1. Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Spain – Lady of Elche
2. Spanish language – Spanish vocabulary has been from an early date with Arabic having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula. With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has also been influenced by Basque well as by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Spanish is the national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some million. In the European Union, Spanish is the tongue of 8 % of the population, with an additional 7 % speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. ... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. ... The other Spanish languages as well shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities...Spanish language – A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem, in medieval Spanish.
3. Southern Europe – Some definitions of southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula, the Italian peninsula, Southern France, Greece and Malta. Different methods can be used to define southern Europe, including its political, cultural attributes. Southern Europe can also be defined by its natural features -- its geography, flora. Geographically, southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, with no clear limits. Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees. Cooler climates can be found within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy. Additionally, the coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate. Southern Europe's flora is that of one of the phytochoria recognized by Armen Takhtajan. The period known as classical antiquity began with the rise of the city-states of Ancient Greece. Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law and Roman legions. It promoted trade, Greek culture. The Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople. During the Middle Ages, the Eastern Roman Empire survived, though modern historians refer to this state as the Byzantine Empire.Southern Europe – Geographic features of countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
4. Iberian Peninsula – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnᵻnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the third largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas. At that time, the name did not describe a distinct population of people. Strabo's Iberia included the entire land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks discovered the Iberian Peninsula by voyaging westward. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term around 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." Polybius identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are to be distinguished from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians".Iberian Peninsula – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
5. Southwestern Europe – The Iberian Peninsula /aɪˈbɪəriən pəˈnᵻnsjᵿlə/, also known as Iberia /aɪˈbɪəriə/, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory. With an area of approximately 582,000 km2, it is the third largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas. At that time, the name did not describe a distinct population of people. Strabo's Iberia included the entire land mass southwest of there. The ancient Greeks discovered the Iberian Peninsula by voyaging westward. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term around 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." Polybius identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are to be distinguished from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians".Southwestern Europe – Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
6. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land". Its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km. The sea's north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of modern societies. In addition, the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, "between" + γη, "land, earth"). It can be compared with meaning "between rivers".Mediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
8. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into South Atlantic Ocean at about 8 ° N. The Greek thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic late as the mid-19th century. Many British people refer to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", vice versa. The "Black Atlantic" refers in shaping black people's history, especially through the Atlantic slave trade. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term "The Green Atlantic" is used. Correspondingly, the number of oceans and seas varies. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded by North and South America. It connects through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean.Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
9. Parliamentary democracy – Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Nearly all Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a crowned republic and Ireland is a parliamentary republic. Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. Representative arguably allows by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of time effectiveness. Representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of vote counters, etc.. The government would have to cover the substantial cost of a direct democracy. Representative is a system in which people elect their lawmakers, who are then held accountable to them for their activity within government. Representative has been described by some political theorists including Robert A Dahl, Ian Liebenberg as polyarchy. In it the power is in the hands of the elected representatives who are elected by the people in elections. Representatives are elected for the national legislature.. . The constitution may also provide for direct popular measures. However, these usually require some legislative action -- legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him; high respect; their business, unremitted attention.Parliamentary democracy – The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
10. Constitutional monarchy – A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor, paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay, has defined a constitutional monarch as "a sovereign who does not rule". Constitutional monarchies still retain significant authorities or political influence however, such as through certain reserve powers, may also play an important political role. The other Commonwealth realms are all constitutional monarchies in the Westminster tradition of constitutional governance. Three states -- Malaysia, the Holy See -- are elective monarchies, wherein the ruler is periodically selected by a small electoral college. The oldest constitutional monarchy dating back to ancient times was that of the Hittites. These were scattered noble families that worked in an adjutant or subaltern federal-type landscape. The most recent country to move to a constitutional monarchy was Bhutan, between 2007 and 2008. In Scotland the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689, which placed similar limits on the Scottish monarchy. For instance George III constantly blocked Catholic Emancipation, eventually precipitating the resignation of William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister in 1801. This diminished over the course of her reign. The role of the British monarch is by convention effectively ceremonial. No person may accept public office without swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen. With few exceptions, the monarch is bound by constitutional convention to act on the advice of the Government. Constitutional Monarchy also occurred afterwards.Constitutional monarchy – Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in green. Other constitutional monarchies are shown in light green.
11. European Union – The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. The EU operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmental decision-making. The Maastricht Treaty introduced European citizenship. The Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. Additionally, 26 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8, the G-20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as a potential superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of Steel Community, declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe." The supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Paul-Henri Spaak.European Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
12. 1986 – The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations. Spain and Portugal enter the European Community, which later becomes the European Union. Aruba gains is separated from the Netherlands Antilles. The Province of Flevoland is established in the Netherlands. UNIDO becomes a specialised agency of the United Nations. January 9 – After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves the instant camera business. January 11 -- The Gateway Bridge in Brisbane, Australia, at this time the world's longest prestressed concrete bridge, is opened. January 12 – STS-61-C: Space Shuttle Columbia is launched with the first Hispanic American astronaut, Dr. Franklin Chang Díaz. January 13–24 – South Yemen Civil War. January 19 – The first PC virus, Brain, starts to spread. January 20 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel. January 24 – The Voyager 2 space probe makes its first encounter with Uranus. They will later use January 26 as the official date to avoid a coincidence of dates with Dictator Idi Amin's 1971 coup. Super Bowl XX was played on January 26, 1986, in New Orleans, Louisiana. January 29 – Yoweri Museveni is sworn in as President of Uganda.1986 – Disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger, January 28, 1986
13. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
14. Roman empire – The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empire's existence were "Roman Peace". Following Octavian's victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, but the Praetorian Guard proclaimed Claudius emperor instead. Under Claudius, the empire invaded its major expansion since Augustus. His short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors. The empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. Commodus' assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, renamed "Constantinople" in his honour. It remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the official state religion of the empire. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.Roman empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
15. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
16. Germanic peoples – The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Tribes referred to as "Germanic" by Roman authors generally lived to the north and east of the Gauls. The term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine from Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control. This usage of the word is the origin of the modern concept of Germanic languages, but it was not defined strictly by language. Under other classical authors this sometimes included regions of Sarmatia as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine. Also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar, Tacitus and others did note differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of tribes both as Belgic Gauls, Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant "noisy"; cf. Breton/Cornish garm "shout", Irish gairm "call".Germanic peoples – Germanic Thing (governing assembly), drawn after the depiction in a relief of the Column of Marcus Aurelius, 193 CE.
17. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets. The Spanish Empire originated after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish -- American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies to the United States. Its African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: every caravel had to pay a tax on one-fifth of their profits. The treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 in the papal bull Æterni regis. Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west. Castile was already engaged with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.Spanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
18. Bullfighting – Instead, it is considered a highly ritualized cultural form which some see as deeply tied to Spanish culture and identity. It has been alleged that toreros seek to elicit art with the crowd transmitted through the bull. The close proximity places the bullfighter at risk of being gored or trampled by the bull. Sometimes, the life of the bull is spared due to his braveness; once the animal has been treated, it is returned to live in the dehesa. Such pardons are nevertheless rare. There are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsula, France and Latin America. Bullfighting traces its roots in the Mediterranean region. The recorded bullfight may be the Epic of Gilgamesh, which describes a scene in which Gilgamesh and Enkidu killed the Bull of Heaven. Bull leaping was portrayed in Crete, myths related to bulls throughout Greece. The killing of the sacred bull is the iconic act of Mithras, commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where human-versus-animal events were held as the Venationes. These hunting games spread to Africa, Europe and Asia during Roman times. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves Spanish colonists took the practice of bullfighting to the American colonies, Asia. In the 19th century, areas of southwestern France adopted developing their own distinctive form. In the Middle Ages across Europe, knights would joust in competitions on horseback.Bullfighting – Bullwrestling, Édouard Manet, 1865–1866
19. Portuguese language – Portuguese is a Romance language and the sole official language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau. Portuguese is also termed "the language of Camões", after one of the greatest literary figures in Luís Vaz de Camões. The museum is the first of its kind in the world. There are plans to reconstruct it. When the Romans arrived in 216 BCE, they brought the Latin language with them, from which all Romance languages descend. Between 711 CE, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples. Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia. It is in administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period, the language was increasingly used for other written forms. Portugal became an independent kingdom under King Afonso I of Portugal. The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal. The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral in 1516. 85 % are fluent.Portuguese language – Multilingual sign in Japanese, Portuguese, and English in Oizumi, Japan. Return immigration of Japanese Brazilians has led to a large Portuguese-speaking community in the town.
20. Portugal – Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe. To the south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. The republic also includes autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been continuously settled, fought over since prehistoric times. The Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic and the Suebi Germanic peoples. For the following centuries Portugal would be part of Muslim Al Andalus. In 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, thus firmly establishing Portuguese independence. In the 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. The Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted marking the end of the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left today.Portugal – Citânia de Briteiros, in the Minho Province, is the best preserved Iron Age and Castro culture site in Portugal.
21. Latin America – Latin America is the group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada. It has an area of almost 13 % of the Earth's land surface area. The term "Latin America" was first used in La revue des races Latines, a magazine "dedicated to the cause of Pan-Latinism". A further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. This term was also used by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America. This definition emphasizes a socioeconomic history of the region, characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase "the Caribbean" instead, as in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas. Cf. Languages of South America and Languages of North America. By the same logic, parts of the United States where Spanish and French are official languages would be considered Latin American. The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided based on geography, politics, demographics and culture. It may be subdivided into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America.Latin America – Presencia de América Latina (Presence of Latin America, 1964–65) is a 300 square meters (3,200 sq ft) mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of Concepción, Chile. It is also known as Latin America's Integration.
