1. Male – A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a female gamete, or ovum. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system, in most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity, the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. There is an argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced, male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals, male gametes are produced by chytrids, diatoms and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures, as of the year 2012, the United Arab Emirates has the highest ratio of human males in the world, followed by Qatar. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751. The symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars shield. According to Stearn, however, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organisms life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are male or female, hermaphroditic animals. Most mammals, including humans, are determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, a Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X sperm and an X egg produce a female. The part of the Y-chromosome which is responsible for maleness is the region of the Y-chromosome. The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organismsMale – The symbol of the Roman god Mars (god of war) is often used to represent the male sex. It also stands for the planet Mars and is the alchemical symbol for iron.
2. Female – Female is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova. Most female mammals, including humans, have two X chromosomes. The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, a female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male. Some organisms can reproduce sexually and asexually. There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species, oogamy is a form of anisogamy. There is an argument that this pattern was driven by the constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Other than the difference in the type of gamete produced. The concept is not limited to animals, egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, the word female comes from the Latin femella, the diminutive form of femina, meaning woman. It is not etymologically related to the male, but in the late 14th century the spelling was altered in English to parallel the spelling of male. A distinguishing characteristic of the class Mammalia is the presence of mammary glands, the mammary glands are modified sweat glands that produce milk, which is used to feed the young for some time after birth. Mammary glands are most obvious in humans, as the human body stores large amounts of fatty tissue near the nipples. Mammary glands are present in all mammals, although they are vestigial in the male of the species, most mammalian females have two copies of the X chromosome as opposed to the male which carries only one X and one smaller Y chromosome. To compensate for the difference in size, one of the females X chromosomes is inactivated in each cell of placental mammals while the paternally derived X is inactivated in marsupials. In birds and some reptiles, by contrast, it is the female which is heterozygous and carries a Z and a W chromosome whilst the male carries two Z chromosomes. Intersex conditions can give rise to other combinations, such as XO or XXX in mammals. However, these conditions result in sterility. A common symbol used to represent the female sex is ♀, according to Schott, the most established view is that the male and female symbols are derived from contractions in Greek script of the Greek names of these planets, namely Thouros and PhosphorosFemale – The symbol of the Roman goddess Venus (goddess of love) is often used to represent the female sex and is the alchemical symbol for copper.
3. Vanessa Redgrave – Vanessa Redgrave, CBE is an English actress of stage, screen and television, as well as a political activist. She is a 2003 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee, and she also received Tony nominations for The Year of Magical Thinking and Driving Miss Daisy. On screen, she has starred in scores of films and is a six-time Oscar nominee and her other nominations were for Morgan, A Suitable Case for Treatment, Isadora, Mary, Queen of Scots, The Bostonians and Howards End. Among her other films are A Man for All Seasons, Blowup, Camelot, The Devils, Murder on the Orient Express, Prick Up Your Ears, Mission, Impossible, Atonement, Coriolanus and The Butler. Redgrave was born in Greenwich, London, the daughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave, laurence Olivier announced her birth to the audience at a performance of Hamlet at the Old Vic, when he said that Laertes had a daughter. She was educated at the Alice Ottley School, Worcester, and Queens Gate School, London and her siblings, Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, were also acclaimed actors. Vanessa Redgrave entered the Central School of Speech and Drama in 1954 and she first appeared in the West End, playing opposite her brother, in 1958. In 1960, Redgrave had her first starring role in Robert Bolts The Tiger, in 1961, she played Rosalind in As You Like It for the Royal Shakespeare Company. In 1962, she played Imogen in William Gaskills production of Cymbeline for the RSC. In 1966, Redgrave created the role of Jean Brodie in the Donald Albery production of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and she won four Evening Standard Awards for Best Actress in four decades. In 2003 she won a Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her performance in the Broadway revival of Eugene ONeills Long Days Journey Into Night. In January 2006, Redgrave was presented the Ibsen Centennial Award for her work in interpreting many of Henrik Ibsens works over the last decades. Previous recipients of the award include Liv Ullmann, Glenda Jackson, for this, she won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding One-Person Show and was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play. She reprised the role at the Lyttelton Theatre at the Royal National Theatre in London to mixed reviews and she also spent a week performing the work at the Theatre Royal in Bath in September 2008. She once again performed the role of Joan Didion for a benefit at New Yorks Cathedral of Saint John the Divine on 26 October 2009. The performance was originally slated to debut on 27 April, but was pushed due to the death of Redgraves daughter Natasha, the proceeds for the benefit were donated to the United Nations Childrens Fund and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency. Both charities work to help for the children of Gaza. In October 2010, she starred in the Broadway premiere of Driving Miss Daisy starring in the role opposite James Earl JonesVanessa Redgrave – Redgrave at the Berlin International Film Festival, 2011
