1. Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growthSpain – Lady of Elche
2. Spanish language – Spanish —also called Castilian —is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain, with hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the worlds second-most spoken native language after Mandarin Chinese and it is one of the few languages to use inverted question and exclamation marks. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Beginning in the early 16th century, Spanish was taken to the colonies of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania, around 75% of modern Spanish is derived from Latin. Greek has also contributed substantially to Spanish vocabulary, especially through Latin, Spanish vocabulary has been in contact from an early date with Arabic, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin and it has also been influenced by Basque as well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. It also adopted words from languages such as Gothic language from the Visigoths in which many Spanish names and surnames have a Visigothic origin. Spanish is one of the six languages of the United Nations. It is the language in the world by the number of people who speak it as a mother tongue, after Mandarin Chinese. It is estimated more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, speakers in the Americas total some 418 million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8% of the population. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States, in 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over,38 million speak Spanish at home. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows, El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado, las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas. Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State, the other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities. The Spanish Royal Academy, on the hand, currently uses the term español in its publications. Two etymologies for español have been suggested, the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, and that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus, from—or pertaining to—HispaniaSpanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
3. Southern Europe – Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula, different methods can be used to define Southern Europe, including its political, economic, and cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features — its geography, climate, geographically, Southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, with no clear limits and those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes throughout, including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees. Cooler climates can be found in parts of Southern European countries, for example within the mountain ranges of Spain. Additionally, the north coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate, Southern Europes flora is that of the Mediterranean Region, one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan. The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and it promoted trade, tolerance, and Greek culture. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western Roman Empire based in Rome, during the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples moved into positions of power in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms, the period known as the Crusades, a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule, began. Several Crusader states were founded in the eastern Mediterranean, the Crusaders would have a profound impact on many parts of Europe. Their Sack of Constantinople in 1204 brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. Though it would later be re-established, it would never recover its former glory, the Crusaders would establish trade routes that would develop into the Silk Road and open the way for the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista, a movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe, the epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period, in the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire, a Turkish state originating in Anatolia, encroached steadily on former Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. An unprecedented series of wars and political revolutions took place around Europe. Observers at the time, and many historians since, have argued that wars caused the revolutions, galileo Galilei, invented the telescope and the thermometer which allowed him to observe and describe the solar systemSouthern Europe – Geographic features of countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
4. Iberian Peninsula – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the second largest European peninsula, at that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabos Iberia was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with. According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country side of the Ἶβηρος as far north as the river Rhône in France. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, elsewhere he says that Saguntum is on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia. Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people of the Iberian stock living in the Pyrenees, according to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political, the Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to land of the Hiberians. This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus, hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro. The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics, the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Lusitania, Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, the Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so known it was hardly necessary to state, for example. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called the whole of Spain Hiberia because of the Hiberus River, the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus, with reference to this border, Polybius states that the native name is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us terminationIberian Peninsula – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
5. Southwestern Europe – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnɪnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the second largest European peninsula, at that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabos Iberia was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with. According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country side of the Ἶβηρος as far north as the river Rhône in France. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, elsewhere he says that Saguntum is on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia. Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people of the Iberian stock living in the Pyrenees, according to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political, the Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to land of the Hiberians. This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus, hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro. The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics, the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Lusitania, Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, the Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so known it was hardly necessary to state, for example. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called the whole of Spain Hiberia because of the Hiberus River, the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus, with reference to this border, Polybius states that the native name is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us terminationSouthwestern Europe – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
6. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, land, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is also called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek, Latin, and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate, geology, and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, later, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare NostrumMediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
7. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa. The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the otherAtlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
8. Parliamentary democracy – Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies and it arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness, representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of polling stations, vote counters, etc. The government is responsible for paying for the wages of the representatives. This system of governance is also time efficient as decisions can be made by a select few and it is a system in which people elect their lawmakers, who are then held accountable to them for their activity within government. It has been described by political theorists including Robert A Dahl, Gregory Houston. In it the power is in the hands of the representatives who are elected by the people in elections. Representatives are elected by the public, as in elections for the national legislature. Elected representatives may hold the power to other representatives, presidents, or other officers of the government or of the legislature. The constitution may also provide for some deliberative democracy or direct popular measures, however, these are not always binding and usually require some legislative action—legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him, their opinion, high respect, their business, unremitted attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs, and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own. But his unbiassed opinion, his judgment, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man. These he does not derive from your pleasure, no, nor from the law and they are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his only, but his judgment. The Roman Republic was the first government in the world to have a representative government. In Britain, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for holding two famous parliaments, the first, in 1258, stripped the King of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution led to the creation of a new Constitution of the United States in 1787Parliamentary democracy – The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
9. Constitutional monarchy – A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor, paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay, has defined a constitutional monarch as a sovereign who reigns, in addition to acting as a visible symbol of national unity, a constitutional monarch may hold formal powers such as dissolving parliament or giving royal assent to legislation. Many constitutional monarchies still retain significant authorities or political influence however, such as through certain reserve powers, the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms are all constitutional monarchies in the Westminster tradition of constitutional governance. Three states – Malaysia, Cambodia and the Holy See – are elective monarchies, the oldest constitutional monarchy dating back to ancient times was that of the Hittites. These were scattered noble families that worked as representatives of their subjects in an adjutant or subaltern federal-type landscape, the most recent country to move from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy was Bhutan, between 2007 and 2008. At the same time, in Scotland the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689, although Queen Anne was the last monarch to veto an Act of Parliament when in 1707 she blocked the Scottish Militia Bill, Hanoverian monarchs continued to selectively dictate government policies. For instance George III constantly blocked Catholic Emancipation, eventually precipitating the resignation of William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister in 1801, Queen Victoria was the last monarch to exercise real personal power but this diminished over the course of her reign. In 1839 she became the last sovereign to keep a Prime Minister in power against the will of Parliament when the Bedchamber crisis resulted in the retention of Lord Melbournes administration, today, the role of the British monarch is by convention effectively ceremonial. No person may accept significant public office without swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen, with few exceptions, the monarch is bound by constitutional convention to act on the advice of the Government. Constitutional monarchy also occurred briefly in the years of the French Revolution. As originally conceived, a monarch was head of the executive branch and quite a powerful figure even though his or her power was limited by the constitution. In many cases the monarchs, while still at the top of the political and social hierarchy, were given the status of servants of the people to reflect the new. In the course of Frances July Monarchy, Louis-Philippe I was styled King of the French rather than King of France, following the Unification of Germany, Otto von Bismarck rejected the British model. However this model of constitutional monarchy was discredited and abolished following Germanys defeat in the First World War. Later, Fascist Italy could also be considered as a constitutional monarchy and this eventually discredited the Italian monarchy and led to its abolition in 1946. After the Second World War, surviving European monarchies almost invariably adopted some variant of the constitutional monarchy model originally developed in Britain, nowadays a parliamentary democracy that is a constitutional monarchy is considered to differ from one that is a republic only in detail rather than in substance. However, three important factors distinguish monarchies such as the United Kingdom from systems where greater power might otherwise rest with Parliament, other privileges may be nominal or ceremonialConstitutional monarchy – Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in green. Other constitutional monarchies are shown in light green.
10. European Union – The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendumEuropean Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
11. 1986 – The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations. January 1 Spain and Portugal enter the European Community, which becomes the European Union. Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands and is separated from the Netherlands Antilles, the Province of Flevoland is established in the Netherlands. UNIDO becomes an agency of the United Nations. January 9 – After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves the instant camera business, January 11 – The Gateway Bridge in Brisbane, Australia, at this time the worlds longest prestressed concrete free-cantilever bridge, is opened. January 12 – STS-61-C, Space Shuttle Columbia is launched with the first Hispanic American astronaut, January 13–24 – South Yemen Civil War. January 19 – The first PC virus, Brain, starts to spread, January 20 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel. January 24 – The Voyager 2 space probe makes its first encounter with Uranus, January 25 – Yoweri Musevenis National Resistance Army Rebel group takes over Uganda after leading a 5-year guerrilla war in which up to half a million people are believed to have been killed. They will later use January 26 as the date to avoid a coincidence of dates with Dictator Idi Amins 1971 coup. January 26 – Super Bowl XX, The Bears defeated the Patriots by the score of 46–10, January 29 – Yoweri Museveni is sworn in as President of Uganda. February 3 – Pixar Animation Studios are opened in California, february 7 President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti, ending 28 years of family rule. February 8 – The Hinton train collision happened, which a Canadian National train heading westbound collided with a Via Rail train in Hinton,23 people were killed in the accident, and injured 71 people. February 9 – Halleys Comet reaches its perihelion, the closest point to the Sun, february 11 – Human rights activist Natan Sharansky is released by the Soviet Union and leaves the country. February 15 – The Beechcraft Starship makes its maiden flight, february 16 The Soviet liner MS Mikhail Lermontov sinks in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Ouadi Doum air raid, The French Air Force raids the Libyan Ouadi Doum airbase in northern Chad, february 17 – The Single European Act is signed. February 19 The Soviet Union launches the Mir space station, the United States Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide. February 21 – Nintendo releases the first game in the Zelda series, The Legend of Zelda, february 22 – The People Power Revolution begins in the Philippines to remove President Ferdinand Marcos from office. February 25 The 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union opens in Moscow, the General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev introduces the keywords of his mandate to the audience, Glasnost and Perestroika1986 – Disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger, January 28, 1986
12. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
13. Roman empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
14. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the periodMiddle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
15. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
16. Bonfires of Saint John – The Bonfires of Saint John is a traditional and popular festival celebrated around the world during Midsummer, which takes place on the evening of 23 June, St. Johns Eve. It is customary in many cities and towns in Spain, the largest one takes place in Alicante, the biggest celebration in Portugal is held in Oporto, where it is known as the Festa de São João do Porto. The festivals of Midsummers Eve have roots in ancient celebrations related to the summer solstice, Bonfires were lit to protect against evil spirits which were believed to roam freely when the sun was turning southward again. In later years, witches were thought to be on their way to meetings with other powerful beings. In some areas, bonfires are traditionally named tequeos, which people of the dance. Parties are often organized at beaches, where bonfires are lit, on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, especially in Catalonia and Valencia, special foods such as coca de Sant Joan are also served on this occasion. In Alicante, since 1928, the bonfires of Saint John were developed into elaborate constructions inspired by the Falles, or Fallas, what follows is a summary of Galician traditions surrounding St. Johns festival in relation to these three elements. Medicinal plants, Traditionally, women collect several species of plants on St. Johns eve. These vary from area to area, but mostly include fennel, different species of fern, rue, rosemary, dog rose, lemon verbena, St Johns wort, mallows, laburnum, foxgloves, in some areas, these are arranged in a bunch and hung in doorways. In most others, they are dipped in a vessel with water and left exposed to the dew of night until the following morning. Water, Tradition holds it that the plants mentioned above are most effective when dipped in water collected from seven different springs. Also, on beaches, it was traditional for women who wanted to be fertile to bathe in the sea until they were washed by 9 waves. Occasionally, a dummy is placed at the top, representing a witch or the devil, young and old gather around them and feast mostly on pilchards, potatoes boiled in their skins and maize bread. When it is safe to jump over the bonfire, it is done three times for good luck at the cry of meigas fora. Before 1928, the bonfires of Saint John had been celebrated in Alicante as it had elsewhere in Europe. The Bonfires festival in Alicante originated in 1928, jose María Py, the founder of the festival, felt that Alicante needs an important fiesta, and come up with an idea to combine bonfires with a Valencian tradition known as the falles. The festival ultimately became the most important cultural event in Alicantinian society,19 June The Bonfires start with the Set Up when monuments, street ninots and archways to the barraques are set up in the streets. A pie of tuna and early figs are eaten at night, 19–24 June The despertà occur at 08,00 - Neighbours are awakened with a great deal of noise in all the districts of the cityBonfires of Saint John – Fireworks at the 2008 event