22. Visigoths – The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes spread during the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or the Migration Period. Relations between the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths sacked Rome in 410. The Visigoths first settled as foederati of the Romans -- a relationship established in 418. However, they established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse. They next extended their authority at the expense of the Suebi and Vandals. In 507, however, their rule in Gaul was ended under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania. In or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted to Nicene Christianity gradually adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects. The Visigothic Code abolished the longstanding practice of applying different laws for Romans and Visigoths. Once legal distinctions were longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani. In the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of the episcopacy. In 712, a force of invading African Moors defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete. Their kingdom rapidly collapsed.Visigoths – Detail of the votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar, hanging in Madrid. The hanging letters spell [R]ECCESVINTUS REX OFFERET [King R. offers this].
23. Crete – A number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits. It was once the centre of the Minoan civilization, currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. It was also known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island. The current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words, ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan". In Ancient Greek, the Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luvian word kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta. In Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. It lies approximately 160 km south of the Greek mainland.Crete – NASA photograph of Crete
24. Matador – In English, a torero is sometimes called a toreador. A very small number of women have been bullfighters on horseback; one recent example is Cristina Sánchez. Usually, toreros are called novilleros. Fighting of mature bulls commences only after a special match, called "the Alternative". At this same bullfight, the novillero is presented to the crowd as a matador de toros. The act of bullfighting is not considered a stand-alone sport but rather a performance art. There is any formal classification. Further bullfighting, historically, started more with nobles upon horseback, all lancing bulls with accompanying commoners on foot doing helper jobs. As time went by, the work of the commoners on foot gained in importance up to the whereupon they became the main and only act. Bullfighting on horseback became a distinct act called "rejoneo", still performed today -- although, not as often as bullfighting itself does on foot. Bullfighting on foot became a means for able-bodied men to achieve fame and fortune, similar to the role of boxing in the United States. When a famous torero was asked why he risked his life, one man reportedly answered Más cornadas da el hambre. It is now common for a bullfighter to be born into a family of bullfighters. Maletilla or espontáneo, is attributed to those who illegally jump into the ring and attempt to bullfight for their sake and glory. While the practice itself is widely despised by many fans alike, some, such as El Cordobés, started their very careers this way.Matador – A matador in full dress in Plaza de Toros Las Ventas in Madrid
25. Bull – A bull is an intact adult male of the species Bos taurus. Usage of these terms varies considerably with dialect. Colloquially, people unfamiliar with cattle may refer as "bulls". A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer, also known as a stag in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. In some countries an incompletely castrated male is known also as a ridgling. These features assist bulls in giving the winner superior access to cows for reproduction. On the neck and head there is often a "mane" of curlier, wooly hair. Bulls become fertile at about seven months of age. Bulls have a fibro-elastic penis. Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection. The penis is quite rigid when non-erect, becomes even more rigid during erection. Protrusion is not affected much more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure. Bulls are occasionally affected by a condition known as "corkscrew penis". The penis of a mature bull is about 3–4 cm in diameter.Bull – A Charolais bull.
26. Death – Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain an organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include biological aging, trauma resulting in terminal injury. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Other concerns include fear of depression, sympathy, compassion, solitude, or saudade. The death comes from Old English deað, which in turn comes from Proto-Germanic dauthuz. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European dheu - meaning the "Process, act, condition of dying". Bereft of life, the dead person is then a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton. Carcass can also be used, though these more often connote the remains of non-human animals. The ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but eventually dies due to causes relating to old age. Almost all animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning eventually die from biological aging, known as "senescence". Some organisms experience negligible senescence, even exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes, roughly 150,000 people die around each day.Death – A human skull, widely used as a symbol of death and decomposition
27. Sword – A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting. The precise definition of the term varies under consideration. A sword consists of a long blade attached to a hilt. The blade can be curved. Many swords are designed for both slashing. Historically, the sword developed in the Age, evolving from the dagger; the earliest specimens date to about 1600 BC. The later Iron Age sword remained short and without a crossguard. The sword continues the Old English, sweord. The use of a sword is known as swordsmanship or as fencing. In the Early Modern period, western design diverged into roughly two forms, the thrusting swords and the sabers. The thrusting swords such as the rapier and eventually the smallsword were designed to inflict deep stab wounds. Similar blades such as the cutlass were built more heavily and were more typically used in warfare. Most sabers also had double edged blades, making them capable of piercing soldier after soldier in a cavalry charge. Sabers continued to see use until the early 20th century. Non-European weapons called "sword" include single-edged weapons such as the Middle Eastern scimitar, the related Japanese katana.Sword – Swiss longsword, 15th- or 16th-century
28. Damask – Damask is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Twill damasks include a twill-woven pattern. Damasks derive their name from the city of Damascus -- in that period a large city active both in manufacture. Damasks were revived in some places in the 13th century. The word "damask" first appeared in the mid-14th century in French. By the 14th century, damasks were being woven on draw looms in Italy. From the 14th to 16th century, most damasks were woven with a glossy warp-faced satin pattern against a duller ground. Polychrome damasks added gold and other metallic threads or additional colours as supplemental brocading wefts. Weavers also produced wool and linen damasks. Modern damasks are woven on computerized Jacquard looms. Damask weaves are commonly produced in monochromatic weaves in silk, synthetic fibres such as rayon and feature patterns of flowers, fruit, other designs. The long floats of satin-woven weft threads cause soft highlights on the fabric which reflect light differently according to the position of the observer. They are also used for clothing. The Damask weave is used extensively due to its versatility and high-quality finish. Damask is usually used for mid-to-high-quality garments, meaning the label tends to have a more "expensive" look.Damask – Italian silk polychrome damasks, 14th century.
29. Velvet – Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive feel. By extension, the word velvety means "like velvet." Velvet can be made from either natural fibers. Velvet is woven on a special loom that weaves two thicknesses of the material at the same time. The two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls. Well-made velvet remains a fairly costly fabric. Modern dry cleaning methods make cleaning more feasible. Velveteen pile is created by weft or fill yarns. Velvet can be made from different kinds of fibers, traditionally, the most expensive of, silk. Much of the velvet sold today as "velvet" is actually a mix of rayon and silk. Velvet made entirely from silk usually has market prices of several hundred US dollars per yard. Cotton is also used to make velvet, though this often results in a less luxurious fabric. Velvet can also be made from fibers such as linen, wool. A cloth made from raffia is often referred to as "Kuba velvet". A small percentage of spandex is sometimes added to give a certain amount of stretch.Velvet – Detail of a silk cut velvet with tartan pattern. Some of the stripes are voided, showing the plain-weave ground. c.1840.
30. Ribatejo – The Ribatejo is the most central of the traditional provinces of Portugal, with no coastline or border with Spain. The region is crossed by the Tagus River. It produces most of the animals used in the Portuguese style of bullfighting. Ribatejo Province was formally created in 1936. The largest towns were Santarém and Tomar. In 1976 the Ribatejo Province was dissolved. Most of the area belongs to the Santarém District.Ribatejo – The Tagus river crossing Ribatejo
31. Controversy – Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion or point of view. The areas are politics, religion, philosophy, parenting and sex. History is similarly controversial. Prominent areas of controversy are economics, science, finances, culture, education, the military, society, celebrities, organisation, the media, age, race. Controversy in matters of theology has traditionally been particularly heated, giving rise to the theologicum. In other controversies – such as that around the HPV vaccine, the same evidence seemed to license inference to radically different conclusions. Kahan et al. explained this by the cognitive biases of a heuristic. Similar effects on reasoning are also seen for example in the gun debate in the United States. As with other controversies, it has been suggested that exposure to empirical facts would be sufficient to resolve the debate once and for all. Bayesian theory allows these failures of rationality to be described as part of a statistically optimized system for making. As such, it appears neurobiologically plausible that the brain implements decision-making procedures that are close to optimal for Bayesian inference. In addition, the preferences of the agent also cause the beliefs formed to change – this explains the biased assimilation shown above. Argument Bipartisanship Dialectic ProCon.org Scandal Brian Martin, The Controversy Manual. Controversial topicsControversy – Auseinandersetzung ("controversy"), by Karl-Henning Seemann.
32. Animal rights – They maintain that animals should longer be used as food, clothing, research subjects, entertainment, or beasts of burden. Advocates approach the issue from a variety of perspectives. Gary Francione's abolitionist position promotes ethical veganism. He calls such groups "the new welfarists." It also creates divisiveness within the movement instead of focusing on shared goals. Sentiocentrism is the theory that sentient individuals are the subject of moral concern and therefore are deserving of rights. Protectionists seek incremental reform with a view to ending use entirely, or almost entirely. This position is represented by the philosopher Peter Singer. Cultural traditions around the world -- such as Animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism -- also espouse some forms of animal rights. The animals most often considered in arguments for personhood are bonobos and chimpanzees. The 21st-century debates about animals can be traced back to the ancient world, the idea of a divine hierarchy. It has been interpreted, over the centuries to imply ownership. Contemporary philosopher Bernard Rollin writes that "dominion does not entail or allow abuse any more than does dominion a parent enjoys over a child." Rollin further states that the Biblical Sabbath requirement promulgated in the Ten Commandments "required that animals be granted a day of rest along with humans. Correlatively, the Bible forbids'plowing with an ox and an ass together'.Animal rights – Animal rights advocates propose that animals be viewed as persons, not property.
