1. Spain – By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growthSpain – Lady of Elche
2. Mediterranean Sea – The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, land, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is also called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer. In Ottoman Turkish, it has also been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek, Latin, and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate, geology, and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, later, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare NostrumMediterranean Sea – Circa the 6th century BCE: In ancient times the Mediterranean provided sources of food and local commerce and direct routes for trade and communications, colonisation, and war. Numerous cities and colonies were situated at its shores or within the basin: Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity; and other cities (grey), including the provincial "Rom".
3. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa. The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the otherAtlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
4. Parliamentary democracy – Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies and it arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness, representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of polling stations, vote counters, etc. The government is responsible for paying for the wages of the representatives. This system of governance is also time efficient as decisions can be made by a select few and it is a system in which people elect their lawmakers, who are then held accountable to them for their activity within government. It has been described by political theorists including Robert A Dahl, Gregory Houston. In it the power is in the hands of the representatives who are elected by the people in elections. Representatives are elected by the public, as in elections for the national legislature. Elected representatives may hold the power to other representatives, presidents, or other officers of the government or of the legislature. The constitution may also provide for some deliberative democracy or direct popular measures, however, these are not always binding and usually require some legislative action—legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him, their opinion, high respect, their business, unremitted attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs, and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own. But his unbiassed opinion, his judgment, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man. These he does not derive from your pleasure, no, nor from the law and they are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his only, but his judgment. The Roman Republic was the first government in the world to have a representative government. In Britain, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for holding two famous parliaments, the first, in 1258, stripped the King of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution led to the creation of a new Constitution of the United States in 1787Parliamentary democracy – The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
5. Constitutional monarchy – A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor, paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay, has defined a constitutional monarch as a sovereign who reigns, in addition to acting as a visible symbol of national unity, a constitutional monarch may hold formal powers such as dissolving parliament or giving royal assent to legislation. Many constitutional monarchies still retain significant authorities or political influence however, such as through certain reserve powers, the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms are all constitutional monarchies in the Westminster tradition of constitutional governance. Three states – Malaysia, Cambodia and the Holy See – are elective monarchies, the oldest constitutional monarchy dating back to ancient times was that of the Hittites. These were scattered noble families that worked as representatives of their subjects in an adjutant or subaltern federal-type landscape, the most recent country to move from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy was Bhutan, between 2007 and 2008. At the same time, in Scotland the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689, although Queen Anne was the last monarch to veto an Act of Parliament when in 1707 she blocked the Scottish Militia Bill, Hanoverian monarchs continued to selectively dictate government policies. For instance George III constantly blocked Catholic Emancipation, eventually precipitating the resignation of William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister in 1801, Queen Victoria was the last monarch to exercise real personal power but this diminished over the course of her reign. In 1839 she became the last sovereign to keep a Prime Minister in power against the will of Parliament when the Bedchamber crisis resulted in the retention of Lord Melbournes administration, today, the role of the British monarch is by convention effectively ceremonial. No person may accept significant public office without swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen, with few exceptions, the monarch is bound by constitutional convention to act on the advice of the Government. Constitutional monarchy also occurred briefly in the years of the French Revolution. As originally conceived, a monarch was head of the executive branch and quite a powerful figure even though his or her power was limited by the constitution. In many cases the monarchs, while still at the top of the political and social hierarchy, were given the status of servants of the people to reflect the new. In the course of Frances July Monarchy, Louis-Philippe I was styled King of the French rather than King of France, following the Unification of Germany, Otto von Bismarck rejected the British model. However this model of constitutional monarchy was discredited and abolished following Germanys defeat in the First World War. Later, Fascist Italy could also be considered as a constitutional monarchy and this eventually discredited the Italian monarchy and led to its abolition in 1946. After the Second World War, surviving European monarchies almost invariably adopted some variant of the constitutional monarchy model originally developed in Britain, nowadays a parliamentary democracy that is a constitutional monarchy is considered to differ from one that is a republic only in detail rather than in substance. However, three important factors distinguish monarchies such as the United Kingdom from systems where greater power might otherwise rest with Parliament, other privileges may be nominal or ceremonialConstitutional monarchy – Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in green. Other constitutional monarchies are shown in light green.
6. European Union – The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendumEuropean Union – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
7. 1986 – The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations. January 1 Spain and Portugal enter the European Community, which becomes the European Union. Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands and is separated from the Netherlands Antilles, the Province of Flevoland is established in the Netherlands. UNIDO becomes an agency of the United Nations. January 9 – After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves the instant camera business, January 11 – The Gateway Bridge in Brisbane, Australia, at this time the worlds longest prestressed concrete free-cantilever bridge, is opened. January 12 – STS-61-C, Space Shuttle Columbia is launched with the first Hispanic American astronaut, January 13–24 – South Yemen Civil War. January 19 – The first PC virus, Brain, starts to spread, January 20 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel. January 24 – The Voyager 2 space probe makes its first encounter with Uranus, January 25 – Yoweri Musevenis National Resistance Army Rebel group takes over Uganda after leading a 5-year guerrilla war in which up to half a million people are believed to have been killed. They will later use January 26 as the date to avoid a coincidence of dates with Dictator Idi Amins 1971 coup. January 26 – Super Bowl XX, The Bears defeated the Patriots by the score of 46–10, January 29 – Yoweri Museveni is sworn in as President of Uganda. February 3 – Pixar Animation Studios are opened in California, february 7 President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti, ending 28 years of family rule. February 8 – The Hinton train collision happened, which a Canadian National train heading westbound collided with a Via Rail train in Hinton,23 people were killed in the accident, and injured 71 people. February 9 – Halleys Comet reaches its perihelion, the closest point to the Sun, february 11 – Human rights activist Natan Sharansky is released by the Soviet Union and leaves the country. February 15 – The Beechcraft Starship makes its maiden flight, february 16 The Soviet liner MS Mikhail Lermontov sinks in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Ouadi Doum air raid, The French Air Force raids the Libyan Ouadi Doum airbase in northern Chad, february 17 – The Single European Act is signed. February 19 The Soviet Union launches the Mir space station, the United States Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide. February 21 – Nintendo releases the first game in the Zelda series, The Legend of Zelda, february 22 – The People Power Revolution begins in the Philippines to remove President Ferdinand Marcos from office. February 25 The 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union opens in Moscow, the General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev introduces the keywords of his mandate to the audience, Glasnost and Perestroika1986 – Disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger, January 28, 1986
8. Roman empire – Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated. The senate then appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine also adopted Christianity which later became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos. The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperorRoman empire – The Augustus of Prima Porta (early 1st century AD)
9. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the periodMiddle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
10. Germanic peoples – The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the term Germanic originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower, Upper, and Greater Germania were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. Tribes referred to as Germanic by Roman authors generally lived to the north, in about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term Germani appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ. This may simply be referring to Gaul or related people, the term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, from Caesars perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control. This usage of the word is the origin of the concept of Germanic languages. In other classical authors the concept sometimes included regions of Sarmatia, also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar, Tacitus and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilised than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine. He made clear that he was using the name in the local sense and these are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, and descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of both as Belgic Gauls and as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, and the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail. It has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain, the likeliest theory so far proposed is that it comes from a Gaulish compound of *ger near + *mani men, comparable to Welsh ger near, Old Irish gair neighbor, Irish gar- near, garach neighborly. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant noisy, cf. Breton/Cornish garm shout, however, here the vowel does not match, nor does the vowel length ). Others have proposed a Germanic etymology *gēr-manni, spear men, cf. Middle Dutch ghere, Old High German Ger, Old Norse geirr. However, the form gēr seems far too advanced phonetically for the 1st century, has a vowel where a short one is expected. The term Germani, therefore, probably applied to a group of tribes in northeastern Gaul who may or may not have spoken a Germanic languageGermanic peoples – Germanic Thing (governing assembly), drawn after the depiction in a relief of the Column of Marcus Aurelius, 193 CE.
11. Spanish Empire – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish Empire – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
12. Tenerife Tram – Tenerife Tram is a light rail or tram service located on the island of Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands. It is operated by Metropolitano de Tenerife, a limited company 80% owned by the Cabildo of Tenerife, service started on 2 June 2007 over a 12. 5-kilometre route which linked the Intercambiador in Santa Cruz de Tenerife with Avenida de la Trinidad in La Laguna. A second line between La Cuesta and Tíncer opened in 2009 and it is the only existing tramway or train in the Canary Islands. A streetcar system had existed on Tenerife. It was inaugurated on 7 April 1901, with a service began in Santa Cruz. It was designed by the Spanish engineer and military man Julio Cervera Baviera, in 1904 the line was extended to Tacoronte. In 1927 the Cabildo of Tenerife took control of the company due to economic problems. The tram car lines remained functional until 1951, when, due to a series of problems and accidents, and increased competition with the car and bus, after much political debate on investment in trams versus buses, approval was eventually given to the €306 million budget. The last of the 20 tram units were handed over in August 2006, the construction phase officially ended on 2 June 2007 with the opening day tram on Line 1. Free service was provided to all passengers from that all the way through to the following Sunday, before tariffs. These low-floor and floor lighted trams have a speed of 70 kilometres per hour. The trams are made up of five carriages, two driving carriages sandwiching three passenger/power carriages. Line 1 consists of 21 stops along a route of 12.5 kilometres, transporting an average of 46,000 people per day in the metropolitan area. Each of the 20 trams is capable to transport 200 passengers at a speed of 70 kilometres per hour. In January 2011 the Padre Anchieta stop was moved from its location in the Trinity Avenue. Plans are in place to lengthen the line with four additional stops, there would also be new stations in San Antonio, San Lazaro and Los Rodeos-TFN. Line 2 opened on 30 May 2009, running from La Cuesta to Tíncer, sharing stops at University Hospital and it is planned to extend the line by 2.5 km from Tincer to La Gallega to give coverage to the greater population. A third line is expected to be built, proposed to run along the coast of the capital of Tenerife, and not as speculated through the center of the city of Santa CruzTenerife Tram – Two trams at the Gracia stop on Line 1
13. Tram – A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways, Tramways powered by electricity, the most common type historically, were once called electric street railways. However, trams were used in urban areas before the universal adoption of electrification. Tram lines may run between cities and/or towns, and/or partially grade-separated even in the cities. Very occasionally, trams also carry freight, Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter than conventional trains and rapid transit trains, but the size of trams is rapidly increasing. Some trams may also run on railway tracks, a tramway may be upgraded to a light rail or a rapid transit line. For all these reasons, the differences between the modes of rail transportation are often indistinct. In the United States, the tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tired trackless trains. Today, most trams use electrical power, usually fed by a pantograph, in some cases by a sliding shoe on a third rail. If necessary, they may have dual power systems — electricity in city streets, trams are now included in the wider term light rail, which also includes segregated systems. The English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring respectively to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame, a Romanesque word meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, the identical word la trame with the meaning crossbeam is also used in the French language. The word Tram-car is attested from 1873, although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English, North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, and originally referred to horsecars, when electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. The troller design frequently fell off the wires, and was replaced by other more reliable devices. The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller, Modern trams often have an overhead pantograph mechanical linkage to connect to power, abandoning the trolley pole altogether. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US, the term may also apply to an aerial ropeway, e. g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Over time, the trolley has fallen into informal useTram – Trams in Vienna, one of the largest existing networks in the world
14. Canary Islands – The Canary Islands, also known as the Canaries, are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located on the Atlantic Ocean,100 kilometres west of Morocco. The Canaries are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper and it is also one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The main islands are Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, the archipelago also includes a number of islands and islets, La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este. In ancient times, the chain was often referred to as the Fortunate Isles. The Canary Islands is the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region, the islands have a subtropical climate, with long hot summers and moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation varies depending on location and elevation, green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have built on the islands. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, who came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds. The name Islas Canarias is likely derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning Islands of the Dogs, according to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained vast multitudes of dogs of very large size. Another speculation is that the dogs were actually a species of monk seal, critically endangered. The dense population of seals may have been the characteristic that most struck the few ancient Romans who established contact with these islands by sea. Alternatively, it is said that the inhabitants of the island, Guanches, used to worship dogs, mummified them. The ancient Greeks also knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the dog-headed ones, who worshipped dogs on an island. Some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the god, Anubis are closely connectedCanary Islands – Mount Teide on Tenerife, the highest mountain in Spain, is also one of the most visited National Parks in the world.