4. Biopic – A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a person and the central characters real name is used. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island, Custen, in Bio/Pics, How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, and in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Binghams 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway, ellen Cheshires Bio-Pics, a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s. Each chapter reviews key films linked by profession and concludes with further viewing list, christopher Robé has also written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, Taking Hollywood Back in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal. The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable, some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris widely debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, Kafka incorporated both the life of author Franz Kafka and the surreal aspects of his fiction. The Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is highly romanticized, casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is often a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person, anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, also, some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American. Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical filmsBiopic – Chapaev
5. Second Serve – Second Serve is an American biopic of eye surgeon, professional tennis player and male-to-female transgender woman Renée Richards. The made-for-television film is based on her 1983 autobiography Second Serve, the script is by Stephanie Liss and Gavin Lambert and the film was directed by Anthony Page. Second Serve aired on CBS on May 13,1986, in 1976, Renée Richards is on the tennis court as a professional tennis player. The film flashes back to 1964, when Renée Richards is an eye surgeon named Richard Radley, Radley has a successful career and a fiancée, but secretly cross-dresses at night. Unable to speak with his mother Sadie, who is a psychiatrist, Radley consults his own psychiatrist, Dr. Beck and this strategy works temporarily until Radley is drafted into the Navy, which does not allow beards. Following his discharge and a marriage, Radley undergoes gender reassignment surgery. Renée relocates to California, resumes her career as a surgeon, after playing in a local tennis tournament in La Jolla, Renée is outed as transgender by a television reporter. Although noting that from a physical standpoint Redgrave is not very believable, while finding the script wanting for its tendency to reduce complexities to cliches, OConnor also found that Second Serve does manage, despite oversimplifications and evasions, to stick to the point. But it is the extraordinary Redgrave performance that slams the message home, new York magazine concurred in this assessment, with reviewer John Leonard calling the film calm and matter-of-fact, and perhaps too tidy. Leonard lavished Redgrave with praise for her performance, writing, Redgrave, tall and vulnerable, athletic and bewildered, fearful and loving competitive and lonely, manages to transsex both ways. She embodies, with the bones of that face and the twitching of her various limbs. Second Serve was not universally praised by critics, receiving negative reviews from such outlets as the Chicago Sun-Times, Redgrave was nominated for an Emmy Award and a Golden Globe for her performance and Second Serve won Emmys for hairstyling and makeup. Second Serve at the Internet Movie DatabaseSecond Serve – Vanessa Redgrave as Renée Richards
6. Heian period – The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism, the Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan. Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family, the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 A. D. after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu. Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, a rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable. The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, therefore the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that later generations have always admired. The period is noted for the rise of the samurai class. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara and other noble families required guards, police, the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. Still, a military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away. The entry of the class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency and their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors, Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces. The early Heian period continued Nara culture, the Heian capital was patterned on the Chinese Tang capital at Changan, as was Nara, Kanmu endeavoured to improve the Tang-style administrative system which was in use. Known as the ritsuryō, this attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan. Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period, Kanmus avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, and he became recognized as one of Japans most forceful emperorsHeian period – Kyōto, "Capital of 1000 Years".
