line Madrid-Cuenca-Valencia was inaugurated. Alicante Barcelona (Barcelona Metro/Tram Bilbao Castellon under construction. Estimated inauguration 2013. A Coruña under construction. Granada under construction.Transport in Spain – Madrid Metro
80. European System of Central Banks – The European System of Central Banks consists of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 28 member states of the European Union. The ESCB is not the monetary authority of the eurozone, because not all EU member states have joined the euro. That role is performed by the Eurosystem, which includes the central banks of the 19 member states that have adopted the euro. The ESCB's objective is stability throughout the European Union. Secondarily, the ESCB's goal is to improve financial cooperation between the Eurosystem and member states outside the eurozone. The process of decision-making in the Eurosystem is centralized through the decision-making bodies of the ECB, the Executive Board. Long as there are EU member states which have not adopted the euro, a third decision-making body, the General Council, shall also exist. The General Council comprises the governors of the NCBs of all 28 Member States. The ESCB is composed of the national central banks of all 28 member states of the European Union. The first section of the following list lists their central banks that form the Eurosystem, which set eurozone monetary policy. The second section lists their central banks that maintain separate currencies. European Central Bank ECB – The General Council Organisation and operation of the ECB CVCEEuropean System of Central Banks – ESCB
81. Bolsa de Madrid – Bolsa de Madrid is owned by Bolsas y Mercados Españoles. The reorganisation of Spain's financial market under the national umbrella of the Spanish Stock Market includes the bolsas, fixed-income markets. Trading is linked through the electronic Spanish Stock Market Interconnection System, which handles more than 90% of transactions; all fixed-income assets are traded through SIBE. The IBEX 35 Index is a capitalization-weighted index comprising the 35 most Spanish stocks traded in the continuous market, is Bolsa de Madrid's benchmark. Bolsa de Madrid also offers a European market for Latin American stocks. The Ibex New Market Index, for emerging companies, was offered from 2000 to 2007. Settlement is T + 3. In 1993, the Bolsa de Madrid switched for fixed-income securities. The membership of the Madrid Stock Exchange consists of 12 established securities dealers. At December 2001, approximately 1477 domestic and foreign companies had their equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange. The total capitalization of the equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange in May, 2007 was $1,276.26 billion. It is housed in the Palacio de la Bolsa de Madrid. Madrid Stock Exchange General Index Official websiteBolsa de Madrid – Madrid Stock Exchange Bolsa de Madrid
82. Culture of Spain – In the areas of religion, the Ancient Romans left a lasting legacy. The subsequent course of Spanish history added other elements to the country's culture and traditions. The Visigothic Kingdom left a sense of a united Christian Hispania, going to be welded in the Reconquista. Muslim influences were strong during the Middle Ages. Another influence was the minority Jewish population in some cities. After the defeat of the Muslims during the Christian Reconquista period between 1492, Spain became an almost entirely Roman Catholic country. By the end of the 20th centuries, the Spaniards made expressions of cultural diversity easier than it had been for the last seven centuries. This occurred at the same period that Spain became increasingly drawn into a international culture. Spain has the third highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, with a total of 44. The term "Spanish literature" refers to literature written including literature composed by Spanish and Latin American writers. It may include Spanish poetry, novels. Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in those by Spanish authors worldwide. Due to geographic, generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and is very diverse. Some major movements can be identified within it. Highlights include the Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta.Culture of Spain – Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea, also called " La Celestina "
83. Bullfighting – Instead, it is considered a highly ritualized cultural form which some see as deeply tied to Spanish culture and identity. It has been alleged that toreros seek to elicit art with the crowd transmitted through the bull. The close proximity places the bullfighter at risk of being gored or trampled by the bull. Sometimes, the life of the bull is spared due to his braveness; once the animal has been treated, it is returned to live in the dehesa. Such pardons are nevertheless rare. There are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsula, France and Latin America. Bullfighting traces its roots in the Mediterranean region. The recorded bullfight may be the Epic of Gilgamesh, which describes a scene in which Gilgamesh and Enkidu killed the Bull of Heaven. Bull leaping was portrayed in Crete, myths related to bulls throughout Greece. The killing of the sacred bull is the iconic act of Mithras, commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where human-versus-animal events were held as the Venationes. These hunting games spread to Africa, Europe and Asia during Roman times. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves Spanish colonists took the practice of bullfighting to the American colonies, Asia. In the 19th century, areas of southwestern France adopted developing their own distinctive form. In the Middle Ages across Europe, knights would joust in competitions on horseback.Bullfighting – Bullwrestling, Édouard Manet, 1865–1866