15. Santa Cruz de Tenerife (City) – Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz, is a city and capital of the Canary Islands, the capital of Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and of the island of Tenerife. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 within its administrative limits, the urban zone of Santa Cruz extends beyond the city limits with a population of 507,306 and 538,000 within urban area. It is the second largest city in the Canary Islands and the city on the island of Tenerife. Santa Cruz is located in northeast quadrant of Tenerife, about 210 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Africa within the Atlantic Ocean, the distance to the nearest point of mainland Spain is about 1,300 kilometres. The port is of importance and is the communications hub between Europe, Africa and Americas, with cruise ships arriving from many nations. The city is the focus for domestic and inter-island communications in the Canary Islands, there are several faculties of the La Laguna University in Santa Cruz, including the Fine Arts School and the Naval Sciences Faculty. Its harbour is one of Spains busiest, it comprises three sectors and it is important for commercial and passenger traffic, as well as for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean. The city also has one of the worlds largest carnivals, the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site, and is the most important of Spain and the second largest in the world. The main landmarks of the city include the Auditorio de Tenerife, the Santa Cruz Towers, Santa Cruz de Tenerife hosts the first headquarters of the Center UNESCO in the Canary Islands. In 2012, the British newspaper The Guardian included Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the list of the five best places in the world to live, the area where Santa Cruz currently lies belonged to Menceyato Guanche Anaga, which was the most easterly of the island. The area was known to the Guanches, the first inhabitants of the island, the famous Mummy of San Andrés is one of the most important archaeological remains of the aboriginal past of the region. Besides caves with remains of mummified animals and stones with engravings ruprestres. This area belonged to the Menceyato de Anaga, one of nine in which the island was divided, later, it became one of the most important ports of the Atlantic and the Canary Islands, a status it retains to this day. This former fishermens village rose to prominence after a Volcano destroyed the port of Garachico in the 18th century, Santa Cruz became the major port on the Island. It first won its independence from La Laguna and, in the 19th century, was awarded the status of Capital of the Province of Canary Islands by King Ferdinand VII, between 1833 and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a Royal decree ordered that the status of city of the Canary Islands would be shared with Las Palmas in Gran Canaria. This arrangement remains in place today, as of 2012 the merger is no longer part of the political agenda. Santa Cruz is divided administratively into five districts, which in turn are subdivided into districts, in 1990, the population peaked above the 200,000 markSanta Cruz de Tenerife (City) – From the top, left to right: Iglesia Matriz de la Concepción, Mercado Nuestra Señora de África, Puente Serrador, Torres de Santa Cruz, Panoramic city, Auditorio de Tenerife, Playa de Las Teresitas and Plaza de España.
16. La Laguna – San Cristóbal de La Laguna is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands. The city is the third-most populous city of the archipelago and the second-most populous city of the island, La Lagunas historical center was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999. In 2003 the municipality started an ambitious Urban Plan to renew this area, the city was the ancient capital of the Canary Islands. La Laguna lies right alongside the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the city is home to the University of La Laguna which is home to 30,000 students, these are not included in the population figures for the city. La Laguna is considered to be the capital of the Canary Islands. Also there is in the habit of being calling the Ciudad de los Adelantados and its economy is business-oriented while agriculture dominates the northeastern portion of the city. The urban area dominates the central and the southern parts, the main industry includes some manufacturing. The industrial area is made up of the subdivisions of Majuelos, Las Torres de Taco. In this city one finds the house of the spectre of Catalina Lercaro, as well as the incorrupt body of Sor María de Jesús. Another emblematic building of the city is the Cathedral of La Laguna, at first the place where the town was called Aguere by the aboriginal Guanches. Later he founded the city as Villa de San Cristóbal de La Gran Laguna, later he established the San Cristóbal de La Laguna, and today is known simply as La Laguna. The coat of arms was granted by Queen Joanna of Castile on 23 March 1510, the town of La Laguna, being the capital of the island during the first times after the Conquest, adopted this emblem as its own. It features an island with a volcano spitting fire, on waves, between a castle and a lion, and above the Archangel Saint Michael, holding a spear in one hand, in the border, the inscription Michael Arcangele Veni in Adjutorium Populo Dei Thenerife Me Fecit. These elements symbolize the incorporation of the island of Tenerife to the Crown of Castile, in spite of its elevation, the maritime and subtropical influences keep the temperature above frost at all times. The place where the city is built belonged to menceyato de Anaga and it is also known that the whole valley of Aguere and especially the large lake that was in this place, was a place of pilgrimage for the aborigines of the island. The Battle of Aguere was fought here in 1494, the city was founded between 1496 and 1497 by Alonso Fernández de Lugo and was the capital of the island after the conclusion of the conquest of the islands. Later the city became the capital of all of the Canary Islands. The coastal area was raided by piratesLa Laguna – Clockwise from top: University of La Laguna, Shrine of Cristo de La Laguna, Forests, Cathedral of La Laguna, Panoramic city, Iglesia de la Concepción, Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, Plaza del Adelantado and city council.
17. Streetcar – A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways, Tramways powered by electricity, the most common type historically, were once called electric street railways. However, trams were used in urban areas before the universal adoption of electrification. Tram lines may run between cities and/or towns, and/or partially grade-separated even in the cities. Very occasionally, trams also carry freight, Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter than conventional trains and rapid transit trains, but the size of trams is rapidly increasing. Some trams may also run on railway tracks, a tramway may be upgraded to a light rail or a rapid transit line. For all these reasons, the differences between the modes of rail transportation are often indistinct. In the United States, the tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tired trackless trains. Today, most trams use electrical power, usually fed by a pantograph, in some cases by a sliding shoe on a third rail. If necessary, they may have dual power systems — electricity in city streets, trams are now included in the wider term light rail, which also includes segregated systems. The English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring respectively to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame, a Romanesque word meaning the beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge, the identical word la trame with the meaning crossbeam is also used in the French language. The word Tram-car is attested from 1873, although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English, North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, and originally referred to horsecars, when electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. The troller design frequently fell off the wires, and was replaced by other more reliable devices. The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller, Modern trams often have an overhead pantograph mechanical linkage to connect to power, abandoning the trolley pole altogether. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US, the term may also apply to an aerial ropeway, e. g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Over time, the trolley has fallen into informal useStreetcar – Trams in Vienna, one of the largest existing networks in the world
18. Tacoronte – Tacoronte is a city and municipality of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It is located in the north-east of the island, mostly rural, the municipality stretches for 30 square kilometers from the volcanic peaks that rise in the center of the island to the Atlantic shore. The municipality seat, also called Tacoronte, lies about 16 km west of the capital, old manorial houses and farms are situated here, as well as vineyards that produce the wine known as Tacoronte-Acentejo. The TF-5 motorway passes through the municipality, the Tenerife North Airport is 4 km to the east. Tacoronte is a toponym of Guanche origin, believed to be derived from Tagoror and its territory constituted an ancient menceyato, as the Guanche kingdoms were known, ruled by the mencey Acaymo. After the Spanish conquest of Tenerife, the area was settled by the Portuguese Sebastián Machado, the town grew during succeeding centuries and in 1911, Alfonso XIII of Spain granted the town the status of municipio. List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official website Tacoronte Guide Tacoronte op Spanje vakantielandTacoronte – Tacoronte
19. Car – A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments, repairs and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, mobility, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which also used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895Car – Benz "Velo" model (1894) by German inventor Carl Benz – entered into an early automobile race as a motocycle
20. Bus – A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers, many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare, in many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular drivers licence. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, as of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a form of the Latin word omnibus. The first horse-drawn omnibus service was started by a businessman named Stanislas Baudry in the French city of Nantes in 1823, Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname omnibus to the vehicle. The omnibus in Nantes was a success and Baudry moved to Paris, a similar service was introduced in London in 1829. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833, in parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an. arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus. The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the criteria of a typical trolleybus. Max Schiemann opened a trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system, in the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911, in Siegerland, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno. Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to StockholmBus – An Alexander Dennis Enviro400 double-decker bus, operating for Arriva on London Buses route 102
21. Pablo Picasso – Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso, was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, Picassos work is often categorized into periods. Much of Picassos work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style and his later work often combines elements of his earlier styles. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa, though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later on become an atheist. Picassos family was of middle-class background and his father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts, Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were piz, piz, a shortening of lápiz, from the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was an academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork, the family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his sketch of a pigeon. In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his sister, Conchita. After her death, the moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home, Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, the student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day. Picassos father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrids Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrolmentPablo Picasso – Picasso in 1908
22. 1962 – January 1 Western Samoa became independent from New Zealand. The United States Navy SEALs, elite special forces, are activated, SEAL Team One is commissioned in the Pacific Fleet and SEAL Team Two in the Atlantic Fleet. The Beatles audition for Decca Records but are rejected, NBC introduces the Laramie peacock before a midnight showing of the series Laramie in the United States. January 2 – NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins praises U. S. President John F. Kennedys personal role in advancing civil rights, january 3 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro. January 4 – New York City introduces a train that operates without a crew on board. January 5 – The first album on which The Beatles play, My Bonnie, credited to Tony Sheridan, january 8 – Harmelen train disaster,93 die in the worst Dutch rail disaster. January 9 – Cuba and the Soviet Union sign a trade pact, january 10 – An avalanche on Nevado Huascarán in Peru causes 4,000 deaths. January 12 – The Indonesian Army confirms that it has operations in West Irian. January 13 – Albania allies itself with the Peoples Republic of China, january 15 – Portugal abandons the U. N. General Assembly due to the debate over Angola. January 16 – A military coup occurs in the Dominican Republic, january 19 – A counter-coup occurs in the Dominican Republic, the old government returns except for the new president Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly. January 22 – The Organization of American States suspends Cubas membership, the suspension is lifted in 2009. January 24 The East German government readopts conscription, the Organisation armée secrète bombs the French Foreign Ministry. January 26 – Ranger 3 is launched to study the Moon, january 27 – The Soviet government changed all place names honoring Molotov, Kaganovich and Georgy Malenkov. January 30 – Two of the high-wire Flying Wallendas are killed, january – Stena Line established as a ferry operator by Sten A. Olsson in Gothenburg, Sweden. February 3 – The United States embargo against Cuba is announced, february 4 – The Sunday Times in the United Kingdom became the first paper to print a colour supplement. February 4–February 5 – During a new moon and solar eclipse, february 5 – French President Charles de Gaulle calls for Algeria to be granted independence. February 6 – Negotiations between U. S. Steel and the United States Department of Commerce begin, february 7 The United States embargo against Cuba comes into effect, prohibiting all U. S. -related Cuban imports and exports. Luisenthal Mine Disaster, A coal mine explosion in Saarland, West Germany kills 299, february 9 – The Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation opens1962 – February 23: Friendship 7 inspected by President Kennedy and Astronaut John Glenn
23. Enrique Iglesias – Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler, known professionally as Enrique Iglesias, is a Spanish singer, songwriter, actor and record producer. He is widely regarded as the King of Latin Pop, in 2010, he parted with Interscope Records and signed with another Universal Music Group label Republic Records to release bilingual albums. In 2015, Iglesias parted ways with Universal Music Group after a decade and he signed with Sony Music, his upcoming albums will be by Sony Music Latin in Spanish and RCA Records in English. Iglesias has sold over 159 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling Spanish artists ever, Iglesias has scored over 150 number-one hits across all of the Billboard charts. He has had five Billboard Hot 100 top five singles, including two number-ones, and holds the record for producing 27 number-one Spanish-language singles on the Billboards Hot Latin Tracks and he also holds the record for most number-one hits and the longest-running number-one hit on that chart. Iglesias also has 14 number-ones on Billboards Dance charts, more than any male artist. Iglesias was born in Madrid, Spain, and is the third and youngest child of Spanish singer Julio Iglesias and Filipina socialite, isabels aunt is actress Neile Adams, the first wife of American actor Steve McQueen and grandmother of actor Steven R. McQueen. He was raised with two siblings, Chabeli and Julio. His mother is Filipina and his father is Spanish, with family from Galicia and Andalusia and his father is of Jewish ancestry and has also claimed Puerto Rican ancestry on his mothers side. At first, Iglesias and his two siblings stayed with their mother, but in 1986, Iglesias grandfather, Dr. Julio Iglesias Puga, was kidnapped by the armed Basque terrorist group ETA. For their safety, Enrique and his brother Julio were sent to live with their father in Miami, there, they were brought up mostly by the nanny, Elvira Olivares, to whom he later dedicated his first album. He also lived in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, for one year with his mother, as his fathers career kept him on the road, the young Iglesias was raised by the family nanny. He attended the prestigious Gulliver Preparatory School and later went on to business at the University of Miami. Iglesias did not want his father to know about his plans for a musical career and he borrowed money from his family nanny and he recorded a demo cassette tape which consisted of a Spanish song and two English songs. Approaching his fathers former publicist, Fernán Martínez, the two promoted the songs under the stage name Enrique Martínez with the backstory of being a singer from Guatemala. Iglesias was signed on to Fonovisa Records, after dropping out of college, he traveled to Toronto to record his first album. On 12 July 1995, Iglesias released Enrique Iglesias, a collection of rock ballads, including hits such as Si Tú Te Vas, Experiencia Religiosa. This album Vivir, along with Iglesias next two albums, was released by the Mexican label Fonovisa and his song Por Amarte was included in Televisas telenovela Marisol, but with a twist, instead of Por amarte daría mi vida, the words were Por amarte Marisol, moriríaEnrique Iglesias – Iglesias at the Euphoria World Tour in August 2011
24. Madrid, Spain – Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo. With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of CastileMadrid, Spain – From upper left: view of business districts of AZCA and CTBA, Gran Vía street and Metropolis Building, the Palace of Communication, view of Royal Palace and Almudena Cathedral.