33. Blood sport – Common examples of the former include hunting, combat sports such as cockfighting and dog fighting. Activities characterized as blood sports, but involving only human participants, include the Ancient Roman gladiatorial games and the modern mixed martial arts. The term was popularised by author Henry Stephens Salt. The animals were specially bred for fighting. In the Victorian era, social reformers began a vocal opposition to such activities, claiming grounds of ethics, animal welfare. Animal rights and welfare advocates have sought to extend the term blood sport to various types of hunting. Trophy hunting and hunting in particular have been disparaged as "blood sports" by those concerned about animal welfare, animal ethics and conservation. Recreational fishing has sometimes been described by those within the recreation. Limitations on blood sports have been enacted in much of the world. Certain blood sports have declined in popularity elsewhere. Proponents of blood sports are widely cited to believe that they are traditional within the culture. Bullfighting aficionados, for example, do not regard bullfighting as a sport but as a cultural activity. Many video-sharing website such as YouTube do not allow videos of animal bloodsports to be shown on the site. Blood sports have been a common theme in fiction. Blood sports are also a common setting for video games, making up much of the fighting genre.Blood sport – Cockfight in Querétaro, Mexico
34. 1862 – As of the start of 1862, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. This year was named by Mitchell Stephens as the greatest year to read newspapers. January 1 – The United Kingdom annexes Lagos Island in modern-day Nigeria. January 6 -- French, British forces arrive in Veracruz, Mexico, beginning the French intervention in Mexico. January 10 – John Gately Downey, 7th Governor of California, is succeeded by Amasa Leland Stanford. January 30 – American Civil War: The first US ironclad warship, the USS Monitor, is launched. January 31 – Alvan Graham Clark makes the first observation of Sirius B, a white dwarf star, through an eighteen-inch telescope at Northwestern University. February 1 – American Civil War: Julia Ward Howe's "Battle Hymn of the Republic" is published for the first time in the Atlantic Monthly. February 2 – First railway opens in New Zealand, by Dun Mountain Copper Mining Company. February 6 – American Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant gives the United States its first victory of the war, by capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee. February 11–16 – American Civil War: Battle of Fort Donelson: General Ulysses S. Grant attacks Fort Donelson, Tennessee, capturing it on the last day. February 20 – Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas, named director of Spain's Real Academia Española. February 21 – American Civil War: Battle of Valverde fought near Fort Craig in New Mexico Territory. February 22 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated in Richmond, Virginia, to a 6-year term as president of the Confederate States of America. March 7 – American Civil War: The Battle of Pea Ridge: The Confederates are shut out of Missouri.1862 – January 30: USS Monitor.
35. Granada – Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the confluence of four rivers, the Beiro, the Darro, the Genil and the Monachil. It is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. About 3.3 % of the population did not hold the largest number of these people coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport. A Moorish citadel and palace, is in Granada. The Almohad influence on architecture is also preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Morisco construction. Granada is also well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has about 80,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city. The pomegranate is the heraldic device of Granada. The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 B.C. and experienced Roman and Visigothic influences. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in A.D. brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established Al-Andalus. Jewish people were established to Illiberis, called Gárnata or Gárnata al-yahūd. Granada's historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة. The Gárnata possibly means "Hill of Strangers".Granada – From top left: The Alhambra, Generalife, Patio de los Leones in Alhambra, Royal Hall in Alhambra, Albaicín and Sacromonte, Huerto del Carlos, in Albaicín, Plaza Nueva, house in Albaicín, façade of the cathedral, bell tower of the cathedral, Royal Chapel
36. University of Granada – The University of Granada is a public university located in the city of Granada, Spain, founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With approximately 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain. Apart from the city of Granada, UGR also has campuses in Northern Africa. Every year over 2,000 European students enroll through the Erasmus Programme making it the most popular European destination. The university's Center for Modern Languages receives over each year. In 2014, UGR was voted the best Spanish university by international students. In 1526 a college was founded by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V for the teaching of logic, philosophy, theology and canon law. Furthermore, the university has new facilities committed to innovation, such as the Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud. According to several rankings, the University of Granada holds first place in Translation and Interpreting studies. It is considered the national leader in Telecommunications Engineering well. UGR is composed of 5 Schools, 116 Departments responsible for teaching and researching into specific subject areas. The UGR began admitting international students in 1992 for Modern Languages. As of 2009-2010, there were some 5,000 international students, including Erasmus exchange students from the European Union. Juan Francisco Casas, Spanish artist. José de Salamanca, Marquis of Salamanca, Spanish businessman and politician.University of Granada – University of Granada
37. Epigrams – An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, sometimes surprising or satirical statement. Derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", this literary device has been employed for over two millennia. The presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. These original epigrams did the same job as a short prose text might have done, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period, probably developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts, particularly funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Many "sympotic" epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink and live for today because life is short. Epigrams are also thought of as having a "point" –, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way; many are simply descriptive. Greek epigram was actually much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates. A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections. The Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous epigrams called the Μουσα Παιδικη. Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek predecessors and contemporaries. Roman epigrams, however, were often more satirical than Greek ones, at times used obscene language for effect. Its content, of course, makes it clear how such poems were: O paries, te cecidisse ruinis qui tot taedia sustineas.Epigrams – Robert Hayman 's 1628 book Quodlibets devotes much of its text to epigrams.
38. Barcelona – Founded in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Besieged several times during its history, it is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is a major economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $ billion; it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand. Since 2011 it is a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club. The abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is ` BCN', also the IATA code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear.Barcelona – Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
39. Catalonia – Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, Tarragona. Largest city is Barcelona, the core of the seventh-most populous urban area in the European Union. Catalonia comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, with the remainder Rosselló. The official languages are the Aranese dialect of Occitan. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal the Count of Barcelona, were later called Catalonia. In the later Middle Ages Catalan literature flourished. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the Royal army in its territory, becoming a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, at a high economic costs for Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century Catalonia experienced industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained some political and cultural autonomy and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain.Catalonia – A Roman aqueduct in Tarragona.
40. Architecture – Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: A general term to describe physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. Knowledge of art, science, technology, humanity. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments. The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. Architecture has to reflect functional, technical, environmental, aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative coordination of materials and technology, of shadow. Often, conflicting requirements must be resolved. The practice of architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing structures, including scheduling, construction administration. The word "architecture" has also been adopted to describe other designed systems, especially in information technology. The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the 1st AD.Architecture – Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th-century, not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.
41. Modernisme – Modernisme, also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement. Modernisme was also a literary movement. Notable painters include Santiago Rusiñol, Ramon Casas, Isidre Nonell, Hermen Anglada Camarasa, Joaquim Mir, Eliseu Meifrèn, Miquel Utrillo. Notable sculptors are Josep Llimona, Miquel Blai. Modernistes largely rejected bourgeois values, which they thought to be the opposite of art. It is a search for a particular style for Catalonia drawing on Arab styles. The textile factory, now home to the Catalan technical museum MNACTEC is an outstanding example. 20th century architecture in Valencia was strongly influenced by Modernisme. One of the largest in Europe, covers more than 8,000 square metres, over two floors, with a predominantly eclectic pre-Modernist style. The beauty of the building stands especially on account of the light that enters through the roof at various points, through coloured window panels. The North Station is the main station in Valencia, Spain located in the city centre next to the Plaza de Toros de Valencia. It was declared Good of Cultural Heritage in 1987. The Mercado de Colón is an old market located in the center of the city of Valencia, Spain. Its building was designed by architect Francisco Mora Berenguer between 1916. This is a clear example of Modernist architecture of the early century.Modernisme – View of Antoni Gaudí 's Parc Güell, Barcelona
42. Art Nouveau – Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers. English uses the French name Art Nouveau. According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. Artists applied arts, even for utilitarian objects. By 1910, Art Nouveau was already out of style. It was replaced first by Art Deco and then by Modernism. It was also sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art fin de siècle. In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style coup de fouet. Because of the popularity in Italy of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was sometimes called the Stile Liberty. Stile Arte nova. Due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was often called the "Tiffany style". In Germany and Scandinavia, a related style emerged at about the same time; it was called Jugendstil, after the popular German magazine of that name. In Catalonia the related style was known as Modernisme; in Arte joven; and in Portugal Arte nova. In Russia, it was called Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands.Art Nouveau – Table Lamp by François-Raoul Larche in gilt bronze, with the dancer Loïe Fuller as model
43. Tarragona (province) – Tarragona is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. It is bordered by the provinces of the Mediterranean Sea. The province's population is 888,895, of whom about one-fifth live in the Tarragona. Towns in Tarragona province include Reus, Salou, El Vendrell, Tortosa, Valls, Amposta. This province has 183 municipalities. The province is a popular tourist destination. There are Roman Catholic cathedrals in Tarragona and Tortosa. Abd al-Rahman I founded an independent dynasty that survived until the 11th century. After the Muslim conquest, the bishopric of Tarragona came in southern France. The province of Tarragona is with a coast on the Mediterranean Sea. Inland is predominantly forest and agricultural land. The climate is Mediterranean with warm, wet winters. The area of the province is 6,500 square kilometres. The main crops are cereals, fruit, olives, hemp and silk. The province has some mineral resources; limestone and marble are quarried.Tarragona (province) – Flag
44. Reus – Reus is the capital of Baix Camp, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain. The area gained continental importance at the time of the Phylloxera plague. Nowadays it is known for being a centre for rock-climbing and as the birthplace of architect Antoni Gaudí. The origin of the name is a source of discussion. As such, it would be a Roman penitentiary. Around 1150 Robert d'Aguiló repopulated the region of Reus, after receiving it on 3 June 1154. On 5 the archbishop of Tarragona gave two-thirds of Reus to Bertran de Castellet, as a castellan, with the order to build a church. The camerlengo has the third of Reus parish. At this time the city was known as Redis or Reddis. On June 1186 the camerlengo Joan de Santboi confirmed the rights given by the castellan Bernard de Bell-lloc. In 1305 Reus revolted against the Archbishop Rodrigo Tello, who wanted that the citizens of Reus pay for rebuilding the walls of Tarragona. In 1309 the king of Aragon gave to Reus the right to do market on Mondays. Pere Mulet heirs sold their rights in 1349. The camerlengo Pere Roger de Belfort disputed domain to the Archbishop López de Ayerbe, which sent an army that decimated the town. A second attack was repulsed.Reus – Monument to Joan Prim.
