1. United States – Forty-eight of the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The territories are scattered about the Caribbean Sea. Nine time zones are covered. The geography, wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's fourth-largest country by total area and the third-most populous. It is home to the world's largest immigrant population. Urbanization leads to growing megaregions. Paleo-Indians migrated to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between the colonies in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led in the country.United States – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
2. U.S. state – A U.S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. No government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range from 1,214 square miles to 663,268 square miles. Four states use the commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are not sovereign. County-equivalent structure varies widely by state. State governments are allocated power through their individual constitutions. Each provides for a government, consisting of three branches: executive, legislative, judicial. States possess a number of rights under the United States Constitution; among them ratifying constitutional amendments. Over time, the U.S. Constitution has been amended, the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did. Their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.U.S. state – U.S. states
3. Washington, D.C. – Washington, D.C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as "Washington", "the District", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. Named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District. Washington had an estimated population of 672,228 as of July 2015. Commuters from Virginia suburbs raise the city's population during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of the sixth-largest statistical area in the country. The centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are including the Congress, Supreme Court. Washington is home to national museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, professional associations. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate.Washington, D.C. – Clockwise from top left: Smithsonian Institution Building, Rock Creek Park, National Mall (including the Lincoln Memorial in the foreground), Howard Theatre and the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site
4. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 4.8 % of its total surface. North America is the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, Europe. North America was reached by its first human populations via crossing the Bering land bridge. The Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. The Americas are usually accepted as having been named by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam. For Waldseemüller, no one should object after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa".North America – Map of North America, from 1621.
5. Pacific Ocean – The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. He named Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific starting in 1519. Magellan called the Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan until the eighteenth century. Sailing east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands and Papua New Guinea.Pacific Ocean – Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507).
6. Bering Sea – The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises a deep basin, which then rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves. The Bering Sea is separated by the Alaska Peninsula. Bristol Bay is the portion of the Bering Sea which separates the Alaska Peninsula from mainland Alaska. The Bering Sea ecosystem includes resources within the jurisdiction of the United States and Russia, well as international waters in the middle of the sea. The interaction between currents, weather makes for a vigorous and productive ecosystem. Other animals including megafauna migrated in both directions. There is a small portion of the Kula Plate in the Bering Sea. The Kula Plate is an tectonic plate that used to subduct under Alaska. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bering Sea as follows: On the North. The Southern limit of the Chuckchi Sea. On the South. The Bering Sea break is the dominant driver of primary productivity in the Bering Sea. This zone, where the shallower continental shelf drops off into the North Aleutians Basin is also known as the “Greenbelt”. The second driver of productivity in the Bering Sea is seasonal ice that, in part, triggers the spring phytoplankton bloom.Bering Sea – Satellite photo of the Bering Sea – Alaska is on the top right, Siberia on the top left
7. Arctic Ocean – The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. It is partly covered by ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter. The shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50 %. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history by 2040. For much of European history, their geography conjectural. Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. Longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, with air support. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes.Arctic Ocean – A bathymetric / topographic of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
8. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into South Atlantic Ocean at about 8 ° N. The Greek thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic late as the mid-19th century. Many British people refer to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", vice versa. The "Black Atlantic" refers in shaping black people's history, especially through the Atlantic slave trade. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term "The Green Atlantic" is used. Correspondingly, the number of oceans and seas varies. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded by North and South America. It connects through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean.Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
9. Alaska – Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the least densely populated of the 50 United States. Approximately half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Tourism are also a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska at approximately two cents per acre. The area went before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912. It was admitted on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which figuratively refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the non-contiguous U.S. state on continental North America; about 500 miles of British Columbia separates Alaska from Washington. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U.S. states combined.Alaska – Denali is the highest peak in North America.
10. Hawaii – Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the northernmost group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U.S. state not located in the Americas. The state does not observe daylight time. The state encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. The 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U.S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality. The state's coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U.S. after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is, named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth. He is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled.Hawaii – Hawaii from space, January 26, 2014
11. Insular area – The term possession is also sometimes used. Nationals can not vote or hold office outside of American Samoa. Individuals working for the federal government pay federal income taxes while all residents are required to pay federal payroll taxes. U.S. insular areas can be incorporated unincorporated territories. Since the admission of Hawaii to the Union in 1959, there have been no incorporated territories other than the uninhabited Palmyra Atoll. Several unincorporated territories are now independent countries including the Philippines, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of Palau. Unlike within the states, sovereignty over insular areas rests not in Congress. In most areas, Congress has granted considerable self-rule through an Organic Act which functions as a local constitution. The Northwest Ordinance grants territories the right to send a non-voting delegate to the U.S. Congress. The United States government is part of international disputes over the disposition of certain maritime and insular sovereignties some of which would be considered territories. See International territorial disputes of the United States. Several islands in the Pacific are considered insular areas of the United States. Later the U.S. entered with each of the four political units. One is the Northern Mariana Islands listed above. The others being the three freely associated states below.Insular area – Locations of the insular areas of the United States
12. Declaration of Independence (United States) – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast. A committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term "Declaration of Independence" is not used in the document itself. John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. But Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was signed. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside, widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for this printing has been lost, may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, signed primarily on August 2. The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric, his policies. This has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language", containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history". The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive.Declaration of Independence (United States) – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
13. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
14. 1776 – As of the start of 1776, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. The year is dominated by events of the swedish cereal trade lift. Several loyalist leaders are killed in the ensuing battle. The victory virtually ends all British authority in the province. March – Restrictions on the cereal trade in Sweden are lifted. March 2–3 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Nassau: The American Continental Navy and Marines make a successful assault on Nassau, Bahamas. Battle of the Rice Boats: American Patriots resist the Royal Navy on the Savannah River. British control over the Province of Georgia is lost. March 4 – American Revolutionary War: American Patriots capture Dorchester Heights dominating the port of Boston. March 9 – Scottish economist Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations in London. March 17 – American Revolutionary War: Threatened by Patriot cannons on Dorchester Heights, the British evacuate Boston, ending the 11‑month Siege of Boston. March 28 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco. May 1 – Adam Weishaupt founds the Illuminati in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. May 4 – Rhode Island becomes the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III of Great Britain. May 15–26 – American Revolution: Battle of The Cedars: British forces skirmish with the American Continental Army around Les Cèdres, Quebec.1776 – January 10: Common Sense published
15. Treaty of Paris (1783) – The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire and the new country, to the United States. Details included fishing rights and restoration of war. Only 1 of the treaty, the legal underpinning of United States' existence as a sovereign country, remains in force. Peace negotiations continued through the summer. Representing the United States were Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams. David Hartley and Richard Oswald represented Great Britain. The treaty was signed at the Hotel d'York in Paris by Adams, Franklin, Jay, Hartley. Everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it could capture Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar. The United States be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain would take the north of the Ohio River. In the area south of that would be set up an Indian state under Spanish control. It would be an Indian state. However,the Americans realized that they could get a better deal directly from London. John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France and Spain.Treaty of Paris (1783) – Benjamin West 's painting of the delegations at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.
16. Superpower – This is done through the combined-means of technological, cultural, economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers. The term was first applied to the British Empire, the Soviet Union. According to Russian President Putin and other sources, this has remained unchanged. There have been many attempts by historians to apply the term'superpower' to a variety of past entities. No agreed definition of what is a ` superpower' may differ between sources. According to him, there were three states that were superpowers: the Soviet Union. According to Lyman Miller, "The basic components of stature may be measured along four axes of power: military, economic, political, cultural. Although, "many modifications may be made to this basic definition". According to Professor June Teufel Dreyer, "A superpower must be able to project its power, hard, globally." There have been many attempts by historians to apply the superpower retrospectively, sometimes very loosely, to a variety of entities in the past. Recognition by historians of these older states as superpowers may focus on various superlative traits exhibited by them. The two countries economically. These alliances implied that these two nations were part of an emerging bipolar world, in contrast with a previously multipolar world. One notable opponent to Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power.Superpower – U.S. President Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (right), former leaders of the Cold War 's two rival superpowers, meeting in Geneva in 1985. The Suez Crisis in 1956, which ended the British Empire's status as a superpower, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's only superpower. As of 2015, this status remains unchanged.
17. History of the United States – The date of the start of the history of the United States is a subject of debate among historians. Indigenous people lived in what is now the United States for thousands of years before European colonists began to arrive, mostly after 1600. The Spanish had the French along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast. By the 1770s, British colonies contained two and a half million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. Tax resistance, especially the Boston Tea Party, led by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. American Patriots adhered to a political ideology called republicanism that emphasized civic duty, opposition to corruption, fancy luxuries and aristocracy. Armed conflict began in 1775 as Patriots assembled in mass meetings and conventions. In 1776, the Second Continental Congress declared that there was the United States of America, not just a collection of disparate colonies. With military leadership by General George Washington, the American Patriots won the Revolutionary War. The treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River. Congress called a convention to meet secretly in Philadelphia in 1787. It wrote a new Constitution, adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights. With Alexander Hamilton his chief political and financial adviser, a strong central government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the size of the United States.History of the United States – The Spanish conquistador Coronado explored parts of the American Southwest from 1540 to 1542.
18. Outline of the United States – Within the contential U.S. eight distinct physiographic divisions exist, though each is composed of several smaller physiographic subdivisions. These major divisions are: Laurentian Upland - part of the Canadian Shield that extends into the northern United States Great Lakes area. Atlantic Plain - the coastal regions of the eastern and southern parts includes the continental shelf, the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf Coast. Appalachian Highlands - lying on the eastern side of the United States, it includes the Appalachian Mountains, Adirondacks and New England province. Interior Plains - part of the interior contentintal United States, it includes much of what is called the Great Plains. Interior Highlands - also part of the interior contentintal United States, this division includes the Ozark Plateau. Rocky Mountain System - one branch of the Cordilleran system lying far inland in the western states. It is the setting for the Grand Canyon, Death Valley. Pacific Mountain System - the coastal mountain ranges and features in the west coast of the United States. At the Declaration of Independence, the United States consisted of former colonies of the United Kingdom. Economic Research Service The 50 States of the U.S.A. Citizenship and Immigration Services Official government siteOutline of the United States – An enlargeable topographic map of the contiguous United States
19. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations -- including all of the great powers -- eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Axis. It directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. In December 1941, Japan quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union invaded Germany and its allies. Thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political social structure of the world. The United Nations was established to prevent future conflicts. The great powers -- the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, France -- became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to create a common identity. This article uses the conventional dating.World War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
20. War – War is a state of armed conflict between societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers of wars in general. Total war is warfare that can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant casualties. While some scholars see war as a ancestral aspect of human nature, others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. As concerns a belligerent's losses in proportion to its population, the most destructive war in modern history may have been the Paraguayan War. In 2013 war resulted in 31,000 deaths, down from 72,000 deaths in 1990. In 2003, Richard Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing humanity for the fifty years. Another byproduct of some wars is the prevalence of propaganda by some or increased revenues by weapons manufacturers. In German, the equivalent is Krieg; Italian term for "war" is guerra, derived like the Old French term from the Germanic word. The scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning "war", -logy, meaning "the study of". Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to reduce it to a military science. Asymmetric warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military size. Germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi.War – The War by Tadeusz Cyprian (1949), a photograph in the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw showing ruins of Warsaw's Napoleon Square in the aftermath of World War II.
21. Participants in World War II – Nearly every country in the world participated in World War II, with the exception of a few states that remained neutral. The Second World War pitted two alliances against the Allied powers. The countries affected by World War II are listed alphabetically with a description of their role in the conflict. Afghanistan maintained its neutrality. It was relatively unaffected during the war. Benito Mussolini boasted in May 1941 to a group of Albanian fascists that he had achieved the Greater Albania long wanted by the Tirana nationalists. In mid-1942, however, party leaders increased their popularity by calling the young peoples to fight for the liberation of their country from Italy. This propaganda increased the number of new recruits by many young peoples eager for freedom. Berlin subsequently organized an Albanian government, military. Many Balli Kombëtar units cooperated with the Germans against the communists, several Balli Kombëtar leaders held positions in the German-sponsored regime. The partisans entirely liberated Albania on November 1944. The Albanian partisans also helped in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The National Liberation Army consisting of up to thousand partisans, also took part alongside the antifascist coalition. By that time, the German Army was evacuating into Yugoslavia. During World War II, Algeria, along with North Africa, were under the control of Nazi Germany and Vichy France.Participants in World War II – Albanian partisans, with their leader Enver Hoxha in the center, after the liberation of Tirana on November 17, 1944.
22. Great power – A great power is a sovereign state, recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. International theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, status dimensions. While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of great powers is formally recognized in conferences such as the Congress of the United Nations Security Council. Accordingly, the status of great powers has also informally recognised in forums such as the G7 and the now defunct G8. The term "great power" was first used to represent the most important powers in Europe during the post-Napoleonic era. The "Great Powers" constituted the "Concert of Europe" and claimed the right to joint enforcement of the postwar treaties. The formalization of the division between great powers came about with the signing of the Treaty of Chaumont in 1814. Since then, the international balance of power has shifted numerous times, most dramatically during World War World War II. These terms can also be interchangeable with superpower. There are no set or defined characteristics of a great power. These characteristics have often been treated to the assessor. However, this approach has the disadvantage of subjectivity. As a result, there have been attempts to treat these as essential elements of great power status. Later writers have expanded this test, attempting to define power in terms of overall military, political capacity.Great power – Great powers are recognized in an international structure such as the United Nations Security Council. Shown here is the Security Council Chamber.
23. Allies of World War II – The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. Poland was a minor factor after its defeat in 1939; France was a minor factor after its defeat in 1940. From German invasion of the North Europe to Balkan Campaign, Netherlands, Belgium, Greece and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. China had already been into a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but officially joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was rarely used to describe the Allies during the war. In 1945, the Allied nations became the basis of the United Nations. The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles. The new Weimar republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia. The likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China.Allies of World War II – Poland first to fight — British wartime poster supporting Poland after the German invasion, 1939
24. Axis powers – The Axis powers, also known as the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied Powers. The Axis agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity. The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Mussolini declared on 1 November that all European countries would from on rotate on the Rome -- Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis". The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan. Italy joined the Pact in 1937. At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of East Asia. There were no three-way summit coordination was minimal, with a bit more between Germany and Italy. The war ended with the dissolution of their alliance. At the time he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume. The term was used by Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary in the early 1930s. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued a strategic alliance of Italy with Germany against France since the early 1920s. He believed that Italy could expand its influence in Europe by allying with Germany against France.Axis powers – Flags of Germany, Japan, and Italy draping the facade of the Embassy of Japan on the Tiergartenstraße (Zoo Street) in Berlin (September 1940)
25. Total war – In the mid-19th century, scholars identified "total war" as a separate class of warfare. Total war also describes the French "guerre outrance" during the Franco-Prussian War. United States Air Force General Curtis LeMay updated the concept for the nuclear age. See the section warfare. Although cities had been sacked before, the systematic scale of these campaigns stand out. During the Middle Ages, destruction under the Mongol Empire in the 13th century effectively exemplified total war. Both sides directed their actions not as a whole. Noncombatants were legitimate targets. The French Revolutionary Wars introduced some of the first concepts such as mass conscription. The fledgling republic found itself threatened by a powerful coalition of European nations. The wars merged from ca. 1803. 1803. The Taiping Rebellion was one of the deadliest wars in history. About million people died, many due to disease and famine. It followed the secession of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom from the Qing Empire.Total war – The drownings at Savenay during the War in the Vendée, 1793
26. The Holocaust – The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was a genocide in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany and its collaborators killed about six million Jews. The victims represented about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe. Some definitions of the Holocaust include the additional million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders, bringing the total to about 11 million. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany, German-occupied territories held by allies of Nazi Germany. A network of about 42,500 facilities in German-occupied territories was used to concentrate victims for slave labor, mass murder, other human rights abuses. Over 200,000 people are estimated to have been Holocaust perpetrators. Initially the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935. Nazis established a network of concentration camps starting in ghettos following the outbreak of World War II in 1939. This continued until the end of World War II in April -- May 1945. Armed resistance was limited. The most notable exception was the Warsaw Ghetto uprising of 1943, when thousands of Jewish fighters held the Waffen-SS at bay for four weeks. An estimated 20,000–30,000 Jewish partisans actively fought against the Nazis and their collaborators in Eastern Europe. French Jews took part in the French Resistance, which conducted a campaign against the Nazis and Vichy French authorities. Over a hundred Jewish uprisings took place. The holocaust comes from the Greek word holókauston, referring to an animal sacrifice offered to a god in which the whole animal is completely burnt.The Holocaust – Hungarian Jews are selected by Nazis to be sent to the gas chamber at Auschwitz concentration camp, May/June 1944.
27. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – The United States had dropped the bombs with the consent of the United Kingdom as outlined in the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings, which killed at least 129,000 people, remain the only use of nuclear weapons for warfare in history. In the final year of the war, the Allies prepared for what was anticipated to be a very costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This was preceded by a U.S. conventional and firebombing campaign that destroyed 67 Japanese cities. The war in Europe had concluded when Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945, just after Hitler committed suicide. The Japanese, facing the same fate, refused to accept the Allies' demands for unconditional surrender and the Pacific War continued. The Allies called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces on July 26, 1945 -- utter destruction". The Japanese response to this ultimatum was to ignore it. Orders for atomic bombs to be used on four Japanese cities were issued on July 25. Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison. Japan announced its surrender to the Soviet Union's declaration of war. On September 2, the Japanese government signed the instrument of surrender, effectively ending World War II. The ethical justification for the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is still debated to this day, mainly because more than a hundred thousand civilians were killed.Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – Atomic bomb mushroom clouds over Hiroshima (left) and Nagasaki (right)
28. History of the world – The history of the world describes the history of humanity as determined by the study of archaeological and written records. Recorded history begins with the invention of writing. However, the roots of civilization reach back to the earliest introduction of primitive culture. The latter period marked a change in human history, as humans began the systematic husbandry of animals. Most humans transitioned from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements. As farming developed, agriculture became more sophisticated and prompted a division of labour to store food between growing seasons. Labour divisions then led to the development of cities. The growing complexity of human societies necessitated systems of accounting. In the mid-15th century, the invention of modern printing, employing movable type, revolutionized communication, ushering in the Scientific Revolution. By the 18th century, the accumulation of technology, especially in Europe, had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial Revolution. Including ancient China and ancient India, historical timelines unfolded differently. However, due to extensive world trade and colonization, the histories of most civilizations had become substantially intertwined. It is thought that the Australopithecine genus, which were likely the first apes to walk upright, eventually gave rise to genus Homo. Anatomically modern humans reached behavioural modernity about 50,000 years ago. Modern humans spread rapidly from Africa around 60,000 years ago.History of the world – Cave painting, Lascaux, France
29. World War II casualties – World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total casualties. Over million people were killed, about 3 % of the 1940 world population. The tables below give a country-by-country count of human losses. World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total deaths ranging to more than 80 million. The higher figure of over million includes deaths from war-related disease and famine. Civilians killed totalled 50 including 19 to 28 million from war-related disease and famine. Total combat deaths: from 21 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war. Historical scholarship has shed new light on the topic of Second World War casualties. Research in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union has caused a revision of estimates of Soviet WW2 fatalities. According to Russian government figures, USSR losses within postwar borders now stand at million. In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance researchers estimated Poland's dead at between 5.6 and million. The Japanese government puts the casualties due to the war at million while the People's Republic of China puts their war dead at 20 million. Estimating the numbers of deaths caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward different estimates of the numbers killed during World War II. The authors of the Oxford Companion to World War II maintain that "casualty statistics are notoriously unreliable."World War II casualties – Dead Soviet soldiers, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war.
30. United Nations – The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United Nations is in Manhattan, experiences extraterritoriality. Main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna. The organization is financed from its member states. The United Nations Charter was drafted at a conference in April -- June 1945; the UN began operation. The organization participated in major actions in the Congo, as well as approving the creation of the state of Israel in 1947. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions with varying degrees of success. UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is an office held by South Korean Ban Ki-moon since 2007. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with other agencies to participate in the UN's work. A number of its officers and agencies have also been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between countries.United Nations – 1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states.
31. World War III – World War III and Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide military conflict subsequent to World War I, World War II. A Third World War was planned for by military and civil authorities in many countries. Scenarios ranged to limited or total nuclear warfare. Military planners have been gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, since the early days of the Cold War. Some of those plans have been partially or fully declassified. In April–May 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War. Its primary goal was "to impose upon Russia the will of the British Empire". The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, depended on bombers for delivery. Between 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground. The scenario was devised prior to the development of ballistic missiles. President Kennedy changed the US Nuclear War plan from the ` city killing' countervalue strike plan to "counterforce". In January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATO's military strategy of containment. Allied Command Europe was established on 2 April 1951. The Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks.World War III – Map of the Metro-2 system as supposed by the United States military intelligence in 1991.
32. Cold War – The USSR was a Marxist -- Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and police, who in turn were ruled by a dictator or a small committee. The Party controlled the press, the military, all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press and independent organizations. A neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement; it sought good relations with both sides. They were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years in 1945. The Berlin Blockade was the major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded. The USSR and USA competed for the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets. The escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade beginning in 1979. The "Able Archer" NATO military exercises. The United States increased diplomatic, economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of perestroika and glasnost and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan.Cold War – Photograph of the Berlin Wall taken from the West side. The Wall was built in 1961 to prevent East Germans from fleeing and to stop an economically disastrous drain of workers. It was a symbol of the Cold War and its fall in 1989 marked the approaching end of the war.
33. Decolonisation of Africa – The Decolonisation of Africa followed World War II, when colonised peoples agitated for independence and colonial powers withdrew their administrators from Africa. During the Scramble for Africa in the late century, Western European powers divided Africa and its resources into colonies at the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. By 1905, control of almost all African soil was claimed with the only exceptions being Liberia and Ethiopia. Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Portugal also had colonies. As a result of imperialism, a majority of Africa lost sovereignty and control of natural resources such as gold and rubber. Following the concept of Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden", some Europeans who benefited from colonisation felt that colonialism was needed to civilise Africans. On February 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss the postwar world. The result was the Atlantic Charter. One of the provisions, introduced by Roosevelt, was the autonomy of imperial colonies. After World War II, the African colonies put pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter. After the war, some British considered African colonies to be immature; British colonisers introduced democratic government at local levels in the colonies. By the 1930s, the colonial powers had cultivated, sometimes inadvertently, a small elite of leaders educated in Western universities and familiar with ideas such as self-determination. This table is the arranged by the earliest date of independence in this graph; 58 countries have seceded. "General History of Africa" vol. VIII, UNESCO, 1993 Chafer, Tony.Decolonisation of Africa – Dates of independence of African countries
34. Atrium (architecture) – In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing ventilation to the interior. Atria are a popular feature because they give their buildings a "feeling of space and light." The atrium has become a key feature of many buildings in recent years. Atria are popular with building users, building developers. Users like atria because they create a stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Developers see atria as prestigious amenities that can increase commercial value and appeal. The impluvium was the shallow sunken into the floor to catch the rainwater. Some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. As the centrepiece of the house, the atrium was the most lavishly furnished room. Also, it contained the little chapel to the ancestral spirits, sometimes a bust of the master of the house. The term was also used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings, mostly larger versions of the domestic spaces. Byzantine churches were often entered through such a space. The 19th century brought the industrial revolution in iron and glass manufacturing techniques. Courtyards could then have horizontal glazing overhead, giving birth to the modern atrium.Atrium (architecture) – Kobe Portopia Hotel atrium lobby in 2012
35. West Baden Springs Hotel – The West Baden Springs Hotel, part of the French Lick Resort Casino, is a national historic landmark hotel in West Baden Springs, Orange County, Indiana. It is known for the 200-foot dome covering its atrium. Prior to the completion of the Coliseum in Charlotte, North Carolina, in 1955, the hotel had the largest free-spanning dome in the United States. From 1902 to 1913 it had the largest in the world. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, the hotel became a National Historic Landmark in 1987. It is one of the hotels in the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Historic Hotels of America program. Native Americans also used the area as hunting grounds. Following the arrival of French settlers in the vicinity, the site became known as French Lick. A local physician, purchased the land that included the mineral springs and built a small inn. Constructed around 1840 -- 45, it developed into a popular health resort. Bowles served during the Mexican -- American War. Part of Bowles' land included the mineral springs known as 1 mile north of French Lick. In 1851 he purchased 770 acres from Bowles. Lane named it the Mile Lick Inn. By the 1860s it was known as the West Baden Springs Hotel.West Baden Springs Hotel – West Baden Springs Hotel
36. List of largest domes in the world – A dome is a self-supporting structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. This list excludes dome-shaped structures that are not self-supporting such as The O2 in London, 365 m in diameter and supported by masts. This article tries to list every dome in the world, the largest dome of its time. The defining criterion is in each case the inner diameter of the largest circular cross-section of the dome. Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome in the world. Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome on their continent. In the first half of the 1980s a dome with a diameter of 234 metres was built near Istra, Russia. It collapsed on January 25, 1986. In 1990, the 129 m in diameter building named "Kupolen" was completed in Borlänge, Sweden. Originally an exposition hall with a few stores at level, a mall in three levels. Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome in terms of their structure. List of Roman domes List of celebrated domes Rasch, Jürgen. "Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion". Architectura.List of largest domes in the world – The dome of the Pantheon in Rome with oculus was the largest dome in the world for more than 1,300 years.
37. Nicholas Longworth (winemaker) – Nicholas Longworth was an American banker and winemaker as well as the founder of the Longworth family in Ohio. Longworth was an influential figure in the early history of American wine, producing sparkling Catawba wine from grapes grown in his Ohio River Valley vineyard. Longworth was born in Newark, New Jersey on January 16, 1783. He married daughter of Silas and Hannah Howell, on Christmas Eve, 1807. His Greek Revival villa, then on the eastern edge of Cincinnati, is now the Taft Museum of Art in Cincinnati. Nicholas pursued the study of law under Jacob Burnet, one of Cincinnati's first millionaires. Believing Cincinnati to be an ideal location for grape cultivation, he established viticulture as a successful venture on the hills adjoining the city. From the 1830s through the 1850s, Longworth's still and sparkling Catawba were being distributed from California to Europe where it received numerous press accolades. So successful was he that he has been called the Father of American Grape Culture. The growing tide of German immigrants coming down the Ohio Valley to Cincinnati liked his wine. Besides being a pioneer and leading horticultural expert in his section, he was recognized as an authority in national horticultural matters. His writings, though individually short and now out of date, exercised a wide influence in his day. Nicholas Longworth at Find a GraveNicholas Longworth (winemaker) – Nicholas Longworth
38. Winery – A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company. Some wine companies own many wineries. Besides equipment, larger wineries may also feature warehouses, bottling lines, laboratories, large expanses of tanks known as tank farms. The oldest winery in the world found to date is a 6,000-year-old winery in the Areni region of Armenia, still a wine-making region today. Wineries typically employ winemakers to produce various wines from grapes by following the winemaking process. This process involves the fermentation of fruit, as well as blending and aging of the juice. The grapes may be from vineyards owned by the winery or may be brought in from other locations. Many wineries also have tasting rooms where customers can taste wines before they make a purchase. It is used by wineries as a way to promote cellar doors. Wineries do not have to be located adjacent to vineyards; grapes can be shipped anywhere. In addition, people make wine out of other fruits and plants, so these specialty wineries tend to pop up where the other substances are grown. For example, a winery in Hawaii produces pineapple wine. A class of license known as the winery allows farms to produce and sell wines on site. States such as New York have given a special permit to open a store in a area. New York's passing of the Farm Winery Act of 1976 set an example for other states to pass similar laws.Winery – Wine barrels
39. Sparkling wine – Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy. The classic example of a sparkling wine is champagne, exclusively produced in the Champagne region of France. The sweetness of sparkling wine can range from very dry "brut" styles to sweeter "doux" varieties. In most countries the word "champagne" is reserved only for the specific type of sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France. Sparkling wines are also produced in other regions of France as well as other countries around the world. Sparkling wine have also been produced in Central and Eastern Europe since the early 19th-century. Törley has since become one of the largest European producers of sparkling wine. The United States, is also a significant producer of sparkling wine today, with producers in numerous states. Over time it has been attributed to phases of the moon as well as both good and evil spirits. The disturbance caused by one bottle's disintegration could cause a chain reaction, with it being routine for cellars to lose 20–90% of their bottles to instability. The mysterious circumstance surrounding the then unknown process of fermentation and carbonic gas caused some critics to call the sparkling creations "The Devil's Wine". Wine was often transported to England in wooden wine barrels where merchant houses would then bottle the wine for sale. During the 17th century, English glass production used coal-fueled ovens and produced stronger, more durable glass bottles than the wood-fired French glass. The English also rediscovered the use of cork stoppers, once used by the Romans but forgotten for centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. During the cold winters of the Champagne region, temperatures would drop so low that the fermentation process was prematurely halted—leaving some residual sugar and dormant yeast.Sparkling wine – A glass of Champagne
40. Catawba (grape) – Catawba is a red American grape variety used for wine as well as juice, jams and jellies. The grape can have a pronounced musky or "foxy" flavor. Grown predominantly on the East Coast of the United States, this purplish-red grape is a likely cross of Vitis vinifera. It seems to have originated somewhere on the East coast from the Carolinas to Maryland. Catawba played an important role in the early history of American wine. The exact parentage of the Catawba grape are unclear. It is during their ownership of Rose Hill that grapes were first cultivated on their property. According to J. Thomas Scharf, the presence of Catawba grapevines at Rose Hill can be traced back to the early decades of the 19th century. They appeared at Rose Hill thereafter when Eliza Beall obtained some cuttings from her brother Singleton Wootton, who had, in turn, gotten them from Scholl. The Oxford Companion to Wine does not state who discovered the variety. British expert Oz Clarke also places the vine's origins in North Carolina but claims that it was first identified in 1801. The possible Carolina origins does correspond with circumstantial details about the name "Catawba". From 1825 to 1850, it was the most widely planted grape in the United States. One early adopter was Nicholas Longworth of Cincinnati, Ohio who founded America's first commercially successful winery. After difficulties cultivating the Alexander, Longworth planted a vineyard along the Ohio River.Catawba (grape) – A bottle of Ohio Catawba wine
42. New Look (policy) – The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources. It was based on an extensive reappraisal of U.S. military requirements that began among his closest advisers immediately following his election in November 1952. It was formalized in National Security Council document 162/2, which Eisenhower approved on October 1953. In this respect, it differed from NSC 68, approved by President Harry S. Truman on September 1950. Truman's advisers believed that military capabilities would reach a maximum relative to those of the United States and its allies in the mid-1950s. He wanted to avoid, in "an unbearable security burden leading to economic disaster." With the costly experience of the Korean War in mind, Eisenhower was fearful that U.S. resources would be drained by regional conflicts. Naval forces were cut. Continental defense was expanded. ... Furthermore, it theoretically provided the Soviet Union with an incentive to strike first to disarm the United States. However, the United States cannot afford to preclude itself from using nuclear weapons even in a local situation, if such use. . . will best advance U.S. security interests.New Look (policy) – Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, right, shown here with President Eisenhower in 1956, became identified with the doctrine of "massive retaliation."
43. Nuclear weapon – A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10 million tons of TNT. A weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, radiation. Their use and control have been a major focus of international relations policy since their debut. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in nuclear warfare, both times against Japan near the end of World War II. The bombings resulted from acute injuries sustained from the explosions. Their role in Japan's surrender remain the subject of scholarly and popular debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand occasions for the purposes of testing and demonstration. Only a few nations are suspected of seeking them. Israel is also believed to possess nuclear weapons, though in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. The Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and dismantled its nuclear weapons.Nuclear weapon – The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 rose some 11 miles (18 km) above the bomb's hypocenter.
44. Soviet Union – A union of multiple subnational Soviet republics, economy were highly centralized. The Soviet Union was a one-party federation, governed by the Communist Party as its capital. They established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, beginning a civil war between the counter-revolutionary "Whites." In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin initiated a centrally planned command economy. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939. In June 1941 the Germans invaded, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945. The territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of economic liberalization, known as "de-Stalinization" and "Khrushchev's Thaw", occurred under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. The country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took an early lead with the first ever satellite and the first human spaceflight. The war was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters.Soviet Union – Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
45. Pat Nixon – Born in Ely, Nevada, she grew up with her two brothers in what is now Cerritos, California, graduating from high school in 1929. She attended Fullerton Junior College and later the University of Southern California. She paid by working multiple jobs, including pharmacy manager, typist, radiographer, retail clerk. In 1940, they had two daughters. Nixon campaigned for her husband in his congressional campaigns of 1946 and 1948. Richard Nixon was elected Vice President in the Eisenhower administration, whereupon Pat gained favorable media coverage. She assisted her husband in his successful 1968 presidential campaign. As First Lady, Pat Nixon promoted a number of charitable causes, including volunteerism. She was the most traveled First Lady in U.S. history, a record unsurpassed until twenty-five years later. These trips gained her favorable reception in the host countries. Her tenure ended when, after being re-elected in a victory in 1972, President Nixon resigned two years later amid the Watergate scandal. Her public appearances became increasingly rare later in life. Her husband returned to California, later moved to New Jersey. She suffered one in 1976 and another in 1983, then was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1992. She died in 1993, aged 81.Pat Nixon – Pat Nixon
46. President of the United States – The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The President is considered to be one of the world's most powerful political figures, as the leader of the only global superpower. The office of President holds significant soft power both in the United States and abroad. Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is further empowered to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is enrolled. The president also directs the domestic policy of the United States. Since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the Federal Government as a whole. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third term. In all, 43 individuals have served 44 presidencies spanning 56 four-year terms. On January 2009, Barack Obama became the 44th and current president. On November 2012, he was re-elected. His second term ends at noon on January 2017.President of the United States – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
47. Richard Nixon – He had previously served as a U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, Nixon returned to California to practice law. His wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. Nixon subsequently served during World War II. He was elected to the Senate in 1950. His pursuit of the Hiss Case elevated him to national prominence. Nixon was the running mate of the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. He served as vice president. In 1968, Nixon was elected by defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. He ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and ended the military draft. His administration generally transferred power to the states. Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency. He also presided over the Apollo 11 landing, which signaled the end of the moon race.Richard Nixon – Richard Nixon
48. First Lady of the United States – Although the first lady's role has never been officially defined, she figures prominently in the social life of the nation. During her lifetime she was often referred to as "Lady Washington". Since 1790s the role of first lady has changed considerably. Additionally, over the years first ladies have held influence from fashion to public opinion on policy. The current First Lady is Michelle Obama. The use of the title First Lady to describe the spouse or hostess of an executive began in the United States. In the early days of the republic, there was not a generally accepted title for the wife of the president. Sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D.C. social circles. The title first gained nationwide recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as "the First Lady of the Land" while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B. Hayes. The frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes' activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, popularized the title further. By the 1930s it was in wide use. Use of the title later spread from the United States to other nations.First Lady of the United States – Incumbent Michelle Obama
49. Volunteerism – Volunteering is generally considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is also renowned for skill development and is often intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served. It is also intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster. The verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s. The volunteering has more recent usage -- predominantly military -- coinciding with the service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted. Such volunteers do not work "for free" and are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People became aware of the disadvantaged and realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities.Volunteerism – Ithaca influenza epidemic workers, July 1919, Queensland, Australia.
50. White House – The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. It has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style. Construction took between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years later, President William Howard Taft created the first Oval Office, eventually moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a area for social events; Jefferson's colonnades connected the new wings. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional space. By 1948, the house's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt.White House – Top: the northern facade, facing Lafayette Square Bottom: the southern facade, facing The Ellipse
51. Combat – Combat violence can be unilateral, whereas fighting implies at least a defensive reaction. A large-scale fight is known as a battle. A verbal fight is commonly known as an argument. Combat effectiveness, in the strategic field, requires readiness. Combat may be unregulated. Examples of rules include the Geneva Conventions, medieval chivalry, several forms of combat sports. Combat in warfare involves two or more opposing military organizations, usually fighting for nations at war. Warfare falls under the laws of war, which govern its purposes and protect the rights of combatants and non-combatants. Combat may be unarmed. Hand-to-hand combat is combat at very close range, with a melee weapon, as opposed to a ranged weapon. Maine, New England 2007. Wong, Leonard. 2006. “Combat Motivation in Today’s Soldiers: U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute.”Armed Forces & Society, vol. 32: pp. 659–663. Http://afs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/659 Gifford, Brian.Combat – Naval combat of Iquique, 21 May 1879 - oil on canvas painting by Thomas Somerscales, 19th century.