25. Julio Iglesias – Julio José Iglesias de la Cueva, better known as Julio Iglesias, is a Spanish singer and songwriter who has been awarded with the Guinness Record thrice. In 1983, he was the most recorded artist in more languages in the world and he is recognized as the most successful European commercial singer in the world. He is one of the top ten record sellers in music history, more than 2600 certified gold and platinum albums. It is estimated that during his career he has offered more than 5000 concerts, in April 2013 the singer was awarded in Beijing as the first and most popular international artist in China. He is also the largest foreign record seller in Brazil, France, Romania and Italy, in his country, Spain, he is the artist who has sold the most, with 23 million records. He has been awarded the Gold Medal for Merit in the Fine Arts of Spain and he was named Special Ambassador for the Performing Arts of UNICEF in 1989. He has also institutionalized September 8 as Julio Iglesias Day in Miami since 1997 and has been a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame since 1985, April 2013, entered the Hall of Fame of the Latin Composers. Iglesias was born on 23 September 1943 in Madrid and he is the son of Julio Iglesias, Sr. a medical doctor from Ourense who became one of the youngest gynecologists in the country, and María del Rosario de la Cueva y Perignat. Iglesiass paternal ancestry comes from Galicia, his grandparents were named Manuela Puga Noguerol. His maternal grandparents were José de la Cueva y Orejuela, and Dolores de Perignat y Ruiz de Benavides and he alternated playing professional football with studying law at the CEU San Pablo University in Madrid. In the earliest years of his adulthood, he was a goalkeeper for Real Madrid Castilla. His professional football career was ruined when he was involved in an automobile accident. Afterwards, he said of those years, I had more courage and these were sorely tested when he was involved in that car crash—it smashed his lower spine, his legs were permanently weakened as a direct result, and they still required therapy several years later. During his hospitalization after the accident, a nurse gave him a guitar so that he could have something to do with his hands, in learning to play, he discovered his musical talent. After his rehabilitation, Iglesias studied for three months at Bell Educational Trusts Language School in Cambridge, UK, after that, he went back to obtain his law degree at Complutense University of Madrid. In 1968 he won the Benidorm International Song Festival, an event in Spain, with the song La vida sigue igual which was used in the film La vida sigue igual. After this event he signed a deal with Discos Columbia, the Spanish branch of the Columbia Records company, the album spent 15 weeks in the Spanish charts, and peaked at #3. He represented Spain in the 1970 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing in place behind Irelands winning entryJulio Iglesias – Julio Iglesias
26. Latin America – Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada and it has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2, almost 13% of the Earths land surface area. As of 2015, its population was estimated at more than 626 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of 5,573,397 million USD and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The term Latin America was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines, a further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. The term was first used in Paris in an 1856 conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao and this term was also used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish. By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America and this definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase Latin America, the distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics, demographics and it may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America. *, Not a sovereign state The concept of Latin America has been criticized by a number of intellectuals, the earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents, by the first millennium CE, South Americas vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha and the Tairona groups and these groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia, the region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Maya, and Inca. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, with the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elites power with the help of local groups who had favored the Aztec elite, epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations, intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry formed majorities in several coloniesLatin America – Presencia de América Latina (Presence of Latin America, 1964–65) is a 300 square meters (3,200 sq ft) mural at the hall of the Arts House of the University of Concepción, Chile. It is also known as Latin America's Integration.
27. Interscope – Interscope Records is an American record company. At the time, it differed from most record companies by giving decision-making authority to its A&R staff and it had its first hit records less than a year after it was founded and achieved profitability in 1993. In 1992, Interscope acquired the rights to market and distribute the hardcore rap label Death Row. Albums by Death Row artists included rappers Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, as a result, Time Warner severed ties with Interscope by selling its 50 percent stake back to Field and Iovine for $115 million in 1995. In 1996, 50% of the label was acquired by the MCA Music Entertainment Group for a reported $200 million, Iovine served as chairman and CEO until May 2014. He was succeeded by John Janick, Interscope is headquartered in Santa Monica, California. The labels best-selling artists include U2, Eminem, Lady Gaga, in 1989, Ted Field began to build Interscope Records as a division of his film company, Interscope Communications. To run it, he hired John McClain, who had played a role in Janet Jacksons success at A&M Records, and Tom Whalley. Separately, Iovine, who had produced records by U2, Bruce Springsteen, I thought, Music is going to change, Iovine said in 1997. Young bands arent going to be asking for me, but I love working with the new thing. I always liked the part of the business thats the first time you hear something, Iovine and Field were introduced by Paul McGuinness, then U2s manager. After a series of negotiations led by David Geffen, they came to an agreement, in a 1997 article in Rolling Stone, David Wild wrote, Interscopes start-up coincided with a period of incredible change in the music world. Nirvana had ushered in the alternative revolution, based in Westwood, California, Interscope was run by music men. It was a departure from the industry practices of the 1970s and 1980s. A founding tenet of the label was that artists would have creative control. Interscopes first release was Rico Suave by Ecuadoran rapper Gerardo in December 1990, Primus Interscope debut was released in May, followed by Marky Mark and the Funky Bunchs Music for the People in July. It included the #1 single Good Vibrations, two days after first hearing his demo, Whalley signed Tupac Shakur, and in November 1991, Interscope released 2pacalypse Now, Shakurs studio debut. Interscope began to develop a significant presence in the genre in 1992Interscope – Interscope Records
28. Billboard Hot 100 – The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales, radio play and online streaming, the weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is available on a real-time basis. A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays, as of the issue for the week ending on April 15,2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,061 different number one hits. The current number one song is Shape of You by Ed Sheeran, prior to 1955, Billboard did not have a unified, all-encompassing popularity chart, instead measuring songs by individual metrics. At the start of the era in 1955, three such charts existed, Best Sellers in Stores was the first Billboard chart, established in 1936. This chart ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country, Most Played by Jockeys was Billboards original airplay chart. It ranked the most played songs on United States radio stations, as reported by radio disc jockeys, Most Played in Jukeboxes ranked the most played songs in jukeboxes across the United States. On the week ending November 12,1955, Billboard published The Top 100 for the first time, the Top 100 combined all aspects of a singles performance, based on a point system that typically gave sales more weight than radio airplay. The Best Sellers In Stores, Most Played by Jockeys and Most Played in Jukeboxes charts continued to be published concurrently with the new Top 100 chart. The week ending July 28,1958 was the publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top 100 charts. On August 4,1958, Billboard premiered one main all-genre singles chart, the Hot 100 quickly became the industry standard and Billboard discontinued the Best Sellers In Stores chart on October 13,1958. The Billboard Hot 100 is still the standard by which a songs popularity is measured in the United States, the Hot 100 is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan and streaming activity provided by online music sources. There are several component charts that contribute to the calculation of the Hot 100. Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. Hot Singles Sales, the top selling singles compiled from a sample of retail store, mass merchant and internet sales reports collected, compiled. The chart is released weekly and measures sales of commercial singles. With the decline in sales of singles in the USBillboard Hot 100 – The Billboard logo
29. Barcelona – Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Barcelona has a cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre. Particularly renowned are the works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona, the city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. It is a cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union, in 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion, it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europes third and one of the worlds most successful as a city brand, since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa. Internationally, Barcelonas name is abbreviated to Barça. However, this refers only to FC Barcelona, the football club. The common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna, another common abbreviation is BCN, which is also the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighbourhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends, the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the Mons Taber, under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens, the city minted its own coins, some from the era of Galba survive. Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, also known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have founded in 343Barcelona – Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
30. AVE – Ave is a Latin word, used by the Romans as a salutation and greeting, meaning hail. It is the imperative form of the verb avēre, which meant to be well. The Classical Latin pronunciation of ave was or, in Church Latin, it is ideally, and in English, it tends to be pronounced /ˈɑːveɪ/. The term was used to greet the Caesar or other authorities. Suetonius recorded that on one occasion, naumachiarii—captives and criminals fated to die fighting during mock naval encounters—addressed Caesar with the words Ave Caesar, morituri te salutant. in an attempt to avoid death. The expression is not recorded as being used in Roman times on any other occasion, the Vulgate version of the Annunciation translates the salute of the angel to Mary, Mother of Jesus as Ave Maria, gratia plena. Ave Maria is a Catholic Marian prayer that also has inspired authors of religious music, within Satanism, the phrase Ave Satana is used, along with its more popular English translation Hail Satan. Fascist regimes during the 20th century also adopted the greeting and it was also distinctly used during the National Socialist Third Reich in the indirect German translation, heil. Roman salute Ave Imperator, morituri te salutantAVE – "HAVE" Mosaic outside the House of the Faun, Pompeii (Have is a spelling variant of Ave).
31. Seville Expo '92 – The Universal Exposition of Seville took place from Monday, April 20 to Monday, October 12,1992 on La Isla de La Cartuja, Seville, Spain. The theme for the Expo was The Age of Discovery and over 100 countries were represented, the total amount of land used for the Expo was 215 hectares and the total number of visitors was 41,814,571. Although not related, the exposition ran at the time as the smaller Genoa Expo 92. Expo92 was organized to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus, the exposition was to be jointly held with the City of Chicago, however, due to national, state, and local funding difficulties, Chicago did not accept the offer. It was also known for its numerous spectacular gates and bridges, the most popular pavilions with visitors were those of Spain and Canada. In particular the Discoveries Pavilion featured an Omnimax Theatre, where a Spanish government commissioned theme film, made by Greg MacGillivray and Jon Boorstin, based on The Discoverers, by Daniel J. Boorstin was presented. The first IMAX film to use a hand held camera. A Plaza de Africa was also created to allow participation from developing African states. Curro was the mascot for the fair and it has the shape of a big white bird with the legs of an elephant, whose long conical beak and crest had the colours of the rainbow. It was created by German designer Heinz Edelmann, who gave it the name Curro. It was presented officially in the Plaza de España of Seville, in a big fest of light and sound on the 20 April 1990, visitors were sprayed with cool mist in various locations, and could make use of the numerous fountains and wading pools to cool off. The Government of Canada donated the Canadian Pavilion for use as a new trade school, one can walk throughout Cartuja 93 for free, however, admission to the Isla Mágica requires an entrance fee. Over one hundred nations were represented at the Expo, making it one of the largest ever hosted, the Pavilion restaurant was also highly rated. The rest of the Pavilions of the Union were located at the left, China - was represented with a large Chinese Gate at its entrance, and a large magnificent tapestry of the Great Wall of China on the inside entrance. To one side the sights of China were represented in a 360 degree cinema presentation, inside one could see aspects of the Russian space program and a Russian satellite suspended from the Pavilion ceiling. During the run of the Expo, the film played to an international audience at AmeriFlora 92. Other exhibits at the U. S. A. pavilion included the Bills of Rights exhibition, and the Freedom House, a working modern American home that could be visited. Japan - featured the worlds largest wooden structure, and an escalator that took you up into the heart of the structureSeville Expo '92 – Panorama of the pavilions on the Lago de España at Expo'92 Seville.