17. Alicante – It is also a historic Mediterranean port. The population of the city of Alicante proper was 328,648, estimated as of 2015, including nearby municipalities, the Alicante conurbation had 452,462 residents. The population of the area was 757,085 as of 2014 estimates. The name of the city echoes the Arabic name Laqant or Al-Laqant, the area around Alicante has been inhabited for over 7000 years. The first tribes of hunter-gatherers moved down gradually from Central Europe between 5000 and 3000 BC, some of the earliest settlements were made on the slopes of Mount Benacantil. The town of Leuce Akra was then founded by Greek settlers from Marseille around 325/324 b. C, by the 3rd century BC, the rival armies of Carthage and Rome began to invade and fight for control of the Iberian Peninsula. The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca established the settlement of Akra Leuka. Although the Carthaginians conquered much of the land around Alicante, the Romans would eventually rule Hispania Tarraconensis for over 700 years. By the 5th century AD, Rome was in decline and the Roman predecessor town of Alicante, however neither the Romans nor the Goths put up much resistance to the Arab conquest of Medina Laqant in the 8th century. The Moors ruled southern and eastern Spain until the 13th century Reconquista, Alicante was finally taken in 1246 by the Castilian king Alfonso X, but it passed soon and definitively to the Kingdom of Valencia in 1298 with King James II of Aragon. It gained the status of Royal Village with representation in the medieval Valencian Parliament and this act cost the region dearly, with so many skilled artisans and agricultural labourers gone, the feudal nobility found itself sliding into bankruptcy. The end of the 19th century witnessed a sharp recovery of the economy with increasing international trade. During the early 20th century, Alicante was a capital that enjoyed the benefit of Spains neutrality during World War I. The Rif War in the 1920s saw numerous alicantinos drafted to fight in the long, the political unrest of the late 1920s led to the victory of Republican candidates in local council elections throughout the country, and the abdication of King Alfonso XIII. The proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was much celebrated in the city on 14 April 1931, the Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936. The late 1950s and early 1960s saw the onset of a transformation of the city by the tourist industry. New construction benefited the economy, as the development of the tourism sector also spawned new businesses such as restaurants, bars. When Franco died in 1975, his successor Juan Carlos I played his part as the symbol of the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchyAlicante – View of the harbour with the Castle of Santa Bárbara in the background
18. 1928 – January – English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith reports the results of Griffiths experiment, indirectly proving the existence of DNA. January 1 Estonia changes its currency from the mark to the kroon, abolition of domestic slavery in the British Protectorate of Sierra Leone comes into effect. Eastern Bloc emigration and defection, Boris Bazhanov, Joseph Stalins personal secretary, January 6–7 – The River Thames floods in London,14 drown. On January 7 the moat at the Tower of London is completely refilled by the river, January 12 – Convicted American murderer Ruth Snyder is executed at Sing Sing. January 17 – The OGPU arrests Leon Trotsky in Moscow, he assumes a status of passive resistance, January 26 – The volcanic island Anak Krakatau appears. January 31 – Leon Trotsky is exiled to Alma-Ata, february 8 – British inventor John Logie Baird broadcasts a transatlantic television signal from London to Hartsdale, New York. February 11–19 – The 1928 Winter Olympics are held in St. Moritz, Switzerland, sonja Henie of Norway wins her first gold medal in womens figure skating. February 12 – Heavy hail kills 11 in Britain, february 20 – The Japanese general election produces a hung parliament. February 25 – Charles Jenkins Laboratories of Washington, D. C. becomes the first holder of a license from the Federal Radio Commission. March 12 – In California, the St. Francis Dam north of Los Angeles fails, March 15 March 15 incident, The Japanese government cracks down on socialists and communists. Chinese warlord Shi Yousan sets fire to the Shaolin Monastery in Henan, destroying some of its ancient structures, March 21 – Charles Lindbergh is presented with the Medal of Honor for his first Transatlantic flight. March 26 – The China Academy of Art is founded in Hangzhou, april 10 – Pineapple Primary, The United States Republican Party primary elections in Chicago are preceded by violence, bombings and assassination attempts. April 12 – A bomb attack against Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini in Milan kills 17 bystanders, april 12–14 – The first ever east–west transatlantic flight by aeroplane takes place from Dublin, Ireland, to Greenly Island, Canada, using German Junkers W33 Bremen. April 14 – Two earthquakes in Chirpan and Plovdiv in Bulgaria destroy more than 21,000 buildings, april 19 – The last section of the original Oxford English Dictionary is completed and published. April 22 – An Ms 6.0 earthquake affects southern Greece with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX, leaving 20 dead, a non-destructive tsunami was also observed. April 28 –28 inches of snow fall in southern-central Pennsylvania, may 3 – Jinan incident, An armed conflict between the Imperial Japanese Army allied with Northern Chinese warlords against the Kuomintangs southern army, occurs in Jinan, China. May 7 – Passage of the Representation of the People Act in the United Kingdom lowers the age for women from 30 to 21 giving them equal suffrage with men from July 2. May 10 – The first regular schedule of television programming begins in Schenectady, may 15 The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia commences operations1928 – A 1928 Ford Model A
19. Furniture – Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating, eating, and sleeping. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furnitures functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose and it can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as stumps, rocks and moss. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood, stone, early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne. The first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory. The evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing, eating, the furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak, and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century, the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles. The first three-quarters of the century are often seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures, the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide. Thus fourniture in French means supplies or provisions, the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture likely dates to the beginning of human civilisation. Early humans are likely to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, during the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood, stone, and animal bones. The earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, a similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BC. The inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were already common artefacts of that age, a range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland. Each house shows a degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves, stone seatsFurniture – A dining table with two chairs
20. Nativity of St. John the Baptist – The Nativity of John the Baptist is a Christian feast day celebrating the birth of John the Baptist, a prophet who foretold the coming of the Messiah in the person of Jesus, whom he later baptised. Christians have long interpreted the life of John the Baptist as a preparation for the coming of Jesus Christ, and the circumstances of his birth, as recorded in the New Testament, are miraculous. Johns pivotal place in the gospel is seen in the emphasis Luke gives to the announcement of his birth, the sole biblical account of the birth of John the Baptist comes from the Gospel of Luke. John’s parents, Zechariah or Zachary — a Jewish priest — and Elizabeth, were without children, during Zechariahs rotation to serve in the Temple in Jerusalem, he was chosen by lot to offer incense at the Golden Altar in the Holy Place. The Archangel Gabriel appeared to him and announced that he and his wife would give birth to a child, however, because Zechariah did not believe the message of Gabriel, he was rendered speechless until the time of Johns birth. At that time, his relatives wanted to name the child after his father, following Zechariahs obedience to the command of God, he was given the gift of prophecy, and foretold the future ministry of John, this prophecy forming the text of the Benedictus canticle. Mary then journeyed to visit Elizabeth, luke’s Gospel recounts that the baby “leapt” in Elizabeth’s womb at the greeting of Mary. The purpose of these festivals is not to celebrate the exact dates of these events, the Nativity of John the Baptist anticipates the feast of Christmas. It is one of the feasts of the Order of Malta. Ordinarily the day of a death is usually celebrated as his or her feast day. To this rule there are two exceptions, the birthday of the Blessed Virgin Mary and that of John the Baptist. According to Catholic tradition and teaching, Mary, already in the first moment of her existence, was free from original sin, the Reformed and free churches give this celebration less prominence. Like the Birth of the Virgin, the subject is shown in art, especially from Florence. The reformer Martin Luther wrote a hymn about baptism, Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam and this title indicates that the purpose of his ministry was to prepare the way for the coming of Jesus Christ. In the Byzantine Rite, the Feast of his Nativity is celebrated on June 24 and it is a major feast day and is celebrated with an All-Night Vigil. It has an Afterfeast of one day, the feast always falls during the Apostles Fast. The Armenian Apostolic Church commemorates the Birth of John the Forerunner on January 15, september 1 is the Feast of Saints John the Forerunner and Job the Righteous. The question would naturally arise as to why the celebration falls on June 24 rather than June 25 if the date is to be six months before ChristmasNativity of St. John the Baptist – Russian icon of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist
21. Festival – A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or traditions. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a resource that many festivals are associated with harvest time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere, Festivals often serve to fulfill specific communal purposes, especially in regard to commemoration or thanksgiving. The celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups and they may also provide entertainment, which was particularly important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. In Ancient Greece and Rome, festivals such as the Saturnalia were closely associated with social organisation, in modern times, festivals may be attended by strangers such as tourists, who are attracted to some of the more eccentric or historical ones. The word festival was used as an adjective from the late fourteenth century. In Middle English, a festival dai was a religious holiday and its first recorded used as a noun was in 1589. Feast first came into usage as a noun circa 1200, the term feast is also used in common secular parlance as a synonym for any large or elaborate meal. When used as in the meaning of a festival, most often refers to a religious rather than a film or art festival. In the Philippines and many other former Spanish colonies, the Spanish word fiesta is used to denote a religious feast to honor a patron saint. Many festivals have religious origins and entwine cultural and religious significance in traditional activities, the most important religious festivals such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah, Diwali, and Eid al-Adha serve to mark out the year. Others, such as harvest festivals, celebrate seasonal change, events of historical significance, such as important military victories or other nation-building events also provide the impetus for a festival. An early example is the established by Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Rameses III celebrating his victory over the Libyans. In many countries, royal holidays commemorate dynastic events just as agricultural holidays are about harvests, there are numerous types of festivals in the world and most countries celebrate important events or traditions with traditional cultural events and activities. Most culminate in the consumption of specially prepared food and they bring people together, Festivals are also strongly associated with national holidays. Lists of national festivals are published to make participation easier, among many religions, a feast is a set of celebrations in honour of Gods or God. A feast and a festival are historically interchangeable, the Sed festival, for example, celebrated the thirtieth year of an Egyptian pharaohs rule and then every three years after thatFestival – Procession in Honor of Isis depiction of the Egyptian Navigium Isidis festival by Frederick Arthur Bridgman (1902)
22. Fallas – The Falles is a traditional celebration held in commemoration of Saint Joseph in the city of Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to both the celebration and the monuments burnt during the celebration, a number of towns in the Valencian Community have similar celebrations inspired by the original Falles de València celebration. The Falles festival was added to UNESCOs intangible cultural heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016, each casal faller produces a construction known as a falla which is eventually burnt. A casal faller is also known as a comissió fallera, the name of the festival is the plural of the Valencian word falla. The words derivation is as follows, Latin fax torch → Latin facvla → Vulgar Latin *facla → Valencian falla, formerly, much time would be spent by the casal faller preparing the ninots. This whole assembly is a falla, the ninots and their falles are constructed according to an agreed-upon theme that has traditionally been a satirical jab at whatever draws the attention of the fallers. In modern times, the festival has spawned a substantial local industry. There are about 750 of these neighbourhood associations in Valencia, with over 200,000 members, during Falles, many people wear their casal faller dress of regional and historical costumes from different eras of Valèncias history. The dolçaina and tabalet are frequently heard, as most of the different casals fallers have their own traditional bands, the five days and nights of Falles might be described as a continuous street party. There are a multitude of processions, historical, religious, crowds in the restaurants spill out into the streets. Explosions can be all day long and sporadically through the night. Everyone from small children to people can be seen throwing fireworks and noisemakers in the streets. Each day of Falles begins at 8,00 am with La Despertà, brass bands appear from the casals and begin to march down every street playing lively music. Close behind them are the fallers, throwing large firecrackers in the street as they go. At 2,00 pm the clock chimes and the Fallera Major, dressed in her finery, will call from the balcony of City Hall, Senyor pirotècnic, pot començar la mascletà. The Mascletà is almost unique to the Valencian Community, and very popular with the Valencian people, smaller neighbourhoods often hold their own mascletà for saints days, weddings and other celebrations. The day of the 15th all of the falles infantils are to be finished being constructed, in this event, the flower offering, each of the casals fallers takes an offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of the Forsaken. This occurs all day during 17–18 March, a statue of the Virgin Mary and its large pedestal are then covered with all the flowersFallas – City hall falla for 2015.
23. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He also had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian. In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern EuropeChristopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
24. Isabella I of Castile – Isabella I was Queen of Castile. She was married to Ferdinand II of Aragon and their marriage became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms, Isabella was granted the title Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974. Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, to John II of Castile, at the time of her birth, she was second in line to throne after her older half-brother Henry. Henry was 26 at that time and married but childless and her younger brother Alfonso was born two years later on 17 November 1453, lowering her position to third in line. When her father died in 1454, her half-brother ascended to the throne as Henry IV, Isabella and Alfonso were left in Henrys care. She, her mother and her brother Alfonso then moved to Arévalo and these were times of turmoil for Isabella. Living conditions in their castle in Arévalo were poor, and they suffered from a shortage of money, even though living conditions were lackluster, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion. Alfonso was placed in the care of a tutor while Isabella became part of the Queens household, some of Isabellas living conditions improved in Segovia. She always had food and clothing and lived in a castle that was adorned with gold, Isabellas basic education consisted of reading, spelling, writing, grammar, mathematics, art, chess, dancing, embroidery, music, and religious instruction. She and her ladies-in-waiting entertained themselves with art, embroidery, and she lived a relaxed lifestyle, but she rarely left Segovia as Henry forbade this. Her half-brother was keeping her from the political turmoils going on in the kingdom, though Isabella had full knowledge of what was going on, the noblemen, anxious for power, confronted King Henry, demanding that his younger half brother Infante Alfonso be named his successor. They even went so far as to ask Alfonso to seize the throne, the nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with Henrys forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. Henry agreed to recognise Alfonso as heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Alfonso died in July 1468, likely of the plague. The nobles who had supported him suspected poisoning, as she had been named in her brothers will as his successor, the nobles asked Isabella to take his place as champion of the rebellion. However, support for the rebels had begun to wane, the question of Isabellas marriage was not a new one. Indeed, she had made her debut in the market at the tender age of six, with a betrothal to Ferdinand. At that time, the two kings, Henry and John, were eager to show their love and confidenceIsabella I of Castile – Isabella I of Castile, painting attributed to Gerard David
25. Federico Mayor Zaragoza – Federico Mayor Zaragoza is a Spanish scientist, scholar, politician, diplomat, and poet. He served as Director-General of UNESCO from 1987 to 1999, Federico Mayor is an Earth Charter International Commission member. Federico Mayor Zaragoza obtained a Ph. D. in pharmacy from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1958. In 1963 he became professor of biochemistry at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Granada, and in 1968 was elected rector of that university, the following year he was appointed professor in biochemistry at the Autonomous University of Madrid. In 1974 he co-founded the Severo Ochoa Molecular Biology Centre at the Autonomous University of Madrid, the main focus of Professor Mayors scientific research has been on molecular brain disease, and he was responsible for drawing up the Spanish National Plan for Mental Health Prevention. He is a member of the Club of Rome, the Club of Budapest, in 2005 he received the Prize Creu de Sant Jordi from the Generalitat de Catalunya. He is an honorary Member of several societies and a Member of several academies, among them. He has also received honorary doctorates. He is Honorary President of the University of Granada, in 1978 Federico Mayor Zaragoza became Deputy Director-General of UNESCO. In 1987 he was elected Director-General of UNESCO, and re-elected for a mandate in 1993. After deciding not to run for a term, in 1999 he returned to Spain to create the Foundation for a Culture of Peace. In 2000, Federico Mayor Zaragoza founded the Foundation for a Culture of Peace, in 2002, Federico Mayor Zaragoza was appointed to chair the European Research Council Expert Group. The European Union has identified the need to strengthen the competitiveness of Europe, in 2002, Federico Mayor Zaragoza co-founded with Boutros Boutros Ghali, John Brademas, Edward J. Nell, Karim Errouaki and Alain Chanlat the Centre Humanism, Management & Globalization at HEC-Montreal. Responsibility for putting humanism into practice rests largely on the shoulders of our leaders and managers and they are the link between macroscopic, societal phenomena and everyday activities that, in contrast are resolutely microscopic in nature. The Mission of HGM was to link these two levels of concern, the approach was to present and disseminate management ideas and practices that are inspired by values and ethics that respect the principles of both universal and pluralist humanism. This is the way to make a real contribution and create a true Culture of Peace. In 2005, Federico Mayor Zaragoza is designed Co-President for the UN High Level Group for the Alliance of Civilizations, by Kofi Annan, the United Nations Secretary-General. The Alliance of Civilizations is an initiative proposed by the President of the Government of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and it was co-sponsored by the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip ErdoğanFederico Mayor Zaragoza – At the Universidad Internacional de Andalucia in 2007.