52. United States presidential election, 1972 – The United States presidential election of 1972, the 47th quadrennial presidential election was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. He received almost million more popular votes than McGovern, the widest margin of any United States presidential election. McGovern only won the District of Columbia. It was also the first time that Hawaii was carried by a Republican, becoming the last of the 50 states to do so. Ultimately, the 1973 -- 77 term would see three different Vice Presidents. Overall, fifteen people declared their candidacy for the Democratic Party nomination. The favorite for the Democratic nomination then became the 1968 vice-presidential nominee. Muskie's momentum collapsed prior to the New Hampshire primary, when the so-called "Canuck letter" was published in the Manchester Union-Leader. Subsequently, the paper published an attack on the character of Muskie's wife Jane, reporting that she used off-color language during the campaign. Muskie made an emotional defense of his wife during a snowstorm. Nearly two years before the election, South Dakota Senator George McGovern entered the race as an progressive candidate. Hawaii Representative Patsy Mink also became the first Asian American to run for the Democratic presidential nomination. On April 25, George McGovern won the Massachusetts primary. Once middle America – Catholic middle America, in particular – finds this out, he’s dead.” McGovern became known as the candidate of "amnesty, abortion, acid."United States presidential election, 1972 – All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College 270 electoral votes needed to win
53. Watergate scandal – When the conspiracy was investigated by the U.S. Congress, the Nixon administration's resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis. The term Watergate has come to encompass an array of often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration. Those activities included such "dirty tricks" as bugging the offices of political people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious. The scandal led to the discovery of multiple abuses of power by the Nixon administration, the resignation of Nixon. The affair began for breaking and entering into the DNC headquarters at the Watergate complex on Saturday, June 17, 1972. In July 1973, evidence mounted including testimony provided by former staff members in an investigation conducted by the Senate Watergate Committee. The investigation revealed that he had recorded many conversations. Facing near-certain impeachment by the Senate, Nixon resigned the presidency on August 9, 1974. On September 1974, his successor, Gerald Ford, pardoned him. The name "Watergate" and the suffix "-gate" have since become synonymous with political scandals in the United States. Mitchell viewed the plan as unrealistic. Liddy has since insisted that he was duped by Dean and at least two of his subordinates. These included E. Howard Hunt and James McCord, then-CRP Security Coordinator. In May, McCord assigned former FBI agent Alfred C. Baldwin III to monitor the telephone conversations afterward. Baldwin first served as bodyguard to the wife of John Mitchell, living in Washington.Watergate scandal – Watergate complex
54. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The capital is Sacramento. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, largest after New York City. The state also has the nation's most populous county, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. A major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. The Spanish Empire then claimed it in their New Spain colony. The western portion of Alta California then was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. If it were a country, California would be the 35th most populous. Fifty-eight percent of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the state's economy, California's industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land rich in gold. They were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. This conventional wisdom that maps were drawn to reflect this way, lasted as late as the 1700's. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
55. Francis Scott Key – Francis Scott Key was an American lawyer, author, amateur poet from Georgetown who wrote the lyrics to the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner". His father was a lawyer, officer in the Continental Army. Philip Key and Susanna Barton Gardiner, were both born in London and then immigrated to Maryland in 1726. He "read the law" under an uncle, Philip Barton Key. Key married Mary Tayloe Lloyd on January 1802. At dawn, he was able to see an American flag still waving. It has become better known as "The Star-Spangled Banner". He was D.C. for many years, with an extensive real estate as well as trial practice. His family settled in Georgetown in 1805 or 1806, near the new national capital. Key made the first of his many arguments in 1807. In 1808 Key assisted President Thomas Jefferson's general in United States v. Peters. Key also handled the Petticoat affair concerning Secretary of War John Eaton, who had married a widowed saloonkeeper. In 1832, he served as the attorney for Sam Houston, then a former U.S. Representative and Governor of Tennessee, during his trial for assaulting Representative William Stanbery of Ohio. President Jackson nominated Key for United States Attorney for the District of Columbia in 1833.Francis Scott Key – Francis Scott Key circa 1825
56. The Star-Spangled Banner – "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States of America. Key was inspired by the large American flag, the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the American victory. "To Anacreon in Heaven", with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it soon became a well-known patriotic song. With a range of one octave and one fifth, it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today. Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country,'T is of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the national anthem, also served as a facto anthem. Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. On the morning of September 14, the storm flag had been lowered and the larger flag had been raised. During the bombardment, HMS Terror and HMS Meteor provided some of the "bombs bursting in air". Key was inspired by the sight of the American flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stripes, had been made together with other workers in her home on Baltimore's Pratt Street. It was restored as part of an ongoing conservation program.The Star-Spangled Banner – One of two surviving copies of the 1814 broadside printing of the "Defence of Fort McHenry", a poem that later became the lyrics of the national anthem of the United States.
57. 1814 – As of the start of 1814, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 14 – Denmark cedes Norway into personal union with Sweden in exchange for west Pomerania, as part of the Treaty of Kiel. January 29 – Battle of Brienne: Emperor Napoleon I of France is victorious against von Blücher. January 31 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina. February – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, represents Britain at the Congress of Chatillon. February 1 – Lord Byron's semi-autobiographical tale in verse The Corsair is published by John Murray in London and sells 10,000 copies on this day. February 11 – Norway's independence is proclaimed, marking the ultimate end of the Kalmar Union. February 12 – A fire destroys the Custom House, London. February 14 – Battle of Vauchamps: Napoleon I of France is victorious against von Blücher. February 18 – Battle of Montereau: Napoleon is victorious against Austrian forces. February 21 – Great Stock Exchange Fraud in London. March 7 – Battle of Craonne: Napoleon is victorious against von Blücher. March 8 – Napoleonic Wars: A night attack by the British under Sir Thomas Graham on the French fortress of Bergen op Zoom ends in failure. March 10 – Battle of Laon: von Blücher defeats Napoleon. March 12 – Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême enters Bordeaux, marking the restoration of the House of Bourbon.1814 – March 9: The schooner Enterprise returns from the Caribbean.
58. 1607 – As of the start of 1607, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 13 – The Bank of Genoa fails after the announcement of national bankruptcy in Spain. February 24 – Première of Claudio Monteverdi's L'Orfeo, the earliest fully developed opera in the modern-day repertoire, at the Ducal Palace of Mantua. April 25 – Battle of Gibraltar: A Dutch fleet destroys a Spanish fleet anchored in the Bay of Gibraltar. April 26 – English colonists make landfall at Cape Henry, Virginia, later moving up the James River. May 14 -- Jamestown, Virginia, is established as the first English settlement in North America, beginning the American frontier. May 28 – Jamestown: The Fort is pallisadoed: "we laboured, pallozadoing our fort". June 5 – John Hall marries Susanna, daughter of William Shakespeare. June 10 – Jamestown: Captain John Smith is released from arrest and sworn in as a member of the colony Council. We had made our selves sufficiently strong for these Savages. We had also sowne most of our Corne on two Mountaines." June 22 – Christopher Newport sails back to England. June 27 – Jamestown: The colony bears extreme toil in strengthening the fort. August 13 – The ship Gift of God of the Plymouth Company arrives at the mouth of the modern-day Kennebec River in Maine. English colonists establish Fort St. George, also known as the Popham Colony.1607 – April 25: The Explosion of the Spanish Flagship during the Battle of Gibraltar, by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom (1566–1640).
59. Jamestown Settlement – Jamestown Settlement is a living history museum operated by the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is located near the site of the first successful English settlement on the mainland of North America, founded on May 14, 1607. Both sites at Jamestown are linked by the bucolic Colonial Parkway of Virginia's Historic Triangle Colonial Williamsburg, Yorktown. Late in the 19th century, Jamestown became the focus of efforts at preservation. In 1893, a portion of the island was donated to Preservation Virginia for that purpose. The actual location of the 1607 fort was thought to be underwater, lost to erosion. In 1907, the Jamestown Exposition was held to mark the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Jamestown in 1607. For the 350th anniversary in 1957, a return to Jamestown itself was considered more feasible. Attractions were developed by the Commonwealth of Virginia. At the National Park Service site, the reconstructed Glasshouse, the visitors center were completed and dedicated. An important feature was reconstruction of the bridge to Jamestown Island. The 1957 celebration continued from April 1 to November 30 with over one million participants, including dignitaries and politicians such as the British Ambassador and U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon. Queen Elizabeth loaned a copy for the exhibition. Jamestown Settlement was greatly expanded early in the 21st century as part of the Jamestown 2007 quadricentennial celebration.Jamestown Settlement – Reconstruction of the Susan Constant docked at Jamestown Settlement
60. Cape Henry – Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia located in the northeast corner of Virginia Beach. It is the southern boundary of the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. Across the mouth of the bay to the north is Cape Charles. Named in 1607 together Cape Henry and Cape Charles form the Virginia Capes. After an unusually long voyage of 144 days from England, it was an event which has come to be called "The First Landing". Soon after this landing the English colonists gave thanks for a successful crossing to a new land. The Cape Henry Memorial commemorates The First Landing of the settlers that established Jamestown. Nearby, the historic Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first in the United States. First Landing State Park protects the rest of the cape itself, as well as some of the nearby area. A well known road Shore Drive has a modern viewing of the rest of the entire shoreline in Cape Henry. NPS Cape Henry website Cape Henry Lighthouse infoCape Henry – Cape Henry from the air, facing east-southeast
61. 1865 – As of the start of 1865, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 4 – The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City. January 15 – American Civil War: United States forces capture Fort Fisher. January 31 Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution passes narrowly in the House of Representatives. American Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief. February – American Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burns as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces. February 3 – Leaders from Union and Confederacy discuss peace terms at the Hampton Roads Conference. February 21 – John Deere receives a patent for ploughs. February 22 – Tennessee adopts a new constitution that abolishes slavery. March 3 – The U.S. Congress authorizes formation of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. March 4 – Abraham Lincoln is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. March 4 – Washington College and Jefferson College are merged to form Washington & Jefferson College. March 13 – American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agrees to the use of African American troops. March 18 – American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time. The "Claywater Meteorite" explodes just before reaching ground level in Vernon County, Wisconsin; fragments having a combined mass of 1.5 kg are recovered.1865 – January 15: Union captures Fort Fisher.
62. Union (American Civil War) – The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or "the Confederacy." All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the U.S. Army; the border areas also sent large numbers of soldiers to the Confederacy. The Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war. The Midwest provided soldiers, training camps. Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64. The Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads." The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio. The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government. The term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Union, for the United States of America, is then repeated in Section 3.Union (American Civil War) – Charleston Mercury Secession Broadside, 1860 - "The Union" had been a way to refer to the American Republic
63. John Wilkes Booth – John Wilkes Booth was an American stage actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. By the 1860s, was a well-known actor. Booth was also a Confederate sympathizer, vehement in his denunciation of Lincoln, strongly opposed in the United States. Of the conspirators, only Booth was completely successful in carrying out his part of the plot. The President died the next morning. Vice-President Johnson was never attacked at all. Four were hanged shortly thereafter. Booth was named after a distant relative. As a boy, he became skilled at horsemanship and fencing. At the Milton school, students recited classical works as Cicero, Herodotus, Tacitus. Students at St. Timothy's were subject to a regimen of daily formation drills and strict discipline. He left school after his father's death. He aspired to follow in the footsteps of his actor brothers Edwin and Junius Brutus, Jr.. Booth began studying Shakespeare. His father was described as a free spirit, open to the great teachings of all religions.John Wilkes Booth – Booth, c. 1865
64. Abraham Lincoln – Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War -- its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Kentucky, Lincoln grew up on the western frontier in Kentucky and Indiana. Elected in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks, tariffs, railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, which had a statewide majority in Illinois. In 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination from a swing state. Though he gained very little support in the slaveholding states of the South, he was elected president in 1860. Subsequently, on April 1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union. His Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the political dimensions of the war. His primary goal was to reunite the nation. Lincoln closely supervised the effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond; a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. Five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Lincoln has been consistently ranked both the public as among the three greatest U.S. presidents.Abraham Lincoln – Lincoln in 1863, aged 54
65. Confederate States of America – A Confederate government was proclaimed in February 1861 before Lincoln was considered illegal by the government of the United States. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegitimate. The Civil War began upon a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although the U.K. and France granted it belligerent status. While the war lacked a formal end, nearly all Confederate forces had surrendered or disbanded by the end of 1865. Jefferson Davis later lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared" in 1865. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union. Also aligned with the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty, did not attempt it. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a goal. As Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling as soldiers, laborers. The most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864. Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraph, railroads and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were severely damaged.Confederate States of America – Alexander Stephens CSA Vice President; old Whig friend of Lincoln; author of 'Cornerstone Speech'
66. General officers in the Confederate States Army – The general officers of the Confederate States Army were the senior military leaders of the Confederacy during the American Civil War of 1861–1865. Most Confederate generals needed confirmation from the Confederate Congress, much like prospective generals in the modern U.S. armed forces. Graduates from West Point and Mexican War veterans were highly sought after by Jefferson Davis for military service, especially as general officers. Like their Federal counterparts, the Confederate Army had both political generals within it. Ranks throughout the CSA were roughly based on the U.S. Army in seniority. Initially the last of these was to be a officer only. He held it throughout the Civil War, as well as the army's inspector general. As officers were appointed by Jefferson Davis, he would create the promotion lists himself. These generals were most often infantry or aides to other higher ranking generals, War Department staff officers. The organization of regiments into brigades was authorized on March 6, 1861. These generals were to be nominated by Davis and confirmed by the Confederate Senate. These generals often led sub-districts within military departments, with command over soldiers in their sub-district. These generals outranked Confederate Army colonels, who commonly led infantry regiments. This rank is equivalent to brigadier general in the modern U.S. army. These generals were most commonly aides to other higher ranking generals, War Department staff officers.General officers in the Confederate States Army – Robert E. Lee, the best known CSA general. Lee is shown with the insignia of a Confederate colonel, which he chose to wear throughout the war.
67. Joseph E. Johnston – Johnston was unrelated to another high-ranking Confederate general during the Civil war. Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the U.S. Military Academy, graduating in the same class as Robert E. Lee. When his native state of Virginia declared secession from the Union, he became the highest-ranking U.S. officer to join the Confederacy. To his dismay, however, Johnston was appointed only the fourth full general in the Confederate army. Beauregard. In command of the Department of the West, Johnston was criticized for his actions and failures in the Vicksburg Campaign. After the war, he was an executive in the insurance businesses. Johnston was commissioner of railroads under Grover Cleveland. Johnston died after serving in inclement weather as a pallbearer at the funeral of his former adversary, later friend, William T. Sherman. He was born at Longwood House near Farmville, Virginia. Peter Johnston, emigrated to Virginia from Scotland in 1726. Joseph was the seventh son of a niece of Patrick Henry. Johnston was named for Major Joseph Eggleston, under whom his father served in the command of Light-Horse Harry Lee. His brother Charles Clement Johnston served as his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a senator; both represented Virginia.Joseph E. Johnston – Johnston during the American Civil War
68. General (United States) – General is equivalent to the rank of admiral in the other uniformed services. The United States Code explicitly limits the total number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 198 for the Air Force. This is set at 9 four-star Air Force generals. Several of these slots are reserved by statute. For example, the two highest-ranking members of each service are designated as four-star generals. In addition, for the National Guard, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau is a four-star general under active duty in the Army or Air Force. Officers serving in certain intelligence positions e.g. the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The President may add four-star slots to one service if they are offset by removing an equivalent number from other services. Finally, all statutory limits may be waived at the President's discretion during time of war or national emergency. Their active rank expires with the expiration of their term of office, usually set by statute. For some positions, statute allows the President to waive those requirements for a nominee deemed to serve national interests. The nominee must be confirmed by the United States Senate before the appointee can take office and assume the rank. Four-star ranks may also be given by act of Congress but this is extremely rare. Service vice chiefs are commonly reassigned after two years.General (United States)
69. William Tecumseh Sherman – William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He began his Civil War career serving in 1861. In 1864, he succeeded Grant in the Western Theater of the war. Sherman proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Sherman's subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacy's ability to continue fighting. When Grant assumed the U.S. presidency in 1869, he succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, in which capacity he served until 1883. As such, Sherman was responsible for the U.S. Army's engagement in the western United States. He steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War. Military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was "the first modern general". He was born in Lancaster, Ohio, near the banks of the Hocking River. A successful lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court, died unexpectedly in 1829. Sherman left Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children and no inheritance. He grew to admire him. Sherman's older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge. John Sherman, served as a U.S. senator and Cabinet secretary.William Tecumseh Sherman – Sherman as a major general in May 1865. The black ribbon of mourning on his left arm is for U.S. President Lincoln. Portrait by Mathew Brady.
70. Bennett Place – After Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea, he turned north through the Carolinas for the Carolinas Campaign. Confederate President Jefferson Davis met General Joseph E. Johnston in Greensboro, North Carolina, while Sherman had stopped in Raleigh. Johnston, escorted by a detachment of about 60 troopers of the 5th South Carolina Cavalry Regiment, traveled east along the Hillsborough Road toward Durham Station. Sherman was riding west to meet him, with an escort of 200 men from the 9th and 13th Pennsylvania, 2nd Kentucky Cavalry. The farm of James and Nancy Bennett was the closest and most convenient place for privacy. The first day's discussion was intensified by the telegram Sherman handed to Johnston, informing of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. They signed terms of surrender. The opposing generals with the assistance of Gen. John M. Schofield agreed to new terms omitting the controversial sections. The agreement disbanded all active Confederate forces in North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, totaling 89,270 soldiers, the largest group to surrender during the war. Nancy Bennett were like many families who suffered tremendously during the four years of war. The Bennett Farm fell into ruin, a fire finally destroying the farmhouse in 1921. In 1923 the Unity monument was dedicated on the site. In 1960 the Bennett Farm site was fully reclaimed and restored by local preservationists. It was then made a state historic site. Sherman, in forgiving end to the war, agreed on terms that included the political issues.Bennett Place – Bennett Place State Historic Site
71. Durham, North Carolina – Durham is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is the seat of Durham County, though portions also extend in the west. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population to be 251,893 as of July 1, 2014. Durham is the core of the four-county Durham-Chapel Hill Metropolitan Area. Which has a population of 542,710 as of U.S. Census 2014 Population Estimates. It is the home of Duke University and North Carolina Central University, is also one of the vertices of the Research Triangle area. The Occoneechi, related to the Shakori, lived and farmed in the area which became Durham. They may have established a village named Adshusheer on the site. Native Americans helped to mold the area by establishing commercial transportation routes. In 1701, Durham's beauty was chronicled by the English explorer John Lawson, who called the area "the flower of the Carolinas." During the mid-1700s, Scots, Irish, English colonists settled on land granted to George Carteret by King Charles I. Early settlers built gristmills, such as West Point, worked the land. Prior to the American Revolution, frontiersmen in what is now Durham were involved in the Regulator movement. According to legend, Loyalist militia cut Cornwallis Road through this area in 1771 to quell the rebellion. Later, farmer, made Revolutionaries' munitions, served in the Provincial Capital Congress in 1775, helped underwrite Daniel Boone's westward explorations.Durham, North Carolina – Clockwise from top: Durham skyline, North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Five Points, Carolina Theater, Durham Performing Arts Center, Duke Chapel
72. 1956 – January 1 – The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium ends in Sudan. January 3 By popular demand, Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin, is restaged live by Producers' Showcase on NBC-TV. Columbia Records first releases Glenn Gould's solo recording of Bach's Goldberg Variations. January 16 – Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser vows to reconquer Palestine. January 25–26 – Finnish troops reoccupy Porkkala after Soviet troops vacate its military base. Civilians can return February 4. January 26 – The 1956 Winter Olympics open in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. February 11 – British spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean resurface in the Soviet Union after being missing for 5 years. February 14–26 – 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. MacRae and Jones had previously starred in Oklahoma! Carousel, intended for showing in 55mm, ends up being shown only in 35mm. February 22 – Elvis Presley enters the United States music charts for the first time, with "Heartbreak Hotel". February 23 – Norma Jean Mortenson legally changes her name to Marilyn Monroe. February 25 – Nikita Khrushchev attacks the veneration of Josef Stalin in a speech "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences". March 1 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.1956 – A reel of 2-inch quadruplex videotape compared with a modern-day miniDV videocassette.
73. Containerization – Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers made of weathering steel. The containers have standardized dimensions. The handling system is completely mechanized so that all handling is done with cranes and special forklift trucks. All containers are numbered and tracked using computerized systems. Containerization did away with the manual sorting of most shipments and the need for warehousing. It displaced many thousands of dock workers who formerly handled break bulk cargo. Containerization also reduced congestion in ports, significantly shortened shipping time and reduced losses from damage and theft. Before containerization, goods were usually handled manually as break bulk cargo. The ship might call at several other ports before off-loading a given consignment of cargo. Each port visit would delay the delivery of other cargo. Delivered cargo might then have been offloaded into another warehouse before being picked up and delivered to its destination. Multiple handling and delays made transport costly, time consuming and unreliable. Containerization has its origins in early coal mining regions in England beginning in the late 18th century. In 1766 James Brindley designed the box boat'Starvationer' with 10 wooden containers, to transport coal from Worsley Delph to Manchester by Bridgewater Canal. In 1795, Benjamin Outram opened the Little Eaton Gangway, upon which coal was carried in wagons built at his Butterley Ironwork.Containerization – Shipping containers at the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in New Jersey, USA
74. Houston, Texas – It is the principal city of Houston -- The Woodlands -- Sugar Land, the fifth-most metropolitan area of America. Houston was incorporated as a city on June 1837. The burgeoning industry, combined with oil discovery in 1901, has induced continual surges in the city's population. Houston's economy has a industrial base in energy, manufacturing, transportation. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international tonnage handled and second in total tonnage handled. The city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse city in Texas and has been described as the most diverse in the United States. It is home to cultural exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts. The great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, however, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South, but slave dealers were in Houston. Thousands of African Americans lived before the Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. Houston was granted incorporation on June 5, 1837, with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor.Houston, Texas – Clockwise from top: Sam Houston monument, Downtown Houston, Houston Ship Channel, The Galleria, University of Houston, and the Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center.
75. 1991 – It was the year, usually considered the final year of the Cold War that had begun in the late 1940s. During the year, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics collapsed into fifteen sovereign republics. A U.N.-authorized force from thirty-four nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade. The Japanese asset bubble collapsed this year, leading to the Lost Years and a permanently stagnated Japanese economy. January 1 Czechoslovakia becomes the second Eastern European country to abandon its economy. The anti-stalking law, passed in 1990, goes into effect in California. Dublin begins its year as the European Capital of Culture. January 2 – In eastern El Salvador, Salvadoran rebels shoot down a United States Army helicopter and execute the 2 surviving members of its 3-man crew. January 4 – The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's treatment of the Palestinians. January 5 – Georgian troops attack Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, opening the 1991–92 South Ossetia War. The runoff for the Guatemalan presidential election is won by Jorge Serrano Elías. The All India Federation of Anganwadi Workers and Helpers is founded in Udaipur. January 7 – In Haiti, an attempted coup by an associate of former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier is thwarted by Loyalist troops.1991 – The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8.
76. Andover, Kansas – Andover is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States, a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,791. When the Kansas territory was first mapped, the original Andover area was called Minneha. The Indian name was later changed to Cloud City. The first settlement in Bruno Township was in February 1869, when Vincent Smith arrived on Dry Creek. He filed his claim on May 10, 1869. Other early settlers began to arrive in spring 1870, soon all the land was claimed. The first Bruno Township election was held April 9, 1872. The first township officers were N.B. Daniels, Trustee; Jacob Brown, Treasurer; J.D. Reber, Clerk; Isaac Newland and Samuel Reed, Justices of the Peace; William Riser and Isaac Stroup, Constables. Bonds totaling 18,000 dollars were issued for the extension of the Frisco Railway through Bruno Township. The railway was completed in 1880. G. M. Pattison homesteaded the land that became the original plot on which Andover was built. In August 1872, Pattison was given title to this property by president Ulysses S. Grant. In February 1876, the land was sold to Mr. and Mrs. Ephraim Waggoner.Andover, Kansas – Location within Butler County and Kansas
77. Andover, Kansas tornado outbreak – A strong system was due to move through the area the next afternoon and evening of April 26, 1991. This long-tracked tornado was the most destructive tornado of the entire outbreak. The Andover tornado was filmed throughout its life. It first produced extensive damage as it formed south of Clearwater, Kansas. There were no fatalities. The tornado entered Wichita city limits near 56th Street South and Broadway/US-81, crossed the Kansas Turnpike at the overpass over 55th Street South. Many people had warning before the tornado struck McConnell AFB. The tornado struck the base school, housing as an F3 tornado. It caused $62 million on the base narrowly missing a multibillion-dollar line of B-1 bombers. The path widened dramatically as the tornado intensified just east-northeast of the base. By 6:35 p.m. the tornado had expanded to just over 600 yards wide and was approaching maximum intensity. It reached F5 intensity as it tore through the town of Andover, Kansas. Thirteen people were killed as the Golden Spur Mobile Home Park was obliterated, with little scattered debris and twisted mobile home frames. The toll included a father and son who abandoned their car and sought shelter in a ditch nearby. Trees in the area were completely debarked.Andover, Kansas tornado outbreak – Damage from the Andover tornado
78. Fujita scale – The Fujita scale, or Fujita–Pearson scale, is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation. The F-Scale was replaced in February 2007. The scale was updated in 1973, taking into width. Starting in 1973, tornadoes were rated soon after occurrence. The Fujita scale was applied retroactively to tornadoes reported in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Tornado Database. Fujita rated tornadoes from Tom Grazulis of The Tornado Project retroactively rated all known significant tornadoes in the U.S. back to 1880. The Fujita scale was adopted in most areas outside of Great Britain. In 2007, the Enhanced Fujita Scale was introduced in the United States. The new scale more accurately matches wind speeds to the severity of damage caused by the tornado. A process of elicitation with top engineers and meteorologists resulted in the EF scale wind speeds, however, these are biased to United States construction practices. The EF scale also improved parameter descriptions. The original scale as derived by Fujita was a 13-level scale designed to smoothly connect the Beaufort scale and the Mach number scale. F12 corresponds to Mach number 1.0. F0 was placed at a position specifying no damage, in analogy to how the Beaufort's zeroth level specifies little to no wind. The diagram on the right illustrates the relationship between the Beaufort, Mach number scales.Fujita scale – F0
79. Horseshoe Bend, Arizona – Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona, in the United States. Horseshoe Bend can be viewed above. The Colorado River is at 3,200 feet above sea level, making it a 1,000-foot drop. The rock walls of Horseshoe Bend contain a variety of minerals, among which are hematite, garnet. Official websiteHorseshoe Bend, Arizona – Horseshoe Bend seen from the lookout point (2008)
80. Erie, Pennsylvania – Erie /ˈɪəri/ is a city in northwestern Pennsylvania, United States. It was the third-largest city in the state until 1999. It is the largest city in northwestern Pennsylvania. Erie's metropolitan area, equivalent to all of Erie County, consists of approximately 280,000 residents. The city is the seat of the principal city of the Erie, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Erie is between Buffalo, New York, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Erie is known as the home port of Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship Niagara. The city has also been called the "City" because of the sparkling lake. Erie won the All-America City Award in 1972. Cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the shoreline and bluffs for thousands of years taking advantage of the rich resources. Five nations formed a political league in the 1500s, adding their sixth nation in the early 18th century. The Erie area became controlled by "keeper of the western door" of the Iroquois, who were largely based in present-day New York. The name of the fort refers to the peninsula that juts into Lake Erie, now protected as Presque Isle State Park. The French term "presque-isle" means peninsula. When the fort was abandoned during the French and Indian War, it was the last post they held west of Niagara.Erie, Pennsylvania – The downtown Erie skyline, facing south from Presque Isle State Park across Presque Isle Bay
81. Lake Erie – Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, the thirteenth-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost, smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. At its deepest point Lake Erie is 210 feet deep. These jurisdictions divide the area of the lake by water boundaries. The lake was named by a Native Americans people who lived along its southern shore. That Iroquoian tribe called it "Erige" because of its sometimes violently dangerous nature. Situated below Lake Huron, Erie's primary inlet is the Detroit River. Lake Erie's environmental health has been an ongoing concern for decades, with issues such as overfishing, pollution, algae blooms and generating headlines. Lake Erie has a mean elevation of 571 feet above level. It has a area of 9,990 square miles with a length of 241 statute miles and breadth of 57 statute miles at its widest points. The warm summer of 1999 caused lake temperatures to come close to the 85 ° limit necessary to keep the plants cool. Also in spite of being the warmest lake in the summer, it is also the first to freeze in the winter. The "waves build quickly" according to other accounts. After being trapped for an hour-and-a-half, Baker was back on dry land, battered but alive. This area is also known as the "capital of Canada" with "breathtaking" lightning displays.Lake Erie – Lake Erie on January 9, 2014
82. Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. Pennsylvania is the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading. The state capital is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary.Pennsylvania – World's End State Park, Sullivan County
83. Erie tribe – The Erie people were a Native American people historically living on the south shore of Lake Erie. They lived in what is now western New York, northwestern Pennsylvania, northern Ohio before 1658. Their villages were burned to those who dare oppose the Iroquois, adding to their loss of life and likely forcing emigration. Whatever their individual fates, the remnant tribes living among the Iroquois, gradually lost their independent identity. Erie and Eriez are shortened forms of Erielhonan, meaning "long tail." The Erielhonan were also called "Raccoon" people, referring to that characteristic. Like all the Iroquoian stock, they lived in villages enclosed in palisades, which often enclosed crops. They cultivated the "Three Sisters": varieties of corn, squash, during the warm season. In winter, tribal members lived off the stored animals taken in hunts. The Erie encroached on territory other tribes considered theirs. During 1651, they'd angered the Iroquois League, by accepting refugees from their allies, the Huron villages, destroyed by the Iroquois. Though rumored to use poison-tipped arrows, the Erie were disadvantaged with the Iroquois because they had few firearms. Over five years of war they destroyed the Erie confederacy, the Neutrals, the Tobacco, with the tribes surviving in remnants. Dispersed groups survived a few more decades before being absorbed into the Iroquois, especially the westernmost Seneca nation. Anthropologist Marvin T. Smith theorized that some Erie fled to Virginia and then South Carolina, where they became known as the Westo.Erie tribe – Elements of Erie shown in the general area of the Upper Ohio Valley. Clip from John Senex map ca 1710 showing the people Captain Vielle passed (1692–94) by to arrive in Chaouenon's country, as the French Jesuit called the Shawnee
84. City – A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, transportation. Metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Once a city expands enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world. In terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities. Some theorists have speculated on what they consider basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to settle near others who lived by agricultural production. The increased density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example: "Western Europe during the density must have been less than 0.1 person per square kilometre".City – 1908 map of Piraeus, the port of Athens, showing the grid plan of the city
85. Erie County, Pennsylvania – Erie County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 280,566. Its county seat is Erie. The county was created in 1800 and later organized in 1803. Erie County comprises the Erie, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Erie County was established on March 12, 1800 from part of Allegheny County, which absorbed the lands of the disputed Erie Triangle in 1792. Prior to 1792, the region was claimed by both New York and Pennsylvania, so no county demarcations were made until the federal government intervened. Erie elected its own county officials in 1803. The county was originally settled by immigrants of "Yankee" stock. Erie County resembled upstate New York more than it did Pennsylvania with its population primarily consisting of settlers from Connecticut, Rhode Island and Maine. Roads were laid out, people were invited to move there. This resulted in Erie County being culturally very contiguous with early New England culture. Today, the Journey to Freedom educational program provides an interactive program on the Underground Railroad experience. It is the largest county in Pennsylvania by total area. With the exception of a several miles from the lake, running nearly parallel with its shore, the terrain is generally rolling and well watered.Erie County, Pennsylvania – Erie County Courthouse
86. Cleveland, Ohio – Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. Cleveland's economy has diversified sectors that include biomedical. Cleveland is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Residents of Cleveland are called "Clevelanders". Cleveland has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleaveland oversaw the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854. The city's prime geographic location as transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center.Cleveland, Ohio
87. Ohio – Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ is an Eastern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States. Largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River. The name originated from the Iroquois ohi-yo', meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted as the 17th state on March 1, 1803. Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes". Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their state. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. To the north, Lake Erie gives 312 miles of coastline, which allows for numerous cargo ports. Much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia.Ohio – The Ohio coast of Lake Erie.
88. Buffalo, New York – As of 2014, Buffalo is New York state's 2nd-most populous city after New York City, with 258,703 residents. The metropolitan area has a population of 1.13 million. Residents of Buffalo are called "Buffalonians". The city's nicknames include "The Queen City", "The Nickel City", "The City of Good Neighbors". The city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to'Buffalo Creek' in his journal of 1764, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. 1651–1653. Although Ellicott named the settlement "New Amsterdam," the name did not catch on. On December 1813, Buffalo was burned by British forces. The Coit House 1818 and Schenck House 1823 are currently the oldest houses within the limits of the City of Buffalo. On October 1825, the Erie Canal was completed for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400. The Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. In 1845, construction began for the movement.Buffalo, New York
89. New York (state) – New York is a state in the northeastern United States, is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, seventh-most densely populated U.S. state. New York is Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont to the east. The New York City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State. Nearly 40 % lives on Long Island. Both New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, future King James II of England. The next four most populous cities in the state are Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography. Western New York straddles Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, tourist destination. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward for trade and proselytizing. The British annexed the colony in 1664. The Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, its ideals of freedom, democracy, opportunity.New York (state) – British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.
90. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. The city features the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest. The mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, glass, shipbuilding, petroleum, foods, sports, electronics. For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment; it had the most U.S. stockholders per capita. Google, Apple, Bosch, Facebook, Uber, Nokia, Autodesk, IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served also as the federal headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, robotics, the nuclear navy. The area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The region is a hub in Energy and Environmental Design extraction. Pittsburgh was named in honor of 1st Earl of Chatham. As Forbes was a Scotsman, historians speculate that the pronunciation of the name was originally intended to be /ˈpɪtsbᵊrə/ PITS-brə or PITS-bə-rə. Pittsburgh is one of the few American cities to be spelled with an h at the end of a burg suffix. From 1890 to 1911 the city's "h" was removed but, after a public campaign, it was officially restored by the United States Board on Geographic Names. The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans.Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – Clockwise: Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh skyline; Carnegie Mellon University; PNC Park; Duquesne Incline
91. Lake effect snow – The same effect also occurs over bodies of water, when it is termed bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the moving air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores. The areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts. A lake-effect blizzard is the blizzard-like conditions resulting from lake-effect snow. If the air temperature is low enough to keep the precipitation frozen, it falls as lake-effect snow. For lake-effect snow to form, the air moving across the lake must be significantly cooler than the air. Lake-effect occurring when the air at 850 millibars is much colder than the surface can produce snow showers accompanied by lightning and thunder. The distance that an air mass travels over a body of water is called fetch. Generally, the larger the fetch the more precipitation that will be produced. In environments where the shear is less than 30 degrees, strong, well organized bands can be expected. Shear should be relatively uniform. A lower upstream relative humidity will time consuming to form. Upwind lakes do not always lead to an increase of precipitation downwind. Upscale ascent help increase mixing and the convective depth, while cold air advection lowers the temperature and increases instability. Typically lake-effect precipitation will increase to the lee of the lake as topographic forcing dries out the squall much faster.Lake effect snow – Cold northwesterly wind over Great Lakes Superior and Michigan created the lake-effect snowfall of December 5, 2000.