32. Jon Stewart – Jon Stewart is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, actor, media critic, and former television host. He was the host of The Daily Show, a news program on Comedy Central. Stewart started as a comedian, but branched into television as host of Short Attention Span Theater for Comedy Central. He went on to host his own show on MTV, The Jon Stewart Show and he has also had several film roles as an actor, but has done few cinematic projects since becoming the host of The Daily Show in 1999. He was also a writer and co-executive producer of the show, after Stewart joined, The Daily Show steadily gained popularity and critical acclaim, and his work won 22 Primetime Emmy Awards. Stewart has gained acclaim as an acerbic, satirical critic of personality-driven media shows, in particular those of the U. S. media networks such as CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC. Critics say Stewart benefits from a standard, he critiques other news shows from the safe. Stewart agrees, saying that neither his nor his channel purports to be anything other than satire. In spite of its self-professed entertainment mandate, The Daily Show has been nominated for news, Stewart hosted the 78th and 80th Academy Awards. He is the co-author of America, A Citizens Guide to Democracy Inaction, which was one of the books in the U. S. in 2004. Stewarts final show aired on August 6,2015, Stewarts family is Jewish, and emigrated to the U. S. from Poland, Ukraine and Belarus, one of his grandfathers was born in Manzhouli. Stewart is the second of four sons, with older brother Lawrence and younger brothers Dan, Stewarts parents divorced when Stewart was eleven years old, and Stewart was apparently largely estranged from his father. Because of his relationship with his father, which in 2015 he described as still complicated, he dropped his surname and began using his middle name. Stewart stated, There was a thought of using my mothers maiden name, yet people always view through the prism of ethnic identity. He had his surname changed to Stewart in 2001. Stewart and his brother Lawrence, who was previously the Chief Operating Officer of NYSE Euronext, grew up in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, according to Stewart, he was subjected to anti-Semitic bullying as a child. He describes himself in school as very into Eugene Debs. Stewart grew up in the era of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal and his first job was working at a Woolworths at which his brother Lawrence worked, and jokingly describes being fired by Lawrence as one of the scarring events of his youthJon Stewart – Stewart interviewing Admiral Michael Mullen on The Daily Show
33. Battle of Bicocca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. A combined French and Venetian force under Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, was defeated by an Imperial–Spanish. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands, having been driven from Milan by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonnas lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen advanced over open fields under heavy fire to assault the Imperial positions. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated, meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonnas position proved equally ineffective. The Swiss, unwilling to further, marched off to their cantons a few days later. It was also one of the first engagements in which played a decisive role on the battlefield. At the start of the war in 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X moved jointly against the Duchy of Milan, the principal French possession in Lombardy. A large Papal force under Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. For the next months, Colonna fought an evasive war of maneuver against Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec. By the autumn of 1521, Lautrec, who was holding a line along the Adda river to Cremona, began to suffer losses from desertion. Colonna took the opportunity this offered and, advancing close to the Alps, crossed the Adda at Vaprio, Lautrec, lacking infantry and assuming the years campaign to be over, Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched an attack on the city. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew to Cremona with about 12,000 men, the French proceeded to attack Novara and Pavia, hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself in the monastery of Certosa south of the city, Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them since their arrival in Lombardy, the Swiss captains, led by Albert von Stein, demanded that Lautrec attack the Imperial army immediately—else the mercenaries would abandon the French and return to their cantons. Lautrec reluctantly acquiesced and marched south towards Milan, Colonna had meanwhile relocated to a formidable new position, the manor park of Bicocca, about four miles north of Milan. The north side of the park was bordered by a road, Colonna deepened thisBattle of Bicocca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
34. Battle of Ceresole – The Battle of Ceresole was an encounter between a French army and the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain during the Italian War of 1542–46. Despite having inflicted casualties on the Imperial troops, the French subsequently failed to exploit their victory by taking Milan. The battle opened with several hours of skirmishing between opposing bands of arquebusiers and an artillery exchange, after which dAvalos ordered a general advance. In the center, Imperial landsknechts clashed with French and Swiss infantry, Ceresole was one of the few pitched battles during the latter half of the Italian Wars. By the winter of 1543–44, a stalemate had developed in the Piedmont between the French, under the Sieur de Boutières, and the Imperial army, under dAvalos, the two armies occupied themselves primarily with attacking each others outlying strongholds. Boutières seized San Germano Vercellese, near Vercelli, and laid siege to Ivrea, dAvalos, meanwhile, captured Carignano, only fifteen miles south of Turin, and proceeded to garrison and fortify it. As the two returned to winter quarters, Francis I of France replaced Boutières with François de Vendôme, Count of Enghien. Francis also sent additional troops to the Piedmont, including several hundred cavalry, some companies of French infantry from Dauphiné and Languedoc. In January 1544, Enghien laid siege to Carignano, which was defended by Imperial troops under the command of Pirro Colonna, Montluc, returning to Italy, brought with him nearly a hundred volunteers from among the young noblemen of the court, including the young Gaspard de Coligny. DAvalos, having waited for the arrival a large body of landsknechts dispatched by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, set off from Asti towards Carignano. His total force included 12, 500–18,000 infantry, of which perhaps 4,000 were arquebusiers or musketeers, he was able to gather about 800–1,000 cavalry. DAvalos recognized the weakness of his cavalry, but considered it to be compensated by the experience of his infantry. Enghien, having learned of the Imperial advance, left a force at Carignano and assembled the remainder of his army at Carmagnola. Enghien and Montluc felt that the ground would give the French cavalry a significant tactical advantage. By this point, the French army consisted of around 11, 000–13,000 infantry,600 light cavalry, and 900–1,250 heavy cavalry, Enghien and dAvalos each had about twenty pieces of artillery. Enghiens troops were positioned along the crest of a ridge that was higher in the center than on either side, the French army was divided into the traditional battle, vanward, and rearward corps, corresponding to the center and right and left wings of the French line. On the far right of the French position was a body of light cavalry, consisting of three companies under Des Thermes, Bernadino, and Mauré, with a total strength of around 450–500 men. The center of the French line was formed by thirteen companies of veteran Swiss, numbering about 4,000, under the joint command of William Frülich of Soleure and a captain named St. JulianBattle of Ceresole – Portrait of Alfonso d'Avalos, Marchese del Vasto, in Armor with a Page (oil on canvas by Titian, c. 1533)
35. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was a nickname, a reference to his Greek origin, El Greco was born in Crete, which was at that time part of the Republic of Venice, and the center of Post-Byzantine art. He trained and became a master within that tradition before traveling at age 26 to Venice, in 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style elements of Mannerism. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death, in Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Grecos dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries, El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, El Grecos father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, also Greek, El Grecos older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos, was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life in El Grecos Toledo home. El Greco received his training as an icon painter of the Cretan school. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a master, meaning he was already a master of the guild and presumably operating his own workshop. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, most scholars believe that the Theotokópoulos family was almost certainly Greek Orthodox, although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth. One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, and his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete, prevelakis goes even further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was ever a practicing Roman Catholic. Important for his biography, El Greco, still in Crete, painted his Dormition of the Virgin near the end of his Cretan period. Three other signed works of Doménicos are attributed to El Greco, in 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was already an enrolled master of the local guild, presumably in charge of his own workshop. He left for Venice a few later, and never returned to Crete. His Dormition of the Virgin, of before 1567 in tempera, the painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian Mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements, and incorporates stylistic elements of the Cretan School. It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567. Knowledge of El Grecos years in Italy is limited and this may mean he worked in Titians large studio, or notEl Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
36. Lince (tank) – The Lince was a Spanish development programme for a proposed main battle tank that unfolded during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The intention was to replace the M47 and M48 Patton tanks that the Spanish Army had received under the U. S, mutual Defense Assistance Act between 1954 and 1975, and to complement the AMX-30E tanks manufactured for the army during the 1970s. Companies from several nations, such as German Krauss-Maffei, Spanish Santa Bárbara, the main priorities were mobility and firepower, with secondary priority placed on protection, the Lince tank was to have been lighter and faster than its competitors. The vehicles size would also have been restricted by the Spanish rail, to achieve a sufficient level of firepower and protection, given the size requirements, the Lince was to use Rheinmetalls 120 mm L/44 tank-gun and German composite armour from the Leopard 2A4. The Spanish government decided to upgrade its fleet of AMX-30Es in the late 1980s. S. in accordance with the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and these tanks replaced the M47s and M48s, and fulfilled Spains need to modernize its tank forces in the short term. No prototype of the planned Lince tank was manufactured, and no announcements were made on who would receive the contract, four years later the Spanish government procured and locally manufactured the Leopard 2, fulfilling the long-term modernisation goal established in the Lince programme. During the 1950s the Spanish Army was supplied by the United States with 552 M47, the first tanks were delivered in 1954, and the fleet was upgraded in the 1970s to equal the capabilities of M60 Patton tanks. Spain was, however, interested in replacing these tanks as early as the 1960s with the French AMX-30 or German Leopard 1, Spain eventually decided to buy the French tank and by 1975 the Spanish Army had 299 AMX-30s, designated as AMX-30Es. Of these,280 tanks were manufactured by the local company Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara who received the AMX-30 patent from the French company GIAT. In fielding the AMX-30E, the army found its upgraded M47s and M48s to be outdated, the army required a modern tank that could complement its AMX-30Es and started looking for a replacement for its Patton fleet. In 1984, the Spanish Ministry of Defense declared its intent to set aside 120 billion pesetas for a future tank program, German company Krauss-Maffei and Spanish company Santa Bárbara presented a joint bid in mid-1984 that would produce a tank based on 1970s technology. The French government proposed to cooperate with Spain in designing a tank complete with new technology—France would later develop this programme on its own as the AMX-Leclerc, however, the French admitted that there would be restrictions placed on Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara when it came to exporting the tank. The Italian government proposed a deal for a cooperative tank design. By late 1985, the only offers still under consideration were those from the German-Spanish collaboration, krauss-Maffeis Lince bid provided the clearest technical designs. The tank would be 49 tonnes and equipped with a 120-millimeter main gun and it could fire this gun on the move and aim at targets with effectiveness in day and night operations. Fitted with a 1,200 horsepower engine, the Lince could travel as fast as 70 kilometres per hour on the roads, although heavily based on the Leopard 2A4, the Lince was smaller and lighter, trading protection for mobility. Specifically, the Lince prioritised enhanced mobility over the irregular Spanish terrain, furthermore, size restrictions were imposed because of the existing capabilities of Spains railroad and highway network. The protection was enhanced by the low profile turret, again similar to that of the Leopard 2A4Lince (tank) – Mock-up of the German-Spanish Lince
37. T-26 – The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II. It was a development of the British Vickers 6-Ton tank and was one of the most successful designs of the 1930s until its light armour became vulnerable to newer anti-tank guns. It was produced in numbers than any other tank of the period. Twenty-three of these were series-produced, others were experimental models, the T-26 and BT were the main tanks of the Red Armys armoured forces during the interwar period. The T-26 was the most important tank of the Spanish Civil War and played a significant role during the Battle of Lake Khasan in 1938, as well as in the Winter War in 1939–40. Though nearly obsolete by the beginning of World War II, the T-26 was the most numerous tank in the Red Armys armoured force during the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Soviet T-26 light tanks last saw use in August 1945, during the defeat of the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria, the T-26 was exported and used extensively by Spain, China and Turkey. Captured T-26s were used by the Finnish, German, Romanian and Hungarian armies, the tank was reliable and simple to maintain, and its design was continually modernised between 1931 and 1941. No new models of the T-26 were developed after 1940, the T-26 was a Soviet development of the British Vickers 6-Ton tank, which was designed by the Vickers-Armstrongs company in 1928–29. The simple and easy-to-maintain Vickers 6-Ton was intended for export to less technically advanced countries, the Soviet Union, Poland, Brazil, Argentina, Japan, Thailand, China, and many others. Vickers advertised the tank in military publications, and both the Soviet Union and Poland expressed interest in the Vickers design. In early 1930, the Soviet buying committee, under the direction of Semyon Ginzburg, arrived in Great Britain to select tanks, tractors, the Vickers 6-Ton was among four models of tanks selected by Soviet representatives during their visit to Vickers-Armstrongs. Several Soviet engineers participated in assembly of the tanks at the Vickers Factory in 1930, the first four Vickers 6-Ton tanks arrived in the USSR at the end of 1930. The last tanks arrived in 1932, when production of the T-26 was already in progress. The British tanks were sent to Soviet factories for study in preparation for production and to military educational institutions. Later, some tanks were given to military depots and proving grounds. The Vickers-built 6-Ton tanks had the designator V-26 in the USSR, three British tanks were successfully tested for cross-country ability at the small proving ground near Moscow on Poklonnaya Hill in January 1931. Kliment Voroshilov ordered the creation of the Special Commission for the Red Army new tanks under the direction of S. Ginzburg to define the type suitable for the Red ArmyT-26 – T-26 mod. 1933 at the museum "Breaching of the Leningrad Blockade " near Kirovsk, Leningrad Oblast. This tank was raised from a river bottom at Nevsky Pyatachok in May 2003.
38. War of the League of Cambrai – The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. Although the League was initially successful, friction between Julius and Louis caused it to collapse by 1510, Julius then allied himself with Venice against France. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Pope Alexander VI had, with French assistance, in 1507, Julius returned to the question of the cities in Venetian hands, once again rebuffed by the Senate, he encouraged Emperor Maximilian I to attack the Republic. Julius, humiliated by the failure of the Imperial invasion, turned to Louis XII of France with an offer of alliance. On 10 December 1508, representatives of the Papacy, France, on 15 April 1509, Louis left Milan at the head of a French army and moved rapidly into Venetian territory. Consequently, when Louis crossed the Adda River in early May and Alviano advanced to him, Pitigliano, believing it best to avoid a pitched battle. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement, his army was surrounded and destroyed. DEste, having joined the League and been appointed Gonfalonier on 19 April, the newly arrived Imperial governors, however, quickly proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided by detachments of Venetian cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, the landsknechts garrisoning the city were too few in number to mount effective resistance, and Padua was restored to Venetian control on 17 July 1509. The success of the revolt finally pushed Maximilian into action, in early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of French and Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive, Venetian troops easily defeated the remaining Imperial forces, capturing Vicenza, Este, Feltre, although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano destroyed a Papal army under Francesco II of Gonzaga in the process. Francesco Guicciardini credited the victory to Alfonso himself. A new French advance soon forced Pitigliano to withdraw to Padua once again, faced with a shortage of both funds and men, the Senate decided to send an embassy to Julius in order to negotiate a settlement. The Senate argued over the terms for two months, but finally accepted them on February 24,1510 and this apparent reconciliation between Venice and the Pope did not stop the French from again invading the Veneto in March. Gritti garrisoned Padua for an attack by a combined Franco-Imperial army, but Louis, more concerned by the death of his advisor. His own forces being inadequate for the venture, the Pope hired an army of Swiss mercenaries, ordering them to attack the French in Milan, the Republic, facing a renewed French onslaught, readily accepted the offer. By July 1510, the new Veneto-Papal alliance was on the offensive, Julius now excommunicated Alfonso dEste, thus justifying an attack on the Duchy itself, in anticipation of his coming victory, the Pope traveled to Bologna, so as to be nearby when Ferrara was taken. The French army, however, had been left unopposed by the Swiss and was free to march south into the heart of ItalyWar of the League of Cambrai – Pope Julius II, painted by Raphael (oil on wood, c. 1511). Julius attempted to secure Papal authority in Italy by creating the League of Cambrai, an alliance aimed at curbing Venetian power.