26. UNESCO – The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. It is the heir of the League of Nations International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, UNESCO has 195 member states and nine associate members. Most of its offices are cluster offices covering three or more countries, national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs, education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and it is also a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, on 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944, a prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCOs Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place between 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General and this change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organizations fields of competence. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organizations publications amounted to interference in the racial problems. South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, UNESCOs early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947. This project was followed by missions to other countries, including, for example. In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory, in 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults. Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, UNESCOs early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960. The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam, during the 20-year campaign,22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro, Fes, Kathmandu, Borobudur, the organizations work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978, since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 and 2005UNESCO – UNESCO offices in Brasília
27. Pharmacy – Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs. It is a profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients. An establishment in which pharmacy is practiced is called a pharmacy or a chemists, often, collaborative teams from various disciplines work together toward the introduction of new therapeutics and methods for patient care. However, pharmacy is not a basic or biomedical science in its typical form, medicinal chemistry is also a distinct branch of synthetic chemistry combining pharmacology, organic chemistry, and chemical biology. Pharmacology is sometimes considered as the 4th discipline of pharmacy, although pharmacology is essential to the study of pharmacy, it is not specific to pharmacy. Both disciplines are distinct. Those who wish to practice both pharmacy and pharmacology receive separate training and degrees unique to either discipline, pharmacoinformatics is considered another new discipline, for systematic drug discovery and development with efficiency and safety. The World Health Organization estimates that there are at least 2.6 million pharmacists, pharmacists are healthcare professionals with specialised education and training who perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcomes for their patients through the quality use of medicines. Pharmacists may also be small-business proprietors, owning the pharmacy in which they practice, pharmacists are represented internationally by the International Pharmaceutical Federation. In some cases, the body is also the registering body. The Commission for Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy certifies pharmacists in geriatric pharmacy practice, the American Board of Applied Toxicology certifies pharmacists and other medical professionals in applied toxicology. A Pharmacy Technician in the UK has recently referred to by some as a professional. Legislation requires the supervision of certain pharmacy technicians activities by a pharmacist, the majority of pharmacy technicians work in community pharmacies. In hospital pharmacies, pharmacy technicians may be managed by other senior pharmacy technicians, Pharmacy technicians are registered with the General Pharmaceutical Council. The GPhC is the regulator of pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and pharmacy premises, in the US, pharmacy technicians perform their duties under supervision of pharmacists. The earliest known compilation of medicinal substances was the Sushruta Samhita, however, the earliest text as preserved dates to the 3rd or 4th century AD. Many Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets record prescriptions for medicine, Ancient Egyptian pharmacological knowledge was recorded in various papyri such as the Ebers Papyrus of 1550 BC, and the Edwin Smith Papyrus of the 16th century BC. In Ancient Greece, Diocles of Carystus was one of several men studying the properties of plantsPharmacy – The Apothecary or The Chemist by Gabriël Metsu (c. 1651–67)
28. Complutense University of Madrid – The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, and consistently ranks as one of the top universities in Spain, according to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. In the course of seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the sciences, fine arts. Alumni include renowned philosophers, writers, scientists, historians, military leaders, foreign leaders, in the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire. On 13 April 1499, Cardinal Cisneros secured from Pope Alexander VI a Papal bull to expand Complutense into a full university and this Papal Bull conferred official recognition throughout Christendom to all degrees granted by the University. It also renamed the institution Universitas Complutensis, after Complutum, which was the Latin name of Alcalá de Henares, in the 1509–1510 school year, the Complutense University already operated with five major schools, Arts and Philosophy, Theology, Canon law, Philology and Medicine. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Complutense University became one of the greatest centers of Academic excellence in the world, many of the leading figures in science, arts and politics of that Age studied or taught in Complutenses classrooms. Special colleges were created for students of foreign origin, such as Flemish or Irish, in 1785, Complutense became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate to a female student, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda. In comparison, University of Oxford did not accept female scholars until the year 1920, in 1824, Francisco Tadeo Calomarde further expanded Complutense by merging it with the University of Sigüenza. The University would be known under this name until its name of Complutense was restored in the 1970s. The University of Madrid awarded Albert Einstein a Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa on 28 February 1923 and this was the first Doctor of Science degree Honoris Causa that Albert Einstein accepted from a European University. However, as the situation began to deteriorate throughout Europe. The University greatly expanded during the 19th century, and its accommodations in central Madrid proved to be increasingly inadequate. This situation changed in 1927, when by royal decree King Alfonso XIII officially ceded state-held lands in the proximity of the Palace of La Moncloa to establish space for the University of Madrid. A council appointed by King Alfonso XIII had decided that the new University of Madrid would require the innovative architecture and planning. Indeed, the buildings, exemplary amongst them the Schools of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, are an homage to structural functionalism. The city of Alcalá de Henares decided to open a university within the campus buildingsComplutense University of Madrid – Cardinal Cisneros expanded the existing Studium Generale into a large five-college University
29. University of Granada – The University of Granada is a public university located in the city of Granada, Spain, and founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With approximately 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain, apart from the city of Granada, UGR also has campuses in Northern Africa. Every year over 2,000 European students enroll in UGR through the Erasmus Programme, the universitys Center for Modern Languages receives over 10,000 international students each year. In 2014, UGR was voted the best Spanish university by international students, in 1526 a college was founded in Granada by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for the teaching of logic, philosophy, theology and canon law. On 14 July 1531, the establishment of a studium generale with the faculties of theology, arts and canon law was granted by a bull by Clement VII. The university has an important heritage thanks to its policy of using buildings of historical and cultural value such as the former madrasah, furthermore, the university has major new facilities committed to innovation, such as the Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud. According to several rankings, the University of Granada ranks among top ten best Spanish universities and holds first place in Translation and it is also considered the national leader in Computer Science Engineering. UGR also plays a role in scientific output, placing high in national ranks and being one of the best world universities in computing. UGR is composed of 5 Schools,22 Faculties and 116 Departments responsible for teaching and researching into specific subject areas. They are spread over five different campuses in the city of Granada, the UGR began admitting international students in 1992 with the founding of the School for Modern Languages. As of 2009-2010, there were some 5,000 international students, josé de Salamanca, Marquis of Salamanca, Spanish businessman and politician. Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa, Spanish statesman and dramatist, list of early modern universities in Europe Official site of the University of Granada Center of Modern Languages Site English language magazine for the regionUniversity of Granada – University of Granada
30. Community of Madrid – The Community of Madrid is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It is located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and its capital is the city of Madrid, which is also the capital of the country. The Community of Madrid is bounded to the south and east by Castile–La Mancha and to the north and west by Castile and it was formally created in 1983, based on the limits of the province of Madrid, until then conventionally included in the historical region of New Castile. The Community of Madrid is the third most populous in Spain with 6,369,167 inhabitants mostly concentrated in the area of Madrid. It is also the most densely populated autonomous community, Madrids economy is of roughly equal size to Catalonias, which remains Spains largest. Madrid thus has the highest GDP per capita in the country, some notable discoveries of the region the bell-shaped vase of Ciempozuelos. During the Roman Empire, the region was part of the Citerior Tarraconese province, except for the south-west portion of it and it was crossed by two important Roman roads, the via xxiv-xxix (joining Astorga to laminium and via xxv, and contained some important conurbations. The city of Complutum became an important metropolis, whereas Titulcia, during the period of the Visigothic Kingdom, the region lost its importance. The population was scattered amongst several small towns, Alcalá de Henares was designated the bishopric seat in the 5th century by orders of Asturio, archbishop of Toledo, but this event was not enough to bring back the lost splendor of the city. The centre of the peninsula was one of the regions of the Al-Andalus until the 11th century when it became important. The Muslim governors created a system of fortresses and towers all across the region with which they tried to stop the advance of the Christian kingdoms of the north. The fortress of Mayrit was built somewhere between 860 and 880 AD, as a walled precinct where a military and religious community lived, and it soon became the most strategic fortress in defense of the city of Toledo above the fortresses of Talamanca de Jarama and Qal-at-Abd-Al-Salam. In 1083, king Alfonso VI of Castile conquered the city of Madrid, Alcalá de Henares fell in 1118 in a new period of Castilian annexation. The feudal and ecclesiastical lords came into constant conflict with the different councils that had granted the authority to repopulate. Specifically, Alcalá de Henares was under the hands of the archbishopric of Toledo, Castilian monarchs showed a predilection for the center of the peninsula, with abundant forests and game. El Pardo was a region visited frequently by kings since the time of Henry III, the Catholic Monarchs started the construction of the Royal Palace of Aranjuez. In the 16th century, San Lorenzo de El Escorial was built, besides its growing political importance, it also became a cultural center with the foundation of the University of Alcalá de Henares in 1508. In 1561, King Philip II made Madrid the capital of the empire, the surrounding territories became economically subordinated to the town itself, even beyond the present day limits of the Community of MadridCommunity of Madrid – Prehistoric vessel from Ciempozuelos, exhibited at the National Archaeological Museum of Spain (Madrid)
31. Autonomous University of Madrid – The Autonomous University of Madrid is commonly known by its Spanish initials UAM or as la Autónoma. Since 1971, the main campus has been located in Cantoblanco. Despite being part of the municipality of Madrid, the campus is nearer the towns of Alcobendas, for the subject Mathematics the university was ranked within top 51-75 universities in the world. In the Times Higher Education 100 Under 50 University Rankings, the University achieved 49th position globally in 2012, in another similar ranking QS Top 50 Under 50 by Quacquarelli Symonds, the Autonomous University of Madrid recently achieved 9th place in international comparison. Its Faculty of Law is the most prestigious one in Spain and it is the Spanish university with the most researchers among the most cited according to the Thomson Reuters ranking citation in 2011. UAMs Cantoblanco Campus holds most of the universitys facilities and it is located 15 km north of Madrid and has an extension of over 2,200,000 m². Of these are nearly 770,000 urbanised and about a third of them garden areas, the universitys other facilities, the faculty of medicine and the teacher training school Santa Maria are in downtown Madrid. There are two teacher training schools in Segovia and in Cuenca. The original faculties were housed in interconnected buildings with several patios in between them, characteristic of each building is a large number of stairs in its corridors, initially designed to prevent students from running in case of police raids. Currently, this fact has been considered by many university officials as a setback in the integration of handicapped students, the newest facilities were built in a contemporary style, being more accessible and allowing more free movement to students. Sporting facilities include two swimming pools, two pavilions, and outdoor tennis, football, basketball, paddle tennis, rugby. Other services on campus include 16 cafeterias and other eating facilities, medical services, a pharmacy with optic care, a foreign languages pavilion, the campus also houses several research facilities partnered with the Spanish Scientific Research Council. Cantoblanco Campus is accessible by train belonging to Renfe Cercanias Commuter service, the campus is located in the B1 area of the Madrid Transports Consortium. UAM faculty of medicine is located north of Madrid near La Paz teaching hospital, juan Luis Vives Residence Hall was UAMs first residential facility. It is located in the Plaza Castilla area in northern Madrid and it has 130 residents and holds several cultural activities of the university. La Cristalera residence is located in Miraflores de la Sierra, a north of Madrid that was acquired by the university in 1989. It is used for conferences and meetings and is the centre of UAMs summer courses. The UAM is divided into eight faculties and superior schools that support and coordinate most of the universitys academic, each faculty is divided into departments that coordinate the teaching and research of the different subjectsAutonomous University of Madrid – Cantoblanco Campus
32. Languages of Spain – The languages of Spain, or Spanish languages, are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain. Romance languages are the most widely spoken in Spain, of which Spanish, various other languages have co-official or recognised status in specific territories, and a number of unofficial languages and dialects are spoken in certain localities. In terms of the number of speakers and dominance, the most prominent of the languages of Spain is Spanish, Catalan is spoken by 17%, Galician by 7%, and Basque by 2% of the population. Distribution of the regional languages in Spain, Aranese, co-official in Catalonia. It is spoken mainly in the Pyrenean comarca of the Aran Valley and it is a variety of Gascon, which in turn is a variety of the Occitan language. Basque, co-official in the Basque Country and northern Navarre, Basque is the only non-Romance language with an official status in mainland Spain. Catalan, co-official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and, as a distinct variant Valencian and it is recognised—but not official—in Aragon. Furthermore, it is spoken without official recognition in the municipality of Carche. It is also spoken without official recognition in the adjacent western parts of the Principality of Asturias and Castile, in the cases of Catalan and Galician, they are the main languages used by the Catalan and Galician regional governments and local administrations. A number of citizens in these areas consider their language as their primary language. In addition to these, there are a number of endangered and recognised minority languages, Aragonese. Leonese, recognised—but not official—in Castile and León, spoken in the provinces of León and Zamora. Asturian and Leonese are closely related to the local Mirandese which is spoken on an adjacent territory, Mirandese is recognised and has some local official status. With the exception of Basque, which appears to be an isolate, all of the languages present in mainland Spain are Indo-European languages. Afro-Asiatic languages, such as Arabic or Berber, are spoken by the Muslim population of Ceuta and Melilla and by recent immigrants elsewhere. Others, such as Pilar Vázquez Cuesta, argue that they have become separate languages due to differences in phonetics and vocabulary usage. The official and widespread position is that Galician and Portuguese should be considered independent languages, Portuguese proper is still spoken by local people in three border areas, The town of La Alamedilla, in Salamanca province. The so-called Cedillo-horn, including Cedillo and Herrera de Alcántara, the town of Olivenza, in Badajoz province, and its surrounding territory, which used to be Portuguese until the 19th century and is still claimed by PortugalLanguages of Spain – Spanish official; spoken all over the country
33. Catalan language – Catalan is a Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain and adjoining parts of France. It is the national and only language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands. It also has status in the commune of Alghero, situated on the northwestern coast of the island of Sardinia. All these territories are often called Catalan Countries. 4% with Catalan and 47. 5% only Spanish, in order to integrate newcomers, the Generalitat de Catalunya spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees, during the Low Middle Ages it saw a golden age as the literary and dominant language of the Crown of Aragon, and was widely used all over the Mediterranean. The union of Aragon with the territories of Spain in 1479 marked the start of the decline of the language. In 1659 Spain ceded Northern Catalonia to France, and Catalan was banned in both states in the early 18th century, 19th-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival, which culminated in the 1913 orthographic standardization, and the official status of the language during the Second Spanish Republic. However, the Francoist dictatorship banned the use of Catalan in schools and in the public administration, there is no parallel in Europe for such a large, bilingual, non-state speech community. Catalan dialects are relatively uniform, and are mutually intelligible and they are divided into two blocks, Eastern and Western, differing mostly in pronunciation. The terms Catalan and Valencian are two varieties of the same language, there are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in the Valencian Community. Catalan shares many traits with its neighboring Romance languages, thus, the similarities are naturally most notable with eastern Occitan. Nouns have two genders, and two numbers, pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways. Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, mood, in terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages. The word Catalan derives from the territory of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology, in English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain. It is attested a language name since at least 1652, Catalan can be pronounced as /ˈkætəlæn/, /kætəˈlæn/ or /ˈkætələn/. The endonym is pronounced /kə. təˈɫa/ in the Eastern Catalan dialects, in the Valencian Community, the term valencià is frequently used instead. The names Catalan and Valencian are two names for the same language, see also status of Valencian below. By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the southCatalan language – Homilies d'Organyà (12th century)
34. Basque language – Basque is the language spoken by the Basques. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the languages of Europe and indeed, as a language isolate. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, the Basque language is spoken by 27% of Basques in all territories. Of these, 93% are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country, native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish territories and the three ancient provinces in France. However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising the Basque language was more than merely tolerated, overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of process, a standardized form of the Basque language. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain and they take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region, a language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, the Basque alphabet uses the Latin script. In Basque, the name of the language is officially Euskara, three etymological theories of the name Euskara are taken seriously by linguists and Vasconists. In French, the language is normally called basque, though in recent times euskara has become common, Spanish has a greater variety of names for the language. Today, it is most commonly referred to as el vasco, la lengua vasca, both terms, vasco and basque, are inherited from Latin ethnonym Vascones, which in turn goes back to the Greek term οὐασκώνους, an ethnonym used by Strabo in his Geographica. The Spanish term Vascuence, derived from Latin vasconĭce, has acquired negative connotations over the centuries and is not well-liked amongst Basque speakers generally, Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them. It is the last remaining descendant of one of the languages of Western Europe. Consequently, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the comparative method except by applying it to differences between dialects within the language. Little is known of its origins, but a form of the Basque language likely was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages to the area. Others find this unlikely, see the aizkora controversy, Latin inscriptions in Gallia Aquitania preserve a number of words with cognates in the reconstructed proto-Basque language, for instance, the personal names Nescato and CisonBasque language – Family transmission of Basque language (Basque as initial language)
35. Galician language – Galician is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch. It is spoken by some 2.4 million people, mainly in Galicia, a community located in northwestern Spain. The divergence has continued to this day, producing the modern languages of Galician, the language is officially regulated in Galicia by the Royal Galician Academy. Modern Galician and its sibling, Portuguese, originated from a medieval ancestor designated variously by modern linguists as Galician-Portuguese. This common ancestral stage developed in the territories of the old Kingdom of Galicia, in the 13th century it became a written and cultivated language. In the past Galician and Portuguese formed a dialect continuum, for many scholars this continuum still exists today at the level of rural dialects. Others point out that modern Galician and Portuguese have diverged to such an extent during the past seven centuries that they now constitute two closely related but separate languages. During the 16th century the Galician language stopped being used in documentation, becoming de facto an oral language, with just some use in lyric, theatre. The linguistic status of Galician with respect to Portuguese is controversial, there are linguists who deal with modern Galician and modern Portuguese as norms or varieties of the same language. Fernández Rei in 1990 stated that the Galician language is, with respect to Portuguese, a language, a language through elaboration, and not an abstand language. Mutual intelligibility is very high between Galicians and Portuguese, on 20 October 2016, the city of Santiago de Compostela, the capital of Galicia, approved by unanimity a proposal to become an observer member of the Union of Portuguese-Speaking Capitals. On 1 November 2016, the Council of Galician Culture was admitted as an observer of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries. The official position of the Galician Language Institute is that Galician and these contrasting attitudes have distinct political implications. On the other hand, viewing Galician as a part of the Lusophony, while not denying its own characteristics and it is taught bilingually, alongside Castilian, in both primary and secondary education. It is also used at the three established in Galicia, having also the consideration of official language of the three institutions. Galician has also legal recognition in the Bierzo region in León, the other languages with official status elsewhere in Spain are Castilian, Catalan, Basque and Aranese. Galician has also been accepted orally as Portuguese in the European Parliament, having used by some Galician representatives, among others, José Posada, Camilo Nogueira. Controversy exists regarding the inclusion of Eonavian into the Galician language, there are those defending these linguistic varieties as dialects of transition to the Astur-Leonese group on the one hand, and those defending it as clearly Galician varieties on the otherGalician language – Vindel's parchment, containing music and lyrics of several 13th-century cantigas by Martin Codax
36. Hispania – Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, during the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova. The name, Hispania, was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania, one theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning Island of the Hyrax or island of the hare or island of the rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, in the sense of hidden, and make it indicate a hidden, that is, Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Occasionally Hispania was called Hesperia Ultima, the last western land in Greek, by Roman writers, another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for border or edge, thus meaning the farthest area or place. The use of Latin Hispania, Castilian España, Catalan Espanya and French Espaigne, a document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as Gracien dEspaigne. You are, Oh Spain, holy and always happy mother of princes and peoples and you, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but also the East. Navarre followed soon after in 1512, and Portugal in 1580, during this time, the concept of Spain was still unchanged. The King of Portugal would protest energetically when during a public act King Fernando talked about the Crown of Spain and it was after the independence of Portugal in 1640 when the concept of Spain started to shift and be applied to all the Peninsula except Portugal. Even so, Portugal would still complain when the terms Crown of Spain or Monarchy of Spain were still used in the 18th century with the Treaty of Utrecht. The Iberian peninsula has long inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis. In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the migrations of modern humans. In the 40th millennium BC, during the Upper Paleolithic and the last ice age and these were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia. When the last Ice Age reached its maximum extent, during the 30th millennium BC, in the millennia that followed, the Neanderthals became extinct and local modern human cultures thrived, producing pre-historic art such as that found in LArbreda Cave and in the Côa Valley. In the Mesolithic period, beginning in the 10th millennium BC and this was an interstadial deglaciation that lessened the harsh conditions of the Ice AgeHispania – Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.
