1. Pacific Ocean – The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan, trade, and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions also discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain also sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nationsPacific Ocean – Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507).
2. Bering Sea – The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises a deep basin, which then rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves. The Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay is the portion of the Bering Sea which separates the Alaska Peninsula from mainland Alaska. The Bering Sea ecosystem includes resources within the jurisdiction of the United States and Russia, the interaction between currents, sea ice, and weather makes for a vigorous and productive ecosystem. Most scientists believe that during the most recent ice age, sea level was low enough to humans to migrate east on foot from Asia to North America across what is now the Bering Strait. Other animals including megafauna migrated in both directions and this is commonly referred to as the Bering land bridge and is believed by most, though not all scientists, to be the first point of entry of humans into the Americas. There is a portion of the Kula Plate in the Bering Sea. The Kula Plate is an ancient tectonic plate that used to subduct under Alaska, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bering Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limit of the Chuckchi Sea, Islands of the Bering Sea include, Pribilof Islands, including St. Paul Island Komandorski Islands, including Bering Island St. Lawrence Island Diomede Islands King Island St. The Bering Sea shelf break is the dominant driver of productivity in the Bering Sea. This zone, where the continental shelf drops off into the North Aleutians Basin is also known as the “Greenbelt”. Nutrient upwelling from the waters of the Aleutian basin flowing up the slope. The second driver of productivity in the Bering Sea is seasonal sea ice that, in part, seasonal melting of sea ice causes an influx of lower salinity water into the middle and other shelf areas, causing stratification and hydrographic effects which influence productivity. In addition to the hydrographic and productivity influence of melting sea ice, some evidence suggests that great changes to the Bering Sea ecosystem have already occurred. Warm water conditions in the summer of 1997 resulted in a bloom of low energy coccolithophorid phytoplankton. A long record of carbon isotopes, which is reflective of primary trends of the Bering Sea. Trends in carbon isotope ratios in whale baleen samples suggest that a 30–40% decline in average seasonal primary productivity has occurred over the last 50 years, the implication is that the carrying capacity of the Bering Sea is much lower now than it has been in the past. Other marine mammals include walrus, Steller sea lion, northern fur seal, orca, the Bering Sea is very important to the seabirds of the worldBering Sea – Satellite photo of the Bering Sea – Alaska is on the top right, Siberia on the top left
3. Alaska – Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas, California, and Montana. It is also larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase. The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the regionAlaska – Denali is the highest peak in North America.
4. 1776 – As of the start of 1776, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. The year is dominated by events of the American Revolutionary War, january 1 – American Revolutionary War, Burning of Norfolk, The town of Norfolk, Virginia, is destroyed by the combined actions of the British Royal Navy and occupying Patriot forces. January 10 – American Revolution, Thomas Paine publishes his pamphlet Common Sense written by an Englishman in Philadelphia arguing for independence from British rule in the Thirteen Colonies. January 20 – American Revolution, South Carolina Loyalists led by Robert Cunningham sign a petition from prison agreeing to all demands for peace by the state government of South Carolina. Several loyalist leaders are killed in the ensuing battle, the patriot victory virtually ends all British authority in the province. March – Restrictions on the trade in Sweden are lifted. March 2–3 – American Revolutionary War, Battle of Nassau, The American Continental Navy and Marines make an assault on Nassau. Battle of the Rice Boats, American Patriots resist the Royal Navy on the Savannah River, British control over the Province of Georgia is lost. March 4 – American Revolutionary War, American Patriots capture Dorchester Heights dominating the port of Boston, march 9 – Scottish economist Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations in London. March 17 – American Revolutionary War, Threatened by Patriot cannons on Dorchester Heights, march 28 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco. May 1 – Adam Weishaupt founds the Illuminati in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, may 4 – Rhode Island becomes the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III of Great Britain. May 15–26 – American Revolution, Battle of The Cedars, British forces skirmish with the American Continental Army around Les Cèdres, June 6 – A fire destroys major parts of the town of Askersund, Sweden. June 7 – American Revolution, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposes to the Second Continental Congress that these colonies are. June 8 – American Revolution, Battle of Trois-Rivières, The invading American Continental Army is driven back at Trois-Rivières, June 11 – American Revolution, The Continental Congress appoints a Committee of Five to draft a Declaration of Independence. June 12 – American Revolution, Virginia Declaration of Rights by George Mason adopted by the Virginia Convention of Delegates, June 15 – American Revolution, Delaware Separation Day, The Delaware General Assembly votes to suspend government under the British Crown. June 17 – Lt. June 28 – American Revolutionary War, June 29 – American Revolution, Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet – The American Continental Navy successfully challenges the British Royal Navy blockade off New Jersey. July 2 – American Revolution, The final U. S, the Continental Congress passes the Lee Resolution. July 4 – American Revolution, United States Declaration of Independence, july 8 – American Revolution, The Liberty Bell rings in Philadelphia for the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence1776 – January 10: Common Sense published
5. History of the United States – The date of the start of the history of the United States is a subject of debate among historians. In recent decades American schools and universities typically have shifted back in time to more on the colonial period. Indigenous people lived in what is now the United States for thousands of years before European colonists began to arrive, mostly from England, the Spanish built small settlements in Florida and the Southwest, and the French along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast. By the 1770s, thirteen British colonies contained two and a million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. After the end of the French and Indian Wars in the 1760s, Tax resistance, especially the Boston Tea Party, led to punitive laws by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. American Patriots adhered to an ideology called republicanism that emphasized civic duty, virtue. Armed conflict began in 1775 as Patriots drove the royal officials out of every colony and assembled in mass meetings, in 1776, the Second Continental Congress declared that there was a new, independent nation, the United States of America, not just a collection of disparate colonies. With large-scale military and financial support from France and the leadership of General George Washington. The peace treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River, the central government established by the Articles of Confederation proved ineffectual at providing stability, as it had no authority to collect taxes and had no executive officer. Congress called a convention to meet secretly in Philadelphia in 1787 and it wrote a new Constitution, which was adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights, with Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief political and financial adviser, a strong central government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, a second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812. Encouraged by the notion of Manifest Destiny, federal territory expanded all the way to the Pacific, the U. S. always was large in terms of area, but its population was small, only 4 million in 1790. Population growth was rapid, reaching 7.2 million in 1810,32 million in 1860,76 million in 1900,132 million in 1940, Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even faster. However, compared to European powers, the military strength was relatively limited in peacetime before 1940. The expansion was driven by a quest for land for yeoman farmers. The expansion of slavery was increasingly controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, the 1860 presidential election of Republican Abraham Lincoln was on a platform of ending the expansion of slavery and putting it on a path to extinction. Seven cotton-based deep South slave states seceded and later founded the Confederacy months before Lincolns inauguration, No nation ever recognized the Confederacy, but it opened the war by attacking Fort Sumter in 1861History of the United States – The Spanish conquistador Coronado explored parts of the American Southwest from 1540 to 1542.
6. Outline of the United States – Within the contential U. S. eight distinct physiographic divisions exist, though each is composed of several smaller physiographic subdivisions. These major divisions are, Laurentian Upland - part of the Canadian Shield that extends into the northern United States Great Lakes area, Atlantic Plain - the coastal regions of the eastern and southern parts includes the continental shelf, the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf Coast. Appalachian Highlands - lying on the side of the United States, it includes the Appalachian Mountains, Adirondacks. Interior Plains - part of the interior contentintal United States, it includes much of what is called the Great Plains, Interior Highlands - also part of the interior contentintal United States, this division includes the Ozark Plateau. Rocky Mountain System - one branch of the Cordilleran system lying far inland in the western states and it is the setting for the Grand Canyon, the Great Basin and Death Valley. Pacific Mountain System - the coastal ranges and features in the west coast of the United States. At the Declaration of Independence, the United States consisted of 13 states, economic Research Service The 50 States of the U. S. A. Collected informational links for each state History Historical Documents Collected by the National Center for Public Policy Research U. S. S, department of the Interior Other U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Official government siteOutline of the United States – An enlargeable topographic map of the contiguous United States
7. Liberty Bell – The Liberty Bell is an iconic symbol of American independence, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Formerly placed in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House, the bell today is located in the Liberty Bell Center in Independence National Historical Park. The bell first cracked when rung after its arrival in Philadelphia, in its early years the bell was used to summon lawmakers to legislative sessions and to alert citizens about public meetings and proclamations. While there is no account of the Liberty Bell ringing. After American independence was secured the bell fell into obscurity until, in the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies. The bell acquired its distinctive large crack some time in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835. The bell became famous after an 1847 short story claimed that an aged bellringer rang it on July 4,1776, despite the fact that the bell did not ring for independence on that July 4, the tale was widely accepted as fact, even by some historians. Beginning in 1885, the City of Philadelphia, which owns the bell, allowed it to go to various expositions, the bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, additional cracking occurred and pieces were chipped away by souvenir hunters. The last such journey occurred in 1915, after which the city refused further requests, after World War II, the city allowed the National Park Service to take custody of the bell, while retaining ownership. The bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a site for protests in the 1960s. It was moved from its home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in 1976. The bell has been featured on coins and stamps, and its name, philadelphias city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the citys 1682 founding. The original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House and was said to have brought to the city by its founder. In 1751, with a tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality. Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, gave orders to the colonys London agent, Robert Charles, let the bell be cast by the best workmen & examined carefully before it is Shipped with the following words well shaped around it vizt. By Order of the Assembly of the Povince of Pensylvania for the State house in the City of Philada 1752 and Underneath Proclaim Liberty thro all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof. -Levit. Charles duly ordered the bell from Thomas Lester of the London bellfounding firm of Lester and Pack for the sum of £150 13s 8d, including freight to Philadelphia and it arrived in Philadelphia in August 1752. Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, the bell was mounted on a stand to test the sound, and at the first strike of the clapper, the bells rim crackedLiberty Bell – The Liberty Bell in 2008
8. American Declaration of Independence – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast, a committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term Declaration of Independence is not used in the document itself, John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The next day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, but Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms and it was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for printing has been lost. Jeffersons original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric, and his policies and this has been called one of the best-known sentences in the English language, containing the most potent and consequential words in American history. The passage came to represent a standard to which the United States should strive. Believe me, dear Sir, there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose, and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America. By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, however, had developed a different conception of the empire, the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, and colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliaments authority in the colonies. In the colonies, however, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, after the Townshend Acts, some essayists even began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at allAmerican Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
9. Delta blues – The Delta blues style of blues music is one of the earliest. The Mississippi Delta is famous for its fertile soil and for its poverty, Delta blues is regarded as a regional variant of country blues. Guitar and harmonica are its dominant instruments, slide guitar is a hallmark of the style, vocal styles in Delta blues range from introspective and soulful to passionate and fiery. The major labels produced the earliest recordings, consisting mostly of one person singing and playing an instrument, live performances, however, more commonly involved a group of musicians. Current belief is that Freddie Spruell is the first Delta blues artist to have been recorded, record company talent scouts made some of the early recordings on field trips to the South, and some performers were invited to travel to northern cities to record. According to Dixon and Godrich, Tommy Johnson and Ishmon Bracey were recorded by Victor on that companys second field trip to Memphis, in 1928. Robert Wilkins was first recorded by Victor in Memphis in 1928, son House first recorded in Grafton, Wisconsin, in 1930 for Paramount Records. Charley Patton also recorded for Paramount in Grafton, in June 1929 and he also traveled to New York City for recording sessions in January and February 1934. Robert Johnson recorded his only sessions, for ARC, in San Antonio in 1936 and their recordings, numbering in the thousands, now reside in the Smithsonian Institution. However, this claim has been disputed, as John and Alan Lomax had recorded Bukka White in 1939, Lead Belly in 1933 and most likely others. Scholars disagree as to whether there is a substantial difference between blues that originated in the Mississippi Delta and blues from other parts of the country. Delta blues is a style as much as a form, Skip James and Elmore James. Performers traveled throughout the Mississippi Delta, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, eventually, Delta blues spread out across the country, giving rise to a host of regional variations, including Chicago blues and Detroit blues. Delta blues songs are typically expressed in the first person and often concern love, sex, in big-city blues, women singers such as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and Mamie Smith dominated the recordings of the 1920s. However, women rarely recorded Delta blues and other rural or folk-style blues and it was not until late in the 1960s that women began to be heard in recorded performances at the level they had previously enjoyed. Other women influenced by Delta blues, who learned some of the most notable of the original artists still living, include Bonnie Raitt, Rory Block. Many Delta blues artists, such as Big Joe Williams, moved to Detroit and Chicago, traveling the Blues Highway, National Geographic Magazine, April 1999, vol. Dixon, R. M. W. and Godrich, J. Blues and Gospel Records, Ferris, William R. Blues from the DeltaDelta blues – Delta blues are named after the Mississippi Delta in Mississippi, not to be confused with the Mississippi River Delta in Louisiana.
10. Pianist – A pianist is an individual musician who plays the piano. Most forms of Western music can make use of the piano, consequently, pianists have a wide variety of repertoire and styles to choose from, including traditionally classical music, Jazz, blues and all sorts of popular music, including rock music. Most pianists can, to an extent, play other keyboard-related instruments such as the synthesizer, harpsichord, celesta. Perhaps the greatest pianist of all time was Franz Liszt, whose mastery was described by Anton Rubinstein, In comparison with Liszt. Modern classical pianists dedicate their careers to performing, recording, teaching, researching as well as learning new works/expanding their repertoire and they generally do not write or transcribe music as pianists did in the 19th century. Some classical pianists might specialize in accompaniment and chamber music while others perform as full-time piano soloists. Mozart could be considered the first concert pianist as he performed widely on the piano, composers Beethoven and Clementi from the classical era were also famed for their playing, as were, from the romantic era, Liszt, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn and Rachmaninoff. From that era, leading performers less known as composers were Clara Schumann, however, as we do not have modern audio recordings of most of these pianists, we rely mainly on written commentary to give us an account of their technique and style. Jazz pianists almost always perform with other musicians and their playing is freer than that of classical pianists and they create an air of spontaneity in their performances. They generally do not write down their compositions, improvisation is a significant part of their work, well known Jazz pianists include Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Oscar Peterson and Bud Powell. Popular pianists might work as performers, session musicians, arrangers most likely feel at home with synthesizers. A single listing of pianists in all genres would be impractical, the following is an incomplete list of such musicians. As a result, there are prominent communities of amateur pianists all over the world play at quite a high level and give concerts just because of their love to music. The International Piano Competition for Outstanding Amateurs, held annually in Paris and it was only after the competition that he started pursuing a career as a classical pianist. The German pianist Davide Martello is known for traveling around conflict zones to play his moving piano, Martello has previously been recognised by the European parliament for his “outstanding contribution to European cooperation and the promotion of common values”Pianist
11. Musician – A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music may also be referred to as a musician, Musicians can specialize in any musical style, and some musicians play in a variety of different styles. Examples of a musicians possible skills include performing, conducting, singing, composing, arranging, in the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, providing arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure, vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and typically were Church-polyphonic or made up of several simultaneous melodies. Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint, vocal and instrumental “color” became more important compared to the Renaissance style of music, and emphasized much of the volume, texture and pace of each piece. George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies, because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared to the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution, a revolutionary energy was also at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world. Some major Romantic Period precepts survive, and still affect modern culture, in 20th-century music, composers and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, and strove to represent the world the way they perceived it. Musicians wrote to be. objective, while objects existed on their own terms, while past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete. The advent of recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—popular music, rock music, electronic music, folk music. Singer Composer Music artist Tour Manager Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia CommonsMusician – Guy Pratt, a professional session musician, playing bass guitar.
12. Sonny Boy Williamson II – Alex or Aleck Miller, known later in his career as Sonny Boy Williamson, was an American blues harmonica player, singer and songwriter. He was an early and influential blues harp stylist who recorded successfully in the 1950s and 1960s. Miller used various names, including Rice Miller and Little Boy Blue, before calling himself Sonny Boy Williamson, to distinguish the two, Miller has been referred to as Sonny Boy Williamson II. He first recorded with Elmore James on Dust My Broom, some of his popular songs include Dont Start Me Talkin, Help Me, Checkin Up on My Baby, and Bring It On Home. He toured Europe with the American Folk Blues Festival and recorded with English rock musicians, including the Yardbirds, the Animals, Help Me became a blues standard, and many blues and rock artists have recorded his songs. Miller was born Alex Ford on the Sara Jones Plantation in Tallahatchie County, the date and year of birth are uncertain. He lived and worked with his stepfather, Jim Miller, whose last name he soon adopted. He was also associated with Robert Johnson during this period, Miller developed his style and raffish stage persona during these years. Willie Dixon recalled seeing Lockwood and Miller playing for tips in Greenville, Mississippi and he entertained audiences with novelties such as inserting one end of the harmonica into his mouth and playing with no hands. At this time he was known as Rice Miller—a childhood nickname stemming from his love of rice. In 1941 Miller was hired to play the King Biscuit Time show, advertising the King Biscuit brand of baking flour on radio station KFFA in Helena, Arkansas, with Lockwood. Some blues scholars believe that Millers assertion he was born in 1899 was a ruse to convince audiences he was old enough to have used the name before John Lee Williamson, who was born in 1914. In 1949, Williamson relocated to West Memphis, Arkansas, and lived with his sister and her husband and he started his own KWEM radio show from 1948 to 1950, selling the elixir Hadacol. He brought his King Biscuit musician friends to West Memphis—Elmore James, Houston Stackhouse, Arthur Big Boy Crudup, Robert Nighthawk, in the 1940s Williamson married Mattie Gordon, who remained his wife until his death. McMurry later erected Williamsons headstone, near Tutwiler, Mississippi, in 1977, when Trumpet went bankrupt in 1955, Williamsons recording contract was yielded to its creditors, who sold it to Chess Records in Chicago. He had begun developing a following in Chicago beginning in 1953 and it was during his Chess years that he enjoyed his greatest success and acclaim, recording about 70 songs for the Chess subsidiary Checker Records from 1955 to 1964. His first LP record, Down and Out Blues, was released by Checker in 1959, One single, Boppin with Sonny b/w No Nights by Myself, was released by Ace Records in 1955. Around this time he was quoted as saying of the bands who accompanied him, those British boys want to play the blues real badSonny Boy Williamson II – Part of the headstone at Prairie Road Cemetery, Tutwiler, Mississippi
13. Louisiana – Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the state in the U. S. with political subdivisions termed parishes. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Much of the lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh. These contain a rich southern biota, typical examples include birds such as ibis, there are also many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a process in the landscape. These support a large number of plant species, including many species of orchids. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century, many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715, when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. The suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to information relating to an individual, subject. Thus, roughly, Louis + ana carries the idea of related to Louis, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened, Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago, the history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearings Roadside Geology of Louisiana. The sediments were carried north to south by the Mississippi RiverLouisiana – Louisiana entrance sign off Interstate 20 in Madison Parish east of Tallulah.
14. Governor of New York – The Governor of the State of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the branch of New Yorks state government. The current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, Cuomo won the November 2010 gubernatorial election and was sworn in as the 56th governor of the state of New York on January 1,2011. Cuomo was re-elected on November 5,2014, defeating his Republican challenger Robert Astorino, unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is themselves head of the state Executive Department. The officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office, the governor of New York is often considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, and four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president. Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States, the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office back to three years, but the 1894 constitution again reduced it to two years, the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The state constitution has provided since 1777 for the election of a lieutenant governor, originally, in the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governors duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur, should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession. The lieutenant governor is elected on the ticket as the governorGovernor of New York – Incumbent Andrew Cuomo since January 1, 2011
15. Pledge of Allegiance – The official name of The Pledge of Allegiance was adopted in 1945. The last change in language came on Flag Day 1954 when the words under God were added, congressional sessions open with the recital of the Pledge, as do many government meetings at local levels, and meetings held by many private organizations. All states except four give time for the pledge to be recited as part of the school day, when not in uniform men should remove any non-religious headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag, members of the Armed Forces not in uniform and veterans may render the military salute in the manner provided for persons in uniform. However, there existed a version created by Colonel George Balch. Balchs pledge, which existed parallel to the Bellamy version until the 1923 National Flag Conference, read, We give our heads and hearts to God and our country, one country, one language, one flag. Bellamy, however, did not approve of the pledge as Balch had written it, referring to the text as too juvenile, the event was conceived and promoted by James B. Upham, a marketer for the magazine, as a campaign to instill the idea of American nationalism in students, according to author Margarette S. Miller, this campaign was in line both with Uphams patriotic vision as well as with his commercial interest. Bellamys original Pledge read, I pledge allegiance to my Flag, the Pledge was supposed to be quick and to the point. Bellamy designed it to be recited in 15 seconds and this arrangement was formalized when Harrison issued Presidential Proclamation 335. In his recollection of the creation of the Pledge Francis Bellamy said, At the beginning of the nineties patriotism, the patriotic ardor of the Civil War was an old story. The time was ripe for a reawakening of simple Americanism and the leaders in the new movement rightly felt that education should begin in the public schools. Would have a flag raising, under the most impressive conditions, Bellamy recalled that the event had to be more than a list of exercises. The ritual must be prepared with simplicity and dignity, edna Dean Proctor wrote an ode for the event, and There was also an oration suitable for declamation. Bellamy held that Of course, the nub of the program was to be the raising of the flag and he found There was not a satisfactory enough form for this salute. The Balch salute, which ran, I give my heart and my hand to my country, one country, one language, one flag, seemed to him too juvenile and lacking in dignity. After working on the idea with Upham, Bellamy concluded, It was my thought that a vow of loyalty or allegiance to the flag should be the dominant idea, I especially stressed the word allegiance. Bellamy considered the country, nation, or Republic, choosing the last as it distinguished the form of government chosen by the founding fathersPledge of Allegiance – Students swearing the Pledge on Flag Day in 1899
16. 1812 – As of the start of 1812, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch enters into force in the Austrian Empire, february 7 The last New Madrid earthquake strikes New Madrid, Missouri, with an estimated moment magnitude of over 8. Novelist Charles Dickens is born in Portsmouth, England, february 12 – Napoleon authorizes the usage of Mesures usuelles, the basis of the metric system. February 13 – First Chilean newspaper Aurora de Chile is dealing with political philosophy, february 27 Argentine War of Independence, Manuel Belgrano raises the Flag of Argentina in the city of Rosario for the first time. English poet Lord Byron gives his first address as a member of the British House of Lords, March 5 – Prussia and France sign the Treaty of Paris March 15 – Luddites attack the wool-processing factory of Frank Vickerman in West Yorkshire. March 16–April 6 – Siege of Badajoz, The Anglo-Portuguese Army, under the Earl of Wellington, besieges Badajoz in Spain, March 19 – The Cádiz Cortes create the first modern Spanish constitution. The 1812 Caracas earthquake destroys Caracas in Venezuela, april 4 – U. S. President James Madison enacts a 90-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom. April 30 – Louisiana is admitted as the 18th U. S. state, may 11 – John Bellingham assassinates British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval in the lobby of the British House of Commons. May 16 – Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov signs the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the Russo-Turkish War, may 25 – Felling mine disaster, A mine explosion at the Felling colliery near Jarrow, England leaves 96 dead. June 1 – War of 1812, U. S. President James Madison asks the U. S. Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom. June 4 – Following Louisianas admittance as a U. S. state, june 16 – New York State charters City Bank of New York, which later became Citibank. June 18 – The War of 1812 between the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom begins, june 24 – Napoleons Grande Armée crosses the Neman River and invades Russia. July 12 – Americans invade Canada at Windsor, Ontario, july 18 – Russias Patriotic War – Battle of Klyastitsy, Kulnev defeats Oudinot but sustains a mortal wound. July 22 – Peninsular War – Battle of Salamanca, British forces led by Lord Wellington defeat French troops near Salamanca in Spain, august 5 – War of 1812, Tecumsehs Indian force ambushes Thomas Van Hornes 200 Americans at Brownstone Creek, causing them to flee and retreat. August 12 – Peninsular War, The combined English and Portuguese army under the command of Wellington enters Madrid following the Battle of Salamanca, august 15 – War of 1812, Battle of Fort Dearborn – Potawatomi warriors overrun the United States fort in Illinois Territory. August 16 – War of 1812, American General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit without a fight to the British Army, august 19 – War of 1812, The USS Constitution defeats the British frigate Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia. The British shot is said to have bounced off the Constitutions sides, september 7 – Napoleonic Wars – French invasion of Russia – Battle of Borodino, The bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic Wars ends in a tactical victory for Napoleon. There are at least 70,000 casualties, with a minimum of 6,562 dead from the French Grande Armée alone, september 14 – French invasion of Russia, Napoleons troops enter Moscow, which is deliberately set on fire by Muscovites on orders of Fyodor Rostopchin1812 – This article is about the year 1812. For the work by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture. For other uses, see 1812 (disambiguation).