7. Torikaebaya Monogatari – Torikaebaya Monogatari, translated into English as The Changelings, is a Japanese tale from the late Heian period by an unknown author, or possibly more than one author. It is four volumes in length and it is the tale of two siblings whose mannerisms are those of the opposite sex, and their relationships in the Emperors court. It has been adapted as a novel, two different manga series, and a Takarazuka Revue play and it was translated into English in 1983. The story tells of a Sadaijin who has two similar-looking children by different mothers, a boy called Wakagimi and a girl called Himegimi, the title, Torikaebaya, literally means If only I could exchange them. The Sadaijin plans to have them join religious orders, but the news of the talents of the son spreads to the court. The children go through the coming of age ceremonies for the sex, and the Sadaijin presents his daughter as a man to the court. The man disguised as a woman, now known as the rank of Naishi no Kami, becomes the sheltered princesss confidante, whereas the woman disguised as a man becomes a Chūnagon. The siblings are worried that they will be exposed, and so Naishi no Kami is even shyer than most ladies of the court, despite this, the Chūnagon has platonic affairs with the elder Yoshino princess and the Lady of the Reikeiden. Naishi no Kami is pursued by men — the Crown Prince falls in love with Naishi no Kami based on her reputation, the Chūnagons best friend, Saishō Chūjō, attempts to seduce Naishi no Kami for a period of two nights and a day. The daughter marries a woman, Shi no Kimi, Saishō attempts to educate the Chūnagons wife that couples do more than hold hands and sleep next to each other all night. Naishi no Kami similarly avoids the pursuit of the Crown Prince, Saishō has an affair with Shi no Kimi, and then turns his attention to the Chūnagon, discovering in a grappling match the Chūnagons true sex. He then begins to court the Chūnagon in the usual manner, the Chūnagon becomes pregnant and hides herself away from the court. Naishi no Kami has sex with the princess, and she becomes pregnant, Naishi no Kami dresses as a man and searches for the Chūnagon, and after the Chūnagon gives birth, the siblings swap places. Because of the conversion to Buddhism, as the siblings resolve to swap roles and dress in the clothes of their physical sex. The former Naishi no Kami marries the princess, the elder Yoshino princess. He attains the rank of Sadaijin, the Crown Prince, now Emperor, has sex with the former Chūnagon, and is dismayed to find she is not a virgin, but marries her anyway. A Note on Heian names, The characters do not possess the equivalent of birth names, instead they are assigned sobriquets from the particular court positions they or their fathers occupy, or from the name of their residence. The Sadaijin, Father of Himegimi and Wakagimi, uncle of Shi no Kimi, Himegimi, Daughter of the Sadaijin, known for most of the story as the Chūnagon, later, she marries the Emperor and becomes EmpressTorikaebaya Monogatari – First page of Torikaebaya Monogatari, in an Edo period book.
8. Susan Stanton – Susan Ashley Stanton was the city manager of Largo, Florida, until her job termination. She was city manager of Lake Worth, Florida from 2009 until her termination in December 2011 and she grew up in the Catskill Mountains in New York. Stanton was married to Donna Becker and they have a son named Travis. Susan Ashley Stanton grew up in the Catskill Mountains of New York and her public school years were relatively uneventful. She later recalled being rejected as a drummer in the sixth grade band and, in ninth grade, in high school she worked cleaning offices at night for 30 hours a week, and she was a typist for the yearbook, her only extracurricular activity. Stanton earned a degree in political science and a masters degree in public administration from the University of Florida in Gainesville. The Alcan plant became the largest used aluminum can recycling facility in the world, Stanton received an honorary award from Kentucky governor Wallace Wilkinson, who named Stanton a Kentucky Colonel. Stanton was hired away from Berea to become assistant city manager in Largo, at that point Stanton became interim city manager, and was formally hired as acting city manager in May 1993. City commissioners cited their confidence in Stanton, as well as the time and cost of recruiting a replacement for Bonczek, City Clerk Henry Schubert was reassigned at the same time to the post of assistant city manager. Both assignments were open-ended, with the commission delaying its decision on a permanent city manager later that year. Stantons posting was permanent in September 1993, with an 18-month contract. In total, Stanton has a career spanning 17 years with the City of Largo, in September 2006, she was given an $11,000 annual pay raise, bringing her annual salary to over $140,000. She managed a budget and about 1,200 employees. After her termination from the City of Largo, Stanton had her name changed to Susan Ashley Stanton. Stanton decided to continue her professional career in public policy. Stanton appeared in public for the first time as a woman on May 9,2007, Stanton lobbied Congress on behalf of laws to protect gay and transgender people from employment discrimination. Stanton testified before Congress, appeared on TV with Larry King and Montel Williams, Susan applied for more than 100 positions in city management, but had interviewed in less than half a dozen cities. Atlantas Gay Pride Parade asked Stanton to be grand marshal, a Chicago transgender convention invited her to speakSusan Stanton – Susan Ashley Stanton