84. Cinema of Spain – The art of motion-picture making within the Kingdom of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish Cinema. In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s. I hope that Europeans will continue to lead the way in film making because at the moment much is coming from the United States." All of these films were produced by Spanish firms. The Spanish film exhibition took place on May 5, 1895, in Barcelona. Exhibitions of Lumière films were screened in Madrid and Barcelona in May and December of 1896, respectively. The matter of which Spanish film came first is in doubt. It is also possible that the first film was Riña en un café by the prolific filmmaker Fructuós Gelabert. These films were all released in 1897. In 1914, Barcelona was the center of the nation's industry. The españoladas predominated until the 1960s. Prominent among these were the films of Florián Rey, starring the first version of Nobleza Baturra. Even the Nobel Prize-winning playwright Jacinto Benavente, who said that "in film they pay the scraps," would shoot film versions of his theatrical works. In 1928, Ernesto Giménez Caballero and Luis Buñuel founded the first cine-club, in Madrid.Cinema of Spain – Cine Capitol, Gran Vía, Madrid
85. Spanish cuisine – Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories. Spanish cuisine derives from a complex history, where invasions of the country and conquests of new territories made new ingredients available. There is not much information about diet or culture before historical time. Authors such as Strabo, however, write about aboriginal people using acorns as staple food. The Romans introduced the custom of eating mushrooms, still preserved in many parts of Spain, especially in the north. The Visigoths introduced brewing. The change came in 711 AD, when Muslim troops composed of Arabs and Berbers crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, invading the Iberian Peninsula. It is common for modern dishes to possess Berber and Arab roots. Other ingredients traveled such as rice, grapes, olives and many types of cereals. A continental-style breakfast may be taken before entering the workplace. Due to the large span between breakfast and lunch, it is not uncommon to halt the working schedule to take a mid-morning snack. The large midday meal in Spain, contains several courses. It is usually followed by Sobremesa, which refers to the tabletalk that Spanish people undertake. Menus include five or six choices in each course. Green salad with the fish courses.Spanish cuisine – Jamón Ibérico. In 2007 and 2010, "Bellota de Oro" was chosen as "Best ham in the world" in IFFA Delicat
86. Education in Spain – Education in Spain is regulated by the Ley Orgánica de Educación that expands upon Article 27 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam which differs greatly to region. The compulsory stage of secondary education is normally referred to by its initials: ESO. Second Cycle: 4th year. The second cycle contains the other towards vocational training. Spanish Bachillerato is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the A Levels/Higher in the UK, the International Baccalaureate. There are two parts, a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from. Plastic Arts, Image and Design: Volume Artistic drawing Technical drawing Audiovisual Culture History of art Design Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques Information and communication technologies. The Spanish School Leaving Certificate is equivalent to a number of GCSEs, Junior Cert or Standard Grades. The Bachillerato is equivalent to A-levels, Leaving Certificate. and Scottish Highers. Therefore, Spanish students obtaining the appropriate grades required into universities in other parts of Europe, including Britain, are not precluded. The vocational training is also a common possibility after the Spanish Baccalaureate. After completion of programs, the students are awarded with a diploma. Parents have to buy all of their children's books and materials. This, at least also applies to colegios concertados.Education in Spain – Education in Spain