37. Ancient Rome – In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and then Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, Amulius, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the AeneidAncient Rome – Senātus Populus que Rōmānus
38. Moors – Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, and mainstream scholars observed in 1911 that The term Moors has no real ethnological value. Medieval and early modern Europeans variously applied the name to Arabs, Berber North Africans and Muslim Europeans. The term has also used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general, especially those of Arab or Berber descent. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names Ceylon Moors and Indian Moors in Sri Lanka, in 711, troops mostly formed by Moors from North Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula then came to be known in classical Arabic as Al-Andalus, in 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, developing it as a port. They eventually consolidated the rest of the island and some of southern Italy, in 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, which was destroyed by European Christians in 1300. The fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, the Berber tribes of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, which was subsequently rendered as Moors in English and in related variations in other European languages. Mauri is recorded as the name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was also adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii, in medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations. During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the suggestion of infidels. Apart from these associations and context, Moor and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Morocco, Niger, in Niger and Mali, these peoples are also known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular, however, this designation has gained more acceptance in the south. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao, the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people. The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, and has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, moreno can mean dark-skinned in Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and the Philippines. Also in Spanish, morapio is a name for wine, especially that which has not been baptized or mixed with water. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, Moro refers to all things dark, as in Moor, moreno, etc. It was also used as a nickname, for instance, the Milanese Duke Ludovico Sforza was called Il Moro because of his dark complexion, in Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where moor implies alien and non-ChristianMoors – Depiction of Moors in Iberia. Taken from the Tale of Bayad and Riyad
39. North Africa – North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa. The United Nationss definition of Northern Africa is, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, the countries of Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya are often collectively referred to as the Maghreb, which is the Arabic word for sunset. Egypt lies to the northeast and encompasses part of West Asia, while Sudan is situated on the edge of the Sahel, Egypt is a transcontinental country because of the Sinai Peninsula, which geographically lies in Western Asia. North Africa also includes a number of Spanish possessions, the Canary Islands and Madeira in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland are included in considerations of the region. From 3500 BC, following the abrupt desertification of the Sahara due to changes in the Earths orbit. The Islamic influence in the area is significant, and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration. The Atlas Mountains extend across much of Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia, are part of the mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, the sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of which is more than four billion years old. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, a wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, the Nile Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt and Sudan live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve yields on the desert margins. The inhabitants of Saharan Africa are generally divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa, the Maghreb, the Nile valley. The edge of the Sahel, to the south of Egypt has mainly been inhabited by Nubians, Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber, as well as Nubians from the south. They have contributed to the Arabized Berber populations, the official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa is Arabic. The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic, the Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are more conservative than those of the coastal cities. Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with cultures, Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, EuropeansNorth Africa – Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
40. Jon Stewart – Jon Stewart is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, actor, media critic, and former television host. He was the host of The Daily Show, a news program on Comedy Central. Stewart started as a comedian, but branched into television as host of Short Attention Span Theater for Comedy Central. He went on to host his own show on MTV, The Jon Stewart Show and he has also had several film roles as an actor, but has done few cinematic projects since becoming the host of The Daily Show in 1999. He was also a writer and co-executive producer of the show, after Stewart joined, The Daily Show steadily gained popularity and critical acclaim, and his work won 22 Primetime Emmy Awards. Stewart has gained acclaim as an acerbic, satirical critic of personality-driven media shows, in particular those of the U. S. media networks such as CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC. Critics say Stewart benefits from a standard, he critiques other news shows from the safe. Stewart agrees, saying that neither his nor his channel purports to be anything other than satire. In spite of its self-professed entertainment mandate, The Daily Show has been nominated for news, Stewart hosted the 78th and 80th Academy Awards. He is the co-author of America, A Citizens Guide to Democracy Inaction, which was one of the books in the U. S. in 2004. Stewarts final show aired on August 6,2015, Stewarts family is Jewish, and emigrated to the U. S. from Poland, Ukraine and Belarus, one of his grandfathers was born in Manzhouli. Stewart is the second of four sons, with older brother Lawrence and younger brothers Dan, Stewarts parents divorced when Stewart was eleven years old, and Stewart was apparently largely estranged from his father. Because of his relationship with his father, which in 2015 he described as still complicated, he dropped his surname and began using his middle name. Stewart stated, There was a thought of using my mothers maiden name, yet people always view through the prism of ethnic identity. He had his surname changed to Stewart in 2001. Stewart and his brother Lawrence, who was previously the Chief Operating Officer of NYSE Euronext, grew up in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, according to Stewart, he was subjected to anti-Semitic bullying as a child. He describes himself in school as very into Eugene Debs. Stewart grew up in the era of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal and his first job was working at a Woolworths at which his brother Lawrence worked, and jokingly describes being fired by Lawrence as one of the scarring events of his youthJon Stewart – Stewart interviewing Admiral Michael Mullen on The Daily Show
41. Battle of Bicocca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. A combined French and Venetian force under Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, was defeated by an Imperial–Spanish. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands, having been driven from Milan by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonnas lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen advanced over open fields under heavy fire to assault the Imperial positions. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated, meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonnas position proved equally ineffective. The Swiss, unwilling to further, marched off to their cantons a few days later. It was also one of the first engagements in which played a decisive role on the battlefield. At the start of the war in 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X moved jointly against the Duchy of Milan, the principal French possession in Lombardy. A large Papal force under Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. For the next months, Colonna fought an evasive war of maneuver against Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec. By the autumn of 1521, Lautrec, who was holding a line along the Adda river to Cremona, began to suffer losses from desertion. Colonna took the opportunity this offered and, advancing close to the Alps, crossed the Adda at Vaprio, Lautrec, lacking infantry and assuming the years campaign to be over, Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched an attack on the city. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew to Cremona with about 12,000 men, the French proceeded to attack Novara and Pavia, hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself in the monastery of Certosa south of the city, Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them since their arrival in Lombardy, the Swiss captains, led by Albert von Stein, demanded that Lautrec attack the Imperial army immediately—else the mercenaries would abandon the French and return to their cantons. Lautrec reluctantly acquiesced and marched south towards Milan, Colonna had meanwhile relocated to a formidable new position, the manor park of Bicocca, about four miles north of Milan. The north side of the park was bordered by a road, Colonna deepened thisBattle of Bicocca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
42. Battle of Ceresole – The Battle of Ceresole was an encounter between a French army and the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain during the Italian War of 1542–46. Despite having inflicted casualties on the Imperial troops, the French subsequently failed to exploit their victory by taking Milan. The battle opened with several hours of skirmishing between opposing bands of arquebusiers and an artillery exchange, after which dAvalos ordered a general advance. In the center, Imperial landsknechts clashed with French and Swiss infantry, Ceresole was one of the few pitched battles during the latter half of the Italian Wars. By the winter of 1543–44, a stalemate had developed in the Piedmont between the French, under the Sieur de Boutières, and the Imperial army, under dAvalos, the two armies occupied themselves primarily with attacking each others outlying strongholds. Boutières seized San Germano Vercellese, near Vercelli, and laid siege to Ivrea, dAvalos, meanwhile, captured Carignano, only fifteen miles south of Turin, and proceeded to garrison and fortify it. As the two returned to winter quarters, Francis I of France replaced Boutières with François de Vendôme, Count of Enghien. Francis also sent additional troops to the Piedmont, including several hundred cavalry, some companies of French infantry from Dauphiné and Languedoc. In January 1544, Enghien laid siege to Carignano, which was defended by Imperial troops under the command of Pirro Colonna, Montluc, returning to Italy, brought with him nearly a hundred volunteers from among the young noblemen of the court, including the young Gaspard de Coligny. DAvalos, having waited for the arrival a large body of landsknechts dispatched by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, set off from Asti towards Carignano. His total force included 12, 500–18,000 infantry, of which perhaps 4,000 were arquebusiers or musketeers, he was able to gather about 800–1,000 cavalry. DAvalos recognized the weakness of his cavalry, but considered it to be compensated by the experience of his infantry. Enghien, having learned of the Imperial advance, left a force at Carignano and assembled the remainder of his army at Carmagnola. Enghien and Montluc felt that the ground would give the French cavalry a significant tactical advantage. By this point, the French army consisted of around 11, 000–13,000 infantry,600 light cavalry, and 900–1,250 heavy cavalry, Enghien and dAvalos each had about twenty pieces of artillery. Enghiens troops were positioned along the crest of a ridge that was higher in the center than on either side, the French army was divided into the traditional battle, vanward, and rearward corps, corresponding to the center and right and left wings of the French line. On the far right of the French position was a body of light cavalry, consisting of three companies under Des Thermes, Bernadino, and Mauré, with a total strength of around 450–500 men. The center of the French line was formed by thirteen companies of veteran Swiss, numbering about 4,000, under the joint command of William Frülich of Soleure and a captain named St. JulianBattle of Ceresole – Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos, Marchese del Vasto, in Armor with a Page (oil on canvas by Titian, c. 1533)
43. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was a nickname, a reference to his Greek origin, El Greco was born in Crete, which was at that time part of the Republic of Venice, and the center of Post-Byzantine art. He trained and became a master within that tradition before traveling at age 26 to Venice, in 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style elements of Mannerism. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death, in Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Grecos dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries, El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, El Grecos father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, also Greek, El Grecos older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos, was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life in El Grecos Toledo home. El Greco received his training as an icon painter of the Cretan school. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a master, meaning he was already a master of the guild and presumably operating his own workshop. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, most scholars believe that the Theotokópoulos family was almost certainly Greek Orthodox, although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth. One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, and his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete, prevelakis goes even further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was ever a practicing Roman Catholic. Important for his biography, El Greco, still in Crete, painted his Dormition of the Virgin near the end of his Cretan period. Three other signed works of Doménicos are attributed to El Greco, in 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was already an enrolled master of the local guild, presumably in charge of his own workshop. He left for Venice a few later, and never returned to Crete. His Dormition of the Virgin, of before 1567 in tempera, the painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian Mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements, and incorporates stylistic elements of the Cretan School. It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567. Knowledge of El Grecos years in Italy is limited and this may mean he worked in Titians large studio, or notEl Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
44. Lince (tank) – The Lince was a Spanish development programme for a proposed main battle tank that unfolded during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The intention was to replace the M47 and M48 Patton tanks that the Spanish Army had received under the U. S, mutual Defense Assistance Act between 1954 and 1975, and to complement the AMX-30E tanks manufactured for the army during the 1970s. Companies from several nations, such as German Krauss-Maffei, Spanish Santa Bárbara, the main priorities were mobility and firepower, with secondary priority placed on protection, the Lince tank was to have been lighter and faster than its competitors. The vehicles size would also have been restricted by the Spanish rail, to achieve a sufficient level of firepower and protection, given the size requirements, the Lince was to use Rheinmetalls 120 mm L/44 tank-gun and German composite armour from the Leopard 2A4. The Spanish government decided to upgrade its fleet of AMX-30Es in the late 1980s. S. in accordance with the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and these tanks replaced the M47s and M48s, and fulfilled Spains need to modernize its tank forces in the short term. No prototype of the planned Lince tank was manufactured, and no announcements were made on who would receive the contract, four years later the Spanish government procured and locally manufactured the Leopard 2, fulfilling the long-term modernisation goal established in the Lince programme. During the 1950s the Spanish Army was supplied by the United States with 552 M47, the first tanks were delivered in 1954, and the fleet was upgraded in the 1970s to equal the capabilities of M60 Patton tanks. Spain was, however, interested in replacing these tanks as early as the 1960s with the French AMX-30 or German Leopard 1, Spain eventually decided to buy the French tank and by 1975 the Spanish Army had 299 AMX-30s, designated as AMX-30Es. Of these,280 tanks were manufactured by the local company Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara who received the AMX-30 patent from the French company GIAT. In fielding the AMX-30E, the army found its upgraded M47s and M48s to be outdated, the army required a modern tank that could complement its AMX-30Es and started looking for a replacement for its Patton fleet. In 1984, the Spanish Ministry of Defense declared its intent to set aside 120 billion pesetas for a future tank program, German company Krauss-Maffei and Spanish company Santa Bárbara presented a joint bid in mid-1984 that would produce a tank based on 1970s technology. The French government proposed to cooperate with Spain in designing a tank complete with new technology—France would later develop this programme on its own as the AMX-Leclerc, however, the French admitted that there would be restrictions placed on Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara when it came to exporting the tank. The Italian government proposed a deal for a cooperative tank design. By late 1985, the only offers still under consideration were those from the German-Spanish collaboration, krauss-Maffeis Lince bid provided the clearest technical designs. The tank would be 49 tonnes and equipped with a 120-millimeter main gun and it could fire this gun on the move and aim at targets with effectiveness in day and night operations. Fitted with a 1,200 horsepower engine, the Lince could travel as fast as 70 kilometres per hour on the roads, although heavily based on the Leopard 2A4, the Lince was smaller and lighter, trading protection for mobility. Specifically, the Lince prioritised enhanced mobility over the irregular Spanish terrain, furthermore, size restrictions were imposed because of the existing capabilities of Spains railroad and highway network. The protection was enhanced by the low profile turret, again similar to that of the Leopard 2A4Lince (tank) – Mock-up of the German-Spanish Lince
45. T-26 – The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II. It was a development of the British Vickers 6-Ton tank and was one of the most successful designs of the 1930s until its light armour became vulnerable to newer anti-tank guns. It was produced in numbers than any other tank of the period. Twenty-three of these were series-produced, others were experimental models, the T-26 and BT were the main tanks of the Red Armys armoured forces during the interwar period. The T-26 was the most important tank of the Spanish Civil War and played a significant role during the Battle of Lake Khasan in 1938, as well as in the Winter War in 1939–40. Though nearly obsolete by the beginning of World War II, the T-26 was the most numerous tank in the Red Armys armoured force during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Soviet T-26 light tanks last saw use in August 1945, during the defeat of the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria, the T-26 was exported and used extensively by Spain, China and Turkey. Captured T-26s were used by the Finnish, German, Romanian and Hungarian armies, the tank was reliable and simple to maintain, and its design was continually modernised between 1931 and 1941. No new models of the T-26 were developed after 1940, the T-26 was a Soviet development of the British Vickers 6-Ton tank, which was designed by the Vickers-Armstrongs company in 1928–29. The simple and easy-to-maintain Vickers 6-Ton was intended for export to less technically advanced countries, the Soviet Union, Poland, Brazil, Argentina, Japan, Thailand, China, and many others. Vickers advertised the tank in military publications, and both the Soviet Union and Poland expressed interest in the Vickers design. In early 1930, the Soviet buying committee, under the direction of Semyon Ginzburg, arrived in Great Britain to select tanks, tractors, the Vickers 6-Ton was among four models of tanks selected by Soviet representatives during their visit to Vickers-Armstrongs. Several Soviet engineers participated in assembly of the tanks at the Vickers Factory in 1930, the first four Vickers 6-Ton tanks arrived in the USSR at the end of 1930. The last tanks arrived in 1932, when production of the T-26 was already in progress. The British tanks were sent to Soviet factories for study in preparation for production and to military educational institutions. Later, some tanks were given to military depots and proving grounds. The Vickers-built 6-Ton tanks had the designator V-26 in the USSR, three British tanks were successfully tested for cross-country ability at the small proving ground near Moscow on Poklonnaya Hill in January 1931. Kliment Voroshilov ordered the creation of the Special Commission for the Red Army new tanks under the direction of S. Ginzburg to define the type suitable for the Red ArmyT-26 – T-26 mod. 1933 at the museum "Breaching of the Leningrad Blockade " near Kirovsk, Leningrad Oblast. This tank was raised from a river bottom at Nevsky Pyatachok in May 2003.