9. Largo, Florida – Largo is the third largest city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States, and is part of the Tampa Bay Area. As of the 2014 Census estimate, the city had a population of 84,500, Largo was first incorporated in 1905. In 1913, it became the first municipality in Pinellas County to adopt a council-manager government and it switched back and forth from town to city a few times, and became a city again in 1974. It was an exporter of products until the 1960s when the influx of people began to transform it into a bedroom community. From 1905 to 2010, Largo grew in area from 9/16ths of a mile to about 19 square miles. Largo began as a farming community and became the third largest city in Floridas most densely populated county. Largo is a city to Tosayamada, Kochi, Japan. In 2007, Largo had been named a National Arbor Day Tree City for the year in a row. The original inhabitants of the Largo area were the Tocobaga people and they are also known as the Safety Harbor culture from their archeological remains near present-day Safety Harbor. The Spanish came to Florida in the 16th century, in the 18th century, the Tocobaga had been virtually destroyed after years of exposure to European diseases, Spanish settlement efforts and warfare between Spain and England. The Largo area, like the rest of Pinellas County, was largely deserted, in 1763, Spain transferred sovereignty of Florida to The United Kingdom. In 1783, Florida fell to Spanish sovereignty once again until it was transferred to the United States in 1821, by 1845, a surveyor recorded the location of Lake Tolulu, apparently south of present-day East Bay Drive and roughly where the Largo Central Park Nature Preserve is today. Among the first homesteaders in the Largo area were the families of James, the McMullens and other settlers raised cattle, grew citrus and vegetables and fished. During the Civil War, many Largo area residents fought for the Confederate States of America, James and Daniel McMullen were members of the Cow Cavalry driving Florida cattle to Georgia and the Carolinas to help sustain the war effort. Other area residents served on blockade runners, still others left the area to serve in the Confederacys armies. After the war, Largo area residents returned to farming, ranching, the Orange Belt Railway reached the area in 1888. By this time Lake Tolulu had been renamed Lake Largo, the Town of Largo was incorporated in 1905. Lake Largo was drained in 1916 to make way for growth, between 1910 and 1930, Largos population increased about 500%Largo, Florida – Largo Public Library
10. Judith Light – Judith Ellen Light is an American actress and producer. She is a two-time Tony Award winner, Light made her professional stage debut in 1970, before making her Broadway debut in the 1975 revival of A Dolls House. Her breakthrough role was in the ABC daytime soap opera One Life to Live from 1977 to 1983, for this role, she won two Daytime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. She later starred as Angela Bower in the long-running ABC sitcom Whos the Boss. from 1984 to 1992 and she received her first nomination for a Tony Award in 2011, for her performance in the original Broadway play Lombardi. In 2012 and 2013, Light won two consecutive Tony Awards for Best Featured Actress in a Play, for her performances in Other Desert Cities, from 2013 to 2014, Light played the role of villainous Judith Brown Ryland in the TNT drama series, Dallas. Light was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the daughter of Pearl Sue, a model, and Sidney Light, Light graduated from high school in 1966 at St. Marys Hall–Doane Academy in Burlington, New Jersey. She graduated from Carnegie Mellon University with a degree in drama and she recalled the university as rigorous and amazing. Afterwards, she started out on stage, making her debut in Richard III at the California Shakespeare Festival in 1970. Light made her Broadway debut in A Dolls House in 1975 and she also starred in the 1976 Broadway play Herzl. Light also acted for such companies as the Milwaukee Repertory Theater. In the late 1970s, Light went through a crisis after a period of not landing any parts. Broke, she almost quit acting, because she felt that she was not contributing to the theater, in 1977, Light was called by her agent to audition for an understudy role in the ABC soap opera One Life to Live. Having wanted never to be attached to an opera or a sitcom, she initially rejected the idea. At the audition, she realized that the format reaches a lot of people, instead of landing an understudy role, she was recast in the role of Karen Wolek, a role that had previously been portrayed by actresses Kathryn Breech and Julia Duffy. This role was quite lucrative for Light and spawned one of the shows most-remembered storylines, Lights portrayal of Karen brought the show critical acclaim and is credited with garnering One Life to Live ratings successes from the late 1970s into the early 1980s. Lights dramatic, confessional courtroom performance of a housewife-turned-prostitute on the stand is regarded as one of the most memorable moments in television by TV Guide. Light recalled, I was scared before those courtroom scenes, I was afraid to put myself out that much. With the agony of pulling it out piece by piece and having the prosecutor stick the knife in her gut, I couldnt help, Light won another Emmy in the role in 1981Judith Light – Light in 2015