92. Rust belt – The term gained popularity in the 1980s. Parts of New England are also sometimes included in a broader definition of the Rust Belt. This region for decades served as a magnet for immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Poland and Russia who provided the industrial facilities with the inexpensive labor resources. As people migrate, they often coin new names for their destinations. Coming in the other direction were millions of European immigrants, who populated the cities along the Great Lakes shores with then-unprecedented speed. Famously, was a rural trading post in the 1840s but grew to be as big as Paris by the time of the 1893 Columbian Exposition. Early signs of the difficulty in the northern states were evident early in the 20th century, before the "boom years" were even over. Outsourcing of manufacturing jobs in tradeable goods has been an important issue in the region. One source has been the expansion of worldwide free trade agreements. Some economists contend that the U.S. is borrowing to fund consumption of imports while accumulating unsustainable amounts of debt. Since the 1960s, the expansion of free trade agreements have been less favorable to U.S. workers. Imported goods such as steel cost much less to produce with cheap foreign labor. Beginning with the recession of 1970–71, a new pattern of deindustrializing economy emerged. Competitive devaluation combined with each successive downturn saw traditional U.S. manufacturing workers experiencing lay-offs. In the Factory Belt employment in the manufacturing sector declined by 32.9 % between 1969 and 1996.Rust belt – An abandoned Fisher auto body plant in Detroit
93. Presque Isle State Park – The peninsula sweeps northeastward, surrounding Presque Isle Bay along the park's southern coast. It has 13 miles of roads, 21 miles of recreational trails, a marina. Popular activities at the park include boating, hiking, biking, birdwatching. As of 2007 it hosts over 4 million visitors per year, the most of any Pennsylvania state park. The Presque Isle peninsula is constantly being reshaped by waves and wind. This leads to seven ecological zones within the park, which provide a classic example of ecological succession. The Tom Ridge Environmental Center at the entrance to the park allows visitors to learn more about its ecology. Presque Isle State Park has been chosen for its list of "25 Must-See Pennsylvania State Parks". Presque Isle was formed at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation about 11,000 years ago. The earliest known inhabitants of the southern Lake Erie coast were the Erielhonan, also known as an Iroquoian speaking tribe of Native Americans. To protect the Erielhonan from the storm, their god laid his outstretched arm into the lake, giving safety during the storm. The god's arm remained in the lake, protecting the tribe's future generations. The Erielhonan are believed to have farmed on the peninsula. They fought the last starting in 1653 with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. Despite initial victories in 1654 the Erielhonan their largest village, Rique, was destroyed by 1,800 Iroquois warriors.Presque Isle State Park – Aerial view of Presque Isle toward the east-northeast
94. Presque Isle Downs – Presque Isle Downs is a casino and horse racing track near Erie, Pennsylvania, owned and operated by Eldorado Resorts. MTR Gaming Group, broke ground in October 2005 for its new facility, which opened on February 28, 2007. It contains 2,000 slot machines. The 1 mile track opened on September 2, 2007. It is paved with the synthetic material Tapeta Footings. It's the synthetic horse racetrack, longer than 1 mile in the Northeast and the first racetrack paved with Tapeta in the United States. Simulcasting became operational in August 2007. Revenue from table games goes to the local government. Presque Isle Downs & Casino now operates table games, along with 2,000 slot machines. The property is located on a 272 acres site in Summit Township. Ron Mullis Katie Mikolay List of casinos in Pennsylvania List of casinos in the United States List of casino hotels Presque Isle Downs & CasinoPresque Isle Downs – Presque Isle Downs and Casino
95. Oliver Hazard Perry – Oliver Hazard Perry was an American naval commander, born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. He was the older brother of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry. During the War of 1812 against Britain, Perry supervised the building of a fleet at the age of 27. In 1815 he successfully commanded Java during the Second Barbary War. So seminal was his career that he was lionized in the press. Many places, ships and persons have been named in his honor. As a boy, Perry lived in Rhode Island, sailing ships in anticipation of his future career as an officer in the US Navy. He was the oldest of five boys born to Christopher and Sarah Perry. Perry came from both sides of his family. Rector of the church from 1797 to 1810 had a significant influence on the young Perry. He was educated in Rhode Island. At twelve years of age, Perry sailed with his father aboard the USS General Greene. He was appointed a midshipman in the United States Navy at the age of thirteen. The ship made its first stop in Cuba, charged with providing escort from Havana to the United States. Perry's service aboard the General Greene continued with France.Oliver Hazard Perry – The Hero of Lake Erie
96. US Brig Niagara (museum ship) – As the ship is certified for sail training by the United States Coast Guard, it also designated SSV Niagara. It also often travels the Great Lakes during the summer, serving as an ambassador of Pennsylvania when not docked. Along with most warships that served in the war, Niagara was sunk for preservation on Presque Isle in 1820. Raised in 1913, it was rebuilt for the centennial of the Battle of Lake Erie. A more extensive restoration was carried out in 1988 in which much of the original ship was largely destroyed. The incorporation of new materials and modern equipment makes it ambiguous as to whether it is or is not a replica. In 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt issued an executive order standardizing the prefix of all vessels of the United States Navy to be "USS". Prior to this, ship prefixes were used "haphazardly", but ships' names were often preceded by the abbreviation "US" and the type of vessel. Of 55 correspondences that mentioned Niagara, 43.6 percent used the term "US Sloop Niagara", 32.7 percent used "US Brig Niagara" and 23.6 percent had "USS Niagara". Niagara also carries the name of "SSV Niagara" due to its designation by the United States Coast Guard as a Sailing School Vessel. Dobbins had been captured by the British after a surprise attack at Fort Mackinac in Michigan, but was able to negotiate his release. Dobbins was briefly detained again by the British in Detroit after the city was captured. On 15 September, Hamilton authorized Dobbins to construct four gunboats. Hamilton also granted $2,000 to be used for a civilian, to the rank of master in the United States Navy. Oliver Hazard Perry was given orders to report from Rhode Island.US Brig Niagara (museum ship) – Niagara near Put-in-Bay, Ohio in June 2009
97. Bette Davis – Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis was an American actress of film, television and theater. After appearing in Broadway plays, Davis moved to Hollywood in 1930. However, her early films for Universal Studios were unsuccessful. She joined Warner Bros. in 1932 and established her career with several critically acclaimed performances. In 1937, she attempted to free herself from her contract. Although she lost the well-publicized legal case against the studio, it marked the beginning of the most successful period of her career. Until the late 1940s, she was one of American cinema's most celebrated leading ladies, known for her forceful and intense style. Davis gained a reputation as a perfectionist who could be highly combative and confrontational. She clashed with studio executives and film directors as well as many of her co-stars. Ubiquitous cigarette contributed to a public persona, which has often been imitated and satirized. She was the female president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Her career went through several periods of eclipse, she admitted that her success had often been at the expense of her personal relationships. Married four times, she was once widowed and three times divorced, raised her children as a single parent. In 1999, Davis was placed second on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema. In 1915, Betty and Bobby attended a Spartan school called Crestalban in Lanesborough, located in the Berkshires.Bette Davis – Studio portrait, 1940
98. Film – This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an industry. The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to the art of filmmaking itself. Films were originally recorded through a photochemical process, then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. The adoption of special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production, exhibition from start to finish. It is not projected. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. , in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a powerful medium for educating -- or indoctrinating -- citizens. The visual basis of film gives a universal power of communication. Some films have become worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer. Some have criticized its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames. The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phenomenon.Film – A vintage Fox movietone motion picture camera
99. Television – Television or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. It can refer to the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium, for entertainment, advertising. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but these did not sell to the public. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries. The availability of storage media such as Betamax, high-definition Blu-ray Discs enabled viewers to watch prerecorded material at home, such as movies. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions greatly increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, substantially higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 1080i and 720p. In 2013, 79% of the world's households owned a television set. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel, mainly LEDs. Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, even fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. LEDs are expected to be replaced gradually by OLEDs in the near future. Also, major manufacturers have announced that they will increasingly produce smart TV sets in the mid-2010s.Television – Flat-screen televisions for sale at a consumer electronics store
100. Theater – The performers may communicate this experience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, dance. Elements of art, such as painted stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of musical theatre. There are the art forms of ballet, opera and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated. Participation in the city-state's many festivals -- and attendance as an audience member in particular -- was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and architecture. Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, the satyr play. The origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus. The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into capable of seating 10,000 -- 20,000 people. The stage consisted of a floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, clear delivery were paramount. Each might play several parts.Theater – Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, in 1899
101. Film genre – A film genre is a motion picture category based on similarities in either the narrative elements or the emotional response to the film. Most theories of genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism. The basic genres include documentary, from which subgenres have emerged, such as docufiction and docudrama. Other subgenres include the courtroom and trial-focused drama known as the legal drama. Popular combinations are the romantic comedy and the action comedy film. Films can also be classified by the setting, theme, topic, mood, format, target budget. The setting is the environment where the story and action takes place. The topic refers to the issues or concepts that the film revolves around. The mood is the emotional tone of the film. Format refers to the manner of presentation. Additional ways of categorizing film genres is by type of production. American historian Janet Staiger states that the genre of a film can be defined in four ways. The "method" judges films by predetermined standards. The "empirical method" identifies the genre of a film by comparing it to a list of films already deemed to fall within a certain genre. The method uses common generic elements which are identified in advance.Film genre – Western films are those "set in the American West that embod[y] the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier.".
102. Crime film – Crime films are a genre of film that focus on crime. The stylistic approach to a film varies from realistic portrayals of real-life criminal figures, to the far-fetched evil doings of imaginary arch-villains. Films dealing with its detection are often based on plays rather than novels. Agatha Christie's stage play Witness for the Prosecution was adapted by director Billy Wilder in 1957. The film is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who says that they are innocent. Another major part is played by the lawyer battling with the public prosecutor. She may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what really happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on no necessity for a shift in scenery. The auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. His wife hires the best lawyer available rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with quickly as possible. The popularity of TV brought about the emergence of series featuring detectives, investigators, special agents, lawyers, the police. In Britain, Emma Peel, achieved cult status.Crime film – Humphrey Bogart in The Petrified Forest (1936)
103. Historical film – A historical period drama is a work of art set in, or reminiscent of, an earlier time period. The term is usually used in the context of television. The implication is that the audience is attracted as by the lavish costumes as by the content. In the performing arts, a piece is a work set in a particular era. This informal term covers all countries, all genres. It may be as long and as limited as one decade -- the Roaring Twenties, for example. Historical film stories are based upon historical events and famous people. A film is a film that attempts to faithfully depict a specific time period. Examples include movies like Cinderella Man, Schindler's List, Lincoln. The most common type of piece is the historical period piece, both on stage and in movies. This category includes Robin Hood, Barry Lyndon, Amadeus, From Hell. Films that are set in the 1940s, such as Last Man Standing, can also be placed in this category. Other examples include Marie Antoinette, Pride and Prejudice. Many highly successful television series have been known as period pieces. Notable examples include Mad Men, Boardwalk Empire, Call the Midwife, Downton Abbey, Deadwood, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Little House on the Prairie.Historical film – Filming of a 19th-century scene in London
104. Period piece – A historical period drama is a work of art set in, or reminiscent of, an earlier time period. The term is usually used in the context of television. The implication is that the audience is attracted as by the lavish costumes as by the content. In the performing arts, a piece is a work set in a particular era. This informal term covers all countries, all genres. It may be as long and as limited as one decade -- the Roaring Twenties, for example. Historical film stories are based upon historical events and famous people. A film is a film that attempts to faithfully depict a specific time period. Examples include movies like Cinderella Man, Schindler's List, Lincoln. The most common type of piece is the historical period piece, both on stage and in movies. This category includes Robin Hood, Barry Lyndon, Amadeus, From Hell. Films that are set in the 1940s, such as Last Man Standing, can also be placed in this category. Other examples include Marie Antoinette, Pride and Prejudice. Many highly successful television series have been known as period pieces. Notable examples include Mad Men, Boardwalk Empire, Call the Midwife, Downton Abbey, Deadwood, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Little House on the Prairie.Period piece – Filming of a 19th-century scene in London
105. Comedy – The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. Northrop Frye depicted a "Society of the Old". Political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them. Similarly scatological humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love. The adjective "comic", which strictly means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage, generally confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning. The Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy worse than the average. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings. It is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, later with humour in general.Comedy – Thalia, muse of comedy, holding a comic mask - detail of “Muses Sarcophagus”, the nine Muses and their attributes; marble, early second century AD, Via Ostiense - Louvre
106. Romance film – Romance films make romance the main plot focus. Occasionally, romance lovers face obstacles such as finances, physical illness, various forms of discrimination, family that threaten to break their union of love. As in all quite strong, close romantic relationships, tensions of day-to-day life, temptations, differences in compatibility enter into the plots of romantic films. In romantic television series, different characters may become intertwined in different romantic arcs. Historical romance - A romantic story with a period setting. This includes films such as Gone with the Wind, Titanic. Romantic drama usually revolves around an obstacle which prevents true romantic love between two people. Music is often employed creating an atmosphere of greater insulation for the couple. The conclusion of a romantic drama typically does not indicate whether a romantic union between the two main characters will occur. Flick is a term often associated with romance films as many are targeted to a female audience. As such, the terms cannot be used interchangeably. Films of this genre include Dirty Dancing, The Notebook, Dear John, Romeo + Juliet. Romantic comedies are films with humorous plotlines, centered on romantic ideals such as that true love is able to surmount most obstacles. Humour in such films tends to be of a low-key variety or situational, as opposed to slapstick. Romantic fantasies describe fantasy stories using many of the conventions of the romance genre.Romance film – Tyrone Power passionately, lovingly, embraces Alice Faye in the 1938 film Alexander's Ragtime Band.
107. Hollywood Canteen – Everything at the canteen was free of charge. The East Coast counterpart was the NY-based Stage Door Canteen, which featured Broadway was also celebrated in a film, Stage Door Canteen. Bette Davis served as its president. The various unions of the entertainment industry donated the labor and money for the building renovations. The Canteen was staffed completely by volunteers from the entertainment industry. Stars volunteered to wait on tables, clean up. One of the highlights for a serviceman was to dance with one of the female celebrities volunteering at the Canteen. The other highlight was the entertainment provided by some of Hollywood's most popular stars, ranging from radio stars to novelty acts. On September 1943, the one millionth guest walked through the door of the Hollywood Canteen. The lucky soldier, Sgt. Carl Bell, received a kiss from Betty Grable and was escorted in by Marlene Dietrich. Herman Harney, got a chance to dance with Rosemary Lane of the singing Lane sisters. A Hall of Honor at the Hollywood Canteen had a wall of photos which honored the film actors who served in the military. By 1944, the Canteen had become so popular that Warner Bros. made a movie titled Hollywood Canteen. Starring Robert Hutton, the film had scores of stars playing themselves.Hollywood Canteen – Hollywood Canteen founders Bette Davis and John Garfield
108. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences – The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches. The roster of the Academy's approximately 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world. The Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2017. The Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards, now officially known as The "Oscars". The notion of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences began with Louis B. Mayer, head of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. He said he wanted to create an organization that would mediate labor disputes without unions and improve the industry's image. He met with actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo, the head of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, Fred Beetsonto to discuss these matters. The idea of this elite club having an annual banquet was discussed, but no mention of awards at that time. That evening Mayer presented to those guests what he called the International Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Everyone in the room that evening became a founder of the Academy. Several organizational meetings were held prior to the first official meeting held on May 6, 1927. Their first organizational meeting was held on May 11.Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences – Headquarters building
109. Academy Award for Best Actress – The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading while working within the industry. The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held with Janet Gaynor receiving the award for her roles in 7th Heaven, Sunrise. In the first three years of the awards, actresses were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period was listed after the award. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year. Since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actresses. Katharine Hepburn has won the most awards in this category, with four Oscars. Meryl Streep has been nominated on 15 occasions. As of the 2016 ceremony, Brie Larson is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Joy "Ma" Newsome in Room. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932 to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31.Academy Award for Best Actress – Janet Gaynor was the first winner in this category for her roles in 7th Heaven (1927), Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (1927), and Street Angel (1928).
110. Academy Award – The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS. The awards ceremony was first broadcast to radio in 1930 and televised for first time in 1953. It can be streamed online. The 88th Academy Awards ceremony was held at the Dolby Theatre on February 28, 2016 and hosted by Chris Rock. A total of 2,947 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 87th. The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, other participants in the film-making industry of the time, during the 1927 -- 28 period. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners had been announced to media three months earlier; however, changed for the second ceremony in 1930. For the rest of the first decade, the results were given at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for The Way of All Flesh. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27, 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced.Academy Award – Academy Awards
111. AFI Life Achievement Award – The Trustees also specified that the work of the recipient must have withstood the test of time. President Richard M. Nixon attended the dinner at which Ford was presented the award on March 31, 1973. Silent star Lillian Gish was the oldest recipient of the AFI Lifetime Achievement Award, at the age of 90. All Life Achievement Award ceremonies have been televised. Agreeing to appear at the televised ceremony apparently is part for selecting the award. The televised ceremony generates income for the AFI, no longer funded by the US government. DeMille Award for achievement. One living actress, listed on AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars has not received the award: Sophia Loren. Jerry Lewis The American Film Institute has awarded each year since 1973. The 44th Award was presented to John Williams on June 2016, in Los Angeles. Williams is the first composer to receive the honor. The event was broadcast on June 2016 on TNT. An encore presentation followed after. The AFI Life Achievement Award official websiteAFI Life Achievement Award – John Ford, the first recipient of the Life Achievement Award.
112. American Film Institute – The institute is composed of leaders from the film, business and academic communities. Prior leaders were founding director George Stevens, Jean Picker Firstenberg. Two years later, in 1967, AFI was supported by the National Endowment for the Arts, the Motion Picture Association of America and the Ford Foundation. The institute established a program for filmmakers known then as the Center for Advanced Film Studies. The institute moved in 1981. The film program grew into the AFI Conservatory, an accredited graduate school. AFI recognizes artistic excellence through its awards programs and 10 Top 10 Lists. In 1969, the institute established the AFI Conservatory at Greystone, the Doheny Mansion in Beverly Hills, California. The first class included filmmakers Terrence Malick, Paul Schrader. Mirroring a professional environment, Fellows collaborate to make more films than any other graduate level program. Admission to AFI Conservatory is highly selective, with a maximum of 140 graduates per year. Brooks' artistic role at the AFI Conservatory has a rich legacy that includes Daniel Petrie, Jr. Robert Wise and Frank Pierson. Award-winning director Bob Mandel served for nine years. Jan Schuette took over in 2014. AFI Conservatory's alumni have careers on the web.American Film Institute – American Film Institute
113. Katharine Hepburn – Katharine Houghton Hepburn was an American actress. Known for spirited personality, she was a leading lady in Hollywood for more than 60 years. She received four Academy Awards for Best Actress -- a record for any performer. In 1999, she was named as the greatest female star of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Raised by wealthy, progressive parents, she began to act while studying at Bryn Mawr College. After four years in the theatre, favorable reviews of her work on Broadway brought her to the attention of Hollywood. In the 1940s, Hepburn was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where her career focused with Spencer Tracy. The screen-partnership produced nine movies. She challenged herself in the latter half of her life, as she tackled a range of literary roles. Hepburn found a niche playing middle-aged spinsters, such in The African Queen, a persona the public embraced. Three more Oscars came in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, The Lion in Winter, On Golden Pond. In the 1970s, Hepburn began appearing in television films, which became the focus of her career in later life. Hepburn remained active into old age, making her final screen appearance at the age of 87. After a period of ill health, she died in 2003 at the age of 96. Hepburn famously refused to conform to society's expectations of women.Katharine Hepburn – Studio publicity photograph, c. 1941
114. AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars – The top stars of their respective sexes are Katharine Hepburn. They starred together in The African Queen, for which Bogart won his only Oscar. All actresses are from the "Golden era of Hollywood" film production. As of 2016, only Kirk Douglas, Sophia Loren are still living. "AFI Recognizes the 50 Greatest American Screen Legends". American Film Institute. June 16, 1999. Archived from the original on January 2013. Retrieved August 2013. List of the 500 nominated star legends List of the 50 winning legendsAFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars
115. Crystal Mountains (California) – The Crystal Range is a small chain of mountain peaks in the Desolation Wilderness in the U.S. state of California. It is a subrange of the Sierra Nevada. Tells Peak is the northernmost named peak in the range. It is north of U.S. Route 50. The Crystal Range seen from west of Sacramento.Crystal Mountains (California) – Crystal Range and Gilmore Lake from Mount Tallac
116. Lake Aloha – The reservoir is located within the federally protected Desolation Wilderness area. It can be reached by hiking west near the city of South Lake Tahoe. There is a moderate gain in elevation as you head west. To reach the base of Price and Pyramid Peaks, in the Crystal Range of the Sierra Nevada, you have to traverse the Lake Aloha area. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California Lake Tahoe Basin Mgmt UnitLake Aloha – Lake Aloha, Desolation Wilderness; general view, taken on 2008 08 22
117. James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. – James Thomas Aubrey Jr. was an American television and film executive. Under Aubrey, CBS dominated American television the way General Motors and General Electric dominated their industries. The New York Times Magazine in 1964 called Aubrey "a master of programming whose divinations led to successes that are breathtaking". Aubrey replaced CBS Television president Louis Cowan, slowly dismissed after the quiz show scandals. He earned "Smiling Cobra" for his decision-making ways. Aubrey governed CBS with a firm grip, it did not go unnoticed. He was suddenly dismissed in February 1965. Aubrey did Board Chairman William Paley. In 1973, Aubrey resigned then vanished into almost total obscurity of his life. A close friend for two decades, told the Los Angeles Times in 1986: Jim is different. He does his own dirty work. Jim is one of those people who are willing to say, "I didn't like your movie." Directness is disarming to people who are used to sugar-coating. It's tough for people who need approval to see somebody who doesn't. Myths and legends begin to surround that kind of person.James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. – James T. Aubrey, c. 1959
118. Kroger Babb – Howard W. "Kroger" Babb was an American film and television producer and showman. His marketing techniques were similar to a travelling salesman's, with roots in the medicine-show tradition. His films ranged from sex education-style dramas to "documentaries" on foreign cultures, maximizing profits via marketing gimmicks. He was born in Lees Creek, Ohio, USA. He earned the nickname "Kroger" either from his childhood job at the grocer of the same name or from his father's preference for B.H. Kroger coffee. The "lucky" winner was awarded with a pair of pajamas. These experiences led him to the exploitation business. It would often add material such as medical reels that lent itself to sensational promotion. Its profits allowed Cox and Underwood to retire from the business, leaving Babb to start Hygienic Productions. Babb is best known for his presentation of exploitation films, a term many in the business would embrace. According to The Hollywood Reporter, his success came from picking topics that would be easily sensationalized, such as sex. His expenses were estimated at his distribution overhead near 7 %, resulting in some of the largest per-dollar returns in the film industry. Babb's biggest success was Dad, which he conceived and produced and which William Beaudine directed in six days. He headed the promotion of this film following its premiere in early 1945, often going on the road with it himself.Kroger Babb – Kroger Babb in an undated promotional photo.
119. Eric Bana – Eric Banadinović, known professionally as Eric Bana, is an Australian actor and comedian. Bana began his career before gaining critical recognition in the biographical crime film Chopper. He also played Henry De Tamble in "The Time Traveler's Wife". In 2013, he played Lt. Cmdr. An accomplished dramatic actor and comedian, he received Australia's highest film and television awards for his performances in Chopper, Full Frontal and Romulus, My Father. He was born in Melbourne, Victoria. Bana has Anthony. "Wog is such a terrible word," Bana said. He has stated: "I have always been proud of my origin, which had a big influence on my upbringing. I have always been in the company of people of European origin". In school, Bana mimicked his teachers as a means to get out of trouble. As a teen, Bana decided he wanted to become an actor. In 1993, he made his debut on Steve Vizard's late night talk show, Tonight Live. His performance gained the attention of producers from Full Frontal, who invited him to join the show as a writer and performer. During his four years on the show, he based some of his characters on members of his family.Eric Bana – Bana at the 2014 WonderCon
120. Joseph Barbera – Through his young adult years, Barbera lived, began his career in New York City. After working odd jobs and as a banker, Barbera subsequently Terrytoons in 1936. In 1937, while working at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Barbera met William Hanna. The two men live action/animated hybrid films. Hanna and Barbera remained head of the company until 1991. Hanna and Barbera won seven Academy Awards and eight Emmy Awards. Their cartoon characters have appeared in other media such as films, books, toys. Hanna-Barbera's shows have been translated into more than 20 languages. His family moved to Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York when he was four months old. He had Larry and Ted, both of whom served in World War II. As a member of the United States Army, Larry participated in the invasion of Sicily. Ted was served in the Aleutian Islands Campaign. Vincent, was the prosperous owner of three barbershops who squandered the family fortunes on gambling. By the time Barbera was 15, his father had abandoned his maternal uncle Jim became a father figure to him. Barbera displayed a talent for drawing early as the first grade.Joseph Barbera – Joseph Barbera in 1993
121. Kirsten Dunst – Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress. Dunst made her debut in Oedipus Wrecks for the anthology film New York Stories. She appeared in Little Women the same year and in Jumanji the following year. Dunst achieved fame for her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy. Dunst starred to Lose Friends & Alienate People. She won the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and the Saturn Award for Best Actress for her performance in Lars von Trier's Melancholia. Dunst starred in 2015 playing the role of a slightly delusional and neurotic hairdresser. In 2001, Dunst made her singing debut in the film Get Over It, in which she performed two songs. She also sang the jazz song "After You've Gone" for the end credits of the film The Cat's Meow. Dunst was born in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, to Inez and Klaus Dunst. She has a younger brother, Christian. Her mother was an artist and one-time gallery owner. Dunst's father is German, originally from Hamburg, Dunst's mother was born in New Jersey. Until the age of eleven, Dunst lived in Brick Township, New Jersey, where she attended Ranney School. In 1995, her mother filed for divorce.Kirsten Dunst – Dunst at the 2013 premiere of Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues in Sydney, Australia
122. Judy Garland – Judy Garland was an American singer, actress, vaudevillian. She was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. Garland made more than two dozen films including nine with Mickey Rooney. Garland's most famous role was as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz. Notable roles at MGM included Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls and Easter Parade. After 15 years, Garland was made record-breaking concert appearances, a successful recording career, her own Emmy nominated television series. Film appearances included two Academy Award nominated performances in A Star Is Born and Judgment at Nuremberg. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. Garland was the first woman to win a Grammy for Album of the Year for her live recording of Judy at Carnegie Hall. In 1997, she was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of American cinema. From a young age, she struggled in her personal life. The pressures of adolescent stardom sent her at age eighteen. Her self-image was manipulated her on-screen physical appearance.Judy Garland – Garland's birthplace in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, now a museum
123. Jake Gyllenhaal – Jacob Benjamin "Jake" Gyllenhaal is an American actor. In 2005, he portrayed Jack Twist in Ang Lee's Brokeback Mountain. He was born in Los Angeles, screenwriter Naomi Foner and film director Stephen Gyllenhaal. His older sister, appeared in the film Donnie Darko. Gyllenhaal's father, raised as a Swedenborgian, is a descendant of the noble Gyllenhaal family. Jake's last ancestor to be born in Sweden was his great-great-grandfather, Anders Leonard Gyllenhaal. Jake's mother was born in New York City, to a Jewish family that emigrated from Russia and Poland. Gyllenhaal has said that he considers himself Jewish. Gyllenhaal said his parents encouraged artistic expression: "I do have parents who constantly supported me in certain ways. In other ways, they were lacking. Definitely, it's in creativity where my family has always been at." As a child, Gyllenhaal was regularly exposed to filmmaking due to his family's deep ties to the industry. Gyllenhaal made his acting debut in City Slickers. His parents did not allow him to appear in the 1992 film The Mighty Ducks because it would have required his leaving home for two months. In subsequent years, his parents allowed him to audition for roles but regularly forbade him to take them if he were chosen.Jake Gyllenhaal – Gyllenhaal at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival
124. Maggie Gyllenhaal – Margalit Ruth "Maggie" Gyllenhaal Sarsgaard is an American actress. She is the daughter of filmmakers Stephen Gyllenhaal and Naomi Achs and the older sister of actor Jake Gyllenhaal. Gyllenhaal appeared in the psychological film Donnie Darko. She garnered critical praise for starring as Lee Holloway in Secretary, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award. For her performance in Sherrybaby, she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. She also received recognition for starring as Rachel Dawes in The Dark Knight. For her performance in the musical-drama Crazy Heart, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She subsequently starred in Nanny McPhee and the Big Bang, Won't Back Down and Frank, for which she was nominated for a BIFA Award. In 2014, she made her Broadway debut in a revival of The Real Thing, also starred in the television BBC miniseries The Honourable Woman. For her performance in the latter she won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Emmy Award. Gyllenhaal was born in New York City, the daughter of Naomi Foner Gyllenhaal and Stephen Gyllenhaal. Her father is a film director and writer and her mother is a screenwriter. She has one sibling, actor Jake Gyllenhaal. Her father, raised in the Swedenborgian religion, is of Swedish and English ancestry, is a member of the Gyllenhaal family. Her mother was born in New York City, is from a Jewish family which emigrated from Russia and Poland.Maggie Gyllenhaal – Gyllenhaal at the 2010 Academy Awards
125. Anthony Michael Hall – Michael Anthony Hall, known professionally as Anthony Michael Hall, is an American actor, film producer, director who starred in several teen-oriented films of the 1980s. He made his screen debut in 1980. His films with director-screenwriter John Hughes, beginning with the popular 1983 comedy the coming-of-age comedy Sixteen Candles, shaped his early career. Hall's next movies with Hughes were The Breakfast Club and Weird Science both in 1985. After a series of minor roles in the 1990s, Hall starred in the 1999 television film Pirates of Silicon Valley. Hall had the leading role in The Dead Zone, from 2002 to 2007. During its run, the show was one of the highest-rated cable series. He was born in a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. He is the only child of blues-jazz singer Mercedes Hall's first marriage. She divorced Hall's father, an auto-body-shop owner, when their son was six months old. When Hall was three, his mother relocated to the West Coast where she found work as a featured singer. After a half, they returned to the East, eventually moving to New York City, where Hall grew up. Hall's ancestry is Italian. Hall has Mary Chestaro, from his mother's second marriage to Thomas Chestaro, a show business manager. His half-sister is pursuing a career as a singer under the name of Mary C. Hall uses Anthony, rather than Michael.Anthony Michael Hall – Hall at the 2013 Wizard World New York Experience in Manhattan.