46. War of the League of Cambrai – The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510, Julius then allied himself with Venice against France. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Pope Alexander VI had, with French assistance, in 1507, Julius returned to the question of the cities in Venetian hands, once again rebuffed by the Senate, he encouraged Emperor Maximilian I to attack the Republic. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned to Louis XII of France with an offer of alliance. On 10 December 1508, representatives of the Papacy, France, on 15 April 1509, Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved rapidly into Venetian territory. Consequently, when Louis crossed the Adda River in early May and Alviano advanced to him, Pitigliano, believing it best to avoid a pitched battle. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement, his army was surrounded and destroyed. DEste, having joined the League and been appointed Gonfalonier on 19 April, the newly arrived Imperial governors, however, quickly proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided by detachments of Venetian cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, the landsknechts garrisoning the city were too few in number to mount effective resistance, and Padua was restored to Venetian control on 17 July 1509. The success of the revolt finally pushed Maximilian into action, in early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of French and Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive, Venetian troops easily defeated the remaining Imperial forces, capturing Vicenza, Este, Feltre, although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano destroyed a Papal army under Francesco II of Gonzaga in the process. Francesco Guicciardini credited the victory to Alfonso himself. A new French advance soon forced Pitigliano to withdraw to Padua once again, faced with a shortage of both funds and men, the Senate decided to send an embassy to Julius in order to negotiate a settlement. The Senate argued over the terms for two months, but finally accepted them on February 24,1510 and this apparent reconciliation between Venice and the Pope did not stop the French from again invading the Veneto in March. Gritti garrisoned Padua for an attack by a combined Franco-Imperial army, but Louis, more concerned by the death of his advisor. His own forces being inadequate for the venture, the Pope hired an army of Swiss mercenaries, ordering them to attack the French in Milan, the Republic, facing a renewed French onslaught, readily accepted the offer. By July 1510, the new Veneto-Papal alliance was on the offensive, Julius now excommunicated Alfonso dEste, thus justifying an attack on the Duchy itself, in anticipation of his coming victory, the Pope traveled to Bologna, so as to be nearby when Ferrara was taken. The French army, however, had been left unopposed by the Swiss and was free to march south into the heart of ItalyWar of the League of Cambrai – Pope Julius II, painted by Raphael (oil on wood, c. 1511). Julius attempted to secure Papal authority in Italy by creating the League of Cambrai, an alliance aimed at curbing Venetian power.
47. Verdeja (tank) – Verdeja was the name of a series of light tanks developed in Spain between 1938 and 1954 in an attempt to replace German Panzer I and Soviet T-26 tanks in Spanish service. The program was headed by major Félix Verdeja Bardales and led to the development of four prototype vehicles, including a self-propelled howitzer armed with a 75 millimeter gun. It was designed as a light tank and was one of the first development programs which took into account survivability of the crew as opposed to the protection of the tank itself. The tank was influenced by several of the tanks which it was intended to replace, including the Panzer I and T-26. The Verdeja was considered a tank to the T-26 after a lengthy testing period. Three light tank prototypes were manufactured between 1938 and 1942, including the Verdeja 1 and the Verdeja 2, interest in the vehicles development waned after the end of the Second World War. A prototype of the 75 millimetre self-propelled howitzer and of the Verdeja 2 were put on display in the early 1990s, Spain received its first tank in mid-1919, a French Renault FT, for testing purposes, and later received ten more tanks on 18 December 1921. The use of tanks during the Rif War, including the first amphibious landing with tanks, offered valuable experience for Spains first indigenous armor program. The Trubia tank program, based on the FT, led to the development of four prototypes and these prototypes influenced a subsequent indigenous attempt to produce a tank, named the Trubia-Naval. This design also failed to get past the prototype type stage, the lack of armor prompted the Soviet Union to supply the Popular Front and Nazi Germany and Italy to supply the Nationalist Front with light tanks. Between 1936 and 1939, the Germans provided the Nationalists with 122 Panzer Is, meanwhile, the Soviets issued Republican Spain 281 T-26s and 50 BT-5s. In order to re-equip Nationalist armored forces with the T-26, German Major Ritter von Thoma offered Spanish troops 500 pesetas for each tank captured. There were also attempts to up-gun the Panzer I with an Italian Breda 20 millimetre Model 1935 anti-aircraft gun, due to its high Muzzle velocity, despite four successfully converted vehicles, designated Panzer I Breda, there was no widespread program to retrofit the gun into the Panzer I. Instead, the Nationalists began to press captured T-26s into service against their previous owners, on 6 September 1937, Captain Félix Verdeja, commanding the maintenance company of the Nationalist Batallón de Carros de Combate, began to privately develop a new light tank. His position, with access to Panzer Is and T-26s, gave Verdeja direct evidence of the shortcomings of current tank models in terms of combat ability. This latter requirement was based on experiences with existing light tanks and these requirements and solutions were presented in October 1938 to Colonel Díaz de la Lastra, commanding officer of the Agrupación de Carros de Combate. Although the project was approved, the program had to use scrap to build the first prototype due to a lack of resources and money. Despite early obstacles, including criticism from von Thoma, the program continued, the prototype was manufactured from spare parts and equipment scavenged from other light tanks, and featured a rectangular turret with 16 millimetre basic armorVerdeja (tank) – Verdeja 75 mm self-propelled howitzer, based on the Verdeja 1 prototype chassis
48. War of the Spanish Succession – The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a vast global empire, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled the governments of Europe, the English, the Dutch and the Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708, the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured victory in the Spanish Netherlands and in Italy, France faced invasion and ruin, but Allied unity broke first. With the Grand Alliance defeated in Spain and with its casualties mounting and aims diverging, French and British ministers prepared the groundwork for a peace conference, and in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. The Dutch, Austrians, and German states fought on to strengthen their own negotiating position, the Treaty of Utrecht and the Treaty of Rastatt partitioned the Spanish empire between the major and minor powers. The European balance of power was assured, in the late 1690s the declining health of King Charles II of Spain brought to a head the problem of his succession, a problem which had underlain much of European diplomacy for several decades. The empire was in decline, but remained the largest of the European overseas empires, unlike the French crown, the Spanish crowns could all be inherited by, or through, a female in default of a male line. The next in line after Charles II, therefore, were his two sisters, Maria Theresa, the elder, and Margaret Theresa, the younger, Maria Theresa had married Louis XIV in 1660 and by him she had a son, Louis, Dauphin of France. The testament of her father, Philip IV, reiterated this waiver and bequeathed the reversion of the whole of the Spanish dominions to his younger daughter, Margaret Theresa. However the French, using in part the excuse that the dowry promised Maria Theresa was never paid, nor was it clear whether a princess could waive the rights of her unborn children. Leopold I married Margaret Theresa in 1666, at her death in 1673 she left one living heir, Maria Antonia, who in 1685 married Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. Shortly before her death in 1692, she gave birth to a son, if he chose, Louis XIV could attempt to assert his will on Spain by force of arms, but the Nine Years War had been an immense drain on Frances resources. To seek a solution and gain support, Louis XIV turned to his long-standing rival William of Orange. England and the Dutch Republic had their own commercial, strategic and political interests within the Spanish empire, however, the Maritime Powers were in a weakened state and both had reduced their forces at the conclusion of the Nine Years War. Louis XIV and William III, therefore, sought to solve the problem of the Spanish inheritance through negotiation, based on the principle of partition, to take effect after the death of Charles II. However, the bulk of the empire – most of peninsular Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, the Spanish Empire was now divided between the three surviving candidates. By this new treaty Archduke Charles would receive most of Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, and the overseas empire. For Leopold I, however, control of Spain and its empire was less important than ItalyWar of the Spanish Succession – Philip V of Spain and the Duke of Vendôme pictured after the victory at the 1710 Battle of Villaviciosa.
49. Falange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista was the sole legal party of the Francoist dictatorship in Spain. It emerged in 1937 of the merger of the Carlist Party with the Falange Española de las JONS, with the eruption of the Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist side against the Second Spanish Republic. Expanding rapidly from several thousand to several hundred thousand, the Falanges male membership was accompanied by a female auxiliary, the command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla, as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was Primo de Rivera, who was a Government prisoner, as a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente. After being sentenced to death on November 18,1936, Primo de Rivera was executed on November 20,1936, in a Republican prison, giving him martyr status among the Falangists. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his Parliamentary immunity, despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange and many Carlists did not join the unified party, none of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. Sixty per cent of the pre-war Falange membership lost their lives in the war, however, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all unions were unified under Falangist command. After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology for Francos regime and this job became a cursus honorum for ambitious politicians—new converts, who were called camisas nuevas in opposition to the more overtly populist and ideological old shirts from before the war. Membership in the Falange/FET reached a peak of 932,000 in 1942, despite the official unification of the various Nationalist factions within the party in 1937, tensions continued between dedicated Falangists and other groups, particularly Carlists. Such tensions erupted in violence with the Begoña Incident of August 1942, the attack and the response of Carlist government ministers led to a government crisis and caused Franco to dismiss several ministers. Ultimately, six Falangists were convicted of the attack and one, instructions were issued in September 1943 that henceforth the Falange/FET would be referred to exclusively as a movement and not a party. The Falange also developed youth organizations, with known as Flechas and Pelayos. Most of these young members wore red berets, with improving relations with the United States, economic development, and the rise of a group of relatively young technocrats within the government, the Falange continued to decline. In 1965 the SEU, the student organization, was officially disbanded. At the same time, the membership of the Falange as a whole was both shrinking and aging, the organizations relatively few new members came mostly from the conservative and devoutly Catholic areas of northern SpainFalange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista
50. El Paso (La Palma) – El Paso, also known as Ciudad de El Paso, is a Spanish municipality located on the island of La Palma, province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands. Geographically it is located in the center of the island of La Palma, covering to the west with the Caldera de Taburiente, part of the Aridane Valley, the Cumbre Nueva and the Cumbre Vieja. It is on the surface the largest municipality of the island, in 2016 it had a population of 7457 inhabitants. The nucleus of population had to have its origins in the stage of the island. Almost certainly, because of the found in the area. During the colonization and almost throughout the Modern Age the present territory of the municipality was part of the Aridane Valley. In 1837, under the reign of Alfonso XII, the municipality obtained the title of City, at the summit of the municipality is the oldest canarian pine in the world, with an estimated age of more than 1000 years. Many footpaths already crisscrossed La Palma before the Spanish conquest, a number of mountain passes east of present-day El Paso enabled cross-island communications. One of these was Ajerjo Pass by which the islands Spanish discoverer, Alonso Fernandez de Lugo, attempted to enter the Caldera de Taburiente, the village of El Paso was named after this mountain pass by association. To this goal, Fernandez deceitfully invited its king Tanausú to an interview, the island was made directly subject to the Spanish Crown, a situation which would last until 1812. In this year the new Spanish Constitution paved the way for decentralisation of the Canary Islands, La Palma List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife El Paso Municipality Website Official La Palma WebsiteEl Paso (La Palma) – El Paso
51. History of Spain – The history of Spain dates back to the Early Middle Ages. In 1516, Habsburg Spain unified a number of disparate predecessor kingdoms, its form of a constitutional monarchy was introduced in 1813. After the completion of the Reconquista, the kingdoms of Spain were united under Habsburg rule in 1516, during this period, Spain was involved in all major European wars, including the Italian Wars, the Eighty Years War, the Thirty Years War, and the Franco-Spanish War. The former Spanish Empire overseas quickly disintegrated with the Latin American wars of independence, the war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco, which controlled the Spanish government until 1975. The post-war decades were relatively stable, and the country experienced economic growth in the 1960s. Only with the death of Franco in 1975 did Spain return to Bourbon constitutional monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos, Spain entered the European Economic Community in 1986, and the Eurozone in 1999. The financial crisis of 2007–08 ended a decade of economic boom and Spain entered a recession and debt crisis and remains plagued by high unemployment. Spain is ranked as a middle power able to exert regional influence but unlike other powers with similar status it is not part of the G8, the Iberian Peninsula was first inhabited by anatomically modern humans about 32,000 years BP. Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving in the Iberian Peninsula from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago, the seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. The first Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the northeast coast in the 9th century BC, the Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, apparently after the river Iber. In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks and their most important colony was Carthago Nova. The Celts mostly inhabited the inner and north-west part of the peninsula, in the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians. The Celtiberian Wars were fought between the legions of the Roman Republic and the Celtiberian tribes of Hispania Citerior from 181 to 133 BC. The Roman conquest of the peninsula was completed in 19 BC, Hispania was the name used for the Iberian Peninsula under Roman rule from the 2nd century BC. The populations of the peninsula were gradually culturally Romanized, and local leaders were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class, the Romans improved existing cities, such as Tarragona, and established others like Zaragoza, Mérida, Valencia, León, Badajoz, and Palencia. The peninsulas economy expanded under Roman tutelage, Hispania supplied Rome with food, olive oil, wine and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca, and the poets Martial, Quintilian, hispanic bishops held the Council of Elvira around 306. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, parts of Hispania came under the control of the Germanic tribes of Vandals, Suebi, Spains present languages, its religion, and the basis of its laws originate from this periodHistory of Spain – A painting of bison dating from the Upper Paleolithic era in the Altamira caves
52. Francoism – It is the opinion of several historians that during the Spanish Civil War, Francos goal was to turn Spain into a totalitarian state based on fascism like Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Franco was also able to take advantage of the resources of the Axis Powers, Francos regime evolved into a more classic autocratic regime. The Spanish Civil War started as a coup by the Spanish military on the peninsula, the coup escalated into a civil war lasting for three years once Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany agreed to support Franco, starting with airlifting of the africanistas onto the mainland. However, the Falange remained the party throughout Francos regime and its ideology, National Syndicalism. At the end of the Spanish Civil War, according to the regimes own figures, there were more than 270,000 men and women held in prisons, large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen and it has been estimated that more than 200,000 Spaniards died in the first years of the dictatorship, from 1940–42, as a result of political repression, hunger, and disease related to the conflict. This changed with the Cold War that soon followed the end of hostilities in 1945, independent political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship. On July 26,1947 Spain was declared a kingdom, Franco was to be succeeded by his Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco as head of government with the intention of continuing the Francoist regime, but those hopes ended with his 1973 assassination. With the death of Franco on 20 November 1975, Juan Carlos became the King of Spain and he initiated the countrys subsequent transition to democracy, ending with Spain becoming a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. After Francos victory in 1939, the Falange was declared the legal party in Spain. The Organic Law made the government ultimately responsible for passing all laws, as all ministers were appointed and dismissed by Franco as the Chief of state and government, he was effectively the only source of legislation. The law of national referendums, passed in 1945 approved for all laws to be approved by a popular referendum. Local municipal councils were appointed similarly by heads of families and local corporations through elections, however, Carrero Blanco was assassinated on the same year and Franco named a civilian, Carlos Arias Navarro as the countrys new Prime Minister. Concerns about the situation, Spains possible entry into World War II. The army maintained a strength of about 400,000 men until the end of the war, Spain attempted to retain control of the last remnants of its colonial empire throughout Francos rule. During the Algerian War, Madrid became the base of the Organisation armée secrète right-wing French Army group which sought to preserve French Algeria, despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions. Henceforth, when French Morocco became independent in 1956, he surrendered Spanish Morocco to Mohammed V, the year after, Mohammed V invaded Spanish Sahara during the Ifni War. Only in 1975, with the Green March and the military occupation, in 1968, under United Nations pressure, Franco granted Spains colony of Equatorial Guinea its independence, and the next year, ceded the exclave of Ifni to MoroccoFrancoism – By decision of King Juan Carlos I, Franco is entombed in the monument of Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos.