39. War of the Spanish Succession – The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a vast global empire, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled the governments of Europe, the English, the Dutch and the Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708, the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured victory in the Spanish Netherlands and in Italy, France faced invasion and ruin, but Allied unity broke first. With the Grand Alliance defeated in Spain and with its casualties mounting and aims diverging, French and British ministers prepared the groundwork for a peace conference, and in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. The Dutch, Austrians, and German states fought on to strengthen their own negotiating position, the Treaty of Utrecht and the Treaty of Rastatt partitioned the Spanish empire between the major and minor powers. The European balance of power was assured, in the late 1690s the declining health of King Charles II of Spain brought to a head the problem of his succession, a problem which had underlain much of European diplomacy for several decades. The empire was in decline, but remained the largest of the European overseas empires, unlike the French crown, the Spanish crowns could all be inherited by, or through, a female in default of a male line. The next in line after Charles II, therefore, were his two sisters, Maria Theresa, the elder, and Margaret Theresa, the younger, Maria Theresa had married Louis XIV in 1660 and by him she had a son, Louis, Dauphin of France. The testament of her father, Philip IV, reiterated this waiver and bequeathed the reversion of the whole of the Spanish dominions to his younger daughter, Margaret Theresa. However the French, using in part the excuse that the dowry promised Maria Theresa was never paid, nor was it clear whether a princess could waive the rights of her unborn children. Leopold I married Margaret Theresa in 1666, at her death in 1673 she left one living heir, Maria Antonia, who in 1685 married Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. Shortly before her death in 1692, she gave birth to a son, if he chose, Louis XIV could attempt to assert his will on Spain by force of arms, but the Nine Years War had been an immense drain on Frances resources. To seek a solution and gain support, Louis XIV turned to his long-standing rival William of Orange. England and the Dutch Republic had their own commercial, strategic and political interests within the Spanish empire, however, the Maritime Powers were in a weakened state and both had reduced their forces at the conclusion of the Nine Years War. Louis XIV and William III, therefore, sought to solve the problem of the Spanish inheritance through negotiation, based on the principle of partition, to take effect after the death of Charles II. However, the bulk of the empire – most of peninsular Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, the Spanish Empire was now divided between the three surviving candidates. By this new treaty Archduke Charles would receive most of Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, and the overseas empire. For Leopold I, however, control of Spain and its empire was less important than ItalyWar of the Spanish Succession – Philip V of Spain and the Duke of Vendôme pictured after the victory at the 1710 Battle of Villaviciosa.
40. Falange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista was the sole legal party of the Francoist dictatorship in Spain. It emerged in 1937 of the merger of the Carlist Party with the Falange Española de las JONS, with the eruption of the Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist side against the Second Spanish Republic. Expanding rapidly from several thousand to several hundred thousand, the Falanges male membership was accompanied by a female auxiliary, the command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla, as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was Primo de Rivera, who was a Government prisoner, as a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente. After being sentenced to death on November 18,1936, Primo de Rivera was executed on November 20,1936, in a Republican prison, giving him martyr status among the Falangists. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his Parliamentary immunity, despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange and many Carlists did not join the unified party, none of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. Sixty per cent of the pre-war Falange membership lost their lives in the war, however, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all unions were unified under Falangist command. After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology for Francos regime and this job became a cursus honorum for ambitious politicians—new converts, who were called camisas nuevas in opposition to the more overtly populist and ideological old shirts from before the war. Membership in the Falange/FET reached a peak of 932,000 in 1942, despite the official unification of the various Nationalist factions within the party in 1937, tensions continued between dedicated Falangists and other groups, particularly Carlists. Such tensions erupted in violence with the Begoña Incident of August 1942, the attack and the response of Carlist government ministers led to a government crisis and caused Franco to dismiss several ministers. Ultimately, six Falangists were convicted of the attack and one, instructions were issued in September 1943 that henceforth the Falange/FET would be referred to exclusively as a movement and not a party. The Falange also developed youth organizations, with known as Flechas and Pelayos. Most of these young members wore red berets, with improving relations with the United States, economic development, and the rise of a group of relatively young technocrats within the government, the Falange continued to decline. In 1965 the SEU, the student organization, was officially disbanded. At the same time, the membership of the Falange as a whole was both shrinking and aging, the organizations relatively few new members came mostly from the conservative and devoutly Catholic areas of northern SpainFalange Party – Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista
41. El Paso (La Palma) – El Paso, also known as Ciudad de El Paso, is a Spanish municipality located on the island of La Palma, province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands. Geographically it is located in the center of the island of La Palma, covering to the west with the Caldera de Taburiente, part of the Aridane Valley, the Cumbre Nueva and the Cumbre Vieja. It is on the surface the largest municipality of the island, in 2016 it had a population of 7457 inhabitants. The nucleus of population had to have its origins in the stage of the island. Almost certainly, because of the found in the area. During the colonization and almost throughout the Modern Age the present territory of the municipality was part of the Aridane Valley. In 1837, under the reign of Alfonso XII, the municipality obtained the title of City, at the summit of the municipality is the oldest canarian pine in the world, with an estimated age of more than 1000 years. Many footpaths already crisscrossed La Palma before the Spanish conquest, a number of mountain passes east of present-day El Paso enabled cross-island communications. One of these was Ajerjo Pass by which the islands Spanish discoverer, Alonso Fernandez de Lugo, attempted to enter the Caldera de Taburiente, the village of El Paso was named after this mountain pass by association. To this goal, Fernandez deceitfully invited its king Tanausú to an interview, the island was made directly subject to the Spanish Crown, a situation which would last until 1812. In this year the new Spanish Constitution paved the way for decentralisation of the Canary Islands, La Palma List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife El Paso Municipality Website Official La Palma WebsiteEl Paso (La Palma) – El Paso
42. History of Spain – The history of Spain dates back to the Early Middle Ages. In 1516, Habsburg Spain unified a number of disparate predecessor kingdoms, its form of a constitutional monarchy was introduced in 1813. After the completion of the Reconquista, the kingdoms of Spain were united under Habsburg rule in 1516, during this period, Spain was involved in all major European wars, including the Italian Wars, the Eighty Years War, the Thirty Years War, and the Franco-Spanish War. The former Spanish Empire overseas quickly disintegrated with the Latin American wars of independence, the war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco, which controlled the Spanish government until 1975. The post-war decades were relatively stable, and the country experienced economic growth in the 1960s. Only with the death of Franco in 1975 did Spain return to Bourbon constitutional monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos, Spain entered the European Economic Community in 1986, and the Eurozone in 1999. The financial crisis of 2007–08 ended a decade of economic boom and Spain entered a recession and debt crisis and remains plagued by high unemployment. Spain is ranked as a middle power able to exert regional influence but unlike other powers with similar status it is not part of the G8, the Iberian Peninsula was first inhabited by anatomically modern humans about 32,000 years BP. Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving in the Iberian Peninsula from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago, the seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. The first Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the northeast coast in the 9th century BC, the Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, apparently after the river Iber. In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks and their most important colony was Carthago Nova. The Celts mostly inhabited the inner and north-west part of the peninsula, in the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians. The Celtiberian Wars were fought between the legions of the Roman Republic and the Celtiberian tribes of Hispania Citerior from 181 to 133 BC. The Roman conquest of the peninsula was completed in 19 BC, Hispania was the name used for the Iberian Peninsula under Roman rule from the 2nd century BC. The populations of the peninsula were gradually culturally Romanized, and local leaders were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class, the Romans improved existing cities, such as Tarragona, and established others like Zaragoza, Mérida, Valencia, León, Badajoz, and Palencia. The peninsulas economy expanded under Roman tutelage, Hispania supplied Rome with food, olive oil, wine and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca, and the poets Martial, Quintilian, hispanic bishops held the Council of Elvira around 306. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, parts of Hispania came under the control of the Germanic tribes of Vandals, Suebi, Spains present languages, its religion, and the basis of its laws originate from this periodHistory of Spain – A painting of bison dating from the Upper Paleolithic era in the Altamira caves
43. Hispania – Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, during the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova. The name, Hispania, was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania, one theory holds it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. Specifically, it may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning Island of the Hyrax or island of the hare or island of the rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, in the sense of hidden, and make it indicate a hidden, that is, Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Occasionally Hispania was called Hesperia Ultima, the last western land in Greek, by Roman writers, another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for border or edge, thus meaning the farthest area or place. The use of Latin Hispania, Castilian España, Catalan Espanya and French Espaigne, a document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as Gracien dEspaigne. You are, Oh Spain, holy and always happy mother of princes and peoples and you, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but also the East. Navarre followed soon after in 1512, and Portugal in 1580, during this time, the concept of Spain was still unchanged. The King of Portugal would protest energetically when during a public act King Fernando talked about the Crown of Spain and it was after the independence of Portugal in 1640 when the concept of Spain started to shift and be applied to all the Peninsula except Portugal. Even so, Portugal would still complain when the terms Crown of Spain or Monarchy of Spain were still used in the 18th century with the Treaty of Utrecht. The Iberian peninsula has long inhabited, first by early hominids such as Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis. In the Paleolithic period, the Neanderthals entered Iberia and eventually took refuge from the migrations of modern humans. In the 40th millennium BC, during the Upper Paleolithic and the last ice age and these were nomadic hunter-gatherers originating on the steppes of Central Asia. When the last Ice Age reached its maximum extent, during the 30th millennium BC, in the millennia that followed, the Neanderthals became extinct and local modern human cultures thrived, producing pre-historic art such as that found in LArbreda Cave and in the Côa Valley. In the Mesolithic period, beginning in the 10th millennium BC and this was an interstadial deglaciation that lessened the harsh conditions of the Ice AgeHispania – Archaeological Roman Ensemble of Mérida (Emerita Augusta), Extremadura, Spain.
44. List of cities in Spain – This is a list of lists of the municipalities of Spain. The municipalities list links are listed below, by autonomous community, according to the provisional reports released on 18 December 2014, there is a total of 8,122 municipalities in Spain, including the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. Burgos is the province with the most municipalities and Las Palmas the one with the least, Spain has a population of 46,745,807 inhabitants, distributed to 8,117 municipalities. Municipalities of Spain List of metropolitan areas in Spain by population List of submerged places in SpainList of cities in Spain – Madrid, capital of Spain
45. Comarcas of Spain – In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a clearly defined status, are regulated by law, there is even a comarca, the Cerdanya that is divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, county, or sometimes four, Tierra de Pinares. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas, Tierra de Pinares, Tierras de Cantalejo y Santa María la Real de Nieva. Tierra de Campos Montes Torozos Páramos del Esgueva Tierra de Pinares Campo de Peñafiel Campiña del Pisuerga Tierras de Medina Alfoz de Toro, Spain Comarcas, list of the Spanish comarcasComarcas of Spain – Comarcas of Andalusia
46. Provinces of Spain – Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. The layout of Spains provinces closely follows the pattern of the division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the sub-division of the Canary Islands into two rather than one. Historically, the provinces served mainly as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, the importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy. They nevertheless remain electoral districts for national elections and as references, for instance in postal addresses. A small town would normally be identified as being in, say, Valladolid province rather than the community of Castile. The provinces were the building-blocks from which the communities were created. Consequently, no province is divided more than one of these communities. Only two capitals of autonomous communities—Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia—are not also the capitals of provinces, seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, and Navarra. These are sometimes referred to as uniprovincial communities, the table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs. The names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish-language names are the same, locally valid names in Spains other co-official languages are indicated where they differProvinces of Spain – Provinces of Spain
47. Government of Spain – Spain is a parliamentary monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain. This was approved by a referendum of the people of Spain in 1978. The final interpretation of the Constitution, in the case of dispute, is the business of the Constitutional Court of Spain, the king is also the commander in chief of the Spanish Armed Forces in which capacity he suppressed the 23-F Spanish coup détat attempt in February 1981. The king, currently Felipe VI, has held this position since 19 June 2014 and his predecessor, Juan Carlos I, abdicated the throne. Daughters can inherit only if the monarch has no sons, the heir presumptive is Leonor, Princess of Asturias. The Military Chief of Staff is General of the Army Fernando Alejandre Martínez, President of the Government, sometimes misleadingly called the Spanish President, is the first minister and is elected by the Congress of Deputies. He is informally but internationally and commonly referred to as the Prime Minister, the current holder is Mariano Rajoy Brey, who was elected on 21 December 2011. He appoints a number of vice-presidents ordered numerically according to rank and responsible for their respective major ministries such as Finance, Foreign affairs, Domestic administration, etc. Minister for the Presidency and Vice President, María Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría Antón, the following is the list of members of the Cabinet of Spain formed after the 2016 general election. Shown here is the logo of the Government of Spain. Below it is a variant design for the Ministry of Finance, Spanish cabinets from 1931 to 2004 Official website Law 50/1997, of the Government Boe. esGovernment of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
48. Constitution of Spain – The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain. It was enacted after the countrys 1978 constitutional referendum and is a furtherance of the Spanish transition to democracy, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 was preceded by numerous other constitutions. The Constitution was ratified after a referendum on 6 December 1978, sanctioned by King Juan Carlos I on 27 December 27, and published in the Boletin Oficial del Estado on 29 December. The promulgation of the Constitution marked the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy after the death of the head of state, Francisco Franco. This led to the country undergoing a series of political and historical changes that transformed the Francoist regime into a democratic state, the constitutional history of Spain dates back to the Constitution of 1812. After the death of dictator Francisco Franco in 1975, an election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution. A seven-member panel was selected among the members of the Cortes to work on a draft of the Constitution to be submitted to the body. These came to be known, as the media put it, however, since much of the consensus depended on keeping the wording ambiguous, few of Celas proposed re-wordings were approved. One of those accepted was the substitution of the archaic gualda for the plain amarillo in the description of the flag of Spain, the constitution was approved by the Cortes Generales on 31 October 1978, and by the Spanish people in a referendum on 6 December 1978. 88% of voters supported the new constitution, finally, it was promulgated by King Juan Carlos on 27 December. It came into effect on 29 December, the day it was published in the Official Gazette, Constitution Day on 6 December has since been a national holiday in Spain. Writing the preamble to the constitution was considered an honour, the person chosen for this purpose was Enrique Tierno Galván. The full text of the preamble may be translated as follows, The Constitution recognizes the existence of nationalities, other constitutional provisions recognize the right to adequate housing, employment, social welfare provision, health protection and pensions. The Constitution has been amended twice, the first time, Article 13.2, Title I was altered to extend to citizens of the European Union the right to active and passive suffrage in local elections. The second time, in August/September 2011, a budget amendment. The current version restricts the death penalty to military courts during wartime, amnesty International has still requested an amendment to be made to the Constitution to abolish it firmly and explicitly in all cases. After that, the campaign pleads for other 24 amendments protecting human rights, even though such a procedure would not formally violate the law, it could be considered an attack on its spirit. The Statutes of Autonomy of the different regions are the second most important Spanish legal normatives when it comes to the structure of the countryConstitution of Spain – Copy of the Spanish Constitution displayed at the Palace of the Cortes.