45. Riudoms – Riudoms is a town in the comarca of Baix Camp, province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located about five kilometres from the regional capital Reus. The main product is the hazelnut, extra virgin olive oil. Riudoms was a rural settlement, depopulated when the Muslims dominated the region in the 8th century. A town born at side. Riudoms Council Riudoms weatherRiudoms – Parish church of St. James
46. Gothic architecture – Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Its characteristics include the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. The term "Gothic architecture" originated as a pejorative description. Which belong to the Gothic." Gothic architecture is the architecture of the late medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, characteristic forms were applied to other types of buildings. The greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states and kingdoms. Norway came under the influence of England, while Poland were influenced with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition to Southern Italy while Lusignan kings introduced Gothic architecture to Cyprus. Throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns.Gothic architecture – Façade of Reims Cathedral, France
47. Javier Solana – Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician. He was born in Madrid, Spain. Solana comes from a Spanish family, being the grand nephew of Spanish League of Nations disarmament chief, diplomat, writer and European integrationist Salvador de Madariaga. His father was Luis Solana San Martín, who died when Javier was nineteen. Obdulia Madariaga Pérez, died in 2005. Javier is the third of five children. He studied before going to Complutense University. There as a student in 1963 he suffered sanctions imposed for having organised an opposition forum at the so-called Week of University Renovation. In 1964 Solana clandestinely joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, illegal under Franco in 1939. In the same year Solana then spent a year furthering his studies at Spain's Higher Council for Scientific Research and in the United Kingdom. In 1965 Solana went to the United States, where he spent six years studying at various universities on a Fulbright Scholarship. During these years Solana published more than 30 articles. For a time Solana worked to Nicolás Cabrera, whom he had met when Cabrera was Professor at the University of Virginia. The last PhD dissertations that he directed were in the early 1990s. On returning in 1971 he joined the Democratic Co-ordination of Madrid as the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party representative.Javier Solana – The Most Excellent Javier Solana KOGF KCMG
48. Gross domestic product – Gross domestic product is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, to make international comparisons. Total GDP can also be broken down into the relative contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. Charles Davenant developed the method further in 1695. The modern concept of GDP was first developed by Simon Kuznets for a US Congress report in 1934. In this report, Kuznets warned against its use as a measure of welfare. After the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, GDP became the main tool for measuring a country's economy. The switch from "GNP" to "GDP" in the US was in 1991, trailing behind most other nations. The history of the concept of GDP should be distinguished from the history of changes in ways of estimating it. GDP can be determined in three ways, all of which should, in principle, give the same result. They are the expenditure approach. The most direct of the three is the production approach, which sums the outputs of every class of enterprise to arrive at the total. This approach mirrors the OECD definition given above. Deduct intermediate consumption from gross value to obtain the gross value added. Gross value added = gross value of output – value of intermediate consumption.Gross domestic product – Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocks) in no particular order
49. Purchasing power parity – Observed deviations of the rate from purchasing parity are measured from its PPP value of 1. PPP exchange rates help to minimize misleading international comparisons that can arise with the use of market exchange rates. For example, suppose that two countries produce the same physical amounts of goods as each other in each of two different years. The idea originated with the School of Salamanca in the 16th century and was developed in its modern form by Gustav Cassel in 1918. The best-known purchasing power adjustment is the Geary–Khamis dollar. The real exchange rate is then equal to the nominal exchange rate, adjusted for differences in price levels. If parity held exactly, then the real rate would always equal one. There can be marked differences between purchasing power adjusted incomes and those converted via market exchange rates. At the other extreme, Denmark's nominal GDP per capita is around US$62,100, but its PPP figure is US$37,304. The purchasing power parity exchange rate serves two main functions. The PPP exchange-rate calculation is controversial because of the difficulties of finding comparable baskets of goods to compare purchasing power across countries. People in different countries typically consume different baskets of goods. It is necessary to compare the cost of baskets of goods and services using a price index. This is a difficult task because purchasing patterns and even the goods available to purchase differ across countries. Thus, it is necessary to make adjustments for differences in the quality of goods and services.Purchasing power parity – Big Mac hamburgers, like this one from Japan, are similar worldwide.
50. Per capita – Per Capita is an independent progressive Australian think tank. The tank was launched on 11 April 2007 by Will Marshall of the US Progressive Policy Institute and Patrick Diamond of the UK's Policy Network. Per Capita's thinking draws on market design theory, full-cost economics, political philosophy. An observer has noted that the tank has influenced thinking about economic reform within the Gillard government. Per Capita's program is focussed on addressing inequality and its impact. Research concerns have included long-term economic reform, the philosophy of tax, climate change, wellbeing and quality of life, population policy, neuroscience. Helen Conway Tom Bentley Joshua Funder Geoff GallopMaxine McKewJacob Varghese Marion Webster Dennis Glover David HetheringtonStephen Koukoulas Tim Lyons Official SitePer capita – Per Capita
51. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
52. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe. Greece's population is approximately million as of 2015. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, Africa. Greece consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands. The Aegean Sea lies to the south. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. The establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church in the first century transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is one of the most visited the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.Greece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
53. List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita – The domestic product per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Several economies which are not considered to be sovereign states are included in the list because they appear in the sources. These economies are listed in sequence for comparison. Non-sovereign entities, other special groupings are marked in italics. All figures are in current Geary–Khamis dollars, more commonly known as international dollars.List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
54. Francisco Salzillo – Francisco Salzillo y Alcaraz was a Spanish sculptor. He is one of greatest of the Baroque. Francisco Salzillo worked almost always in polychromed wood. He made hundreds of pieces that are distributed throughout some in bordering provinces. The Spanish Civil War caused the destruction of many of the works of Salzillo. Some of his masterpieces include his nonprocessional religious work, his great Nativity scene. He was born to a wood sculptor Nicolás Salzillo. At the age of twenty he completed the statue of St Ines of Montepulciano, begun for the Dominicans by his father. On the death of the latter the care of the family fell upon Francisco, who with the help of his sisters organized a workshop. In 1765 he also founded a small academy, which, however, was speedily dissolved owing to disunion among the members. In the church of San Miguel are a St Francis. Salzillo polychromed using a technique called estofado. The attribution of the stone sculptures on the facade of St Nicolas's Church to him is purely conjectural. A number of sculptures in Lorquí are attributed to him or his school. He died in Murcia.Francisco Salzillo – Portrait of Francisco Salzillo, John Albacete (1823–1883) (Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country of Murcia).
55. Jon Stewart – Jon Stewart is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, actor, media critic, former television host. Stewart was the host of a satirical news program on Comedy Central, until 2015. He branched into television for Comedy Central. He went on to host his own show on MTV, The Jon Stewart Show, then hosted You Wrote It, You Watch It, also on MTV. Stewart has done cinematic projects since becoming the host of The Daily Show in 1999. He was also a writer and co-executive producer of the show. After Stewart joined, The Daily Show steadily gained popularity and critical acclaim, his work won 22 Primetime Emmy Awards. Critics say Stewart benefits from a double standard: he critiques other news shows from the safe, removed position of his "fake news" desk. He agrees, saying that neither his channel purports to be anything other than comedy. In spite of its self-professed mandate, The Daily Show has been nominated for journalism awards. Stewart hosted the 78th and 80th Academy Awards. Stewart's final show aired on August 6, 2015. Stewart's family emigrated from Poland, Ukraine and Belarus; one of his grandfathers was born in Manzhouli. He is the second of four sons, with Dan and Matthew. Stewart's parents divorced when Stewart was eleven years old, Stewart was apparently largely estranged from his father.Jon Stewart – Stewart interviewing Admiral Michael Mullen on The Daily Show
56. Battle of Bicocca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands. Having been driven by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonna's lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen were halted at a sunken road backed by earthworks. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated. Meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonna's position proved equally ineffective. It was also one of the first engagements in which firearms played a decisive role on the battlefield. A large Papal force under Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched a attack on the city, overwhelming the Venetian troops defending one of the walls. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew with about 12,000 men. The French proceeded hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself of the city. Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them in Lombardy.Battle of Bicocca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
57. Battle of Ceresole – Despite having inflicted substantial casualties on the Imperial troops, the French subsequently failed to exploit their victory by taking Milan. The battle opened with several hours of skirmishing between opposing bands of an ineffectual artillery exchange, after which d'Avalos ordered a general advance. In the center, Imperial landsknechts clashed with both sides suffering terrific casualties. Ceresole was one of the pitched battles during the latter half of the Italian Wars. By the winter of 1543 -- 44, a stalemate had developed in the Piedmont between the French, under the Imperial army, under d'Avalos. The two armies occupied themselves primarily with attacking each other's outlying strongholds. In January 1544, Enghien laid siege to Carignano, defended under the command of Pirro Colonna. Montluc, returning to Italy, brought with him nearly a hundred volunteers including the young Gaspard de Coligny. D'Avalos, having waited for the arrival a large body of landsknechts dispatched by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, set off towards Carignano. Enghien and Montluc felt that the open ground would give a significant tactical advantage. The French army was divided into right and left wings of the French line. To their left was Enghien himself with three companies of heavy cavalry, a company of light horse, the volunteers from Paris—in total, around 450 troopers. The Imperial line formed up on a similar ridge facing the French position. In the center were the 7,000 landsknechts under the command of Eriprando Madruzzo. To their right was d'Avalos himself, together with the small force of about 200 heavy cavalry under Carlo Gonzaga.Battle of Ceresole – Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos, Marchese del Vasto, in Armor with a Page (oil on canvas by Titian, c. 1533)
58. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was born in Crete, at that part of the center of Post-Byzantine art. He became a master before traveling at age 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done. In 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Greco's expressionistic style found appreciation in the 20th century. El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for often phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting. Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and collector. Nothing is known about also Greek. Manoússos Theotokópoulos, spent the last years of his life in El Greco's Toledo home. El Greco received his initial training as an painter of a leading center of post-Byzantine art. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name as μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος.El Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
59. Lince (tank) – The Lince was a Spanish development programme for a proposed main battle tank that unfolded during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The intention was to replace the M47 and M48 Patton tanks that the Spanish Army had received under the U.S. Mutual Defense Assistance Act between 1954 and 1975, to complement the AMX-30E tanks manufactured for the army during the 1970s. Companies such as German Krauss-Maffei, French GIAT, made bids for the development contract. The main priorities were firepower, with secondary priority placed on protection; the Lince tank was to have been faster than its competitors. The vehicle's size would also have been restricted by the Spanish network. The Spanish government decided to upgrade its fleet of AMX-30Es in the late 1980s. These tanks replaced the M47s and M48s, fulfilled Spain's need to modernize its tank forces in the short term. No prototype of the planned Lince tank was manufactured, no announcements were made on who would receive the contract. Four years later the Spanish government locally manufactured the Leopard 2, fulfilling the long-term goal established in the Lince programme. The first tanks were delivered in 1954, the fleet was upgraded in the 1970s to equal the capabilities of M60 Patton tanks. Spain was, however, interested in replacing these tanks as early as the 1960s with the French AMX-30 or German Leopard 1. Spain eventually decided to buy the French tank and by 1975 the Spanish Army had 299 AMX-30s, designated as AMX-30Es. Of these, 280 tanks were manufactured by the local company Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara who received the patent from the French GIAT. In fielding the AMX-30E, the army found its upgraded M48s to be outdated; its earliest tank was more than 30 years old.Lince (tank) – Mock-up of the German-Spanish Lince
60. T-26 – The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II. It was produced in greater numbers with more than 11,000 manufactured. Twenty-three of these were series-produced, others were experimental models. The T-26 and BT were the main tanks of the Red Army's armoured forces during the interwar period. Soviet light tanks last saw use in August 1945, during the defeat of the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria. The T-26 was used extensively by Spain, China and Turkey. Captured T-26s were used by the Finnish, German, Hungarian armies. Its design was continually modernised between 1931 and 1941. No new models of the T-26 were developed after 1940. The T-26 was a Soviet development of the Vickers 6-Ton tank, designed by the Vickers-Armstrongs company in 1928 -- 29. Both the Soviet Union and Poland expressed interest in the Vickers design. The Vickers 6-Ton was among four models of tanks selected by Soviet representatives to Vickers-Armstrongs. Soviet engineers participated in assembly of the tanks at the Vickers Factory in 1930. The first four Vickers 6-Ton tanks arrived at the end of 1930. The last tanks arrived in 1932, when production of the T-26 was already in progress.T-26 – T-26 mod. 1933 at the museum "Breaching of the Leningrad Blockade " near Kirovsk, Leningrad Oblast. This tank was raised from a river bottom at Nevsky Pyatachok in May 2003.