17. Government Printing Office – The United States Government Publishing Office is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. Following signature by the President, the change took effect on December 17,2014, the Government Publishing Office was created by congressional joint resolution on June 23,1860. It began operations March 4,1861, with 350 employees, for its entire history, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia. An additional structure was attached to its north in later years, the activities of GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code. The Public Printer, who serves as the head of GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice, the Public Printer selects a Superintendent of Documents. The Superintendent of Documents is in charge of the dissemination of information at the GPO, adelaide Hasse was the founder of the Superintendent of Documents classification system. GPO first used 100 percent recycled paper for the Congressional Record and Federal Register from 1991-1997, under Public Printers Robert Houk, GPO resumed using recycled paper in 2009. In March 2011, GPO issued a new illustrated official history covering the agencys 150 years of Keeping America Informed, following signature of this legislation by President Barack Obama, the name change took place on December 17,2014. By law, the Public Printer heads the GPO, Public Printers, Almon M. Clapp John D. Defrees Sterling P. Rounds Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer, O. J. Tapella William J. United States Code United States Statutes at Large House Journal, the United States Department of State began issuing e-passports in 2006. GPO produces the blank e-Passport, while the Department of State receives and processes applications, GPO ceased production of legacy passports in May 2007, shifting production entirely to e-passports. In March 2008, the Washington Times published a story about the outsourcing of electronic passports to overseas companies. GPO designs, prints, encodes and personalizes Trusted Traveler Program cards for the Department of Homeland Security, Customs, cumulative Copyright Catalogs Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion Official Records of the American Civil War US Congressional Serial Set United States. Military Information Division, p. Publications, Issues 33-34, slocum, Carl Reichmann, Adna Romanga Chaffee. Reports on military operations in South Africa and China, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Stephan LH. Slocum, Carl Reichmann, Adna Romanza Chaffee, United States, Reports on military operations in South Africa and China. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list United States, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, United States. Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries during the years, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list United StatesGovernment Printing Office – U.S. Government Printing Office
18. 1868 – As of the start of 1868, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 2 – British Expedition to Abyssinia, Robert Napier leads an expedition to free captive British officials, January 5 – Paraguayan War, Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias enters Asunción, Paraguays capital. Some days later he declares the war is over, nevertheless, Francisco Solano López, Paraguays president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside. January 7 – Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock, January 9 – Penal transportation from Britain to Australia ends with arrival of the convict ship Hougoumont in Western Australia after an 89-day voyage from England. There are 62 Fenians among the transportees, January 10 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares the emperors declaration illegal and prepares to attack Kyoto. February – Foreign ministers meeting in Hyōgo are persuaded to recognise the restored Emperor Meiji of Japan with promises that harbours will be open in accordance with international treaties, february 13 – The British War Office sanctions the formation of what becomes the Army Post Office Corps. February 16 – In New York City the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent, february 19 – in the Passage of Humaitá a Brazilian naval force succeeds in dashing past a Paraguayan fortress on the River Paraguay, considered by some the turning point in the Paraguayan War. February 24 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Three days after his action to dismiss United States Secretary of War Edwin M. Johnson is later acquitted by the United States Senate, the first parade to have floats takes place at Mardi Gras in New Orleans. March – French geologist Louis Lartet discovers the first identified skeletons of Cro-Magnon, the first early modern humans, at Abri de Crô-Magnon, a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. March 12 – Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, is shot in the back in Sydney, Australia, the prince survives and quickly recovers, OFarrell is executed on April 21 despite attempts by the prince to gain clemency for him. March 23 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California, march 24 – The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed. March 27 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, march – The first transnational womens organization, Association internationale des femmes, is founded. April 1 – The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute is established in Hampton, April 7 – The Charter Oath, drawn up by his councilors, is promulgated at the enthronement of the Emperor Meiji of Japan, promising deliberative assemblies and an end to feudalism. April 9 – Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia massacres at least 197 of his own people at Magdala and these are prisoners incarcerated, for the most part, for very trivial offenses, and are killed for requesting bread and water. Tewodros commits suicide and Magdala is captured, ending the British Expedition to Abyssinia, April 11–July – Fall of Edo, the Japanese city is surrendered to the Emperor Meiji. The Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu submits to the Emperor, April 29 – General William Tecumseh Sherman brokers the Treaty of Fort Laramie between the federal government of the United States and the Plains Indians. May 10–14 – Battle of Utsunomiya Castle in Japan, forces of the Emperor Meiji resist the troops of the Tokugawa shogunate. May 16, May 26 – President Andrew Johnson is twice acquitted during his impeachment trial, may 26 – Fenian bomber Michael Barrett becomes the last person publicly hanged in the United Kingdom1868 – January 3: Emperor Meiji.
19. Civil Aeronautics Act – Early aviation in America was unregulated, with government involvement limited to scientific research and the launching of airmail. But frequent accidents led to demand for regulatory powers. Its functions included testing and licensing of pilots, certificating of aircraft, under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, the CAA’s powers were transferred to a new independent body, the Federal Aviation Agency. In the same year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was created after the Soviet Union’s launch of the first artificial satellite, despite its early start, the United States soon lost aeronautical leadership. European enthusiasm for air power was sparked by an arms race, upon entering World War I in 1917, the United States government mobilized the nations economy, with results that included an expansion of the small aviation manufacturing industry. Before the end of the conflict, Congress voted funds for an innovative program that would serve as a model for commercial air operations. With initial help from the U. S. Army, the Post Office in 1918 initiated an intercity airmail route, the subsequent achievements of the Air Mail Service included the establishment of a transcontinental route and the development of airway lighting. In 1925, the Airmail Act of 1925 authorized the Post Office to contract with private airlines to transport mail, the Airmail Act created American commercial aviation and several of todays airlines were formed to carry airmail in the late 1920s. In the early years of the 20th century aviation in America was not regulated, there were frequent accidents, during the pre-war exhibition era and especially during the barnstorming decade of the 1920s. Many aviation leaders of the believed that federal regulation was necessary to give the public confidence in the safety of air transportation. Opponents of this included those who distrusted government interference or wished to leave any such regulation to state authorities. Barnstorming accidents that led to such regulations during this period is depicted in the 1975 film The Great Waldo Pepper. The boards report favored federal safety regulation, to that end, the Air Commerce Act became law on May 20,1926. The Act created an Aeronautic Branch assigned to the United States Department of Commerce, the first head of the Branch was William P. MacCracken, Jr. who played a key part in convincing Congress of the need for this new governmental role. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce initially concentrated on such as safety rulemaking. It took over the building and operation of the system of lighted airways. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications, and introduced radio beacons as an aid to air navigation. In 1934, the Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce to reflect its status within the DepartmentCivil Aeronautics Act – logo on side of a test aircraft
20. Alexei Kosygin – Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War. Kosygin was born in the city of Saint Petersburg in 1904 to a Russian working-class family and he was conscripted into the labour army during the Russian Civil War, and after the Red Armys demobilisation in 1921, he worked in Siberia as an industrial manager. Kosygin returned to Leningrad in the early 1930s and worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy, during the Great Patriotic War, Kosygin was a member of the State Defence Committee and was tasked with moving Soviet industry out of territories soon to be overrun by the German Army. He served as Minister of Finance for a year before becoming Minister of Light Industry and later, Stalin removed Kosygin from the Politburo one year before his own death in 1953, intentionally weakening Kosygins position within the Soviet hierarchy. After the power struggle triggered by Stalins death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader, on 20 March 1959, Kosygin was appointed to the position of Chairman of the State Planning Committee, a post he would hold for little more than a year. Kosygin next became First Deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers, when Khrushchev was replaced in 1964, Kosygin and Leonid Brezhnev became Premier and First Secretary respectively. Kosygin, along with Brezhnev and Nikolai Podgorny, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, was a member of the newly established collective leadership. This reform, along with his open stance on solving the Prague Spring. More conservative members of the top leadership saw some of Kosygins policies as too radical, by the 1970s, Brezhnev had consolidated enough power to stop any radical reform-minded attempts by Kosygin. In 1980, Kosygin retired from due to bad health. Kosygin was born into a Russian working-class family consisting of his father and mother, Nikolai Ilyich and Matrona Alexandrovna, the family lived in Saint Petersburg. Kosygin was baptised one month after his birth on 7 March and he was conscripted into a labour army on the Bolshevik side during the Russian Civil War. After the Red Armys demobilisation in 1921, Kosygin attended the Leningrad Co-operative Technical School and found work in the system of consumer co-operatives in Novosibirsk, Siberia. When asked why he worked in the sector of the economy, Kosygin replied, quoting a slogan of Vladimir Lenin. Kosygin stayed there for six years and he applied for a membership in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1927 and returned to Leningrad in 1930 to study at the Leningrad Textile Institute, he graduated in 1935. After finishing his studies, Kosygin was employed as a textile mill director, in 1940 Kosygin became a Deputy chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars, and was appointed in 1943 as Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the Russian SFSR. Kosygin worked for the State Defence Committee during the Great Patriotic War, as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Evacuation, his task was to evacuate industry from territories soon to be overrun by the Germans. He broke the Leningrad Blockade by organising the construction of a supply route, Kosygin was a candidate member of the Politburo from 1946 to 1949, and became a full member toward the end of Joseph Stalins rule, he lost his seat in 1952Alexei Kosygin – Kosygin at the Glassboro Summit Conference, 23 June 1967
21. Glassboro, New Jersey – Glassboro is a borough in Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States. What is now Glassboro was originally formed as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 11,1878, portions of the township were taken to form Elk Township and Pitman. Glassboro was incorporated as a borough on March 18,1920, the borough was named for its glass industry. Glassboros early history was built on the manufacturing of glass, the Glassboro Summit Conference between U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin took place in Glassboro. Johnson and Kosygin met for three days from June 23 to June 25,1967, at Glassboro State College, the location was chosen as a compromise. Kosygin, having agreed to address the United Nations in New York City, Johnson, wary of encountering protests against the Vietnam War, preferred to meet in Washington, D. C. They agreed on Glassboro because it was equidistant between the two cities, the generally amicable atmosphere of the summit was referred to as the Spirit of Glassboro, although the leaders failed to reach agreement on limiting anti-ballistic missile systems. On June 19,1986, Ronald Reagan became the first sitting president to speak at a school graduation when he spoke at the Glassboro High School commencement ceremonies. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had an area of 9.221 square miles. Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the borough include Elsemere, Glassboro borders Elk Township, Clayton Borough, Monroe Township, Washington Township, Pitman Borough, Mantua Township, and Harrison Township. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Glassboro has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the census of 2010, there were 18,579 people,6,158 households, the population density was 2,022.9 per square mile. There were 6,590 housing units at a density of 717.5 per square mile. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 42% of the population,22. 5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the family size was 3.13. In the borough, the population was out with 19. 4% under the age of 18,26. 4% from 18 to 24,21. 1% from 25 to 44,22. 4% from 45 to 64. The median age was 28.4 years, for every 100 females there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 95.0 males, the Census Bureaus 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $54,795 and the median family income was $67,171Glassboro, New Jersey – Hollybush Mansion at Rowan University
22. 1972 – Within the context of Coordinated Universal Time it was the longest year ever, as two leap seconds were added during this 366-day year, an event which has not since been repeated. January 1 – Kurt Waldheim becomes Secretary-General of the United Nations, january 2 – Pierre Hotel Robbery, Six men rob the safe deposit boxes of The Pierre hotel in New York City for at least $4 million. January 3 – MGMs 1951 Show Boat is presented on television by NBC for the first time and this marks the first complete network telecast of any version of Show Boat. January 4 The first scientific calculator is introduced. Rose Heilbron becomes the first woman judge at the Old Bailey in London, january 5 – U. S. President Richard Nixon orders the development of a Space Shuttle program. January 7 Iberia Airlines Flight 602 crashes into a 462-meter peak on the island of Ibiza,104 are killed, Howard Hughes speaks to the press by telephone to denounce Clifford Irvings hoax biography of him. January 9 – The RMS Queen Elizabeth is destroyed by fire in Hong Kong harbor, january 10 – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman returns to Bangladesh from Pakistan. January 13 – Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia is overthrown in a military coup, january 14 – Queen Margrethe II of Denmark succeeds her father, King Frederick IX, on the throne of Denmark. January 19 – The Libertarian enclave Minerva on a platform in the South Pacific, sponsored by the Phoenix Foundation, soon neighboring Tonga annexes the area and dismantles the platform. January 20 President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto announces that Pakistan will immediately begin a nuclear weapons program, fears are growing about the economy of the United Kingdom, where unemployment is now exceeding 1 million for the first time since World War II. January 21 A New Delhi bootlegger sells wood alcohol to a party,100 die. Tripura, part of the former independent Twipra Kingdom, becomes a state of India. January 24 – Japanese soldier Shoichi Yokoi is discovered in Guam, january 25 – Shirley Chisholm, the first African American Congresswoman, announces her candidacy for President. January 26 Yugoslavian air stewardess Vesna Vulović is the only survivor when her plane crashes in Czechoslovakia and she survives after falling 10,160 meters in the tail section of the aircraft. The Aboriginal Tent Embassy is set up on the lawn of Parliament House in Canberra, january 30 Bloody Sunday, The British Army kills 14 unarmed nationalist civil rights marchers in Derry, Northern Ireland. Pakistan withdraws from the Commonwealth of Nations, january 31 – King Birendra succeeds his father as King of Nepal. February 2 A bomb explodes at the British Yacht Club in West Berlin, killing Irwin Beelitz, the German militant group 2 June Movement announces its support of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Anti-British riots take place throughout Ireland, the British Embassy in Dublin is burned to the ground, as are several British-owned businesses1972 – The arcade version of Pong is released.
23. White House – The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. It has been the residence of every U. S. president since John Adams in 1800, the term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in The White House announced that. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style, construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior, reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824, because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years later in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, in the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as an area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space, by 1948, the houses load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the rooms were completely dismantled. Once this work was completed, the rooms were rebuilt. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, the property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the Presidents Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of Americas Favorite Architecture, in May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it. The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790, the July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction. The City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morriss city house at 190 High Street for Washingtons presidential residence, the first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797, and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House. As part of an effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away. President John Adams also occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800, on Saturday, November 1,1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House. The Presidents House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, the Presidents House was a major feature of Pierre Charles LEnfants plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. CWhite House – Top: the northern facade, facing Lafayette Square Bottom: the southern facade, facing The Ellipse
24. Federal Bureau of Investigation – The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nations prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Department of Justice, Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, although many of the FBIs functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint and these overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation and its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, in the fiscal year 2012, the Bureaus total budget was approximately $8.12 billion. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, the Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the breakage of the Oregon land fraud scandal at approximately the turn of the 20th Century, President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, on May 27,1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelts urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26,1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including veterans of the Secret Service. Its first Chief was Stanley Finch, Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. The bureaus first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the White Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act, in 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition, in the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenureFederal Bureau of Investigation – J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972.
25. Midwestern United States – It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, all of which are also part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Indianapolis, Columbus, Detroit, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Cleveland, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, railroads, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, Indiana, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation. The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are also known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave statesMidwestern United States – Typical terrain of the Driftless Area as viewed from Wildcat Mountain State Park in Vernon County, Wisconsin
26. Metropolitan area – As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not necessarily urban in character and these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles metro area in the United States, in practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, in defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with. The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines statistical divisions as areas under the influence of one or more major towns or a major city. However, this definition has become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called metropolitan regions, each State defines its own legislation for the creation, definition and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography. Their main purpose is to allow for a management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They dont have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the area must have a population of at least 100,000. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a degree of integration with the core. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary and Edmonton. In Denmark the only area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand. Greater Copenhagen has an population of 1.25 million peopleMetropolitan area – Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina
27. Prairie – Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay as well as the steppes of Eurasia. Lands typically referred to as prairie tend to be in North America, the Central Valley of California is also a prairie. The Canadian Prairies occupy vast areas of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Prairie is the French word for meadow, but the ultimate root is the Latin pratum. The formation of the North American Prairies started with the upwelling of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta, the mountains created a rain shadow that resulted in lower precipitation rates downwind, creating an environment in which most tree species will not tolerate. The parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago, the glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain. As the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till, wind based loess deposits also form an important parent material for prairie soils. Tallgrass Prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of grazing, native ungulates such as bison, elk, and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse, plentiful grassland before European colonization of the Americas. For 10, 000-20,000 years native people used fire annually as a tool to assist in hunting, transportation, evidence of ignition sources of fire in the tallgrass prairie are overwhelmingly human as opposed to lightning. Humans, and grazing animals, were participants in the process of prairie formation. Fire has the effect on prairies of removing trees, clearing dead plant matter, fire kills the vascular tissue of trees, but not prairie, as up to 75% of the total plant biomass is below the soil surface and will re-grow from its deep roots. Without disturbance, trees will encroach on a grassland, cast shade, Prairie and widely spaced oak trees evolved to coexist in the oak savanna ecosystem. In spite of long recurrent droughts and occasional torrential rains, the grasslands of the Great Plains were not subject to soil erosion. The root systems of native prairie grasses firmly held the soil in place to prevent run-off of soil, when the plant died, the fungi, bacteria returned its nutrients to the soil. These deep roots also helped native prairie plants reach water in even the driest conditions, the native grasses suffered much less damage from dry conditions than the farm crops currently grown. Prairie in North America is usually split into three groups, wet, mesic, and dry and they are generally characterized by tallgrass prairie, mixed, or shortgrass prairie, depending on the quality of soil and rainfall. In wet prairies the soil is very moist, including during most of the growing season. The resulting stagnant water is conducive to the formation of bogs, wet prairies have excellent farming soil. The average precipitation amount is 10-30 inches a year, mesic prairie /ˈmiːzɪk/ has good drainage, but good soil during the growing seasonPrairie – Prairie, Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA, is in the mixed grasslands region containing some species of tall grass and some of short grass
28. Deciduous – In a more general sense, deciduous means the dropping of a part that is no longer needed or falling away after its purpose is finished. In plants it is the result of natural processes, in botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees, shrubs and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter—namely in temperate or polar climates, in other parts of the world, including tropical, subtropical, and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall. The converse of deciduous is coniferous, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous, they lose old foliage as new growth begins. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the growing season. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological signals and changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis steadily degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage, the brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing. These other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow, brown, anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees simply fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments, the beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf, the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin that is produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. The elongation of cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It also forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap, in the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage, evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they also can experience greater predation pressure, especially when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects, repairing leaves, removing leaves also reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants. This then allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters, the deciduous characteristic has developed repeatedly among woody plants. Trees include maple, many oaks and nothofagus, elm, aspen, Deciduous shrubs include honeysuckle, viburnum, and many othersDeciduous – Deciduous forest in autumn
29. White American – White Americans are Americans who are considered or reported as White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those having origins in any of the peoples of Europe. Like all official U. S. racial categories, White has a not Hispanic or Latino and a Hispanic or Latino component, the term Caucasian is often used interchangeably with White, although the terms are not synonymous. Whites constitute the majority, with a total of about 246,660,710, non-Hispanic Whites totaled about 197,870,516, or 62. 06% of the U. S. population. Definitions of who is White have changed throughout the history of the United States, the term White American can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the 2000 U. S. census states that racial categories generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria, the Census Bureau defines White people as follows, White refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race as White or reported entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan or Caucasian. In U. S. Hispanic and Latino Americans as a make up a racially diverse group. In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U. S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim, Jewish, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their race in the Some other race section, the US Census considers the write-in response of Caucasian or Aryan to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing. In the contemporary United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered White, the definition of White has changed significantly over the course of American history. Among Europeans those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Irish, Swedes, Germans, Finns, Russians, early on in the United States, white generally referred to those of British ancestry or northern and northwestern European descent. David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves. The process of officially being defined as white by law came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. Scholars such as David Roediger, Paul Gilroy, and others have based some of their work on this notion, moreover, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful positions, controlling almost all political, economic, and cultural institutions. Whites made up 79. 8% or 75% of the American population in 2008 and this latter number is sometimes recorded as 77. 1% when it includes about 2% of the population who are identified as white in combination with one or more other races. The largest ethnic groups among White Americans were Germans, followed by Irish and English, White Americans are projected to remain the majority, though with their percentage decreasing to 72% of the total population by 2050White American – President Abraham Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln, and was of English and Welsh ancestry.
30. Germans – Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history. German is the mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages, before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. Thus, the number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most often subscribe to their own national identities, the German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic language of the people. It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German, used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of a German emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century. The Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni and it was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects, while in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse, Finnish and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci, originally with a meaning foreigner, the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and later Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century, the Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages. Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War and these states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe, the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe, during antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France. Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, in Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would later become an influence in the development of a common German identityGermans
31. Hispanics in the United States – Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans, are Americans who are descendants of the peoples of Spain, Portugal, or the Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries of Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, other U. S. government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term, including Brazilians and other Portuguese-speaking groups. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably, origin can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race, as the only specifically designated category of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, Guatemalan, the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States after Asian Americans, hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565, after Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, the terms Hispanic and Latino refer to an ethnicity, people of this group may be of any race. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history, according to the Smithsonian Institution, the term Latino includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin. In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both European and Native American ancestry, others are wholly or predominately of European ancestry, or wholly or predominantly of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread. The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some, the U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions, one definition of Latino is a Latin male in the United States. This is the oldest and the definition used in the United States. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas, under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino. This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, a later definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term Latino-Americano, the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino, a Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. An immigrant from Spain, however, would be classified as Hispanic, while the U. S. Census Bureaus definition of Hispanic is limited to Spain and Spanish-speaking Latin America, other government agencies have slightly different definitions of the termHispanics in the United States – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, 16th century Spanish admiral who founded the first European settlement in North America (Saint Augustine, Florida).
32. Politics – Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community as well as the interrelationship between communities. It is very often said that politics is about power, a political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to antiquity, with seminal works such as Platos Republic, Aristotles Politics. Formal Politics refers to the operation of a system of government and publicly defined institutions. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics, many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal Politics is Politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, informal Politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting ones daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that politics is everywhere. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotles book Politics also derives, the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as Polettiques, it became politics in Modern English. The history of politics is reflected in the origin, development, the origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China, of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the French Revolution put an end to the divine right of kings. Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of Hereditary monarchy, the king often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, long before the council became a bulwark of democracy, it rendered invaluable aid to the institution of kingship by, Preserving the institution of kingship through heredity. Preserving the traditions of the social order, being able to withstand criticism as an impersonal authority. Being able to manage a greater deal of knowledge and action than an individual such as the king. The greatest of the subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and ScotlandPolitics – Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart – Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.
33. Frank Zappa – Zappa also directed feature-length films and music videos, and designed album covers. He is considered one of the most innovative and stylistically diverse rock musicians of his generation, as a self-taught composer and performer, Zappas diverse musical influences led him to create music that was sometimes difficult to categorize. While in his teens, he acquired a taste for 20th-century classical composers such as Edgard Varèse, Igor Stravinsky and he began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in rhythm and blues bands, later switching to electric guitar. His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. He continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the format was rock. Zappas output is unified by a conceptual continuity he termed Project/Object, with musical phrases, ideas. His lyrics reflected his views of established social and political processes, structures and movements. Unlike many other musicians of his era, he personally disapproved of and seldom used drugs. During Zappas lifetime, he was a productive and prolific artist, earning widespread acclaim from critics. He had some success, particularly in Europe, and worked as an independent artist for most of his career. He remains an influence on musicians and composers. His honors include an induction into the 1995 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number 71 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, Zappa was born in Baltimore, Maryland. His mother, Rosemarie was of Italian and French ancestry, his father, whose name was Anglicized to Francis Vincent Zappa, was an immigrant from Partinico, Sicily, with Greek and Arab ancestry. Frank, the eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was often spoken by his grandparents, the family moved often because his father, a chemist and mathematician, worked in the defense industry. After a time in Florida in the 1940s, the returned to Maryland. Due to their homes proximity to the arsenal, which stored mustard gas, gas masks were kept in the home in case of an accident and this had a profound effect on Zappa, and references to germs, germ warfare and the defense industry occur throughout his work. Zappa was often sick as a child, suffering from asthma, earaches, a doctor treated his sinusitis by inserting a pellet of radium into each of Zappas nostrilsFrank Zappa – Zappa performing in Ekeberghallen, Oslo, on January 16, 1977
34. Electric guitar – The vibrations of the strings are sensed by a pickup, of which the most common type is the magnetic pickup, which uses the principle of direct electromagnetic induction. The signal generated by a guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker, so it is plugged into a guitar amplifier before being sent to a loudspeaker. The output of a guitar is an electric signal. Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitarists. Early proponents of the guitar on record included Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker. During the 1950s and 1960s, the guitar became the most important instrument in pop music. It has evolved into an instrument that is capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music, blues and jazz. It served as a component in the development of electric blues, rock and roll, rock music, heavy metal music. Electric guitar design and construction vary greatly in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck, bridge, Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge that lets players bend the pitch of notes or chords up or down or perform vibrato effects. The sound of a guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending, tapping, hammering on, using audio feedback, in a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In larger rock and metal bands, there is often a rhythm guitarist, many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century. Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins, hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge, however, these detected vibration from the bridge on top of the instrument, resulting in a weak signal. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, Electric guitars were originally designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers. Some of the earliest electric guitars adapted hollow-bodied acoustic instruments and used tungsten pickups, the first electrically amplified guitar was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, who was vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminum frying pan was built by Harry Watson, commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, and Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company, in that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. The Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts provided players a full 25 scale, with 17 frets free of the fretboard and it is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937, fewer than 10 are known to survive today. The need for the guitar became apparent during the big band era as orchestras increased in size, particularly when acoustic guitars had to compete with largeElectric guitar – A Kramer XKG-20 electric guitar circa 1980, modified
35. Electronic music – In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as the theremin, sound synthesizer, and computer. During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for instruments were composed. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds, Music produced solely from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers for the purpose of composing music, algorithmic composition was first demonstrated in Australia in 1951. In America and Europe, live electronics were pioneered in the early 1960s, during the 1970s to early 1980s, the monophonic Minimoog became once the most widely used synthesizer at that time in both popular and electronic art music. In the 1980s, electronic music became dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, and the adoption of programmable drum machines. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the domain by the 1990s. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form. At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments and these initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances. The audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments, while some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium accurately synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments. It achieved viable public interest and made progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments, ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments. He predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music, futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery. They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises, developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller, amplified, and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s, from the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt themElectronic music – Telharmonium, Thaddeus Cahill, 1897
36. Rocky Mountains – The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, the Rocky Mountains were initially formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began to slide underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a belt of mountains running down western North America. Since then, further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks, at the end of the last ice age, humans started to inhabit the mountain range. The first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, the Rocky Mountains are commonly defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico. The United States definition of the Rockies includes the Cabinet and Salish Mountains of Idaho and their counterparts north of the Kootenai River, the Columbia Mountains, are considered a separate system in Canada, lying to the west of the huge Rocky Mountain Trench. This runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the bank of the Liard River. The Rockies vary in width from 70 to 300 miles, also west of the Rocky Mountain Trench, farther north and facing the Muskwa Range across the trench, are the Stikine Ranges and Omineca Mountains of the Interior Mountains system of British Columbia. A small area east of Prince George, British Columbia on the side of the Trench. In Canada geographers define three main groups of ranges, the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges and Muskwa Ranges, the Muskwa and Hart Ranges together comprise what is known as the Northern Rockies. The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City, the Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these sub-ranges from distinct ranges further to the west, most prominent among which are the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range and Coast Mountains. The Rocky Mountain System within the United States is a United States physiographic region, the Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America. The ranges highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 14,440 feet above sea level, Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 12,972 feet, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies. The Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains, triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water that falls on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific, but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, see Rivers of the Rocky Mountains for a list of rivers. Human population is not very dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer, however, the human population grew rapidly in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990. The 40-year statewide increases in range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in UtahRocky Mountains – Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada
37. James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. – James Thomas Aubrey Jr. was an American television and film executive. President of the CBS television network from 1959 to 1965, he put some of televisions most enduring series on the air, including Gilligans Island, under Aubrey, CBS dominated American television the way General Motors and General Electric dominated their industries. The New York Times Magazine in 1964 called Aubrey a master of programming whose divinations led to successes that are breathtaking, Aubrey replaced CBS Television president Louis Cowan, who was slowly dismissed after the quiz show scandals. The circumstances rivaled the best of CBS adventure or mystery shows, declared The New York Times in its story on his firing. He earned the nickname Smiling Cobra for his brutal decision-making ways, Aubrey governed CBS with a firm grip, and it did not go unnoticed. He was suddenly dismissed in February 1965, Aubrey offered no explanation following his dismissal, nor did CBS President Frank Stanton or Board Chairman William Paley. In 1973, Aubrey resigned from MGM, declaring his job was done, Hollywood executive Sherry Lansing, a close friend of Aubreys for two decades, told the Los Angeles Times in 1986, Jim is different. He does his own dirty work, Jim is one of those people who are willing to say, I didnt like your movie. Directness is disarming to people who are used to sugar-coating and its tough for people who need approval to see somebody who doesnt. Myths and legends begin to surround that kind of person and he grew up in the affluent Chicago suburb of Lake Forest and attended Lake Forest Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, and Princeton University. While at Princeton all four brothers were members of the Tiger Inn eating club and my father insisted on accomplishment, Aubrey recalled in 1986. In college, Aubrey was a star on the football team and he graduated in 1941 with honors in English and entered the United States Army Air Forces. During his service in World War II, Aubrey rose to the rank of major and taught military flying to actor James Stewart, while stationed in southern California, he met Phyllis Thaxter, an actress signed to MGM, whom he married in November 1944. Thaxters first role was as Ted Lawsons wife in Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo and they had two children, Susan Schuyler Skye Aubrey and James Watson Aubrey. The marriage ended in divorce in 1962, Aubrey was 6-foot 2-inch with an incandescent smile with unrevealing polar blue eyes, said The New York Times Magazine in 1964. The next year Life Magazine described him as youthful, handsome, brainy, with an incandescent smile, a quiet, somewhat salty wit and and he was always fastidiously turned out, from his Jerry the Barber haircut to his CBS-eye cuff links. One producer said, Aubrey is one of the most insatiably curious guys I know, after Aubrey was discharged from the Air Force, he stayed in southern California, before his marriage, he intended to return to Chicago. In Los Angeles, he sold advertising for the Street & Smith and his first broadcasting job was as a salesman at the CBS radio station in Los Angeles, KNX, and soon went to the networks new television station, KNXTJames Thomas Aubrey, Jr. – James T. Aubrey, c. 1959
38. Kroger Babb – Howard W. Kroger Babb was an American film and television producer and showman. His marketing techniques were similar to a travelling salesmans, with roots in the medicine-show tradition, Babb was involved in the production and marketing of many films and television shows, promoting each according to his favorite marketing motto, You gotta tell em to sell em. His films ranged from sex education-style dramas to documentaries on foreign cultures, intended to titillate audiences rather than to educate them, Babb was born in 1906 in Lees Creek, Ohio, USA. He earned the nickname Kroger either from his job at the grocer of the same name or from his fathers preference for B. H. Babb held a number of jobs during his youth, gaining a mention in Ripleys Believe It Or Not for refereeing a record number of sports games. Another gimmick was to find a store window where a bedroom suite was on display. This always ensured a packed house, and the winner was awarded with a pair of pajamas. These experiences led him to the film business. In the early 1940s Babb joined Cox and Underwood, a company that obtained the rights to poorly made or otherwise unmarketable films of subjects that were controversial or shocking. It would often remove entire sections of these films and add material such as medical reels that lent itself to sensational promotion. Babb went on the road with a Cox and Underwood concoction titled Dust to Dust and its profits allowed Cox and Underwood to retire from the business, leaving Babb to start his own company, Hygienic Productions. He opened it near his home in Wilmington, Ohio. Babb is best known for his presentation of films, a term many in the business would embrace. According to The Hollywood Reporter, his success came from picking topics that would be easily sensationalized, such as religion and his expenses were estimated at 5% for selling, and his distribution overhead near 7%, resulting in some of the largest per-dollar returns in the film industry. Babbs biggest success was Mom and Dad, which he conceived and produced, Babb headed the promotion of this film following its premiere in early 1945, often going on the road with it himself. The success of Mom and Dad was mostly due to Babbs marketing strategy of overwhelming a small town with ads, eric Schaefer explains, Acknowledging that his films were unknown quantities, Babb advocated a 100% saturation campaign. The total came to almost $400, or the amount the theater owner would normally spend on advertising in the course of an entire month. Babb always claimed that with his formula the profit would outweigh the investment, the film became so ubiquitous that Time said its presentation left only the livestock unaware of the chance to learn the facts of lifeKroger Babb – Kroger Babb in an undated promotional photo.