126. William Hanna – After working odd jobs in the first months of the Depression, Hanna joined the Harman and Ising animation studio in 1930. During the 1930s, Hanna steadily gained prominence while working on cartoons such as Captain and the Kids. In 1937, while working at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Hanna met Joseph Barbera. The two men live action/animated hybrid films. Hanna and Barbera remained heads of the company until 1991. Hanna and Barbera won seven Academy Awards and eight Emmy Awards. Their cartoon characters have appeared in other media such as films, books, toys. Hanna–Barbera's shows had a worldwide audience of over 300 million people in their 1960s heyday, have been translated into more than 28 languages. William Hanna was born to William John and Avice Joyce Hanna in Melrose, New Mexico. He was the third of the only son. Hanna claimed there was sibling rivalry in their home. Hanna described his family as "a Irish-American family". When Hanna was three years old, the family moved to Oregon, where his father worked on the Balm Creek Dam. It was here that Hanna developed his love of the outdoors. The family moved before moving to San Pedro, California, in 1917.William Hanna – William Hanna
127. Phil Hartman – Philip Edward "Phil" Hartman was a Canadian-American actor, voice actor, comedian, screenwriter and graphic artist. Born in Brantford, Ontario, his family moved to the United States in 1958. After graduating with a degree in graphic arts, Hartman designed album covers for bands like Poco and America. He made recurring appearances on Reubens' show Pee-wee's Playhouse. He garnered fame in 1986 when he joined the sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live. He stayed on the show for eight seasons. After scrapping plans for his own variety show, Hartman starred as Bill McNeal in the NBC sitcom NewsRadio. He had voice roles on The Simpsons, from seasons 2–10 as Lionel Hutz, Troy McClure, others, appeared in the films Houseguest, Sgt. Bilko, Jingle All the Way, Small Soldiers and the English dub of Kiki's Delivery Service. Hartman had been divorced twice before he married Brynn Omdahl in 1987; the couple had two children together. However, their marriage was due in part to Brynn's drug use. On May 1998, Brynn shot and killed Hartman while he slept in their Encino, Los Angeles, home, then committed suicide several hours later. In the weeks following his death, he was celebrated in a wave of tributes. He was posthumously inducted in 2014. He was born Philip Edward Hartmann on September 1948 in Brantford, Ontario, Canada.Phil Hartman – Phil Hartman in character as Chick Hazard, Private Eye, circa 1978
128. Ethan Hawke – Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor, writer and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award. Hawke wrote The Hottest State, Ash Wednesday, Rules for a Knight. He made his film debut before making a breakthrough appearance in the 1989 drama Dead Poets Society. He then appeared before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X Reality Bites, for which he received critical praise. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for both films, along with BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to James Hawke, an insurance actuary. Hawke's parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth, Texas, married young, when Hawke's mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later. Hawke's parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, separated and later divorced in 1974. After the separation, Hawke was then raised by his mother. The two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawke's mother remarried when the family moved to New Jersey, where Hawke attended West Windsor Plainsboro High School. He later transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a secondary boarding school, from which he graduated in 1988. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, but developed an interest in acting.Ethan Hawke – Hawke at the 2009 Venice International Film Festival
129. Katie Holmes – Holmes appeared in a thriller, which won her an MTV Movie Award for Best Breakthrough Performance. In 2000 she featured in Wonder Boys which got positive attention from many leading critics. She hosted Saturday Night Live on February 2001. She had a starring role in 2003's Pieces of a gritty comedy about a dysfunctional family on Thanksgiving. Holmes also appeared such as Don't Be Afraid of the Dark and thrillers including Abandon. She was born in Toledo, Ohio. Holmes is the youngest of five children born to Kathleen, Martin Joseph Holmes, Sr. an attorney. Holmes has one brother. She attended Christ the King Church in Toledo. Holmes graduated in Toledo where she was a 4.0 student. She was accepted to Columbia University; her father wanted her to become a doctor. Eventually, she was signed after performing a monologue from To Kill a Mockingbird. She never turned it down. "I was doing Damn Yankees. And I was playing Lola.Katie Holmes – Holmes at the National Memorial Day in Washington, D.C., May 24, 2009
130. Janet Jackson – Janet Damita Jo Jackson is an American singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. After signing a recording contract with A&M Records in 1982, she became a icon following the release of her third studio album Control. In 1991 she signed the first of two multimillion-dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest paid artists in the industry. Her album under the label, Janet, saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her work. She appeared in her first starring film role in Poetic Justice; since then she has continued to act in feature films. By the end of the 1990s, she was named the second most successful artist of the decade. The release of her seventh album All for You coincided with a celebration of her impact on popular music as the inaugural MTV Icon. After parting ways with Virgin she released her first and only album with Island Records. In 2015 she released her eleventh studio album Unbreakable the same year. Having sold over million records, she is ranked as one of the best-selling artists in the history of contemporary music. In December 2016, Billboard ranked Janet as the second most successful artist of all-time. One of the world's most awarded artists, her longevity, achievements reflect her influence in shaping and redefining the scope of popular music. She has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers. Janet Jackson was born to Katherine Esther and Joseph Walter Jackson. The Jacksons were devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would later refrain from organized religion.Janet Jackson – Jackson performing on her Unbreakable World Tour, 2015
131. Michael Jackson – Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, actor, philanthropist. He began his solo career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. The popularity of these videos helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. He forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through video performances, Jackson popularized a number such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name. His distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various music genres. Thriller is the best-selling album of all time, with estimated sales of 65 million copies worldwide. Jackson's other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory, also rank among the world's best-selling albums. He is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records. Jackson has won hundreds of awards, making him the most awarded recording artist in the history of popular music. Aspects including his changing appearance, behavior, generated controversy. Conrad Murray, was convicted of involuntary manslaughter. A live broadcast of his public service was viewed around the world. Forbes ranks Jackson as the dead celebrity, with yearly earnings of the highest ever recorded by the publication.Michael Jackson – Jackson performing in 1988, during the Bad World Tour
132. Angelina Jolie – Angelina Jolie Pitt is an American actress, filmmaker, humanitarian. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, has been cited as Hollywood's highest-paid actress. She made her debut in Lookin' to Get Out. Her career began in earnest Cyborg 2 followed by her first leading role in a major film, Hackers. Jolie's starring role as the video game heroine Lara Croft in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider established her as a leading Hollywood actress. Her biggest commercial success came with the Maleficent. Her personal life is the subject of wide publicity. Divorced from Billy Bob Thornton, Jolie separated in September 2016. They have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally. Born in Los Angeles, California, Jolie is the daughter of actors Jon Voight and Marcheline Bertrand. She is the sister of actor James Haven and niece of singer-songwriter Chip Taylor. Her godparents are actors Jacqueline Bisset and Maximilian Schell. On her father's side, on her mother's side, she is of primarily French Canadian, German ancestry. Like her mother, Jolie has stated that she is part Iroquois, although her only known indigenous ancestors were 17th-century Hurons. After her parents' separation in 1976, Jolie and her brother lived with their mother, who had abandoned her acting ambitions to focus on raising her children.Angelina Jolie – Jolie at the Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict in June 2014
133. Diane Keaton – Diane Keaton is an American film actress, director and producer. Keaton made her screen debut in 1970. Sleeper and Love and Death, established her as a comic actor. Annie Hall, won her the Academy Award for Best Actress. She subsequently expanded her range to avoid becoming typecast as her Annie Hall persona. Keaton received Academy Award nominations for Reds, Marvin's Room and Something's Got ta Give. Some of her later films include Baby Boom, Father of the Bride, The First Wives Club, The Family Stone. Keaton's films have earned a gross of over US$1.1 billion in North America. In addition to acting, Keaton is also a photographer, real estate developer, occasional singer. Diane Keaton was born in Los Angeles, California. Dorothy Deanne, was a homemaker and amateur photographer; her father, John Newton Ignatius "Jack" Hall, was a real estate broker and civil engineer. She was raised a Free Methodist by her mother. Keaton has also credited Katharine Hepburn, whom she admires for playing independent women, as one of her inspirations. She is a 1963 graduate of Santa Ana High School in California. For a brief time, Keaton also moonlighted with a singing act.Diane Keaton – Keaton in 2011
134. Austin Nichols – Nichols is also known for his roles After Tomorrow and Wimbledon. Nichols starred from Cincinnati. Nichols portrayed Spencer Monroe on AMC's The Walking Dead. Austin Nichols was moved to Austin, Texas before he was a year old. Nichols was named after producers of Wild Turkey Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey. His mother, Kay Nichols, was a professional trick water skier. Kay was an international champion once. Nichols has Ashley. He attended Casis Elementary School. He began competitive skiing from the age of two. Nichols was also on the Junior US Olympic Water Skiing team. At thirteen, Nichols was ranked third in the world. He had intended to become a professional skier until he injured his shoulder in Florida, was forced to give up the sport. While at McCallum High School in central Austin, Nichols played basketball but was "absolutely awful". Nichols' interest in acting was sparked when he began to take acting lessons.Austin Nichols – Austin Nichols at the 2012 Comic-Con
135. Brad Pitt – William Bradley "Brad" Pitt is an American actor and producer. He has received multiple awards and nominations including an Academy Award as producer under his own company Plan B Entertainment. He first gained recognition in the movie Thelma & Louise. His first leading roles in big-budget productions came Through Interview with the Vampire. He starred in the cult film Fight Club and the major international hit Ocean's Eleven and Ocean's Thirteen. His greatest commercial successes have been Troy, Mr. & Mrs. Smith, World War Z. Pitt received his second and third Academy Award nominations for his leading performances in The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and Moneyball. His personal life is also the subject of wide publicity. Divorced from actress Jennifer Aniston, to whom he was married for five years, he has been married to actress Angelina Jolie since 2014. They have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally. In September 2016, Jolie filed for divorce from Pitt. William Bradley Pitt was born to William Alvin Pitt, who ran Jane Etta, a school counsellor. The family soon moved to Springfield, Missouri, where he lived together with Julie Neal. He has described Springfield as "Jesse James country", having grown up with "a lot of a lot of lakes". He attended Kickapoo High School, where he was a member of the tennis teams.Brad Pitt – Pitt at the premiere of Fury in Washington D.C, October 2014
136. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served from 1981 to 1989. She was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived with an aunt and uncle for some years. She moved to Chicago when her mother later took the name Davis from her stepfather. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, then president of the Screen Actors Guild. They had two children together. She began to work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Reagan became First Lady of the United States following her husband's victory in the 1980 presidential election. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, considered her major initiative as First Lady. She played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California in 1989. Reagan remained active in politics, particularly in support of embryonic stem cell research, until her death in March 2016. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6, 1921, at the time located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova.Nancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
137. Ronald Reagan – Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor, the 40th President of the United States, from 1981 to 1989. Before his presidency, Reagan was the 33rd Governor of California, after a career as a Hollywood leader. After moving in 1937, Reagan starred in a major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild, the labor union for actors, where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Having been a lifelong Democrat, his views changed. He became a conservative and in 1962 switched to the Republican Party. In Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", in support of Barry Goldwater's floundering presidential campaign, earned national attention as a conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California in 1966. Entering the presidency in 1981, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. In his first term Reagan fought public labor. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Contra affair. During his famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate, President Reagan challenged Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!". He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents failed to do so. Reagan had one older brother, Neil, who became an advertising executive.Ronald Reagan – Ronald Reagan
138. Aaron Sorkin – Aaron Benjamin Sorkin is an American screenwriter, producer, playwright. He was raised in the New York suburb of Scarsdale. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father a copyright lawyer who had fought in WWII and put himself through college on the G.I. Bill; both his older sister and brother went on to become lawyers. His paternal grandfather was one of the founders of Garment Workers' Union. He took an early interest in acting. He attended Scarsdale High School where he became involved in the drama and club. In eighth grade Sorkin played General Bullmoose in the musical Li'l Abner. Upon a Mattress he played Sir Harry. Sorkin graduated in 1979. In 1979, he attended Syracuse University. In his year Sorkin failed a class, a core requirement. Determined to do better, Sorkin graduated in 1983. "You have the capacity to be much better than you are", Sorkin started saying to me in September of my senior year. Sorkin was still saying it in May.Aaron Sorkin – Sorkin at the PaleyFest 2013 panel for The Newsroom
139. KaDee Strickland – Katherine Dee "KaDee" Strickland is an American actress known for her role as Charlotte King on the ABC drama Private Practice. Well known in her hometown of Patterson, Georgia, when she was a child, she began acting during high school. Strickland has spoken of an affinity for a desire to avoid sexualizing or sensationalizing her self-presentation as a woman. She was born to Susan Strickland, a nurse, Dee Strickland, a high school football coach, principal and superintendent. KaDee's birthname is Katherine Dee; her parents combined the K in Katherine with her father's name to make KaDee. I wanted to be in it". During her childhood, Strickland was well known locally for her extracurricular activities and achievements. Destiny took over. There were no other options. I felt like I fit my skin, I knew what I was here to do", Strickland said. Consequently, Strickland applied in Philadelphia. After graduating from university with a Fine Arts degree, in late 2003, she moved to Los Angeles, California. In 2006, she received the University of the Arts's Silver Star Alumni Award. According to Strickland, her role in the film helped her learn to temper her fake crying. When staying in Philadelphia, she had opportunities to take part in and around the city.KaDee Strickland – Strickland in April 2005
140. Sharon Tate – Sharon Marie Tate Polanski was an American actress and model. During the 1960s, she played small television roles before appearing in several movies. She also appeared regularly as a model and cover girl. After receiving positive reviews for her dramatic performances, Tate was hailed as one of Hollywood's most promising newcomers. She made her debut in the occult-themed Eye of the Devil, produced by Martin Ransohoff. Tate also starred as Jennifer North in Valley of the Dolls, which earned her a Golden Globe Award nomination. On January 1968, while in London, Tate married Roman Polanski, her director and costar in The Fearless Vampire Killers. 12 +1, was released in 1969 after her death, with the actress receiving top billing. Her parents had no show business ambitions for their daughter. Paul Tate was transferred several times. By age 16, she reportedly found it difficult to maintain friendships. Her family described her as shy and lacking in self-confidence. As an adult, Sharon Tate commented that people often misinterpreted her shyness for aloofness until they knew her better. As she matured, people commented on her beauty; she began winning the title of "Miss Richland" in Washington in 1959. In 1961, Tate was appeared with him in a television special he made in Venice.Sharon Tate – Tate in her debut film Eye of the Devil (1966)
141. Reese Witherspoon – Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon is an American actress and producer. Her leading role of Tracy Flick in Election was nominated for a Golden Globe Award. Witherspoon's role was playing Elle Woods in the 2001 film Legally Blonde, for which she received international recognition and her second Golden Globe nomination. She starred in the romantic comedy Sweet Home Alabama, which emerged as her biggest live-action commercial success. Her other films include Legally Blonde 2: Red, White & Blonde; Monsters vs. Aliens; and Water for Elephants. She is actively involved in children's and women's advocacy organizations. She received a star on December 1, 2010. Her father was served as a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army Reserve. He was until 2012. In 1988, her mother began nursing babies back to health in the intensive care unit of Vanderbilt University Hospital until she retired. Her parents are still legally married, although they separated in 1996. Because Witherspoon's father worked in Wiesbaden, Germany, she lived there for four years as a child. After returning to the U.S. Witherspoon spent her childhood in the suburb of Belle Meade. Witherspoon was raised as an Episcopalian. John Jr. is a real estate agent.Reese Witherspoon – Witherspoon at the 2014 Toronto International Film Festival
142. Anna May Wong – Anna May Wong was an American actress. She is considered to gain international recognition. Her long and varied career spanned silent film, sound film, television, radio. Born in Los Angeles to Chinese-American parents, Wong became infatuated with the movies and began acting in films at an early age. Wong had achieved international stardom in 1924. She spent the first half of the 1930s traveling for film and stage work. Wong spent the next year touring China, studying Chinese culture. In the late 1930s, she starred for Paramount Pictures portraying Chinese Americans in a positive light. She paid less attention during World War II, when she devoted her time and money to helping the Chinese cause against Japan. Wong returned in several television appearances. She had been planning to return to film in Flower Drum Song when she died at the age of 56. For decades after her death, Wong was remembered principally for demure "Butterfly" roles that she was often given. Her career were re-evaluated in the years around the centennial of her birth, in three major literary works and film retrospectives. Another biography, Shining Star: The Anna May Wong Story, was published in 2009. Anna May Wong's parents were second-generation Chinese Americans; her paternal grandparents had resided in the U.S. since at least 1855.Anna May Wong – Paramount Pictures publicity photo of Anna May Wong circa 1935
143. James Robert Baker – James Robert Baker was an American author of sharply satirical, predominantly gay-themed transgressional fiction. His work is set almost entirely in Southern California. After graduating from UCLA, Baker began his career as a screenwriter, but started writing novels instead. According to his partner, this was a contributing factor in his suicide. Two additional novels have been posthumously published. First-edition copies of his earlier works have become collector's items. His Testosterone was adapted to a film of the same name, though it was not a financial success. They have not been produced. He was raised in what he considered a "stifling, Republican Southern Californian household". Rebelling against his parents, Baker became attracted to the fringe elements including beatniks, artists and gays. In high school during the 1960s Baker explored his sexuality at underground teen nightclubs, while living in fear that his abusive father would find out. At one point, his father hired a private detective to follow him, when he suspected Baker was having an affair with a male neighbor. This dynamic would be used in many of his novels, most extensively in Boy Wonder. He became, in his own words, "an out of control, teenage speed freak". Baker also began attributing it to the fact that he was closeted.James Robert Baker – Baker in 1988
144. William D. Boyce – William Dickson "W. D." Boyce was an American newspaper man, entrepreneur, magazine publisher, explorer. Boyce was the founder of the short-lived Lone Scouts of America. Born in Pennsylvania, Boyce acquired a love for the outdoors early in his life. After working as a coal miner, he attended Wooster Academy in Ohio before moving to the Midwest and Canada. An astute businessman, Boyce successfully established several newspapers, such as The Commercial in Winnipeg, Manitoba and the Lisbon Clipper in Lisbon, North Dakota. With Mary Jane Beacom, Boyce moved to Chicago to pursue his entrepreneurial ambitions. With his employment of newsboys to boost newspaper sales, Boyce's namesake publishing company maintained a circulation of 500,000 copies per week by 1894. He strongly supported worker rights, as demonstrated by his concern for his newsboys' well-being. Over the next two decades, he led expeditions to South America, North Africa, where he visited the newly discovered tomb of King Tutankhamun. He learned about Scouting while passing through London to Africa in 1909. Boyce then read printed material on Scouting, on his return to the United States, he formed the B.S.A. From its start, Boyce focused the Scouting program on teaching self-reliance, citizenship, resourcefulness, patriotism, obedience, cheerfulness, courage, courtesy in order "to make men". In June 1924, five years before Boyce's death, a merger was completed between the B.S.A. and the struggling L.S.A. Boyce received many awards and memorials for his efforts in the U.S. Scouting movement, including the famed "Silver Buffalo Award".William D. Boyce – Newschildren, February 1910
145. Stephen Crane – Stephen Crane was an American poet, novelist, short story writer. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism. He is recognized as one of the most innovative writers of his generation. The ninth surviving child of Crane began writing at the age of four and had published several articles by the age of 16. Having little interest in university studies, he left college in 1891 to work as a writer. He won international acclaim in 1895 for his Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage, which he wrote without having any experience. In 1896, Crane endured a highly publicized scandal after appearing as a witness in the trial of a suspected prostitute, an acquaintance named Dora Clark. He accepted an offer to travel to Cuba as a war correspondent. As he waited for passage, he met Cora Taylor, with whom he began a lasting relationship. Crane's vessel the SS Commodore, sank off the coast of Florida, leaving him and others adrift for 30 hours in a dinghy. Crane described the ordeal in "The Open Boat". During the final years of his life, he later lived in England with her. He was befriended by writers such as H. G. Wells. Plagued by ill health, Crane died of tuberculosis in a Black Forest sanatorium in Germany at the age of 28. At the time of his death, Crane was considered an important figure in American literature.Stephen Crane – Formal portrait of Stephen Crane taken in Washington, D.C., about March 1896
146. Emily DickinsonEmily Dickinson – This daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847 is the only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson later than childhood. The original is held by the Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College.
147. George Washington Dixon – George Washington Dixon was an American singer, stage actor, newspaper editor. Dixon rose to prominence after performing "Coal Black Rose", "Zip Coon", similar songs. Dixon later turned in journalism, during which he earned the enmity of members of the upper class for his frequent allegations against them. At age 15, he joined the circus, where he quickly established himself as a singer. In 1829, he began performing "Coal Black Rose" in blackface; similar songs would propel him to stardom. In contrast to his contemporary Thomas D. Rice, he was primarily a singer rather than a dancer. Much of his material was quite challenging. "Zip Coon" became his song. By 1835, he considered journalism to be his primary vocation. His major paper was Dixon's Daily Review, which he published from Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1835. He followed this in 1836 with Dixon's Saturday Night Express, published in Boston. By this point, Dixon had taken to using his paper to expose what he considered the misdeeds of the upper classes. Dixon was taken to court on several occasions. His most successful paper was the Polyanthos, which he began publishing from New York City. Under its masthead, Dixon challenged some of his greatest adversaries, including Thomas S. Hamblin, Madame Restell.George Washington Dixon – Portrait of George Washington Dixon, c. 1836
148. Zelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Fitzgerald was an American socialite and novelist, the wife of American author F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose work she strongly influenced. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, she was dubbed by her husband as "the first American Flapper". She and Scott became emblems of the Age, for which they are still celebrated. Ernest Hemingway, whom Zelda disliked, blamed her for Scott's declining literary output, though her extensive diaries provided much material for his fiction. After being diagnosed with schizophrenia, the couple were living apart when Scott died suddenly in 1940. Zelda died later in Asheville, North Carolina. A 1970 biography by Nancy Milford was on the short list of contenders for the Pulitzer Prize. In 1992, Zelda was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, Zelda Sayre was the youngest of six children. The family was descended from early settlers of Long Island, who had moved before the Civil War. By the time of Zelda's birth, the Sayres were a Southern family. Her siblings were Anthony Dickinson Sayre, Jr. Marjorie Sayre, Rosalind Sayre and Clothilde Sayre. As a child, Zelda Sayre was extremely active. She danced, enjoyed the outdoors. In 1914, Sayre began attending Sidney Lanier High School.Zelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Sayre at age 17
149. Margaret Fuller – Sarah Margaret Fuller Ossoli, commonly known as Margaret Fuller, was an American journalist, critic, women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. Fuller was the first full-time female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first feminist work in the United States. Born Sarah Margaret Fuller in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Fuller was given a early education by her father, Timothy Fuller. Woman in the Nineteenth Century, was published in 1845. She was sent to Europe for the Tribune as its first female correspondent. Fuller soon allied herself with Giuseppe Mazzini. Fuller had a relationship with Giovanni Ossoli, with whom she had a child. All three members of the family died off Fire Island, New York as they were traveling to the United States in 1850. Fuller's body was never recovered. She was the right to employment. Fuller also encouraged many other reforms including prison reform and the emancipation of slaves in the United States. Many other advocates for women's rights and feminism, including Susan B. Anthony, cite Fuller as a source of inspiration. Many of her contemporaries, however, were not supportive, including her former friend Harriet Martineau.Margaret Fuller – The only known daguerreotype of Margaret Fuller (by John Plumbe, 1846)
150. William Gibson – William Ford Gibson is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk. He notably later popularized the concept in his acclaimed debut novel Neuromancer. These early works have been credited with "renovating" science literature after it had fallen largely into insignificance in the 1970s. In the 1990s, he composed the Bridge trilogy of novels, which explored the sociological developments of near-future urban environments, late capitalism. These works saw his name reach bestseller lists for the first time. The Peripheral, returned to a more overt engagement with technology and recognizable science fiction concerns. His work has been cited across a variety of disciplines spanning academia, design, film, literature, music, cyberculture, technology. His family moved frequently during Gibson's youth owing as manager of a large construction company. In Norfolk, Virginia, he attended Pines Elementary School, where the teachers' lack of encouragement for him to read was a cause of dismay for his parents. His mother, unable to tell the bad news, had someone else inform him of the death. Tom Maddox has commented that Gibson "grew up in an America as anything J. G. Ballard ever dreamed". A few days after the death, Gibson's mother returned them to Wytheville. At the age of 12, he "wanted nothing more than to be a science writer". He spent a few unproductive years at basketball-obsessed George Wythe High School, a time spent largely in his room listening to records and reading books. Becoming frustrated with Gibson's mother threatened to send him to a boarding school; to her surprise, he reacted enthusiastically.William Gibson – Gibson on his 60th birthday in Paris during a promotional interview for the French release of Spook Country (March 17, 2008)
151. Rufus Wilmot Griswold – Rufus Wilmot Griswold was an American anthologist, editor, poet, critic. Born in Vermont, he left home when he was 15 years old. Griswold worked as a journalist, critic in Philadelphia, New York City, elsewhere. Griswold built up a strong literary reputation, due to his 1842 collection The Poets and Poetry of America. The most comprehensive of its time, included what he deemed the best examples of American poetry. Griswold produced similar anthologies for the remainder of his life, although many of the poets he promoted have since faded into obscurity. Many writers hoped to have their work included in one of these editions, although they commented harshly on Griswold's abrasive character. Edgar Allan Poe, whose poetry had been included in Griswold's anthology, published a critical response that questioned which poets were included. This began a rivalry which grew when Griswold succeeded Poe at a higher salary than Poe's. Later, the two competed for the attention of poet Frances Sargent Osgood. After Poe's mysterious death in 1849, Griswold wrote an unsympathetic obituary. Claiming to be Poe's literary executor, Griswold began a campaign to harm Poe's reputation that lasted until his own death eight years later. He was an early proponent of its inclusion on the school curriculum. A fellow editor remarked, "even while haranguing the loudest, is purloining the fastest". He raised a strict Calvinist in the hamlet of Benson.Rufus Wilmot Griswold – 1855 engraving by Miner Kilbourne Kellogg
152. Ernest Hemingway – Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, short story writer, journalist. Understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, three non-fiction works, were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. In 1918, he was seriously returned home. His wartime experiences formed A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married the first of his four wives. He published his novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940; they separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present at the liberation of Paris. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. His mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.Ernest Hemingway – Ernest Hemingway working at his book For Whom the Bell Tolls at Sun Valley, Idaho in December 1939
153. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. – Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. was an American polymath based in Boston. A member of the Fireside Poets, his peers acclaimed him as one of the best writers of the day. His most famous prose works are the "Breakfast-Table" series, which began with The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table. He was also an important medical reformer. Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Holmes was educated at Phillips Academy and Harvard College. After graduating from Harvard in 1829, he briefly studied law before turning to the medical profession. Following training at the prestigious medical schools of Paris, Holmes was granted his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1836. He taught at Dartmouth Medical School before returning to teach at Harvard and, for a time, served as dean there. He continued writing poetry, essays until his death in 1894. Many of his works were published in The Atlantic Monthly, a magazine that he named. For other accomplishments, Holmes was awarded honorary degrees from universities around the world. Much of it was meant to be conversational. Some of his medical writings, notably his 1843 essay regarding the contagiousness of puerperal fever, were considered innovative for their time. Poems written specifically including many occasions at Harvard. Holmes also popularized several terms, including "Boston Brahmin" and "anesthesia".Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. – Oliver Wendell Holmes c. 1879
154. Jenna Jameson – Jameson started acting after having worked as a stripper and glamor model. By 1996, Jameson had won the "top newcomer" award from each of the three adult-movie organizations. Jameson has been inducted into the X-Rated Critics Organization and Adult Video News Halls of Fame. She founded the adult-entertainment company ClubJenna with Jay Grdina, whom she later married and divorced. Initially a single website, this business began producing sexually explicit videos in 2001. Briana Loves Jenna, was named at the 2003 AVN Awards as the best-selling and best-renting pornographic title for 2002. By 2005, ClubJenna had revenues of US$ million with profits estimated at half that. Advertisements for her site and films, often bearing her picture, have towered on a 48-foot-tall billboard in New York City's Times Square. She has also crossed over starting with a minor role in Howard Stern's 1997 film Private Parts. Her mainstream appearances continued on various television programs. Playboy TV hosted her Jenna's American Sex Star show, in which aspiring porn stars competed for a ClubJenna contract. Her 2004 autobiography, How to Make Love Like a Porn Star: A Cautionary Tale, spent six weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. She announced her retirement at the 2008 AVN Awards stating that she would never return to the industry. Although she longer performs in pornographic films, Jameson has been working as a webcam model since 2013. Jenna Marie Massoli was born in Nevada.Jenna Jameson – Jenna Jameson on March 11, 2008
155. James Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, diplomat. These poets usually used conventional meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. He went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School. Lowell married Maria White in 1844. His wife had several children, though only one survived past childhood. After moving back to Cambridge, he was one of the founders of a journal called The Pioneer, which lasted only three issues. Lowell gained notoriety in 1848 for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. He published The Biglow Papers, which increased his fame. Lowell went on to publish several essay collections throughout his literary career. Lowell accepted a professorship of languages at Harvard in 1854; he continued to teach there for twenty years. Lowell traveled before officially assuming his role in 1856. Lowell married Frances Dunlap, shortly thereafter in 1857. That year Lowell also became editor of The Atlantic Monthly. It was not until 20 years later that Lowell received the ambassadorship to the Kingdom of Spain. Lowell was later appointed ambassador to the Court of St. James's.James Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell circa 1855
156. Master Juba – Master Juba was an African-American dancer active in the 1840s. "Master Juba" frequently defeated the best white dancers, including the period favorite, John Diamond. Being a black man, he appeared with minstrel troupes in which he imitated minstrel dancers caricaturing black dance using the phenomenon Blackface. Even with his success in America, his greatest success came in England. In 1848 "Boz's Juba" traveled with the Ethiopian Serenaders, an otherwise white minstrel troupe. Boz's Juba became a sensation for his dance style. He was the most written about performer of the 1848 season. Nevertheless, an element of exploitation followed him with writers treating him as an exhibit on display. Records next place Juba in both Britain and America in the early 1850s. Juba faded from the limelight. He died in 1853, likely from overwork and malnutrition. He was largely forgotten by historians until a 1947 article by Marian Hannah Winter resurrected his story. The dance likely incorporated both European folk steps, such as the Irish jig, African-derived steps used by plantation slaves, such as the walkaround. By having an effect upon blackface performance, Juba was highly influential on the development of American dance styles as tap, jazz, step dancing. Little is known about Juba's life.Master Juba – Portrait of Boz's Juba from an 1848 London playbill
157. I. M. Pei – Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA, commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese-American architect. In 1948, he was recruited by New York real magnate William Zeckendorf. He retired in 1990. Since then, Pei has taken on work primarily from his sons' architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects. Pei went on to design the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. In the early 1980s, he was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid in Paris. In 1983, Pei won the Pritzker Prize, sometimes called the Nobel Prize of architecture. Pei's ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty, when his family moved to Suzhou. Finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. The family moved to Hong Kong one year later. The family eventually included five children. As a boy, he was very close to a devout Buddhist, recognized for her skills as a flautist. She invited him, his sisters to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate. Their interactions were respectful but distant.I. M. Pei – in Luxembourg, 2006
158. Edgar Allan Poe – Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre. Poe is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the American writer to try to earn a living through resulting in career. Poe was born in Boston, the second child of two actors. His father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia. They never formally adopted him, but Poe was with them well into young adulthood. Poe attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. With the death of Frances Allan in 1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City. In Richmond in 1836, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success. His wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication.Edgar Allan Poe – This plaque in Boston marks the approximate location where Edgar Poe was born.
159. Roman Vishniac – Roman Vishniac was a Russian-American photographer, best known for capturing on film the culture of Jews in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust. A major archive of his work now rests at the International Center of Photography. He was a versatile photographer, an accomplished biologist, teacher of art history. Vishniac also made scientific contributions to photomicroscopy and time-lapse photography. Vishniac was very interested in history, especially that of his ancestors, strongly attached to his Jewish roots; he was a Zionist later in life. Roman Vishniac won international acclaim for his photos of shtetlach and Jewish ghettos, microscopic biology. He was also remembered for life, sentiments that can be seen in all aspects of his work. He grew up in Moscow. He also had Katja. During the summer months, they retreated to a dacha a few miles outside the city. As a child, his room was filled with "plants, insects, fish and small animals". Young Vishniac used this microscope extensively, photographing everything he could find, from dead insects to animal scales, to pollen and protozoa. Until the age of ten, Vishniac was homeschooled; from ten to seventeen, he attended a private school at which he earned a gold medal for scholarship. Beginning in 1914, Vishniac spent six years in Moscow. At the Institute Vishniac studied zoology.Roman Vishniac – Roman Vishniac, 1977. Photo by Andrew A. Skolnick
160. Nathaniel Parker Willis – He became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day. For a time, he was the employer of former slave and future writer Harriet Jacobs. His brother was the composer Richard Storrs Willis and his sister Sara wrote under the name Fanny Fern. Born in Portland, Maine, Willis came from a family of publishers. Willis began poetry. After graduation, he worked as an overseas correspondent for the New York Mirror. He eventually moved to New York and began to build his literary reputation. Working with multiple publications, he was earning about $100 per article and between $5,000 and $10,000 per year. In 1846, he started his own publication, the Home Journal, eventually renamed Town & Country. Shortly after, Willis moved to a home on the Hudson River where he lived a semi-retired life until his death in 1867. Critics, including his sister in her novel Ruth Hall, occasionally described him as being effeminate and Europeanized. Willis also published a play. Despite his intense popularity for a time, at his death Willis was nearly forgotten. Nathaniel Parker Willis was born on January 20, 1806, in Portland, Maine. His father Nathaniel Willis was a newspaper proprietor there and his grandfather owned newspapers in Boston, Massachusetts and western Virginia.Nathaniel Parker Willis – Portrait of Willis by Mathew Brady studios, circa mid-1850s
161. Aaliyah – Aaliyah Dana Haughton was an American singer, dancer, actress, model. She was born in Brooklyn, New York, raised in Detroit, Michigan. At the age of 10, Aaliyah performed alongside Gladys Knight. At age 12, Aaliyah signed with Jive Records and her uncle Barry Hankerson's Blackground Records. The album sold three million copies in the United States and was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. After facing allegations of an illegal marriage with R. Kelly, Aaliyah ended her contract with Jive and signed with Atlantic Records. In 2000, Aaliyah appeared in her first film, Romeo Must Die. She contributed to the film's soundtrack, which spawned the single "Try Again". The song topped the Billboard Hot 100 solely on airplay, making Aaliyah the first artist in Billboard history to achieve this goal. "Try Again" earned a Grammy nomination for Best Female R&B Vocalist. After completing Romeo Must Die, Aaliyah filmed her role in Queen of the Damned. She released her third and final album, Aaliyah, in July 2001. Aaliyah's family later filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Blackhawk International Airways, settled out of court. Aaliyah's music has continued to achieve commercial success with several posthumous releases. Aaliyah has sold an estimated 24 to 32 million albums worldwide.Aaliyah – Aaliyah in 2000
162. Alice in Chains – Alice in Chains is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1987 by guitarist and songwriter Jerry Cantrell and original lead vocalist Layne Staley. The initial lineup was rounded out by drummer Sean Kinney and bassist Mike Starr, replaced in 1993 by Mike Inez. Although widely associated with grunge music, the band's sound incorporates heavy metal elements. Since its formation, Alice in Chains has released five studio albums, three EPs, two DVDs. The band is known for its distinctive vocal style, which often included the harmonized vocals of Staley and Cantrell. In 1992 Dirt, was certified quadruple platinum. Alice in Chains, has been certified double platinum. It achieved No. 1 position on the Billboard 200 chart. The band has had 14 top ten songs on the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart and nine Grammy Award nominations. The band reunited for a live show performing with a number of guest vocalists. They toured in 2006, with William DuVall taking over as lead vocalist full-time. The new line-up released the band's fourth studio album, Black Gives Way to Blue, in 2009. The album received gold certification by the RIAA. In 2013, the band released The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here, its fifth studio album. The band has toured extensively and released several videos in support of these albums.Alice in Chains – Alice in Chains in September 2007. (l-r): William DuVall, Sean Kinney and Jerry Cantrell.
163. Audioslave – Audioslave was an American rock supergroup formed in Los Angeles, California, in 2001 and disbanded in 2007. The four-piece band consisted of then-former Rage Against the Machine members Tom Morello, Tim Commerford, Brad Wilk. Audioslave's sound was created by blending 1970s hard rock with 1990s alternative rock. Moreover, Morello incorporated his unconventional guitar solos into the mix. They did not want another rapper or anybody who sounded like de la Rocha. Friend Rick Rubin later suggested that they play with Chris Cornell, the ex-frontman of Soundgarden. Rubin also persuaded the three of them to go with performance coach Phil Towle after the breakup. Commerford later credited Rubin for being the catalyst that brought Audioslave together. He called him "the angel at the crossroads" because "if it wasn't for him, I wouldn't be here today." It didn't just sound good. It didn't sound great. It sounded transcendent. And...when there is an irreplaceable chemistry from the first moment, you can't deny it." A few days later, reports surfaced that the band had broken up before they had played for a public audience. Cornell's manager confirmed that the frontman had left the band, with no explanation given.Audioslave – Audioslave
164. Bix Beiderbecke – Leon Bismark "Bix" Beiderbecke was an American jazz cornetist, jazz pianist, composer. With Muggsy Spanier, Beiderbecke was one of the most influential jazz soloists of the 1920s. His turns on "Singin' the Blues" and "I'm Virginia", in particular, demonstrated an unusual purity of tone and a gift for improvisation. With these two recordings, especially, he hinted at what, in the 1950s, would become cool jazz. "In a Mist", one of only two he recorded, mixed classical influences with jazz syncopation. Beiderbecke and Trumbauer joined Goldkette in 1926. The toured widely and famously played a set opposite Fletcher Henderson at the Roseland Ballroom in New York City in October 1926. He made his greatest recordings in 1927. In 1928, Trumbauer and Beiderbecke left Detroit to join the best-known orchestra in the country: the New-York-based Paul Whiteman Orchestra. Beiderbecke's most influential recordings date from his time with Goldkette and Whiteman, although they were generally recorded under Trumbauer's. The Beiderbecke family in Davenport, did not check Beiderbecke's decline in health. He the following summer died in his Queens apartment at the age of 28. His death, in turn, gave rise to one of the original legends of jazz. In magazine articles, musicians' memoirs, Hollywood films, Beiderbecke has been reincarnated as a Romantic hero, the "Young Man with a Horn". The musician-critic Benny Green sarcastically called Beiderbecke "jazz's Number One Saint," while Ralph Berton compared him to Jesus.Bix Beiderbecke – Beiderbecke in 1924
165. Big Star – Big Star was an American power pop band formed in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1971 by Alex Chilton, Chris Bell, Jody Stephens, Andy Hummel. The group reorganized with a new line-up nearly 20 years later. To the resulting pop, Big Star added dark, existential themes, produced a style that foreshadowed the alternative rock of the 1980s and 1990s. Ineffective marketing by Stax Records and limited distribution stunted its commercial success. After a third album was deemed non-commercially shelved before receiving a title, the band broke up late in 1974. Four years later, the first two Big Star LPs were released together as a double album. The band's third album was finally issued afterward; titled Third/Sister Lovers, it found limited commercial success. Thereafter, Chris Bell was killed in a car accident at the age of 27. In 1992, interest was further stimulated by Rykodisc's reissues of the band's albums, complemented by a collection of Bell's work. The band released a new studio album, In Space, in 2005. Chilton died on March 2010, after being admitted to a New Orleans hospital with heart problems. Hummel, diagnosed with cancer in 2008, died on July 2010. These deaths left Stephens as the sole surviving member. Big Star was inducted in 2014. Following his stint with the Box Tops, he recorded a solo album.Big Star – Big Star on stage at Hyde Park, London, UK in 2009. From left to right: Alex Chilton and Jody Stephens.
166. Mariah Carey – Mariah Carey is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, actress. In 1990, she rose from her eponymous debut album. Following a contentious divorce from Sony Music head Tommy Mottola, Carey traversed with the release of Butterfly. Carey signed a record-breaking $100 million contract with Virgin Records America. The project was poorly received and led to a general decline in the singer's career. She signed a multi-million deal with Island Records the following year. After a relatively unsuccessful period, she returned to the top of music charts with The Emancipation of Mimi. Throughout her career, Carey has sold more than 200 million records worldwide, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time. According to the RIAA, she is the female artist in the United States, with million certified albums. With the release of "Touch My Body", Carey gained her number-one single in the United States, more than any other artist. In 2012, the singer was ranked second on VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Women in Music". Mariah Carey was born in Huntington, New York. Alfred Roy Carey, was of Afro-Venezuelan descent, while her mother, Patricia, is of Irish descent. The last name Carey was adopted by her Venezuelan grandfather, Francisco Núñez, after immigrating to New York. Patricia was an occasional opera singer and vocal coach before she met Alfred in 1960.Mariah Carey – Carey performing on Good Morning America in May 2013
167. Damageplan – Damageplan was an American heavy metal band from Dallas, Texas, formed in 2003. Following the demise of their previous Pantera, brothers Dimebag Darrell and Vinnie Paul Abbott wanted to start a new band. The pair recruited former Diesel Machine and Halford guitarist Pat Lachman on bass. Although no motive was found, some witnesses claimed Gale believed that they had stolen his lyrics. The band has not performed since the incident. Lachman joined The Mercy Clinic. By 2003, guitarist Dimebag Darrell and drummer Vinnie Paul Abbott were not pleased with the difficulties heavy band Pantera was experiencing. Abbott described the level of Pantera's vocalist, Phil Anselmo, as "hit and miss, depending on what type of chemicals he was on." They thought it was time to move on and, upon disbanding Pantera, began writing new material. A demo of the song "Crawl" was sent to former Halford guitarist Pat Lachman who auditioned as vocalist. The band decided to name the first album New Found Power. The album was recorded at Chasin' Jason in Arlington, Texas, where previous Pantera albums were recorded. New Found Power sold 44,676 copies in its first week to debut on the Billboard 200. Alice in Chains' vocalist/guitarist Jerry Cantrell attended a Thanksgiving party hosted by the brothers. Darrell and Vinnie had a demo of the first song they wrote titled "Ashes to Ashes".Damageplan – From left to right: Bob Zilla, Vinnie Paul, Pat Lachman, Dimebag Darrell.