87. Spanish literature – Spanish literature generally refers to literature written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain. The Roman occupation of the Iberian peninsula beginning in the 3rd century BC brought a Latin culture to Spanish territories. The arrival of Muslim invaders in 711 CE brought the cultures of the Middle and Far East. In Spanish literature, the earliest recorded examples of a vernacular Romance-based literature mix Muslim, Jewish, Christian culture. One of the notable works is Cantar de Mio Cid, written in 1140. Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages includes the courtly poetry of the nobles. Literary production increased greatly. In the Renaissance important topics were poetry, prose. In the Baroque era of the 17th century important works were the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and Baltasar Gracián. A notable author was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, famous for his masterpiece Don Quixote la Mancha. In Romanticism important topics are: the poetry of other poets; prose; the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra, José Zorrilla, other authors. In Modernism several currents appear: Symbolism, Futurism, Creationism. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by the U.S. in 1898 provoked a crisis in Spain. A group of younger writers, among them Pío Baroja, José Martínez Ruiz, made changes to literature's form and content.Spanish literature – The Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta
88. Music of Spain – Spanish music is often associated with traditional styles such as classical guitar. While these forms of music are common, there are many traditional musical and dance styles across the regions. Spanish music played a notable part in the early developments of western classical music, through the early 17th century. Nowadays popular music dominates. The Iberian peninsula has had a history of receiving musical influences from around the Mediterranean Sea and across Europe. Hence, there have been developments that have produced a large number of unique musical traditions. Isidore of Seville wrote in the 6th century. As the Christian reconquista progressed, these chants were entirely replaced by the Gregorian standard, once Rome had regained control of the Iberian churches. In the Christian courts of the reconquistors, music like the Cantigas de Santa Maria, also reflected Moorish influences. Important medieval sources include the Codex Calixtinus collection from Santiago de Compostela and the Codex Las Huelgas from Burgos. The so-called Llibre Vermell de Montserrat is an devotional collection from the 14th century. In the early Renaissance, the Castilian dramatist Juan del Encina ranked among the main composers in the post-Ars Nova period. The organist Antonio de Cabezón stands out for his keyboard compositions and mastery. An early 16th-century vocal style developed in Spain was closely related to that of the Franco-Flemish composers. Music composed by Luis de Milán, Alonso Mudarra and Luis de Narváez was one of the main achievements of the period.Music of Spain – The modern classical guitar and its baroque predecessor originated in Spain
89. RTVE – RTVE is the largest audiovisual group in Spain broadcasting in the Spanish language. Since January 2010 it is financed exclusively by public subsidies. Among the obligations of the RTVE Corporation are: Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and civic values. Truthfulness of the information provided, while ensuring that a broad range of views is presented. Facilitate the free expression of opinion. Promote linguistic and cultural diversity of Spain. To serve the widest audience, ensuring geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality, diversity, innovation, high ethical standards. RTVE throughout its history has assumed numerous identities. The history of RTVE begins by Radio Nacional de España from the city of Salamanca. Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time RTVE became an autonomous organization. In 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, as a legal public entity with its own jurisdiction. The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981. Since then, its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacional's. In 1989, its radio service was merged into RNE.RTVE – RNE's headquarters, Casa de la Radio (Radio's house) in Pozuelo (Madrid).
90. Football in Spain – Association football is the most popular sport in Spain, is a widespread passion among the people of Spain. In a survey of habits of the Spanish population made in 2010, football was the second most popular recreational sport practised by the population. A total of 75.9 % of people said they had ever bought tickets to attend a match. In addition, a total of 67.3 % of the people said that they saw all, almost all, some of the football matches broadcast on television. However, in this survey football was still the sport that interests the majority of Spain’s people. A total of 67 % of the population had sympathy for a particular club. A relationship towards regionalism in Spain has also been reported. It organises two Cup competitions, the Spain national football team. It is responsible for the organisation of football leagues, in coordination with RFEF. The national football team have won the FIFA World Cup once, has also been successful in the UEFA European Championship and the Olympic tournament. The men's national teams of Spain, in all categories, have won a total of 26 titles in FIFA, UEFA, Olympic tournaments. At level, the Spanish football clubs have won a total of 66 international tournaments. The Spanish national football team is Tiki-taka. Professional football in Spain is a sociocultural event that make a significant contribution to the Spanish economy in terms of both supply. In economic terms, during 2013 professional football generated more than $ billion including direct, indirect and induced effects, representing 0.75 % of Spanish GPD.Football in Spain – Santiago Bernabeu, Real Madrid’s Stadium.