61. War of the League of Cambrai – Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510; Julius then allied himself against France. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned with an offer of alliance. On 10 representatives of the Papacy, France, the Holy Roman Empire and Ferdinand I of Spain concluded the League of Cambrai against the Republic. On 15 Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved rapidly into Venetian territory. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement; his army was eventually destroyed. The Venetian collapse was complete. D'Este, having been appointed Gonfalonier on 19 April, seized the Polesine for himself. The newly arrived Imperial governors, however, quickly proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, revolted. Padua was restored to Venetian control on 17 July 1509. The success of the revolt finally pushed Maximilian into action. In early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive; Venetian troops easily defeated the remaining Imperial forces, capturing Vicenza, Este, Feltre and Belluno. Although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano destroyed a Papal army in the process. Francesco Guicciardini credited the decisive victory to Alfonso himself.War of the League of Cambrai – Pope Julius II, painted by Raphael (oil on wood, c. 1511). Julius attempted to secure Papal authority in Italy by creating the League of Cambrai, an alliance aimed at curbing Venetian power.
62. Verdeja (tank) – The Verdeja was considered a superior tank to the T-26 after a lengthy testing period, yet was never put into mass production. Three light tank prototypes were manufactured including the Verdeja 2. Interest in the vehicle's development waned after the end of the Second World War. A prototype of the 75 millimetre self-propelled howitzer and of the Verdeja 2 were put on display in the early 1990s. Spain received its first tank in mid-1919, a French Renault FT, for testing purposes, later received ten more tanks on 18 December 1921. These prototypes influenced a subsequent indigenous attempt to produce a tank, named the Trubia-Naval. This design also failed to get past the stage. The lack of armor prompted the Soviet Union to supply the Popular Front and Nazi Germany and Italy to supply the Nationalist Front with light tanks. Between 1939, the Italians provided 155 L-3-35s. Meanwhile, the Soviets issued Republican Spain 281 T-26s and 50 BT-5s. In order to armored forces with the T-26, German Major Ritter von Thoma offered Spanish troops 500 pesetas for each tank captured. Despite four successfully converted vehicles, designated Panzer I Breda, there was no widespread program to retrofit the gun into the Panzer I. Instead, the Nationalists began to press captured T-26s into service against their previous owners, with the first Nationalist T-26 unit formed in June 1937. This latter requirement was based on experiences with existing light tanks, which frequently lost their tracks in combat. These solutions were presented to Colonel Díaz de la Lastra, commanding officer of the Agrupación de Carros de Combate.Verdeja (tank) – Verdeja 75 mm self-propelled howitzer, based on the Verdeja 1 prototype chassis
63. War of the Spanish Succession – The Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. France faced invasion and ruin, but Allied unity broke first. British ministers prepared the groundwork in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. By the terms of of Rastatt the Spanish empire was partitioned between the major and minor powers. The European balance of power was assured. The empire was still active and influential on the European and global stage. Unlike the French throne, the Spanish thrones could all be inherited by, or through, a female in default of a male line. The next in line after Charles II, therefore, were his two sisters: the younger. By him she had Louis, Dauphin of France. However the French, using in part the excuse that the dowry promised Maria Theresa was never paid, insisted that her renunciation was invalid. Nor was it clear whether a princess could waive the rights of her unborn children. Leopold I married Margaret Theresa in 1666. At her death in 1673 she left one living heir, Maria Antonia, who in 1685 married Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. Shortly before her death in 1692, she gave birth to a son, Joseph Ferdinand. England and the Dutch Republic had their own commercial, strategic and political interests within the Spanish empire, they were eager to return to peaceful commerce.War of the Spanish Succession – Philip V of Spain and the Duke of Vendôme pictured after the victory at the 1710 Battle of Villaviciosa.
64. Falange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista was the sole legal party of the Francoist dictatorship in Spain. With the eruption of the Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist side against the Second Spanish Republic. Expanding rapidly from several thousand to several hundred thousand, the Falange's male membership was accompanied by a female auxiliary, the Sección Femenina. The command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla, as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was Primo de Rivera, a Government prisoner. As a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his Parliamentary immunity, after his party did not have enough votes during the last elections. Despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange and many Carlists did not join the unified party. None of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. Sixty per cent of the pre-war Falange membership lost their lives in the war. However, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all trade unions were unified under Falangist command. After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology for Franco's regime. Membership in the Falange/FET reached a peak of 932,000 in 1942.Falange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista
65. History of Spain – The history of Spain dates back to the Early Middle Ages. After the completion of the Reconquista, the kingdoms of Spain were united under Habsburg rule in 1516. The war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco, which controlled the Spanish government until 1975. The country experienced rapid economic growth in the 1960s and early 1970s. Only with the death of Franco in 1975 did Spain return to Bourbon constitutional monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos and to democracy. Spain entered the Eurozone in 1999. Spain is part of the G6. The Iberian Peninsula was first inhabited by modern humans about 32,000 years BP. Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. The Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the northeast coast in the 9th century BC, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the Iberia, apparently after the river Iber. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova. The Celts mostly inhabited the north-west part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians.History of Spain – A painting of bison dating from the Upper Paleolithic era in the Altamira caves
66. Hispania – Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed Callaecia. The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania. One theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning "Island of the rabbit". Others "far-distant land". Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Another theory holds that the name derives from the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning place. The Iberian peninsula has long been inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo antecessor. In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the advancing migrations of modern humans. During the last ice age, the first large settlement of Europe by modern humans occurred. These were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia.Hispania – Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.
67. Francoism – Franco chose to avoid becoming heavily involved in the Second World War. Franco's regime evolved into a more autocratic regime. The Spanish Civil War started by the Spanish military on the peninsula and in Spanish Morocco on July 17, 1936. However, its ideology, National Syndicalism, remained the official ideology of the State. Large numbers of those captured were interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen. Political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship. With the death of Franco on 20 November 1975, Juan Carlos became the King of Spain. He initiated the country's subsequent transition to democracy, ending with Spain becoming a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. As all ministers were dismissed by Franco as the "Chief" of state and government, he was effectively the only source of legislation. Municipal councils were appointed similarly by heads of families and local corporations through elections, while mayors were appointed by the government. However, Carrero Blanco was assassinated on the same year and Franco named a civilian, Carlos Arias Navarro as the country's new Prime Minister. Concerns about the international situation, threats of invasion led him to undo some of these reductions. The army maintained a strength of about 400,000 men until the end of the war. Spain attempted to retain control of the last remnants of its colonial empire throughout Franco's rule.Francoism – By decision of King Juan Carlos I, Franco is entombed in the monument of Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos.
68. Geography of Spain – With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the fourth largest country in Western Europe and with an average altitude of 650 m. Its total area is 504,782 km2 of which 499,542 km2 is land and 5,240 km2 is water. Spain lies between latitudes 36° and 44° N, longitudes 19° W and 5° E. Its Atlantic coast is 710 km long. The Pyrenees range extends 435 km from the Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay. Most of Spain's boundaries are the Atlantic Ocean on the northwest and southwest. The affiliation of Gibraltar has continued to be a contentious issue between Spain and Britain. The sovereignty of the plazas de soberanía on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco is disputed by Morocco. Spain also has a small exclave inside France called Llívia. The majority of Spain's region consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges. Other landforms include some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of, the Andalusian Plain in the southwest. These are commonly associated mountains, other mountainous regions, lowland regions, islands. The Meseta Central is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain, which has elevations that range from 610 to 760 m. Rimmed by mountains, the Meseta Central slopes gently to the west and to the series of rivers that form some of the border with Portugal. West of the Sistema Central shows its highest peak, Pico Almanzor, of 2,592 m.Geography of Spain – Map of Spain and Portugal, Corrected and Augmented from the Map Published by D. Tomas Lopez. 1810.