11. Jenny Bailey – Jenny Bailey is a British Liberal Democrat politician who was the civic leader of Cambridge City Council in Cambridge, England. Bailey served her term from 2007–2008. Bailey became a member of the city council in 2002, when she was elected to represent the suburb of East Chesterton within Cambridge and she served the council continuously from 2002–2007, rising the ranks until she was chosen to become mayor in 2007. Prior to her appointment as mayor, she acted as a deputy in 2006. She was the first transgender mayor in the United Kingdom, but not the first in the world as Georgina Beyer, also a woman, became Mayor of Carterton. Bailey herself was keen to play down the significance of her appointment, saying, Bailey had undergone gender transitioning 11 years prior to assuming office in the council. Bailey was married before her transition, and became a parent to two sons, Bailey and her longtime companion Jennifer Liddle entered into a civil partnership on 22 September 2011. Liddle, a councillor, is also trans woman, she served as Baileys mayoress. Bailey was born in Doncaster Prison, where her father worked as a prison officer and she was brought up at Doncaster prison camp, and has said that her own confusion about her gender arose as early as aged 6 or 7. In school, Bailey joined the club led by her physics teacher. Aged 20, she received a sponsorship from local company Pye Telecom to take part in a training course. This involved placements at Lanchester Polytechnic, colleges in Coventry and industrial training in Cambridge, Bailey worked in several jobs as a telecommunications engineer before becoming involved in politics. In her 20s, she had to suppress her confusion over her gender as she married a cisgender woman. She began hormone replacement therapy in 1990, aged 29, there she met her current partner, Jennifer Liddle, who also worked as a software engineer and was also undergoing gender transitioning. Bailey had sex reassignment surgery in 1993, Bailey follows the Buddhist religion and is a vegetarian in accordance with these beliefs. On 22 September 2011 Bailey and Liddle entered into a partnership at Cambridges Shire Hall. Bailey made the decision to enter politics in the early 2000s and she became a councillor for the Liberal Democrats in 2002 after being elected to represent East Chesterton. She served as a governor for Chesterton Community College for a short periodJenny Bailey – Jenny Bailey
12. Cambridge City Council, England – Cambridge City Council is a district council in the county of Cambridgeshire, based in the city of Cambridge. Cambridge was granted a Royal Charter by King John in 1207, Cambridge was granted its city charter in 1951 in recognition of its history, administrative importance and economic success. Responsible for services including education, social care and highways. There are a number of items used by the Council which date to different periods of history. The council provides various facilities and services within the city and these include parks and open spaces, waste collection, council housing and local planning. The Council also organises numerous events throughout the year, including the Cambridge Folk Festival and it runs the Cambridge Guildhall, on the south side of the Market Square in the centre of Cambridge, where various events are held. The council funds its activities through a combination of money from Central Government, Council Tax, parking fines, charges from services like sports centres, there are forty two city councillors with three assigned to each ward. The party composition of the council is,26 Labour,13 Liberal Democrat,2 independent, the current Mayor is Councillor Jeremy Benstead and the Deputy Mayor is Councillor Jeremy Benstead. The Mayors duties are almost entirely ceremonial, although they do chair meetings of the full Council, the Leader of the Council is Councillor Lewis Herbert, and the Deputy Leader is Councillor Kevin Price. The highest non-elected official is the Chief Executive, Antoinette Jackson, elections for a third of the seats take place 3 out of every 4 years. Cambridgeshire County Council elections take place in the 4th year, the County elections last took place in 2013Cambridge City Council, England – Cambridge City Council