91. Spanish wine – Spanish wines are wines produced in Spain. The country is ninth on average, 21.6 litres per person a year. The abundance of native grape varieties fostered an early start to viticulture with evidence of grape pips dating back to the Tertiary period. Following the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians introduced new advances to the region-including the teachings of the early viticulturist Mago. Carthage would wage a series of wars with the emerging Roman Republic that would lead to the Roman conquest of the Spanish mainland, known as Hispania. Under Roman rule, Spanish wine was widely traded throughout the Roman empire. The two largest wine producing regions at the time were Baetica in the south. Spanish wine was also provided to Roman soldiers guarding border settlements in Britain and the Limes Germanicus in Germania. . Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain was invaded by barbaric tribes-including the Suebi and the Visigoths. Several emirs owned vineyards and drank wine. While there were laws written that outlawed the sale of wine, it was included on lists of items that were subject to taxation in Moorish territories. The Spanish Reconquista reopened the possibility of exporting Spanish wine. Bilbao emerged as a large port; introducing Spanish wines to the English wine markets in Bristol, London and Southampton. The quality of some of these Spanish wines appears to have been high.Spanish wine – Spanish wines emphasize their flavour for the sake of tasting.
92. Demographics of Spain – Spain's population peaked in 2012, at 46,818,216 people. Spain's official population fell by 206,000 mostly because of immigrants returning home due to the effects of the European economic and fiscal crisis. Its density, at 91.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, is lower than that of most Western European countries. With the exception of the capital Madrid, the most densely populated areas lie around the coast. No fewer than eleven of Spain's fifty provinces saw an absolute decline over the century. The last quarter of the century saw a dramatic fall in birth rates. Spain's rate of 1.47 is lower than the EU average, but has climbed every year since the late 1990s. The rate has climbed in 10 years from 9.10 births per 1000 people per year in 1996 to 10.9 in 2006. Spain has no official religion. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 abolished the Roman Catholic Church as the official religion, while recognizing the role it plays in Spanish society. 76.7 % of the population define themselves as 1.6 % other religions. Among believers, 55.3 % assert they almost never go by contrast, 17.0 % attend one or more masses almost every week. The population of Spain doubled as a result of the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. Many demographers have linked Spain's very low rate to the country's lack of any real family planning policy. Spain spends the least on support out all western European countries -- 0.5 % of GDP.Demographics of Spain – Population density by municipality in Spain, 2008
93. Spanish people – Within Spain there are a number of regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. There are several commonly spoken regional languages, Catalan and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who share a Hispanic culture; most notably in Hispanic America. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD. In the 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was also conquered. In parallel, a wave of emigration began to the Americas began over 16 million people emigrating to the Americas during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period, a further million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, Puerto Rico and Cuba. As a result, Spanish-descendants in the hundreds of millions. Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The population of Spain is became increasingly diverse due to recent immigration. Celts settled during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. The seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries.Spanish people – Lady of Elche, a piece of Iberian sculpture from the 4th century BC
94. Time in Spain – Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time and Central European Summer Time de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the zone is Western European Time and Western European Summer Time. Daylight time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October throughout Spain. Spain used Greenwich Mean Time before the Second World War. Some observers believe that this time shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule. Spain, like other parts of the world, used solar time until 31 December 1900. The Royal Decree was sanctioned by María Cristina on 26 July 1900 in the place where she resided during summer. The natural zone for the Canary Islands is UTC − 01:00. Daylight time was first introduced in 1918, the year in which World War I ended. It was then abolished several times. It was not applied in 1920 -- 1923, 1925, -- 1936. After the war ended on 1 April 1939, on 15 April 1939 DST was also applied. After the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time has been observed every year. In 1996, daylight saving time was harmonized by Directive 2000/84/EC, which moved the end of DST to the last Sunday in October.Time in Spain – Time zones in Europe, UTC+01:00 in red. Darker shades indicate use of DST. Canary Islands are not shown.
95. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014