69. List of cities in Spain – This is a list of lists of the municipalities of Spain. The municipalities list links are listed below, by autonomous province. Burgos is the province with the least. Notes:*Single-province autonomous communities. Spain has a population of 46,745,807 inhabitants, distributed to 8,117 municipalities. Municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain by population List of submerged places in SpainList of cities in Spain – Madrid, capital of Spain
71. List of municipalities of Spain – This is a list of lists of the municipalities of Spain. The municipalities list links are listed below, by autonomous province. Burgos is the province with the least. Notes:*Single-province autonomous communities. Spain has a population of 46,745,807 inhabitants, distributed to 8,117 municipalities. Municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain by population List of submerged places in SpainList of municipalities of Spain – Madrid, capital of Spain
72. Comarcas of Spain – In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a clearly defined status, are regulated by law and even their comarcal councils have some power. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, county, area or zone. Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Cuéllar. Sepúlveda. Or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón.Comarcas of Spain – Comarcas of Andalusia
73. Provinces of Spain – Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. The layout of Spain's provinces closely follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the sub-division of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one. Historically, the provinces served mainly for policies enacted in Madrid as Spain was a highly centralised state for most of its history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities to democracy. They nevertheless remain electoral districts as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would normally be identified as being in, say, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León. The provinces were the "building-blocks" from which the autonomous communities were created. Consequently, no province is divided between more than one of these communities. Only two capitals of autonomous communities—Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia—are not also the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra. These are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. The names of their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish-language names are the same; locally valid names in Spain's co-official languages are also indicated where they differ.Provinces of Spain – Provinces of Spain
74. Government of Spain – Spain is a constitutional monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain. This was approved in 1978. The final interpretation in the case of dispute, is the business of the Constitutional Court of Spain. The king, currently Felipe VI, has held June 2014. Juan Carlos I, abdicated the throne. This is a hereditary post. Daughters can inherit only if the monarch has no sons. The presumptive is Leonor, Princess of Asturias. The Military Chief of Staff is General Admiral Fernando García Sánchez. President of the Government, misleadingly called "the Spanish President", is the first minister and is elected by the Congress of Deputies. He is informally but commonly referred to as the "Prime Minister". The current holder is Mariano Rajoy Brey, elected on 21 December 2011. He appoints a number of vice-presidents ordered numerically according to rank and responsible for their major ministries such as Finance, Foreign affairs, Domestic administration, etc.. The following is the list of Spain formed after the 2016 general election. Shown here is the official logo of the Government of Spain.Government of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
75. Constitution of Spain – The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain. It is a furtherance of the Spanish transition to democracy. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 was preceded by other constitutions. The Constitution was signed by King Juan Carlos on 27 December 1978. This led to the country undergoing a series of historical changes that transformed the Francoist regime into a democratic state. The Constitution states that the King of Spain is the head of state. However, the king's function does not have any executive power. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the Constitution of 1812. A seven-member panel was selected among the elected members of the Cortes to work on a draft of the Constitution to be submitted to the body. These came to be known, as the media put it, as "fathers of the Constitution". However, since much of the consensus depended on keeping the ambiguous, few of Cela's proposed re-wordings were approved. One of those accepted was the substitution of the archaic gualda for the plain amarillo in the description of the flag of Spain. The constitution was approved by the Spanish people in a referendum on 6 December 1978. 88% of voters supported the new constitution. Finally, it was promulgated by King Juan Carlos on 27 December.Constitution of Spain – Copy of the Spanish Constitution displayed at the Palace of the Cortes.
76. Foreign relations of Spain – Spain has established itself as a major participant in international security activities. Spain's European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms. Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries. Spain maintains cultural exchanges with Latin America, both bilaterally and within the EU. Meanwhile, Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large program. More recently Madrid has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali and others to find solutions for the issue of illegal immigration to the Canary Islands. Spain is also known as a broker in the Middle East. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues. The Arab countries are a interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain. Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three European neighbours, France, Portugal. The accession to the EU has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Bilateral cooperation is enhanced by joint action against Basque ETA violence. Ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue.Foreign relations of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
77. Military of Spain – The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a military force charged with defending the Kingdom's integrity and sovereignty. They consist of the Army, Air Force. The Armed Forces also provide peace keeping troops to the United Nations. The 30 Years War along with financial problems, well as a lack of reforms, weakened Spain's power by the mid 17th century. The occupation of a great part of Spain by the French during the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the so-called war of Spanish independence. Which was characterised due to the wars devastation on Spain's economy. The armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2012 of 123,300 active personnel and 16,400 reserve personnel. The country also has the 80,000 strong Civil Guard which falls in times of a national emergency. The Spanish budget is 5.71 billion euros a 1 % increase for 2015. The increase comes due to security concerns in the country. The Spanish army consists of 6 military regions. They are headed by the head of state, the king of Spain. This is reflected in the varied roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil: air assault, armoured infantry, light role infantry.Military of Spain – Tri-service badge
78. Elections in Spain – There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament. Elections to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates. The plurality system is used for the Senate. The Congress and Senate serve concurrent terms that run for a maximum of four years. The Congress is composed of 350 members directly elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term of office. The remaining 248 seats are allocated to their populations. Parties, federations, agrupaciones de electores may present candidates or lists of candidates. The lists are closed, so electors may not alter the order of such lists. Electors cast a ballot in Ceuta and Melilla. The seats in each constituency are apportioned according to the largest average method of proportional representation, conceived by the Belgian mathematician Victor d'Hondt in 1899. At the time, Zaragoza province had seven seats in Congress, while both Huesca and Teruel had three. As indicated, the PSOE won three seats, the PP two, IU one. Finally, the outcome of the election in Teruel was the following: The effective representation threshold in Teruel was 18,163 votes, or 20.2% of the valid vote. The proportional allocation of seats in each constituency appeared to favor the major parties in general and specifically the party. The system for electing the Senate was first used in 1979, though with regard to the provinces the system is unchanged since 1977.Elections in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
79. Autonomous communities of Spain – Spain is not a federation, but a highly decentralized unitary state. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies". The two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet used this right. This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown by the 16th century, this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation. The constituent territories -- be dominions -- retained much of their institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories also exhibited a variety of local customs, laws, languages and currencies until the mid nineteenth century. From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries. This culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served mostly as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. These were the Basque Country and Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism. Therefore, economic and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain.Autonomous communities of Spain – A map of Iberia in 1757
80. Spanish nobility – Spanish nobles are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility according to the laws and traditions of the Spanish monarchy. A system of the former kingdoms that constitute it comprise the Spanish nobility. The creation and recognition of titles is legally a prerogative of the King of Spain. Families still exist which have transmitted that status since time immemorial. Some aristocratic families use the nobiliary de before their family name. During the rule of General Francisco Franco, the titles granted by the Carlist pretenders were officially recognized. Noble titleholders are subjected to taxation, whereas under Spain's régime they were exempt. Spanish nobles are classified as untitled nobles. At one time however, each class held special privileges such as: those who received his reply with their heads covered. Those who addressed the king put on their hats to hear his answer. Those who awaited the permission of the king before covering themselves. Additionally, all grandees were addressed by the king as mi Primo, whereas ordinary nobles were only qualified as mi Pariente. An individual may hold a grandeeship, whether in possession of a title of nobility or not. However, each grandeeship is attached to a title. A grandeeship is always attached to the grant of a ducal title.Spanish nobility – Portrait of a Spanish Noble at the height of their Empire. D. Gabriel de la Cueva
81. Politics of Spain – The politics of Spain takes place under the framework established by the Constitution of 1978. Spain is established as a democratic state, wherein the national sovereignty is vested in the people, from which the powers of the state emanate. Legislative power is vested in the Cortes Generales, a bicameral parliament constituted by the Congress of the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the legislature, administering justice on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, there have not been coalition governments; when a party has failed to obtain absolute majority, minority governments have been formed. Exercising the right to self-government granted by the constitution, regions" have been constituted as 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities. His title is King of Spain, although he can use all other titles of the Crown. The Crown, as a symbol of the nation's unity, has a two-fold function. Secondly, it represents the Spanish State as a whole in relation to the autonomous communities, whose rights he is constitutionally bound to respect. Foreign representatives in Spain are accredited to him. The king has only symbolic, rather than actual, authority over the Spanish military. The Spanish Constitution, promulgated in 1978, established explicitly that Juan Carlos I is the legitimate heir of the historical dynasty. This statement served two purposes. First, it established that the position of the King emanates from the source from which its existence is legitimized democratically. Juan Carlos I was constitutional king of Spain from 1978 to 2014.Politics of Spain – King Felipe VI of Spain
82. List of political parties in Spain – This article lists political parties in Spain. Spain has a multi-party system at both the regional level. Regional parties are often essential for national government coalitions. People's Party -- centre-right, is a conservative, Catholic and economically liberal party. Spanish Socialist Workers' Party — mainstream centre-left social democratic party linked to General Union of Workers trade union. Citizens — a centrist, business-friendly party. It rejects autonomous communities' right to self-determination. Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals — a centre-left party focused on the fight for animal rights, the environment and social justice. The party seeks to ban all sorts of bullfighting events. Union, Progress and Democracy — a recently established progressive party which ideologically combines social liberalism with centralism from the centre of political spectrum. It strongly supports the unity of Spain, thereby being an enemy of Spain's peripheral nationalism. Por una Europa de los Trabajadores y los Pueblos - No a la Constitucion Europea - coalition of PCPE and LI-LIT.CI? Prepal? Unidad Regionalista Asturiana? Unión Centrista Liberal?List of political parties in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
83. Spanish Socialist Workers' Party – The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, is a social-democratic political party in Spain. PSOE ruled in democratic Spain between 1982 and 1996, between 2004 and 2011. It is the currently the oldest political party in Spanish history. The party, under Felipe González, formed a majority government after its victory in the 1982 election and stayed in power until 1993 elections. The party then formed a minority government until 1996. PSOE has had strong ties with the General Union of Workers, a Spanish trade union. For decades, UGT membership was a requirement for PSOE membership. However, since the 1980s, UGT has frequently criticized the economic policies of PSOE, even calling for a general strike on 14 December 1988. PSOE was last in power between 2004 and 2011 with José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero serving as leader of the government. The PSOE is a member of the Party of European Socialists, Progressive Alliance and the Socialist International. In the European Parliament, PSOE's 14 Members of the European Parliament sit in the Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group. PSOE was founded with the purpose of representing and defending the interests of the working class formed during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The ideology of the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party has evolved throughout the 20th Century according to relevant historical events and the evolution of Spanish society. This allowed for the consolidation of the leftist forces in PSOE. Currently, PSOE defines itself as "social democratic, center-left and progressive".Spanish Socialist Workers' Party – Pablo Iglesias founded the party back in 1879.