39. Bette Davis – Ruth Elizabeth Bette Davis was an American actress of film, television, and theater. After appearing in Broadway plays, Davis moved to Hollywood in 1930, however, her early films for Universal Studios were unsuccessful. She joined Warner Bros. in 1932 and established her career with several critically acclaimed performances, in 1937, she attempted to free herself from her contract. Although she lost the legal case against the studio, it marked the beginning of the most successful period of her career. Until the late 1940s, she was one of American cinemas most celebrated leading ladies, known for her forceful, Davis gained a reputation as a perfectionist who could be highly combative and confrontational. She clashed with executives and film directors as well as many of her co-stars. Her forthright manner, idiosyncratic speech and ubiquitous cigarette contributed to a public persona, Davis was the co-founder of the Hollywood Canteen, and was the first female president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Her career went through periods of eclipse, and she admitted that her success had often been at the expense of her personal relationships. Married four times, she was widowed and three times divorced, and raised her children as a single parent. In 1999, Davis was placed second behind Katharine Hepburn on the American Film Institutes list of the greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Bettys younger sister, Barbara Harriet Bobby, was born October 25,1909, at 55 Ward Street in Somerville, Massachusetts, in 1915, Daviss parents separated and Betty and Bobby attended a Spartan boarding school called Crestalban in Lanesborough, which is located in the Berkshires. In 1921, Ruth Davis moved to New York City with her daughters, Betty changed the spelling of her name to Bette after Honoré de Balzacs La Cousine Bette. Davis attended Cushing Academy, a school in Ashburnham, Massachusetts. In 1926, she saw a production of Henrik Ibsens The Wild Duck with Blanche Yurka and Peg Entwistle, Davis later recalled for Al Cohn of Newsday, The reason I wanted to go into theater was because of an actress named Peg Entwistle. She auditioned for admission to Eva LeGalliennes Manhattan Civic Repertory, but was rejected by LeGallienne who described her attitude as insincere, upon graduating from Cushing Academy, Bette enrolled in John Murray Andersons Dramatic School. In 1929, Davis was chosen by Blanche Yurka to play Hedwig, after performing in Philadelphia, Washington and Boston, she made her Broadway debut in 1929 in Broken Dishes, and followed it with Solid South. In 1930, Davis moved to Hollywood to screen test for Universal Studios, Davis and her mother traveled by train to Hollywood and arrived on December 13,1930. She would later recount her surprise that nobody from the studio was there to meet her at the train, in fact, a studio employee had waited for her, but left because he saw nobody who looked like an actressBette Davis – Studio portrait, 1940
40. Kirsten Dunst – Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress. She made her debut in Woody Allens short film Oedipus Wrecks for the anthology film New York Stories. At the age of twelve, Dunst gained widespread recognition as Claudia in Interview with the Vampire and she appeared in Little Women the same year and in Jumanji the following year. Dunst achieved fame for her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in Sam Raimis Spider-Man trilogy and she played the title role in Sofia Coppolas biographical film Marie Antoinette and starred in the comedy film How to Lose Friends & Alienate People. She won the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and she starred in the second season of the television series Fargo in 2015, playing the role of Peggy Blumquist, a slightly delusional and neurotic hairdresser. In 2001, Dunst made her debut in the film Get Over It. She also sang the jazz song After Youve Gone for the end credits of the film The Cats Meow, Dunst was born in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, to Klaus Hermann Dunst and Inez Dunst. She has a brother, Christian. Her father worked as a medical services executive, and her mother worked for Lufthansa as an attendant and was an artist. Dunsts father is German, originally from Hamburg, and Dunsts mother was born in New Jersey, until the age of eleven, Dunst lived in Brick Township, New Jersey, where she attended Ranney School. In 1993, her parents separated, and she moved with her mother and brother to Los Angeles, California. In 1995, her mother filed for divorce, after graduating from Notre Dame in 2000, Dunst continued the acting career that she had begun. As a teenager, she found it difficult to deal with her rising fame, however, she later expressed that her mother always had the best intentions. When asked if she had any regrets about the way she spent her childhood, Dunst said, Well, its not a way to grow up. I have my stuff to work out, I dont think anybody can sit around and say, My life is more screwed up than yours. Dunst began her career when she was three years old as a fashion model in television commercials. She was signed with Ford Models and Elite Model Management, at the age of six, she made her feature film debut in a minor role in Woody Allens short film Oedipus Wrecks that was released as one-third of the anthology film New York Stories. Soon after, she co-starred with Tom Hanks in the comedy-drama The Bonfire of the Vanities, based on Tom Wolfes novel of the same name, where she played the daughter of Hanks characterKirsten Dunst – Dunst at the 2013 premiere of Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues in Sydney, Australia
41. Judy Garland – Judy Garland was an American singer, actress, and vaudevillian. Garland began performing in vaudeville with her two sisters and was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. She made more than two films with MGM, including nine with Mickey Rooney. Garlands most famous role was as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz and her other roles at MGM included Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls and Easter Parade. After 15 years, she was released from the studio and made record-breaking concert appearances, a recording career. Film appearances became fewer in her years, but included two Academy Award nominated performances in A Star Is Born and Judgment at Nuremberg. Garland received a Golden Globe Award, a Juvenile Academy Award, and a Special Tony Award, deMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. She was the first woman to win a Grammy for Album of the Year for her recording of Judy at Carnegie Hall. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema, from an early age, Garland struggled in her personal life. The pressures of adolescent stardom sent her to a psychiatrist at age 18 and her self-image was influenced by film executives who said she was unattractive and manipulated her on-screen physical appearance. She was plagued by instability, often owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes. She married five times, with her first four marriages ending in divorce and she also had a long battle with drugs and alcohol, which ultimately led to her death from a barbiturate overdose at the age of 47. Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10,1922, in Grand Rapids and she was the youngest child of Ethel Marion and Francis Avent Frank Gumm. Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a theater that featured vaudeville acts. She was of English, Scottish, and Irish ancestry, named after both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church, baby shared her familys flair for song and dance. The Gumm Sisters performed there for the few years, accompanied by their mother on piano. The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, and Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into motion picturesJudy Garland – Garland's birthplace in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, now a museum
42. Maggie Gyllenhaal – Margalit Ruth Maggie Gyllenhaal is an American actress. She is the daughter of filmmakers Stephen Gyllenhaal and Naomi Achs and she began her film career as a teenager with roles in her fathers films and appeared alongside her brother in the psychological horror film Donnie Darko. She garnered critical praise for starring as Lee Holloway in Secretary, for her performance in Sherrybaby, she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. She also received recognition for starring as Rachel Dawes in The Dark Knight, for her performance in the musical-drama Crazy Heart, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She subsequently starred in Nanny McPhee and the Big Bang, Wont Back Down and Frank, in 2014, she made her Broadway debut in a revival of The Real Thing, and also starred in the television BBC miniseries The Honourable Woman. For her performance in the latter she won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Emmy Award, Gyllenhaal was born in New York City, the daughter of Naomi Foner Gyllenhaal and Stephen Gyllenhaal. Her father is a director and writer and her mother is a screenwriter. She has one sibling, actor Jake Gyllenhaal and her father, who was raised in the Swedenborgian religion, is of Swedish and English ancestry, and is a member of the Gyllenhaal family. Her mother was born in New York City, and is from a Jewish family which emigrated from Russia and her mothers first husband was Eric Foner, a noted historian and history professor at Columbia University. Gyllenhaal has stated that she grew up mostly Jewish, culturally and her parents married in 1977, and filed for divorce in October 2008. The first name on Maggies birth certificate is Margalit, which she did not discover until 2013, Margalit is a Hebrew word meaning pearl, some news stories have spelled it Margolit. Gyllenhaal grew up in Los Angeles, and studied at the Harvard–Westlake prep school and she spent four months as a student at The Mountain School, a semester school for high school juniors in Vermont. In 1995, she graduated from Harvard–Westlake and moved to New York to attend Columbia University and she also studied acting for a summer term at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, England. With their mother, she and Jake appeared in two episodes of Molto Mario, an Italian cooking show on the Food Network, after graduating from college, she played supporting roles in films like Cecil B. Demented and Riding in Cars with Boys, Gyllenhaal later achieved recognition in her own right playing her real brothers on-screen sister in the indie cult hit Donnie Darko. She made her debut in the Berkeley Repertory Theatre production of Patrick Marbers Closer. Production started in May 2000 and ended in mid-July of that year, Gyllenhaal has performed in several other plays, including The Tempest, Antony and Cleopatra, The Butterfly Project, and No Exit. Gyllenhaals break-out role was in the black comedy Secretary, a film about two people who embark on a mutually fulfilling BDSM lifestyleMaggie Gyllenhaal – Gyllenhaal at the 2010 Academy Awards
43. William Hanna – After working odd jobs in the first months of the Depression, Hanna joined the Harman and Ising animation studio in 1930. During the 1930s, Hanna steadily gained skill and prominence while working on such as Captain. In 1937, while working at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Hanna met Joseph Barbera, the two men began a collaboration that was at first best known for producing Tom and Jerry and live action/animated hybrid films. In 1967, Hanna-Barbera was sold to Taft Broadcasting for $12 million, at that time, the studio was sold to Turner Broadcasting System, which in turn was merged with Time Warner in 1996, Hanna and Barbera stayed on as advisors. Hanna and Barbera won seven Academy Awards and eight Emmy Awards and their cartoons have become cultural icons, and their cartoon characters have appeared in other media such as films, books, and toys. Hanna-Barberas shows had an audience of over 300 million people in their 1960s heyday. William Hanna was born to William John and Avice Joyce Hanna on July 14,1910 in Melrose and he was the third of seven children and the only son. Hanna claimed there was no war between the sexes nor sibling rivalry in their home, Hanna described his family as a red-blooded, Irish-American family. His father was a superintendent for railroads as well as water and sewer systems throughout the western regions of America. When Hanna was three years old, the moved to Baker City, Oregon, where his father worked on the Balm Creek Dam. It was here that Hanna developed his love of the outdoors, the family moved to Logan, Utah, before moving to San Pedro, California, in 1917. During the next two years they moved several times before settling in Watts, California, in 1919. In 1922, while living in Watts, he joined Scouting and he attended Compton High School from 1925 through 1928, where he played the saxophone in a dance band. His passion for music carried over into his career, he helped write songs for his cartoons, Hanna became an Eagle Scout as a youth and remained active in Scouting throughout his life. As an adult, he served as a Scoutmaster and was recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with their Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1985, despite his numerous career-related awards, Hanna was most proud of this Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. His interests also included sailing and singing in a barbershop quartet, Hanna studied both journalism and structural engineering at Compton City College, but had to drop out of college with the onset of the Great Depression. On August 7,1936, Hanna married Violet Blanch Wogatzke, in 1996, Hanna, with assistance from Los Angeles writer Tom Ito, published his autobiography—Joe Barbera had published his two years earlier. After dropping out of college, Hanna worked briefly as a construction engineer and he lost that job during the Great Depression and found another at a car washWilliam Hanna – William Hanna
44. Ethan Hawke – Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor, writer, and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award, Hawke has directed two feature films, three Off-Broadway plays, and a documentary, and written the novels The Hottest State, Ash Wednesday, and Rules for a Knight. He made his debut in 1985 with the science fiction feature Explorers. He then appeared in films before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X drama Reality Bites. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for films, along with BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to Leslie, a charity worker, and James Hawke, Hawkes parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth, Texas, and married young, when Hawkes mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later, Hawkes parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, and separated and later divorced in 1974. After the separation, Hawke was then raised by his mother, the two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawkes mother remarried when he was 10 and the moved to West Windsor Township, New Jersey. He later transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a boarding school. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, and he twice enrolled in New York Universitys English program, but dropped out both times to pursue acting roles. Hawke obtained his mothers permission to attend his first casting call at age 14 and he secured his first film role in 1985s Explorers, in which he played an alien-obsessed schoolboy alongside River Phoenix. The film received favorable reviews but had poor box office revenues, Hawke later described the disappointment as difficult to bear at such a young age, adding I would never recommend that a kid act. His next film appearance was not until 1989s comedy drama Dad, in 1989, Hawke made his breakthrough appearance, playing a shy student opposite Robin Williamss inspirational English teacher in Dead Poets Society. The film was critically well-received, the Variety reviewer noted Hawke, with revenue of US$235 million worldwide, the film remains Hawkes most commercially successful picture to date. Hawke later described the opportunities he was offered as a result of the success as critical to his decision to continue acting, I didnt want to be an actor. But then the success was so monumental that I was getting offers to be in such interesting movies and be in such interesting places, Hawkes next film, 1991s White Fang, brought his first leading role. The film, an adaptation of Jack Londons novel of the name, featured Hawke as Jack ConroyEthan Hawke – Hawke at the 2009 Venice International Film Festival
45. Katie Holmes – Kate Noelle Katie Holmes is an American actress, model, and filmmaker who first achieved fame for her role as Joey Potter on The WB television teen drama Dawsons Creek from 1998 to 2003. She appeared in 1998s Disturbing Behavior, a thriller, which won her an MTV Movie Award for Best Breakthrough Performance, in 2000 Holmes featured in Wonder Boys which got positive attention from many leading critics. Holmes had a role in 2003s Pieces of April, a gritty comedy about a dysfunctional family on Thanksgiving. In the 2005 film Batman Begins, the most successful film of her career to date, she played Rachel Dawes, Gotham Citys assistant district attorney and Bruce Waynes childhood sweetheart. She also appeared in art films such as The Ice Storm, horror films such as Dont Be Afraid of the Dark. She has also played on Broadway in a production of Arthur Millers All My Sons and had numerous guest roles on programs such as How I Met Your Mother. In 2011, she starred as Jacqueline Kennedy in the The Kennedys miniseries and her marriage to actor Tom Cruise from 2006 to 2012 led to a great deal of media attention, with the pair being called a supercouple and given the nickname TomKat. Holmes was born in Toledo, Ohio and she is the youngest of five children born to Kathleen, a homemaker and philanthropist, and Martin Joseph Holmes, Sr. an attorney. She has three sisters and one brother, Holmes was baptized a Roman Catholic and attended Christ the King Church in Toledo. She graduated from the all-female Notre Dame Academy in Toledo, where she was a 4.0 student. At St. Johns Jesuit and St. Francis de Sales, nearby high schools, Holmes appeared in school musicals, playing a waitress in Hello, Dolly. She scored 1310 out of 1600 on her SAT and was accepted to Columbia University, at age 14, she began classes at a modeling school in Toledo which led her to the International Modeling and Talent Association Competition held in New York City in 1996. Eventually, Holmes was signed to an agent after performing a monologue from To Kill a Mockingbird, in January 1997, Holmes went to Los Angeles for pilot season, when producers cast and shoot new programs in the hopes of securing a spot on a network schedule. The Toledo Blade reported she was offered the lead in Buffy the Vampire Slayer, I was doing my school play, Damn Yankees. I even got to wear the feather boa, I thought, There is no way Im not playing Lola to go audition for some network. I couldnt let my school down and we had already sold a lot of tickets. So I told Kevin and The WB, Im sorry, I just cant meet with you this week. The producers permitted her to audition on videotape, Holmes read for the part of Joey Potter, the tomboy best friend of the title character Dawson, on a videotape shot in her basement, her mother reading Dawsons linesKatie Holmes – Holmes at the National Memorial Day in Washington, D.C., May 24, 2009
46. Diane Keaton – Diane Keaton is an American film actress, director and producer. She began her career on stage and made her debut in 1970. Her next two films with Allen, Sleeper and Love and Death, established her as a comic actor and her fourth, Annie Hall, won her the Academy Award for Best Actress. Keaton subsequently expanded her range to avoid becoming typecast as her Annie Hall persona and she became an accomplished dramatic performer, starring in Looking for Mr. Goodbar and received Academy Award nominations for Reds, Marvins Room and Somethings Gotta Give. Some of her later films include Baby Boom, Father of the Bride, The First Wives Club. Keatons films have earned a gross of over US$1.1 billion in North America. In addition to acting, she is also a photographer, real estate developer, author, Diane Keaton was born as Diane Hall on January 5,1946, in Los Angeles, California. Her mother, Dorothy Deanne, was a homemaker and amateur photographer, her father, John Newton Ignatius Jack Hall, was a real estate broker, Keaton was raised a Free Methodist by her mother. Her mother won the Mrs. Los Angeles pageant for homemakers, Keaton has said that the theatricality of the event inspired her first impulse to be an actress, and led to her wanting to work on stage. She has also credited Katharine Hepburn, whom she admires for playing strong and independent women, Keaton is a 1964 graduate of Santa Ana High School in Santa Ana, California. During her time there, she participated in singing and acting clubs at school, after graduation, she attended Santa Ana College, and later Orange Coast College as an acting student, but dropped out after a year to pursue an entertainment career in Manhattan. Upon joining the Actors Equity Association, she changed her surname to Keaton, her mothers maiden name, for a brief time, she also moonlighted at nightclubs with a singing act. She would later revisit her nightclub act in Annie Hall and And So It Goes, Keaton began studying acting at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. She has described her acting technique as, only as good as the person youre acting with, as opposed to going it on my own and forging my path to create a wonderful performance without the help of anyone. I always need the help of everyone, according to Jack Nicholson, She approaches a script sort of like a play in that she has the entire script memorized before you start doing the movie, which I dont know any other actors doing that. In 1968, Keaton became a member of the Tribe and understudy to Sheila in the original Broadway production of Hair. She gained some notoriety for her refusal to disrobe at the end of Act I when the cast performs nude, after acting in Hair for nine months, she auditioned for a part in Woody Allens production of Play It Again, Sam. After nearly being passed over for being too tall, she won the part, after being nominated for a Tony Award for Play It Again, Sam, Keaton made her film debut in Lovers and Other StrangersDiane Keaton – Keaton in 2011
47. Brad Pitt – William Bradley Brad Pitt in Shawnee Oklahoma. He is an American actor and producer and he has received multiple awards and nominations including an Academy Award as producer under his own company Plan B Entertainment. Pitt first gained recognition as a hitchhiker in the road movie Thelma & Louise. His first leading roles in big-budget productions came with the dramas A River Runs Through It and Legends of the Fall, Pitt starred in the cult film Fight Club and the heist film Oceans Eleven and its sequels, Oceans Twelve and Oceans Thirteen. As a public figure, Pitt has been cited as one of the most influential and powerful people in the American entertainment industry, as well as the worlds most attractive man and his personal life is also the subject of wide publicity. Divorced from actress Jennifer Aniston, to whom he was married for five years and they have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally. In September 2016, Jolie filed for divorce from Pitt, William Bradley Pitt was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma, to William Bill Alvin Pitt, manager of a trucking company, and Jane Etta, a school counsellor. The family soon moved to Springfield, Missouri, where he lived together with his siblings, Douglas. Pitt has described Springfield as Mark Twain country, Jesse James country, having grown up with a lot of hills, Pitt attended Kickapoo High School, where he was a member of the golf, swimming and tennis teams. He participated in the schools Key and Forensics clubs, in school debates, following his graduation from high school, Pitt enrolled in the University of Missouri in 1982, majoring in journalism with a focus on advertising. As graduation approached, Pitt did not feel ready to settle down and he loved films—a portal into different worlds for me—and, since films were not made in Missouri, he decided to go to where they were made. Two weeks before earning his degree, Pitt left the university and moved to Los Angeles, while struggling to establish himself in Los Angeles, Pitt took lessons from acting coach Roy London. Pitts acting career began in 1987, with uncredited parts in the films No Way Out, No Mans Land and his television debut came in May 1987 with a two-episode role on the NBC soap opera Another World. In November of the same year Pitt had a guest appearance on the ABC sitcom Growing Pains and he appeared in four episodes of the CBS primetime series Dallas between December 1987 and February 1988 as Randy, the boyfriend of Charlie Wade. Later in 1988, Pitt made a guest appearance on the Fox police drama 21 Jump Street, in the same year, the Yugoslavian–U. S. Co-production The Dark Side of the Sun gave Pitt his first leading film role, the film was shelved at the outbreak of the Croatian War of Independence, and was not released until 1997. He made guest appearances on television series Head of the Class, Freddys Nightmares, Thirtysomething, and Growing Pains. Pitt was cast as Billy Canton, an addict who takes advantage of a young runaway in the 1990 NBC television movie Too Young to Die. the story of an abused teenager sentenced to death for a murderBrad Pitt – Pitt at the premiere of Fury in Washington D.C, October 2014
48. KaDee Strickland – Katherine Dee KaDee Strickland is an American actress known for her role as Charlotte King on the ABC drama Private Practice. Well known in her hometown of Patterson, Georgia, when she was a child, Strickland studied the profession in Philadelphia and New York City, where she obtained mostly small roles in film, television and theater projects, among them The Sixth Sense. Her participation in the 2003 Hollywood films Anything Else and Somethings Gotta Give led to her receiving significant parts in the horror pictures Anacondas and she has spoken of an affinity for her strong female characters and a desire to avoid sexualizing or sensationalizing her self-presentation as a woman. She also has worked closely with the Rape, Abuse, Strickland was born in Blackshear, Georgia to Susan Strickland, a nurse, and Dee Strickland, a high school football coach, principal and superintendent. KaDees birthname is Katherine Dee, her parents combined the K in Katherine with her fathers name to make KaDee and she was raised in Patterson, Georgia, which she said is a one-stoplight town, and she had a job picking tobacco on a local farm for eight years. When she was a child, Strickland watched the Woody Allen film Annie Hall and was, as she put it, wanting to be in that place, and being completely taken with the energy of those people. During her childhood, she was known locally as a member of the Strickland family and for her extracurricular activities. She never considered a career in the arts until her participation in a one-act play performed by students of her high school, the minute I set foot on stage. I felt like I fit my skin, I knew what I was here to do, after graduating from high school, Strickland wanted to study drama at college in New York City, but her parents did not want her to live in such a large city so soon. Consequently, she applied instead to the University of the Arts in Philadelphia. During her studies there, she joined the Screen Actors Guild and considered using her name, Katherine, as the first part of her stage name. After graduating from university with a Fine Arts degree, she was schooled in New York City, in 2006, Strickland received the University of the Artss Silver Star Alumni Award. According to Strickland, her role in the film helped her learn to temper her fake crying. The same year, she served as an extra in the independent film The Sterling Chase, when staying in Philadelphia, Strickland had opportunities to take part in other films in production in and around the city. Those included Rel Dowdells Train Ride, a date rape thriller filmed in 1998, concurrent to her film work, Strickland acquired stage experience in productions such as A Requiem for Things Past in mid-1999, and John Patrick Shanleys Women of Manhattan. She acted in a December 2002 episode of the television show Law & Order, Criminal Intent and made nine guest appearances on All My Children, which enabled her to leave her waitressing job. In 2003, Strickland was cast opposite Eddie Cibrian in the episode for an uncommissioned small screen serial adaptation of John Grishams novel The Street Lawyer. Strickland appeared in two comedy films in 2003KaDee Strickland – Strickland in April 2005
49. Sharon Tate – Sharon Marie Tate Polanski was an American actress and model. During the 1960s, she played small roles before appearing in films and was regularly featured in fashion magazines as a model. After receiving positive reviews for her comedic and dramatic acting performances and she made her film debut in 1966 with the occult-themed Eye of the Devil. Her most remembered performance was as Jennifer North in the 1967 cult classic film, Valley of the Dolls, Tates last completed film, 12+1 was released posthumously in 1969, with the actress receiving top billing. In January 20,1968, Tate married Roman Polanski, her director, on August 9,1969, Tate, along with four others, was murdered by members of the Manson Family in the home she shared with Polanski. At the time of her death, she was eight-and-a-half months pregnant with the couples son, Tates mother went on to say that the law would help transform Sharons legacy from murder victim to a symbol of victims rights. A book by Tates sister, Debra Tate, titled Sharon Tate, Sharon Tate was born in Dallas, Texas, the eldest of three daughters, to Colonel Paul James Tate, a United States Army officer, and his wife, Doris Gwendolyn. At six months of age, Tate won the Miss Tiny Tot of Dallas Pageant, Paul Tate was promoted and transferred several times. By the age of 16, as a brat, Tate had lived in six different cities. Her family described her as shy and lacking in self-confidence, as an adult, Tate commented that people would misinterpret her shyness as aloofness until they knew her better. Tate attended Chief Joseph Junior High School from September of 1955 to June of 1958 and she attended Irvin High School in El Paso, Texas, from late fall 1959 to April 1960, and Vicenza American High School in Vicenza, Italy, from April to June 1960. She graduated from Vicenza American High School in 1961, as she matured, people commented on Tates beauty, she began entering beauty pageants, winning the title of Miss Richland in Washington in 1959. Beymer noticed Tate in the crowd and introduced himself, and the two dated during the production of the film, with Beymer encouraging Tate to pursue a film career. In 1961, Tate was employed by the singer Pat Boone, later that year, when Barabbas was being filmed near Verona, Tate was once again hired as an extra. Actor Jack Palance was impressed by her appearance and her attitude and he arranged a screen test for her in Rome, but this did not lead to further work. Tate returned to the United States alone, saying she wanted to further her studies, after a few months, Doris Tate, who feared for her daughters safety, suffered a nervous breakdown and her daughter was persuaded to return to Italy. The family returned to the United States in 1962, and Tate moved to Los Angeles, after their first meeting, Gefsky agreed to represent her, and secured work for her in television and magazine advertisements. In 1963, he introduced her to Martin Ransohoff, director of Filmways and she was considered for the role of Billie Jo Bradley, on CBSs sitcom, Petticoat Junction, but Ransohoff believed that she lacked confidence and the role was given to Jeannine RileySharon Tate – Tate in her debut film Eye of the Devil (1966)