49. Foreign relations of Spain – Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral international security activities. Spains European Union membership represents an important part of its foreign policy, even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms. Spain has maintained its special identification with its fellow Spanish-speaking countries, Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy, as shown in the many trips that Spains King and Prime Ministers have made to the region. Spain maintains economic and technical programs and cultural exchanges with Latin America. Meanwhile, Spain has gradually begun to broaden its contacts with Sub-Saharan Africa and it has a particular interest in its former colony of Equatorial Guinea, where it maintains a large aid program. More recently Madrid has sought closer relation with Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Spain is also known as a broker in the Middle East. In its relations with the Arab world, Spain frequently supports Arab positions on Middle East issues, the Arab countries are a priority interest for Spain because of oil and gas imports and because several Arab nations have substantial investments in Spain. Spain has been successful in managing its relations with its three European neighbours, France, Andorra, and Portugal, the accession of Spain and Portugal to the EU has helped ease some of their periodic trade frictions by putting these into an EU context. Franco-Spanish bilateral cooperation is enhanced by joint action against Basque ETA violence, ties with the United Kingdom are generally good, although the question of Gibraltar remains a sensitive issue. Today, Spain is trying to expand its still narrow relations with east Asian nations, china, Japan and South Korea are the main points of interest for Spain in the region. Thailand and Indonesia are Spains main allies in the ASEAN region, having a number of agreements. In the recent years Spain has also been boosting its contacts, relations and investment in other Asian countries, most notably Vietnam, whilst the Disputed status of Gibraltar with the United Kingdom is perhaps the best known territorial dispute of Spain. Portugal continues to claim Olivenza/Olivença, asserting that under the Vienna Treaty of 1815, the historic disputes with Portugal over the Savage Islands in the Atlantic Ocean were resolved in recent times. The strategic position of the Strait of Gibraltar has left a legacy of a number of sovereignty disputes, Spain also maintains that the majority of residents are Spanish. Morocco claims these territories on the basis of the UN principles of decolonisation, territorial integrity, the population is 80% ethnic Portuguese and 30% of Portuguese language. Olivenza/Olivença was under continuous Portuguese sovereignty since 1297 until it was occupied by the Spanish in 1801, Spain claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz still stands and has never been revoked. Thus, the border between the two countries in the region of Olivenza/Olivença should be as demarcated by that treaty. Portugal claims the de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz was revoked by its own terms when Spain invaded Portugal in the Peninsular War of 1807Foreign relations of Spain – Kingdom of Spain
50. Military of Spain – The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a military force charged with defending the Kingdoms integrity and sovereignty. They consist of the Army, Navy and Air Force, the King is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, with the title Capitán General de las Fuerzas Armadas. The current Chief of the Defence Staff is General Fernando Alejandre Martínez, the Spanish Armed Forces are active members of NATO, the Eurocorps, the European Union Battlegroups, and also provide peace keeping troops to the United Nations. During the 15th and 16th century, Spain evolved into Europes foremost power with the voyages of Christopher Columbus leading to Spain acquiring vast lands in the Americas. During the reign of Charles V and Philip II, Spain reached the peak of its power with the Spanish Empire spanning 19.4 million square km of the earths surface, a total of 13%. By the mid 17th century this power had weakened by the Thirty Years War along with financial problems. Thanks to these reforms, Spain performed well in the French Revolutionary Wars, the war of Jenkins Ear, the war of Austrian Succession and several other engagements. Following the war, the Spanish military was in condition and political instability resulted in the loss of most of Spains former colonies, except Cuba, Puerto Rico. These too would be lost later in the Spanish–American War, the Spanish armed forces are a professional force with a strength in 2012 of 123,300 active personnel and 16,400 reserve personnel. The country also has the 80,000 strong Civil Guard which comes under the control of the Ministry of Defence in times of a national emergency, the Spanish defence budget is 5.71 billion euros a 1% increase for 2015. The increase comes because of security concerns in the country, the Spanish army consists of 15 active brigades and 6 military regions. Modern infantry have diverse capabilities and this is reflected in the roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil, air assault, armoured infantry, mechanised infantry, the Spanish army has the latest technology at its disposal to preserve the territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Spain. The current flagship of the Spanish Navy is the assault ship Juan Carlos 1 which is also used as an aircraft carrier. In addition, the fleet consists of,2 amphibious transport docks,11 frigates,3 submarines,6 mine countermeasure vessels,23 patrol vessels, the total displacement of the Spanish Navy is approximately 220,000 tonnes. As of 2012, the Armada has a strength of 20,800 personnel, the Infanteria de Marina are the marine infantry of the Spanish Navy, the oldest in the world. It has a strength of 5,000 troops divided into base defense forces, one of the three base defense battalions is stationed with each of the Navy headquartersMilitary of Spain – Tri-service badge
51. Elections in Spain – There are four types of elections in Spain, general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities, local elections and elections to the European Parliament. Elections to local councils and to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates, for most elections party list PR is used, but the plurality system is used for the Senate. General elections are held for the national legislature, which is called in Spain Cortes Generales. The Congress and Senate serve concurrent terms that run for a maximum of four years, the Congress is composed of 350 members directly elected by universal adult suffrage for a four-year term of office. Each one of Spains fifty provinces is a constituency entitled to a minimum of two seats, the cities of Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each. The remaining 248 seats are allocated among the fifty provinces in proportion to their populations, parties, federations, coalitions and agrupaciones de electores may present candidates or lists of candidates. The lists are closed, so electors may not choose individual candidates in or alter the order of such lists, electors cast a ballot for a single list, or for a single candidate in Ceuta and Melilla. The seats in each constituency are apportioned according to the largest average method of proportional representation, however, in order to participate in the allocation of seats, a list must receive at least three percent of all valid votes cast in the constituency, including blank ballots. The single-member seats in Ceuta and Melilla are filled by the plurality or first-past-the-post method, at the time, Zaragoza province had seven seats in Congress, while both Huesca and Teruel had three. As indicated, the PSOE won three seats, the PP two, the PAR one and IU one. Meanwhile, the results of the election in Huesca province were as follows, The effective representation threshold in Huesca was 25,360 votes, or 19. 0% of the valid vote. Finally, the outcome of the election in Teruel was the following, The effective representation threshold in Teruel was 18,163 votes, or 20. 2% of the valid vote. The number of required to attain a seat in Zaragoza province - the largest of three constituencies - was substantially higher than the amount required to that end in Huesca or in Teruel. The proportional allocation of seats in each constituency appeared to favor the major parties in general, the system for electing the Senate was first used in 1979, though with regard to the provinces the system is unchanged since 1977. Senators are elected directly from the provinces and indirectly from the communities, currently. In the provinces, a partial block voting system is used. All peninsular provinces elect four senators each, the insular provinces elect one or three senators per island, and Ceuta and Melilla elect two senators each. Parties nominate three candidates, each voter has three votes and votes for candidates by name, the instance of personal voting in Spanish national electionsElections in Spain – Kingdom of Spain
52. Politics of Spain – The politics of Spain takes place under the framework established by the Constitution of 1978. Spain is established as a social and democratic state, wherein the national sovereignty is vested in the people, legislative power is vested in the Cortes Generales, a bicameral parliament constituted by the Congress of Deputies and the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, administering justice on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates. Spains political system is a multi-party system, but since the 1990s, since the Spanish transition to democracy, there have not been coalition governments, when a party has failed to obtain absolute majority, minority governments have been formed. Exercising the right to self-government granted by the constitution, the nationalities and regions have been constituted as 17 autonomous communities and his title is King of Spain, although he can use all other titles of the Crown. The Crown, as a symbol of the unity, has a two-fold function. First, it represents the unity of the State in the separation of powers, hence he appoints the prime ministers and summons and dissolves the Parliament. Secondly, it represents the Spanish State as a whole in relation to the autonomous communities, all ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives are accredited by him, and foreign representatives in Spain are accredited to him. He also expresses the States assent to entering into international commitments through treaties, in practical terms, his duties are mostly ceremonial, and constitutional provisions are worded in such a way as to make clear the strict neutral and apolitical nature of his role. The king is the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces, but has only symbolic, rather than actual, the Spanish Constitution, promulgated in 1978, established explicitly that Juan Carlos I is the legitimate heir of the historical dynasty. First, it established that the position of the King emanates from the constitution, Juan Carlos I was constitutional king of Spain from 1978 to 2014. He abdicated in favor of his son Felipe VI, finally, if all possible rightful orders of primogeniture and representation have been exhausted, then the General Courts will select a successor in the way that best suits the interest of Spain. The heir presumptive or heir apparent holds the title of Prince or Princess of Asturias, the current heir presumptive is princess Leonor de Borbón. Legislative power is vested in the Spanish Parliament, the Cortes Generales, the Cortes Generales are the supreme representatives of the Spanish people. This legislature is bicameral, integrated by the Congress of Deputies, the General Courts exercise the legislative power of the State, approving the budget and controlling the actions of the government. As in most parliamentary systems, more power is vested in the lower chamber. The Speaker of Congress, known as president of the Congress of Deputies presides a joint-session of the Cortes Generales. Each chamber of the Cortes Generales meets at separate precincts, and carry out their duties separately, except for important functionsPolitics of Spain – King Felipe VI of Spain
53. Prime Minister of Spain – The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978. In practice, the Prime Minister is almost always the leader of the largest party in the Congress, since current constitutional practice in Spain calls for the King to act on the advice of his ministers, the Prime Minister is effectively the countrys chief executive. Mariano Rajoy Brey of the Peoples Party has been the minister since he was sworn in on December 21,2011. The Spanish head of government is known, in Spanish, as the Presidente del Gobierno, in Spain the head of the government is often called simply Presidente, meaning President. Before 1833 the figure was known as Secretario de Estado, a denomination used today for junior ministers, once a general election has been announced by the king, political parties nominate their candidates to stand for the presidency of the government-usually the party leader. Constitutionally, the Prime Minister and the cabinet are responsible to the monarch, on paper, the monarch is free to name anyone he sees fit as his prerogative to form a government. For this reason, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Congress. By political custom established by Juan Carlos I since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, however, there is no legal requirement for this. In theory, the largest party could end up not ruling if rival parties gather into a majority, the monarch is normally able to announce his nominee on the day following a general election. A simple majority confirms the nominee and his program, after the nominee is confirmed, the Speaker of the Congress formally reports to the king of the congressional confirmation. The king then appoints the candidate as the new President of the Government, the kings order of appointment is countersigned by the Speaker. If no overall majority was obtained on the first Vote of the Confidence, then the same nominee and program is resubmitted for a second vote within forty-eight hours. Following the second vote, if confidence by the Congress is still unreached, then the monarch again meets with political leaders and the Speaker, and submits a new nominee for a vote of confidence. If, within two months, no candidate has won the confidence of the Congress then the King dissolves the Cortes, the Kings royal decree is countersigned by the Speaker of the Congress. Once appointed, the President of the Government forms his government whose ministers are appointed and removed by the King on the presidents advice, conversely, nominating the party leader whose party maintains a plurality and who are already familiar with their party manifesto facilitates a smoother nomination process. In the event of coalitions, the leaders would customarily have met beforehand to hammer out a coalition agreement before their meeting with the King. Governments and the Cortes sit for a no longer than four years when the president tenders his resignation to the king and advises the king to dissolve the Cortes. It remains within the prerogative to dissolve the Cortes if, at the conclusion of the four yearsPrime Minister of Spain – Incumbent Mariano Rajoy since 21 December 2011