84. People's Party (Spain) – The People's Party is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain. It is one of the four major parties of Spanish politics. The new party combined the conservative AP with liberal parties. In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman". Its organization is New Generations of the People's Party of Spain. In the elections of November 2011 the PP won a majority in the Deputies. In the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is also a member of the International Democrat Union. The PP was also one of the founding organizations for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The party has its roots in the People's Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga. Although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an extremely gradual transition to democracy. However, he badly underestimated the public's distaste for Francoism. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, putting it in fourth place. In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga's wing won the struggle, prompting most of the disenchanted reactionaries to leave the party.People's Party (Spain) – Headquarters on Calle Genova in Madrid. As the party seat, the term Genova often used as a metonym for the Party leadership.
85. Prime Minister of Spain – The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the largest party in the Congress. The Spanish head of government is known, as the Presidente del Gobierno. In Spain the head of the government is often called meaning "President". Before 1833 the figure was known as Secretario de Estado, a denomination used today for junior ministers. Once a general election has been announced by the king, political parties nominate their candidates to stand for the presidency of the party leader. Constitutionally, the cabinet are responsible to the monarch, not the Cortes. On paper, the monarch is free to name anyone he sees fit as his prerogative to form a government. For this reason, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Congress. However, there is no legal requirement for this. The monarch is normally able to announce his nominee on the day following a general election. A simple majority confirms his program. After the nominee is confirmed, the Speaker of the Congress formally reports to the king of the congressional confirmation. The king then appoints the candidate as the new President of the Government. The king's order of appointment is countersigned by the Speaker.Prime Minister of Spain – Incumbent Mariano Rajoy since 21 December 2011
86. Economy of Spain – Spain has the fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP in the world, it is also among the largest in the world by purchasing power parity. The country is a member of the European Union, the World Trade Organization. The Spanish economy is the fourth-largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP statistics. In 2012, Spain was the twelfth-largest exporter in the sixteenth-largest importer. According to The Economist, Spain has the world's 10th highest quality of life. Spain has also the biggest expectancy in Europe. Following the financial crisis of 2007 -- 08, the Spanish economy's plunged into recession, entering a cycle of macroeconomic performance. Compared to the EU's and US. average, the Spanish economy entered recession later, but stayed there for longer. The economic boom of the 2000s was reversed, leaving by 2012. In aggregated terms, the Spanish GDP contracted during the 2009-2013 period. The economic situation started improving by 2013-2014. During the boom years, Spain had built up a deficit eventually reaching a record amounting to 10 % of GDP. Exports in 2014 were 34% of GDP, up from 24% in 2009. When Spain joined the EEC in 1986 its GDP per capita was about 72% of the average of its members. Three regions were included in the leading EU group exceeding 125 % of the GDP per capita level: Basque Country leading with Madrid and Navarre.Economy of Spain – Cuatro Torres Business Area in Madrid
87. Transport in Spain – Transport in Spain is characterised by an extensive network of roads, railways, rapid transit, air routes, ports. Its geographic location makes an important link between Europe, Africa, the New World. Major forms of transit generally radiate from Madrid, located in the centre of the country, to link with the capitals of the autonomous communities. Spain is currently working to improve linkage with the rail systems of France and Portugal, including high-speed rail between Madrid and Lisbon. Spain possesses a highly developed system, with both tolled and freeways. Air traffic is routed through several regional airports, the largest of, Barajas International Airport in Madrid. Spanish railways date from 1848. A high-speed line between Madrid and Seville was completed in 1992. In 2003, high-speed service was extended to Barcelona in 2008. Lines from Madrid to Valladolid and from Córdoba to Málaga were inaugurated. In 2010, AVE line Madrid-Cuenca-Valencia was inaugurated. Alicante Barcelona (Barcelona Metro/Tram Bilbao Castellon under construction. Estimated inauguration 2013. A Coruña under construction. Granada under construction.Transport in Spain – Madrid Metro
88. European System of Central Banks – The European System of Central Banks consists of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 28 member states of the European Union. The ESCB is not the monetary authority of the eurozone, because not all EU member states have joined the euro. That role is performed by the Eurosystem, which includes the central banks of the 19 member states that have adopted the euro. The ESCB's objective is stability throughout the European Union. Secondarily, the ESCB's goal is to improve financial cooperation between the Eurosystem and member states outside the eurozone. The process of decision-making in the Eurosystem is centralized through the decision-making bodies of the ECB, the Executive Board. Long as there are EU member states which have not adopted the euro, a third decision-making body, the General Council, shall also exist. The General Council comprises the governors of the NCBs of all 28 Member States. The ESCB is composed of the national central banks of all 28 member states of the European Union. The first section of the following list lists their central banks that form the Eurosystem, which set eurozone monetary policy. The second section lists their central banks that maintain separate currencies. European Central Bank ECB – The General Council Organisation and operation of the ECB CVCEEuropean System of Central Banks – ESCB
89. Bolsa de Madrid – Bolsa de Madrid is owned by Bolsas y Mercados Españoles. The reorganisation of Spain's financial market under the national umbrella of the Spanish Stock Market includes the bolsas, fixed-income markets. Trading is linked through the electronic Spanish Stock Market Interconnection System, which handles more than 90% of transactions; all fixed-income assets are traded through SIBE. The IBEX 35 Index is a capitalization-weighted index comprising the 35 most Spanish stocks traded in the continuous market, is Bolsa de Madrid's benchmark. Bolsa de Madrid also offers a European market for Latin American stocks. The Ibex New Market Index, for emerging companies, was offered from 2000 to 2007. Settlement is T + 3. In 1993, the Bolsa de Madrid switched for fixed-income securities. The membership of the Madrid Stock Exchange consists of 12 established securities dealers. At December 2001, approximately 1477 domestic and foreign companies had their equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange. The total capitalization of the equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange in May, 2007 was $1,276.26 billion. It is housed in the Palacio de la Bolsa de Madrid. Madrid Stock Exchange General Index Official websiteBolsa de Madrid – Madrid Stock Exchange Bolsa de Madrid
90. Culture of Spain – In the areas of religion, the Ancient Romans left a lasting legacy. The subsequent course of Spanish history added other elements to the country's culture and traditions. The Visigothic Kingdom left a sense of a united Christian Hispania, going to be welded in the Reconquista. Muslim influences were strong during the Middle Ages. Another influence was the minority Jewish population in some cities. After the defeat of the Muslims during the Christian Reconquista period between 1492, Spain became an almost entirely Roman Catholic country. By the end of the 20th centuries, the Spaniards made expressions of cultural diversity easier than it had been for the last seven centuries. This occurred at the same period that Spain became increasingly drawn into a international culture. Spain has the third highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, with a total of 44. The term "Spanish literature" refers to literature written including literature composed by Spanish and Latin American writers. It may include Spanish poetry, novels. Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in those by Spanish authors worldwide. Due to geographic, generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and is very diverse. Some major movements can be identified within it. Highlights include the Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta.Culture of Spain – Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea, also called " La Celestina "
91. Cinema of Spain – The art of motion-picture making within the Kingdom of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish Cinema. In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s. I hope that Europeans will continue to lead the way in film making because at the moment much is coming from the United States." All of these films were produced by Spanish firms. The Spanish film exhibition took place on May 5, 1895, in Barcelona. Exhibitions of Lumière films were screened in Madrid and Barcelona in May and December of 1896, respectively. The matter of which Spanish film came first is in doubt. It is also possible that the first film was Riña en un café by the prolific filmmaker Fructuós Gelabert. These films were all released in 1897. In 1914, Barcelona was the center of the nation's industry. The españoladas predominated until the 1960s. Prominent among these were the films of Florián Rey, starring the first version of Nobleza Baturra. Even the Nobel Prize-winning playwright Jacinto Benavente, who said that "in film they pay the scraps," would shoot film versions of his theatrical works. In 1928, Ernesto Giménez Caballero and Luis Buñuel founded the first cine-club, in Madrid.Cinema of Spain – Cine Capitol, Gran Vía, Madrid
92. Spanish cuisine – Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories. Spanish cuisine derives from a complex history, where invasions of the country and conquests of new territories made new ingredients available. There is not much information about diet or culture before historical time. Authors such as Strabo, however, write about aboriginal people using acorns as staple food. The Romans introduced the custom of eating mushrooms, still preserved in many parts of Spain, especially in the north. The Visigoths introduced brewing. The change came in 711 AD, when Muslim troops composed of Arabs and Berbers crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, invading the Iberian Peninsula. It is common for modern dishes to possess Berber and Arab roots. Other ingredients traveled such as rice, grapes, olives and many types of cereals. A continental-style breakfast may be taken before entering the workplace. Due to the large span between breakfast and lunch, it is not uncommon to halt the working schedule to take a mid-morning snack. The large midday meal in Spain, contains several courses. It is usually followed by Sobremesa, which refers to the tabletalk that Spanish people undertake. Menus include five or six choices in each course. Green salad with the fish courses.Spanish cuisine – Jamón Ibérico. In 2007 and 2010, "Bellota de Oro" was chosen as "Best ham in the world" in IFFA Delicat