50. Reese Witherspoon – Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon is an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur. Her leading role of Tracy Flick in Election was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, Witherspoons breakthrough role was playing Elle Woods in the 2001 film Legally Blonde, for which she received her second Golden Globe nomination. The following year, she starred in the romantic comedy Sweet Home Alabama, which emerged as her biggest live-action commercial success. In 2005, she portrayed June Carter in Walk the Line, which earned her the Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, and Critics Choice Award for Best Actress. Other notable films of hers include Legally Blonde 2, Red, White & Blonde, Monsters vs. Aliens, Water for Elephants, in 2017, she produced and starred in the HBO drama series Big Little Lies. Witherspoon owns a company, Pacific Standard, and she is actively involved in childrens and womens advocacy organizations. She serves on the board of the Childrens Defense Fund and was named Global Ambassador of Avon Products in 2007 and she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2010. Witherspoon was born on March 22,1976 in Southern Baptist Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, while her father and her father was born in Georgia and served as a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army Reserve. He was in practice as an otolaryngologist until 2012. In 1988, her mother began nursing babies back to health in the intensive care unit of Vanderbilt University Hospital until she retired. Her parents are legally married, although they separated in 1996, due to her fathers alcoholism, infidelity, overspending. Because Witherspoons father worked for the U. S. military in Wiesbaden, Germany, after returning to the U. S. she spent her childhood in Nashville, Tennessee in the suburb of Belle Meade. She was raised as an Episcopalian and her older brother, John Jr. is a real estate agent. She received high grades in school, loved reading, and considered herself a big dork who read loads of books, on mentioning her love for books, she said, I get crazy in a bookstore. It makes my heart beat hard because I want to buy everything, Witherspoon attended middle school at Harding Academy and graduated from the all-girls Harpeth Hall School in Nashville, during which time she was a cheerleader. She attended Stanford University as an English literature major, after completing one year of studies, she left Stanford to pursue an acting career. Witherspoon is proud of the definitive Southern upbringing which she received, Witherspoon is described as a multi-achiever and was given the nickname Little Type A by her parents. On discussing her early achievements, she told Interview magazine, I just dont see any of it as that remarkable, maybe thats the attitude I choose to have to keep me sane and keep my feet on the groundReese Witherspoon – Witherspoon at the 2014 Toronto International Film Festival
51. Anna May Wong – Anna May Wong was an American actress. She is considered to be the first Chinese American movie star and her long and varied career spanned silent film, sound film, television, stage and radio. Born in Los Angeles to second-generation Chinese-American parents, Wong became infatuated with the movies, during the silent film era, she acted in The Toll of the Sea, one of the first movies made in color and Douglas Fairbanks The Thief of Bagdad. Wong became an icon and had achieved international stardom in 1924. She spent the first half of the 1930s traveling between the United States and Europe for film and stage work. Wong was featured in films of the sound era, such as Daughter of the Dragon and Daughter of Shanghai. Bucks The Good Earth, choosing instead the German actress Luise Rainer to play the leading role, Wong spent the next year touring China, visiting her familys ancestral village and studying Chinese culture. In the late 1930s, she starred in several B movies for Paramount Pictures and she paid less attention to her film career during World War II, when she devoted her time and money to helping the Chinese cause against Japan. Wong returned to the eye in the 1950s in several television appearances. In 1951, Ms. Wong made history with her TV show The Gallery of Madame Liu-Tsong and she had been planning to return to film in Flower Drum Song when she died in 1961, at the age of 56. For decades after her death, Wong was remembered principally for the stereotypical Dragon Lady and her life and career were re-evaluated in the years around the centennial of her birth, in three major literary works and film retrospectives. Interest in her story continues and another biography, Shining Star. Anna May Wong was born Wong Liu Tsong on January 3,1905, on Flower Street in Los Angeles, one north of Chinatown, in an integrated community of Chinese, Irish, German. She was the second of seven born to Wong Sam Sing, owner of the Sam Kee Laundry in Los Angeles. Anna May Wongs parents were second-generation Chinese Americans, her maternal and paternal grandparents had resided in the U. S. since at least 1855. Her paternal grandfather, A Wong Wong, was a merchant who owned two stores in Michigan Hills, an area in Placer County. He had come from Chang On, a village near Taishan, Guangdong Province, Anna Mays father spent his youth traveling between the U. S. and China, where he married his first wife and fathered a son in 1890. He returned to the U. S. in the late 1890s and in 1901, while continuing to support his family in China, he married a second wife, Anna Mays motherAnna May Wong – Paramount Pictures publicity photo of Anna May Wong circa 1935
52. George Washington Dixon – George Washington Dixon was an American singer, stage actor, and newspaper editor. He rose to prominence as a performer after performing Coal Black Rose, Zip Coon. He later turned to a career in journalism, during which he earned the enmity of members of the class for his frequent allegations against them. At age 15, Dixon joined the circus, where he established himself as a singer. In 1829, he began performing Coal Black Rose in blackface, in contrast to his contemporary Thomas D. Rice, Dixon was primarily a singer rather than a dancer. He was by all accounts a gifted vocalist, and much of his material was quite challenging, Zip Coon became his trademark song. By 1835, Dixon considered journalism to be his primary vocation and his first major paper was Dixons Daily Review, which he published from Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1835. He followed this in 1836 with Dixons Saturday Night Express, published in Boston, by this point, he had taken to using his paper to expose what he considered the misdeeds of the upper classes. These stories earned him enemies, and Dixon was taken to court on several occasions. His most successful paper was the Polyanthos, which he began publishing in 1838 from New York City, under its masthead, he challenged some of his greatest adversaries, including Thomas S. Hamblin, Reverend Francis L. Hawks, and Madame Restell. After a brief foray into hypnotism, pedestrianism, and other pursuits, he retired to New Orleans, details about Dixons childhood are scarce. The record suggests that he was born in Richmond, Virginia and his parents were working-class folk, perhaps a barber and a washerwoman. He may have been educated at a charity school, fairly detailed descriptions and portraits of Dixon survive, he had a swarthy complexion and a splendid head of hair. However, the question of whether he was white or black is an open one and his enemies sometimes called him a mulatto, a Negro, or referred to him as Zip Coon, the name of the black character in one of his songs. However, the weight of evidence suggests that if Dixon did have black ancestry, a newspaper story from 1841 claims that at age 15, Dixons singing caught the attention of a circus proprietor named West. The man convinced Dixon to join his circus as a stablehand and errand boy. Dixon traveled with this and other circuses for a time, by early 1829, he had taken on the epithet The American Buffo Singer. Over three days in late July 1829, Dixon performed Coal Black Rose in blackface at the Bowery, Chatham Garden, the Flash characterized his audience as crowded galleries and scantily filled boxes, that is, mostly working-classGeorge Washington Dixon – Portrait of George Washington Dixon, c. 1836
53. Zelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Fitzgerald was a novelist, American socialite, and the wife of American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, she was noted for her beauty and high spirits and she and Scott became emblems of the Jazz Age, for which they are still celebrated. The immediate success of Scotts first novel This Side of Paradise brought them into contact with high society, Ernest Hemingway, whom Zelda disliked, blamed her for Scotts declining literary output, though her extensive diaries provided much material for his fiction. After being diagnosed with depression, she was increasingly confined to specialist clinics. Zelda died 7 years later in a fire at her hospital in Asheville, a 1970 biography by Nancy Milford was on the short list of contenders for the Pulitzer Prize. In 1992, Zelda was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame and her life was dramatized in the 2017 TV series Z, The Beginning of Everything. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, Zelda Sayre was the youngest of six children and her mother, Minerva Buckner Minnie Machen, named her after characters in two little-known stories, Jane Howards Zelda, A Tale of the Massachusetts Colony and Robert Edward Francillons Zeldas Fortune. The family was descended from settlers of Long Island, who had moved to Alabama before the Civil War. By the time of Zeldas birth, the Sayres were a prominent Southern family. S and her siblings were Anthony Dickinson Sayre, Jr. Marjorie Sayre, Rosalind Sayre and Clothilde Sayre. As a child, Zelda Sayre was extremely active and she danced, took ballet lessons and enjoyed the outdoors. In 1914, Sayre began attending Sidney Lanier High School and she was bright, but uninterested in her lessons. Her work in ballet continued into high school, where she had a social life. She drank, smoked and spent much of her time with boys, a newspaper article about one of her dance performances quoted her as saying that she cared only about boys and swimming. She developed an appetite for attention, actively seeking to flout convention—whether by dancing the Charleston, or by wearing a tight, flesh-colored bathing suit to fuel rumors that she swam nude. Her fathers reputation was something of a safety net, preventing her social ruin, consequently, Sayres antics were shocking to many of those around her, and she became—along with her childhood friend and future Hollywood starlet Tallulah Bankhead—a mainstay of Montgomery gossip. Her ethos was encapsulated beneath her high-school graduation photo, Why should all life be work, lets think only of today, and not worry about tomorrow. Zelda first met the future novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald in July 1918, when he had volunteered for the army, Scott began to call her daily, and came into Montgomery on his free days. He talked of his plans to be famous, and sent her a chapter of a book he was writing and he was so taken by Zelda that he redrafted the character of Rosalind Connage in This Side of Paradise to resemble herZelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Sayre at age 17
54. Ernest Hemingway – Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His economical and understated style had a influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and he published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, four short story collections, and three works, were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature, Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, in 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms, in 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers. He published his novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926. Martha Gellhorn became his wife in 1940, they separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present at the Normandy landings and the liberation of Paris, Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba, and in 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where he killed himself in mid-1961. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21,1899, in Oak Park, Illinois and his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician. Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said. For a short period after their marriage, Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived at first with Graces father, Ernest Hall, their first sons namesake. Later, Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, the family eventually moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingways mother frequently performed in concerts around the village, as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm. The family spent summers at Windemere on Walloon Lake, near Petoskey, from 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School. He took part in a number of sports—boxing, track and field, water polo and he excelled in English classes, and with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two yearsErnest Hemingway – Ernest Hemingway working at his book For Whom the Bell Tolls at Sun Valley, Idaho in December 1939
55. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. – Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. was an American physician, poet, and polymath based in Boston. A member of the Fireside Poets, he was acclaimed by his peers as one of the best writers of the day and his most famous prose works are the Breakfast-Table series, which began with The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table. He was also an important medical reformer, in addition to his work as an author and poet, Holmes also served as a physician, professor, lecturer, and inventor, and although he never practiced it, he received formal training in law. Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Holmes was educated at Phillips Academy, after graduating from Harvard in 1829, he briefly studied law before turning to the medical profession. He began writing poetry at an age, one of his most famous works. Following training at the medical schools of Paris, Holmes was granted his M. D. from Harvard Medical School in 1836. He taught at Dartmouth Medical School before returning to teach at Harvard and, for a time, Holmes retired from Harvard in 1882 and continued writing poetry, novels and essays until his death in 1894. Many of his works were published in The Atlantic Monthly, a magazine that he named, for his literary achievements and other accomplishments, he was awarded numerous honorary degrees from universities around the world. Holmess writing often commemorated his native Boston area, and much of it was meant to be humorous or conversational, some of his medical writings, notably his 1843 essay regarding the contagiousness of puerperal fever, were considered innovative for their time. He was often called upon to issue occasional poetry, or poems written specifically for an event, Holmes also popularized several terms, including Boston Brahmin and anesthesia. Holmes was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on August 29,1809 and his birthplace, a house just north of Harvard Yard, was said to have been the place where the Battle of Bunker Hill was planned. He was the first son of Abiel Holmes, minister of the First Congregational Church and avid historian, Sarah was the daughter of a wealthy family, and Holmes was named for his maternal grandfather, a judge. The first Wendell, Evert Jansen, left the Netherlands in 1640 and settled in Albany, also through his mother, Holmes was descended from Massachusetts Governor Simon Bradstreet and his wife, Anne Bradstreet, the first published American poet. From a young age, Holmes was small and suffered from asthma, when he was eight, he took his five-year-old brother, John, to witness the last hanging in Cambridges Gallows Lot and was subsequently scolded by his parents. After being exposed to such as John Dryden, Alexander Pope and Oliver Goldsmith. His first recorded poem, which was copied down by his father, was written when he was 13, although a talented student, the young Holmes was often admonished by his teachers for his talkative nature and habit of reading stories during school hours. He studied under Dame Prentiss and William Bigelow before enrolling in what was called the Port School, One of his schoolmates was future critic and author Margaret Fuller, whose intellect Holmes admired. Holmess father sent him to Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, Abiel chose Phillips, which was known for its orthodox Calvinist teachings, because he hoped his oldest son would follow him into the ministryOliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. – Oliver Wendell Holmes c. 1879
56. James Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets that rivaled the popularity of British poets and these writers usually used conventional forms and meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. Lowell graduated from Harvard College in 1838, despite his reputation as a troublemaker and he published his first collection of poetry in 1841 and married Maria White in 1844. The couple had children, though only one survived past childhood. After moving back to Cambridge, Lowell was one of the founders of a journal called The Pioneer and he gained notoriety in 1848 with the publication of A Fable for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. The same year, he published The Biglow Papers, which increased his fame and he went on to publish several other poetry collections and essay collections throughout his literary career. Maria died in 1853, and Lowell accepted a professorship of languages at Harvard in 1854 and he traveled to Europe before officially assuming his teaching duties in 1856, and married Frances Dunlap shortly thereafter in 1857. That year, Lowell also became editor of The Atlantic Monthly and it was not until 20 years later that he received his first political appointment, the ambassadorship to the Kingdom of Spain. He was later appointed ambassador to the Court of St. Jamess and he spent his last years in Cambridge in the same estate where he was born, and died there in 1891. Lowell believed that the poet played an important role as a prophet and he used poetry for reform, particularly in abolitionism. However, his commitment to the anti-slavery cause wavered over the years and he attempted to emulate the true Yankee accent in the dialogue of his characters, particularly in The Biglow Papers. This depiction of the dialect, as well as his satires, was an inspiration to writers such as Mark Twain. James Russell Lowell was born February 22,1819 and he was a member of the eighth generation of the Lowell family, the descendants of Percival Lowle who settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1639. His parents were the Reverend Charles Russell Lowell, Sr. a minister at a Unitarian church in Boston who had studied theology at Edinburgh. By the time that James Russell Lowell was born, the owned a large estate in Cambridge called Elmwood. He was the youngest of six children, his siblings were Charles, Rebecca, Mary, William, Lowells mother built in him an appreciation for literature at an early age, especially in poetry, ballads, and tales from her native Orkney. In his sophomore year, he was absent from required chapel attendance 14 times, in his senior year, he became one of the editors of Harvardiana literary magazine, to which he contributed prose and poetry that he admitted was of low quality. As he said later, I was as great an ass as ever brayed & thought it singing, during his undergraduate years, Lowell was a member of Hasty Pudding and served both as Secretary and PoetJames Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell circa 1855
57. I. M. Pei – Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA, commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese-American architect. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. Since then, he has taken on work as an architectural consultant primarily from his sons architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects and he went on to design Dallas City Hall and the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. He returned to China for the first time in 1975 to design a hotel at Fragrant Hills, and designed Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, a skyscraper in Hong Kong for the Bank of China fifteen years later. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid for the Musée du Louvre in Paris. He later returned to the world of the arts by designing the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in Dallas, the Miho Museum in Japan, the Suzhou Museum in Suzhou, in 1983, he won the Pritzker Prize, sometimes called the Nobel Prize of architecture. Peis ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty, when his family moved from Anhui province to Suzhou, finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. Ieoh Ming Pei was born on April 26,1917 to Tsuyee Pei and Lien Kwun, the family eventually included five children. As a boy, Pei was very close to his mother and she invited him, his brothers, and his sisters to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate and their interactions were respectful but distant. Peis ancestors success meant that the family lived in the echelons of society. The younger Pei, drawn more to music and other forms than to his fathers domain of banking. I have cultivated myself, he said later, at the age of ten, Pei moved with his family to Shanghai after his father was promoted. Pei attended Saint Johns Middle School, run by Protestant missionaries, academic discipline was rigorous, students were allowed only one half-day each month for leisure. Pei enjoyed playing billiards and watching Hollywood movies, especially those of Buster Keaton and he also learned rudimentary English skills by reading the Bible and novels by Charles Dickens. Shanghais many international elements gave it the name Paris of the East, the citys global architectural flavors had a profound influence on Pei, from the Bund waterfront area to the Park Hotel, built in 1934. He was also impressed by the gardens of Suzhou, where he spent the summers with extended family and regularly visited a nearby ancestral shrine. The Shizilin Garden, built in the 14th century by a Buddhist monk, was especially influential and its unusual rock formations, stone bridges, and waterfalls remained etched in Peis memory for decadesI. M. Pei – in Luxembourg, 2006
58. Nathaniel Parker Willis – Nathaniel Parker Willis, also known as N. P. Willis, was an American author, poet and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day, for a time, he was the employer of former slave and future writer Harriet Jacobs. His brother was the composer Richard Storrs Willis and his sister Sara wrote under the name Fanny Fern, born in Portland, Maine, Willis came from a family of publishers. His grandfather Nathaniel Willis owned newspapers in Massachusetts and Virginia, and his father Nathaniel Willis was the founder of Youths Companion, Willis developed an interest in literature while attending Yale College and began publishing poetry. After graduation, he worked as a correspondent for the New York Mirror. He eventually moved to New York and began to build his literary reputation, working with multiple publications, he was earning about $100 per article and between $5,000 and $10,000 per year. In 1846, he started his own publication, the Home Journal, shortly after, Willis moved to a home on the Hudson River where he lived a semi-retired life until his death in 1867. Willis embedded his own personality into his writing and addressed his readers personally, specifically in his travel writings, critics, including his sister in her novel Ruth Hall, occasionally described him as being effeminate and Europeanized. Willis also published poems, tales, and a play. Despite his intense popularity for a time, at his death Willis was nearly forgotten, Nathaniel Parker Willis was born on January 20,1806, in Portland, Maine. His father Nathaniel Willis was a newspaper proprietor there and his grandfather owned newspapers in Boston, Massachusetts and his mother was Hannah Willis from Holliston, Massachusetts and it was her husbands offer to edit the Eastern Argus in Maine that caused their move to Portland. Williss younger sister was Sara Willis Parton, who would become a writer under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. His brother, Richard Storrs Willis, became a musician and music journalist known for writing the melody for It Came Upon the Midnight Clear and his other siblings were Lucy Douglas, Louisa Harris, Julia Dean, Mary Perry, Edward Payson, and Ellen Holmes. In 1816, the moved to Boston, where Williss father established the Boston Recorder and, nine years later, the Youths Companion. The elder Williss emphasis on religious themes earned him the nickname Deacon Willis, after attending a Boston grammar school and Phillips Academy at Andover, Nathaniel Parker Willis entered Yale College in October 1823 where he roomed with Horace Bushnell. Willis credited Bushnell with teaching him the technique for sharpening a razor by drawing it from heel to point both ways. The two cross frictions correct each other, at Yale, he further developed an interest in literature, often neglecting his other studies. He graduated in 1827 and spent time touring parts of the United States, in Montreal, he met Chester Harding, with whom he would become a lifelong friendNathaniel Parker Willis – Portrait of Willis by Mathew Brady studios, circa mid-1850s
59. Audioslave – Audioslave is an American rock supergroup formed in Los Angeles, California, in 2001. The four-piece band consisted of then-former Soundgarden lead singer/rhythm guitarist Chris Cornell, and then-former Rage Against the Machine members Tom Morello, Tim Commerford, Audioslaves trademark sound was created by blending 1970s hard rock with 1990s alternative rock. Moreover, Morello incorporated his well-known, unconventional guitar solos into the mix, as with Rage Against the Machine, the band prided themselves on the fact that all sounds on their albums were produced using only guitar, bass, drums, and vocals. In its six years of existence, Audioslave released three albums, received three Grammy nominations, and became the first American rock band to perform a concert in Cuba. Audioslave disbanded in February 2007 when Cornell issued a statement announcing that he was leaving the band due to irresolvable personality conflicts as well as musical differences. The 2007 Rage Against the Machine reunion and tour involving the rest of the band as well as solo albums released that year by Morello. On January 20,2017, three days after announcing their reunion, Audioslave performed together for the first time in over a decade at Prophets of Rages Anti-Inaugural Ball. Audioslaves history dates back to October 18,2000, when Rage Against the Machines lead vocalist Zack de la Rocha announced he was leaving the band, citing a breakdown in its decision-making process. Several vocalists jammed with the three, including B-Real of Cypress Hill, but they did not want another rapper or anybody who sounded like de la Rocha, contrary to popular belief, Layne Staley of Alice in Chains neither auditioned nor was asked to join the new project. Music producer and friend Rick Rubin later suggested that play with Chris Cornell. Rubin also persuaded the three of them to go into therapy with performance coach Phil Towle after the breakup. Rubin was confident that with the new voice, Rage Against the Machine had the potential to become a better band. Commerford later credited Rubin for being the catalyst that brought Audioslave together and he called him the angel at the crossroads because if it wasnt for him, I wouldnt be here today. The chemistry between Cornell and the three was immediately apparent, as Morello described, He stepped to the microphone and sang the song. And. when there is an irreplaceable chemistry from the first moment, the quartet wrote 21 songs during 19 days of rehearsal, and began working in the studio in late May 2001 with Rubin as producer, while sorting out the label and management issues. On March 19,2002, Audioslave was confirmed for the seventh annual Ozzfest, a few days later, reports surfaced that the band had broken up before they had played for a public audience. Cornells manager confirmed that the frontman had left the band, with no explanation given, under the name Civilian,13 rough mixes of the songs the band had been working on were leaked onto peer-to-peer filesharing networks in May 2002. According to Morello, the band was frustrated because the songs were not in their form and in some cases, werent even the same lyrics, guitar solosAudioslave – Audioslave
60. Damageplan – Damageplan was an American heavy metal band from Dallas, Texas, formed in 2003. Following the demise of their previous group Pantera, brothers Dimebag Darrell, the pair recruited former Diesel Machine and Halford guitarist Pat Lachman on vocals, and later Bob Zilla on bass. Damageplan released their studio album New Found Power in the United States on February 10,2004. Although no motive was found, some witnesses claimed Gale blamed the brothers for Panteras breakup, the bands manager confirmed there are unreleased Damageplan recordings, although they have not surfaced, and the band has not performed since the incident. Abbott and Zilla have joined the band Hellyeah, and Lachman joined The Mercy Clinic, by 2003, guitarist Dimebag Darrell and drummer Vinnie Paul Abbott were not pleased with the difficulties heavy metal band Pantera was experiencing. Abbott described the level of Panteras vocalist, Phil Anselmo, as hit and miss. They thought it was time to move on and, upon disbanding Pantera, a demo of the song Crawl was sent to former Halford guitarist Pat Lachman who auditioned as vocalist. When writing music, Vinnie claimed, we put no boundaries on it and we wanted it to be very diverse, and Darrell said We wanted to stretch out and expand our capabilities to their fullest. The band changed its name to Damageplan and decided to name the first album New Found Power. The single Save Me debuted on American radio on January 26,2004, the album was recorded at the brothers backyard studio, Chasin Jason in Arlington, Texas, where previous Pantera albums were recorded. Abbott found that during recording everyone was willing to contribute and put 100% effort into it, New Found Power sold 44,676 copies in its first week to debut at number 38 on the Billboard 200. Alice in Chains vocalist/guitarist Jerry Cantrell attended a Thanksgiving party hosted by the brothers, Darrell and Vinnie had a demo of the first song they wrote titled Ashes to Ashes. Lachman insisted it was on the backburner until Cantrell showed interest, the band entered the brothers backyard studio with Cantrell to record Ashes to Ashes. Although the song was not completed in time to be featured on New Found Power, it was included on the Japanese version, to promote New Found Power, the band toured with Hatebreed, Drowning Pool, and Unearth on the second installment of the Headbangers Ball. On December 8,2004, the band was on a tour at Alrosa Villa, moments into the concert, Nathan Gale, a former U. S. Marine, climbed onto the stage and shot Dimebag Darrell in the head multiple times. Head of Security for the band Jeffery Mayhem Thompson engaged in combat with Gale. A fan named Nathan Bray, who attempted to give CPR to Thompson and Darrell, and Erin Halk, once the police arrived, an officer named James Niggemeyer approached the stage from the side and saw Gale holding a gun to a hostage. Niggemeyer killed him with a shotgun blast to the headDamageplan – From left to right: Bob Zilla, Vinnie Paul, Pat Lachman, Dimebag Darrell.