53. Geography of Spain – With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the fourth largest country in Western Europe and with an average altitude of 650 m. Its total area is 504,782 km2 of which 499,542 km2 is land and 5,240 km2 is water, Spain lies between latitudes 36° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E. Its Atlantic coast is 710 km long, the Pyrenees mountain range, extends 435 km from the Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay. Most of Spains boundaries are water, the Mediterranean Sea on the south to the French border, the affiliation of Gibraltar has continued to be a contentious issue between Spain and Britain. The sovereignty of the plazas de soberanía on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is disputed by Morocco, Spain also has a small boi exclave inside France called Llívia. The majority of Spains peninsular region consists of the Meseta Central, other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of which is the Andalusian Plain in the southwest. These are commonly grouped into four types, the Meseta Central and associated mountains, other regions, lowland regions. The Meseta Central is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain, rimmed by mountains, the Meseta Central slopes gently to the west and to the series of rivers that form some of the border with Portugal. The Sistema Central, described as the spine of the Meseta Central, divides the Meseta into northern and southern subregions. The Sistema Central rims the capital city of Madrid with peaks that rise to 2,400 m north of the city, west of Madrid, the Sistema Central shows its highest peak, Pico Almanzor, of 2,592 m. The mountains of the Sistema Central, which continue westward into Portugal, display some glacial features, the southern portion of the Meseta is further divided by twin mountain ranges, the Montes de Toledo running to the east with the Sierra de Guadalupe, to the west. Their peaks do not rise higher than 1,500 m. With many easy passes, including those that connect the Meseta with the Andalusian Plain and this chain of lower mountain ranges is separated from the Sistema Central to the north by the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula, the Tagus River. The mountain regions that rim the Meseta Central and are associated with it are the Sierra Morena, the Cordillera Cantábrica, the massif of the Sierra Morena extends northward to the Río Guadiana, which separates it from the Sistema Central. Despite their relatively low elevations, seldom surpassing 1,300 m, the Cordillera Cantábrica, a limestone formation, runs parallel to, and close to, the northern coast near the Bay of Biscay. Its highest points are the Picos de Europa, surpassing 2,600 m, the Cordillera Cantábrica extends 182 km and abruptly drops 1,500 m some 30 km from the coast. To the west lie the hills of the northwest region and to the east the Basque mountains that link them to the Pyrenees, the Sistema Ibérico extends from the Cordillera Cantábrica southeastward and, close to the Mediterranean, spreads out from the Río Ebro to the Río Júcar. The barren, rugged slopes of mountain range cover an area of close to 21,000 square kilometersGeography of Spain – Map of Spain and Portugal, Corrected and Augmented from the Map Published by D. Tomas Lopez. 1810.
54. List of cities in Spain – This is a list of lists of the municipalities of Spain. The municipalities list links are listed below, by autonomous community, according to the provisional reports released on 18 December 2014, there is a total of 8,122 municipalities in Spain, including the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. Burgos is the province with the most municipalities and Las Palmas the one with the least, Spain has a population of 46,745,807 inhabitants, distributed to 8,117 municipalities. Municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain by population List of submerged places in SpainList of cities in Spain – Madrid, capital of Spain
55. Comarcas of Spain – In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a clearly defined status, are regulated by law, there is even a comarca, the Cerdanya that is divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, county, or sometimes four, Tierra de Pinares. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas, Tierra de Pinares, Tierras de Cantalejo y Santa María la Real de Nieva. Tierra de Campos Montes Torozos Páramos del Esgueva Tierra de Pinares Campo de Peñafiel Campiña del Pisuerga Tierras de Medina Alfoz de Toro, Spain Comarcas, list of the Spanish comarcasComarcas of Spain – Comarcas of Andalusia
56. Government of Spain – Spain is a parliamentary monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain. This was approved by a referendum of the people of Spain in 1978. The final interpretation of the Constitution, in the case of dispute, is the business of the Constitutional Court of Spain, the king is also the commander in chief of the Spanish Armed Forces in which capacity he suppressed the 23-F Spanish coup détat attempt in February 1981. The king, currently Felipe VI, has held this position since 19 June 2014 and his predecessor, Juan Carlos I, abdicated the throne. Daughters can inherit only if the monarch has no sons, the heir presumptive is Leonor, Princess of Asturias. The Military Chief of Staff is General of the Army Fernando Alejandre Martínez, President of the Government, sometimes misleadingly called the Spanish President, is the first minister and is elected by the Congress of Deputies. He is informally but internationally and commonly referred to as the Prime Minister, the current holder is Mariano Rajoy Brey, who was elected on 21 December 2011. He appoints a number of vice-presidents ordered numerically according to rank and responsible for their respective major ministries such as Finance, Foreign affairs, Domestic administration, etc. Minister for the Presidency and Vice President, María Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría Antón, the following is the list of members of the Cabinet of Spain formed after the 2016 general election. Shown here is the logo of the Government of Spain. Below it is a variant design for the Ministry of Finance, Spanish cabinets from 1931 to 2004 Official website Law 50/1997, of the Government Boe. esGovernment of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
57. Constitution of Spain – The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain. It was enacted after the countrys 1978 constitutional referendum and is a furtherance of the Spanish transition to democracy, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 was preceded by numerous other constitutions. The Constitution was ratified after a referendum on 6 December 1978, sanctioned by King Juan Carlos I on 27 December 27, and published in the Boletin Oficial del Estado on 29 December. The promulgation of the Constitution marked the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy after the death of the head of state, Francisco Franco. This led to the country undergoing a series of political and historical changes that transformed the Francoist regime into a democratic state, the constitutional history of Spain dates back to the Constitution of 1812. After the death of dictator Francisco Franco in 1975, an election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution. A seven-member panel was selected among the members of the Cortes to work on a draft of the Constitution to be submitted to the body. These came to be known, as the media put it, however, since much of the consensus depended on keeping the wording ambiguous, few of Celas proposed re-wordings were approved. One of those accepted was the substitution of the archaic gualda for the plain amarillo in the description of the flag of Spain, the constitution was approved by the Cortes Generales on 31 October 1978, and by the Spanish people in a referendum on 6 December 1978. 88% of voters supported the new constitution, finally, it was promulgated by King Juan Carlos on 27 December. It came into effect on 29 December, the day it was published in the Official Gazette, Constitution Day on 6 December has since been a national holiday in Spain. Writing the preamble to the constitution was considered an honour, the person chosen for this purpose was Enrique Tierno Galván. The full text of the preamble may be translated as follows, The Constitution recognizes the existence of nationalities, other constitutional provisions recognize the right to adequate housing, employment, social welfare provision, health protection and pensions. The Constitution has been amended twice, the first time, Article 13.2, Title I was altered to extend to citizens of the European Union the right to active and passive suffrage in local elections. The second time, in August/September 2011, a budget amendment. The current version restricts the death penalty to military courts during wartime, amnesty International has still requested an amendment to be made to the Constitution to abolish it firmly and explicitly in all cases. After that, the campaign pleads for other 24 amendments protecting human rights, even though such a procedure would not formally violate the law, it could be considered an attack on its spirit. The Statutes of Autonomy of the different regions are the second most important Spanish legal normatives when it comes to the structure of the countryConstitution of Spain – Copy of the Spanish Constitution displayed at the Palace of the Cortes.
58. Foreign relations of Spain – Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral international security activities. Spains European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy, even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms. Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries, Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy, as shown in the many trips that Spains King and Prime Ministers have made to the region. Spain maintains economic and technical programs and cultural exchanges with Latin America. Meanwhile, Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa and it has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large aid program. More recently Madrid has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Spain is also known as a broker in the Middle East. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues, the Arab countries are a priority interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain. Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three European neighbours, France, Andorra, and Portugal, the accession of Spain and Portugal to the EU has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Franco-Spanish bilateral cooperation is enhanced by joint action against Basque ETA violence, ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue. Today, Spain is trying to expand its still narrow relations with east Asian nations, china, Japan and South Korea are the main points of interest for Spain in the region. Thailand and Indonesia are Spains main allies in the ASEAN region, having a number of agreements. In the recent years Spain has also been boosting its contacts, relations and investment in other Asian countries, most notably Vietnam, whilst the Disputed status of Gibraltar with the United Kingdom is perhaps the best known territorial dispute of Spain. Portugal continues to claim Olivenza/Olivença, asserting that under the Vienna Treaty of 1815, the historic disputes with Portugal over the Savage Islands in the Atlantic Ocean were resolved in recent times. The strategic position of the Strait of Gibraltar has left a legacy of a number of sovereignty disputes, Spain also maintains that the majority of residents are Spanish. Morocco claims these territories on the basis of the UN principles of decolonisation, territorial integrity, the population is 80% ethnic Portuguese and 30% of Portuguese language. Olivenza/Olivença was under continuous Portuguese sovereignty since 1297 until it was occupied by the Spanish in 1801, Spain claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz still stands and has never been revoked. Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by that treaty. Portugal claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz was revoked by its own terms when Spain invaded Portugal in the Peninsular War of 1807Foreign relations of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
59. Military of Spain – The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a military force charged with defending the Kingdoms integrity and sovereignty. They consist of the Army, Navy and Air Force, the King is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, with the title Capitán General de las Fuerzas Armadas. The current Chief of the Defence Staff is General Fernando Alejandre Martínez, the Spanish Armed Forces are active members of NATO, the Eurocorps, the European Union Battlegroups, and also provide peace keeping troops to the United Nations. During the 15th and 16th century, Spain evolved into Europes foremost power with the voyages of Christopher Columbus leading to Spain acquiring vast lands in the Americas. During the reign of Charles V and Philip II, Spain reached the peak of its power with the Spanish Empire spanning 19.4 million square km of the earths surface, a total of 13%. By the mid 17th century this power had weakened by the Thirty Years War along with financial problems. Thanks to these reforms, Spain performed well in the French Revolutionary Wars, the war of Jenkins Ear, the war of Austrian Succession and several other engagements. Following the war, the Spanish military was in condition and political instability resulted in the loss of most of Spains former colonies, except Cuba, Puerto Rico. These too would be lost later in the Spanish–American War, the Spanish armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2012 of 123,300 active personnel and 16,400 reserve personnel. The country also has the 80,000 strong Civil Guard which comes under the control of the Ministry of Defence in times of a national emergency, the Spanish defence budget is 5.71 billion euros a 1% increase for 2015. The increase comes because of security concerns in the country, the Spanish army consists of 15 active brigades and 6 military regions. Modern infantry have diverse capabilities and this is reflected in the roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil, air assault, armoured infantry, mechanised infantry, the Spanish army has the latest technology at its disposal to preserve the territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Spain. The current flagship of the Spanish Navy is the assault ship Juan Carlos 1 which is also used as an aircraft carrier. In addition, the fleet consists of,2 amphibious transport docks,11 frigates,3 submarines,6 mine countermeasure vessels,23 patrol vessels, the total displacement of the Spanish Navy is approximately 220,000 tonnes. As of 2012, the Armada has a strength of 20,800 personnel, the Infanteria de Marina are the marine infantry of the Spanish Navy, the oldest in the world. It has a strength of 5,000 troops divided into base defense forces, one of the three base defense battalions is stationed with each of the Navy headquartersMilitary of Spain – Tri-service badge
60. Elections in Spain – There are four types of elections in Spain, general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament. Elections to local councils and to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates, for most elections party list PR is used, but the plurality system is used for the Senate. General elections are held for the national legislature, which is called in Spain Cortes Generales. The Congress and Senate serve concurrent terms that run for a maximum of four years, the Congress is composed of 350 members directly elected by universal adult suffrage for a four-year term of office. Each one of Spains fifty provinces is a constituency entitled to a minimum of two seats, the cities of Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each. The remaining 248 seats are allocated among the fifty provinces in proportion to their populations, parties, federations, coalitions and agrupaciones de electores may present candidates or lists of candidates. The lists are closed, so electors may not choose individual candidates in or alter the order of such lists, electors cast a ballot for a single list, or for a single candidate in Ceuta and Melilla. The seats in each constituency are apportioned according to the largest average method of proportional representation, however, in order to participate in the allocation of seats, a list must receive at least three percent of all valid votes cast in the constituency, including blank ballots. The single-member seats in Ceuta and Melilla are filled by the plurality or first-past-the-post method, at the time, Zaragoza province had seven seats in Congress, while both Huesca and Teruel had three. As indicated, the PSOE won three seats, the PP two, the PAR one and IU one. Meanwhile, the results of the election in Huesca province were as follows, The effective representation threshold in Huesca was 25,360 votes, or 19. 0% of the valid vote. Finally, the outcome of the election in Teruel was the following, The effective representation threshold in Teruel was 18,163 votes, or 20. 2% of the valid vote. The number of required to attain a seat in Zaragoza province - the largest of three constituencies - was substantially higher than the amount required to that end in Huesca or in Teruel. The proportional allocation of seats in each constituency appeared to favor the major parties in general, the system for electing the Senate was first used in 1979, though with regard to the provinces the system is unchanged since 1977. Senators are elected directly from the provinces and indirectly from the communities, currently. In the provinces, a partial block voting system is used. All peninsular provinces elect four senators each, the insular provinces elect one or three senators per island, and Ceuta and Melilla elect two senators each. Parties nominate three candidates, each voter has three votes and votes for candidates by name, the instance of personal voting in Spanish national electionsElections in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
61. Autonomous communities of Spain – Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary state. Some scholars have referred to the system as a federal system in all. There are 17 autonomous communities and two cities that are collectively known as autonomies. The two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet used this right and this unique framework of territorial administration is known as the State of Autonomies. The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a country made up of different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown by the 16th century, the constituent territories—be it crowns, kingdoms, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories also exhibited a variety of customs, laws. From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime, leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries. This culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces and these were the Basque Country and Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism, therefore, economic and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1913 and it was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonias mediaeval institution of government, was restored. During General Francos dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the unity of the Spanish nation, peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats. When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy, the then Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. In the end, the constitution, published and ratified in 1979, found a balance in recognizing the existence of nationalities and regions in Spain, within the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation. The starting point in the organization of Spain was the second article of the constitution. In order to exercise this right, the established a open process whereby the nationalitiesAutonomous communities of Spain – A map of Iberia in 1757
62. List of political parties in Spain – This article lists political parties in Spain. Spain has a multi-party system at both the national and regional level, nationally there are four dominant political parties, which makes it extremely difficult for any other formation or coalition to achieve an electoral majority in the bicameral Cortes Generales. Regional parties can be strong in autonomous communities like Catalonia and the Basque Country and are essential for national government coalitions. Peoples Party — mainstream centre-right, is a conservative, Catholic, spanish Socialist Workers Party — mainstream centre-left social democratic party linked to General Union of Workers trade union. United We Can — a republican left-wing electoral alliance led by the leftist 2014-founded party Podemos, supporting the removal of the monarchy of Spain and the withdrawal of Spain from NATO. The alliance is formed by the communist United Left, which is associated with Workers Commissions trade union. Citizens — a centre-right, business-friendly party and it supports high degree of political decentralization, but it rejects autonomous communities right to self-determination. Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals — a centre-left party focused on the fight for animal rights, the party seeks to ban all sorts of bullfighting events. Union, Progress and Democracy — a recently established progressive party which combines social liberalism with centralism from the centre of political spectrum. It strongly supports the unity of Spain, thereby being an enemy of Spains peripheral nationalism, por una Europa de los Trabajadores y los Pueblos - No a la Constitucion Europea - coalition of PCPE and LI-LIT. CI. Alianza para el Desarrollo y la Naturaleza, - European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party Extremadura Unida. Partido de los Autónomos Jubilados y ViudasList of political parties in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