13. Cambridge – Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam about 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area in the Bronze Age and in Roman Britain, under Viking rule, Cambridge became an important trading centre. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although city status was not conferred until 1951, the University of Cambridge, founded in 1209, is one of the top five universities in the world. The university includes the Cavendish Laboratory, Kings College Chapel, the citys skyline is dominated by the last two buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrookes Hospital and St Johns College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, evolved from the Cambridge School of Art, Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies spun out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce has a higher education qualification, the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to be home to AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. Parkers Piece hosted the first ever game of Association football, the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fairs are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads, settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3, the principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street, the eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettles Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill. It was constructed around AD70 and converted to use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads, evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement—also on and around Castle Hill—became known as Grantebrycge, Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands, by the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a little ruined city containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river, the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill, like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputiesCambridge – King's College Chapel, seen from the Backs
14. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
15. Chesterton, Cambridge – Chesterton is a suburb in the northeast corner of Cambridge, England,2.4 kilometres north of Cambridge station, on the north bank of the River Cam. It is also the name of two wards in the city. The total population of both wards at the 2011 Census was 18,134 and these are roughly the same as the area normally called Chesterton, specifically the land north of the River Cam, east of Castle Hill and south of the Arbury and Kings Hedges estates. A large housing association estate makes up part of the East Chesterton area, a local board of health was formed for Chesterton in 1880, becoming Chesterton urban district under the Local Government Act 1894. This was abolished in 1912, with the area becoming part of the municipal borough of Cambridge. Buses run seven times an hour to Cambridge city centre and six times an hour to each of Milton, Milton Road is the major arterial road through Chesterton, linking the centre of Cambridge to the southwest with the A14 road to the northeast. Chesterton Chesterton railway station Chesterton Road Chesterton Community Association VIE Residents AssociationChesterton, Cambridge – Church of St Andrew
16. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
17. Varsity (Cambridge) – Varsity is the oldest of Cambridge Universitys main student newspapers. It has been published continuously since 1947, and is one of three fully independent student newspapers in the UK. It moved back to being a publication in Michaelmas 2015. Varsity is one of Britains oldest student newspapers and its first edition was published on 17 January 1931, as Varsity, the Cambridge University Illustrated. However, the first few years saw Varsity get off to a shaky start, in 1932, a controversy about some of its stories resulted in the editor being challenged to a duel, and the following year the paper went bankrupt. With the post-war rationing of newsprint, only publications that had existed before the War could be allocated paper and it was truly an international effort, British, Canadian, American, Hungarian, and Indian. Varsitys headquarters in 1947 was above the Scotch Hoose, a restaurant at the corner of the Market and Market Street, newman goes on to note that Geoffrey Neame, a leading light among the Nightclimbers of Cambridge and the Gentlemen of Caius, was the first post-1947 layout editor. The first Managing Editor was the Scotsman Wee Willie Watson, a fighter pilot. On 19 April 1947, Varsity reappeared, its first issue headlining the coming visit of the then Princess Elizabeth to the University and its first print run was of 5,000 copies. In the 1950s, Varsitys offices were in a shop in St. Edwards Passage. The second Editor was David Widdicombe, a Queens student who was also Chairman of the Labour Club, in 1955, a one-off Oxford edition of the paper was produced by the then editor Michael Winner. Since then the paper has concentrated on the Cambridge audience, in 1956, the current staff, worried about debts, questioned Varsitys legal status. Solicitors were consulted, who advised that any debts arising from its considerable turnover or damages awarded for libel etc. would be the responsibility of the current Editor. Varsity was promptly converted into a liability company - Varsity Publications Ltd. 50% of the shares were taken by the printers, 20% by the Don who was the senior Treasurer, in the mid-1970s, Varsity merged with the radical campaigning student paper Stop Press. Thereafter, it was known as Stop Press with Varsity for several years, Varsity moved back to being a weekly publication in Michaelmas 2015, after having been a fortnightly publication since Michaelmas 2012. As of this date, the Varsity is published every Friday during the University of Cambridges term time. As of this date, the Lent term editor also edits a single edition at the start of Easter term, many of those who wrote for the paper during their student days have since gone on to achieve distinction in later lifeVarsity (Cambridge)