54. Economy of Spain – Spain has the fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP in the world, and it is also among the largest in the world by purchasing power parity. The country is a member of the European Union, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Spanish economy is the fifth-largest in the European Union, and the fourth-largest in the Eurozone, based on nominal GDP statistics. In 2012, Spain was the twelfth-largest exporter in the world, Spain is listed 23rd in UN Human Development Index and 30th in GDP per capita by the World Bank, thus it is classified as a high income economy and among the countries of very high human development. According to The Economist, Spain has the worlds 10th highest quality of life, Spain has also the biggest life expectancy in Europe. Following the financial crisis of 2007–08, the Spanish economys plunged into recession, compared to the EUs and US. average, the Spanish economy entered recession later, but stayed there for longer. The economic boom of the 2000s was reversed, leaving over a quarter of Spains workforce unemployed by 2012, in aggregated terms, the Spanish GDP contracted by almost 9% during the 2009-2013 period. The economic situation started improving by 2013-2014, the country managed to reverse the record trade deficit which had built up during the boom years attaining a trade surplus in 2013 after three decades of running a trade deficit. The surplus kept strengthening during 2014 and 2015, in 2015 the Spanish GDP grew by 3. 2%, a rate not seen since 2007, before the crisis struck, such growth rate was the highest among larger EU economies that year. Strong GDP growth was registered also in 2016, with the country growing twice as fast as the eurozone average, when Spain joined the EEC in 1986 its GDP per capita was about 72% of the average of its members. Due to its own development and the EU enlargements up to 28 members, by 2007 Spain had achieved a GDP per capita of 105% of EUs average. Three regions were included in the leading EU group exceeding 125% of the GDP per capita average level, Basque Country leading with Madrid and Navarre. According to calculations by the German newspaper Die Welt, Spains economy had been on course to overtake countries like Germany in per capita income by 2011. Unemployment stood at 7. 6% in October 2006, a rate that compared favorably to many other European countries, growth during the 1997-2007 period had been led by a property boom fed by historically low interest rates, massive rates of foreign investment and an immense surge in immigration. At its peak in 2007, construction had expanded to a massive 16% of the gross domestic product of the country. Noticeable progress continued until early 2008, when the financial crisis burst Spains property bubble. A European Commission forecast had predicted Spain would enter the worlds late 2000s recession by the end of 2008, at the time, Spains Economy Minister was quoted saying, Spain is facing its deepest recession in half a century. Spains government forecast the unemployment rate would rise to 16% in 2009, the ESADE business school predicted 20%. By 2013, Spain’s GDP per capita had fallen back to 95% of EUs average, in 2011 the deficit reached a high of 8. 5%Economy of Spain – Cuatro Torres Business Area in Madrid
55. Transport in Spain – Transport in Spain is characterised by an extensive network of roads, railways, rapid transit, air routes, and ports. Its geographic location makes it an important link between Europe, Africa, and the New World, major forms of transit generally radiate from the capital, Madrid, located in the centre of the country, to link with the capitals of the autonomous communities. Spain is currently working to increase and improve linkage with the systems of France and Portugal. Spain possesses a developed highway system, with both tolled and freeways. Air traffic is routed through several international and regional airports, the largest of which is Barajas International Airport in Madrid and it is proposed to build or convert more standard gauge lines, including some dual gauging of broad gauge lines, especially where these lines link to adjacent countries. A high-speed rail line between Madrid and Seville was completed in 1992, in 2003, high-speed service was inaugurated on a new line from Madrid to Lleida and extended to Barcelona in 2008. The same year, lines from Madrid to Valladolid and from Córdoba to Málaga were inaugurated, in 2010, AVE line Madrid-Cuenca-Valencia was inaugurated. Alicante Barcelona (Barcelona Metro/Tram Bilbao Castellon under construction, jaén finished without service due to political reason. Palma Parla Santa Cruz de Tenerife opened in 2007, Seville Valencia Vélez-Málaga Vigo under construction. Andorra – no France – yes/no – break-of-gauge / Portugal – yes, break-of-gauge / In December 2003, Morocco and Spain agreed to explore the construction of an undersea rail tunnel across the Strait of Gibraltar, to connect their rail systems. The AVE is a mean of transport the worlds fastest 300/360 km per h, the name is literally translated from Spanish Alta Velocidad Españolas, but its initials are also a play on the word ave, meaning bird. As of December 2011, the Spanish AVE system is the longest HSR network in Europe with 2,665 km, AVE trains run on a network of dedicated high-speed rail track owned and managed by Adif. The first line was opened in 1992, connecting the cities of Madrid, Córdoba, unlike the rest of the Spanish broad gauge network, the AVE uses standard gauge, permitting direct connections outside Spain. Some TGV-derived trains do run on the network at slower speeds. In this regard, the punctuality of the AVE is exceptional compared to other non-long-distance RENFE services, on other AVE lines, this punctuality promise is more lax. AVE´S PROJECT IN THE FUTURE, Andorra – no France – yes – break-of-gauge / Portugal – yes, break-of-gauge / Total,681,298 km Expressways,16,204 km The first-class motorways in Spain are called autopistas and autovías. There are also many national roads, there are 1,045 km of water ways, but they have minor economic importanceTransport in Spain – Madrid Metro
56. Bolsa de Madrid – Bolsa de Madrid is owned by Bolsas y Mercados Españoles. The reorganisation of Spains financial market under the umbrella of the Spanish Stock Market includes the bolsas, the derivatives markets. Trading is linked through the electronic Spanish Stock Market Interconnection System, the IBEX35 Index is a capitalization-weighted index comprising the 35 most liquid Spanish stocks traded in the continuous market, and is Bolsa de Madrids benchmark. Bolsa de Madrid also offers the FTSE-Latibex Index, a European market for Latin American stocks, the Ibex New Market Index, for emerging companies, was offered from 2000 to 2007. Trading on SIBE is conducted from 9 a. m. to 5,30 p. m. open outcry from 10a. m. to 11,30 a. m. both Monday through Friday The Bolsa de Madrid was officially founded in 1831. In 1993, the Bolsa de Madrid switched to all-electronic trading for fixed-income securities. As required by Spanish law, it is managed and operated by the Sociedad Rectora de la Bolsa de Valores de Madrid S. A. a corporation organized under the laws of the Kingdom of Spain. The membership of the Madrid Stock Exchange consists of 41 major financial institutions and 12 established securities dealers, at December 31,2001, approximately 1477 domestic and foreign companies had their equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange. The total market capitalization of the equity securities listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange in May,2007 was €1,276.26 billion and it is housed in a historic nineteenth-century building, the Palacio de la Bolsa de Madrid. Madrid Stock Exchange General Index Official websiteBolsa de Madrid – Madrid Stock Exchange Bolsa de Madrid
57. Culture of Spain – In the areas of language and religion, the Ancient Romans left a lasting legacy. The subsequent course of Spanish history added other elements to the countrys culture, the Visigothic Kingdom left a sense of a united Christian Hispania that was going to be welded in the Reconquista. Muslim influences were strong during the Middle Ages, another influence was the minority Jewish population in some cities. After the defeat of the Muslims during the Christian Reconquista period between 718 and 1492, Spain became an almost entirely Roman Catholic country. By the end of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Spaniards made expressions of cultural diversity easier than it had been for the last seven centuries and this occurred at the same period that Spain became increasingly drawn into a diverse international culture. Spain has the third highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, after Italy and China, the term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed by Spanish and Latin American writers. It may include Spanish poetry, prose, and novels, Spanish literature is the name given to the literary works written in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish authors worldwide. Due to historic, geographic, and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a number of influences and is very diverse. Some major movements can be identified within it, highlights include the Cantar de Mio Cid, the oldest preserved Spanish cantar de gesta. It is written in medieval Spanish, the ancestor of modern Spanish, la Celestina is a book published anonymously by Fernando de Rojas in 1499. This book is considered to be one of the greatest in Spanish literature, and traditionally marks the end of medieval literature, in these novels, the adventures of the pícaro expose injustice while simultaneously amusing the reader. As a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears at or near the top of lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published. However, Spains best known artist since the 20th century has been Pablo Picasso, who is known for his sculptures, drawings, graphics. Other leading artists include Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris, Joan Miró, during the Prehistoric period, the megalithic Iberian and Celtic architectures developed. Through the Roman period, both development and construction projects flourished. In the 19th century eclecticism and regionalism, the Neo-Mudéjar style, in the 20th century, the Catalan Modernisme, modernist architecture, and contemporary architecture germinated. The art of motion picture making within the nation of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish cinema, in recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition as a result of its creative and technical excellence. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980sCulture of Spain – Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea, also called " La Celestina "
58. Bullfighting – Bullfighting is a physical contest that generally involves humans attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations. Although people commonly think of Spanish-style bullfighting as representative of bullfighting, there are different forms. Some forms involve dancing around or over a cow or bull, Bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of many countries including Spain, Portugal, parts of southern France, India and Tanzania, and some Latin American countries. In some locations, a breed of cattle, the Spanish Fighting Bull, is used for bullfighting. These bulls must be bred in large ranches, and in conditions as similar as possible to the way they would behave in the wild, there are many historic fighting venues in the Iberian Peninsula, France and Latin America. Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice in Mesopotamia, the first recorded bullfight may be the Epic of Gilgamesh, which describes a scene in which Gilgamesh and Enkidu fought and killed the Bull of Heaven. Bull leaping was portrayed in Crete, and myths related to bulls throughout Greece, the killing of the sacred bull is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, which was commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what seems to be a man facing a bull is on the Celtiberian tombstone from Clunia, Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held as competition and entertainment, the Venationes. These hunting games spread to Africa, Europe and Asia during Roman times, there are also theories that it was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius, as a substitute for gladiators, when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial combat. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves Spanish colonists took the practice of breeding cattle and bullfighting to the American colonies, in the 19th century, areas of southern and southwestern France adopted bullfighting, developing their own distinctive form. Religious festivities and royal weddings were celebrated by fights in the plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor. In the Middle Ages across Europe, knights would joust in competitions on horseback, in Spain, they began to fight bulls. In medieval Spain bullfighting was considered a sport and reserved to the rich. The bull was released into an arena where a single fighter on horseback was armed with a lance. This spectacle was said to be enjoyed by Charlemagne, Alfonso X the Wise, the greatest Spanish performer of this art is said to have been El Cid knight. According chronicle of the time, in 1128, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile married Berengaria of Barcelona daughter of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona at Saldaña among other celebrations, there were also bullfights. This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds, thus the modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were replaced by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the construction of dedicated bullrings, initially square, like the Plaza de Armas, the modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte, generally considered the greatest matador of all timeBullfighting – Bullwrestling, Édouard Manet, 1865–1866
59. Cinema of Spain – The art of motion-picture making within the Kingdom of Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish Cinema. In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition, in the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s. I hope that Europeans will continue to lead the way in film making because at the moment not much is coming from the United States, only a small portion of box office sales in Spain are generated by domestic films. All of these films were produced by Spanish firms, the first Spanish film exhibition took place on May 5,1895, in Barcelona. Exhibitions of Lumière films were screened in Madrid and Barcelona in May and December of 1896, the matter of which Spanish film came first is in doubt. It is also possible that the first film was Riña en un café by the prolific filmmaker Fructuós Gelabert and these films were all released in 1897. In 1914, Barcelona was the center of the film industry. The españoladas predominated until the 1960s, prominent among these were the films of Florián Rey, starring Imperio Argentina, and the first version of Nobleza Baturra. Even the Nobel Prize-winning playwright Jacinto Benavente, who said that in film they pay me the scraps, in 1928, Ernesto Giménez Caballero and Luis Buñuel founded the first cine-club, in Madrid. By that point, Madrid was already the center of the industry,44 of the 58 films released up until that point had been produced there. The rural drama La aldea maldita was a hit in Paris, Un chien andalou has become one of the most well-known avant-garde films of that era. By 1931, the introduction of foreign productions had hurt the Spanish film industry to the point where only a single title was released that year. In 1935, Manuel Casanova founded the Compañía Industrial Film Española S. A. CIFESA would grow to become the biggest production company to ever exist in Spain. Sometimes criticized as an instrument of the wing, it nevertheless supported young filmmakers such as Luis Buñuel and his pseudo-documentary Las Hurdes. In 1933 it was responsible for filming 17 motion pictures and in 1934,21, by 1935 production had risen to 37 films. The Civil War devastated the silent film era, only 10% of all silent films made before 1936 survived the war, films were also destroyed for their celluloid content and made into goods. Around 1936, both sides of the Civil War began to use cinema as a means of propaganda and censorship, a typical example of this is Luis Buñuels España 1936, which also contains much rare newsreel footage. The pro-Franco side founded the National Department of Cinematography, causing many actors to go into exileCinema of Spain – Cine Capitol, Gran Vía, Madrid