61. Black Francis – Charles Michael Kittridge Thompson IV is an American singer, songwriter and guitarist. He is best known as the frontman of the alternative rock band Pixies. Following the bands breakup in 1993, he embarked on a career under the name Frank Black. After releasing two albums with record label 4AD and one with American Recordings, he left the label and formed a new band, Frank Black and he re-adopted the name Black Francis in 2007. His vocal style has varied from a screaming, yowling delivery as lead vocalist of the Pixies to a more measured and his cryptic lyrics mostly explore unconventional subjects, such as surrealism, incest and biblical violence, along with science fiction and surf culture. His use of atypical meter signatures, loud–quiet dynamics and distinct preference for recording in his career as a solo artist give him a distinct style within alternative rock. As frontman of the Pixies, his songs received praise and citations from contemporaries, including Radioheads Thom Yorke, Thompson reformed the Pixies in 2004 and continues to release solo records and tour as a solo artist. Charles Thompson was born in Boston, Massachusetts and his father was a bar owner, and Thompson lived in Los Angeles, California as a baby because his father wanted to learn more about the restaurant and bar business. Thompson was introduced to music at an age, as his parents listened to 1960s folk rock. His first guitar was his mothers, a Yamaha classical guitar bought with money from his fathers bar tips and he discovered the music of Christian rock singer-songwriter Larry Norman at 13 when Norman played at a religious summer camp that Thompson attended. Normans music influenced Thompson to the extent that he named the Pixies first EP, Thompson later described the music he listened to during his youth, Thompson lived in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in an apartment. Just before Thompsons senior year, his family moved to Westport, Massachusetts, during this time, Thompson composed several songs that appeared in his later career, including Here Comes Your Man from Doolittle, and Velvety Instrumental Version. After graduating from school in 1983, he studied at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Thompson shared a room with another roommate for a semester before moving in with future Pixies guitarist Joey Santiago, the two shared an interest in rock music, and Santiago introduced Thompson to 1970s punk and the music of David Bowie, they began to jam together. It was at time that Thompson discovered The Cars, a band he described as very influential on me. In his second year of college, Thompson embarked on a trip to San Juan, Thompson failed to learn to speak Spanish formally, and left his studies after debating whether he would go to New Zealand to view Halleys Comet, or start a rock band. He wrote a letter urging Santiago, with the words we gotta do it, now is the time Joe, soon after returning to Massachusetts, Thompson dropped out of college, and moved to Boston with Santiago. He spent 1985 working in a warehouse, managing buttons on teddy bears, composing songs on his acoustic guitar, in January 1986, Thompson formed the Pixies with SantiagoBlack Francis – Francis and Pixies headlining at the Brixton Academy, October 2009
62. The Greencards – The Greencards are a progressive bluegrass band that formed in Austin, Texas, and are currently based in Nashville, Tennessee. The band was founded in 2003 in Texas by Eamon McLoughlin, an Englishman, the musicians originally performed in local Austin bars, and soon found increasing acclaim. They have released one independent album, Movin On, in 2003 and their fourth album, Fascination, was released on Sugar Hill in 2009. Their fifth album, Brick,2011, was self-produced with the support of their fans. Pre-production donors were recognized with their names inscribed on the bricks that make up the cover art and their debut album, Movin On, was the recipient of local Texas awards and charted on Americana radio stations. Viridian would go on to take the one position on the Billboard magazines Bluegrass Music Chart. Viridian was a critically praised album, and was nominated for Best Country Album by the Australian Recording Industry Association, the track Mucky the Duck from Viridian was nominated for a Grammy Award at the 50th Grammy Awards. The Greencards are noted for their playing of American bluegrass with a worldly feel, and for their incorporation of other genres of music. Often labeled as part of, and said to be representative of, the movement, they draw from Irish folk music, gypsy music, rock n roll, folk balladry. The Greencards sound has been compared to progressive American folk rock, Eamon McLoughlin left the band in December 2009, and currently resides in Nashville TN. Carl Miner, originally from Oregon, joined the group in May 2010, carl won the 1999 National Flatpicking Championship at the Walnut Valley Festival, and currently resides in Nashville, TN. The Greencards were initially composed of two Australians, Kym Warner on mandolin and Carol Young on bass, and an Englishman, Eamon McLoughlin on fiddle. Raised in South London, McLoughlin began to perform country music shows with his family on weekends, influenced by George Jones, George Strait, born to Irish parents, McLoughlins father was head of a London-based country band. At age nine, McLoughlin moved away from piano lessons to play fiddle, McLoughlin had earlier relocated from Brighton to Austin in 1997, after leaving Sussex University with a degree in Politics and American Studies. Prior to the founding of The Greencards, Young won the Australian Independent Country Artist of the Year award in 2000, Young was a singer in Outback country bands and acts, including Gina Jeffreys. 1 singles True Blue Fool and Part of the Past, Warner was an aspiring bluegrass musician after inheriting the music from his father, an early Australian bluegrass pioneer. Young and Warner knew each other previously, and according to Warner, had drawn to bluegrass and American roots music through an appreciation of George Jones. Warner and Young made the decision to emigrate to America to pursue careers in that countryThe Greencards – The Greencards performing at The Mucky Duck, the inspiration for their Grammy-nominated song "Mucky the Duck"
63. David Lovering – David Lovering is an American musician and magician. He is best known as the drummer for the rock band Pixies. After the bands breakup in 1993, Lovering drummed with several acts, including The Martinis, Cracker, Nitzer Ebb. He also pursued a career as The Scientific Phenomenalist, performing scientific. When the Pixies reunited in 2004, Lovering returned as the bands drummer, as a drummer Lovering was inspired by bands from a variety of genres, including Rush and Steely Dan. David Lovering was born in Burlington, Massachusetts and he learned to play drums during his teenage years and joined his high schools marching band. According to his friend John Murphy, Lovering was always very drum oriented in his musical taste. In his high school entry, Lovering stated his three main ambitions, to be in a rock band, to be an electrical engineer. After graduating from school, Lovering studied electronic engineering at the Wentworth Institute of Technology in Boston. He got a job at a Radio Shack store with Murphy, one such incident involved Lovering wiring the store toilet to a fire alarm. After graduating from Wentworth with a degree in 1982, he took a job building lasers. A number of different genres of music have influenced him, including bands Steely Dan, Led Zeppelin, on Memorial Day 1985, Lovering attended Murphy and Kim Deals wedding service. In January 1986 Deal was hired to play bass in the newly formed Pixies, Murphy suggested that Lovering audition for the band – who were still without a drummer. Lovering had stopped drumming by this point and was at first unimpressed by the performance of the bands songs. However, after playing along he agreed to join, Lovering and the band wrote and rehearsed material throughout 1985 and 1986 and performed at small venues in Boston. The band decided to record 18 songs for a tape in 1987. Lovering co-wrote one of the songs, Levitate Me and appeared on the cassettes front cover. Levitate Me later appeared on the bands first release Come on Pilgrim, the Pixies entered the studio again in 1988 to record their second album Surfer RosaDavid Lovering – David Lovering at the Reliant Arena in Houston, Texas in 2004
64. John Mayer – John Clayton Mayer is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer. He was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and raised in nearby Fairfield and he attended Berklee College of Music in Boston, but disenrolled and moved to Atlanta in 1997 with Clay Cook. Together, they formed a short-lived two-man band called Lo-Fi Masters, after their split, Mayer continued to play local clubs—refining his skills and gaining a following. After his appearance at the 2001 South by Southwest Festival, he was signed to Aware Records, and then Columbia Records and his following two full-length albums—Room for Squares and Heavier Things —did well commercially, achieving multi-platinum status. In 2003, he won the Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for the single Your Body Is a Wonderland, though Mayer started his career mainly performing acoustic rock, he began moving towards the blues genre that had originally influenced him as a musician. By 2005, he was collaborating with artists such as B. B. King, Buddy Guy, and Eric Clapton, forming the John Mayer Trio, he released a live album in 2005 called Try. and his third studio album Continuum in 2006. Both albums received critical acclaim, and Continuum earned Mayer a 2007 Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album. He also won Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for Waiting on the World to Change and that album was followed by Battle Studies in 2009, a return to pop, with a number-one grossing tour. However, the discovery of a granuloma on his vocal cords delayed the release of the album until May 2012, even so, the album enjoyed a generally favorable reception, though was less commercially successful than his previous work. After extensive treatments for his vocal problems—and a two-year hiatus—Mayer began performing as a singer again in January 2013, the album is named for where he lives in Montana and features country music influences. By 2014, he had sold a total of over 20 million albums worldwide, after developing an interest in the Grateful Dead and connecting with Bob Weir, Mayer formed Dead & Company with three former Grateful Dead musicians. After two well-received tours in the fall of 2015 and summer of 2016, the band has committed to another tour for the summer of 2017. Mayers secondary career pursuits extend to television hosting, comedy, and writing and he supports various causes and has performed at charity benefits. He is an aficionado, and has been on the jury at the Grand Prix d’Horlogerie de Genève. His latest song is Love on the Weekend, John Clayton Mayer was born on October 16,1977 in Bridgeport, Connecticut to Richard and Margaret Mayer. He grew up in nearby Fairfield, the middle child between older brother Carl and younger brother Ben and his father is Jewish, and Mayer has said that he relates to Judaism. As a middle school student, Mayer became close friends with tennis star James BlakeJohn Mayer – John Mayer performing on the The Early Show in 2006
65. Metallica – Metallica is an American heavy metal band based in San Rafael, California. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles when vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield responded to an advertisement posted by drummer Lars Ulrich in a local newspaper, Metallicas current line-up comprises founding members Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band, the bands fast tempos, instrumentals, and aggressive musicianship placed them as one of the founding big four bands of thrash metal, alongside Anthrax, Megadeth, and Slayer. The band expanded its musical direction and achieved commercial success with its eponymous fifth album Metallica. The album was also their first to debut at number one on the Billboard 200, in 2000, Metallica joined with other artists who filed a lawsuit against Napster for sharing the bands copyright-protected material without consent from the band. A settlement was reached and Napster became a pay-to-use service, the band returned to its original musical style with the release of Death Magnetic, and in 2009, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Metallica has released ten albums, four live albums, five extended plays,26 music videos. The band has won eight Grammy Awards and six of its albums have debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. The bands eponymous 1991 album has sold over 16 million copies in the United States, Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over 110 million records worldwide. Metallica has been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by many magazines, including Rolling Stone, in 2012, Metallica formed the independent record label Blackened Recordings and took full ownership of its albums and videos. The band is currently promoting Hardwired. to Self-Destruct, which was released on November 18,2016, guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the upcoming compilation album Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted and Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar, the band was officially formed in October 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met. Ulrich talked to his friend Ron Quintana, who was brainstorming names for a fanzine, Quintana had proposed the names MetalMania and Metallica. A second advertisement was placed in The Recycler for a position as lead guitarist, Dave Mustaine answered, Ulrich and Hetfield recruited him after seeing his expensive guitar equipment. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song Hit the Lights for the Metal Massacre I compilation, Hetfield played bass on the song and Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo. Metal Massacre I was released on June 14,1982, early pressings listed the band incorrectly as Mettallica, the bands first taste of live success came early, they were chosen to open for British heavy metal band Saxon at one gig of their 1982 US tour. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, an inspired by Quintanas early business cards in early 1982Metallica – Metallica in London in 2008. From left to right: Kirk Hammett, Lars Ulrich, James Hetfield and Robert Trujillo.
66. Nine Inch Nails – Nine Inch Nails is an American industrial rock band founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. Despite this, the band has had feuds with the corporate side of the recording industry. Reznor returned to self-releasing material with the second Nine Inch Nails EP, as the bands main producer, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist, Reznor is the only constant member of the group, and remains solely responsible for its direction. This changed however in 2016 when Atticus Ross was introduced as a permanent member of Nine Inch Nails alongside the announcement of Not the Actual Events, after recording a new album, Reznor usually assembles a live band to perform onstage with him. The touring band features a lineup that often rearranges songs to fit a live setting. On stage, Nine Inch Nails often employs visual elements to accompany performances, Nine Inch Nails has been nominated for thirteen Grammy Awards, and won twice for the songs Wish and Happiness in Slavery in 1992 and 1996, respectively. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time magazines list of the years most influential people, in 2004, Rolling Stone placed Nine Inch Nails at 94 on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. In 2014, Nine Inch Nails was named as nominees for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 2015, they were nominated a second time. Koster agreed and allowed Reznor to use it whenever it was empty, while completing the early recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate the material as he desired. Instead, inspired by Prince, Reznor played all the instruments except drums himself and this role remains Reznors on most of the bands studio recordings, though he has occasionally involved other musicians and assistants. Nine Inch Nails debut was at the Phantasy Theater in Lakewood, in 1988, after playing its first shows supporting Skinny Puppy, Reznors ambition for Nine Inch Nails was to release one 12-inch single on a small European label. Several labels responded favorably to the material and Reznor signed with TVT Records. The overall sound on Purest Feeling is lighter than that of Pretty Hate Machine, several songs feature live drumming and guitar work throughout. Reznor coined the name Nine Inch Nails because it abbreviated easily, other rumored explanations have circulated, alleging that Reznor chose to reference Jesus crucifixion with nine-inch spikes, or Freddy Kruegers nine-inch fingernails. The English letters NIN are also noted for their resemblance to the modern Hebrew characters of the Tetragrammaton, the Nine Inch Nails logo, which consists of the letters set inside a border, was designed by Reznor and Gary Talpas. The logo first appeared on the video for Nine Inch Nails debut single, Down in It. Talpas, a native of Cleveland, would continue to design Nine Inch Nails packaging art until 1997, written, arranged, and performed by Reznor, Nine Inch Nails first album Pretty Hate Machine debuted in 1989. It marked his first collaboration with Adrian Sherwood and Mark Flood Ellis, Reznor asked Sean Beavan to mix the demos of Pretty Hate Machine, which had received multiple offers for record dealsNine Inch Nails – Nine Inch Nails in November 2013 at the Staples Center. From left to right: Pino Palladino, Ilan Rubin, Trent Reznor, and Alessandro Cortini.
67. Nirvana (band) – Nirvana was an American rock band formed by singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen, Washington, in 1987. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting being Dave Grohl, despite releasing only three full-length studio albums in their seven-year career, Nirvana has come to be regarded as one of the most influential and important alternative bands in history. Though the band dissolved in 1994 after the suicide of Cobain, their music maintains a following and continues to influence modern rock. In the late 1980s, Nirvana established itself as part of the Seattle grunge scene, releasing its first album, Bleach and they developed a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts, often between quiet verses and loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label DGC Records, Nirvana found unexpected success with Smells Like Teen Spirit, Nirvanas third studio album, In Utero, released to critical acclaim, featured an abrasive, less mainstream sound and challenged the groups audience. Nirvanas active career ended following the death of Cobain in 1994, but various posthumous releases have been issued since, overseen by Novoselic, Grohl, and Cobains widow Courtney Love. Since its debut, the band has sold over 25 million records in the United States alone, Nirvana was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2014, in its first year of eligibility. Cobain and Novoselic met while attending Aberdeen High, although they never connected, the pair eventually became friends while frequenting the practice space of the Melvins. Cobain wanted to form a band with Novoselic, but Novoselic did not respond for a period of time. In persuading Novoselic to form a band, Cobain gave him a tape of his project Fecal Matter. Three years after the two first met, Novoselic notified Cobain that he had listened to the Fecal Matter demo. The pair recruited Bob McFadden on drums, but after a month the project fell apart, in early 1987, Cobain and Novoselic recruited drummer Aaron Burckhard. The three practiced material from Cobains Fecal Matter tape but started writing new material soon after forming, during its initial months, the band went through a series of names, starting with Skid Row and including Pen Cap Chew, Bliss, and Ted Ed Fred. The group finally settled on Nirvana, which Cobain said was chosen because I wanted a name that was kind of beautiful or nice and pretty instead of a mean, raunchy punk name like the Angry Samoans. With Novoselic and Cobain having moved to Tacoma and Olympia, Washington, respectively, the pair instead practiced with Dale Crover of the Melvins, and Nirvana recorded its first demos in January 1988. In early 1988, Crover moved to San Francisco but recommended Dave Foster to the band as his replacement on drums, Cobain and Novoselic put an ad in Seattle music publication The Rocket seeking a replacement drummer, which only yielded unsatisfactory responses. Meanwhile, a friend introduced them to Chad Channing. Channing continued to jam with Cobain and Novoselic, although the drummer noted, They never actually said okay, youre in, Nirvana released its first single, a cover of Shocking Blues Love Buzz, in November 1988 on the Seattle independent record label Sub PopNirvana (band) – Nirvana performing at Pier 48, Seattle in December 1993 for MTV's Live and Loud show. From left to right: Kurt Cobain, Dave Grohl and Krist Novoselic.
68. Pixies – The Pixies are an American alternative rock band formed in 1986 in Boston, Massachusetts. Until 2013, the band comprised Black Francis, Joey Santiago, Kim Deal, the band disbanded acrimoniously in 1993, but reunited in 2004. Deal left in 2013 and was replaced by Kim Shattuck and then Paz Lenchantin, the Pixies music contains elements including psychedelia, noise pop, hard rock, surf pop, and surf rock. Francis is the Pixies primary songwriter, his surreal lyrics cover offbeat subjects such as extraterrestrials, incest. The Pixies achieved modest popularity in their country, but were more successful in the United Kingdom, mainland Europe. Their jarring pop sound influenced bands such as Nirvana, Radiohead and their popularity grew in the years following their break-up, leading to sold-out world tours following their reunion in 2004. In June 2013, they released their first new material in almost 10 years, guitarist Joey Santiago and songwriter Black Francis met when they lived next to each other in a suite while attending the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Although Santiago was worried about distractions, he noticed Francis played music, Francis embarked on a student exchange trip to Puerto Rico to study Spanish. After six months, he returned to Amherst and dropped out of the university, Francis and Santiago spent 1984 working in a warehouse, with Francis composing songs on his acoustic guitar and writing lyrics on the subway train. The pair formed a band in January 1986 and she was invited to join the band as she liked the songs Francis showed her. She obtained a bass, and the trio started rehearsing in Deals apartment, after recruiting Deal, the band tried unsuccessfully to get her sister, Kelley Deal, to join as drummer. Kims husband suggested they hire David Lovering, whom Kim had met at her wedding reception, the group arrived at a name after Santiago selected the word pixies randomly from a dictionary, liking how it looked and its definition as mischievous little elves. Once the band had settled on a name and line-up, they moved rehearsals to Loverings parents garage in mid-1986 and they began to play shows at bars in and around the Boston area. While the Pixies were playing a concert with Throwing Muses, they were noticed by producer Gary Smith and he told the band he could not sleep until you guys are world famous. The band produced a 17-track demo at Fort Apache soon afterwards, funded by Francis father at the cost of $1000, the recording session was completed in three days. Local promoter Ken Goes became the manager, and he passed the demo to Ivo Watts-Russell of the independent record label 4AD. Watts-Russell nearly passed on the band, finding them too normal, too rock n roll, upon signing with 4AD, eight tracks from the Purple Tape were selected for the Come on Pilgrim mini-LP, the bands first release. Francis drew upon his experiences in Puerto Rico, mostly in the songs Vamos and Isla de Encanta, the religious lyrics in Come on Pilgrim and later albums came from his parents born-again Christian days in the Pentecostal ChurchPixies – The Pixies performing in June 2004. Left to right: Joey Santiago, Black Francis, David Lovering, and Kim Deal.
69. Elvis Presley – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relativesElvis Presley – Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
70. Elliott Smith – Steven Paul Elliott Smith was an American singer, songwriter, and musician. Smith was born in Omaha, Nebraska, raised primarily in Texas, and lived for much of his life in Portland, Oregon, Smiths primary instrument was the guitar, though he was also proficient with piano, clarinet, bass guitar, drums, and harmonica. Smith had a vocal style, characterized by his whispery, spiderweb-thin delivery, and used multi-tracking to create vocal layers, textures. After playing in the rock band Heatmiser for several years, Smith began his career in 1994, with releases on the independent record labels Cavity Search. In 1997, he signed a contract with DreamWorks Records, for which he recorded two albums, Smith rose to mainstream prominence when his song Miss Misery—included in the soundtrack for the film Good Will Hunting —was nominated for an Oscar in the Best Original Song category in 1998. Smith abused alcohol and drugs, while suffering depression. In 2003, aged 34, he died in Los Angeles, California, the autopsy evidence was inconclusive as to whether the wounds were self-inflicted. At the time of his death, Smith was working on his studio album, From a Basement on the Hill. His parents divorced when he was six months old, and Smith moved with his mother to Duncanville, Smith later had a tattoo of a map of Texas drawn on his upper arm and said, I didnt get it because I like Texas, kind of the opposite. But I wont forget about it, although Im tempted to because I dont like it there, Smith endured a difficult childhood and a troubled relationship with his stepfather Charlie Welch. Smith stated he may have sexually abused by Welch at a young age. He wrote about this part of his life in Some Song, How they beat you up week after week, the name Charlie also appears in songs Flowers for Charlie and No Confidence Man. Its not my place to say what, for much of his childhood, Smiths family was a part of the Community of Christ but began attending services at a local Methodist Church. Smith felt that going to church did little for him, except make him really scared of Hell, in 2001, he said, I dont necessarily buy into any officially structured version of spirituality. But I have my own version of it, Smith began playing piano at age nine, and at ten began learning guitar on a small acoustic guitar bought for him by his father. At this age he composed a piano piece, Fantasy. Many of the people on his mothers side of the family were musicians, his grandfather was a Dixieland drummer. At fourteen, Smith left his mothers home in Texas and moved to Portland, Oregon to live with his father and it was around this time that Smith began using drugs, including alcohol, with friendsElliott Smith – Smith performing in Los Angeles, February 2003
71. Gwen Stefani – Gwen Renée Stefani is an American singer, songwriter, and fashion designer. During the bands hiatus, Stefani embarked on a pop career in 2004 by releasing her debut studio album Love. Inspired by pop music from the 1980s, the album was met both critical and commercial success. It spawned three successful singles, What You Waiting For. Rich Girl, and Hollaback Girl, the reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 while also becoming the first US download to sell one million copies. In 2006 Stefani released her studio album The Sweet Escape. The album produced two singles, Wind It Up and the albums title track The Sweet Escape. Her third solo album This Is What the Truth Feels Like was released in March 2016, Stefani has won three Grammy Awards. As a solo artist she has received accolades, including an American Music Award, Brit Award, World Music Award. In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L. A. M. B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line, drawing inspiration from Japanese culture, Stefani performs and makes public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She was married to British musician Gavin Rossdale from 2002 to 2015, Billboard magazine ranked Stefani the 54th most successful artist and 37th most successful Hot 100 artist of the 2000–09 decade. VH1 ranked her 13th on their 100 Greatest Women in Music list in 2012, including her work with No Doubt, Stefani has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide. Stefani was born on October 3,1969, in Fullerton, California and she was named after a stewardess in the 1968 novel Airport, and her middle name, Renée, comes from The Four Tops 1968 cover of The Left Bankes 1966 song Walk Away Renée. Her father, Dennis Stefani, is Italian American and worked as a Yamaha marketing executive and her mother, Patti, worked as an accountant before becoming a housewife. Gwens parents were fans of music and exposed her to music by artists like Bob Dylan. She has two siblings, Jill and Todd, and an older brother named Eric. Eric was the keyboardist for No Doubt before leaving the band to pursue a career in animation on The Simpsons. Her brother Eric introduced Gwen to 2 Tone music by Madness and The Selecter and, in 1986, he invited her to provide vocals for No Doubt, finally, in 1991, the band was signed to Interscope RecordsGwen Stefani – Stefani at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival
72. The Supremes – The Supremes were an American female singing group and the premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s. Most of these hits were written and produced by Motowns main songwriting and production team, founding members Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson, Diana Ross, and Betty McGlown, all from the Brewster-Douglass public housing project in Detroit, formed the Primettes as the sister act to the Primes. Barbara Martin replaced McGlown in 1960, and the signed with Motown the following year as the Supremes. Martin left the act in early 1962, and Ross, Ballard, during the mid-1960s, the Supremes achieved mainstream success with Ross as lead singer. In 1967, Motown president Berry Gordy renamed the group Diana Ross & the Supremes, Ross left to pursue a solo career in 1970 and was replaced by Jean Terrell, at which point the groups name reverted to the Supremes. After 1972, the lineup changed frequently, Lynda Laurence, Scherrie Payne. The Supremes disbanded in 1977 after 18 years, since Ballard sang, as did Paul Williams girlfriend Betty McGlown, the Primess manager Milton Jenkins decided to create a sister group to the Primes called the Primettes. Ballard recruited her best friend Mary Wilson, who in turn recruited classmate Diane Ross, mentored and funded by Jenkins, the Primettes began by performing hit songs by artists such as Ray Charles and the Drifters at sock hops, social clubs and talent shows around the Detroit area. Receiving additional guidance from group friend and established songwriter Jesse Greer, after winning a prestigious local talent contest, the Primettes sights were set on making a record. Robinson liked the girls and agreed to help, but he liked their guitarist even more, with the Primettes permission he hired Tarplin, who became the guitarist for the Miracles. Undaunted, later that year the Primettes recorded a single for Lu Pine Records, a label created just for them, titled Tears of Sorrow, the single failed to find an audience, however. Shortly thereafter, McGlown became engaged and left the group, local girl Barbara Martin was McGlowns prompt replacement. Determined to leave an impression on Gordy and join the stable of rising Motown stars, eventually, they convinced Gordy to allow them to contribute hand claps and background vocals for the songs of other Motown artists including Marvin Gaye and Mary Wells. In January 1961, Gordy finally relented and agreed to sign the girls to his label –, the Primes had by this time combined with Otis Williams & the Distants and would soon sign to Motown as the Temptations. Gordy gave Ballard a list of names to choose from that included such as the Darleens, the Sweet Ps, the Melodees, the Royaltones. Ballard chose the Supremes, a name that Ross initially disliked as she felt it too masculine, nevertheless, on January 15 the group signed with Motown as the Supremes. In the spring of 1962, Martin left the group to start a family, thus, the newly named Supremes continued as a trio. Between 1961 and 1963, the Supremes released six singles, none of which charted in the Top 40 positions of the Billboard Hot 100, jokingly referred to as the no-hit Supremes around Motowns Hitsville U. S. AThe Supremes – The Supremes: Diana Ross (right), Mary Wilson (center), Florence Ballard (left) performing " My World Is Empty Without You " on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1966.