168. Bob Dylan – Bob Dylan is an American songwriter, singer, artist, writer. He has been influential in popular culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when his songs chronicled social unrest. Early songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin"' became anthems for anti-war movements. Dylan's lyrics incorporate a wide range of political, philosophical, literary influences. They appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Initially inspired by the songwriting of Woody Guthrie, Robert Johnson, Hank Williams, Dylan has amplified and personalized musical genres. Dylan performs with guitar, keyboards, harmonica. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured steadily since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed the Never Ending Tour. Songwriting is considered his greatest contribution. Since 1994, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries. As a musician, Dylan has sold more than million records, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time. He has also received numerous awards including eleven Grammy Awards, an Academy Award. In May 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama. In 2016, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".Bob Dylan – Dylan onstage at Azkena Rock Festival, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, June 26, 2010
169. Flea (musician) – Flea briefly appeared as the bassist for such bands as What Is This?, Fear and Jane's Addiction. More recently he has appeared as a member of the rock supergroups Atoms for Peace, Antemasque, Pigface and Rocket Juice & the Moon. Flea has also collaborated including The Mars Volta, Johnny Cash, Tom Waits, Young MC. In 2009, Rolling Stone's readers ranked Flea the second-best bassist of all-time; John Entwistle placed at number one. In 2014, Flea returned to acting in the film Low Down. Flea is the co-founder of Silverlake Conservatory of Music, a non-profit organization founded in 2001 for underprivileged children. Michael Peter Balzary was born in the Melbourne suburb of Victoria. He is of Hungarian and Irish descent. An avid fisherman, often took him fishing. When Flea was five, his family moved to Larchmont, New York for his father's career. In 1971, his parents divorced and his father returned to Australia. His siblings stayed with their mother Patricia, who soon remarried to a musician. He was first called "Flea" as a child for his seeming inability to sit still, the nickname stuck ever since. Flea's stepfather, Walter Abdul Urban, frequently invited musicians to his house, where jam sessions would often take place. The family moved again to Los Angeles, California, where Flea became fascinated with the trumpet.Flea (musician) – Flea performing with Red Hot Chili Peppers at the 2006 Oxegen Festival using his Modulus guitar
170. Black Francis – Charles Michael Kittridge Thompson IV is an American singer, songwriter and guitarist. Thompson is best known with whom he performs under the stage name Black Francis. Following the band's breakup in 1993, Thompson embarked under the name Frank Black. Thompson re-adopted the name Black Francis in 2007. His cryptic lyrics mostly explore unconventional subjects, such as surrealism, incest and violence, along with science fiction and surf culture. As frontman of the Pixies, his songs received praise and citations including Radiohead's Thom Yorke and Nirvana's Kurt Cobain. Cobain once said that "Smells Like Teen Spirit" was his attempt to "rip off the Pixies". He continues to release solo records and tour as a solo artist. Charles Thompson was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was introduced at a young age as his parents listened to 1960s folk rock. Thompson discovered the music of Christian singer-songwriter Larry Norman at 13 when Norman played at a religious summer camp that Thompson attended. Thompson later described the music he listened during his youth: Thompson lived in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in an apartment. Just before Thompson's senior year, his family moved to Westport, Massachusetts, where he received a Teenager of the award -- the title of a later solo album. During this time, he composed several songs that appeared including "Here Comes Your Man" from Doolittle, "Velvety Instrumental Version". After graduating from high school in 1983, Thompson studied at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, majoring in anthropology.Black Francis – Francis and Pixies headlining at the Brixton Academy, October 2009
171. John Frusciante – John Anthony Frusciante is an American guitarist, singer, producer and composer. Frusciante is best known until 2009. He recorded five studio albums with them. In 2015, he released his debut album under his alias, Trickfinger. At the age of eighteen, he joined the Red Hot Chili Peppers, first appearing on the band's 1989 album, Mother's Milk. Blood Sugar Sex Magik, was a success. Frusciante became overwhelmed by the band's new popularity and quit in 1992. In 1998, he successfully completed drug rehabilitation and rejoined the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Californication would eventually go on to sell million copies. His album To Record Only Water for Ten Days was made in 2001. A fourth album with the Chili Peppers, By the Way was released in 2002. On a creative spree, Frusciante released six solo albums in 2004; each album explored different recording techniques and genres. 2006 saw the release of his final album with Stadium Arcadium. In 2009, Frusciante released The Empyrean, which features Flea and Josh Klinghoffer, announced he had again parted ways with the Chili Peppers. He was ranked as number 42 in Gibson's list of the "50 Best Guitarists of All Time".John Frusciante – John Frusciante in 2006
172. Godsmack – Godsmack is an American rock band from Lawrence, Massachusetts, formed in 1995. The band is composed of founder, songwriter Sully Erna, guitarist Tony Rombola, bassist Robbie Merrill, drummer Shannon Larkin. Since its formation, Godsmack which has resulted in six studio albums, one EP, four DVDs, one live album. The band has had three number-one albums on the Billboard 200. Godsmack has sold over million records in just over a decade. The Scam quickly changed its name after recording one demo. The newly formed band started playing small bars in their hometown of Boston. Locally popular songs such as "Keep Away" and "Whatever" soon brought them in the Boston/New England area. They went by Godsmack from then on. We didn't really think much about it." In the same year, the band entered the studio for the first time, recording its first CD titled All Wound Up. The CD was recorded for $2,600. For the next two years, the band played throughout the Boston area. Eventually Godsmack's CD landed for Boston radio station WAAF. The song rose to the number one spot at the station very quickly.Godsmack – From left to right: Robbie Merrill, Sully Erna, Criss Angel, Shannon Larkin, Tony Rombola
173. The Greencards – The Greencards are a progressive bluegrass band that formed in Austin, Texas, are currently based in Nashville, Tennessee. The band was founded in 2003 by Eamon McLoughlin, an Englishman, Australians Kym Warner and Carol Young. The musicians originally performed in local Austin bars, soon found increasing acclaim. They have released two albums, Weather and Water, Viridian, on the Dualtone record label. Fascination, was released on Sugar Hill in 2009. "Brick", 2011, was self-produced with the direct support of their fans. Pre-production donors were recognized with their names inscribed on the "bricks" that make-up the art. Movin' On, was the recipient of local Texas awards and charted on Americana radio stations. Viridian was nominated for Best Country Album by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The track "Mucky the Duck" from Viridian was nominated at the 50th Grammy Awards. The Greencards are noted with a worldly feel, for their incorporation of other genres of music. They have been credited with helping to expand bluegrass music. Eamon McLoughlin currently resides in Nashville TN. Carl Miner, originally from Oregon, joined the group in May 2010, playing acoustic guitar. Carl currently resides in Nashville, TN.The Greencards – The Greencards performing at The Mucky Duck, the inspiration for their Grammy-nominated song "Mucky the Duck"
174. Insane Clown Posse – Insane Clown Posse is an American hip hop duo. The group is composed of Joseph Bruce and Joseph Utsler, who perform under the respective personas of the "wicked clowns" Violent J and Shaggy 2 Dope. Insane Clown Posse is known for its live performances. The duo has earned two platinum and five gold albums. According to Nielsen SoundScan, the entire catalog of the group has sold 6.5 million units in the United States and Canada as of April 2007. Originally known as JJ Boyz and Inner City Posse, the group introduced supernatural- and horror-themed lyrics as a means of distinguishing itself stylistically. They later collaborated with many well-known hip rock musicians. The group has established a dedicated following called Juggalos numbering in the "tens of thousands". The original lineup of Insane Clown Posse was Joe Bruce & Joey Utsler. John Rode left after Dog Beats was released in 1991, John Utsler left before Carnival of Carnage was released in 1992. Joseph Bruce and Joseph Utsler met on the border of Detroit, Michigan. Along with friend, Lacy, they wrestled in backyard rings that they had built themselves. They also listened including 3rd Bass, Beastie Boys, local rappers like Awesome Dre. Bruce was jailed for violating probation; this experience convinced him to reduce his involvement in life. During this time Bruce brought Utsler backstage with him, all four became close friends.Insane Clown Posse – Violent J (left) and Shaggy 2 Dope (right)
175. Bradley Joseph – Bradley Joseph is an American composer, arranger, producer of contemporary instrumental music. Active since 1983, Joseph has performed in front of more than a half million people around the world. He was a featured concert keyboardist with Yanni through six major tours, most recently for the 60-city Ethnicity tour. He appears in Live at the Acropolis. Joseph also spent four years including a 1995 performance on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Joseph is the founder of the Robbins Island Music label. His career began when he independently released Hear the Masses, featuring many of his Yanni bandmates. This debut was followed by an instrumental album recorded with a 50-piece orchestra in which Joseph wrote and conducted all of the scores. It was reached ZMR Airwaves Top 30. Paint the Sky was nominated for Best Neo-Classical Album in the annual ZMR Music Awards. He has produced numerous CDs/DVDs and piano books. His music is included in various-artist compilation albums including the 2008 release of The Weather Channel Presents: Smooth Jazz II. Bradley Joseph was raised in Willmar, Minnesota, graduating from Willmar Senior High School in 1983. He learned how to play piano from a how-to book he found in the piano bench. One morning by nightfall he could play the entire piece.Bradley Joseph – Bradley Joseph
176. Maynard James Keenan – He spent his high college years in Michigan. After serving in the United States Army in the early 1980s, he attended Kendall College of Art and Design in Grand Rapids. He moved to California in 1988 to pursue a career in interior design and construction. Thereafter, he formed the Tool with Adam Jones. Keenan is also the lead singer of A Perfect Circle. In 2003, he created Puscifer as a side project and has subsequently released three studio albums. Since rising to fame, Keenan has been noted as being a recluse; however, he does emerge to support charitable causes. In addition to his career, he has ventured into acting. He currently owns Merkin Vineyards and the associated winery, Caduceus Cellars, which are located in Arizona, where he lives. James Keenan was born on the only child of Judith Marie and Michael Loren Keenan. His mother remarried, bringing Keenan into an "unworldly household," where creative expression would be stifled. A few years later, she persuaded Keenan to live with his father in Michigan. Keenan considers this "the best move ever made." Maynard graduated at Mason County Central High School in Scottville where he was a member of the team. His father was one of the coaches for the team and left coaching at the same time Maynard graduated in 1982.Maynard James Keenan – Keenan performing as a part of Tool at 2006's Roskilde Festival.
177. Frank Klepacki – Frank Klepacki is an American musician, video game music composer and sound director best known for his work on the Command & Conquer series. Having learned to play drums as a child, Klepacki joined Westwood Studios as a composer when he was only 17 years old. His work in Command & Conquer: Red Alert won two awards. Klepacki lives in Las Vegas, where he has played and produced for several local bands. His band work touches upon several genres, including orchestral, rock music, hip hop music, soul music, funk. Klepacki has dubbed the style of music he writes as "Rocktronic". His work has appeared including the Spike TV program The Ultimate Fighter. He is currently the audio director of Petroglyph games, where he scored Star Wars: Empire at War. Klepacki composed three songs, including "Hell March 3", for Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 by EA Los Angeles. His solo CD entitled Viratia is packaged with a comic he helped produce. He was raised by a family of musicians of Italian descent who played on the Las Vegas strip. Music prevailed in his early interests. Klepacki began performing professionally by age 11. Among his early influences were electronica and heavy metal groups, including Depeche Mode, Afrika Bambaataa, AC/DC, Iron Maiden. Seeking to master guitar, keyboards, Klepacki formed local bands and created a demo tape of original material by age 17.Frank Klepacki – Frank Klepacki, from his album Morphscape
178. David Lovering – David Lovering is an American musician and magician. Lovering is best known as the drummer for the alternative band Pixies, which he joined in 1986. After the band's breakup in 1993, he drummed including The Martinis, Cracker, Nitzer Ebb and Tanya Donelly. He also pursued a magic career as The Scientific Phenomenalist; performing physics-based experiments on stage. When the Pixies reunited in 2004, he returned as the band's drummer. As a drummer he was inspired by bands including Rush and Steely Dan. David Lovering was born in Burlington, Massachusetts. Lovering joined his high school's marching band. According to John Murphy, he was always very "drum oriented" in his musical taste. After graduating from high school, he studied electronic engineering in Boston. The pair often played practical jokes while at work. One such incident involved Lovering wiring the toilet to a fire alarm. A number of different genres of music have influenced him, including bands Steely Dan, Devo. On Memorial Lovering attended Murphy and Kim Deal's wedding service. Murphy suggested that Lovering audition for the band – who were still without a drummer.David Lovering – David Lovering at the Reliant Arena in Houston, Texas in 2004
179. John Mayer – John Clayton Mayer is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, producer. Mayer was raised in nearby Fairfield. Mayer disenrolled and moved to Atlanta in 1997 with Clay Cook. Together, they formed a two-man band called Lo-Fi Masters. After their split, he continued to play local clubs -- gaining a following. His following two full-length albums -- Room for Squares and Heavier Things -- did commercially, achieving multi-platinum status. In 2003, Mayer won the Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for the single "Your Body Is a Wonderland". Though Mayer started his career mainly performing acoustic rock, Mayer began moving towards the genre that had originally influenced him as a musician. By 2005, he was collaborating with blues artists such as B. B. King, Buddy Guy, Eric Clapton. Forming the John Mayer Trio, he released a live album in 2005 called Try!, his third studio album Continuum in 2006. Continuum earned Mayer a 2007 Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album. Mayer also won Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for "Waiting to Change". That album was followed by Battle Studies to pop with a number-one grossing tour. So, the album enjoyed a generally favorable reception, though was less commercially successful than his previous work.John Mayer – John Mayer performing on the The Early Show in 2006
180. Metallica – Metallica is an American heavy metal band formed in Los Angeles, California. The band was formed in 1981 when vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield responded to an advertisement posted by drummer Lars Ulrich in a local newspaper. Metallica's current line-up comprises Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band. Aggressive musicianship placed them as one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Anthrax, Megadeth, Slayer. In 2000, Metallica joined with other artists who filed a lawsuit against Napster for sharing the band's copyright-protected material without consent from the band. Napster became a pay-to-use service. Metallica has released ten studio albums, four live albums, five extended plays, 37 singles. Six of its albums have consecutively debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. The band's eponymous 1991 album has sold in the United States making it the best-selling album of the SoundScan era. Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over million records worldwide. In 2012, Metallica formed the independent record took full ownership of its albums and videos. The band is currently promoting Hardwired... to Self-Destruct, released on November 2016. Guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar.Metallica – Metallica in London in 2008. From left to right: Kirk Hammett, Lars Ulrich, James Hetfield and Robert Trujillo.
181. Nine Inch Nails – Nine Inch Nails is an American industrial rock band founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. Underground music audiences warmly received the band in its early years. Despite this acclaim, the band has had several feuds with the corporate side of the recording industry. As the band's main producer, instrumentalist, Reznor is the only constant member of the group, remains solely responsible for its musical direction. After recording a new album, Reznor usually assembles a live band to perform onstage with him. The touring band features a revolving lineup that often rearranges songs to fit a live setting. On stage, Nine Inch Nails often employs visual elements to accompany performances, which frequently include light shows. Nine Inch Nails won twice for the songs "Wish" and "Happiness in Slavery" in 1996, respectively. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time magazine's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine described him as "the most vital artist in music". In 2004, Rolling Stone placed Nine Inch Nails at 94 on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. In 2014, Nine Inch Nails was named into the Rock and Roll Hall of their first year of eligibility. In 2015, they were nominated a second time. Nine Inch Nails music also embraces hard rock. Koster agreed and allowed Reznor to use it whenever it was empty, commenting that it cost him "just a little wear on tape heads". While completing the early recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate the material as he desired.Nine Inch Nails – Nine Inch Nails in November 2013 at the Staples Center. From left to right: Pino Palladino, Ilan Rubin, Trent Reznor, and Alessandro Cortini.
182. Nirvana (band) – Nirvana was an American rock band formed by singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen, Washington, in 1987. Nirvana went through a succession of the longest-lasting being Dave Grohl, who joined the band in 1990. The band eventually came to develop a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts, often between loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label DGC Records, Nirvana found unexpected success with the first single from the band's second album Nevermind. In response, Nirvana's third album, In Utero, released to critical acclaim, featured an abrasive, less mainstream sound and challenged the group's audience. Nirvana was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first year of eligibility. Cobain and Novoselic met according to Cobain. The pair eventually became friends while frequenting the space of the Melvins. After a month the project fell apart. In early 1987, Cobain and Novoselic recruited drummer Aaron Burckhard. The three started writing new material soon after forming. During its initial months, the band went through a series of names, including Pen Cap Chew, Bliss, Ted Ed Fred. With Novoselic and Cobain having moved to Tacoma and Olympia, Washington, respectively, the two temporarily lost contact with Burckhard. Nirvana recorded its first demos in January 1988. In early 1988, Crover recommended Dave Foster to the band as his replacement on drums.Nirvana (band) – Nirvana performing at Pier 48, Seattle in December 1993 for MTV's Live and Loud show. From left to right: Kurt Cobain, Dave Grohl and Krist Novoselic.
183. The Notorious B.I.G. – Christopher George Latore Wallace, better known by his stage names The Notorious B.I.G. Biggie, or Biggie Smalls, was an American rapper. He is consistently ranked as one of the greatest and most influential rappers of all time. Wallace was raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. The following year, Wallace led his childhood friends to chart success through his protégé group, Junior M.A.F.I.A. While recording his second album, Wallace was heavily involved in the growing East Coast–West Coast hip hop feud. On March 9, 1997, Wallace was killed by an unknown assailant in a drive-by shooting in Los Angeles. Wallace was noted for his "loose, easy flow", dark semi-autobiographical lyrics and storytelling abilities, sometimes changing his pitch on songs. Two more albums have been released since his death. He has certified sales of 17 million units in the United States. His father left the family when Wallace was two years old, his mother worked two jobs while raising him. At Queen of All Saints Middle School, Wallace excelled in class, winning several awards as an English student. He was nicknamed "Big" because of his overweight size by age 10. He said he started dealing drugs when he was around the age of 12. His mother, often away at work, did not know of her son's drug dealing until Wallace was an adult. According to his mother, Wallace was still a good student, but he developed a "smart-ass" attitude at the new school.The Notorious B.I.G. – The Notorious B.I.G
184. Leo Ornstein – Leo Ornstein was a Russian-American composer and pianist of the early twentieth century. His performances of his own innovative and even shocking pieces made him a cause célèbre on both sides of the Atlantic. Ornstein was the important composer to make extensive use of the tone cluster. As a pianist, he was considered a world-class talent. By the mid-1920s, he had soon disappeared from popular memory. Though he gave his public concert before the age of forty, he continued writing music for another half-century and beyond. Largely forgotten for decades, he was rediscovered in the mid-1970s. Ornstein completed his eighth and final piano sonata at the age of ninety-four making him the oldest published composer in history. Ornstein was born under Imperial Russian rule. He grew up in a musical environment -- his father was a Jewish cantor, while a uncle encouraged the young boy's studies. Hofmann gave a letter of recommendation to the highly regarded St. Petersburg Conservatory. Soon after, Ornstein was accepted in Kiev, then headed by Vladimir Puchalsky. A death in the family forced Ornstein's home. In 1903, Osip Gabrilovich heard him recommended him to the Moscow Conservatory. In 1904, the eight-year-old Ornstein was accepted by the St. Petersburg school.Leo Ornstein – Leo Ornstein as a young man
185. Ellis Paul – Ellis Paul is an American singer-songwriter and folk musician. Having grown up in a small town in Maine, Paul attended Boston College on a scholarship where he majored in English. An athletic injury sustained during his junior year changed the course of his professional career. After graduating from college he began playing at open mic nights while working with inner-city school children. He has released a DVD that includes a live performance, guitar instruction, a road-trip documentary. In 2014 his children's CD Hero in You was published by Albert Whitman & Company. Ellis Paul was born in Fort Kent, Maine, -- US border. Schools in the area closed for three weeks each year so that school children could help with the harvest. Paul spent many hours working on his grandfather's farm. The former Marilyn Bonney of Buckfield, Maine, is a University of Maine graduate and was an extension agent for northern Aroostook County. Her husband often worked together on special projects for the service. In the 1960s, Mrs. Plissey produced her own television show "The Aroostook Homemaker" which aired every third week on Presque Isle station WAGM-TV. While attending high school in Maine, Paul listened to Top-40 radio and participated in track. He played trumpet in the school's band where he was introduced to the big band jazz music of Stan Kenton and Maynard Ferguson. He excelled in track, becoming the Maine State champion in a feat that garnered several scholarship offers, including an offer from Boston College.Ellis Paul – Paul performing at the University of Maine at Presque Isle May 18, 2014
186. Pearl Jam – Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1990. Since its inception, the band's line-up has comprised Eddie Vedder, Mike McCready, Jeff Ament. The band's fifth member is drummer Matt Cameron, since 1998. Boom Gaspar has also been a session/touring member since 2002. Drummers Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain, Jack Irons are former members of the band. Formed after Ament's previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame." To date, the band has sold an estimated 60 million worldwide. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic referred as "the most popular American rock & roll band of the'90s". Pearl Jam is to be inducted on April 7, 2017, in their first year of eligibility. Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament were members of grunge band Green River during the mid-1980s. In late 1987, Gossard and Ament began eventually organizing the band Mother Love Bone. Apple, was released in July 1990, four months after Wood died of a heroin overdose. Ament and Gossard were devastated by the resulting demise of Mother Love Bone. Gossard spent his time afterwards writing material, harder-edged than what he had been doing previously.Pearl Jam – Pearl Jam performing in 2012. From left to right: McCready, Ament, Cameron, Vedder and Gossard.
187. Pixies – The Pixies are an American alternative rock band formed in 1986 in Boston, Massachusetts. Until 2013, the band comprised Black Francis, Joey Santiago, David Lovering. The band reunited in 2004. Deal was replaced by Kim Shattuck and then Paz Lenchantin. The Pixies' music contains elements including psychedelia, noise pop, hard rock, surf rock. Francis is the Pixies' primary songwriter; his often surreal lyrics cover offbeat subjects such as extraterrestrials, biblical violence. The Pixies were more successful in the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and Israel. Their jarring sound influenced bands such as Nirvana, Radiohead, the Strokes, Blur and Weezer. Their popularity grew in the years following their break-up, leading to sold-out world tours following their reunion in 2004. In June 2013, they released their new material in almost 10 years. Guitarist Joey Santiago and songwriter Black Francis met when they lived next to each other in a suite while attending the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Although Santiago was worried about distractions, he noticed Francis played the pair began to jam together. Francis embarked to Puerto Rico to study Spanish. After six months, he dropped out of the university. Francis and Santiago spent 1984 writing lyrics on the subway train.Pixies – The Pixies performing in June 2004. Left to right: Joey Santiago, Black Francis, David Lovering, and Kim Deal.
188. Elvis Presley – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, as a twinless twin—his brother was stillborn. When he was 13 years old, he and his family relocated to Memphis, Tennessee. His music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who managed the singer for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the leading figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records. In November 1956, he made his film debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service. In 1973, Presley was featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of prescription drug abuse severely damaged his health, he died in 1977 at the age of 42. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century. He won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. As an only child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother.Elvis Presley – Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
189. Selena – Selena Quintanilla-Pérez was an American singer, songwriter, spokesperson, actress, fashion designer. Called the Queen of Tejano music, her contributions to fashion made her one of the most celebrated Mexican-American entertainers of the late 20th century. Billboard magazine named the "top Latin artist of the'90s" and the "best selling Latin artist of the decade". Media outlets called the "Tejano Madonna" for her clothing choices. She also is credited for catapulting a music genre into the mainstream market. Selena began recording professionally in 1982. In the 1980s, she was refused bookings at venues across Texas for performing Tejano music -- a male-dominated music genre. However, her popularity grew after she won the Tejano Music Award for Female Vocalist of the Year in 1986, which she won nine consecutive times. Selena released her self-titled debut album the same year, while her brother became her principal music producer and songwriter. Selena released a Mi Mundo, which peaked at number one on the U.S. Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart for 19 nonconsecutive weeks. The album's commercial success led music critics to call the "breakthrough" recording of her musical career. One of its singles, "Como La Flor", became one of her most popular signature songs. Live! won Best Mexican/American Album at the 1994 Grammy Awards, becoming the first recording by a Tejano artist to do so. In 1994, Selena released Amor Prohibido, which became one of the Latin albums in the United States. Selena began recording English-language songs for her album.Selena – Selena as photographed by Agree shampoo staff in 1995
190. Slayer – Slayer is an American thrash metal band from Huntington Park, California, formed in 1981 by guitarists Jeff Hanneman and Kerry King. Four of the band's studio albums have received gold certification in the United States. Slayer has also played at several music festivals worldwide, including Unholy Alliance, Download and Ozzfest. Slayer's musical style involves double bass drumming, riffs in irregular scales and shouted vocals. However, its music has been highly influential, often being cited by many bands as an musically, visually, lyrically. Between 2013, the band sold 4.9 million albums in the United States. Slayer was founded in 1981, when guitarist Kerry King met guitarist Jeff Hanneman. Upon meeting, the two quickly discovered they had similar taste in their aspirations. King soon recruited Chilean-born bassist and vocalist Tom Araya, who had played with King before in the band Quits. The band played cover versions of Iron Maiden and Judas Priest songs in Southern California. Early shows relied on a Satanic image, which featured pentagrams, make-up, inverted crosses. The band was invited to open for Bitch in Anaheim, California performing eight songs, six of which were covers. Impressed with Slayer, he asked them to record an original song, "Aggressive Perfector", for his upcoming Metal Massacre III compilation. The song created underground buzz, which led to Slagel offering the band a recording contract with Metal Blade. Without a recording budget, the band was forced to self-finance its album.Slayer – Slayer at the Mayhem Festival 2009. From left to right: Tom Araya, Dave Lombardo, and Kerry King.
191. The Smashing Pumpkins – The Smashing Pumpkins are an American alternative rock band from Chicago, Illinois, formed in 1988. Formed by frontman Billy Corgan and James Iha, the band included D'arcy Wretzky and Jimmy Chamberlin in its original incarnation. It has undergone many line-up changes with the current lineup being rhythm guitarist Jeff Schroeder. The Smashing Pumpkins broke with 1993's Siamese Dream. However, diminishing record sales led to a 2000 break-up. In 2006, Corgan and Chamberlin reconvened to record a new Smashing Pumpkins album, Zeitgeist. After touring throughout 2007 and 2008 with a lineup including new guitarist Jeff Schroeder, Chamberlin left the band in early 2009. By mid-2016, Corgan stated that they were considering reforming the band's original lineup, though no concrete plans have been revealed. While working there, he met guitarist James Iha. Adorning themselves with paisley and other psychedelic trappings, the two began writing songs together that were heavily influenced by The Cure and New Order. The duo performed live for the first time on July 9, 1988 at the Polish bar Chicago 21. This performance included only Corgan on bass and Iha on guitar with a drum machine. Thereafter, Corgan met D'arcy Wretzky by the Dan Reed Network where they argued the merits of the band. After finding out Wretzky played guitar, the now-trio played a show at the Avalon Nightclub. After this show, Cabaret Metro owner Joe Shanahan agreed to book the band on the condition that they replace the drum machine with a live drummer.The Smashing Pumpkins – 2012 line-up of The Smashing Pumpkins (left to right): Nicole Fiorentino, Billy Corgan, and Jeff Schroeder (Mike Byrne is obscured at the drums) performing at Chaifetz Arena in St Louis, Missouri, on October 18, 2012
192. Elliott Smith – Steven Paul "Elliott" Smith was an American singer, songwriter, musician. Smith was born in Omaha, Nebraska, lived for much of his life in Portland, Oregon, where he first gained popularity. Smith's primary instrument was the guitar, though he was also proficient with piano, clarinet, bass guitar, harmonica. Smith had a distinctive vocal style, characterized by his "whispery, spiderweb-thin delivery", used multi-tracking to create vocal layers, harmonies. In 1997, he signed a contract with DreamWorks Records, for which he recorded two albums. These topics often appear in his lyrics. In 2003, aged 34, he died to the chest. The autopsy evidence was inconclusive as to whether the wounds were self-inflicted. Smith moved with his mother to Duncanville, Texas. But I won't forget about it, although I'm tempted to because I don't like it there." Smith endured a troubled relationship with his stepfather Charlie Welch. Smith stated he may have been sexually abused at a young age, an allegation which Welch has denied. The name "Charlie" also appears in songs "Flowers for Charlie" and "No Confidence Man." It's not my place to say what." For much of his childhood, Smith's family began attending services at a local Methodist Church.Elliott Smith – Smith performing in Los Angeles, February 2003
193. Gwen Stefani – Gwen Renée Stefani is an American singer, songwriter, fashion designer. During the band's hiatus, Stefani embarked by releasing her debut studio Love. Angel. Music. Baby. Inspired from the 1980s, the album was met with both commercial success. In 2006 Stefani released her second studio album The Sweet Escape. The album produced two successful singles: "Wind It Up" and the album's title track "The Sweet Escape". Stefani has won three Grammy Awards. As a artist she has received several accolades, including an American Music Award, Brit Award, two Billboard Music Awards. In 2003, she expanded her collection with drawing inspiration from Japanese culture and fashion. Stefani performs and makes public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She was married to British musician Gavin Rossdale from 2002 to 2015 and they have three sons. Billboard magazine ranked Stefani the 54th most successful artist and 37th most successful Hot 100 artist of the 2000–09 decade. VH1 ranked her 13th on their "100 Greatest Women in Music" list in 2012.Gwen Stefani – Stefani at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival
194. The Supremes – The Supremes were an American female singing group and the premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s. Most of these hits were produced by Motown's main songwriting and production team, Holland -- Dozier -- Holland. The group signed with Motown the following year as the Supremes. Ross, Ballard, Wilson carried on as a trio. During the mid-1960s, the Supremes achieved mainstream success as lead singer. In 1967, Motown president Berry Gordy replaced Ballard with Cindy Birdsong. Ross was replaced by Jean Terrell, at which point the group's name reverted to the Supremes. After 1972, the lineup changed more frequently; Lynda Laurence, Susaye Greene all became members of the group during the mid-1970s. The Supremes disbanded after 18 years. Ballard recruited Mary Wilson, who in turn recruited classmate Diane Ross. Receiving additional guidance from group established songwriter Jesse Greer, the quartet quickly earned a local fan following. After winning a local talent contest, the Primettes' sights were set on making a record. The single failed to find an audience, however. Thereafter, McGlown became engaged and left the group. Local girl Barbara Martin was McGlown's prompt replacement.The Supremes – The Supremes: Diana Ross (right), Mary Wilson (center), Florence Ballard (left) performing " My World Is Empty Without You " on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1966.
195. Tool (band) – Tool is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1990, the group's line-up includes drummer Danny Carey, vocalist Maynard James Keenan. Justin Chancellor has been the band's bassist since 1995, replacing Paul D'Amour. Tool has won three Grammy Awards, produced albums topping the charts in several countries. The relationship between today's music industry is ambivalent, at times marked by censorship, the band's insistence on privacy. During the 1980s, each of the future members of Tool moved to Los Angeles. Carey played with Carole King and Pigmy Love Circus. Keenan and Jones met in 1989. They were on the lookout for a drummer and a bass player. Carey began playing in their sessions because he "felt kinda sorry for them," as other invited musicians were not showing up. Tool's lineup was completed when a friend of Jones introduced them to bassist D'Amour. On, the band fabricated the story that they formed because of the pseudophilosophy "lachrymology". It's a wrench. In March 1992, Zoo published Opiate. "Hush", promoted their dissenting views about the then-prominent Parents Music Resource Center and its advocacy of the censorship of music.Tool (band) – Tool performing live in Barcelona in 2006. Left to right: Jones, Keenan, and Chancellor.
196. Uncle Tupelo – Uncle Tupelo was an alternative country music group from Belleville, Illinois, active between 1987 and 1994. Jay Farrar, Mike Heidorn formed the band after the lead singer of their previous band, The Primitives, left to attend college. The trio recorded three albums for Rockville Records, before expanding to a five-piece. Uncle Tupelo split after completing a farewell tour. Following the breakup, Farrar formed Son Volt with Heidorn, while the remaining members continued as Wilco. Although Uncle Tupelo broke up before it achieved commercial success, the band is renowned for its impact on the alternative country scene. No Depression, became a byword for the genre and was widely influential. Farrar and Tweedy's lyrics frequently referred to the working class of Belleville. Jay Farrar, along with his brothers Wade and Dade, played in an early 1980s band named The Plebes. Hailing from Belleville, Illinois, The Plebes needed another high school student as a member to perform. They invited a high school friend of Jay Farrar, to join the band and play with them for the show. Despite a lack of skill with his instrument, Tweedy played an important role by booking early gigs. This caused tensions between Tweedy and Dade Farrar, who left two months after Tweedy joined. The Plebes then decided to change its name by psychedelic rock group The Groupies. Due to the unpopularity of rock in the St. Louis area, The Primitives began to play blues-oriented garage rock at fast tempos.Uncle Tupelo – Uncle Tupelo's original lineup (c. 1991)—Jay Farrar, Jeff Tweedy, and Mike Heidorn
197. Wilco – Wilco is an American alternative rock band based in Chicago, Illinois. The band was formed by the remaining members of alternative country group Uncle Tupelo following singer Jay Farrar's departure. Wilco's lineup changed frequently with only singer Jeff Tweedy and bassist John Stirratt remaining from the original incarnation. Since early 2004, the lineup has been unchanged, consisting of Tweedy, Stirratt, guitarist Nels Cline, multi-instrumentalist Pat Sansone, drummer Glenn Kotche. Wilco has released ten studio albums, a live double album, four collaborations: one with The Minus 5. Wilco's musical style has evolved to a current "eclectic indie rock collective that touches on many eras and genres." Wilco garnered attention for their fourth album, Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, the controversy surrounding it. After the recording sessions were complete, Reprise Records dismissed Wilco from the label. As part of a deal, Reprise gave Wilco the rights to the album for free. After streaming Foxtrot on its website, Wilco sold the album in 2002. Yankee Hotel Foxtrot is Wilco's most successful release to date, selling over 670,000 copies. 2004's A Ghost Is Born, including Best Alternative Music Album. Wilco released their ninth studio album, Star Wars, in July 2015, in September 2016 released their tenth studio album, Schmilco. Wilco was formed following the breakup of the influential alternative country group Uncle Tupelo. Singer Jay Farrar quit the band with co-singer Jeff Tweedy.Wilco – The two Mermaid Avenue albums consisted of recordings of unreleased Woody Guthrie (pictured) songs.
198. Frank Zappa – He also designed album covers. Zappa is considered one of the stylistically diverse rock musicians of his generation. As a self-taught performer, Zappa's diverse musical influences led him to create music, sometimes difficult to categorize. Zappa began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in blues bands; later switching to electric guitar. His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out!, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. Zappa continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the fundamental format was rock, classical. Zappa's output is characters reappearing across his albums. His lyrics reflected structures and movements, often humorously so. Unlike other rock musicians of his era, Zappa personally disapproved of and seldom used drugs, but supported their decriminalization and regulation. During Zappa's lifetime, he was a highly prolific artist, earning widespread acclaim from critics and fellow musicians. Zappa worked as an independent artist for most of his career. Zappa remains a major influence on composers. His honors include an induction into the 1995 Rock and Roll Hall of the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. He was born in Baltimore, Maryland. The eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was often spoken by his grandparents.Frank Zappa – Zappa performing in Ekeberghallen, Oslo, on January 16, 1977
199. Nick Adenhart – Nicholas James "Nick" Adenhart was an American right-handed baseball starting pitcher who played two seasons in Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. In four career games, a 6.00 earned run average. A graduate of Adenhart was highly touted as a high school prospect until an injury in his final game required Tommy John surgery. Adenhart spent three full seasons before making his major league debut on May 1, 2008. Just after pitching his first start of 2009, he was killed in a collision with a drunk driver. Both the Salt Lake Bees, for whom Adenhart played in 2008, suspended their next games. Nicholas James Adenhart was born in Silver Spring, Maryland, Jim Adenhart, a former United States Secret Service officer. Janet later remarried Duane Gigeous, with whom she had a son named Henry, a pitcher at the University of Oregon. He attended Springfield Middle School in Williamsport, Maryland. Adenhart was a member of the 1999 team that won the Maryland District 1 title. After graduating from middle school, he attended Saint Maria Goretti High School in Hagerstown, Maryland. Adenhart played shortstop and outfield, to pitching. While attending Saint Maria Goretti, he was a guard on the team that won the Baltimore Catholic League championship. He transferred after his sophomore year where he gave up basketball to focus solely on baseball, as a pitcher. Scouts began closely following him when he was named the junior prospect by Baseball America.Nick Adenhart – Adenhart pitching for the Salt Lake Bees in 2008
200. Shelton Benjamin – Prior to becoming a professional wrestler, Benjamin was a two-sport athlete in college. He won an NJCAA championship in collegiate wrestling. After attending junior college, Benjamin completed his degree from the University of Minnesota. WWE then moved him to the main roster in 2003 where he formed an alliance, with Charlie Haas, known as Team Angle. He was raised in Orangeburg, South Carolina. Benjamin began wrestling his sophomore year at Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School. He was a two-time South Carolina state high school heavyweight wrestling champion. After graduation, Benjamin trained with future Ohio Valley Wrestling tag team partner Brock Lesnar. He decided instead to pursue a professional wrestling career. In 2000, he was placed in its developmental territory Ohio Valley Wrestling. There, Benjamin formed a team with Brock Lesnar, where he was Brock's wrestling coach at the University of Minnesota. Together, they were known as the "Minnesota Stretching Crew," and they held the OVW Southern Tag Team Championship on three occasions. The first two reigns occurred during July 2001. They won the title on October 29, 2001. Their first official match together in WWE was on the January 2, 2003 episode of SmackDown against Edge and Chris Benoit.Shelton Benjamin – Benjamin in April 2013.