18. Cambridge University – The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England, often regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Founded in 1209 and given royal status by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople, the two ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges, Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the worlds oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridges libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had an income of £1.64 billion. The central university and colleges have an endowment of around £5.89 billion. The university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as Silicon Fen. It is a member of associations and forms part of the golden triangle of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners. As of 2017, Cambridge is ranked the fourth best university by three ranking tables and no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. Cambridge is consistently ranked as the top university in the United Kingdom, the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, lawyers, philosophers, writers, actors, and foreign Heads of State. Ninety-five Nobel laureates, fifteen British prime ministers and ten Fields medalists have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty, by the late 12th century, the Cambridge region already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, and most scholars moved to such as Paris, Reading. After the University of Oxford reformed several years later, enough remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom, the colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself, the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels, the hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridges first college, the most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970sCambridge University – Emmanuel College Chapel
19. Transvestism – Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex. Though coined as late as the 1910s, the phenomenon is not new and it was referred to in the Hebrew Bible. The word has several changes of meaning since it was first coined and is still used in a variety of senses. Today, the term transvestite is commonly considered outdated and derogatory, Magnus Hirschfeld coined the word transvestite in 1910 to refer to the sexual interest in cross-dressing. He used it to persons who habitually and voluntarily wore clothes of the opposite sex. Hirschfelds group of transvestites consisted of males and females, with heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and asexual orientations. Hirschfeld himself was not happy with the term, He believed that clothing was only a symbol chosen on the basis of various internal psychological situations. In fact, Hirschfeld helped people to achieve the very first name changes, hirschfelds transvestites therefore were, in todays terms, not only transvestites, but a variety of people from the transgender spectrum. Hirschfeld also noticed that sexual arousal was often associated with transvestism, in more recent terminology, this is sometimes called transvestic fetishism. Hirschfeld also clearly distinguished between transvestism as an expression of a persons contra-sexual feelings and fetishistic behavior, even if the latter involved wearing clothes of the other sex. After all the changes took place during the 1970s, a large group was left without a word to describe themselves. This group was not particularly happy with the term transvestism, in some cultures, transvestism is practiced for religious, traditional or ceremonial reasons. For example, in India some male devotees of the Hindu god Krishna, especially in Mathura and Vrindavan, dress in attire to pose as his consort. In Italy, the Neapolitan femminielli wear wedding dresses, called the matrimonio dei femminielli, a procession takes place through the streets, cogender Drag I Am My Own Wife List of transgender-related topics Transgender Transsexualism Travesti Dual-role transvestism Ackroyd, Peter. Dressing up, transvestism and drag, the history of an obsession, a Brighter Shade of Pink, Magnus Hirschfeld. Transvestism, Transsexualism in the Psychoanalytic Dimension, cherry Single, A Transvestite Comes of Age Alchemist/Light Publishing,1997, ISBN 0-9600650-5-9 Thanem Torkild, Wallenberg Louise. Transvestism and the power of underdoing gender in everyday life and work, the dictionary definition of transvestite at Wiktionary Transvestism at Britannica Online EncyclopædiaTransvestism – A Sicilian boy cross-dressing as a Spanish woman, photographed by Wilhelm von Gloeden in the late 19th century.
20. History – History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge. It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documentsHistory – Historia by Nikolaos Gysis (1892)
21. Wikimedia Foundation – The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally. In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sitesWikimedia Foundation – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014