73. Nick Adenhart – Nicholas James Nick Adenhart was an American right-handed baseball starting pitcher who played two seasons in Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. In four career games, Adenhart pitched 18 innings and posted a record of 1–0, with nine strikeouts. A graduate of Williamsport High School, Adenhart was highly touted as a high school prospect until an injury in his final game required Tommy John surgery. He was drafted by the Angels in the 14th round of the 2004 Major League Baseball draft and he spent three full seasons in the minor leagues before making his major league debut on May 1,2008. After appearing in three games, Adenhart spent the rest of 2008 in the minor leagues developing his skills, just after pitching his first start of 2009, Adenhart was killed in a collision with a drunk driver. Both the Angels and the Salt Lake Bees, for whom Adenhart played in 2008, Nicholas James Adenhart was born in Silver Spring, Maryland, the only son of Janet and Jim Adenhart, a former United States Secret Service officer. His parents divorced and Janet later remarried Duane Gigeous, with whom she had a son named Henry, Adenhart played Halfway Little League Baseball for Gehr Construction and attended Springfield Middle School in Williamsport, Maryland. He pitched for the Hagerstown PONY League for six years, and was a member of the 1999 team that won the Maryland District 1 title, after graduating from middle school, Adenhart attended Saint Maria Goretti High School in Hagerstown, Maryland. He played shortstop and outfield, in addition to pitching, while attending Saint Maria Goretti, Adenhart was a guard on the basketball team that won the Baltimore Catholic League championship. At the age of 14, Adenhart joined the Oriolelanders, a team composed of Maryland amateur players and sponsored by the Baltimore Orioles. In 2003, at the age of 16, Adenhart pitched for the Youses Maryland Orioles, Adenhart transferred to Williamsport High School after his sophomore year, where he gave up basketball to focus solely on baseball, as a pitcher. Scouts began closely following him when he was named the top prospect by Baseball America. Adenhart had a 6–0 record with a 1.04 earned run average during the season in his junior year. In a 1–0 loss during the quarterfinal matchup, he threw a no-hitter and had 14 strikeouts. Entering his final high school season, Baseball America dubbed Adenhart the top high school prospect in the country, in his senior year, Adenhart threw a perfect game in his very first outing, striking out 15 of the 21 batters faced. Entering the final season game of his high school career, he had a 5–1 record, a 0.73 ERA. In his final high school game, in front of two dozen scouts, Adenhart felt a pop in his elbow after throwing a curveball to the third batter. The injury, which ended his season, was a partial ligament tear in his elbow that required Tommy John surgeryNick Adenhart – Adenhart pitching for the Salt Lake Bees in 2008
74. Moe Berg – Morris Moe Berg, was an American catcher and coach in Major League Baseball who later served as a spy for the Office of Strategic Services during World War II. Casey Stengel once described Berg as the strangest man ever to play baseball, a graduate of Princeton University and Columbia Law School, Berg spoke several languages and regularly read 10 newspapers a day. As a spy working for the government of the United States and he was then sent on a mission to Italy, where he interviewed various physicists concerning the German nuclear program. After the war, Berg was occasionally employed by the OSSs successor, the Central Intelligence Agency and he spent the last two decades of his life without work, living with various siblings. When Berg was three and a half, he begged his mother to let him start school, in 1906, Bernard Berg bought a pharmacy in West Newark. In 1910 the Berg family moved again, to the Roseville section of Newark, Roseville offered Bernard Berg everything he wanted in a neighborhood—good schools, middle-class residents, and very few Jews. Berg began playing baseball at the age of seven for the Roseville Methodist Episcopal Church baseball team under the less ethnic pseudonym Runt Wolfe, in 1918, at the age of 16, Berg graduated from Barringer High School. During his senior season, the Newark Star-Eagle selected a nine-man dream team for 1918 from the citys best prep and public high school baseball players, Barringer was the first in a series of institutions Berg joined in his life where his religion made him unusual. Most of the students were East Side Italian Catholics or Protestants from Forest Hill. After graduating from Barringer, Berg enrolled in New York University and he spent two semesters there and played baseball and basketball. In 1919 he transferred to Princeton University and never mentioned that he had attended NYU for a year. Berg received a B. A. magna cum laude in modern languages and he had studied seven languages, Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, Italian, German and Sanskrit, studying with the philologist Harold H. Bender. His Jewish heritage and modest finances combined to keep him on the fringes of Princeton society, during his freshman year, Berg played first base on an undefeated team. Beginning in his year, he was the starting shortstop. He was not a great hitter and was a slow baserunner, in his senior season, he was captain of the team and had a.337 batting average, batting.611 against Princetons arch-rivals, Harvard and Yale. Berg and Crossan Cooper, Princetons second baseman, communicated plays in Latin when there was a man on second base, on June 26,1923, Yale defeated Princeton 5–1 at Yankee Stadium to win the Big Three title. Berg had a day, getting two hits in four at bats with a single and a double, and making several marvelous plays at shortstop. Both the New York Giants and the Brooklyn Robins desired Jewish blood on their teams, to appeal to the large Jewish community in New York, the Giants were especially interested, but they already had two future Hall of Famers at shortstop, Dave Beauty Bancroft and Travis JacksonMoe Berg – Moe Berg
75. Tim Duncan – Timothy Theodore Duncan is an American retired professional basketball player who played his entire 19-year career with the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. Widely considered to be the greatest power forward of all time, he is a five-time NBA champion, two-time NBA MVP, three-time NBA Finals MVP, and NBA Rookie of the Year. He is also a 15-time NBA All-Star and the player to be selected to both the All-NBA and All-Defensive Teams in all of his first 13 seasons. Duncan started out as a swimmer and only began playing basketball in ninth grade after Hurricane Hugo destroyed the only Olympic-sized pool on his home of Saint Croix and he played for St. Duncan graduated from college before entering the 1997 NBA draft as the number one pick. Off the court, Duncan is known for his quiet and unassuming ways and he holds a degree in psychology and created the Tim Duncan Foundation to raise general health awareness and fund education and youth sports in various parts of the United States. Duncan is the son of Ione Duncan, a midwife, and William Duncan, a mason. He was born and raised in Christiansted, a town on Saint Croix, in school, Duncan was a bright pupil and dreamt of becoming an Olympic-level swimmer like his sister Tricia. Duncan was dealt another blow when his mother was diagnosed with breast cancer. In her last days, she made Duncan and his sisters promise to finish college with a degree, Duncan never swam competitively again, but was inspired by his brother-in-law to turn to basketball. Duncan initially had difficulties adapting to the game he thought would help relieve his pain, nancy Pomroy, the athletic director of the St. Croix Country Day School was quoted, was so huge. So big and tall, but he was awkward at the time. He overcame this to become a standout for the St. Dunstans Episcopal High School and his play attracted the attention of several universities, despite having only picked up the game in ninth grade. Wake Forest University basketball coach Dave Odom in particular interested in Duncan after the 16-year-old allegedly played NBA star Alonzo Mourning to a draw in a 5-on-5 pick-up game. Odom was searching for a tall, physical player to play near the basket, however, after the first talk, Odom understood that this was just Duncans way of paying attention, and discovered that he was not only athletically talented, but also a quick learner. Eventually, despite offers by the University of Hartford, the University of Delaware and Providence College. In the year before Duncans arrival at Wake Forest University, the Demon Deacons reached the Sweet 16, but then lost main scorer Rodney Rogers, Duncans style of play was simple but effective, combining an array of low-post moves, mid-range bank shots and tough defense. He was chosen to represent the U. S. in the 1994 Goodwill Games, meanwhile, Duncan worked towards a degree in psychology and also took classes in anthropology and Chinese literature. Despite focusing heavily on basketball, Wake Forest psychology department chairperson Deborah Best was quoted, other than his height, I couldnt tell him from any other student at Wake ForestTim Duncan – Duncan in 2011
76. Magic Johnson – Earvin Magic Johnson Jr. is an American retired professional basketball player and current president of basketball operations of the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. He played point guard for the Lakers for 13 seasons, after winning championships in high school and college, Johnson was selected first overall in the 1979 NBA draft by the Lakers. He won a championship and an NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award in his rookie season, Johnson retired abruptly in 1991 after announcing that he had contracted HIV, but returned to play in the 1992 All-Star Game, winning the All-Star MVP Award. After protests from his players, he retired again for four years. Johnsons career achievements include three NBA MVP Awards, nine NBA Finals appearances, twelve All-Star games, and ten All-NBA First and he led the league in regular-season assists four times, and is the NBAs all-time leader in average assists per game, at 11.2. Johnson was a member of the 1992 United States mens Olympic basketball team, after leaving the NBA in 1992, Johnson formed the Magic Johnson All-Stars, a barnstorming team that travelled around the world playing exhibition games. Johnson was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History in 1996, Johnson became a two-time inductee into the Basketball Hall of Fame—being enshrined in 2002 for his individual career, and again in 2010 as a member of the Dream Team. He was rated the greatest NBA point guard of all time by ESPN in 2007 and his friendship and rivalry with Boston Celtics star Larry Bird, whom he faced in the 1979 NCAA finals and three NBA championship series, are well documented. Since his retirement, Johnson has been an advocate for HIV/AIDS prevention and safe sex, as well as an entrepreneur, philanthropist, broadcaster and motivational speaker. Named by Ebony magazine as one of Americas most influential businessmen in 2009, Johnson has numerous business interests. Johnson also is part of a group of investors purchased the Los Angeles Dodgers in 2012. Earvin Johnson Jr. was born in Lansing, Michigan to Earvin Sr. a General Motors assembly worker, and Christine, Johnson, who had six siblings, was influenced by his parents strong work ethic. Earvin Jr. would often help his father on the garbage route, Johnson grew up in Lansing, and came to love basketball as a youngster. His favorite basketball player was Bill Russell, whom he admired more for his many championships than his athletic ability and he also idolized players such as Earl Monroe and Marques Haynes, and practiced all day. Magic Johnson came from an athletic family and his father played high school basketball in his home state of Mississippi, and Johnson learned the finer points about the game from him. Johnsons mother, originally from North Carolina, had played basketball as a child. By the time he had reached the grade, Johnson had begun to think about a future in basketball. He had become a dominant junior player, once scoring 48 points in a gameMagic Johnson – Johnson in 2007
77. Bart King – John Barton Bart King was an American cricketer, active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. King was part of the Philadelphia team that played from the end of the 19th century until the outbreak of World War I and this period of cricket in the United States was dominated by gentlemen cricketers—men of independent wealth who did not need to work. King, an amateur from a family, was able to devote time to cricket thanks to a job set up by his teammates. A skilled batsman who proved his worth as a bowler, King set numerous records in the continent of North America during his career and he successfully competed against the best cricketers from England and Australia. King was the dominant bowler on his team when it toured England in 1897,1903 and he dismissed batsmen with his unique delivery, which he called the angler, and helped develop the art of swing bowling in the sport. Sir Pelham Warner described Bart King as one of the finest bowlers of all time, King was born in Philadelphia in 1873. Early in his life, he worked in a linen trade, although this was the family business, his father later allowed him to leave to enter the insurance industry. King was not a member of the aristocratic and wealthy families of Philadelphia that produced many of the top cricketers. Kings obituary in Cricket Quarterly suggests that his career in insurance was set up for him by those families to allow him to playing the game. In 1913, King married Fannie Lockhart, the marriage lasted for fifty years, Kings wife died in 1963, and he died in 1965 in his native Philadelphia two days before his 92nd birthday. Bart King was regarded by many of his contemporaries as an affable person, ralph Barker called him the Bob Hope of cricket thanks to his quips and stories. King was also noted for making jabs at opponents, but leaving them laughing at themselves, the same held true when he would question umpires that turned down his appeals. He is said to have spoken for ninety minutes at a dinner during his last tour to England, the dinner guests were kept laughing even while King spoke with a dead-pan expression. One man who attended the noted that King told his impossible tales with such an air of conviction. That his audiences were always in doubt when to take him seriously and he made their task doubly difficult by sprinkling in a fair mixture of truth with his fiction. Like most young American men of this era, Bart King came to only after first playing baseball. He began to club cricket at Tioga Cricket Club in 1888, aged 15. Tioga was one of the lesser Philadelphian cricket clubs, King played his first recorded match for the club in 1889, when he was tried as a bowler due to his physiqueBart King – Bart King
78. Sandy Koufax – Sanford Sandy Koufax is a former American Major League Baseball left-handed pitcher. He pitched 12 seasons for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers, from 1955 to 1966, Koufax, at age 36 in 1972, became the youngest player ever elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. Koufaxs career peaked with a run of six outstanding years from 1961 to 1966 and he was an All-Star for six seasons and was the National Leagues Most Valuable Player in 1963. Koufax also won the NL Triple Crown for pitchers those same three years by leading the NL in wins, strikeouts, and earned run average, Koufax was the first major league pitcher to pitch four no-hitters and the eighth pitcher to pitch a perfect game in baseball history. Despite his comparatively short career, Koufaxs 2,396 career strikeouts ranked 7th in history as of his retirement, Koufax, Randy Johnson, Pedro Martínez, and Nolan Ryan are the only four pitchers elected to the Hall of Fame who had more strikeouts than innings pitched. Koufax is also remembered as one of the outstanding Jewish athletes in American sports and his decision not to pitch Game 1 of the 1965 World Series because it fell on Yom Kippur garnered national attention as an example of conflict between professional pressures and personal beliefs. Koufax was born in Brooklyn, New York, to a Jewish family and his parents, Evelyn and Jack Braun, divorced when he was three years old. His mother was remarried when he was nine, to Irving Koufax, shortly after his mothers remarriage, the family moved to the Long Island suburb of Rockville Centre. Before tenth grade, Koufaxs family moved back to the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, Koufax attended Brooklyns Lafayette High School, where he was better known for basketball than for baseball. At the time, school sports were not available because New Yorks teachers were refusing to supervise extracurricular activities without monetary compensation, as an alternative, Koufax started playing basketball for the Edith and Carl Marks Jewish Community House of Bensonhurst local community center team. Eventually, Lafayette had a team, Koufax became team captain in his senior year. In 1951, at the age of 15, Koufax also joined a youth baseball league known as the Ice Cream League. He started out as a catcher before moving to first base. While playing first base for Lafayette High Schools baseball team with teammate and friend Fred Wilpon, he was spotted by Milt Laurie, Laurie recognized that Koufax might be able to pitch, and recruited the 17-year-old Koufax to pitch for the Coney Island Sports Leagues Parkviews. Koufax attended the University of Cincinnati and was a walk-on on the basketball team. He later earned a partial scholarship, in spring 1954, he made the college baseball varsity team. That season, Koufax went 3–1 with a 2.81 ERA,51 strikeouts and 30 walks, Bill Zinser, a scout for the Brooklyn Dodgers, sent the Dodgers front office a glowing report that apparently was filed and forgotten. After trying out with the New York Giants at the Polo Grounds, during his Pirates tryout, Koufaxs fastball broke the thumb of Sam Narron, the teams bullpen coachSandy Koufax – Koufax with the Los Angeles Dodgers
79. Bob Meusel – Robert William Meusel was an American baseball left and right fielder who played in Major League Baseball for eleven seasons from 1920 through 1930, all but the last for the New York Yankees. Meusel, noted for his strong throwing arm, batted fifth behind Baseball Hall of Famers Babe Ruth. In 1925, he became the second Yankee, after Ruth, to lead the AL in the offensive categories, home runs, runs batted in. Meusel ended his career in 1930 with the Cincinnati Reds and he hit for the cycle three times, and was the second of four major leaguers to accomplish this feat as many as three times during a career. His older brother, Emil Irish Meusel, was an outfielder in the National League during the same period. Meusel was born in San Jose, California, the youngest of Charlie, at an early age he moved to Los Angeles, where he attended Los Angeles High School. Meusel started his career with the Vernon Tigers of the Pacific Coast League in 1917 and he joined the US Navy during World War I and played for the Navy baseball team. He went back to the Tigers for the 1919 season, batting.330 and he also played third base in the minors. On December 14,1921, Meusel married Edith Cowan, with whom he had one daughter, Meusels contract was purchased by the New York Yankees in early 1920. After a productive spring training, Meusel replaced future Hall of Famer Frank Baker at third base and he played his first game on April 14,1920. In his rookie season, Meusel had a.328 batting average with 11 home runs and 83 runs batted in over 119 games and he finished fourth in the league in doubles with 41 while sharing time with Duffy Lewis in left field. In the 1921 season, Meusel started in 149 out of 154 games and he batted.318, finishing second in the league in home runs with 24 and third in the league with 136 runs batted in. He hit for the cycle in a win against the Washington Senators on May 7, in the second game of a September 5 doubleheader, he tied a major league record for outfielders by recording four assists. He broke a record and tied Jack Tobin of the St. Louis Browns for the league lead in outfield assists with 28. Meusels brother, Irish, was acquired by the New York Giants from the Philadelphia Phillies mid-season, the two brothers played against each other in the 1921 World Series, where the Giants faced their tenants. Bob Meusel stole home in Game 3 of the Series and he doubled in Babe Ruth for the winning run in Game 5 for a one-game lead, but the Yankees lost the next three games and the Series. His batting average in eight games was a mere.200. At the same time, Meusel, Bill Piercy, and Ruth signed up to play in a barnstorming tour and it was a violation of baseball rules at the time, and Meusel and Ruth had previously been warned about playing with the tourBob Meusel – Bob Meusel
80. Stan Musial – Stanley Frank Stan Musial, nicknamed Stan the Man, was an American Major League Baseball outfielder and first baseman. He spent 22 seasons playing for the St. Louis Cardinals, Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame in the inaugural class of 2014. He also shares the league record for the most All-Star Games played with Hank Aaron. Musial was born in Donora, Pennsylvania, where he played baseball informally or in organized settings. Signed to a contract by the St. Louis Cardinals as a pitcher in 1938. Noted for his batting stance, he quickly established himself as a consistent. In his first full season,1942, the Cardinals won the World Series, the following year, he led the NL in six different offensive categories and earned his first MVP award. He was also named to the NL All-Star squad for the first time, Musial won his second World Series championship in 1944, then missed the entire 1945 season while serving in the Navy. After completing his service during the war, Musial returned to baseball in 1946. That year he earned his second MVP award and third World Series title and his third MVP award came in 1948, when he finished one home run short of winning baseballs Triple Crown. After struggling offensively in 1959, Musial used a personal trainer to maintain his productivity until he decided to retire in 1963. At the time of his retirement, he held or shared 17 major league records,29 National League records and he also became noted for his harmonica playing, a skill he acquired during his playing career. Known for his modesty and sportsmanship, Musial was selected for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in 1999. In February 2011, President Barack Obama presented Musial with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Musial was born in Donora, Pennsylvania, the fifth of the six children of Lukasz and Mary Musiał. Musial frequently played baseball with his brother Ed and other friends during his childhood, Musial also had the benefit of learning about baseball from his neighbor Joe Barbao, a former minor league pitcher. When he enrolled in school, his name was changed to Stanley Frank Musial. At age 15 Musial joined the Donora Zincs, a team managed by Barbao. In his Zincs debut he pitched 6 innings and struck out 13 batters and his exploits as a rising player in Pennsylvania earned him the nickname The Donora GreyhoundStan Musial – Musial in 1953
81. CM Punk – Punk began his professional wrestling career on the American independent circuit, primarily with Ring of Honor until 2005, when he signed with World Wrestling Entertainment. Throughout his career, he won championships, including the WWE Championship twice. In WWE, Punk was also a one-time World Tag Team Champion, throughout his career, Punk consistently portrayed the character of an outspoken, sharp-tongued, anti-establishment, straight edge iconoclast. Most of the straight edge principles he portrayed, such as not drinking alcohol or not taking drugs, are his real life views. Depending on his alignment as a hero or villain, he emphasized different aspects of the straight edge culture to garner the desired audience reaction. After retiring from wrestling in 2014, Punk pursued a career in mixed martial arts and was signed by the UFC in December of that year. His first professional fight took place on September 10,2016, at UFC203 against Mickey Gall, Brooks was born in Chicago, Illinois and raised in nearby Lockport, Illinois. He is one of five children, his father was an engineer, Brooks father struggled with alcoholism which inspired him to become straight edge from an early age. He attended Lockport Township High School, Brooks first venture into wrestling was a stint in a backyard wrestling federation called the Lunatic Wrestling Federation with his friends and brother Mike Brooks in the mid-late 1990s. He first started using the ring name CM Punk when he was put into a tag team named The Chick Magnets with CM Venom after another performer skipped out on the card. Unlike his friends, Punk genuinely wanted to be a wrestler, as part of the training, he wrestled at Steel Domain Wrestling in St. Paul, Minnesota. It was in the Steel Domain that he met Scott Colton, Punk and Cabana became best friends and spent most of their early career together working in the same independent promotions, as both opponents and tag team partners. In the independents, along with fellow Steel Domain graduates Colt Cabana, Chucke E. Smooth, Adam Pearce, Punks home promotion for his early career was considered to be the Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South. J. Styles, Cabana and even Eddie Guerrero in matches for the heavyweight championship, Punks feud with Hero included a 55-minute TLC match, a 93-minute two out of three falls match, and several 60-minute time limit draws. Punks matches with Cabana led him to being hired by the Ring of Honor promotion, from February 2003 until May 2004, Punk refused to wrestle for IWA Mid-South, explaining this as a protest to Ian Rottens mistreatment of Chris Hero in the company. Hero, however, has stated he believes there were other reasons, eventually Punk returned to IWA Mid-South and continued to perform as a wrestler and commentator for them until 2005 when he was signed to World Wrestling Entertainment. His last appearance in IWA Mid-South was on July 2,2005 in which he competed in a 60-minute time limit draw against Delirious. Initially, Punk joined Ring of Honor as a face, and their rivalry was rooted in Punks straight-edge lifestyle, with him likening Raven to his alcoholic father, it lasted most of 2003 and was considered one of ROHs top feuds of the yearCM Punk – Punk at the 2011 Nickelodeon Australian Kids' Choice Awards
82. J. R. Richard – James Rodney Richard is an American, right-handed, former starting pitcher in Major League Baseball who played his entire career, from 1971 to 1980, with the Houston Astros. After leaving high school, Richard was selected by the Astros as the pick in the first round of the 1969 amateur draft. From the time he made his league debut with the Astros in 1971 until 1975, Richard had a limited role as an Astros pitcher. In 1975, Richard played his first full season in the majors as a starting pitcher and his condition brought a sudden end to his major league career at the age of 30. His 313 strikeouts in 1979 remains an Astros franchise record, in 1981, Richard attempted a comeback with the Astros, but this failed because the stroke had slowed down his reaction time and weakened his depth perception. He spent the few seasons in the minor leagues before being released by the Astros in 1984. After his professional career ended, Richard became involved in unsuccessful business deals. Richard found succor in a church and later became a Christian minister. Richard was born to Clayton and Lizzie Richard in Vienna, Louisiana, by the time he was a high school senior, Richard stood 6 feet 8 inches tall and weighed 220 pounds. That year, he was one of the pitchers for Lincoln High School. In one game Richard hit four home runs while pitching his team to a 48–0 victory against its local rival. Richard, whose idol was St. Louis Cardinals pitcher Bob Gibson. Upon graduating from school, he turned down more than 200 basketball scholarship offers to sign with the Houston Astros. The Astros would later select him with the second pick in the 1969 amateur baseball draft. Richard later recalled, There were other guys in my high school with as much ability as I had and they thought that was the in thing to do, and consequently our lives went in different directions. For some people it takes that to make a world, after the Astros drafted Richard, they sent him to play for the Covington Astros, a rookie-level minor league baseball team in the Appalachian League. Richard started 12 games for Covington, finishing with five wins, despite accumulating an average of 11.41 strikeouts per nine innings, Richard had trouble throughout the season with his pitching mechanics and control. In 56 innings, Richard struck out 71 batters but walked 52 and gave up 41 earned runs, the following year, at 20 years of age, Richard was promoted to the Cocoa Astros of the Florida State League in high-A minor league baseballJ. R. Richard – J.R. Richard signing autographs at an Academy Sports + Outdoors
83. Sigi Schmid – Siegfried Sigi Schmid is a German-American soccer coach who most recently coached Seattle Sounders FC in Major League Soccer. Born in Tübingen, West Germany, he moved to the United States with his family when he was a child and he played college soccer from 1972 to 1975 at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was a starting midfielder in each of his four years. He coached his former team, the UCLA Bruins, between 1980 and 1999. During that period, he one of the most successful collegiate coaches of all time. The team made 16 consecutive playoff appearances from 1983 to 1998, winning the championship in 1985,1990. Schmid also worked with US Soccer throughout the 1990s, Schmid coached the Los Angeles Galaxy and the Columbus Crew in MLS, before becoming the head coach of Seattle Sounders FC in 2009. Despite never having played soccer at a level, he has the most coaching wins in MLS history and was the recipient of the MLS Coach of the Year Award in 1999 and 2008. Throughout his career, Schmid has received praise from critics for his ability to new talent. His defensive tactics are also regarded in the press and often cited as a factor in his success. However, their deployment in his two seasons with Los Angeles led directly to the termination of his contract. After winning the MLS Cup with Columbus in 2008, Schmid was hired by the expansion Seattle Sounders as their first head coach. From 2009 to 2016, Schmid led the Sounders to seven appearances, four Lamar Hunt U. S. Open Cup titles. After lackluster performances in the playoffs and missteps during the first half of the 2016 season, Schmid and his wife have four children, and he has a younger brother named Roland Schmid. Sigi Schmid was born in Tübingen, West Germany, on March 20,1953, at the age of four, he moved with his family to the United States, they took up residence in Torrance, California, in 1962. Schmids father, Fritz, who had been a prisoner of war during World War II, worked at Pabst Brewing, his mother, Doris, ran a Los Angeles-based German deli, where Schmid worked on weekends. Schmids family spoke German at home, making him feel German despite spending so much of his life in America and he began school in the United States with little understanding of English and a stuttering speech disorder he did not overcome until high school. In his youth, Schmid visited Germany every summer, playing soccer with the local children, in 1964, Schmid played for the inaugural American Youth Soccer Organization team, an achievement for which he was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1996. Despite Schmids early soccer experience, his parents thought a career in the sport was unfeasible and he enrolled at UCLA in 1972 and was a starting midfielder for the UCLA Bruins from 1972 to 1975Sigi Schmid – Schmid after a Sounders match in 2010
84. Tyrone Wheatley – He earned All-America track honors in both high school and college. He ranks among the Wolverines all-time rushing leaders in numerous categories and he was named to All-Big Ten teams in football and track and field a total of four times, and he earned portions of seven Big Ten championships. Following his graduation from the University of Michigan, Wheatley was selected by the New York Giants of the NFL in the first round of the 1995 NFL Draft. As a running back for the Giants, he was the teams all-purpose yards leader in 1996, despite his success on the field, he developed a reputation for indolence. He was traded to the Miami Dolphins, but cut before the 1999 season began and he signed with the Oakland Raiders and flourished, leading the team in rushing three times and twice finishing among the NFLs top ten players in rushing touchdowns. During his NFL career, he totaled over 6,500 all-purpose yards as a running back, after retiring from the NFL, Wheatley returned to his hometown to coach his high school alma mater, Dearborn Heights Hamilton J. Robichaud High School. Wheatley was born in Inkster, Michigan, Inkster is located in Metropolitan Detroit, east of both Ann Arbor and University of Michigan. Wheatleys father suffered a gunshot wound to the head in 1974 when Wheatley was two years old. Wheatleys stepfather died of an attack when he was 13, leaving behind Wheatley, his sister. Shortly afterward, Wheatleys mother, Patricia, was laid off, with the effective loss of his two parents, Wheatley and his sister were forced to move in with an aunt, where he lived through the rest of his childhood. Due to family difficulties, Wheatley acts as the guardian of two cousins and his half brother, Mongo was ten years younger than Wheatley, and graduated from high school in New Jersey in 2004—thirteen years after Wheatley had graduated from high school. Because of his trouble, he assumed a family leadership role at a relatively young age. Wheatley made it clear to his brothers and sisters that when came to their lives, they should to turn to him because he would be there. When he was in school, he would take his younger siblings to basketball games. Wheatleys guardianship continued throughout his career at the University of Michigan, as Mongos guardian, Wheatley moved Mongo to New Jersey for school. Mongo later earned outstanding freshman athlete honors during the Bergen County, New Jersey outdoor track championships while living with Wheatley, in 2004, with his graduation from high school imminent, Mongo signed a letter of intent with Utah State as a defensive back. Wheatley attended Hamilton J. Robichaud High School in Dearborn Heights, Michigan, during his time at Robichaud High School, he became a nine-time MHSAA state champion. In the 1990 MHSAA Championship game against upper peninsula powerhouse Kingsford High School at the Pontiac Silverdome, Wheatley ran for 165 yards and that season, he led the Bulldogs to a 12–1 record, and to their only state football championshipTyrone Wheatley – Wheatley earned the 1993 Rose Bowl MVP.