201. Moe Berg – Casey Stengel once described Berg as "the man ever to play baseball". A graduate of Columbia Law School, Berg spoke several languages and regularly read 10 newspapers a day. Berg was then sent to Italy, where he interviewed various physicists concerning the German nuclear program. After the war, he was occasionally employed by the Central Intelligence Agency, but, by the mid-1950s, was unemployed. Berg spent the last two decades of his life without work, living with various siblings. When Berg was three and a half, Berg begged his mother to let him start school. In 1906, Bernard Berg bought a pharmacy in West Newark. In 1910 the Berg family moved again, to the Roseville section of Newark. Roseville offered Bernard Berg everything he wanted in a neighborhood -- good schools, very few Jews. He began playing baseball at the age of seven under the less ethnic pseudonym Runt Wolfe. At the age of 16, he graduated from Barringer High School. Barringer was the first in a series of institutions Berg joined in his life where his religion made him unusual. There were not many Jews, just as Bernard wanted it. After graduating from Barringer, he enrolled in New York University. Berg played baseball and basketball.Moe Berg – Moe Berg
202. Tim Duncan – Timothy Theodore Duncan is an American retired professional basketball player who played his entire 19-year career with the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. He graduated before entering the 1997 NBA draft as the number one pick. Off the court, he is known for his unassuming ways, as well as his active philanthropy. He has two older sisters, Cheryl and Tricia. Duncan was raised in Christiansted, a town on Saint Croix, one of the main islands composing the United States Virgin Islands. In school, he was a bright dreamt of becoming an Olympic-level swimmer like his sister Tricia. He was dealt another emotional blow when his mother died one day before his 14th birthday. He was inspired by his brother-in-law to turn to basketball. He initially had difficulties adapting to the game he thought would help relieve his frustration. The athletic director of the St. Croix Country Day School was quoted:" was so huge. But Duncan was awfully awkward at the time." Duncan overcame this to become a standout for the St. Dunstan's Episcopal High School, averaging 25 points per game as a senior. His play attracted the attention of several universities, despite having only picked up the game in ninth grade. Odom was searching for a physical player to play near the basket. Eventually, despite scholarship offers by the University of the University of Delaware and Providence College, he joined Odom's Wake Forest Demon Deacons.Tim Duncan – Duncan in 2011
203. Bobby Eaton – Robert Lee "Bobby" Eaton is an American retired professional wrestler, who made his debut in 1976. Eaton is most famous for his work in tag teams, especially his days as one-half of The Midnight Express. Under the management of Jim Cornette, Eaton originally teamed with Dennis Condrey and, on, with Stan Lane. He has also worked with a number of other tag team partners, including Koko B. Ware, Steve Keirn, "Lord" Steven Regal. He retired after nearly 40 years in the ring. Growing up in Huntsville, Alabama, Eaton was a fan of professional wrestling, especially the NWA Mid-America professional promotion. This promotion was operated by Nick Gulas, who staged wrestling shows in the Alabama and Tennessee region. He later trained under Tojo Yamamoto to become a professional wrestler. At the age of 17, Eaton made his debut in NWA Mid-America. He entered a loss to Bearcat Wright, as a last-minute substitute for Wright's absent opponent. He quickly continued to train with the more experienced wrestlers. Before long, fans, well as promoter Nick Gulas, noticed Eaton's athleticism and showmanship. Gulas decided to "promote" Eaton up the ranks of NWA Mid-America, giving him matches later in the show, closer to the main event. The angle that really helped elevate Eaton's name up the card in the promotion took place after the introduction of The Hollywood Blonds.Bobby Eaton – Eaton signing an autograph in 1991.
204. Orval Grove – Orval Leroy Grove was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for ten seasons in the American League with the Chicago White Sox. The only freshman on Grove's pitching ability attracted the attention of the White Sox. Grove had a career-year in 1943, finishing the season with career-bests in ERA, complete games; in 1944, he made his only All-Star appearance. After playing four seasons with them, Grove formally retired from professional baseball. After retirement, Grove worked with his uncle in a business in Chicago while continuing to pitch at the semi-pro level. In 1992, he died at the age of 72. He was raised in Maywood, Illinois. By eighth grade, he began pitching for the Proviso East High School baseball team. Grove became the first member of the varsity team in school history. During a high school career of three years, he lost only two games and pitched a no-hitter and two one-hitters. Grove was signed by the White Sox for $2,500 and began his minor league career, foregoing his senior season of high school. He began his career at the start of the 1938 season. As his minor league season drew to a close, he planned on returning to Proviso High School to complete his education. At the end of the season, the St. Paul Saints purchased Grove's contract to replenish their staff. He played enough over the course of the season to receive votes for Most Valuable Player, which ultimately went to Nick Cullop.Orval Grove – Orval Grove in 1948
205. Art Houtteman – Known on the sandlot for his pitching motion, Houtteman was signed by scout Wish Egan in 1945 at 17 years of age. Houtteman joined a Tigers pitching staff that had lost players to injuries and World War II. After moving over the next few years, Houtteman was nearly killed in an automobile accident just before the 1949 season. He made his only All-Star appearance in the following year. He played three more seasons with the Tigers, then was sold to Cleveland, where he pitched during their 1954 season. He became a sales executive in Detroit. In 2003, he died at the age of 75. Art Houtteman was born on August 7, 1927. He was a American citizen; his grandfather Joseph had emigrated from Belgium. Houtteman played baseball at Detroit Catholic Central High School, where his pitching caught the attention of scout Wish Egan, who praised Houtteman's "perfect pitching motion". Houtteman spent most of the 1945 playing for Detroit's top minor league affiliate, the Buffalo Bisons. But the 17-year-old Houtteman was called up by the parent club and began his major league career. Houtteman was not on the active roster, as a result did not pitch over the Chicago Cubs. Houtteman spent most of 1946 in the minor leagues, led the league in strikeouts. Minor league third baseman Johnny Bero liked Houtteman's ability so much that he called him "a fifth infielder."Art Houtteman – Art Houtteman in 1953
206. Magic Johnson – After winning championships in high school and college, Johnson was selected first overall in the 1979 NBA draft by the Lakers. He retired abruptly after announcing that he had contracted HIV, but returned to play in the 1992 All-Star Game winning the All-Star MVP Award. Johnson's career achievements include three NBA MVP Awards, nine NBA Finals appearances, ten All-NBA First and Second Team nominations. Johnson is the NBA's all-time leader in average assists per game, at 11.2. He was a member of men's Olympic basketball team, which won the Olympic gold medal in 1992. After leaving the NBA in 1992, he formed a barnstorming team that travelled around the world playing exhibition games. He was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996. Johnson was rated the greatest NBA point guard of all time in 2007. His rivalry with Boston Celtics star Larry Bird, whom he faced in the 1979 NCAA finals and three NBA championship series, are well documented. Since his retirement, he has been safe sex, as well as an entrepreneur, philanthropist, broadcaster and motivational speaker. The Los Angeles Sparks in 2014. Earvin Johnson Jr. was born to Earvin Sr. a General Motors assembly worker, Christine, a school custodian. Johnson, who had six siblings, was influenced by his parents' strong ethic. He was teased by neighborhood children who called him "Garbage Man." He came to love basketball as a youngster.Magic Johnson – Johnson in 2007
207. Michael Jordan – Michael Jeffrey Jordan, also known by his initials, MJ, is an American retired professional basketball player. Jordan is also principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets. He played 15 seasons for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards. His biography on the NBA website states: "By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest player of all time." He played three seasons at the University of North Carolina. As a freshman, Jordan was a member of the Tar Heels' national team in 1982. He joined the NBA's Chicago Bulls as the third overall draft pick. Jordan quickly emerged with his prolific scoring. His leaping ability, demonstrated by performing slam dunks from the throw line in slam dunk contests, earned him the nicknames "Air Jordan" and "His Airness". Jordan also gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball. In 1991, Jordan followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a "three-peat". He returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Wizards. Among his numerous accomplishments, he holds the NBA records for highest career playoff scoring average. Jordan became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. He is also known for his product endorsements.Michael Jordan – Jordan in 2006
208. Bart King – John Barton "Bart" King was an American cricketer, active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was part of the Philadelphia team that played until the outbreak of World War I. This period of cricket in the United States was dominated by "cricketers" -- men of independent wealth who did not need to work. An amateur from a middle-class family, was able to devote time to cricket thanks to a job set up by his teammates. King successfully competed from England and Australia. He was the dominant bowler on his team when it toured England in 1897, 1908. King dismissed batsmen with his unique delivery, which he helped develop the art of swing bowling in the sport. Donald Bradman called him "America's greatest cricketing son." He was born in 1873. Early in his life, King worked in a trade. Although this was the business, his father later allowed him to leave to enter the insurance industry. He was not a member of the wealthy families of Philadelphia that produced many of the era's top cricketers. In 1913, he married Fannie Lockhart; the marriage lasted for fifty years. He died in 1965 in his native Philadelphia two days before his 92nd birthday. Bart King was regarded as an affable person.Bart King – Bart King
209. Sandy Koufax – Sanford "Sandy" Koufax is a former American Major League Baseball left-handed pitcher. He pitched 12 seasons for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers, from 1955 to 1966. Koufax, at age 36 in 1972, became the youngest player ever elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. He was an All-Star for six seasons and was the National League's Most Valuable Player in 1963. He also earned average. He was the major pitcher to pitch the eighth pitcher to pitch a perfect game in baseball history. Despite his comparatively short career, Koufax's 2,396 career strikeouts ranked 7th in history as of his retirement, trailing only Warren Spahn among left-handers. Nolan Ryan are the only four pitchers elected to the Hall of Fame who had more strikeouts than innings pitched. Koufax is also remembered as one of the outstanding Jewish athletes in American sports. Koufax was born in Brooklyn, New York, to a Jewish family, raised in Borough Park. His parents, Evelyn and Jack Braun, divorced when he was three years old. His mother was remarried when he was nine, to Irving Koufax. Shortly after his mother's remarriage, the family moved to the Long Island suburb of Rockville Centre. Before tenth grade, Koufax's family moved back to the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn. Koufax attended Brooklyn's Lafayette High School, where he was better known for basketball than for baseball.Sandy Koufax – Koufax with the Los Angeles Dodgers
210. Jimmy McAleer – James Robert "Loafer" McAleer was an American center fielder, manager, stockholder in Major League Baseball who assisted in establishing the American League. He went on to manage the Cleveland Blues, St. Louis Browns, Washington Senators. Shortly before his retirement, he became a major shareholder in the Boston Red Sox. His career ended abruptly. During his brief tenure as co-owner of the Red Sox, McAleer quarreled with longtime colleague Ban Johnson, president of the American League. In the wake of this disagreement, he broke off his relationship with Major League Baseball. He received little recognition for his contributions to baseball. He is most often remembered for initiating the customary request that the President of the United States throw out the first ball of the season. McAleer was born in an industrial center located near the border of western Pennsylvania. Owen McAleer, died at a young age, leaving McAleer's mother, Mary, to support three children. The family lived on the city's west side, where the McAleer children were raised to value the concept of formal education. McAleer graduated from Rayen High School. A "strapping 175-pound outfielder," McAleer won early recognition for his physical speed. He became involved with a Youngstown minor league club in 1882, remaining with the team until 1884. In 1885, McAleer joined another minor organization in Charleston, South Carolina; and in 1887, he played for a team based in Memphis, Tennessee.Jimmy McAleer – James McAleer
211. Bob Meusel – Meusel, noted for his strong outfield throwing arm, batted fifth behind Baseball Hall of Famers Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig. He ended his career with the Cincinnati Reds. Emil "Irish" Meusel, was a star outfielder in the National League during the same period, primarily for the New York Giants. Meusel was born in San Jose, California, Mary Meusel's six children. At an early age Meusel moved to Los Angeles, where he attended Los Angeles High School. He started his career in 1917. Meusel played for the Navy baseball team. Meusel went back for the 1919 season batting.330. Meusel also played third base in the minors. On December 1921, he married Edith Cowan, with whom he had one daughter. Meusel's contract was purchased in early 1920. After a productive training, he replaced future Hall of Famer Frank Baker at third base. Meusel played his first game on April 1920. In his season, he had a. 328 batting average with 11 home runs and 83 runs batted in over 119 games. Meusel finished fourth in the league in doubles with 41 while sharing time with Duffy Lewis in left field.Bob Meusel – Bob Meusel
212. Stan Musial – Stanley Frank "Stan" Musial, nicknamed "Stan the Man", was an American Major League Baseball outfielder and first baseman. Musial spent 22 seasons playing for the St. Louis Cardinals, from 1941 to 1963. Musial also shares the major record for the most All-Star Games played with Hank Aaron and Willie Mays. Noted for his unique batting stance, Musial quickly established himself as a productive hitter. In 1942, the Cardinals won the World Series. He led the NL in six different offensive categories and earned his first MVP award. He was also named to the NL All-Star squad for the first time; he appeared in every All-Star game in every subsequent season he played. Musial won his second World Series championship in 1944, then missed the entire 1945 season while serving with the Navy. When he returned in 1946, he resumed his consistent hitting. He earned his second MVP award and third World Series title. His third MVP award came in 1948, when he finished one home run shy of winning baseball's Triple Crown. After struggling offensively in 1959, he used a personal trainer to help maintain his productivity until he decided to retire in 1963. At the time of his retirement, Musial shared 17 major league records, 29 National League records, nine All-Star Game records. Musial also became noted for a skill he acquired during his playing career. Known for his sportsmanship, he was selected for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in 1999.Stan Musial – Musial in 1953
213. Ben Paschal – He is best known for hitting.360 in for Babe Ruth, who missed the first 40 games with a stomach ailment. During his time in baseball, he was described as a five-tool player, who excelled at running, throwing, hitting for average and power. Paschal was one of the best pinch hitters in the game at a time when the term was still relatively new to baseball. The son of Paschal was born in Enterprise, Alabama and grew up in nearby Sanford. His ability attracted the attention of scouts in the area. He was sent to the Muskegon Reds of the Central League. Paschal became a free agent. Paschal finished third in 1920. While in the Southern League, Paschal was nicknamed "the man who hits sticks of dynamite". At the conclusion of 1920 Paschal was purchased by the Boston Red Sox, with an option to keep him if he met certain playing expectations. In August 1921, he was sold to the Rochester Red Wings. Paschal was hitting.317 at the time of the injury. He began the 1924 season with the Atlanta Crackers of the Southern Association. Paschal scored 136 runs, while stealing 24 bases. He played in four games.Ben Paschal – Paschal before a game during the 1925 New York Yankees season
214. CM Punk – Punk began his professional wrestling career until 2005 when he signed with World Wrestling Entertainment. In WWE, Punk was also one-time Intercontinental Champion, making him WWE's 19th Triple Crown Champion. Throughout his career, Punk consistently portrayed the character of an outspoken, sharp-tongued, straight edge iconoclast. Most of the straight edge principles he portrayed, such as not drinking alcohol or not taking recreational drugs, are his real life views. Depending on his alignment as a villain, he emphasized different aspects of the straight edge culture to garner the desired audience reaction. After retiring from professional wrestling in 2014, Punk was signed by the UFC in December of that year. His professional fight took place on September 10, 2016, at UFC 203 against Mickey Gall, where he lost via submission in the first round. Brooks was raised in nearby Lockport, Illinois. He is one of five children; his father was an engineer, while his mother was a homemaker. Brooks' father was an alcoholic which inspired him to become straight edge from an early age. He attended Lockport Township High School. Unlike his friends, Punk genuinely saw it as more than simple fun. They have not spoken since. As part of the training, he wrestled in St. Paul, Minnesota. It was in the Steel Domain that he met Scott Colton, who soon adopted the name Colt Cabana.CM Punk – Punk at the 2011 Nickelodeon Australian Kids' Choice Awards
215. J. R. Richard – After leaving high school, he was selected as the second pick in the first round of the 1969 amateur draft. In 1975, he played his first full season as a starting pitcher. His condition brought a sudden end at the age of 30. He held the team's record for career strikeouts until 1987. This failed because the stroke had slowed down his reaction time and weakened his depth perception. Richard spent the few seasons in the minor leagues before being released by the Astros in 1984. He later became a Christian minister. By the time he was a high senior, he stood 6 feet 8 inches tall and weighed 220 pounds. He was one of the starting pitchers for Lincoln High School and did not concede a run for the entire season. In one game he hit four consecutive home runs while pitching his team to a 48 -- 0 victory against Jonesboro's Jackson High School. Richard, whose baseball idol was St. Louis Cardinals pitcher Bob Gibson, never lost a game he started in his high career. Upon graduating from high school, Richard turned down more than 200 scholarship offers to sign with the Houston Astros. The Astros would later select him behind the Washington Senators' selection of outfielder Jeff Burroughs. Consequently our lives went in different directions. For some people it takes that to make a world.J. R. Richard – J.R. Richard signing autographs at an Academy Sports + Outdoors
216. Jackie Robinson – He broke the baseball line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. The Dodgers, by signing Robinson, heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players since the 1880s. He was inducted in 1962. He had an 10-year baseball career. He contributed to the Dodgers' 1955 World Series championship. His unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation which then marked many other aspects of American life. Robinson contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement. He also was the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full o'Nuts. In the 1960s, Robinson helped establish an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. In recognition of his achievements off the field, he was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom. He was born into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia. Robinson was the youngest of five children born after siblings Edgar, Frank, Matthew, Willa Mae. His middle name was in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 days before Robinson was born. After Robinson's father left the family in 1920, they moved to Pasadena, California. The extended Robinson family established itself on a residential plot containing two small houses at 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena.Jackie Robinson – Jackie Robinson
217. Bill Russell – William Felton "Bill" Russell is an American retired professional basketball player. Russell played center for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association from 1956 to 1969. Russell was the centerpiece of the Celtics dynasty, winning eleven NBA championships during his thirteen-year career. Before his professional career, Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships. Russell also won a gold medal as captain of the U.S. national team. Russell is widely considered one of the best players in NBA history. He also inspired his teammates to elevate their own defensive play. Russell was equally notable for his rebounding abilities. He is one of just two NBA players to have grabbed more than 50 rebounds in a game. Though never the focal point of the Celtics' offense, Russell also scored 14,522 career points and provided effective passing. He also served a three-season stint as player-coach for the Celtics, becoming the first African American NBA coach. For his accomplishments in the Civil Rights Movement off the court, Barack Obama awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011. He is one of only seven players in history to win an Olympic gold medal. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame and the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame. In 2007, he was enshrined in the FIBA Hall of Fame.Bill Russell – Russell in February 2011
218. Sigi Schmid – Siegfried "Sigi" Schmid is a German-American soccer coach who most recently coached Seattle Sounders FC in Major League Soccer. Born in West Germany, Schmid moved to the United States with his family when he was a child. Schmid coached the UCLA Bruins, between 1980 and 1999. During that period, Schmid became one of the most successful collegiate coaches of all time, leading the Bruins to a record of 322 -- 63 -- 33. The team made 16 consecutive playoff appearances to 1998 winning the national championship in 1985, 1990, 1997. He also worked throughout the 1990s. He coached the Los Angeles Galaxy and the Columbus Crew before becoming the head coach of Seattle Sounders FC in 2009. Throughout his career, he has received praise from critics for his ability to identify new talent. His defensive tactics often cited as a factor in his success. However, their deployment in his final two seasons with Los Angeles led directly to the termination of his contract. After winning the MLS Cup with Columbus in 2008, he was hired as their first head coach. From 2009 to 2016, he led the Sounders in 2014. He has a younger brother named Roland Schmid. Sigi Schmid was born on March 20, 1953. At the age of four, he moved to the United States; they took up residence in Torrance, California, in 1962.Sigi Schmid – Schmid after a Sounders match in 2010
219. Lee Smith (baseball) – Lee Arthur Smith is a retired American right-handed baseball pitcher who played 18 years in Major League Baseball for eight teams. Pitching primarily for the Chicago Cubs, with whom he spent his first eight seasons, Lee served mostly during his career. He was an intimidating figure on the pitcher's mound with a 95-mile per hour fastball. After the end of his major career, he spent time working as a pitching instructor at the minor-league level with the San Francisco Giants. Smith then served in the 2006 World Baseball Classic and 2009 World Baseball Classic. Lee currently continues his job as a roving pitching instructor for the Giants. Lee Smith was raised in the small town of Castor in Bienville Parish. Buck O'Neil claimed credit for having scouted him. He began his professional career as a starting pitcher. He briefly tried college basketball at Northwestern State University. With the major league Chicago Cubs struggling to a last-place finish, he came into the big leagues as a September call-up that season. He pitched one inning, giving up no hits, walking two. Smith was invited back to the majors for 1981. Smith was used mostly as a middle pitcher. He finished with an ERA of 3.51.Lee Smith (baseball) – Smith with the Chicago Cubs in 1985.
220. Ozzie Smith – He was elected in his first year of eligibility in 2002. He was also elected in the inaugural class of 2014. His family moved to Watts, Los Angeles, when he was six years old. Drafted by the Padres, Smith made his major league debut in 1978. Smith made his first All-Star Game appearance in 1981. When conflict with Padres' ownership developed, he was traded for shortstop Garry Templeton in 1982. Upon joining the Cardinals, Smith helped the team win the 1982 World Series. Three years later, his game-winning home run during Game 5 of the 1985 National League Championship Series prompted broadcaster Jack Buck's "Go crazy, folks!" play-by-play call. Despite a rotator injury during the 1985 season, Smith posted career highs in multiple offensive categories in 1987. Smith continued to earn Gold Gloves and All-Star appearances on an annual basis until 1993. During 1995 Smith had shoulder surgery and was out nearly three months. Smith also served as host of the show This Week in Baseball from 1997 to 1998. Smith was born in Mobile, Alabama, Marvella Smith's six children. While the family lived in Mobile, his father worked at Brookley Air Force Base. When Smith was six his family moved to the Watts section of Los Angeles.Ozzie Smith – Smith with the Cardinals in 1983
221. Jim Thorpe – James Francis Thorpe was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist. A member of the Sac and Fox Nation, he became the first Native American to win a gold medal for his country. 30 years after his death, the International Olympic Committee restored his Olympic medals. He grew up in Oklahoma. From 1920 to 1921, he was nominally the first president of the American Professional Football Association, which would become the National Football League in 1922. Thorpe played professional sports with the start of the Great Depression. He struggled working several odd jobs. He lived his last years in failing health and poverty. Information about Thorpe's birth, ethnic background varies widely. Thorpe was baptized "Jacobus Franciscus Thorpe" in the Catholic Church. No birth certificate has been found. Thorpe was generally considered to have been born on May 1887, near the town of Prague, Oklahoma. However, most biographers believe that he was born on May 1887, as, what is listed on his baptismal certificate. Bellemont was a small community, now disappeared, on the line between Pottawatomie and Lincoln Counties. While Lincoln County, now claims to be the birthplace of Thorpe, there is no evidence that Thorpe himself called Prague his hometown.Jim Thorpe – Jim Thorpe in Carlisle Indian Industrial School uniform, c. 1909.
222. Tyrone Wheatley – Wheatley earned All-America track honors in college. At the University of Michigan, he earned the Big Ten Offensive Player of the Award during the 1992 football season. In the Michigan Wolverines' post-season game, Wheatley was named the Most Valuable Player for his performance in the team's Rose Bowl victory. He continued his success as well, earning first-team All-Big Ten Conference and All-American honors. His name appears in several places in the Big Ten football record book. As a running back for the Giants, Wheatley was their leading ballcarrier in 1997. Despite his success on the field, Wheatley developed a reputation for indolence. Wheatley cut before the 1999 season began. With Wheatley, the Raiders went to three years in a row, including one Super Bowl appearance. During his NFL career, Wheatley totaled over 6,500 all-purpose yards as kickoff returner. As a player, Wheatley had led the school to its only state championship. In 2009 he became an assistant coach for Eastern Michigan University. Wheatley served to 2012. Wheatley was hired by the Buffalo Bills to coach the running backs in 2013. He was born in Inkster, Michigan.Tyrone Wheatley – Wheatley earned the 1993 Rose Bowl MVP.
223. Daniel Boone – Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer, woodsman, frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. As a young adult, Boone supplemented his income by selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this occupational interest, Boone first learned the easy routes to the area. There, he founded the village of one of the American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone. Boone was a officer during the Revolutionary War, which, in Kentucky, was fought primarily between the British-aided Indians. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778. He escaped and alerted Boonesborough that the Shawnees were planning an attack. Although heavily outnumbered, Americans repelled the Shawnee warriors in the Siege of Boonesborough. Following the war, Boone fell deeply into debt through failed Kentucky speculation. Boone remains an iconic figure in American history. An American edition made him equally famous across the United States. After his death, he was frequently the subject of tall works of fiction. His adventures -- legendary -- were influential in creating the Western hero of American folklore. In popular culture, he is remembered as one of the early frontiersmen.Daniel Boone – This 1820 painting by Chester Harding is the only portrait of Daniel Boone made from life.
224. James Bowie – Born in Kentucky, Bowie spent most of his life in Louisiana, where he later worked as a land speculator. His rise to fame began on reports of the Sandbar Fight. Other stories of Bowie's prowess with a knife, led to the widespread popularity of the Bowie knife. Bowie's reputation was cemented by his role in the Texas Revolution. After moving in 1830, Bowie became a Mexican citizen and married Ursula Veramendi, the daughter of the Mexican vice governor of the province. At the outbreak of the Texas Revolution, Bowie joined leading forces at the Battle of Concepción and the Grass Fight. In January 1836, he arrived at the Alamo, where he commanded the volunteer forces until an illness left him bedridden. Bowie died on March 6. According to John, James Bowie was born in Logan County, Kentucky, on March 10, 1796. Thorp did not provide any documentation for that date. Bowie's surname was pronounced to rhyme with the French "Louis". Bowie was the ninth of ten children born to Elve Ap-Catesby Jones and John Bowie. His father had been wounded while fighting in 1782 married the young woman who had nursed him back to health. The Bowies moved frequently, first settling before moving to Kentucky. At the time of Bowie's birth, his father owned eight slaves, eleven head of cattle, one stud horse.James Bowie – James "Jim" Bowie
225. Simon Bolivar Buckner – Buckner later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky. After graduating at West Point, he became an instructor there. Buckner took a hiatus from participating in many of the major battles of that conflict. Buckner resigned from the army in 1855 to manage his father-in-law's real estate in Chicago, Illinois. Buckner was appointed adjutant general by Governor Beriah Magoffin in 1861. In this position, Buckner tried to enforce Kentucky's neutrality policy in the early days of the Civil War. When the state's neutrality was breached, he accepted a commission after declining a similar commission to the Union Army. In 1862, Buckner accepted Ulysses S. Grant's demand for an "unconditional surrender" at the Battle of Fort Donelson. Buckner was the Confederate general to surrender an army in the war. Buckner spent five months as a prisoner of war. In the years following the war, he became active in politics. Buckner was elected governor of Kentucky in 1887. It was his second campaign for that office. His term was plagued by violent feuds including the Hatfield -- McCoy feud and the Rowan County War. His administration was rocked by scandal when treasurer James "Honest Dick" Tate absconded with $250,000 from the state's treasury.Simon Bolivar Buckner – Simon Bolivar Buckner
226. Henry Cornelius Burnett – Henry Cornelius Burnett was a U.S. Representative from the state of Kentucky and a Confederate States senator. A lawyer by Burnett had held only one public office -- circuit court clerk -- before being elected to Congress. He represented Kentucky's congressional district immediately prior to the Civil War. This district contained the entire Jackson Purchase region of the state, more sympathetic to the Confederate cause than any other area of Kentucky. Burnett promised the voters of his district that he would have President Abraham Lincoln arraigned for treason. Besides championing the Southern cause in Congress, Burnett also worked within Kentucky to bolster the state's support of the Confederacy. He presided over a convention in Russellville in 1861 that formed a Confederate government for the state. The delegates to this convention chose Burnett to travel to Richmond, Virginia to secure Kentucky's admission to the Confederacy. Burnett also briefly served in the Confederate States Army. A Confederate recruiting post two miles west of Clinton in Hickman County, Kentucky, was named after him. He was expelled from the House in 1861. He is one of only five members of the House of Representatives ever to be expelled. Following his expulsion, Burnett served in the First and Second Confederate Senates. He was indicted after the war, but never tried.Henry Cornelius Burnett – Henry Burnett
227. Frederick Russell Burnham – Frederick Russell Burnham DSO was an American scout and world-traveling adventurer. Burnham helped inspire the founding of the international Scouting Movement. He was born in Minnesota where he learned the ways of American Indians as a boy. He had formal education, never finishing high school. After moving to the Arizona Territory in the early 1880s, Burnham was drawn into a feud between families of ranchers and sheepherders. Burnham later worked as a civilian tracker for the United States Army in the Apache Wars. He became Chief of Scouts. Despite his U.S. citizenship, his rank of major was formally given to him by King Edward VII. Burnham had become friends with Baden-Powell in Rhodesia teaching him outdoor skills and inspiring what would later become known as Scouting. He returned to the United States, where he became involved in national defense efforts, business, oil, the Boy Scouts of America. For political reasons, the unit was disbanded without seeing action. After the war, his business partner John Hays Hammond formed the Burnham Exploration Company; they became wealthy from oil discovered in California. He joined new wilderness conservation organizations, including the California State Parks Commission. In the 1930s, Burnham worked with the BSA to save the big sheep from extinction. This effort led in Arizona.Frederick Russell Burnham – Major Burnham in his British Army uniform in 1901
228. Wesley Clark – Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr. is a retired General of the United States Army. Clark later graduated with a master's degree in military science. Clark spent 34 years in the U.S. Army, receiving many military decorations, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He commanded Operation Allied Force in the Kosovo War during his term from 1997 to 2000. He leads a political committee, "WesPAC", which he formed after the 2004 primaries and used to support Democratic Party candidates in the 2006 midterm elections. But, on September 15, 2007, endorsed Senator Hillary Clinton. After Clinton dropped out of the presidential race, he endorsed Barack Obama. He is on the board of directors of BNK Petroleum. Since July 2012, Clark also acts to Romanian prime minister Victor Ponta on economic and security matters. Kanne, living in Chicago, served in local offices. Clark served to the 1932 Democratic National Convention that nominated Franklin D. Roosevelt as the party's presidential candidate. His mother was of English ancestry and was a Methodist. He was born Wesley Kanne in Chicago on December 1944. His father Benjamin died on December 1948; his mother then moved the family to Little Rock, Arkansas. Once in Little Rock, Veneta married Viktor Clark, whom she met while working as a secretary at a bank.Wesley Clark – Wesley Clark
229. Brian Eaton – Air Vice Marshal Brian Alexander Eaton, CB, CBE, DSO & Bar, DFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force. Raised in Victoria, he joined the RAAF in 1936 and was promoted to flight lieutenant on the outbreak of World War II. He held training positions before flying P-40 Kittyhawk fighter-bombers in North Africa. He was also awarded the US Silver Star in 1946 in recognition of his service. In the decade following World War II, Eaton led No. 78 Wing in Malta. He commanded RAAF Base Williamtown from 1957 to 1959, after which he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. As Director-General of Operational Requirements in 1965, Eaton argued for increased RAAF co-operation with the Australian Army in light of growing involvement in the Vietnam War. He became Deputy Chief of the Air Staff. He then served as Air Member before being selected as AOC Operational Command in 1973. Eaton became an executive for Rolls-Royce in Canberra. He died at the age of 75. Brian Eaton was born in Launceston, Tasmania, December 1916 to Sydney and Hilda Eaton. The family later moved to Canterbury, Victoria, Brian was educated at Carey Grammar. His early ambition to be a doctor was curtailed when he had to leave school early. He enlisted on 20 January 1936, undergoing flying training at RAAF Station Point Cook.Brian Eaton – Group Captain Brian Eaton, Malta, c. 1953–54
230. Gerald Ford – Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from 1974 to 1977. Prior to this he was the 40th Vice President of the United States, serving until President Richard Nixon's resignation in 1974. Before ascending to the vice presidency, Ford served 25 years as U.S. Representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district, the final nine of them as the House Minority Leader. As President, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward détente in the Cold War. With the conquest of South Vietnam by nine months into his presidency, U.S. involvement in Vietnam essentially ended. Domestically, Ford presided over the worst economy in the four decades with growing inflation and a recession during his tenure. One of his more controversial acts was to grant a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. In the Republican primary campaign of 1976, Ford defeated then-former California Governor Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination. He narrowly lost the presidential election on November 2. Following his years as President, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. After experiencing health problems, he died on December 26, 2006. He is also the most recent former president and president to die. Dorothy separated just sixteen days after her son's birth. She took her son to the Oak Park, Illinois, home of her sister Tannisse and brother-in-law, Clarence Haskins James.Gerald Ford – Ford in August 1974
231. Winfield Scott Hancock – Winfield Scott Hancock was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. Hancock served with distinction in the Army including service in the Mexican-American War and as a Union general in the American Civil War. Known as "Hancock the Superb", Hancock was noted in particular for his personal leadership at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. One military historian wrote, "No other Union general at Gettysburg dominated men more completely than Hancock." His military service continued after the Civil War, as Hancock participated at the Western frontier. Hancock's reputation as a hero at Gettysburg, combined with his status as a Unionist and supporter of states' rights, made him a potential presidential candidate. When the Democrats nominated him in 1880, Hancock ran a strong campaign, but was narrowly defeated by Republican James A. Garfield. The twins were the sons of Elizabeth Hoxworth Hancock. Winfield was named after a prominent general in the War of 1812. The Hancock and Hoxworth families were of English, Scottish and Welsh descent. Benjamin Hancock was a schoolteacher when his sons were born. A few years after their birth, Hancock began to practice law. Benjamin was also participated in municipal government. He was at removed to the public schools when the first one opened in Norristown in the late 1830s. In 1840, the local Congressman, nominated Hancock to the United States Military Academy at West Point.Winfield Scott Hancock
232. Benjamin Harrison – Before ascending to the presidency, he established himself in Indianapolis, Indiana. After the war, Harrison unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana. Harrison was later elected by the Indiana legislature. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the incumbent Grover Cleveland. Harrison also conducted an active foreign policy. Harrison proposed, in vain, federal education funding as well as voting rights enforcement during his administration. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars during his term. The spending issue in part led in the 1890 mid-term elections. He was defeated by Cleveland due to the growing unpopularity of the high tariff and high federal spending. Harrison then later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom. In 1900, Harrison traveled as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis. Harrison died the following year of complications from influenza. Historians, however, have not questioned Harrison's commitment to official integrity. Harrison's paternal ancestors were the Virginia Harrisons. Their immigrant ancestor was Benjamin Harrison, who arrived in 1630.Benjamin Harrison – Benjamin Harrison
233. William Henry Harrison – He was also the first president to die in office. He was 68 years, 23 days old when inaugurated, the oldest president to take office until Ronald Reagan in 1981. Harrison died on his 32nd day in office of complications from pneumonia, serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. He was the grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, who served as the 23rd President from 1889 to 1893. He originally gained national fame for leading U.S. forces against American Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname "Tippecanoe". As a general in the subsequent War of 1812, his most notable action was in the Battle of the Thames in 1813. This battle resulted in the death of Tecumseh and the dissolution of the Indian coalition which he led. After the war, Harrison moved to Ohio, where he was elected to the United States House of Representatives. In 1824, the state legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate. He served a truncated term after being appointed as Minister Plenipotentiary to Gran Colombia in May 1828. In Santa Fe de Bogotá, he spoke with president Simón Bolívar, urging his nation to adopt American-style democracy. He received more votes than any other Whig, but was defeated by Democrat Martin Van Buren. He retired again to his farm. Van Buren soon became a major target of criticism from the Whigs surrounding economic difficulties following the Panic of 1837. John Tyler of Virginia was selected as his running mate.William Henry Harrison – A daguerreotype of Harrison
234. Rutherford B. Hayes – Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th President of the United States. An attorney in Ohio, was city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861. When the Civil War began, he left a political career to join the Union Army as an officer. Hayes was wounded five times, most seriously at the Battle of South Mountain. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the U.S. Congress as a Republican. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history. Hayes ended all U.S. military involvement in Southern politics. Hayes believed without regard to race, Georgist political economy, improvement through education. He ordered federal troops to crush the Great Strike of 1877. He implemented civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. His policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born on October 4, 1822, the son of Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard. A Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817.Rutherford B. Hayes – Rutherford B. Hayes
235. Thomas C. Hindman – Shortly after he was born in Knoxville, Tennessee, he moved to Jacksonville, Alabama and later Ripley, Mississippi. After receiving his primary education in Ripley, Hindman graduated with honors on September 25, 1843. Afterwards, Hindman raised a company in the Mexican-American War. He served as a captain of his company. After the war, Hindman returned to Ripley. Hindman was admitted to the state bar in 1851. Hindman then started a law practice before moving it to Helena two years later. He then served from 1854 to 1856. Hindman was elected as the Democratic representative from March 4, 1859, to March 4, 1861. Hindman declined to serve after the onset of the Civil War and Arkansas's secession from the Union. Instead, he joined the armed forces of the Confederacy. He later raised and commanded "Hindman's legion" for the Confederate States Army. Hindman was promoted to general on September 28, 1861 and later to Major General on April 18, 1862. After the war, he avoided surrender by fleeing to Mexico City. Hindman attempted to practice law.Thomas C. Hindman – General Hindman during The Civil War
236. Thomas C. Kinkaid – Thomas Cassin Kinkaid served as an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II. Kinkaid commanded the Allied forces in the Aleutian Islands Campaign. His early commissioned service was spent aboard battleships. In 1913, Kinkaid served in that field for many years. Kinkaid saw action during the 1916 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic. During World War I, Kinkaid was attached before serving as Gunnery Officer aboard the battleship USS Arizona. After the war, Kinkaid was Assistant Chief of Staff to the Commander U.S. Naval Detachment in Turkey. He received the destroyer USS Isherwood, in 1924. Kinkaid was Executive Officer of the battleship USS Colorado when the 1933 Long Beach earthquake participated in relief efforts. Kinkaid received his second command in the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis. From 1938 to 1941, he was a naval attaché in Italy and Yugoslavia. In the months prior to U.S. entry into World War II, Kinkaid commanded a squadron. Promoted to rear admiral in 1941, he assumed command of a U.S. Pacific Fleet cruiser division. His cruisers defended the aircraft carrier USS Lexington during the Battle of Midway.Thomas C. Kinkaid – Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid
237. Eli Lilly – Eli Lilly was an American soldier, pharmacist, chemist, businessman who founded the Eli Lilly and Company pharmaceutical corporation. He was given command of the 9th Regiment Indiana Cavalry. Lilly was held as a prisoner of war until January 1865. Lilly worked with business partners in several pharmacies in Indiana and Illinois before opening his own business in 1876 in Indianapolis. Lilly's company marketed them on a wholesale basis to pharmacies. He soon became wealthy after making numerous advances in medicinal drug manufacturing. Two of the early advances he pioneered were developing fruit flavorings. Using his wealth, Lilly engaged in philanthropic pursuits. He personally funded a children's hospital in Indianapolis, known as Eleanor Hospital. Lilly continued his active involvement with many other organizations from cancer in 1898. The company he founded has since grown into one of the largest corporation in Indiana. The son of Gustavus and Esther Lilly, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 8, 1838. His family had moved to the low country of France before his great-grandparents immigrated to Maryland in 1789. In 1852 the family settled at Greenfield, Indiana, where Lilly's parents enrolled him at Indiana Asbury University. Eli attended classes from 1852 to 1854.Eli Lilly – Colonel Eli Lilly in 1885
238. John McCain – John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona and was the Republican presidential nominee for the 2008 United States presidential election. McCain followed both four-star admirals, into the United States Navy, graduating from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1958. He became a naval aviator, flying ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he was almost killed in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. In October 1967, while on a mission over Hanoi, he was shot down, seriously injured, captured by the North Vietnamese. He was a prisoner of war until 1973. McCain refused an out-of-sequence early repatriation offer. His war wounds have left him with physical limitations. He moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. Elected in 1982, McCain served two terms. He was elected in 1986 winning re-election easily five times, most recently in 2016. McCain lost a heated primary season contest to George W. Bush. He subsequently adopted largely opposed actions of the Obama administration, especially in regard to foreign policy matters. By 2013, however, he had become a key figure in the Senate for negotiating deals on certain issues in an otherwise partisan environment. In 2015, McCain became chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.John McCain – John McCain
239. George B. McClellan – George Brinton McClellan was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, politician. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these very characteristics hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving environment. McClellan led the Union's army in the Peninsula Campaign in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862. It was the large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. General McClellan failed to maintain the trust of President Abraham Lincoln. He was insubordinate to his commander-in-chief and privately derisive of him. McClellan went on to become the unsuccessful Democratic Party nominee in the 1864 presidential election against Lincoln. The effectiveness of his campaign was damaged when he repudiated his party's platform, which promised an end with the Confederacy. He served from 1878 to 1881. He eventually vigorously defended his Civil War conduct. Most modern authorities have assessed McClellan as a poor general. After the war, Ulysses S. Grant was asked as a general. He replied, "McClellan is to me one of the mysteries of the war." George Brinton McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the founder of Jefferson Medical College. His father's family was of Ulster Scots heritage.George B. McClellan – 1861 portrait by Mathew Brady
240. Fred Moosally – Fred P. Moosally is a former captain in the United States Navy. During his naval career, Moosally served including commander of a destroyer and the battleship USS Iowa. Moosally was captain of the Iowa when the gun of one of the ship's main gun turrets exploded on April 19, 1989, killing 47 crewmen. During the investigation into the cause of the explosion, Moosally testified that the Navy had assigned personnel of inferior quality to the Iowa. The investigation found that Iowa had been operating with severe deficiencies in training procedures, for which Moosally was disciplined. The Navy stated that the deficiencies were unrelated to the turret explosion. Moosally's testimony was widely reported in the media. Moosally retired soon after in May 1990. In 1999, Moosally began working for Lockheed Martin. In 2002 he was appointed president of the company's MS2 division. In this capacity, Moosally has helped lead Lockheed Martin's involvement in Integrated Deepwater System programs. Fred Moosally led MS2 to a $4B + organization when he retired in January 2010. Fred Moosally was succeeded by Orlando Carvahlo, former General Manager and Vice President of the Lockheed Martin MS2 Moorestown, NJ site. Moosally, raised in Youngstown, Ohio, was one of six children in a family of three sons and three daughters. The family attended the local Syriac Maronite Church.Fred Moosally – Captain Fred Moosally (at podium) speaks at a ceremony on USS Iowa on January 4, 1990 to unveil a plaque commemorating the 47 crewmen killed in the turret explosion on April 19, 1989.