93. Education in Spain – Education in Spain is regulated by the Ley Orgánica de Educación that expands upon Article 27 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam which differs greatly to region. The compulsory stage of secondary education is normally referred to by its initials: ESO. Second Cycle: 4th year. The second cycle contains the other towards vocational training. Spanish Bachillerato is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the A Levels/Higher in the UK, the International Baccalaureate. There are two parts, a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from. Plastic Arts, Image and Design: Volume Artistic drawing Technical drawing Audiovisual Culture History of art Design Plastic Graphic Expression Techniques Information and communication technologies. The Spanish School Leaving Certificate is equivalent to a number of GCSEs, Junior Cert or Standard Grades. The Bachillerato is equivalent to A-levels, Leaving Certificate. and Scottish Highers. Therefore, Spanish students obtaining the appropriate grades required into universities in other parts of Europe, including Britain, are not precluded. The vocational training is also a common possibility after the Spanish Baccalaureate. After completion of programs, the students are awarded with a diploma. Parents have to buy all of their children's books and materials. This, at least also applies to colegios concertados.Education in Spain – Education in Spain
94. Spanish literature – Spanish literature generally refers to literature written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain. The Roman occupation of the Iberian peninsula beginning in the 3rd century BC brought a Latin culture to Spanish territories. The arrival of Muslim invaders in 711 CE brought the cultures of the Middle and Far East. In Spanish literature, the earliest recorded examples of a vernacular Romance-based literature mix Muslim, Jewish, Christian culture. One of the notable works is Cantar de Mio Cid, written in 1140. Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages includes the courtly poetry of the nobles. Literary production increased greatly. In the Renaissance important topics were poetry, prose. In the Baroque era of the 17th century important works were the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and Baltasar Gracián. A notable author was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, famous for his masterpiece Don Quixote la Mancha. In Romanticism important topics are: the poetry of other poets; prose; the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra, José Zorrilla, other authors. In Modernism several currents appear: Symbolism, Futurism, Creationism. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by the U.S. in 1898 provoked a crisis in Spain. A group of younger writers, among them Pío Baroja, José Martínez Ruiz, made changes to literature's form and content.Spanish literature – The Cantar de Mio Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta
95. Music of Spain – Spanish music is often associated with traditional styles such as classical guitar. While these forms of music are common, there are many traditional musical and dance styles across the regions. Spanish music played a notable part in the early developments of western classical music, through the early 17th century. Nowadays popular music dominates. The Iberian peninsula has had a history of receiving musical influences from around the Mediterranean Sea and across Europe. Hence, there have been developments that have produced a large number of unique musical traditions. Isidore of Seville wrote in the 6th century. As the Christian reconquista progressed, these chants were entirely replaced by the Gregorian standard, once Rome had regained control of the Iberian churches. In the Christian courts of the reconquistors, music like the Cantigas de Santa Maria, also reflected Moorish influences. Important medieval sources include the Codex Calixtinus collection from Santiago de Compostela and the Codex Las Huelgas from Burgos. The so-called Llibre Vermell de Montserrat is an devotional collection from the 14th century. In the early Renaissance, the Castilian dramatist Juan del Encina ranked among the main composers in the post-Ars Nova period. The organist Antonio de Cabezón stands out for his keyboard compositions and mastery. An early 16th-century vocal style developed in Spain was closely related to that of the Franco-Flemish composers. Music composed by Luis de Milán, Alonso Mudarra and Luis de Narváez was one of the main achievements of the period.Music of Spain – The modern classical guitar and its baroque predecessor originated in Spain
96. RTVE – RTVE is the largest audiovisual group in Spain broadcasting in the Spanish language. Since January 2010 it is financed exclusively by public subsidies. Among the obligations of the RTVE Corporation are: Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and civic values. Truthfulness of the information provided, while ensuring that a broad range of views is presented. Facilitate the free expression of opinion. Promote linguistic and cultural diversity of Spain. To serve the widest audience, ensuring geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality, diversity, innovation, high ethical standards. RTVE throughout its history has assumed numerous identities. The history of RTVE begins by Radio Nacional de España from the city of Salamanca. Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time RTVE became an autonomous organization. In 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, as a legal public entity with its own jurisdiction. The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981. Since then, its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacional's. In 1989, its radio service was merged into RNE.RTVE – RNE's headquarters, Casa de la Radio (Radio's house) in Pozuelo (Madrid).
97. Football in Spain – Association football is the most popular sport in Spain, is a widespread passion among the people of Spain. In a survey of habits of the Spanish population made in 2010, football was the second most popular recreational sport practised by the population. A total of 75.9 % of people said they had ever bought tickets to attend a match. In addition, a total of 67.3 % of the people said that they saw all, almost all, some of the football matches broadcast on television. However, in this survey football was still the sport that interests the majority of Spain’s people. A total of 67 % of the population had sympathy for a particular club. A relationship towards regionalism in Spain has also been reported. It organises two Cup competitions, the Spain national football team. It is responsible for the organisation of football leagues, in coordination with RFEF. The national football team have won the FIFA World Cup once, has also been successful in the UEFA European Championship and the Olympic tournament. The men's national teams of Spain, in all categories, have won a total of 26 titles in FIFA, UEFA, Olympic tournaments. At level, the Spanish football clubs have won a total of 66 international tournaments. The Spanish national football team is Tiki-taka. Professional football in Spain is a sociocultural event that make a significant contribution to the Spanish economy in terms of both supply. In economic terms, during 2013 professional football generated more than $ billion including direct, indirect and induced effects, representing 0.75 % of Spanish GPD.Football in Spain – Santiago Bernabeu, Real Madrid’s Stadium.
98. Spanish wine – Spanish wines are wines produced in Spain. The country is ninth on average, 21.6 litres per person a year. The abundance of native grape varieties fostered an early start to viticulture with evidence of grape pips dating back to the Tertiary period. Following the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians introduced new advances to the region-including the teachings of the early viticulturist Mago. Carthage would wage a series of wars with the emerging Roman Republic that would lead to the Roman conquest of the Spanish mainland, known as Hispania. Under Roman rule, Spanish wine was widely traded throughout the Roman empire. The two largest wine producing regions at the time were Baetica in the south. Spanish wine was also provided to Roman soldiers guarding border settlements in Britain and the Limes Germanicus in Germania. . Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain was invaded by barbaric tribes-including the Suebi and the Visigoths. Several emirs owned vineyards and drank wine. While there were laws written that outlawed the sale of wine, it was included on lists of items that were subject to taxation in Moorish territories. The Spanish Reconquista reopened the possibility of exporting Spanish wine. Bilbao emerged as a large port; introducing Spanish wines to the English wine markets in Bristol, London and Southampton. The quality of some of these Spanish wines appears to have been high.Spanish wine – Spanish wines emphasize their flavour for the sake of tasting.
99. Demographics of Spain – Spain's population peaked in 2012, at 46,818,216 people. Spain's official population fell by 206,000 mostly because of immigrants returning home due to the effects of the European economic and fiscal crisis. Its density, at 91.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, is lower than that of most Western European countries. With the exception of the capital Madrid, the most densely populated areas lie around the coast. No fewer than eleven of Spain's fifty provinces saw an absolute decline over the century. The last quarter of the century saw a dramatic fall in birth rates. Spain's rate of 1.47 is lower than the EU average, but has climbed every year since the late 1990s. The rate has climbed in 10 years from 9.10 births per 1000 people per year in 1996 to 10.9 in 2006. Spain has no official religion. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 abolished the Roman Catholic Church as the official religion, while recognizing the role it plays in Spanish society. 76.7 % of the population define themselves as 1.6 % other religions. Among believers, 55.3 % assert they almost never go by contrast, 17.0 % attend one or more masses almost every week. The population of Spain doubled as a result of the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. Many demographers have linked Spain's very low rate to the country's lack of any real family planning policy. Spain spends the least on support out all western European countries -- 0.5 % of GDP.Demographics of Spain – Population density by municipality in Spain, 2008
100. Spanish people – Within Spain there are a number of regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. There are several commonly spoken regional languages, Catalan and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who share a Hispanic culture; most notably in Hispanic America. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD. In the 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was also conquered. In parallel, a wave of emigration began to the Americas began over 16 million people emigrating to the Americas during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period, a further million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, Puerto Rico and Cuba. As a result, Spanish-descendants in the hundreds of millions. Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The population of Spain is became increasingly diverse due to recent immigration. Celts settled during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. The seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries.Spanish people – Lady of Elche, a piece of Iberian sculpture from the 4th century BC
101. Time in Spain – Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time and Central European Summer Time de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the zone is Western European Time and Western European Summer Time. Daylight time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October throughout Spain. Spain used Greenwich Mean Time before the Second World War. Some observers believe that this time shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule. Spain, like other parts of the world, used solar time until 31 December 1900. The Royal Decree was sanctioned by María Cristina on 26 July 1900 in the place where she resided during summer. The natural zone for the Canary Islands is UTC − 01:00. Daylight time was first introduced in 1918, the year in which World War I ended. It was then abolished several times. It was not applied in 1920 -- 1923, 1925, -- 1936. After the war ended on 1 April 1939, on 15 April 1939 DST was also applied. After the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time has been observed every year. In 1996, daylight saving time was harmonized by Directive 2000/84/EC, which moved the end of DST to the last Sunday in October.Time in Spain – Time zones in Europe, UTC+01:00 in red. Darker shades indicate use of DST. Canary Islands are not shown.
102. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014