63. Prime Minister of Spain – The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978. In practice, the Prime Minister is almost always the leader of the largest party in the Congress, since current constitutional practice in Spain calls for the King to act on the advice of his ministers, the Prime Minister is effectively the countrys chief executive. Mariano Rajoy Brey of the Peoples Party has been the minister since he was sworn in on December 21,2011. The Spanish head of government is known, in Spanish, as the Presidente del Gobierno, in Spain the head of the government is often called simply Presidente, meaning President. Before 1833 the figure was known as Secretario de Estado, a denomination used today for junior ministers, once a general election has been announced by the king, political parties nominate their candidates to stand for the presidency of the government-usually the party leader. Constitutionally, the Prime Minister and the cabinet are responsible to the monarch, on paper, the monarch is free to name anyone he sees fit as his prerogative to form a government. For this reason, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Congress. By political custom established by Juan Carlos I since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, however, there is no legal requirement for this. In theory, the largest party could end up not ruling if rival parties gather into a majority, the monarch is normally able to announce his nominee on the day following a general election. A simple majority confirms the nominee and his program, after the nominee is confirmed, the Speaker of the Congress formally reports to the king of the congressional confirmation. The king then appoints the candidate as the new President of the Government, the kings order of appointment is countersigned by the Speaker. If no overall majority was obtained on the first Vote of the Confidence, then the same nominee and program is resubmitted for a second vote within forty-eight hours. Following the second vote, if confidence by the Congress is still unreached, then the monarch again meets with political leaders and the Speaker, and submits a new nominee for a vote of confidence. If, within two months, no candidate has won the confidence of the Congress then the King dissolves the Cortes, the Kings royal decree is countersigned by the Speaker of the Congress. Once appointed, the President of the Government forms his government whose ministers are appointed and removed by the King on the presidents advice, conversely, nominating the party leader whose party maintains a plurality and who are already familiar with their party manifesto facilitates a smoother nomination process. In the event of coalitions, the leaders would customarily have met beforehand to hammer out a coalition agreement before their meeting with the King. Governments and the Cortes sit for a no longer than four years when the president tenders his resignation to the king and advises the king to dissolve the Cortes. It remains within the prerogative to dissolve the Cortes if, at the conclusion of the four yearsPrime Minister of Spain – Incumbent Mariano Rajoy since 21 December 2011
64. Economy of Spain – Spain has the fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP in the world, and it is also among the largest in the world by purchasing power parity. The country is a member of the European Union, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Spanish economy is the fifth-largest in the European Union, and the fourth-largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP statistics. In 2012, Spain was the twelfth-largest exporter in the world, Spain is listed 23rd in UN Human Development Index and 30th in GDP per capita by the World Bank, thus it is classified as a high income economy and among the countries of very high human development. According to The Economist, Spain has the worlds 10th highest quality of life, Spain has also the biggest life expectancy in Europe. Following the financial crisis of 2007–08, the Spanish economys plunged into recession, compared to the EUs and US. average, the Spanish economy entered recession later, but stayed there for longer. The economic boom of the 2000s was reversed, leaving over a quarter of Spains workforce unemployed by 2012, in aggregated terms, the Spanish GDP contracted by almost 9% during the 2009-2013 period. The economic situation started improving by 2013-2014, the country managed to reverse the record trade deficit which had built up during the boom years attaining a trade surplus in 2013 after three decades of running a trade deficit. The surplus kept strengthening during 2014 and 2015, in 2015 the Spanish GDP grew by 3. 2%, a rate not seen since 2007, before the crisis struck, such growth rate was the highest among larger EU economies that year. Strong GDP growth was registered also in 2016, with the country growing twice as fast as the eurozone average, when Spain joined the EEC in 1986 its GDP per capita was about 72% of the average of its members. Due to its own development and the EU enlargements up to 28 members, by 2007 Spain had achieved a GDP per capita of 105% of EUs average. Three regions were included in the leading EU group exceeding 125% of the GDP per capita average level, Basque Country leading with Madrid and Navarre. According to calculations by the German newspaper Die Welt, Spains economy had been on course to overtake countries like Germany in per capita income by 2011. Unemployment stood at 7. 6% in October 2006, a rate that compared favorably to many other European countries, growth during the 1997-2007 period had been led by a property boom fed by historically low interest rates, massive rates of foreign investment and an immense surge in immigration. At its peak in 2007, construction had expanded to a massive 16% of the gross domestic product of the country. Noticeable progress continued until early 2008, when the financial crisis burst Spains property bubble. A European Commission forecast had predicted Spain would enter the worlds late 2000s recession by the end of 2008, at the time, Spains Economy Minister was quoted saying, Spain is facing its deepest recession in half a century. Spains government forecast the unemployment rate would rise to 16% in 2009, the ESADE business school predicted 20%. By 2013, Spain’s GDP per capita had fallen back to 95% of EUs average, in 2011 the deficit reached a high of 8. 5%Economy of Spain – Cuatro Torres Business Area in Madrid
65. Transport in Spain – Transport in Spain is characterised by an extensive network of roads, railways, rapid transit, air routes, and ports. Its geographic location makes it an important link between Europe, Africa, and the New World, major forms of transit generally radiate from the capital, Madrid, located in the centre of the country, to link with the capitals of the autonomous communities. Spain is currently working to increase and improve linkage with the systems of France and Portugal. Spain possesses a developed highway system, with both tolled and freeways. Air traffic is routed through several international and regional airports, the largest of which is Barajas International Airport in Madrid and it is proposed to build or convert more standard gauge lines, including some dual gauging of broad gauge lines, especially where these lines link to adjacent countries. A high-speed rail line between Madrid and Seville was completed in 1992, in 2003, high-speed service was inaugurated on a new line from Madrid to Lleida and extended to Barcelona in 2008. The same year, lines from Madrid to Valladolid and from Córdoba to Málaga were inaugurated, in 2010, AVE line Madrid-Cuenca-Valencia was inaugurated. Alicante Barcelona (Barcelona Metro/Tram Bilbao Castellon under construction, jaén finished without service due to political reason. Palma Parla Santa Cruz de Tenerife opened in 2007, Seville Valencia Vélez-Málaga Vigo under construction. Andorra – no France – yes/no – break-of-gauge / Portugal – yes, break-of-gauge / In December 2003, Morocco and Spain agreed to explore the construction of an undersea rail tunnel across the Strait of Gibraltar, to connect their rail systems. The AVE is a mean of transport the worlds fastest 300/360 km per h, the name is literally translated from Spanish Alta Velocidad Españolas, but its initials are also a play on the word ave, meaning bird. As of December 2011, the Spanish AVE system is the longest HSR network in Europe with 2,665 km, AVE trains run on a network of dedicated high-speed rail track owned and managed by Adif. The first line was opened in 1992, connecting the cities of Madrid, Córdoba, unlike the rest of the Spanish broad gauge network, the AVE uses standard gauge, permitting direct connections outside Spain. Some TGV-derived trains do run on the network at slower speeds. In this regard, the punctuality of the AVE is exceptional compared to other non-long-distance RENFE services, on other AVE lines, this punctuality promise is more lax. AVE´S PROJECT IN THE FUTURE, Andorra – no France – yes – break-of-gauge / Portugal – yes, break-of-gauge / Total,681,298 km Expressways,16,204 km The first-class motorways in Spain are called autopistas and autovías. There are also many national roads, there are 1,045 km of water ways, but they have minor economic importanceTransport in Spain – Madrid Metro
66. European System of Central Banks – The European System of Central Banks consists of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 28 member states of the European Union. The ESCB is not the authority of the eurozone, because not all EU member states have joined the euro. That role is performed by the Eurosystem, which includes the central banks of the 19 member states that have adopted the euro. The ESCBs objective is price stability throughout the European Union, secondarily, the ESCBs goal is to improve monetary and financial cooperation between the Eurosystem and member states outside the eurozone. The process of decision-making in the Eurosystem is centralized through the bodies of the ECB, namely the Governing Council. As long as there are EU member states which have not adopted the euro, a third decision-making body, the General Council comprises the President and the Vice-President and the governors of the NCBs of all 28 Member States. The ESCB is composed of the European Central Bank and the central banks of all 28 member states of the European Union. The first section of the following list lists member states and their central banks that form the Eurosystem, the second section lists member states and their central banks that maintain separate currencies. European Central Bank ECB – The General Council Organisation and operation of the ECB CVCEEuropean System of Central Banks – ESCB
67. Bolsa de Madrid – Bolsa de Madrid is owned by Bolsas y Mercados Españoles. The reorganisation of Spains financial market under the umbrella of the Spanish Stock Market includes the bolsas, the derivatives markets. Trading is linked through the electronic Spanish Stock Market Interconnection System, the IBEX35 Index is a capitalization-weighted index comprising the 35 most liquid Spanish stocks traded in the continuous market, and is Bolsa de Madrids benchmark. Bolsa de Madrid also offers the FTSE-Latibex Index, a European market for Latin American stocks, the Ibex New Market Index, for emerging companies, was offered from 2000 to 2007. Trading on SIBE is conducted from 9 a. m. to 5,30 p. m. open outcry from 10a. m. to 11,30 a. m. both Monday through Friday The Bolsa de Madrid was officially founded in 1831. In 1993, the Bolsa de Madrid switched to all-electronic trading for fixed-income securities. As required by Spanish law, it is managed and operated by the Sociedad Rectora de la Bolsa de Valores de Madrid S. A. a corporation organized under the laws of the Kingdom of Spain. The membership of the Madrid Stock Exchange consists of 41 major financial institutions and 12 established securities dealers, at December 31,2001, approximately 1477 domestic and foreign companies had their equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange. The total market capitalization of the equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange in May,2007 was €1,276.26 billion and it is housed in a historic nineteenth-century building, the Palacio de la Bolsa de Madrid. Madrid Stock Exchange General Index Official websiteBolsa de Madrid – Madrid Stock Exchange Bolsa de Madrid
68. Culture of Spain – In the areas of language and religion, the Ancient Romans left a lasting legacy. The subsequent course of Spanish history added other elements to the countrys culture, the Visigothic Kingdom left a sense of a united Christian Hispania that was going to be welded in the Reconquista. Muslim influences were strong during the Middle Ages, another influence was the minority Jewish population in some cities. After the defeat of the Muslims during the Christian Reconquista period between 718 and 1492, Spain became an almost entirely Roman Catholic country. By the end of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Spaniards made expressions of cultural diversity easier than it had been for the last seven centuries and this occurred at the same period that Spain became increasingly drawn into a diverse international culture. Spain has the third highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, after Italy and China, the term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed by Spanish and Latin American writers. It may include Spanish poetry, prose, and novels, Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish authors worldwide. Due to historic, geographic, and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a number of influences and is very diverse. Some major movements can be identified within it, highlights include the Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. It is written in medieval Spanish, the ancestor of modern Spanish, la Celestina is a book published anonymously by Fernando de Rojas in 1499. This book is considered to be one of the greatest in Spanish literature, and traditionally marks the end of medieval literature, in these novels, the adventures of the pícaro expose injustice while simultaneously amusing the reader. As a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears at or near the top of lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published. However, Spains best known artist since the 20th century has been Pablo Picasso, who is known for his sculptures, drawings, graphics. Other leading artists include Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris, Joan Miró, during the Prehistoric period, the megalithic Iberian and Celtic architectures developed. Through the Roman period, both development and construction projects flourished. In the 19th century eclecticism and regionalism, the Neo-Mudéjar style, in the 20th century, the Catalan Modernisme, modernist architecture, and contemporary architecture germinated. The art of motion picture making within the nation of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish cinema, in recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition as a result of its creative and technical excellence. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980sCulture of Spain – Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea, also called " La Celestina "
69. Bullfighting – Bullfighting is a physical contest that generally involves humans attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations. Although people commonly think of Spanish-style bullfighting as representative of bullfighting, there are different forms. Some forms involve dancing around or over a cow or bull, Bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of many countries including Spain, Portugal, parts of southern France, India and Tanzania, and some Latin American countries. In some locations, a breed of cattle, the Spanish Fighting Bull, is used for bullfighting. These bulls must be bred in large ranches, and in conditions as similar as possible to the way they would behave in the wild, there are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsula, France and Latin America. Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice in Mesopotamia, the first recorded bullfight may be the Epic of Gilgamesh, which describes a scene in which Gilgamesh and Enkidu fought and killed the Bull of Heaven. Bull leaping was portrayed in Crete, and myths related to bulls throughout Greece, the killing of the sacred bull is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, which was commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what seems to be a man facing a bull is on the Celtiberian tombstone from Clunia, Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held as competition and entertainment, the Venationes. These hunting games spread to Africa, Europe and Asia during Roman times, there are also theories that it was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius, as a substitute for gladiators, when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial combat. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves Spanish colonists took the practice of breeding cattle and bullfighting to the American colonies, in the 19th century, areas of southern and southwestern France adopted bullfighting, developing their own distinctive form. Religious festivities and royal weddings were celebrated by fights in the plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor. In the Middle Ages across Europe, knights would joust in competitions on horseback, in Spain, they began to fight bulls. In medieval Spain bullfighting was considered a sport and reserved to the rich. The bull was released into an arena where a single fighter on horseback was armed with a lance. This spectacle was said to be enjoyed by Charlemagne, Alfonso X the Wise, the greatest Spanish performer of this art is said to have been El Cid knight. According chronicle of the time, in 1128, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile married Berengaria of Barcelona daughter of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona at Saldaña among other celebrations, there were also bullfights. This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds, thus the modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were replaced by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the construction of dedicated bullrings, initially square, like the Plaza de Armas, the modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte, generally considered the greatest matador of all timeBullfighting – Bullwrestling, Édouard Manet, 1865–1866
70. Cinema of Spain – The art of motion-picture making within the Kingdom of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish Cinema. In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition, in the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s. I hope that Europeans will continue to lead the way in film making because at the moment not much is coming from the United States, only a small portion of box office sales in Spain are generated by domestic films. All of these films were produced by Spanish firms, the first Spanish film exhibition took place on May 5,1895, in Barcelona. Exhibitions of Lumière films were screened in Madrid and Barcelona in May and December of 1896, the matter of which Spanish film came first is in doubt. It is also possible that the first film was Riña en un café by the prolific filmmaker Fructuós Gelabert and these films were all released in 1897. In 1914, Barcelona was the center of the film industry. The españoladas predominated until the 1960s, prominent among these were the films of Florián Rey, starring Imperio Argentina, and the first version of Nobleza Baturra. Even the Nobel Prize-winning playwright Jacinto Benavente, who said that in film they pay me the scraps, in 1928, Ernesto Giménez Caballero and Luis Buñuel founded the first cine-club, in Madrid. By that point, Madrid was already the center of the industry,44 of the 58 films released up until that point had been produced there. The rural drama La aldea maldita was a hit in Paris, Un chien andalou has become one of the most well-known avant-garde films of that era. By 1931, the introduction of foreign productions had hurt the Spanish film industry to the point where only a single title was released that year. In 1935, Manuel Casanova founded the Compañía Industrial Film Española S. A. CIFESA would grow to become the biggest production company to ever exist in Spain. Sometimes criticized as an instrument of the wing, it nevertheless supported young filmmakers such as Luis Buñuel and his pseudo-documentary Las Hurdes. In 1933 it was responsible for filming 17 motion pictures and in 1934,21, by 1935 production had risen to 37 films. The Civil War devastated the silent film era, only 10% of all silent films made before 1936 survived the war, films were also destroyed for their celluloid content and made into goods. Around 1936, both sides of the Civil War began to use cinema as a means of propaganda and censorship, a typical example of this is Luis Buñuels España 1936, which also contains much rare newsreel footage. The pro-Franco side founded the National Department of Cinematography, causing many actors to go into exileCinema of Spain – Cine Capitol, Gran Vía, Madrid