241. Sylvanus Morley – Morley made extensive excavations of the Maya site of Chichen Itza that he directed on behalf of the Carnegie Institution. He also published several large compilations and treatises on Maya hieroglyphic writing, wrote popular accounts on the Maya for a general audience. To his contemporaries, "Vay" Morley was one of the leading Mesoamerican archaeologists of his day. Although more recent developments in the field have resulted in a re-evaluation of his theories and works, his publications, particularly on calendric inscriptions, are still cited. His commitment and enthusiasm for Maya studies helped inspire the necessary sponsorship for projects that would ultimately reveal much about ancient Maya civilization. Morley was born in Chester, Pennsylvania, the eldest of six children. His father, Colonel Benjamin F. Morley, was at the time vice-president and professor of chemistry, mathematics and tactics at Pennsylvania Military College. His mother Sarah also had a connection with the college, where her father Felix de Lannoy had been a professor of Modern Languages. Felix was an immigrant to the United States from newly independent Belgium, where his father had been a judge in the Belgian Supreme Court. His family moved to Colorado when Sylvanus was ten years old, his secondary education was completed at Buena Vista and Colorado Springs. It was during his later schooling in Colorado that Morley first developed an interest in archaeology, in particular Egyptology. Seeing little scope for employment opportunities in archaeology, the Colonel encouraged his son to study engineering instead. Sylvanus duly enrolled in a civil engineering degree at PMC, graduating in 1904. Nonetheless immediately upon graduating from PMC Sylvanus got his wish, was able to attend Harvard University in pursuit of an undergraduate degree in archaeology. Morley's interest in the Maya may have stirred even earlier than this, according to his student contemporary at Harvard and later colleague Alfred V. Kidder.Sylvanus Morley – Morley at the Maya site of Copán, in Honduras (ca. 1912)
242. Edwin Taylor Pollock – Edwin Taylor Pollock was a career officer in the United States Navy, serving in the Spanish–American War and in World War I. He was later promoted to the rank of captain. Like many naval officers, his name was often abbreviated using initials: E. T. Pollock. As a young ensign, Pollock served aboard USS New York during the Spanish–American War. After the war, he did important research into wireless communication. Afterward, he was made the eighth Naval Governor of American Samoa and then the superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, before retiring in 1927. Originally from Mount Gilead, Ohio, Pollock attended the United States Naval Academy and, as a midshipman, was assigned to USS Lancaster and USS Monocacy. He graduated with a rank of ensign in 1893. After graduation, Pollock returned to Ohio and married Beatrice E. Law Hale on December 5. He was assigned during its initial shake-down. He was subsequently assigned to the gunboat USS Machias for an expedition to China. He remained as part of the Asiatic Squadron then transferring before returning home in 1897. In January 1900, he was promoted to lieutenant and assigned to USS Alliance. Over the following year he served on USS Dolphin and USS Buffalo. On the Buffalo, he was finally transferred to USS Brooklyn, the squadron's flagship.Edwin Taylor Pollock – Capt. Pollock as Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Observatory
243. Uriel Sebree – Uriel Sebree was a career officer in the United States Navy. Sebree served until 1910, retiring as a rear admiral. Sebree is best remembered into the Arctic and for serving as acting governor of American Samoa. Sebree was also commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet. That mission to rescue the survivors of the Lady Franklin Bay expedition was a success. He was subsequently appointed as the second acting governor of American Samoa. Sebree served in this position only a year before returning to the United States. Sebree died in Coronado, California, in 1922. Two geographical features in Alaska -- Sebree Island -- are named for Admiral Sebree. Uriel was the first of two sons. Frank P. Sebree, became a lawyer. Uriel entered the United States Naval Academy during the American Civil War. After his graduation in 1867, his first assignment was on board USS Canandaigua. Over the few years he won repeated promotion: to ensign in 1868, master in 1870, lieutenant in 1871. In 1873 Sebree transferred to the ironclad USS Dictator.Uriel Sebree – Rear Admiral Uriel Sebree
244. Lawrence Sullivan Ross – Ross was raised in the Republic of Texas, later annexed to the United States. Much of his childhood was spent on the frontier, where his family founded the town of Waco. As a teenager, Ross attended Baylor University. On one of his summer breaks, he suffered severe injuries while fighting Comanches. When Texas seceded from the United States and joined the Confederacy, Ross joined the Confederate States Army. He participated in 135 battles and skirmishes and became one of the youngest Confederate generals. Following the Civil War, Ross briefly served as sheriff of McLennan County before resigning to participate in the 1875 Texas Constitutional Convention. With the exception of a two-year term as a senator, he spent the next decade focused on his ranch concerns. In 1887, he became the 19th governor of Texas. Despite his popularity, Ross refused to run for a third term as governor. Days after leaving office, he became president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. His tenure saw the birth of many school traditions. After his death, the Texas legislature created Sul Ross State University in his honor. Lawrence Sullivan Ross was born in Iowa Territory. He was the fourth child and second son of Shapley Prince Ross and Catherine Fulkerson, the daughter of Missouri legislator Isaac Fulkerson.Lawrence Sullivan Ross – Lawrence Sullivan Ross
245. Isaac Shelby – Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also a soldier in Lord Dunmore's War, the War of 1812. While governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of an action, rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Several cities and military bases, have been named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinson's The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the motto "United we stand, divided we fall". Shelby's military service began when he served as second-in-command at the Battle of Point Pleasant, the only major battle of Lord Dunmore's War. He spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war, John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina. He played a pivotal role at the Battle of King's Mountain. The state electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He organized its first government. He used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. He was called back into politics by the impending War of 1812. Kentuckians urged Shelby to lead them through the anticipated conflict. He was at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames.Isaac Shelby – Isaac Shelby
246. Myles Standish – Myles Standish was an English military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military adviser for Plymouth Colony. Standish served as an agent of Plymouth Colony as assistant governor, as treasurer of Plymouth Colony. He was also one of the first founders of the town of Duxbury, Massachusetts. One of Standish's military actions on behalf of Plymouth Colony was the botched Penobscot expedition in 1635. By the 1640s, Standish settled into a quieter life on his Duxbury farm. He died in his home in Duxbury at age 72. He defended the Pilgrims' colony for much of his life, though there is no evidence to suggest that Standish ever joined their church. Monuments have been built in his memory. One of the best known depictions of Standish in popular culture was The Courtship of Miles Standish by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The highly fictionalized story presents Standish as a timid romantic. It played a significant role in cementing the Pilgrim story in US culture. Little is definitively known of Myles Standish's origins and early life. His place of birth has been subject to debate among historians for more than 150 years. At the center of the debate is language in Myles Standish's will, drafted in Plymouth Colony in 1656, regarding his rights of inheritance. However, efforts to link Standish to the Standishes of Duxbury Hall have been inconclusive.Myles Standish – This portrait, first published in 1885, was alleged to be a 1625 likeness of Standish, although its authenticity has never been proven.
247. Edward Teller – Teller made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, surface physics. He also made contributions to Thomas -- Fermi theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. He was an early member of the Manhattan Project, charged with developing the first atomic bomb. These were deferred until after World War II. Teller was both its director and associate director for many years. Teller was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Ede Teller was born on January 15, 1908, into a Jewish family. His parents were Ilona, Max Teller, an attorney. Despite being raised in a Jewish family, Teller on became an agnostic. "Religion was not an issue in my family", Teller later wrote, "indeed, it was never discussed. My religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted. Yet my father said prayers on Saturdays and on all the Jewish holidays. Like Einstein and Feynman, he was a late talker. Teller developed the ability to speak later than most children but would calculate large numbers in his head for fun.Edward Teller – Teller in 1958 as Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
248. Benjamin Franklin Tilley – Tilley is best remembered as the first Acting-Governor of American Samoa, well as the territory's first Naval governor. He entered the United States Naval Academy during the height of the Civil War. Graduating after the conflict, Tilley gradually rose through the ranks. As a lieutenant, Tilley participated against workers in the wake of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. During the 1891 Chilean Civil War, a small contingent of sailors and marines defended the American consulate in Santiago, Chile. During the Spanish -- American War Tilley and his gunship, USS Newport, successfully captured two Spanish Navy ships. After the war, he was set legal and administrative precedents for the new territory. Near the conclusion of his 41 years of service, Tilley died shortly afterwards from pneumonia. Benjamin Franklin Tilley was born the sixth of nine children, in Bristol, Rhode Island. During the American Civil War, he enrolled in the United States Naval Academy at the age of 15. The war forced the school to relocate to Newport, Rhode Island. In 1866 Tilley graduated first in his class, going on to serve first on board USS Franklin, then USS Frolic. Tilley spent three years serving on board Frolic, eventually being promoted to ensign. His next assignment was on board USS Lancaster, where he was promoted twice: first to master in 1870 and then to lieutenant in 1871. From 1872 to 1875, he served in the South Pacific.Benjamin Franklin Tilley – Benjamin Franklin Tilley
249. Stephen Trigg – Stephen Trigg was an American pioneer and soldier from Virginia. He was one reportedly of the wealthiest men on the frontier. He was also elected to the Virginia House of Delegates. Trigg was appointed in 1779, charged with settling land titles in Kentucky. He then settled in Kentucky himself. In 1782, a party of Shawnee Indians led by British and Loyalist officers attacked Bryan Station, but were driven off. Kentucky militia companies then pursued the fleeing invaders. Trigg commanded half of the men, Daniel Boone the other. Ignoring Boone's warnings of a trap, the militiamen charged at Blue Licks. Trigg and many others, including Boone's youngest son, were killed. Trigg's body was later found cut into pieces. Kentucky, was named in memory of Stephen Trigg. Trigg was the son of William Trigg and Mary Trigg, whose family was prominent on the Virginia frontier. His father served as a Judge of the Court of Chancery, the Bedford County Court. Trigg had William, John, Abram and Daniel, who were all soldiers in the Revolutionary War.Stephen Trigg – This headstone at the Blue Licks Battlefield State Park marks the mass grave where Trigg and his men were buried.
250. Harriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War. Born a slave in Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child. The injury caused dizziness, spells of hypersomnia, which occurred throughout her life. She was vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God. In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, eventually guided dozens of other slaves to freedom. Traveling in extreme secrecy, Tubman "never lost a passenger". After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped newly freed slaves find work. When the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a nurse, then as an armed scout and spy. She guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than 700 slaves. After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American freedom. On April 2016, the U.S. Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill. Tubman was born Araminta "Minty" Ross to slave parents, Ben Ross. Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess. Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who ran a large plantation near Blackwater River in Madison, Maryland.Harriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman circa 1885
251. Samuel Adams – Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams. Adams was born in Boston, brought up in a politically active family. A graduate of Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and collector before concentrating on politics. His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770. Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the coming of the American Revolution. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, convened to coordinate a colonial response. Adams returned after the American Revolution where he served in the state senate and was eventually elected governor. Samuel Adams later became a controversial figure in American history. Both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. Adams's parents were devout members of the Old South Congregational Church. The family lived in Boston. Adams emphasized Puritan values in his political career, especially virtue. Samuel Adams, Sr. was a prosperous merchant and deacon. Deacon Adams became a leading figure through an organization that became known as the Boston Caucus, which promoted candidates who supported popular causes.Samuel Adams – In this c. 1772 portrait by John Singleton Copley, Adams points at the Massachusetts Charter, which he viewed as a constitution that protected the peoples' rights.
252. J. C. W. Beckham – John Crepps Wickliffe Beckham was the 35th Governor of Kentucky and a United States Senator from Kentucky. He was the state's first popularly elected senator following passage of the Seventeenth Amendment. The Kentucky General Assembly disputed the election results. During the political wrangling that followed, an unknown assassin shot Goebel. A day later the General Assembly invalidated enough votes to give the election to Goebel, sworn into office on his deathbed. Taylor fled the state. Following his term as governor, Beckham made a bid to become a U.S. Senator. The seat went to Republican William O. Bradley. He died on January 9, 1940. J. C. W. Beckham was born near Bardstown in Nelson County, Kentucky, son of William Netherton and Julia Tevis Beckham. Charles A. Wickliffe, was governor of Kentucky from 1839 to 1840 and served as postmaster general in the administration of John Tyler. His uncle, Robert C. Wickliffe, served as governor of Louisiana. Beckham obtained his early education in Bardstown. In 1881 he served at the age of 12.J. C. W. Beckham – J. C. W. Beckham
253. William O'Connell Bradley – William O'Connell Bradley was a politician from the US state of Kentucky. He was later elected from that state. The first Republican to serve as governor of Kentucky, Bradley became known as the father of the Republican Party in Kentucky. As a Republican in a heavily Democratic state, Bradley found little success early in his political career. He was defeated for a seat in the United States House of Representatives and in the United States Senate twice each. Although he lost the contest to Simon Bolivar Buckner, he reduced the usual Democratic majority substantially. He was again nominated for governor in 1895. Capitalizing on divisions in the Democratic Party over the issue of free silver, he defeated Parker Watkins Hardin in the general election. His term was marked by political struggles and violence. Republican William S. Taylor was elected to succeed Bradley in the contentious 1899 gubernatorial election. The case was appealed to the Supreme Court, which found in favor of the Democrats. Despite being a member of the state's minority party, Bradley was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1907. Again, divisions within the Democratic Party played a role in his election. Bradley's opposition to Prohibition made him more palatable to some Democrats than their own candidate, outgoing Governor Beckham. After two months of balloting, four Democratic legislators elected Bradley.William O'Connell Bradley – William O'Connell Bradley
254. Charles Carroll the Settler – Charles Carroll, sometimes called Charles Carroll the Settler to differentiate him from his son and grandson, was a wealthy lawyer and planter in colonial Maryland. Carroll, a Catholic, is best known because his efforts to hold office in the Protestant-dominated colony resulted in the disfranchisement of the colony's Catholics. Before that career developed, he secured a position as Attorney General of the young colony of Maryland. His descendants intended it for Catholics. Carroll supported Charles Calvert, the colony's Catholic proprietor, in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Protestant majority from gaining political control over Maryland. He was the wealthiest man in the colony by the time of his death. Some of the property near Aghagurty was obtained by Richard Grace, who made Daniel Carroll the head tenant. This action gave the family a livelihood, but the family continued to have limited means compared to their former status. It is likely that Charles Carroll was fostered by the wealthier Grace, who had no son; his greater resources could provide for the child's education. According to Carroll family tradition, Powis told his new clerk that he believed King James was receiving bad advice related to the religious turmoil in England. Powis was concerned about the consequences for English Catholics. He supposedly spoke on Carroll's behalf to an associate of his, Charles Calvert, proprietor of the Maryland colony. Intense lobbying by George Calvert had led to the granting of a hereditary charter to the Calvert family. The Maryland colony was established in the 1630s on land granted by this charter. It was intended as a haven for religious minorities.Charles Carroll the Settler – Charles Carroll the Settler
255. Murray Chotiner – He was active in each of Nixon's two successful runs for the White House in low-profile positions. Chotiner was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; his father then abandoned his wife and children. Murray Chotiner graduated from the Southwestern School of Law. He branched out into public relations. Involving himself in Republican politics, he made an unsuccessful run for the California State Assembly in 1938. Nixon retained Chotiner to his first congressional campaign in 1946. Nixon hired Chotiner to run his 1950 Senate campaign against Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas. Chotiner used a similar strategy in that campaign, printing the accusations on pink paper to hint at communist sympathy. Nixon recalled him to work on his unsuccessful 1962 campaign for Governor of California, again for his successful 1968 presidential bid. After Nixon was inaugurated in 1969, Chotiner, in 1970, became a member of the White House staff. He was involved in Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign. Chotiner was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Albert Hyman Chotiner and Sarah Chotiner. The family relocated to California in 1920. A cigar maker by trade, managed a chain of movie theaters in California, soon abandoned his wife and children. However, he had to be eligible to take the bar exam.Murray Chotiner – Murray Chotiner
256. Grover Cleveland – Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, both the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. He was also the first and to date only President in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation, subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans. His crusade for fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise to the principles of classical liberalism. He relentlessly fought political corruption, bossism. As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. The result was a political realignment that launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. He also drew corresponding criticism. Critics complained that Cleveland seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters -- depressions and strikes -- in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have. He possessed honesty, courage, firmness, common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not."Grover Cleveland – Caldwell Presbyterian parsonage, birthplace of Grover Cleveland
257. Calvin Coolidge – John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was the 30th President of the United States. A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity. As a Coolidge biographer wrote, "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength." Though his reputation underwent a renaissance during the Ronald Reagan administration, modern assessments of Coolidge's presidency are divided. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only U.S. president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Senior developed a statewide reputation as public servant. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer. She was chronically ill and died, perhaps from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of fifteen, probably of appendicitis, when Coolidge was eighteen. Coolidge's father remarried in 1891, to a schoolteacher, lived to the age of eighty. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England; his earliest American ancestor, John Coolidge, emigrated from Cottenham, Cambridgeshire, England, around 1630 and settled in Watertown, Massachusetts.Calvin Coolidge – Coolidge in the late 1910s
258. Richard Cordray – Richard Cordray is an American lawyer and Democratic Party politician who currently serves as the first Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Prior to his appointment in January 2012, he served in the State of Ohio. In 1987 Cordray became an undefeated Jeopardy! champion. He was elected in 1990. After redistricting, he was defeated. He was appointed by the Ohio Attorney General as the first Solicitor General of Ohio. His experience as Solicitor led before the United States Supreme Court to argue six cases, where he had previously clerked. Following Republican victories in Ohio statewide elections in 1994, he entered the private practice of law. While in private practice he unsuccessfully ran for Ohio Attorney General in 1998 and the United States Senate in 2000. Cordray was re-elected in 2004 before being elected Ohio State Treasurer in 2006. He was elected Ohio Attorney General in November 2008 to fill the remainder of the unexpired term ending January 2011. In 2010, Cordray lost his bid for re-election to former U.S. Senator Mike DeWine. On July 2011, President Barack Obama announced he would nominate Cordray to lead the United States Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. On January 2012, the White House announced that it would make a recess appointment of Cordray to the post.Richard Cordray – Richard Cordray
259. John J. Crittenden – John Jordan Crittenden was a politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. Served in the state legislature. Although frequently mentioned as a potential candidate for the U.S. presidency, Crittenden never consented to run for the office. During his political career, he served in the Kentucky House of Representatives and was chosen as speaker on several occasions. Following Taylor's death in 1850, he accepted Millard Fillmore's appointment as attorney general. As the Whig Party crumbled in the mid-1850s, he joined the Know Nothing Party. He continued to seek reconciliation between the states throughout his term. Crittenden died before the election took place. John Jordan Crittenden was born September 1787, near Versailles, Kentucky. Crittenden was the second child and first son of his wife Judith Harris. Judith Crittenden had four sons and five daughters, all but one of whom survived infancy. On his father's side, Crittenden was of Welsh ancestry, while his mother's family was French Huguenot. His father settled there just after the end of the American Revolution. Thomas and Robert, became lawyers, while the third, Henry, was a farmer. He began a college preparatory curriculum in Woodford County.John J. Crittenden – John Crittenden
260. Wendell H. Ford – Wendell Hampton Ford was an American politician from the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Ford was the 53rd Governor of Kentucky. Ford was the first person to be successively elected lieutenant governor, United States senator in Kentucky history. At the time of his retirement, Ford was the longest-serving senator in a mark, then surpassed by Mitch McConnell in 2009. His studies were interrupted by his service in World War II. After the war, Ford returned to Kentucky to help his father with the family insurance business. Ford also continued his military service in the Kentucky Army National Guard. Ford became Combs' executive assistant when Combs was elected governor. He was elected on a split ticket with Republican Louie B. Nunn. Four years later, he defeated Combs in an upset in the Democratic primary en route to the governorship. As governor, he made government more efficient by consolidating some departments in the executive branch. Ford enacted reforms to the educational system. In 1974, Ford himself ousted Republican Marlow Cook. As senator, he was a staunch defender of Kentucky's industry.Wendell H. Ford – Wendell H. Ford
261. William Goebel – Goebel remains the only governor in the United States to be assassinated while in office. His championing of populist causes, like railroad regulation, also won him many friends. This conflict of opinions came in the Kentucky gubernatorial election of 1899. These dynamics led to a close contest between William S. Taylor. In the politically chaotic climate that resulted, Goebel was assassinated. The identity of his assassin remains uncertain. Wilhelm Justus Goebel was born January 1856, in Albany Township, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, the son of Wilhelm and Augusta Goebel, immigrants from Hanover, Germany. The first of four children, he weighed less than three pounds. Wilhelm embraced the culture of his birth country as well, adopting the English spelling of his name. Discharged from the army in 1863, Goebel's father moved his family to Covington, Kentucky. William was then apprenticed to a jeweler in Cincinnati, Ohio. Goebel eventually became Stevenson's executor of his estate. Goebel was in private practice before partnering with Kentucky state representative John G. Carlisle for five years. He then rejoined Stevenson as a partner. Goebel was never known as a particularly genial person in public.William Goebel – William Justus Goebel
262. Emma Goldman – Emma Goldman was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. Born to a Jewish family, she emigrated in 1885. Frick survived the attempt on his life in 1892 and Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison. Illegally distributing information about control. In 1906, Goldman founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth. In 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to "induce persons not to register" for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia. In 1923, she published a book about her experiences, My Disillusionment in Russia. While living in England, Canada, France, she wrote an autobiography called Living My Life. After the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she traveled to Spain to support the anarchist revolution there. Goldman died on May 1940, aged 70. Her lectures spanned a wide variety of issues, including prisons, atheism, freedom of speech, homosexuality. Although she distanced herself from first-wave feminism and its efforts toward women's suffrage, she developed new ways of incorporating gender politics into anarchism. Emma Goldman's Orthodox Jewish family lived in the Lithuanian city of Kaunas.Emma Goldman – Goldman, circa 1911
263. John W. Johnston – John Warfield Johnston was an American lawyer and politician from Abingdon, Virginia. Johnston represented Virginia in the United States Senate when the state was readmitted after the American Civil War. Johnston was United States Senator for 13 years. In national politics, Johnston was a Democrat. However, his restrictions were removed at the suggestion of the Freedmen's Bureau when he aided a sick and dying former slave after the War. Johnston was the first person who had sided with the Confederacy to serve in the United States Senate. Several issues marked Johnston's senatorial career. Johnston was caught during the debate over the Arlington Memorial. He was an outspoken opponent of a sectional struggle for control of railroads in the South, which figured in the Compromise of 1877. He was born in his paternal grandfather's house, "Panicello", near Abingdon, Virginia. Johnston was the only child of Louisa Smith Bowen. His paternal uncles included Charles Clement Johnston and General Joseph Eggleston Johnston. His first cousin was U. S. Congressman Henry Bowen. Johnston's ancestry was Scots-Irish.John W. Johnston – John W. Johnston
264. Franklin Knight Lane – Franklin Knight Lane was a political progressive and American Democratic politician from California who served as United States Secretary of the Interior from 1913 to 1920. His fellow commissioners elected him as chairman in January 1913. The former Secretary died on May 18, 1921. Newspapers reported that it was often said of Lane that had he not been born in what is now Canada, he would have become president. In spite of that limitation, Lane was offered support for the Democratic nomination for Vice President, though he was constitutionally ineligible for that office as well. He was born on the first of four children of Christopher Lane and the former Caroline Burns. Christopher Lane was a preacher who owned a farm outside Charlottetown; when his voice began to fail, he became a dentist. From 1884 to 1886, he attended the University of California at Berkeley, though he did not graduate. Lane later wrote, "I put myself through college by working on vacation and after hours, I am very glad I did it." Lane later received honorary Doctor of Laws degrees from New York University, the University of North Carolina. After leaving college, he worked as a reporter for the San Francisco Chronicle. In 1889, he was admitted to the California Bar, having attended Hastings Law School. Rather than practicing law, Lane moved to New York City to continue his newspaper career as a correspondent for the Chronicle. There he became a protégé of the reformer Henry George and a member of New York's Reform Club. Lane returned as editor and owner of the Tacoma News.Franklin Knight Lane – Franklin Knight Lane
265. Bob McEwen – Tom Deimer of Cleveland's Plain Dealer described him as a "textbook Republican", "opposed to abortion, costly government programs." In the House, he criticized government incompetence and charged corruption by the Democratic majority that ran the House in the 1980s. McEwen's 2005 platform was familiar from his past campaigns, promising to limit taxes and government spending. In 2006, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the Second District. Born in Hillsboro, Ohio, McEwen graduated from Hillsboro High School in 1968. He earned a Bachelor's in Business Administration in Florida in 1972. He also attended The Ohio State University's College of Law for one year from 1972 to 1973. McEwen has four children: Elizabeth. He is a member of the Church of Christ. McEwen's district contained parts of Clinton, Fayette, Greene, Highland Counties and all of Madison County. He was re-elected to two more two-year terms. In 1976, his plurality against Democrat L. James Matter was 14,816 votes, a number larger than the votes cast for Matter. McEwen was a supporter of the state lottery in the House. Having previously directed Sixth District Congressman Bill Harsha's re-election campaigns to Congress in 1976 and 1978, McEwen ran for Harsha's seat when he retired in 1980. The Chillicothe Gazette would salute him on funding for U.S. Route a limited access highway linking Chillicothe to Dayton.Bob McEwen – Bob McEwen
266. Thomas R. Marshall – Thomas Riley Marshall was an American Democratic politician who served as the 28th Vice President of the United States under Woodrow Wilson. In office, Marshall pressed for other progressive era reforms. The Republican minority used the state courts to block the attempt to change the constitution. While he was president in the United States Senate, a small number of anti-war senators kept it deadlocked by refusing to end debate. Marshall's presidency is most remembered for a leadership crisis following a stroke that incapacitated Wilson in October 1919. He is also the only known Vice President of the United States to have been exclusively targeted in an assassination while in office. After his terms as president, Marshall opened an Indianapolis law practice, where he authored several legal books and his memoir, Recollections. Marshall continued to speak publicly. He died while after suffering a heart attack in 1925. Riley Marshall, immigrated to Indiana in 1817 and settled on a farm in present-day Whitley County. Marshall was also able to send Daniel, to medical school. Martha was known for her humor, as her son later would be. Martha and Daniel married in 1848. Thomas Riley Marshall was born on March 14, 1854. She died in infancy.Thomas R. Marshall – Thomas R. Marshall
267. Harvey Milk – He moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 to the Castro District. Three times ran unsuccessfully for political office. He was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city. Despite his short career in politics, he became an icon in the gay community. In 2002, he was called "the most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States". Me was that he was a visionary. He imagined a righteous world inside his head and then he set about to create it for all of us." He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009. He was born to William Milk and Minerva Karns. As a child, Harvey was tended to grab attention as a class clown. Under his name in the high yearbook, it read, "Glimpy Milk -- and they say WOMEN are never at a loss for words". Milk also wrote for the newspaper. One classmate remembered, "He was never thought as a possible queer -- that's what you called them then -- he was a man's man". After graduation, he joined the United States Navy during the Korean War. Milk served as a diving officer.Harvey Milk – Milk in 1978
268. Edwin P. Morrow – Edwin Porch Morrow was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Kentucky from 1919 to 1923. Morrow was the only Republican elected to this office between 1927. Morrow championed the typical Republican causes of his day, the use of force to quell violence. Both men were founding members in Kentucky. After rendering non-combat service in the Spanish -- American War, he opened his practice in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1915, Morrow ran against his good friend, Augustus O. Stanley. Stanley won the election by 471 votes, making the closest gubernatorial race in the state's history. He ran again in 1919. James D. Black, had ascended to the governorship earlier that year when Stanley resigned to take a seat in the U.S. Senate. He ran on a progressive platform that included women's suffrage and quelling racial violence. Morrow won the general election in a landslide. With a friendly legislature in 1920, Morrow passed much of his agenda into law including a reorganization of state government. Morrow won national acclaim for preventing the lynching of a black prisoner in 1920. Morrow was not hesitant to remove local officials who did not quell mob violence. By 1922, Morrow was not able to accomplish much in the second half of his term.Edwin P. Morrow – Edwin P. Morrow
269. Barack Obama – Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician and the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to be elected to that office and the first president born outside the contiguous United States. Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He then defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the general election, was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Nine months after his inauguration, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Obama was re-elected president in November 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney, was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013. His mother, Ann Dunham, born in Wichita, Kansas, was of mostly English ancestry. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo from Nyang'oma Kogelo, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship. There he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964 where he remarried; he visited Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971. He was killed in an automobile accident in 1982 when his son was 21 years old.Barack Obama – Barack Obama
270. Rosa Parks – Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. She had recently attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers' rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen "tired of giving in". Her situation also opened doors. Shortly after the boycott, she moved to Detroit, where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American US Representative. She was also active in the Black Power movement and the support of political prisoners in the US. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that the struggle for justice was not over and there was more work to be done. In her final years, she suffered from dementia. Upon her death in 2005, Parks was non-US official to lie in honor at the Capitol Rotunda. Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama, to James McCauley, a carpenter. She was of African ancestry, though one of her great-grandfathers was Scots-Irish and one of her great-grandmothers was a slave of Native American descent.Rosa Parks – Rosa Parks in 1955, with Martin Luther King, Jr. in the background
271. Paul E. Patton – Paul Edward Patton is an American politician. He was the 59th Governor of Kentucky, serving from 1995 to 2003. Because of a 1992 amendment to the Kentucky Constitution, he was the first governor eligible to succeed himself since James Garrard in 1800. Since 2013, he has been the chancellor of the University of Pikeville in Pikeville, Kentucky after serving from 2010 to 2013. He also served on Postsecondary Education from 2009 to 2011. After graduating in 1959, Patton became wealthy operating coal mines for 20 years. He sold most of his coal interests in the late 1970s and entered politics, serving briefly in the cabinet of Governor John Y. Brown, Jr. and chairing the state Democratic Party. In 1981, he was elected judge/executive of Pike County. Four years later, Patton was elected Governor over Republican Larry Forgy. The economic prosperity that fueled Patton's first success faded into a recession in the early 2000s. After initially denying the affair, Patton continued to deny using his office to benefit his mistress. These successive scandals derailed any political aspirations. Patton was born in a retrofitted silo with no indoor plumbing, electricity, or telephone. He was the only son of the three children born to Ward and Irene Patton.Paul E. Patton – at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, 2012
272. Theodore Roosevelt – Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle. Roosevelt integrated world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College. The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, Roosevelt became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New York's legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898. He campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinley's re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, conservatism. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt, at age 42, succeeded to the office, becoming the youngest United States President in history. Making a top priority, Roosevelt established a myriad of new national parks, monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency. After leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe. Returning to the USA, he became frustrated with Taft's approach as his successor. He tried but failed to win the presidential nomination in 1912.Theodore Roosevelt – Theodore Roosevelt
273. Terry Sanford – James Terry Sanford was a United States politician and educator from North Carolina. A member of the Democratic Party, Sanford was the 65th Governor of North Carolina, a two-time U.S. Presidential candidate in the 1970s and a U.S. Senator. From 1969 to 1985, he was President of Duke University. An Eagle Scout as Sanford became an FBI agent after graduating from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1939. During World War II, Sanford received a battlefield commission. He was born in Laurinburg, North Carolina, the son of Elizabeth Terry and Cecil Leroy Sanford, both of English descent. Sanford became an Eagle Scout in Laurinburg's 20 of the Boy Scouts of America. Shortly before he died, he said that it "probably saved my life in the war. Boys, in the CCC knew how to look after themselves in the woods. ... ... What I learned in Scouts sustained all my life; it helped me make decisions about what was best." The BSA recognized him with its Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. He then served as a special agent in the FBI for two years.Terry Sanford – Terry Sanford
274. Antonin Scalia – Antonin Gregory Scalia was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. He was born in New Jersey. Scalia attended public grade school, then college at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.. In the early 1970s, Scalia served in the Nixon and Ford administrations, eventually as an Assistant Attorney General. In 1982, Ronald Reagan appointed him for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1986, Reagan appointed him to the Supreme Court. He was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, becoming the Italian-American justice. Scalia was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, believing presidential power should be paramount in many areas. Scalia opposed affirmative action and other policies that treated minorities as special groups. Often castigated the Court's majority in his minority opinions using scathing language. Antonin Scalia was an only child. Catherine Louise Scalia, was born in Trenton to Italian immigrant parents and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1939, his family moved to the Elmhurst section of Queens, New York, where he attended P.S. 13. 13. Scalia later stated that he admitted, "I was never cool."Antonin Scalia – The Honorable Antonin Scalia
275. Solomon P. Sharp – His murder by Jereboam O. Beauchamp in 1825 is referred to as the Beauchamp -- "The Kentucky Tragedy." Sharp began his political career representing Warren County, in the Kentucky House of Representatives. He briefly served in the War of 1812, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1813. He was re-elected to a second term, though his support of a controversial bill regarding legislator salaries cost his seat in 1816. Joseph Desha, re-appointed him to this position. In 1825, Sharp resigned as general to return to the Kentucky House. In 1820, rumors surfaced that Sharp had fathered a illegitimate child with Anna Cooke, a planter's daughter. The immediate political effects were minimal. When the charges were repeated during Sharp's 1825 General Assembly campaign, opponents publicized the allegation that the child was a mulatto. Whether it was a rumor started by his political enemies, remains in doubt. Sharp's murder inspired fictional works, notably Edgar Allan Poe's unfinished play Politian and Robert Penn Warren's novel World Enough and Time. Solomon Sharp was born at Abingdon, Washington County, Virginia. He was Jean Sharp, a Scottish woman. Through the male line he was a great-great-grandson of Archbishop of York. His father Thomas Sharp was a veteran of the Revolutionary War, participating in the Battle of King's Mountain.Solomon P. Sharp – Solomon P. Sharp
276. Augustus Owsley Stanley – Augustus Owsley Stanley I was a politician from the US state of Kentucky. Stanley also represented the state in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. From 1903 to 1915, Stanley represented Kentucky's 2nd congressional district in the House of Representatives, where he gained a reputation as a progressive reformer. As a result of his investigation, the Supreme Court of the United States broke up the American Tobacco Company in 1911. Stanley also chaired a committee that conducted an antitrust investigation of U.S. Steel, which brought him national acclaim. Many of his ideas were incorporated into the Clayton Antitrust Act. During an unsuccessful senatorial bid in 1914, Stanley assumed an anti-prohibition stance. In 1915, Stanley ran for governor, defeating his close friend Edwin P. Morrow by just over 400 votes. It was the closest gubernatorial race in the state's history. Historian Lowell H. Harrison called Stanley's administration the apex of the Progressive Era in Kentucky. Among the reforms adopted during his tenure were a state antitrust law, a campaign finance reform law, a workman's compensation law. In 1918, Stanley was chosen as the Democratic nominee to succeed the recently deceased senator Ollie M. James. Stanley was elected, but did not resign as governor to take the seat until May 1919 and accomplished little in his single term. Stanley again held elected office.Augustus Owsley Stanley – Augustus O. Stanley I
277. Jerry Voorhis – Horace Jeremiah "Jerry" Voorhis was a Democratic politician from California. He served five terms from 1937 to 1947 representing the 12th Congressional district in Los Angeles County. The family relocated frequently in his childhood. He earned a bachelor's degree from Claremont Graduate School. In 1928, he became its headmaster. He retained the post into his congressional career. In the House of Representatives, Voorhis compiled a liberal voting record. His legislative achievement was the Voorhis Act of 1940 requiring registration of certain organizations controlled by foreign powers. Voorhis refused to run against Nixon in 1948. During a career spanning a half-century, Voorhis penned several books. Following his defeat by Nixon, he worked for almost twenty years as an executive in the cooperative movement. He died at the age of 83. Voorhis was born in Ottawa, Kansas, to Charles Brown Voorhis, of Dutch descent, Ella Ward Voorhis. Charles Voorhis rose to become an executive of the Kingman Plow Company. Jerry Voorhis also attended school in Oklahoma City, Peoria, Illinois and Pontiac, Michigan.Jerry Voorhis – Jerry Voorhis
278. Daniel Webster – Daniel Webster was an American statesman who twice served in the United States House of Representatives, representing New Hampshire and Massachusetts, served as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts and was twice the United States Secretary of State, under Presidents William Henry Harrison and John Tyler and Millard Fillmore. Along with James G. Blaine, Webster is one of only two people who have served under three presidents. Webster also sought the Whig Party nomination for President three times: in 1836, 1852. He was an outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made a key Whig leader. Webster led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. Webster was a spokesman for modernization, industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his opponents in Jacksonian Democracy. "He was a thoroughgoing elitist, he reveled in it," says biographer Robert Remini. Chiefly recognized for his Senate tenure, he was a key figure in the institution's "Golden days". He was the Northern member of the "Great Triumvirate", with his colleagues Henry Clay from the West and John C. Calhoun from the South. His "Reply to Hayne" in 1830 has been regarded as one of the greatest speeches in the senate's history. As with his fellow Whig Henry Clay, he wanted to see the Union civil war averted. They both worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the South. Webster's support for the Compromise of 1850, devised by Clay, proved crucial to its passage. In 1957, a Senate committee selected Webster as one of the five greatest U.S.Daniel Webster – Daniel Webster