60. Spanish cuisine – Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories. Geography and climate, had influence on cooking methods and available ingredients. Spanish cuisine derives from a history, where invasions of the country and conquests of new territories modified traditions. Authors such as Strabo, however, write about aboriginal people using nuts, the Romans introduced the custom of collecting and eating mushrooms, which is still preserved in many parts of Spain, especially in the north. The Romans along with the Greeks introduced viticulture, it appears that the extension of the vine along the Mediterranean seems to be due to colonization of the Greeks. The change came in 711 AD, when Muslim troops composed of Arabs and Berbers crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, invading the Iberian Peninsula. The discovery of America, in 1492, initiated the advent of new elements, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, corn, bell peppers, spicy peppers, paprika, vanilla. The latter caused a furor in the Spanish society in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, other ingredients traveled to the Americas, such as rice, grapes, olives and many types of cereals. A continental-style breakfast may be taken just after waking up, or before entering the workplace, due to the large time span between breakfast and lunch, it is not uncommon to halt the working schedule to take a mid-morning snack. Lunch, the midday meal in Spain, contains several courses. It usually starts between 2,00 pm or 2,30 pm finishing around 3,00 pm to 3,30 pm, and is followed by Sobremesa. Menus are organized according to these courses and include five or six choices in each course. At home, Spanish meals wouldnt be too fancy, and would contain soup or a dish, salad, a meat or a fish dish. Green salad with the meat or fish courses, in some regions of Spain, the word almuerzo refers to the mid-morning snack, instead of lunch. La cena, meaning both dinner or supper, is taken between 8, 30pm and 10pm and it is lighter than lunch, consisting of one course and dessert. Due to the time span between lunch and dinner, an afternoon snack, la merienda, equivalent to afternoon tea. Appetizers before lunch or dinner are common in the form of tapas, in the last years, the Spanish government is starting to take action to shorten the lunch break, in order to end the working day earlier. Most businesses shut down for two or three hours for lunch, then resume the working day until dinner time in the evening, the following is a list of traditional Spanish meals, Andalusian cuisine is twofold, rural and coastalSpanish cuisine – Jamón Ibérico. In 2007 and 2010, "Bellota de Oro" was chosen as "Best ham in the world" in IFFA Delicat
61. Music of Spain – The music of Spain has a long history and has played an important role in the development of Western music and has greatly influenced Latin American music. Spanish music is associated with traditional styles such as flamenco. While these forms of music are common, there are many different traditional musical, for example, music from the north-west regions is heavily reliant on bagpipes, the jota is widespread in the centre and north of the country, and flamenco originated in the south. Spanish music played a part in the early developments of western classical music. The Iberian peninsula has had a history of receiving different musical influences from around the Mediterranean Sea, hence, there have been more than two thousand years of internal and external influences and developments that have produced a large number of unique musical traditions. Isidore of Seville wrote about the music in the 6th century. His influences were predominantly Greek, and yet he was an original thinker, as the Christian reconquista progressed, these chants were almost entirely replaced by the Gregorian standard, once Rome had regained control of the Iberian churches. In the royal Christian courts of the reconquistors, music like the Cantigas de Santa Maria, other important medieval sources include the Codex Calixtinus collection from Santiago de Compostela and the Codex Las Huelgas from Burgos. The so-called Llibre Vermell de Montserrat is an important devotional collection from the 14th century, in the early Renaissance, Mateo Flecha el Viejo and the Castilian dramatist Juan del Encina ranked among the main composers in the post-Ars Nova period. Renaissance song books included the Cancionero de Palacio, the Cancionero de Medinaceli, the Cancionero de Upsala, the Cancionero de la Colombina, the organist Antonio de Cabezón stands out for his keyboard compositions and mastery. An early 16th-century polyphonic vocal style developed in Spain was closely related to that of the Franco-Flemish composers, Music composed for the vihuela by Luis de Milán, Alonso Mudarra and Luis de Narváez was one of the main achievements of the period. The Aragonese Gaspar Sanz authored the first learning method for guitar, Spanish composers of the Renaissance included Francisco Guerrero, Cristóbal de Morales, and Tomás Luis de Victoria, all of whom spent a significant portion of their careers in Rome. The latter was said to have reached a level of perfection and expressive intensity equal or even superior to Palestrina. Most Spanish composers returned home from travels abroad late in their careers to spread their knowledge in their native land. By the end of the 17th century the musical culture of Spain was in decline. Classicism in Spain, when it arrived, was inspired by Italian models, some outstanding Italian composers such as Domenico Scarlatti and Luigi Boccherini were appointed to the Madrid royal court. The short-lived Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga is credited as the beginner of Romantic sinfonism in Spain. Although symphonic music was never too important in Spain, chamber, solo instrumental vocal, zarzuela, a native form of opera that includes spoken dialogue, is a secular musical genre which developed in the mid-17th century, flourishing most importantly in the century after 1850Music of Spain – The modern classical guitar and its baroque predecessor originated in Spain
62. RTVE – RTVE is the largest audiovisual group in Spain broadcasting in the Spanish language. Since January 2010 it is financed exclusively by public subsidies, in the exercise of its public service function, among the obligations of the RTVE Corporation are, Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and civic values. Guarantee the objectivity and truthfulness of the information provided, while ensuring that a range of views is presented. Facilitate democratic debate and the expression of opinion. Promote the territorial cohesion and linguistic and cultural diversity of Spain, to serve the widest audience, ensuring maximum continuity and geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality, diversity, innovation, and high ethical standards. RTVE throughout its history has undergone numerous restructurings and reorganisations, and has assumed numerous identities, the history of RTVE begins in 1937 with the first broadcasts by Radio Nacional de España from the city of Salamanca. In these early years, RNE served as a tool for the Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War. Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time RTVE became an autonomous organization, in 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old radio service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, by statute, as a public entity with its own jurisdiction. The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981, since then, the NO-DO archives are property of RTVE and its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacionals. In 1989, RCE was dismantled and its service was merged into RNE. This change in the law put Corporación RTVE in control of Spains public radio, in 2012 the PP began staffing RTVE with party veterans. Considerable controversy was caused when Ana Pastor was fired, on 11 June 2013, RTVE was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticize the closure of Greeces state broadcaster ERT. Pursuant to the 2006 Law of State Radio and television, management of the public service is entrusted to Corporación RTVE. The Administrative Council of the RTVE is the body of RTVE, and appoints the executive officers of RTVE and its companies, approves its organization. The President has operational control of operations, in order to execute the decisions. The President is appointed by, and may be dismissed by, before the 2006 Act, this position was filled by the role of the Director General, which had a de facto total control of RTVE. In practice, the Director General had been chosen by the Government for their political profile, the News Council is an internal supervisory body composed of RTVE journalists with the aim of safeguarding RTVEs independenceRTVE – RNE's headquarters, Casa de la Radio (Radio's house) in Pozuelo (Madrid).
63. Football in Spain – Association football is the most popular sport in Spain, and is a widespread passion among the people of Spain. In a survey of sports habits of the Spanish population made in 2010, a total of 75. 9% of people said they had ever bought tickets to attend a football match. In addition, a total of 67. 3% of the said that they saw all, almost all, many. In another survey made in 2014, the practice of football decreased to 14% of the population, being overtaken by other sports, however, in this survey football was still the sport that interests the majority of Spain’s people. A total of 67% of the said they were fans or had sympathy for a particular club. In addition,74. 9% said they watched, whenever possible, the matches broadcast on television regarding their favorite teams, a relationship between football, politics, identity and attitudes towards regionalism in Spain has also been reported. The Royal Spanish Football Federation is the governing body. The Liga de Fútbol Profesional, integrated by a total of 42 football clubs, forms part of the Royal Spanish Football Federation but has autonomy in its organisation and it is responsible for the organisation of state football leagues, in coordination with RFEF. The Spanish national football team have won the FIFA World Cup once, and has also been successful in the UEFA European Championship, the mens national teams of Spain, in all categories, have won a total of 26 titles in FIFA, UEFA, and Olympic tournaments. The First Division of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional, commonly known in the English-speaking world as La Liga, is one of the strongest football league in Europe, at club level, the Spanish football clubs have won a total of 66 international tournaments. The characteristic football style of play developed by FC Barcelona, professional football in Spain is a sociocultural event that make a significant contribution to the Spanish economy in terms of both demand and supply. In economic terms, during 2013 professional football generated more than €7.6 billion including direct, indirect and induced effects, representing 0. 75% of Spanish GPD. Moreover, as a result of crisis in the last years. In addition, the European Union authorities have warned to Spanish authorities in order to halt funding of debt-ridden clubs. Spain national futsal team is one of the strongest teams in the world, being six times champion in the UEFA Futsal Championship, and two times champion in the FIFA Futsal World Championship. Modern football was introduced to Spain in the late 19th century by a combination of mostly British immigrant workers, visiting sailors, the oldest football clubs in Spain are Recreativo de Huelva and Sevilla FC. Although Gimnàstic de Tarragona was formed in 1886, the club did not form a football team until 1914. The first official game played in Spain took place in Seville on 8 March 1890 at the Tablada HippodromeFootball in Spain – Santiago Bernabeu, Real Madrid’s Stadium.
64. Spanish wine – Spanish wines are wines produced in Spain. This is due, in part, to the low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry. The country is ninth in worldwide consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average,21.6 litres per person a year, the abundance of native grape varieties fostered an early start to viticulture with evidence of grape pips dating back to the Tertiary period. Following the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians introduced new advances to the region-including the teachings of the early viticulturist Mago, carthage would wage a series of wars with the emerging Roman Republic that would lead to the Roman conquest of the Spanish mainland, known as Hispania. Under Roman rule, Spanish wine was exported and traded throughout the Roman empire. The two largest wine producing regions at the time were Terraconensis in the north and Baetica in the south. During this period more Spanish wine was exported into Gaul than Italian wine, with amphorae being found in ruins of Roman settlements in Normandy, Spanish wine was also provided to Roman soldiers guarding border settlements in Britain and the Limes Germanicus in Germania. Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain was invaded by various barbaric tribes-including the Suebi, while the Moors were Muslim and subjected to Islamic dietary laws that forbid the use of alcohol, the Moorish rulers held an ambiguous stance on wine and winemaking during their rule. Several caliphs and emirs owned vineyards and drank wine, while there were laws written that outlawed the sale of wine, it was included on lists of items that were subject to taxation in Moorish territories. The Spanish Reconquista reopened the possibility of exporting Spanish wine, bilbao emerged as a large trading port, introducing Spanish wines to the English wine markets in Bristol, London and Southampton. The quality of some of these exported Spanish wines appears to have been high, following the completion of the Spanish Reconquista in 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World under the sponsorship of the Spanish crown. This opened up a new market as well as new opportunity for wine production. Spanish missionaries and conquistadors brought European grape vines with them as they colonized the new lands, English merchants from the Sherry producing regions of Jerez and Sanlúcar de Barrameda as well as Málaga fled the area due to the fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition. The defeat of the Spanish Armada by Elizabeth I of England greatly reduced the strength of the Spanish navy, Spain became more dependent on the income from its Spanish colonies, including the exportation of Spanish wine to the Americas. In some countries, like Chile, these orders were largely ignored, a major turning point occurred in the mid 19th century when the phylloxera epidemic ravaged European vineyards-most notably those of France. One of these developments was the introduction of the 59 gallon oak barrica, phylloxera eventually reached Spain, devastating regions like Malaga in 1878 and reaching Rioja in 1901. Its slow progress was due in part to the tracts of land, including the Meseta Central. By the time the Spanish wine industry felt the force of phylloxeraSpanish wine – Spanish wines emphasize their flavour for the sake of tasting.
65. Spanish people – Within Spain there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the countrys complex history and diverse culture. There are several commonly spoken languages, most notably Basque. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain, the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of languages, with the exception of Basque. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads, in the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was also conquered. In parallel, a wave of emigration began to the Americas began with over 16 million people emigrating to the Americas during the colonial period. In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, as a result, Spanish-descendants in Latin America number in the hundreds of millions. Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people, the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is became increasingly diverse due to recent immigration, the earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35, 000–40,000 years ago. In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, initially settling along the Mediterranean coast, celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a known as the Tartessians and later Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries, the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought mainly in what is now Spain and Portugal. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces, hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian, Seneca and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, the Suebi became the first Germanic kingdom to convert officially to Roman Catholicism in 447 AD. under king Rechiar. After two centuries of domination by the Visigothic Kingdom, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711 and this army consisted mainly ethnic Berbers from the Ghomara tribe, which were reinforced by Arabs from Syria once the conquest was complete. Muslim Iberia became part of the Umayyad Caliphate and would be known as Al-Andalus, the Berbers of Al Andalus revolted as early as 740 AD, halting Arab expansion across the Pyrenees into FranceSpanish people – Lady of Elche, a piece of Iberian sculpture from the 4th century BC