71. Music of Spain – The music of Spain has a long history and has played an important role in the development of Western music and has greatly influenced Latin American music. Spanish music is associated with traditional styles such as flamenco. While these forms of music are common, there are many different traditional musical, for example, music from the north-west regions is heavily reliant on bagpipes, the jota is widespread in the centre and north of the country, and flamenco originated in the south. Spanish music played a part in the early developments of western classical music. The Iberian peninsula has had a history of receiving different musical influences from around the Mediterranean Sea, hence, there have been more than two thousand years of internal and external influences and developments that have produced a large number of unique musical traditions. Isidore of Seville wrote about the music in the 6th century. His influences were predominantly Greek, and yet he was an original thinker, as the Christian reconquista progressed, these chants were almost entirely replaced by the Gregorian standard, once Rome had regained control of the Iberian churches. In the royal Christian courts of the reconquistors, music like the Cantigas de Santa Maria, other important medieval sources include the Codex Calixtinus collection from Santiago de Compostela and the Codex Las Huelgas from Burgos. The so-called Llibre Vermell de Montserrat is an important devotional collection from the 14th century, in the early Renaissance, Mateo Flecha el Viejo and the Castilian dramatist Juan del Encina ranked among the main composers in the post-Ars Nova period. Renaissance song books included the Cancionero de Palacio, the Cancionero de Medinaceli, the Cancionero de Upsala, the Cancionero de la Colombina, the organist Antonio de Cabezón stands out for his keyboard compositions and mastery. An early 16th-century polyphonic vocal style developed in Spain was closely related to that of the Franco-Flemish composers, Music composed for the vihuela by Luis de Milán, Alonso Mudarra and Luis de Narváez was one of the main achievements of the period. The Aragonese Gaspar Sanz authored the first learning method for guitar, Spanish composers of the Renaissance included Francisco Guerrero, Cristóbal de Morales, and Tomás Luis de Victoria, all of whom spent a significant portion of their careers in Rome. The latter was said to have reached a level of perfection and expressive intensity equal or even superior to Palestrina. Most Spanish composers returned home from travels abroad late in their careers to spread their knowledge in their native land. By the end of the 17th century the musical culture of Spain was in decline. Classicism in Spain, when it arrived, was inspired by Italian models, some outstanding Italian composers such as Domenico Scarlatti and Luigi Boccherini were appointed to the Madrid royal court. The short-lived Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga is credited as the beginner of Romantic sinfonism in Spain. Although symphonic music was never too important in Spain, chamber, solo instrumental vocal, zarzuela, a native form of opera that includes spoken dialogue, is a secular musical genre which developed in the mid-17th century, flourishing most importantly in the century after 1850Music of Spain – The modern classical guitar and its baroque predecessor originated in Spain
72. RTVE – RTVE is the largest audiovisual group in Spain broadcasting in the Spanish language. Since January 2010 it is financed exclusively by public subsidies, in the exercise of its public service function, among the obligations of the RTVE Corporation are, Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and civic values. Guarantee the objectivity and truthfulness of the information provided, while ensuring that a range of views is presented. Facilitate democratic debate and the expression of opinion. Promote the territorial cohesion and linguistic and cultural diversity of Spain, to serve the widest audience, ensuring maximum continuity and geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality, diversity, innovation, and high ethical standards. RTVE throughout its history has undergone numerous restructurings and reorganisations, and has assumed numerous identities, the history of RTVE begins in 1937 with the first broadcasts by Radio Nacional de España from the city of Salamanca. In these early years, RNE served as a tool for the Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War. Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time RTVE became an autonomous organization, in 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old radio service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, by statute, as a public entity with its own jurisdiction. The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981, since then, the NO-DO archives are property of RTVE and its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacionals. In 1989, RCE was dismantled and its service was merged into RNE. This change in the law put Corporación RTVE in control of Spains public radio, in 2012 the PP began staffing RTVE with party veterans. Considerable controversy was caused when Ana Pastor was fired, on 11 June 2013, RTVE was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticize the closure of Greeces state broadcaster ERT. Pursuant to the 2006 Law of State Radio and television, management of the public service is entrusted to Corporación RTVE. The Administrative Council of the RTVE is the body of RTVE, and appoints the executive officers of RTVE and its companies, approves its organization. The President has operational control of operations, in order to execute the decisions. The President is appointed by, and may be dismissed by, before the 2006 Act, this position was filled by the role of the Director General, which had a de facto total control of RTVE. In practice, the Director General had been chosen by the Government for their political profile, the News Council is an internal supervisory body composed of RTVE journalists with the aim of safeguarding RTVEs independenceRTVE – RNE's headquarters, Casa de la Radio (Radio's house) in Pozuelo (Madrid).
73. Football in Spain – Association football is the most popular sport in Spain, and is a widespread passion among the people of Spain. In a survey of sports habits of the Spanish population made in 2010, a total of 75. 9% of people said they had ever bought tickets to attend a football match. In addition, a total of 67. 3% of the said that they saw all, almost all, many. In another survey made in 2014, the practice of football decreased to 14% of the population, being overtaken by other sports, however, in this survey football was still the sport that interests the majority of Spain’s people. A total of 67% of the said they were fans or had sympathy for a particular club. In addition,74. 9% said they watched, whenever possible, the matches broadcast on television regarding their favorite teams, a relationship between football, politics, identity and attitudes towards regionalism in Spain has also been reported. The Royal Spanish Football Federation is the governing body. The Liga de Fútbol Profesional, integrated by a total of 42 football clubs, forms part of the Royal Spanish Football Federation but has autonomy in its organisation and it is responsible for the organisation of state football leagues, in coordination with RFEF. The Spanish national football team have won the FIFA World Cup once, and has also been successful in the UEFA European Championship, the mens national teams of Spain, in all categories, have won a total of 26 titles in FIFA, UEFA, and Olympic tournaments. The First Division of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional, commonly known in the English-speaking world as La Liga, is one of the strongest football league in Europe, at club level, the Spanish football clubs have won a total of 66 international tournaments. The characteristic football style of play developed by FC Barcelona, professional football in Spain is a sociocultural event that make a significant contribution to the Spanish economy in terms of both demand and supply. In economic terms, during 2013 professional football generated more than €7.6 billion including direct, indirect and induced effects, representing 0. 75% of Spanish GPD. Moreover, as a result of crisis in the last years. In addition, the European Union authorities have warned to Spanish authorities in order to halt funding of debt-ridden clubs. Spain national futsal team is one of the strongest teams in the world, being six times champion in the UEFA Futsal Championship, and two times champion in the FIFA Futsal World Championship. Modern football was introduced to Spain in the late 19th century by a combination of mostly British immigrant workers, visiting sailors, the oldest football clubs in Spain are Recreativo de Huelva and Sevilla FC. Although Gimnàstic de Tarragona was formed in 1886, the club did not form a football team until 1914. The first official game played in Spain took place in Seville on 8 March 1890 at the Tablada HippodromeFootball in Spain – Santiago Bernabeu, Real Madrid’s Stadium.
74. Spanish wine – Spanish wines are wines produced in Spain. This is due, in part, to the low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry. The country is ninth in worldwide consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average,21.6 litres per person a year, the abundance of native grape varieties fostered an early start to viticulture with evidence of grape pips dating back to the Tertiary period. Following the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians introduced new advances to the region-including the teachings of the early viticulturist Mago, carthage would wage a series of wars with the emerging Roman Republic that would lead to the Roman conquest of the Spanish mainland, known as Hispania. Under Roman rule, Spanish wine was exported and traded throughout the Roman empire. The two largest wine producing regions at the time were Terraconensis in the north and Baetica in the south. During this period more Spanish wine was exported into Gaul than Italian wine, with amphorae being found in ruins of Roman settlements in Normandy, Spanish wine was also provided to Roman soldiers guarding border settlements in Britain and the Limes Germanicus in Germania. Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain was invaded by various barbaric tribes-including the Suebi, while the Moors were Muslim and subjected to Islamic dietary laws that forbid the use of alcohol, the Moorish rulers held an ambiguous stance on wine and winemaking during their rule. Several caliphs and emirs owned vineyards and drank wine, while there were laws written that outlawed the sale of wine, it was included on lists of items that were subject to taxation in Moorish territories. The Spanish Reconquista reopened the possibility of exporting Spanish wine, bilbao emerged as a large trading port, introducing Spanish wines to the English wine markets in Bristol, London and Southampton. The quality of some of these exported Spanish wines appears to have been high, following the completion of the Spanish Reconquista in 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World under the sponsorship of the Spanish crown. This opened up a new market as well as new opportunity for wine production. Spanish missionaries and conquistadors brought European grape vines with them as they colonized the new lands, English merchants from the Sherry producing regions of Jerez and Sanlúcar de Barrameda as well as Málaga fled the area due to the fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition. The defeat of the Spanish Armada by Elizabeth I of England greatly reduced the strength of the Spanish navy, Spain became more dependent on the income from its Spanish colonies, including the exportation of Spanish wine to the Americas. In some countries, like Chile, these orders were largely ignored, a major turning point occurred in the mid 19th century when the phylloxera epidemic ravaged European vineyards-most notably those of France. One of these developments was the introduction of the 59 gallon oak barrica, phylloxera eventually reached Spain, devastating regions like Malaga in 1878 and reaching Rioja in 1901. Its slow progress was due in part to the tracts of land, including the Meseta Central. By the time the Spanish wine industry felt the force of phylloxeraSpanish wine – Spanish wines emphasize their flavour for the sake of tasting.
75. Demographics of Spain – As of January 1,2014, Spain had a total population of 46,507,760, which represents a 0. 5% decrease since 2013. The CIA Factbook gives a description of composite of Mediterranean. This reflects the formation of the modern Kingdom of Spain by the accretion of several independent Iberian realms, i. e. León, Castile, Navarre, Spains population peaked in 2012, at 46,818,216 people. Spains official population fell by 206,000 to 47.1 million, mostly because of immigrants returning home due to the effects of the European economic and its population density, at 91.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, is lower than that of most Western European countries. With the exception of the capital Madrid, the most densely populated areas lie around the coast, no fewer than eleven of Spains fifty provinces saw an absolute decline in population over the century. The last quarter of the century saw a fall in birth rates. Spains fertility rate of 1.47 is lower than the EU average, the birth rate has climbed in 10 years from 9.10 births per 1000 people per year in 1996 to 10.9 in 2006. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 abolished the Roman Catholic Church as the state religion. 76. 7% of the population define themselves as Catholic,20. 0% as non-believers or atheists, among believers,55. 3% assert they almost never go to any religious service, by contrast,17. 0% attend one or more masses almost every week. The population of Spain doubled during the century as a result of the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s. Many demographers have linked Spains very low fertility rate to the lack of any real family planning policy. Spain spends the least on family support out all western European countries—0. 5% of GDP, in emigration/immigration terms, after centuries of net emigration, Spain, has recently experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern history. According to the Spanish government there were 5,730,667 foreign residents in Spain as of January 2011, of these, more than 860,000 were Romanian, and half 760,000 were Moroccan while the number of Ecuadorians was around 390,000. Colombian population amounted to around 300,000, there are also a significant number of British and German citizens, mainly in Alicante, Málaga provinces, Balearic Islands and Canary Islands. Immigrants from several sub-Saharan African countries have settled in Spain as contract workers. This trend is far from being reversed at the present moment and, in 2005 alone, the growing population of immigrants is the main reason for the slight increase in Spains fertility rate. From 2002 through 2008 the Spanish population grew by 8%, of which 7% were foreign, notable events in modern Spanish demography,1898. Loss of the war against the United States, economic depression and mass emigration to American countries ensuedDemographics of Spain – Population density by municipality in Spain, 2008
76. Spanish people – Within Spain there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the countrys complex history and diverse culture. There are several commonly spoken languages, most notably Basque. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain, the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of languages, with the exception of Basque. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads, in the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was also conquered. In parallel, a wave of emigration began to the Americas began with over 16 million people emigrating to the Americas during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, as a result, Spanish-descendants in Latin America number in the hundreds of millions. Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people, the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is became increasingly diverse due to recent immigration, the earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35, 000–40,000 years ago. In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, initially settling along the Mediterranean coast, celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a known as the Tartessians and later Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries, the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought mainly in what is now Spain and Portugal. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces, hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian, Seneca and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, the Suebi became the first Germanic kingdom to convert officially to Roman Catholicism in 447 AD. under king Rechiar. After two centuries of domination by the Visigothic Kingdom, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711 and this army consisted mainly ethnic Berbers from the Ghomara tribe, which were reinforced by Arabs from Syria once the conquest was complete. Muslim Iberia became part of the Umayyad Caliphate and would be known as Al-Andalus, the Berbers of Al Andalus revolted as early as 740 AD, halting Arab expansion across the Pyrenees into FranceSpanish people – Lady of Elche, a piece of Iberian sculpture from the 4th century BC
77. Time in Spain – Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time and Central European Summer Time in Peninsular Spain, in the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time and Western European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October throughout Spain, Spain used Greenwich Mean Time before the Second World War. Some observers believe that time zone shift plays a role in the countrys relatively unusual daily schedule. Spain, like parts of the world, used mean solar time until 31 December 1900. In San Sebastián on 22 July 1900, the President of Consejo de Ministros, the Royal Decree was sanctioned by María Cristina on 26 July 1900 in San Sebastián, the place where she resided during summer. Before 1 March 1922, the Canary Islands still used mean solar time until it was discovered that the Royal Decree of 1900 applied only to the Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The Canary Islands then used a time 1 hour behind the rest of Spain, UTC−01,00, until 16 March 1940, and since then, they have used Western European Time. It is very popular in Spanish national media, mainly in the radio, the natural time zone for the Canary Islands is UTC−01,00. Daylight saving time was first introduced in 1918, the year in which World War I ended and it was then introduced and abolished several times. It was not applied in 1920–1923,1925,1930 nor during the Second Spanish Republic period in 1931–1936, after the war ended on 1 April 1939, Greenwich Mean Time was re-established and on 15 April 1939 DST was also applied. Since 1974, after the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time has been observed every year, in 1981 it was applied as a directive and is revised every 4 years, DST is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September. In 1996, daylight saving time was harmonized throughout the European Union by Directive 2000/84/EC, in 1940, Francisco Franco changed the time zone by changing 16 March 194023,00 Greenwich Mean Time to 17 March 194000,00 Central European Time during World War II. This was made permanent in 1942 in order to be in line with German occupied Europe, several western European countries, including France, Belgium, and the Netherlands stayed on German time after the war in addition to Spain. However, all of mainland Spain has used Central European Time since 1940, at the time it was considered a temporary wartime decision which would be revoked a few years later, which eventually did not happen. Some activists believe that the mismatch between Spains clock time and solar time contributes to the countrys unusual daily schedule. The subcommittee considered that time zone change would have a favourable effect, allowing more time for family, training, personal life, leisure. The proposals are aimed at improving Spanish labour productivity as well as better adjusting schedules to family, the Spanish government will consider the proposalTime in Spain – Time zones in Europe, UTC+01:00 in red. Darker shades indicate use of DST. Canary Islands are not shown.
78. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014