279. Franklin D. Roosevelt – He directed the United States government during an era of total war. His program for relief, reform, known as the New Deal, involved a great expansion of the federal government's role in the economy. The Coalition significantly realigned American politics after 1932, defining American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. Roosevelt was born to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County, New York. He attended the educational institutions of Groton School and Harvard College, both in Massachusetts. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, with whom he fathered six children. He entered politics in 1910, serving under President Woodrow Wilson. The Cox/Roosevelt ticket lost to the Republican ticket of Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge. During the depths of the Great Depression in 1932, Roosevelt defeated Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency. Energized by his personal victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to encourage labor union growth while more closely regulating business and high finance. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, helping him win re-election by a landslide in 1936. The economy then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 -- 38. The Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, blocked almost all proposals for major liberal legislation. When unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC.Franklin D. Roosevelt – Roosevelt in 1933
280. Harry S. Truman – He used presidential authority to put civil rights on the national political agenda. He presided over an unexpected surge in economic prosperity as America sought readjustment after long years of war. His political coalition was based across the North. Truman was able to win election to a presidential term in his own right. Truman was spent most of his youth on his family's 600-acre farm near Independence. In the last months of World War I, he served as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he briefly joined the Democratic Party and the political machine of Tom Pendergast. Truman was first elected to public office as a county official in 1922, then as a U.S. Senator in 1934. He gained national prominence as chairman of the Truman Committee, formed in March 1941, which exposed waste, corruption in Federal Government wartime contracts. Truman's presidency was a point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy and renounced isolationism. A wartime ally, became a peacetime enemy in the Cold War. Truman oversaw the creation of NATO in 1949. He was unable to stop Communists from taking over China. When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he gained UN approval for the Korean War.Harry S. Truman – Harry S. Truman
281. Edward Drinker Cope – Edward Drinker Cope was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. Cope was a founder of the Neo-Lamarckism school of thought. Though his father tried to raise Cope as a farmer, Cope eventually acquiesced to his son's scientific aspirations. He eschewed a teaching position for field work. Cope made regular trips to the American West, prospecting in the 1880s, often as a member of United States Geological Survey teams. A personal feud between Cope and paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh led to a period of fossil-finding competition now known as the Bone Wars. Cope's financial fortunes soured after failed mining ventures in the 1880s, forcing him to sell off much of his fossil collection. Cope experienced a resurgence in his career before dying on April 12, 1897. Though Cope's scientific pursuits nearly bankrupted him, his contributions helped to define the field of American paleontology. Cope was a prodigious writer, with 1,400 papers published over his lifetime, although his rivals debated the accuracy of his rapidly published works. Cope discovered, named more than 1,000 vertebrate species, including hundreds of fishes and dozens of dinosaurs. His proposal for the origin of mammalian molars is notable among his theoretical contributions. The hypothesis that mammalian lineages gradually grow larger over geologic time, while named after him, is "neither explicit nor implicit" in his work. Edward Drinker Cope was born on the eldest son of Alfred and Hanna Cope. Rebecca Biddle, filled the maternal role; Cope referred to her warmly, as well as his younger stepbrother, James Biddle Cope.Edward Drinker Cope – Edward Drinker Cope
282. David A. Johnston – David Alexander Johnston was an American USGS volcanologist, killed by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington. He was the first to report the eruption, transmitting "Vancouver! Vancouver! This is it!" before he was swept away by a lateral blast. State highway workers discovered remnants of his USGS trailer in 1993. Johnston was a talented scientist, known for his analyses of volcanic gases and their relationship to eruptions. This, along with positive attitude, made him liked and respected by many co-workers. After his death, other scientists lauded his character, both verbally and in letters. Johnston felt scientists must do what is necessary, including taking risks, to help protect the public from natural disasters. That of fellow USGS scientists convinced authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the public before the 1980 eruption. They maintained the closure to re-open the area; their work saved thousands of lives. His story became intertwined within the popular image of volcanic eruptions and a part of volcanology's history. To date, Johnston, along with Harry Glicken, is one of two American volcanologists known to have died in a volcanic eruption. Following his death, Johnston was commemorated including a memorial fund established in his name at the University of Washington to fund graduate-level research. Two volcano observatories were named after him: one in Vancouver, Washington, another on the ridge where he died.David A. Johnston – David A. Johnston, 13 hours before his death at the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
283. Glynn Lunney – Glynn S. Lunney is a retired NASA engineer. Later, he served before leaving NASA in 1985 and later becoming a vice president of the United Space Alliance. Lunney was a key figure in the US manned program from Project Mercury through the coming of the Space Shuttle. He has received numerous awards including the National Space Trophy, which he was given by the Rotary Club in 2005. Glynn Lunney grew up in the city of Old Forge, Pennsylvania. Lunney graduated in 1953. A interest in model airplanes prompted Lunney to study engineering in college. The center was a part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, a United States federal agency founded to promote aeronautical research. Lunney graduated from college with a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace engineering. After graduation, Lunney remained with NACA. Using a bomber, the team sent small rockets high into the atmosphere in order to measure their heating profile. Only a month after Lunney graduated, President Eisenhower signed into existence the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, into which NACA was subsumed. His timing was perfect, as Lunney later said, "there was no such thing as space flight until the month I got out of college". Aged twenty-one, he was the youngest of the forty-five members of the group. He took part in the writing of the first set of the guidelines by which both flight controllers and astronauts operated.Glynn Lunney – Glynn Lunney in 1974, as manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
284. Barbara McClintock – Barbara McClintock was an American scientist and cytogeneticist, awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. McClintock received her PhD from Cornell University in 1927. There she started her career for the rest of her life. From the late 1920s, McClintock studied chromosomes and how they change during reproduction in maize. She used microscopic analysis to demonstrate many fundamental genetic ideas. One of those ideas was the notion of genetic recombination during meiosis -- a mechanism by which chromosomes exchange information. She produced the genetic map for maize, linking regions of the chromosome to physical traits. She demonstrated the role of regions of the chromosome that are important in the conservation of genetic information. She was recognized among the best in the field, elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1944. During the 1950s, McClintock discovered transposition and used it to demonstrate that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off. She developed theories to explain the suppression and expression of genetic information to the next. Due to skepticism of its implications, she stopped publishing her data in 1953. Later, she made an extensive study of the ethnobotany of maize races from South America. Sara Handy, born Grace, descended from an old American Mayflower family. The oldest child, was born in October 1898; Mignon, the second daughter, was born in November 1900.Barbara McClintock – Barbara McClintock shown in her laboratory.
285. Gerard K. O'Neill – Gerard Kitchen O'Neill was an American physicist and space activist. As a member of Princeton University, Retrieved invented a device called the particle storage ring for high-energy physics experiments. Later, Retrieved invented a magnetic launcher called the mass driver. In the 1970s, Retrieved developed a plan to build human settlements in outer space, including a space design known as the O'Neill cylinder. Retrieved founded an organization devoted to funding research into space manufacturing and colonization. O'Neill began researching high-energy particle physics at Princeton in 1954, after he received his doctorate from Cornell University. Two years later, Retrieved published his theory for a particle ring. This invention allowed particle accelerators at much higher energies than had previously been possible. In 1965 at Stanford University, Retrieved performed the first colliding beam experiment. While teaching physics at Princeton, O'Neill became interested in the possibility that humans could live in outer space. Retrieved proposed a futuristic idea for human settlement in space, the O'Neill cylinder, in "The Colonization of Space", his first paper on the subject. Retrieved held a conference at Princeton in 1975. Many who became post-Apollo-era space activists attended. O'Neill built his first mass driver prototype in 1976. Retrieved considered mass drivers critical for extracting the mineral resources of the Moon and asteroids.Gerard K. O'Neill – The two-mile-long Stanford Linear Accelerator tunnel
286. Hilary Putnam – Hilary Whitehall Putnam was an American philosopher, mathematician, computer scientist, a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century. Putnam made significant contributions to philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, philosophy of science. At the time of his death, he was Cogan University Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. As a result, Putnam acquired a reputation for frequently changing his own position. In the field of epistemology, Putnam is known for his critique of the well known "brain in a vat" thought experiment. Putnam challenges its coherence. In the philosophy of perception he came to endorse direct realism, according to which perceptual experiences directly present one with the external world. In the past, Putnam further held that there are no mental representations, other intermediaries that stand between the mind and the world. Such transactions can further involve qualia. In his later work, he became increasingly interested in American pragmatism, ethics, thus engaging with a wider array of philosophical traditions. Putnam also displayed an interest in metaphilosophy, seeking to "renew philosophy" from what he identifies as inflated concerns. Outside philosophy, he contributed to mathematics and science. He helped demonstrate the unsolvability of Hilbert's tenth problem. Putnam was at a politically controversial figure, especially for his involvement with the Progressive Labor Party in the late 1960s and early 1970s. He was born in 1926.Hilary Putnam – Hilary Putnam
287. Otto Julius Zobel – Otto Julius Zobel was an electrical engineer who worked for the American Telephone & Telegraph Company in the early part of the 20th century. He invented the constant-resistance filter, which remains in use. Otto Julius Zobel was born in Ripon, Wisconsin. Zobel first studied at Ripon College, where he received his BA with a thesis on Theoretical and experimental treatment of electrical condensers. Zobel later received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from Ripon. Zobel then graduated with an MA in physics in 1910. This followed his 1913 co-authoring of a book on the subject of geophysical thermodynamics. From 1915 to 1916 Zobel taught physics at the University of Minnesota. Having moved to New Jersey, Zobel joined AT&T in 1916, where he worked on transmission techniques. Zobel retired in 1952. The last of his prolific list of patents occurred in the 1950s, by which time he was residing in Morristown, New Jersey. Zobel died there of a attack in January 1970. Zobel's early work on conduction was not pursued in his later career. There are, however, some connections. Lord Kelvin in his early work on the line derived the properties of the electric line by analogy with heat conduction.Otto Julius Zobel – A harmonic analyser, due to Lord Kelvin, intended to be used for the prediction of tides. Ingersoll and Zobel found this design of limited use for Fourier analysis because of the very small number of frequencies measured.
288. 109th United States Congress – House members were elected in the 2004 elections on November 2, 2004. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-second Census of the United States in 2000. Both chambers had a Republican majority, the same party as President Bush. This Congress met for 242 days, the fewest since World War II and 12 days fewer than the 80th Congress. The President vetoed only one bill, his first veto, the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005. February 17, 2005: Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, Pub.L. 109–2 March 21, 2005: Theresa Marie Schiavo's law, Pub.L. 109–3 April 20, 2005: Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, Pub.L. 109–8 April 27, 2005: Family Entertainment and Copyright Act, Pub.L. 109–9 July 28, 2005: Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub.L. 109–53 July 29, 2005: Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub.L. 109–58 August 10, 2005: Transportation Equity Act of 2005, Pub.L. 109–59 October 26, 2005: Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act, Pub.L. 109–92 December 1, 2005: Caribbean National Forest Act of 2005, Pub.L. 109–118 December 22, 2005: Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, Pub.L.109th United States Congress – House Speaker Dennis Hastert (2006)
289. Commandant of the Marine Corps – Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands. As with the joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces. The Commandant must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a general while serving in office. "The Commandant is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the total performance of the Marine Corps. This includes the administration, discipline, internal organization, training, requirements, readiness of the service. The Commandant is also responsible for the operation of the Marine Corps material system." Thirty-seven men have served as the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The longest-serving was Archibald Henderson, sometimes referred to as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps" due to his thirty-nine-year tenure. Allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds.. Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-012-9. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Ulbrich, David J.. Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-183.Commandant of the Marine Corps – Incumbent General Robert B. Neller since September 24, 2015
290. List of Korean War Medal of Honor recipients – This list represents all of the 146 United States military personnel who received the Medal of Honor for valor in combat during the Korean War. 98 Medals of Honor were awarded posthumously. In a very narrow sense, some may refer as a civil war though many other factors were at play. The conflict was then expanded as part of the larger Cold War. The main hostilities were during the period from June 1950 until the armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. Due to the nature of this medal, it is commonly presented posthumously. Who's Who in Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved March 2008. "Medal of Honor recipients". Korean War. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved June 2009. "Medal of Honor recipients".List of Korean War Medal of Honor recipients – Medal of Honor
291. List of National Parks of the United States – National parks must be established by an act of the United States Congress. Many current National Parks had been previously protected as National Monuments by the President before being upgraded by Congress. Criteria for the selection of National Parks include natural beauty, unique geological features, recreational opportunities. National Monuments, on the other hand, are frequently chosen for their archaeological significance. Twenty-seven states have national parks, as do the territories of the United States Virgin Islands. California has the most, followed by Alaska, Utah, Colorado. The largest national park is Wrangell–St. Elias in Alaska: at over 8 million acres, it is larger than each of the nine smallest states. The next three largest parks are also in Alaska. The smallest park is Hot Springs, Arkansas, at less than thousand acres. In contrast, only 10,745 people visited the remote Gates of the Arctic in the same year. Fourteen national parks are designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A few national parks are no longer designated as such, or have been disbanded. Other units of the National Park Service are sometimes broadly referred to as national parks; they are listed here.List of National Parks of the United States – 1938 poster for Yellowstone National Park
292. List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. – This list of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. ranks high-rises in the U.S. capital city of Washington, D.C. The tallest structure excluding radio towers, is the Washington Monument, which rises 555 feet and was completed in 1884. The structure, however, is not generally considered a high-rise building as it does not have successive floors that can be occupied. The tallest building in the city is the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, which rises 329 feet. The second-tallest building in Washington is the Old Post Office Building, 315 feet high. The third-tallest building in the city is the Washington National Cathedral, which rises 301 feet above grade. As of November 2011, there are 410 completed high-rises in the city. Washington's history of skyscrapers began in 1894 of the 14-story Cairo Hotel, considered to be the city's first high-rise. The building rises 14 floors. However, although the city is home to several high-rises, none are considered to be genuine "skyscrapers"; only two completed buildings surpass 200 feet. The height of buildings in Washington is limited by the Height of Buildings Act. However, building heights are curb to the edge of the roof. Architectural embellishments, common rooftop structures may be exempted from the overall height limit, provided they are setback from the roof line. The heights of buildings listed here may therefore exceed the general limit as measured for the purpose of the city's zoning laws. One of the most recently completed buildings in Washington, D.C. is Capitol View, 171 feet high.List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. – Aerial image of Northwest Washington, D.C.
293. List of U.S. state name etymologies – The fifty U.S. states have taken their names from a wide variety of languages. Other state names derive from European languages: seven come from Latin, five come from English, five come from Spanish, four come from French. The etymologies of six states are disputed or unclear: Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Oregon, Rhode Island. Of the fifty states, eleven are named after an individual person. Of those eleven, seven are named in honor of European monarchs: the two Carolinas, the two Virginias, Maryland, Georgia. Native American Placenames of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Guyton, Kathy U.S. State Names: The Stories of How Our States Were NamedList of U.S. state name etymologies – Map showing the source languages of state names
294. List of U.S. states by population – The 25 least populous states contain less than one-sixth of the total population. The most populous state, contains more people than the 21 least populous states combined. The United States Census counts most persons residing in the United States including citizens, non-citizen long-term visitors. Their dependents are counted in their home state. This apportionment is based to that of the Fifty States together. The Electoral College is the body every four years, elects the President and Vice President of the United States. Each state's representation in the Electoral College is equal to that state's total number of members in both houses of the United States Congress. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution effectively grants the District of Columbia, separate from three votes. Thus, the total representation in the College is 538 members. The eleven most populous states, representing 56% of the population, currently have a majority of the Electoral College votes, enough to elect the president. These states have not voted for the same candidate in any presidential election since 1984. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 2015. "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau.List of U.S. states by population – Map of each state's population as of 2013.
295. United States Secretary of Energy – Originally the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention also turned toward radioactive waste maintenance of environmental quality. Schlesinger is also the only secretary to be dismissed from the post. Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was the first female and African-American holder. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clinton's second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on November 2004, serving under the administration of George W. Bush. Steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama. He is also the only Nobel Prize winner to be a Cabinet secretary and the longest-serving Secretary of Energy. Parties Democratic Republican As of December 2016, there are the oldest being Charles Duncan, Jr.. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was James B. Edwards, on December 2014. The most recently serving Secretary to die was James D. Watkins on July 2012. United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy "Official site of U.S. Department of Energy". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 2007-08-13.United States Secretary of Energy – Incumbent Ernest Moniz since May 21, 2013
296. Timeline of United States history – To read about the background to these events, see History of the United States. Some dates before September 1752, when the British government adopted the Gregorian calendar, may be given in the Old Style. Hakim, Joy. Making Thirteen Colonies. A History of US. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515322-7.Timeline of United States history – Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He was one of the first Europeans to arrive to the current U.S. because led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named.
297. Pre-Columbian – For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are also in use. In areas of Latin America the term usually used is Pre-Hispanic. Pre-Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent settlements, cities, complex societal hierarchies. Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era. Many of their descendants continue traditional practices, while adapting cultural technologies into their lives. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait and possibly along the coast. Genetic evidence found in Amerindians' maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America. Exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago. However, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago. The chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches.Pre-Columbian – Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio
298. Colonial history of the United States – In the 16th century, England, France, Spain, the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. Early attempts often disappeared, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. Everywhere, the rate was very high among the first arrivals. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established. European settlers came from a variety of religious groups. A number of adventurers, soldiers, farmers, tradesmen arrived. They built colonies with distinctive social, political, economic styles. The inhabitants were all assimilated, unlike in Nova Scotia, where the British expelled the French Acadian inhabitants. The colonies developed legalized systems of slavery, based largely in the Atlantic trade from Africa or by way of the Caribbean. Wars were recurrent between the British -- the French and Indian Wars especially -- and involved French support for Wabanaki attacks on the frontiers. By 1760, the British seized its colonies. Some historians add a fifth region of the Frontier, never separately organized. See timeline of Colonial America for list of historical events. Colonizers came from European kingdoms that had highly developed military, naval, entrepreneurial capabilities. These efforts were managed respectively by the Casa da Índia.Colonial history of the United States – Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He explored in Florida, which he named.
299. Thirteen Colonies – The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political, constitutional, legal systems, were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. However, the Thirteen Colonies had a high degree of self-government and active local elections, increasingly resisted London's demands for more control. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with each other instead of dealing directly with Britain. Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies established a Continental Congress and declared independence in 1776. Colonial decisions were subject to approval by the government. There were also substantial populations of African slaves in some of the colonies, Georgia. The names of the colonies were chosen by the founders and proprietors, subject to royal approval, given in the founding charters. Nine of the thirteen chose to include in their names the term "Province of...", which had no political significance. In July 1776, they formed a new nation called the "United States of America" and declared independence. The new nation achieved that goal by winning the American Revolutionary War with the aid of Spain. The American flag features thirteen horizontal stripes which represent these original thirteen colonies. Besides these thirteen colonies, Britain had another dozen in the New World. Contemporary documents usually list the thirteen colonies of British North America in geographical order, from the north to the south. The consolidation collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, the nine former colonies re-established their separate identities in 1689. Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled from England.Thirteen Colonies – Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule.
300. United States Declaration of Independence – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast. A committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term "Declaration of Independence" is not used in the document itself. John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. But Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was signed. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside, widely distributed and read to the public. The copy used for this printing may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, signed primarily on August 2. The sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made his policies. This has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language", containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history". The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive.United States Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
301. American Revolution – The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting in April 1775. The conflict then developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were then held New York City for the duration of the war. They failed to defeat Washington's forces. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. The lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies. In 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament also passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes for the first time.American Revolution – John Trumbull 's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress
302. Territorial acquisitions of the United States – This is a United States territorial acquisitions and conquests list, beginning with American independence. Note that this list primarily concerns land the United States acquired from other nation-states. Territorial acquisitions derived from the displacement of Native Americans are not listed here. The 1783 Treaty of Paris with Great Britain defined the original borders of the United States. It generally stretched to the Mississippi River in the west. The Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was negotiated during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson; the territory was acquired from France for $15 million. A small portion of this land was ceded in exchange for the Red River Basin. More of this land was later reacquired through Texas annexation and Mexican Cession. West Florida was declared to be a U.S. possession in 1810 by President James Madison after the territory had declared its independence from Spain. Madison ordered the U.S. Army to take control. The army entered and occupied the capital, St. Francisville, putting an end to the republic after 74 days of independence. Spain did not relinquish its claim until ratification of the Adams-Onis Treaty. General Andrew Jackson personally accepted the delivery of West Florida from its Spanish governor on July 1821. Article III of the treaty, when properly surveyed, resulted in the acquisition of a small part of central Colorado. In 1850 Britain ceded to the U.S. less than one acre of underwater rock in Lake Erie near Buffalo for a lighthouse.Territorial acquisitions of the United States – Census Bureau map depicting territorial acquisitions and dates of statehood, probably created in the 1970s or thereabouts
303. American Civil War – The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America. The Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U.S. history. Among the 34 U.S. states in January 1861, seven Southern slave states individually formed the Confederate States of America. War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U.S. fortress Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to include eleven states; it claimed the western territory of Arizona. The Confederacy was never diplomatically recognized by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the North. The war ended in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the factious issue of slavery, especially the extension of slavery into the western territories. Slavery was abolished in the entire country. But before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in a total of 49 percent. The first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities in Georgia with 51 % and Louisiana with 55 %. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession.American Civil War – New Orleans the largest cotton exporting port for New England and Great Britain textile mills, shipping Mississippi River Valley goods from North, South and Border states.
304. Reconstruction Era – Johnson followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates much like Lincoln's. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. The Bureau set up schools and churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came South as missionaries, politicians; hostile elements called them "Carpetbaggers". Rebuilding the rundown railroad system was a major strategy, but it collapsed when a nationwide depression struck the economy. In early 1866, Congress sent them for his signature. Meanwhile, self-styled Conservatives strongly opposed Republican rule. They alleged widespread corruption by ruinous taxes. The opposition violently counterattacked and regained power in each "redeemed" Southern state by 1877. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies faded in the North, as voters decided the Civil War was over and slavery was dead. Most historians consider a failure. In the different states Reconstruction began and ended at different times; federal Reconstruction finally ended with the Compromise of 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war commenced after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1, 1863. As Confederate states came back under control of the US Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana during the war. He experimented by giving land to former slaves in South Carolina.Reconstruction Era – The southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865
305. World War I – More than million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. It paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within weeks, the major powers were at the conflict soon spread around the world. On 28 the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia. As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. The Germans stopped its invasion of East Prussia. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers; Romania joined the Allies in 1916, as did the United States in 1917. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. Economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. In Canada, Maclean's magazine in October 1914 wrote, "Some wars name themselves.World War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
306. Great Depression – The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; however, in most countries it lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. Between 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15 %. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, revenue profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50 %. Unemployment in the U.S. rose in some countries rose as high as 33 %. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60 %. Facing plummeting demand with alternate sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most.Great Depression – Dorothea Lange 's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, age 32, a mother of seven children, in Nipomo, California, March 1936
307. Korean War – The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. The Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled until the closing days of World War II. U.S. forces subsequently moved into the south. As a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments. Neither side accepted the border as permanent. On that day, the United Nations Security Council called for an immediate ceasefire. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed with the United States providing 88 % of the UN's military personnel. After the first two months of the conflict, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive cut off many of the North Korean troops. In October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive campaign.Korean War – Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division 's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of an American M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
308. Vietnam War – It was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. As the war continued, the military actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the engagement of the NVA grew. South Vietnamese and U.S. forces relied on overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, airstrikes. In the course of the war, the U.S. conducted a strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam. They viewed the conflict against forces from France and later on the U.S.. The U.S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a Communist takeover of South Vietnam. This was part of a wider policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina. U.S. involvement again in 1962. Regular U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965. Despite the Paris Peace Accord, signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture. The war changed altered North -- South relations. Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973.Vietnam War – Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Offensive, two Douglas A-4C Skyhawks en route for airstrikes against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre.
309. Civil Rights Movement – This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South. The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between 1968, acts of civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, communities often had to respond immediately to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. This phase of the Civil Rights Movement witnessed the passage of several major pieces of federal legislation. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities. The Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 opened the way from Africa and the Western Hemisphere. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, across the country young people were inspired to take action. A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community. But, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to strategy. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to get involved. Many Republican governors were afraid of sending black militia troops to fight the clan in fear of war. For more than 60 years, blacks in the South were not able to elect anyone to represent their interests in Congress or local government. Since they could not vote, they could not serve on local juries.Civil Rights Movement – Four leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. From left: Bayard Rustin, Andrew Young, (N.Y. Cong. William Ryan), James Farmer, and John Lewis in 1965.
310. War on Terrorism – U.S. President George W. Bush first used the term "War on Terror" on 20 September 2001. It was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with Islamic terrorism organizations including al-Qaeda and like-minded organizations. The conflict has also been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. Author Shane Harris asserts this was a reaction to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, which killed 241 U.S. and 58 French peacekeepers. Bush later apologized due to the negative connotations the crusade has to e.g. of Muslim faith. The word crusade was not used again. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, defeated." This was explained more recently by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war. So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror." In March 2009 the Defense Department officially changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation". In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid use of the term, instead using "Overseas Contingency Operation". Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. Administration officials also described "terrorists" as hateful, treacherous, perverted, without faith, parasitical, inhuman, most commonly, evil. Americans, in contrast, were described as brave, loving, generous, respectful of human rights.War on Terrorism – Clockwise from top left: Aftermath of the 11 September attacks; American infantry in Afghanistan; an American soldier and Afghan interpreter in Zabul Province, Afghanistan; explosion of an Iraqi car bomb in Baghdad.
312. Military history of the United States – The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. The Continental Congress in 1775 named General George Washington its commander. This newly formed army, along with state militia forces, the Spanish Navy defeated the British in 1781. The new Constitution in 1789 made the commander in chief with authority for the Congress to levy taxes, make the laws, declare war. There also is the United States Coast Guard, controlled by the Department of Homeland Security. Governors have control for limited purposes. The president has the ability to federalize National Guard units, bringing them under the sole control of the Department of Defense. The beginning of the United States military lies in civilian frontier settlers, armed for hunting and basic survival in the wilderness. They relied on the regular Army and Navy for any serious military operation. In major operations outside the locality involved, the militia was not employed as a force. Instead the colony asked for volunteers, many of whom were also militia members. This final war was to give thousands including Virginia colonel George Washington, military experience which they put to use during the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief of the newly created Continental Army, augmented by colonial militia. He drove the British out in late summer 1776 they returned to New York and nearly captured Washington's army. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries declared themselves an independent nation on July 4, 1776.Military history of the United States – Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
313. Demographic history of the United States – This article is about the demographic history of the United States. 1610-1780 population data. Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860. Most settlements were created by complete family groups in each settlement. Probably close to 80 % of the families owned the land they farmed on. They all used English Common Law as their basic code of law and, except for the Dutch and Germans, spoke some dialect of English. They established their own popularly were, within a few years, mostly self-governing, self-supporting and self-replicating. New immigrants did end up on the frontiers as, where the land was usually the cheapest. The New England colonists included more educated men well as many skilled farmers, tradesmen and craftsmen. They were mostly farmers and settled in small villages for religious activity. Shipbuilding, fisheries were important in coastal towns. New England's healthy abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate of any place in the world. The northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the Yankee descendants of the original New Englanders. The rapid growth of the New England colonies was entirely due to the high birth rate and low death rate per year. The middle colonies' settlements were scattered west of New York City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Demographic history of the United States – Play media
314. Federal government of the United States – The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, respectively. The full name of the republic is "United States of America". In casual conversation or writing, the term "National Government" is sometimes used. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D.C. "Washington" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution. The government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the world's first, if not the first, modern constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of republicanism, in which power is shared between the federal government and state governments. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the executive can veto any legislation—an act which, in turn, can be overridden by Congress. Those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as "unconstitutional" any law passed by the Congress. Other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of the Senate.Federal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
315. Law of the United States – The United States Code is the official codification of general and permanent federal statutory law. However, the scope of federal preemption is limited because the scope of federal power is not universal. Indeed, states may grant broader rights than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional rights. Thus, most U.S. law consists primarily of law, which can and does vary greatly from one state to the next. However, American law has incorporated a number of civil law innovations. In the United States, the law is derived from five sources: constitutional law, statutory law, treaties, the common law. Where Congress enacts that conflicts with the Constitution, the Supreme Court may find that law unconstitutional and declare it invalid. Notably, a statute does not disappear automatically merely because it has been found unconstitutional; it must be deleted by a subsequent statute. Many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. Conversely, any court that refuses to enforce a constitutional statute will risk reversal by the Supreme Court. Most Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law legal tradition of English law. Certain practices traditionally allowed under common law were expressly outlawed by the Constitution, such as bills of attainder and general search warrants. As common law courts, U.S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. The actual substance of English law was formally "received" in several ways. Some reception statutes impose a specific cutoff date such as the date of a colony's founding, while others are deliberately vague.Law of the United States – The United States Constitution
316. United States Constitution – The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the end of the document. All four pages of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. From September 1774 to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. Ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the central government's power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures.United States Constitution – Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
317. United States Bill of Rights – The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. On June 1789, Representative James Madison introduced nine amendments in the House of Representatives. Among his recommendations Madison proposed inserting specific rights limiting the power of Congress in Section 9. Seven of these limitations would become part of the ten ratified Bill of Rights amendments. Ultimately, on September 1789, Congress submitted them to the states for ratification. Contrary to Madison's original proposal that the articles be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution, they were proposed as supplemental additions to it. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is technically still pending before the states. The door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. The process is known as incorporation. There are engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. However, the national government that operated under the Articles of Confederation was too weak to adequately regulate the various conflicts that arose between the states. The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles, apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded.United States Bill of Rights – United States Bill of Rights
318. United States Congress – The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, only as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative. Each state, regardless of size, has two senators. Currently, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants some unique powers. The Senate ratifies approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.United States Congress
319. United States House of Representatives – The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. Since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof and is therefore traditionally the leader of the controlling party. Other floor leaders are chosen depending on whichever party has more voting members. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates. The issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation. The Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, however, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. Its implementation was set for March 1789. The House began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time.United States House of Representatives – United States House of Representatives
320. United States Senate – The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.. It further has the responsibility of conducting trials of those impeached by the House. Within the United States, the Senate is sometimes referred to as "world's greatest deliberative body". In the 20th Century, the practice of minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers. This idea of having one chamber represent people equally, while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was also a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents. The other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally. The Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate. The name is derived from the senatus, Latin for council of elders. An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation.United States Senate – United States Senate
321. United States Cabinet – If approved, they are sworn in and then begin their duties. Aside from the Postmaster General when it was a Cabinet office, they all receive the title of Secretary. Members of the Cabinet serve at the pleasure of the President; the President may reappoint them at will. There is no explicit definition in the United States Constitution, the United States Code, or the Code of Federal Regulations. The name comes from a 17th-century usage for a private room which developed into the modern sense of a council of advisors. The term "principal officers of the executive departments" is also mentioned in Section 4. The executive departments are listed in § 101. § 101. Under the 1967 F