85. Simon Bolivar Buckner – Simon Bolivar Buckner was an American soldier and politician who fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky, after graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Buckner became an instructor there. He took a hiatus from teaching to serve in the Mexican–American War and he resigned from the army in 1855 to manage his father-in-laws real estate in Chicago, Illinois. He returned to his state of Kentucky in 1857 and was appointed adjutant general by Governor Beriah Magoffin in 1861. In this position, he tried to enforce Kentuckys neutrality policy in the days of the Civil War. When the states neutrality was breached, Buckner accepted a commission in the Confederate Army after declining a commission to the Union Army. In 1862, he accepted Ulysses S. Grants demand for a surrender at the Battle of Fort Donelson. He was the first Confederate general to surrender an army in the war and he spent five months as a prisoner of war. After his release, Buckner participated in Braxton Braggs failed invasion of Kentucky, in the years following the war, Buckner became active in politics. He was elected governor of Kentucky in 1887 and it was his second campaign for that office. His term was plagued by violent feuds in the part of the state, including the Hatfield–McCoy feud. His administration was rocked by scandal when state treasurer James Honest Dick Tate absconded with $250,000 from the states treasury, as governor, Buckner became known for vetoing special interest legislation. In the 1888 legislative session alone, he issued more vetoes than the previous ten governors combined, in 1895, he made an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U. S. Senate. The following year, he joined the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats and he was the Gold Democrats candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1896 election, but polled just over one percent of the vote on a ticket with John M. Palmer. He never again sought public office and died January 8,1914, Buckner, was born at Glen Lily, his familys estate near Munfordville, Kentucky. He was the child and second son of Aylett Hartswell. His closest friend in Munfordville was Thomas J. Wood, who would become a Union Army general opposing Buckner at the Battle of Perryville, Buckners father was an iron worker, but found that Hart County did not have sufficient timber to fire his iron furnace. Consequently, in 1838, he moved the family to southern Muhlenberg County where he organized an iron-making corporation, Buckner attended school in Greenville, and later at Christian County Seminary in HopkinsvilleSimon Bolivar Buckner – Simon Bolivar Buckner
86. Gerald Ford – Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, following the resignation of Richard Nixon. Prior to this he served eight months as the 40th Vice President of the United States, before his appointment to the vice presidency, Ford served 25 years as U. S. Representative from Michigans 5th congressional district, the nine of them as the House Minority Leader. As President, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward détente in the Cold War, with the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam nine months into his presidency, U. S. involvement in Vietnam essentially ended. Domestically, Ford presided over the worst economy in the four decades since the Great Depression, with growing inflation, one of his most controversial acts was to grant a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. During Fords presidency, foreign policy was characterized in procedural terms by the increased role Congress began to play, in the Republican presidential primary campaign of 1976, Ford defeated former California Governor Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination. Arthur not to be elected in his own right, following his years as President, Ford remained active in the Republican Party. After experiencing health problems, he died at home on December 26,2006, Ford lived longer than any other U. S. president –93 years and 165 days – while his 895-day presidency was the shortest of all presidents who did not die in office. Gerald Rudolph Ford was born Leslie Lynch King Jr. on July 14,1913, at 3202 Woolworth Avenue in Omaha, Nebraska, where his parents lived with his paternal grandparents. His mother was Dorothy Ayer Gardner and his father was Leslie Lynch King Sr. a wool trader, Dorothy separated from King just sixteen days after her sons birth. She took her son with her to the Oak Park, Illinois, home of her sister Tannisse and brother-in-law, from there, she moved to the home of her parents, Levi Addison Gardner and Adele Augusta Ayer, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Dorothy and King divorced in December 1913, she gained custody of her son. Fords paternal grandfather Charles Henry King paid child support until shortly before his death in 1930, Ford later said his biological father had a history of hitting his mother. James M. Ford later told confidantes that his father had first hit his mother on their honeymoon for smiling at another man. After two and a half years with her parents, on February 1,1916, Dorothy married Gerald Rudolff Ford and they then called her son Gerald Rudolff Ford, Jr. The future president was never adopted, and did not legally change his name until December 3,1935. He was raised in Grand Rapids with his three half-brothers from his mothers marriage, Thomas Gardner Tom Ford, Richard Addison Dick Ford. Ford also had three half-siblings from the marriage of Leslie King, Sr. his biological father, Marjorie King, Leslie Henry KingGerald Ford – Ford in August 1974
87. Benjamin Harrison – Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, and politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876, the Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U. S. Senate, where he served from March 4,1881, to March 4,1887. A Republican, Harrison was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, hallmarks of Harrisons administration included unprecedented economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff, which imposed historic protective trade rates, and the Sherman Antitrust Act. Harrison also facilitated the creation of the national forest reserves through an amendment to the Land Revision Act of 1891, during his administration six western states were admitted to the Union. Due in large part to surplus revenues from the tariffs, federal spending reached one billion dollars for the first time during his term, the spending issue in part led to the defeat of the Republicans in the 1890 mid-term elections. Cleveland defeated Harrison for re-election in 1892, due to the unpopularity of the high tariff. Harrison returned to life and his law practice in Indianapolis. In 1900 Harrison represented the Republic of Venezuela in a case against the United Kingdom. Harrison traveled to Europe as part of the case and after a brief stay returned to Indianapolis and he died at his home in Indianapolis in 1901 of complications from influenza. S. Historians, however, have not questioned Harrisons commitment to personal and official integrity, Harrisons paternal ancestors were the Harrison family of Virginia, whose immigrant ancestor, Benjamin Harrison, arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1630. Benjamin, the president, was born on August 20,1833, in North Bend, Ohio. Benjamin was also a grandson of U. S. Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected U. S. president, although Harrisons family was distinguished, his parents were not wealthy. John Scott Harrison, a two-term U. S. congressman from Ohio, despite the familys modest resources, Harrisons boyhood was enjoyable, much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting. Benjamin Harrisons early schooling took place in a log cabin near his home, fourteen-year-old Harrison and his older brother, Irwin, enrolled in Farmers College near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847. In 1850, Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio and he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, which he used as a network for much of his life. He was also a member of Delta Chi, a law fraternity which permitted dual membership, classmates included John Alexander Anderson, who became a six-term U. S. congressman, and Whitelaw Reid Harrisons vice presidential running mate in 1892. At Miami, Harrison was strongly influenced by history and political economy professor Robert Hamilton Bishop, Harrison also joined a Presbyterian church at college and, like his mother, became a lifelong Presbyterian. Carolines father, a Presbyterian minister, performed the ceremony, the Harrisons had two children, Russell Benjamin Harrison, and Mary Mamie Scott HarrisonBenjamin Harrison – Benjamin Harrison
88. William Henry Harrison – William Henry Harrison Sr. was the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer, and the last president born as a British subject. He was 68 years,23 days old at the time of his inauguration and he died of complications from pneumonia 31 days into his term, serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. He was the first president to die in office, and his death sparked a constitutional crisis. He was the grandfather of Benjamin Harrison, who served as the 23rd United States President from 1889 to 1893, before election as president, Harrison served as the first congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory and the first Governor of Indiana Territory. He gained national fame for leading U. S. forces against Native Americans at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, as a general officer in the subsequent War of 1812, his most notable action was in the Battle of the Thames in 1813. This battle resulted in the death of Tecumseh and the dissolution of the Indian coalition which Tecumseh had led, after the war, Harrison moved to Ohio, where he was elected to the United States House of Representatives. In 1824, the legislature elected him to the United States Senate. He served a term after being appointed as Minister Plenipotentiary to Gran Colombia in May 1828. In Santa Fe de Bogotá, he spoke with president Simón Bolívar, returning to his farm in Ohio, Harrison lived in relative retirement until he was nominated for the presidency as one of several Whig Party candidates in the election of 1836. He received more votes than any other Whig, but was defeated by Democrat Martin Van Buren and he retired again to his farm. Van Buren soon became a target of criticism from the Whigs surrounding economic difficulties following the Panic of 1837. John Tyler of Virginia was selected as his running mate, Harrison and Tyler defeated Van Buren in the 1840 election. However, Harrison died of pneumonia in April 1841, a month after taking office, Tyler then assumed all of the powers and duties of the president, setting a major precedent. Harrison was a member of a prominent political family of entirely English descent, Harrison was also the last U. S. president born as a British subject before American Revolution. Benjamin Harrison V, Williams father, was a Virginia planter who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, the senior Harrison also served in the Virginia legislature as the fifth governor of Virginia in the years during and after the American Revolutionary War. Williams older brother, Carter Bassett Harrison, represented Virginia in the U. S. House, Harrison was tutored at home before he entered Hampden–Sydney College, the Presbyterian school in Virginia in 1787 at age 14. He remained at the school until 1790, receiving an education that included Latin, Greek, French, logic. Harrisons Episcopalian father removed him from the college, possibly because of a revival that was occurring at the schoolWilliam Henry Harrison – A daguerreotype of Harrison
89. Thomas C. Kinkaid – Thomas Cassin Kinkaid served as an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II. He built a reputation as an admiral in the aircraft carrier battles of 1942. Born into a family, Kinkaid was ranked in the lower half of his class on his graduation from the United States Naval Academy in June 1908. His early commissioned service was spent aboard battleships, in 1913, he began instruction in ordnance engineering and served in that field for many years. He saw action during the 1916 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic, during World War I, he was attached to the Royal Navy before serving as Gunnery Officer aboard the battleship USS Arizona. After the war, he was Assistant Chief of Staff to the Commander U. S. Naval Detachment in Turkey, Kinkaid received his first command, the destroyer USS Isherwood, in 1924. He was Executive Officer of the battleship USS Colorado when the 1933 Long Beach earthquake struck and he received his second command in 1937, the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis. From 1938 to 1941, Kinkaid was a naval attaché in Italy, in the months prior to U. S. entry into World War II, he commanded a destroyer squadron. Promoted to rear admiral in 1941, he assumed command of a U. S and his cruisers defended the aircraft carrier USS Lexington during the Battle of the Coral Sea and USS Hornet during the Battle of Midway. Kinkaid was placed in charge of the North Pacific Force in January 1943 and he was promoted to vice admiral in June 1943. During the Battle of the Surigao Strait he commanded the Allied ships in the last naval battle between battleships in history, following the demise of Japanese naval power in the region, the Allied navies supported the campaigns in the Philippines and Borneo. Kinkaid was promoted to admiral on 3 April 1945, after the Pacific War ended in August 1945, the Seventh Fleet assisted in operations on the Korean and China coasts. Admiral Kinkaid was Commander Eastern Sea Frontier and the Sixteenth Fleet from 1946 until his retirement in May 1950 and he was a member of the National Security Training Commission for much of the rest of the decade. He also served with the American Battle Monuments Commission for 15 years, Thomas Cassin Kinkaid was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, on 3 April 1888, the second child and only son of Thomas Wright Kinkaid, a naval officer, and his wife Virginia Lee née Cassin. At the time, Thomas Wright Kinkaid was on leave from the U. S. Navy and employed at the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. When Thomas was only an old, his father was posted to USS Pinta, and the family moved to Sitka, Alaska. He sought and secured an appointment to Annapolis from President Theodore Roosevelt, the Navy was undergoing a period of expansion, and the intake of midshipmen was double that of two years earlier. Of the 350 who took the examination,283 were admitted, the class was the largest since the Academy had opened in 1845Thomas C. Kinkaid – Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid
90. George B. McClellan – George Brinton McClellan was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician. A graduate of West Point, McClellan served with distinction during the Mexican-American War, although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these very characteristics hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass. McClellan organised and led the Union army in the Peninsula Campaign in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862 and it was the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. General McClellan failed to maintain the trust of President Abraham Lincoln and he did not trust his commander-in-chief and was privately derisive of him. McClellan went on to become the unsuccessful Democratic Party nominee in the 1864 presidential election against Lincoln, the effectiveness of his campaign was damaged when he repudiated his partys platform, which promised an end to the war and negotiations with the Confederacy. He served as the 24th Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881 and he eventually became a writer, and vigorously defended his Civil War conduct. Most modern authorities have assessed McClellan as a battlefield general. Some historians view him as a capable commander whose reputation suffered unfairly at the hands of pro-Lincoln partisans who made him a scapegoat for the Unions military setbacks. After the war, Ulysses S. Grant was asked for his opinion of McClellan as a general and he replied, McClellan is to me one of the mysteries of the war. Also, when Robert E. Lee was asked who was the best Union general, George Brinton McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the son of a prominent surgeon, Dr. George McClellan, the founder of Jefferson Medical College. His fathers family was of Ulster Scots heritage and his mother was Elizabeth Sophia Steinmetz Brinton McClellan, daughter of a leading Pennsylvania family, a woman noted for her considerable grace and refinement. The couple had five children, a daughter, Frederica, then three sons, John, George, and Arthur, and finally a daughter, Mary. McClellan was the great-grandson of Revolutionary War general Samuel McClellan, of Woodstock and he attended the University of Pennsylvania in 1840 at age 13, resigning himself to the study of law. After two years, he changed his goal to military service, with the assistance of his fathers letter to President John Tyler, young George was accepted at the United States Military Academy in 1842, the academy having waived its normal minimum age of 16. At West Point, he was an energetic and ambitious cadet, deeply interested in the teachings of Dennis Hart Mahan and his closest friends were aristocratic Southerners such as James Stuart, Dabney Maury, Cadmus Wilcox, and A. P. Hill. He graduated in 1846, second in his class of 59 cadets and he was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. McClellans first assignment was with a company of engineers formed at West Point and he arrived near the mouth of the Rio Grande in October 1846, well prepared for action with a double-barreled shotgun, two pistols, a saber, a dress sword, and a Bowie knifeGeorge B. McClellan – 1861 portrait by Mathew Brady
91. Edwin Taylor Pollock – Edwin Taylor Pollock was a career officer in the United States Navy, serving in the Spanish–American War and in World War I. He was later promoted to the rank of captain, like many naval officers, his name was often abbreviated using initials, E. T. Pollock. As a young ensign, Pollock served aboard USS New York during the Spanish–American War, after the war, he rose through the ranks, served on several ships, and did important research into wireless communication. During the war, he was promoted to captain and a vessel under his command transported 60,000 American soldiers to France, afterward, he was made the eighth Naval Governor of American Samoa and then the superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, before retiring in 1927. Originally from Mount Gilead, Ohio, Pollock attended the United States Naval Academy and, as a midshipman, was assigned to USS Lancaster and he graduated with a rank of ensign in 1893. After graduation, Pollock returned to Ohio and married Beatrice E. Law Hale on December 5, two weeks later, he was assigned to the cruiser USS New York during its initial shake-down. He was subsequently assigned to the gunboat USS Machias for an expedition to China and he remained in China for two and a half years as part of the Asiatic Squadron, then transferring to USS Detroit before returning home in 1897. On his return home, the Spanish–American War was heating up and he was reassigned to the New York, to see service in Cuba and Puerto Rico, in January 1900, he was promoted to lieutenant and assigned to USS Alliance. Over the following year he served on USS Dolphin and USS Buffalo, on board the Buffalo, he returned to the Asiatic Squadron near China and was finally transferred to USS Brooklyn, the squadrons flagship. He remained on board the Brooklyn, until its home in May 1902. After a brief leave, Pollock was assigned to the USS Chesapeake and he was transferred to USS Cincinnati, serving for another year, and then to Cavite Naval Base. At Cavite, he was promoted to lieutenant commander in February 1906 and his first duty as a lieutenant commander was on USS Alabama, as the navigator. In 1910, Pollock was reassigned to USS Massachusetts, where he was promoted to commander in March 1911, on his promotion, Pollock commanded USS Virginia and USS Kearsarge, before being transferred to the United States Naval Observatory. During his command of the Kearsarge, Pollock briefly commanded USS Salem for a world-record setting wireless experiment, for this feat, the Salem was outfitted with 16 different wireless telegraph technologies and sailed to Gibraltar, with Pollock commanding. On arrival, they tested these technologies and set a world-record for longest wireless telegraph distance,2,400 miles, using a Poulsen Apparatus, experiments were also conducted to determine wireless characteristics during inclement weather and during both the day and night. In 1916, he was put in command of USS Alabama, at the time, Charlotte Amalie on Saint Thomas was considered the best port in the Caribbean outside of Cuba, and Coral Bay on Saint John was considered the safest harbor in the area. Although the United States was not yet at war with Germany, President Woodrow Wilson nominated James Harrison Oliver to be the first military governor. The United States announced plans to build a base in the territory to aid in the protection of the Panama CanalEdwin Taylor Pollock – Capt. Pollock as Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Observatory
92. Isaac Shelby – Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain. For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service, Shelby and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe. Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Kentucky, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, Tennessee, where they built a fort, here, Shelby and his father worked for three years herding cattleIsaac Shelby – Isaac Shelby
93. Myles Standish – Myles Standish was an English military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military adviser for Plymouth Colony. He accompanied them on the Mayflower journey and played a role in the administration. On February 17,1621, the Plymouth Colony militia elected him as its first commander, Standish served as an agent of Plymouth Colony in England, as assistant governor, and as treasurer of the Colony. He was also one of the first settlers and founders of the town of Duxbury, one of Standishs last military actions on behalf of Plymouth Colony was the botched Penobscot expedition in 1635. By the 1640s, he relinquished his role as an active soldier and he was still nominally the commander of the Pilgrim military forces in the growing Colony, although he seems to have preferred to act in an advisory capacity. He died in his home in Duxbury in 1656 at age 72 and he supported and defended the Pilgrims colony for much of his life, though there is no evidence to suggest that he ever joined their church. Several towns and military installations have been named for Standish, one of the best known depictions of him in popular culture was the 1858 poem The Courtship of Miles Standish by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The highly fictionalized story presents him as a timid romantic and it was extremely popular in the 19th century and played a significant role in cementing the Pilgrim story in US culture. Little is definitively known of Myles Standishs origin and early life and his place of birth has been subject to debate among historians for more than 150 years. At the center of the debate is language in his will, drafted in Plymouth Colony in 1656, however, efforts have been inconclusive in linking him to the Standishes of Duxbury Hall. A competing theory focuses on his mention of the Isle of Man, no definitive documentation exists in either location to provide clear evidence of his birthplace. The circumstances are vague at best concerning Standishs early military career in Holland, at the time, the Dutch Republic was embroiled in the Eighty Years War with Spain. Queen Elizabeth I of England chose to support the Protestant Dutch Republic, historians are divided on his role in the English military. The subsequent Twelve Years Truce between Spain and the Dutch Republic might have ended Standishs service, Standish was certainly still in Holland in 1620 and living in Leiden when he was hired by a group of refugee Puritan dissenters from England to act as their adviser on military matters. At that time, he was using the title of Captain and they approached him to return to the New World and he expressed interest. Standish lived in Leiden with his wife Rose and was already known to them. On July 22,1620, the group of English Dissenters living in Leiden boarded the Speedwell. This initial group included the mostly Brownist congregation, Myles and Rose Standish were aboard, along with the Bradfords, Winslows, Carvers, and othersMyles Standish – This portrait, first published in 1885, was alleged to be a 1625 likeness of Standish, although its authenticity has never been proven.
94. Edward Teller – Edward Teller was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who was born in Hungary, and is known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, although he claimed he did not care for the title. He made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, spectroscopy, Teller also made contributions to Thomas–Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. Teller emigrated to the United States in the 1930s, and was an member of the Manhattan Project. During this time he made a push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos Laboratory superior J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and was both its director and associate director for many years and he was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative. Strangelove in the 1964 movie of the same name, ede Teller was born on January 15,1908, in Budapest, Hungary, into a Jewish family. His parents were Ilona, a pianist, and Max Teller, raised in a Jewish family, he later on became an agnostic. Religion was not an issue in my family, he wrote, indeed. My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions and my family celebrated one holiday, the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted. Yet my father said prayers for his parents on Saturdays and on all the Jewish holidays, the idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed, We needed Him desperately but had not seen Him in many thousands of years. Like Einstein and Feynman, Teller was a late talker and he developed the ability to speak later than most children but became very interested in numbers, and would calculate large numbers in his head for fun. Teller left Hungary in 1926, partly due to the discriminatory numerus clausus rule under Miklós Horthys regime, the political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller. When he was a student, his right foot was severed in a streetcar accident in Munich, requiring him to wear a prosthetic foot. Werner Heisenberg said that it was the hardiness of Tellers spirit, rather than stoicism, Teller graduated in chemical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, and received his Ph. D. in physics under Werner Heisenberg at the University of Leipzig. Tellers dissertation dealt with one of the first accurate quantum mechanical treatments of the molecular ion. In 1930 he befriended Russian physicists George Gamow and Lev Landau, Tellers lifelong friendship with a Czech physicist, George Placzek, was also very important for his scientific and philosophical development. It was Placzek who arranged a stay in Rome with Enrico Fermi in 1932Edward Teller – Teller in 1958 as Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
95. Stephen Trigg – Stephen Trigg was an American pioneer and soldier from Virginia. A son of William and Mary Trigg, he worked as a public servant and militia officer during the early years of the frontier counties of southwest Virginia. He was one reportedly of the wealthiest men on the frontier and he was also elected to the Virginia House of Delegates. Trigg was appointed to the Virginia Land Court Commission in 1779 and he then settled in Kentucky himself. In 1782, a party of Shawnee Indians led by British and Loyalist officers attacked Bryan Station. Kentucky militia companies then pursued the fleeing invaders, Trigg commanded half of the men, Daniel Boone the other. Ignoring Boones warnings of a trap, the militiamen charged into an Indian ambush at Blue Licks, Trigg and many others, including Boones youngest son, were killed. Triggs body was found cut into pieces. Trigg County, Kentucky, was named in memory of Stephen Trigg, Trigg was the son of William Trigg and Mary Trigg, whose family was prominent on the Virginia frontier. His father served as a Judge of the Court of Chancery, an equity court, Trigg had four brothers, William, John, Abram and Daniel, who were all soldiers in the Revolutionary War. Two of these brothers, John and Abram, later represented Virginia in the U. S. Congress, Stephen married Mary Christian, daughter of another Virginia pioneer, Israel Christian. Trigg lived the part of his life in southwest Virginia. Trigg and his wife had three sons and two daughters, the western county of Augusta in Virginia could no longer serve the needs of the far flung pioneers along the New River, and so in 1769, the county of Botetourt was created. Trigg was one of several appointed as its first justices of the peace, from 1770 to 1771, he served as magistrate, Justice of the County Court in Chancery and a Justice of Oyer and Terminer, which was a criminal court. Due to the needs of a population, the southwestern half of Botetourt County was separated in 1772. Trigg was installed as one of its first justices of the peace, Trigg also continued pursuing his livelihood as a merchant at Dunkard Bottom in present-day Pulaski County. From 1773 to 1774, he partnered with David Ross and operated a community store in New Dublin, with branches located in Meadow Creek, Reed Creek, at this time, many indentured servants came to this area of the state. Short of money, they sold themselves to the owners for passage to America for a term of servitude that gained them landStephen Trigg – This headstone at the Blue Licks Battlefield State Park marks the mass grave where Trigg and his men were buried.
96. Harriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War. She later helped abolitionist John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child. Early in life, she suffered a head wound when an irate slave owner threw a heavy metal weight intending to hit another slave. The injury caused dizziness, pain, and spells of hypersomnia and she was a devout Christian and experienced strange visions and vivid dreams, which she ascribed to premonitions from God. In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, traveling by night and in extreme secrecy, Tubman never lost a passenger. After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America, when the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry. After the war, she retired to the home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York. She was active in the suffrage movement until illness overtook her. After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American courage, on April 20,2016, the U. S. Treasury Department announced a plan for Tubman to replace Andrew Jackson as the portrait gracing the $20 bill. Tubman was born Araminta Minty Ross to slave parents, Harriet Green and Ben Ross, Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess. Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who became Marys second husband, as with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of Aramintas birth is known, and historians differ as to the best estimate. Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820. In her Civil War widows pension records, Tubman claimed she was born in 1820,1822, and 1825, an indication, perhaps, that she had only a general idea of when she was born. Modesty, Tubmans maternal grandmother, arrived in the United States on a ship from Africa. As a child, Tubman was told that she was of Ashanti lineage and her mother Rit was a cook for the Brodess family. Her father Ben was a woodsman who managed the timber work on Thompsons plantationHarriet Tubman – Harriet Tubman circa 1885
97. William O'Connell Bradley – William OConnell Bradley was a politician from the US state of Kentucky. He served as the 32nd Governor of Kentucky and was elected by the state legislature as a U. S. senator from that state. The first Republican to serve as governor of Kentucky, Bradley became known as the father of the Republican Party in Kentucky, as a Republican in a heavily Democratic state, Bradley found little success early in his political career. He was defeated for a seat in the United States House of Representatives, after rising to national prominence with his speech seconding the presidential nomination of Ulysses S. Grant at the 1880 Republican National Convention, he was nominated for governor in 1887. Although he lost the contest to Simon Bolivar Buckner, he reduced the usual Democratic majority substantially and he was again nominated for governor in 1895. Capitalizing on divisions in the Democratic Party over the issue of free silver and his term was marked by political struggles and violence. He was an advocate for blacks and did much to advance their status in the state, Republican William S. Taylor was elected to succeed Bradley in the contentious 1899 gubernatorial election. When Democratic nominee William Goebel and his running mate J. C. W. Beckham challenged the election results, the case was appealed to the Supreme Court, which found in favor of the Democrats. Despite being a member of the minority party, Bradley was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1907. Again, divisions within the Democratic Party played a role in his election, Bradleys opposition to Prohibition made him more palatable to some Democrats than their own candidate, outgoing Governor Beckham. Beckham refused to withdraw in favor of a candidate. Bradley had an undistinguished career in the Senate. On the day he announced he would not seek re-election to his Senate seat and he died from his injuries on May 23,1914. William OConnell Bradley was born near Lancaster in Garrard County, Kentucky and he was the youngest child of Robert McAfee and Nancy Ellen Bradley. The couple also had six daughters, five of whom survived infancy, and one other son, while Bradley was still a child, the family moved to Somerset, Kentucky, where Bradley was educated by private tutors and at a private school. Both times, his father removed him from the service because of his young age, despite having only this few months of service to his credit, he was referred to as Colonel Bradley by many for the rest of his life. In 1861, Bradley became a page in the Kentucky House of Representatives and he studied law under his father, one of Kentuckys leading criminal defense lawyers. Although Kentucky law required that anyone taking the bar examination be at least twenty-one years old and this arrangement was contingent on Bradleys being judged competent by two circuit judgesWilliam O'Connell Bradley – William O'Connell Bradley
98. Charles Carroll the Settler – Charles Carroll, sometimes called Charles Carroll the Settler to differentiate him from his son and grandson, was a wealthy lawyer and planter in colonial Maryland. Carroll, a Catholic, is best known because his efforts to hold office in the Protestant-dominated colony resulted in the disfranchisement of the colonys Catholics. The second son of Irish Catholic parents, Carroll was educated in France as a lawyer before returning to England, before that career developed, he secured a position as Attorney General of the young colony of Maryland. Its founder George Calvert and his descendants intended it as a refuge for Catholics, Carroll supported Charles Calvert, the colonys Catholic proprietor, in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Protestant majority from gaining political control over Maryland. He was the wealthiest man in the colony by the time of his death, in the last years of his life, Carroll attempted to regain some vestige of political power for Catholics in the colony, but the Protestant colonial assembly and Governor John Hart disfranchised them. Carroll was the second of four born to Daniel Carroll of Aghagurty and Littermurna. The exact place of his birth is unclear, though it occurred near the small town of Aghagurty that Carrolls father took as part of his name. Some of the property near Aghagurty was obtained by a friend, Richard Grace. This action gave the family a livelihood, but the continued to have limited means compared to their former status. It is likely that Charles Carroll was fostered by the wealthier Grace, with Graces support, Carroll was able to attend school in France—at Lille and at the University of Douai—where he studied the humanities, philosophy, and civil and canon law. According to family tradition, Carroll secured a position as clerk to William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, according to Carroll family tradition, Powis told his new clerk that he believed King James was receiving bad advice related to the religious turmoil in England. Powis was concerned about the consequences for English Catholics and he supposedly spoke on Carrolls behalf to an associate of his, Charles Calvert, proprietor of the Maryland colony. Charles Calverts grandfather, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, was a member of Parliament and Secretary of State to James I. Intense lobbying by George Calvert had led to the granting of a charter to the Calvert family. The Maryland colony was established in the 1630s on land granted by this charter and it was intended as a haven for English Catholics and other religious minorities. Carroll received a commission from Calvert as the colonys Attorney General on July 18,1688, en route, Carroll changed his family motto from In fide et in bello forte to Ubicumque cum libertate. This event, known as the Glorious Revolution, had implications for the future of the Maryland colony. Soon after his arrival in Maryland, Carroll presented his commission to the council and was recognized as the new Attorney General of the colonyCharles Carroll the Settler – Charles Carroll the Settler
99. Murray Chotiner – Murray M Chotiner was an American political strategist, attorney, government official, and close associate and friend of President Richard Nixon during much of the 37th Presidents political career. He was active in each of Nixons two successful runs for the White House in low-profile positions, Chotiner was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, his father moved the family to California and then abandoned his wife and children. Murray Chotiner attended UCLA, and graduated from the Southwestern School of Law and he practiced law in Los Angeles, and branched out into public relations. Involving himself in Republican politics, he played a part in several political campaigns. Nixon retained Chotiner as a consultant to his first congressional campaign in 1946, Nixon was elected, and hired Chotiner to run his 1950 Senate campaign against Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas. Chotiner used a strategy in that campaign, stressing Douglas liberal voting record. Nixon recalled him to work on his unsuccessful 1962 campaign for Governor of California, after Nixon was inaugurated in 1969, Chotiner received a political appointment to a government position and, in 1970, became a member of the White House staff. He returned to practice a year later, but was involved in Nixons 1972 re-election campaign. He remained an adviser to Nixon until he died in Washington, D. C. following an auto accident in January 1974. Chotiner was born on October 4,1909, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the family moved to Columbus, Ohio, soon after Murrays birth, and relocated to California in 1920. Albert Chotiner, a cigar maker by trade, managed a chain of theaters in California. After attending the University of California, Los Angeles, Chotiner enrolled at the Southwestern School of Law, graduating at age 20, however, he had to wait until he was 21 to be eligible to take the bar exam. He later described many of his clients as unsavory, to say the least, in the early 1940s, he branched out into public relations. Chotiner initially registered to vote as a Democrat, but soon switched parties and he involved himself in Republican politics, working on Herbert Hoovers unsuccessful presidential re-election campaign in 1932. In 1938, the young attorney ran against longtime Republican incumbent Charles W. Lyon for the California State Assembly, Lyon cross-filed and secured his re-election by winning both primaries, defeating Chotiner in the Republican poll, and narrowly beating Robert A. Heinlein in the Democratic contest. When Earl Warren successfully ran for Governor of California in 1942, Warren had Chotiner thrown out of his office, and the future chief justice refused to let him have anything to do with his re-election campaign in 1946. According to Nixon biographer Earl Mazo, Chotiner stated that people remembered him for making Richard Nixon. Chotiner served as counsel to state committees investigating violence in motion picture strikes and conditions in boarding homesMurray Chotiner – Murray Chotiner
100. Grover Cleveland – Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. He was also the first and to date only President in American history to serve two terms in office. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation, imperialism and his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance, integrity, and he fought political corruption, patronage, and bossism. As a reformer Cleveland had such prestige that the wing of the Republican Party, called Mugwumps, largely bolted the GOP presidential ticket. As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a national depression. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian, the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, and he also drew corresponding criticism, critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nations economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. Even so, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term, biographer Allan Nevins wrote, n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have and he possessed honesty, courage, firmness, independence, and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not, today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader, generally ranked among the second tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18,1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey to Richard Falley Cleveland, Clevelands father was a Presbyterian minister who was originally from Connecticut. His mother was from Baltimore and was the daughter of a bookseller, on his fathers side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635. On his mothers side, he was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and he was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, Ohio, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell and he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, neighbors later described him as full of fun and inclined to play pranks, and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Clevelands father took a pastorate in Clinton, Oneida County, New York, despite his fathers dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a mercantile apprenticeship in FayettevilleGrover Cleveland – Caldwell Presbyterian parsonage, birthplace of Grover Cleveland
101. Paul E. Patton – Paul Edward Patton is an American politician. He was the 59th Governor of Kentucky, serving from 1995 to 2003, because of a 1992 amendment to the Kentucky Constitution, he was the first governor eligible to succeed himself in office since James Garrard in 1800. Since 2013, he has been the chancellor of the University of Pikeville in Pikeville and he also served as chairman of the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education from 2009 to 2011. After graduating from the University of Kentucky in 1959, Patton became wealthy operating coal mines for 20 years and he sold most of his coal interests in the late 1970s and entered politics, serving briefly in the cabinet of Governor John Y. Brown, Jr. and chairing the state Democratic Party, in 1981, he was elected judge/executive of Pike County. He made a bid for lieutenant governor in 1987, but was elected in 1991, serving concurrently as lieutenant governor. Four years later, Patton was elected Governor over Republican Larry Forgy, the economic prosperity that fueled Pattons first term success faded into a recession in the early 2000s. After initially denying the affair, Patton later admitted to it, later in his term, Patton was attacked for pardoning four of his political advisers who were indicted for violating Kentuckys campaign finance laws and for allegedly abusing his patronage powers. These successive scandals derailed any further political aspirations, Patton was born in Fallsburg, Kentucky on May 26,1937, in a retrofitted silo with no indoor plumbing, electricity, or telephone. He was the son of the three children born to Ward and Irene Patton. The family moved often because Ward Patton, a teacher, was assigned to a different school every year, when he was hired by a railroad in Pike County, he and his wife agreed that she would remain in Fallsburg with the children until they finished school. Patton attended Fallsburg Elementary School, a schoolhouse in his hometown. He was active in the 4-H club, where he began to develop his public speaking ability, in 1951, he enrolled at Louisa High School in Louisa, Kentucky. He was a student, a member of the drama club, a football and baseball player. In 1955, he graduated with the third-highest grade point average in his class of 73, after high school, Patton matriculated to the University of Kentucky. During the spring of 1956 he was initiated into the Kappa Sigma Fraternity, later that year he unsuccessfully sought a seat in the Student Government Association. Following his sophomore year, he married Carol Cooley, daughter of a Floyd County, Kentucky and they had two children together – Nikki and Christopher. Patton borrowed money from his father-in-law to finish his education, and he was later awarded an honorary Doctor of Public Service degree from the University of LouisvillePaul E. Patton – at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, 2012
102. Solomon P. Sharp – Solomon Porcius Sharp was an American attorney and politician, serving as attorney general of Kentucky and a member of the United States Congress and the Kentucky General Assembly. His murder by Jereboam O. Beauchamp in 1825 is referred to as the Beauchamp–Sharp Tragedy or The Kentucky Tragedy, Sharp began his political career representing Warren County, in the Kentucky House of Representatives. He briefly served in the War of 1812, then returned to Kentucky and was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1813. He was re-elected to a term, though his support of a controversial bill regarding legislator salaries cost him his seat in 1816. Allied with Kentuckys Debt Relief Party, he returned to the Kentucky House in 1817, in 1821, Adairs successor, Joseph Desha, re-appointed him to this position. In 1825, Sharp resigned as general to return to the Kentucky House. In 1820, rumors surfaced that Sharp had fathered an illegitimate child with Anna Cooke. Sharp denied the charge, and the political effects were minimal. When the charges were repeated during Sharps 1825 General Assembly campaign, whether Sharp made such a claim, or whether it was a rumor started by his political enemies, remains in doubt. Jereboam Beauchamp, who had married Cooke in 1824, avenged the honor of his wife by fatally stabbing Sharp at his home early on the morning of November 7,1825. Sharps murder inspired fictional works, most notably Edgar Allan Poes unfinished play Politian and Robert Penn Warrens novel World Enough, Solomon Sharp was born on August 22,1787, at Abingdon, Washington County, Virginia. He was the child and third son of Captain Thomas and Jean Sharp. Through the male line he was a great-great-grandson of John Sharp and his father Thomas Sharp was a veteran of the Revolutionary War, participating in the Battle of Kings Mountain. Sharp one of Logan Countys academies during his years, the schools of Logan County were primitive then. He read the law and was admitted to the bar in 1806 and he opened a practice in Russellville, but soon relocated to the busier Warren County seat of Bowling Green, which had 154 residents in 1810. He engaged in speculation, sometimes in partnership with his brother, Dr. Leander Sharp. After getting established, on December 17,1818, Sharp at the age of 31 married Eliza T. Scott and she was from Frankfort and above him in social standing. He moved the family to the capital of Frankfort in 1820 for his political careerSolomon P. Sharp – Solomon P. Sharp
103. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and then as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security. His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work also influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was presidentFranklin D. Roosevelt – Roosevelt in 1933
104. Harry S. Truman – Harry S. Truman was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States, assuming the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II. In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelts New Deal, but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them. He also used weapons to end World War II, desegregated the U. S. armed forces, supported a newly independent Israel. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, and spent most of his youth on his familys 600-acre farm near Independence, in the last months of World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he owned a haberdashery in Kansas City, Missouri, and joined the Democratic Party. Truman was first elected to office as a county official in 1922. After serving as a United States Senator from Missouri and briefly as Vice President, he succeeded to the presidency on April 12,1945, upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Germany surrendered on Trumans 61st birthday, just a few weeks after he assumed the presidency, but the war with Imperial Japan raged on and was expected to last at least another year. Although this decision and the issues that arose as a result of it remain the subject of debate to this day. Truman presided over a surge in economic prosperity as America sought readjustment after long years of depression. His presidency was a point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy. Truman helped found the United Nations in 1945, issued the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to contain Communism and his political coalition was based on the white South, labor unions, farmers, ethnic groups, and traditional Democrats across the North. Truman was able to rally groups of supporters during the 1948 presidential election. The Soviet Union became an enemy in the Cold War, Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949, but was unable to stop Communists from taking over China. When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he sent U. S. troops, after initial successes in Korea, however, the UN forces were thrown back by Chinese intervention, and the conflict was stalemated throughout the final years of Trumans presidency. Scholars, starting in 1962, ranked Trumans presidency as near great, Harry S. Truman was born on May 8,1884, in Lamar, Missouri, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman. His parents chose the name Harry after his mothers brother, Harrison Harry Young, while the S did not stand for any one name, it was chosen as his middle initial to honor both of his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. The initial has been written and printed followed by a periodHarry S. Truman – Harry S. Truman
105. David A. Johnston – David Alexander Johnston was an American USGS volcanologist who was killed by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington. A principal scientist on the USGS monitoring team, Johnston was killed in the eruption while manning an observation post 6 miles away on the morning of May 18,1980 and he was the first to report the eruption, transmitting Vancouver. Before he was swept away by a lateral blast, despite a thorough search, Johnstons body was never found, but state highway workers discovered remnants of his USGS trailer in 1993. Johnstons career took him across the United States, where he studied Augustine Volcano in Alaska, the San Juan volcanic field in Colorado, Johnston was a meticulous and talented scientist, known for his analyses of volcanic gases and their relationship to eruptions. This, along with his enthusiasm and positive attitude, made him liked and respected by many co-workers, after his death, other scientists lauded his character, both verbally and in dedications and letters. Johnston felt scientists must do what is necessary, including taking risks and his work, and that of fellow USGS scientists convinced authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the public before the 1980 eruption. They maintained the closure despite heavy pressure to re-open the area and his story became intertwined within the popular image of volcanic eruptions and their threat to society, and a part of volcanologys history. To date, Johnston, along with Harry Glicken, is one of two American volcanologists known to have died in a volcanic eruption. Following his death, Johnston was commemorated in several ways, including a fund established in his name at the University of Washington to fund graduate-level research. Two volcano observatories were established and named him, one in Vancouver, Washington. Johnstons life and death are featured in documentaries, films, docudramas. Along with others who died during the eruption, Johnstons name is inscribed on memorials dedicated to their memory, Johnston was born at the University of Chicago Hospital on December 18,1949, to Thomas and Alice Johnston. They originally lived in Hometown, Illinois, but moved to Oak Lawn shortly after Johnstons birth, Johnston grew up with one sister. His father worked as an engineer at a company and his mother as a newspaper editor. Johnston often took photographs for his mothers newspaper and contributed articles to his schools newspaper, after graduating from high school, Johnston attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He planned to study journalism, but became discouraged after a poor grade in a lecture class. He was intrigued by a geology class, and changed his major. His first geologic project was a study of the Precambrian rock that forms Michigans Upper Peninsula, There he investigated the remains of an ancient volcano, a suite of metamorphosed basalts, a gabbroic sill, and volcanic roots in the form of a dioritic and gabbroic intrusionDavid A. Johnston – David A. Johnston, 13 hours before his death at the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
106. Glynn Lunney – Glynn S. Lunney is a retired NASA engineer. At the end of the Apollo program, he became manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, later, he served as manager of the Space Shuttle program before leaving NASA in 1985 and later becoming a vice president of the United Space Alliance. Lunney was a key figure in the US manned space program from Project Mercury through the coming of the Space Shuttle and he has received numerous awards for his work, including the National Space Trophy, which he was given by the Rotary Club in 2005. Glynn Lunney grew up in the city of Old Forge. He was the eldest son of William Lunney, a welder and former miner who encouraged his son to get an education, Lunney graduated from the Scranton Preparatory School in 1953. A childhood interest in model airplanes prompted Lunney to study engineering in college, the center was a part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, a United States federal agency founded to promote aeronautical research. Cooperative students at NACA took part in a program that combined work and study, Lunney graduated from college in June 1958, with a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace engineering. After graduation, Lunney remained with NACA and his first job was as a researcher in aerospace dynamics at Lewis Research Center, where he worked with a team studying the thermodynamics of vehicles during high-speed reentry. Using a B-57 bomber, the team sent small rockets high into the atmosphere in order to measure their heating profile, only a month after Lunney graduated, President Eisenhower signed into existence the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, into which NACA was subsumed. His timing was perfect, for as Lunney later said, there was no such thing as space flight until the month I got out of college, aged twenty-one, he was the youngest of the forty-five members of the group. A member of the Flight Operations Division, Lunney was one of the responsible for planning and creating procedures for Project Mercury. He took part in the writing of the first set of mission rules and his colleague Gene Kranz described him as the pioneer leader of trajectory operations, who turned his craft from an art practiced by a few into a pure science. It was during these years that Lunney became the protege of flight director Chris Kraft, Lunney worked both in the Control Center and at remote sites, during the flight of John Glenn, Americas first orbital spaceflight, he was serving as the FIDO in Bermuda. In September 1961, NASAs Space Task Group was reorganized into the Manned Spacecraft Center and moved to Houston, Texas, and Lunney moved with it. Gemini was a forward for NASAs manned space program, the Gemini capsule was larger and more advanced than Mercury. Because of the longer durations, Mission Control began to be manned in shifts. In 1964, Glynn Lunney and Gene Kranz were selected by Chris Kraft to join Kraft, aged only twenty-eight, Lunney was the youngest of the four. Lunney worked backup on Gemini 3, taking charge of the newly established Mission Control Center in Houston, on Gemini 4, he again was working backup, this time in Florida, supporting the first mission that was controlled entirely from HoustonGlynn Lunney – Glynn Lunney in 1974, as manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
107. 109th United States Congress – House members were elected in the 2004 elections on November 2,2004. Senators were elected in three classes in the 2000 elections on November 7,2000,2002 elections on November 5,2002, the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-second Census of the United States in 2000. Both chambers had a Republican majority, the party as President Bush. In addition to the DeLay indictment, this Congress also had a number of scandals, Bob Ney, Randy Duke Cunningham, William J. Jefferson, Mark Foley scandal, and the Jack Abramoff scandals. This Congress met for 242 days, the fewest since World War II and 12 days fewer than the 80th Congress, the President vetoed only one bill, his first veto, the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005. February 17,2005, Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, 109–2 March 21,2005, Theresa Marie Schiavos law, Pub. L. 109–3 April 20,2005, Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, 109–8 April 27,2005, Family Entertainment and Copyright Act, Pub. L. 109–9 July 28,2005, Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, 109–53 July 29,2005, Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58 August 10,2005, Transportation Equity Act of 2005, 109–59 October 26,2005, Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act, Pub. L. 109–92 December 1,2005, Caribbean National Forest Act of 2005, 109–118 December 22,2005, Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–145 December 30,2005, Department of Defense Appropriations Act,2006, 109–148 February 8,2006, Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–171 May 17,2006, Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005, 109–222 May 29,2006, Respect for Americas Fallen Heroes Act, Pub. L. 109–228 July 27,2006, Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, 109–248 September 26,2006, Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–282 October 13,2006, Safe Port Act, Pub. L, 109–347, including title VIII, Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 October 17,2006, Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–366 October 26,2006, Secure Fence Act of 2006, 109–367 December 20,2006, Stolen Valor Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–437 December 20,2006, Tax Relief and Health Act of 2006, on January 16,2006, Democrat Jon Corzine resigned, but Democrat Bob Menendez was appointed and took Corzines seat the next day. All seats were filled though special elections, the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. Members who came and left during this Congress, House of Representatives Statistics & Lists from the U. S. Senate Legislative information from Congress. gov at the Library of Congress House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 109th Congress109th United States Congress – House Speaker Dennis Hastert (2006)
108. Commandant of the Marine Corps – The Commandant of the Marine Corps is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel, as with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces. The Commandant is nominated by the President for a term of office. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a general while serving in office. The Commandant is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the performance of the Marine Corps. This includes the administration, discipline, internal organization, training, requirements, efficiency, the Commandant is also responsible for the operation of the Marine Corps material support system. Since 1801, the residence of the Commandant has been located in the Marine Barracks in Washington, D. C. and his main offices are in Arlington County. The responsibilities of the Commandant are outlined in Title 10, Section 5043 the United States Code and the position is subject to the authority, direction, as stated in the U. S. Thirty-seven men have served as the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The longest-serving was Archibald Henderson, sometimes referred to as the Grand old man of the Marine Corps due to his thirty-nine-year tenure. In the 236-year history of the United States Marine Corps, only one Commandant has ever been fired from the job, Anthony Gale, as a result of a court-martial in 1820. Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps, allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds. CS1 maint, Uses editors parameter Ulbrich, David J. Preparing for Victory, Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-183Commandant of the Marine Corps – Incumbent General Robert B. Neller since September 24, 2015
109. List of National Parks of the United States – The United States has 59 protected areas known as national parks that are operated by the National Park Service, an agency of the Department of the Interior. National parks must be established by an act of the United States Congress. The first national park, Yellowstone, was signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1872, followed by Mackinac National Park in 1875, many current National Parks had been previously protected as National Monuments by the President under the Antiquities Act before being upgraded by Congress. Criteria for the selection of National Parks include natural beauty, unique features, unusual ecosystems. National Monuments, on the hand, are frequently chosen for their historical or archaeological significance. Fourteen national parks are designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites, while twenty one are designated UNESCO Biosphere Reserves, twenty-seven states have national parks, as do the territories of American Samoa and the United States Virgin Islands. California has the most, followed by Alaska, Utah, the largest national park is Wrangell–St. Elias in Alaska, at over 8 million acres, it is larger than each of the nine smallest states, the next three largest parks are also in Alaska. The smallest park is Hot Springs, Arkansas, at less than 6 thousand acres. The total area protected by national parks is approximately 52.2 million acres, for an average of 885 thousand acres but a median of only 236 thousand acres at Mount Rainier, the 30th largest park. The most-visited national park is Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee, with over 11.3 million visitors in 2016, followed by Arizonas Grand Canyon, in contrast, only 10,047 people visited the remote Gates of the Arctic in Alaska in the same year. A few former national parks are no longer designated as such, other units of the National Park Service are broadly referred to as national parks, they are listed here. SList of National Parks of the United States – 1938 poster for Yellowstone National Park
110. List of U.S. state name etymologies – The fifty U. S. states have taken their names from a wide variety of languages. Twenty-two other state names derive from European languages, seven come from Latin, five come from English, five come from Spanish, the etymologies of six states are disputed or unclear, Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Oregon, and Rhode Island. Of the fifty states, eleven are named after an individual person, of those eleven, seven are named in honor of European monarchs, the two Carolinas, the two Virginias, Maryland, Louisiana and Georgia. Native American Placenames of the United States, guyton, Kathy U. S. State Names, The Stories of How Our States Were NamedList of U.S. state name etymologies – Map showing the source languages of state names
111. List of U.S. states by population – As of April 1,2010, the date of the 2010 United States Census, the nine most populous U. S. states contain slightly more than half of the total population. The 25 least populous states contain less than one-sixth of the total population, california, the most populous state, contains more people than the 21 least populous states combined. The United States Census counts most persons residing in the United States including citizens, non-citizen permanent residents, civilian and military federal employees serving abroad and their dependents are counted in their home state. This apportionment is based on the proportion of states population to that of the Fifty States together. The Electoral College is the body that, every four years, elects the President, each states representation in the Electoral College is equal to that states total number of members in both houses of the United States Congress. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution effectively grants the District of Columbia, which is separate from any state, three votes. More precisely, the district gets as many votes in the Electoral College as it would have if it were a state, since the Constitution guarantees every state at least one Representative and effectively guarantees every state two Senators, it effectively guarantees every state at least three electoral votes. Thus, the representation in the College is 538 members. The eleven most populous states, representing 56% of the population, currently have a majority of the Electoral College votes and these eleven states have not voted for the same candidate in any presidential election since 1984. 2010 Apportionment Population, U. S. Census Bureau, retrieved January 6,20112009 Census estimates. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07, statistical Abstract of the United States,1995, U. S. Census Bureau, Section 29, Outlying Areas, Table No.1347. Land Area and Population Characteristics, by Area,1990, retrieved May 28,2011 Specific United States Government United States Census Bureau USCB population estimates United States Office of Management and BudgetList of U.S. states by population – Map of each state's population as of 2013.
112. United States Secretary of Energy – The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the U. S. Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, and fourteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1,1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act, originally the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education, after the end of the Cold War, the departments attention also turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality. Schlesinger is also the secretary to be dismissed from the post. Hazel OLeary, Bill Clintons first Secretary of Energy, was the first female, the first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clintons second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on November 15,2004, steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 20,2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama. He is also the longest-serving Secretary of Energy, parties Democratic Republican As of April 2017, there are ten living former Secretaries of Energy, the oldest being Charles Duncan, Jr. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was James B, the most recently serving Secretary to die was James D. Watkins on July 26,2012. United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy Official site of U. S. Department of EnergyUnited States Secretary of Energy – Incumbent Ernest Moniz since May 21, 2013
113. Timeline of United States history – This is a timeline of United States history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political and economic events in the United States and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of the United States, some dates before September 14,1752, when the British government adopted the Gregorian calendar, may be given in the Old StyleTimeline of United States history – Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He was one of the first Europeans to arrive to the current U.S. because led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named.
114. Colonial history of the United States – The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain, small early attempts often disappeared, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. Everywhere, the rate was very high among the first arrivals. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established several decades. European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups, few aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers, farmers, and tradesmen arrived. They built colonies with distinctive social, religious, political, non-British colonies were taken over and most of the inhabitants were assimilated, unlike in Nova Scotia, where the British expelled the French Acadian inhabitants. There were no civil wars among the 13 colonies. The colonies developed legalized systems of slavery, based largely in the Atlantic slave trade from Africa or by way of the Caribbean, Wars were recurrent between the French and the British—the French and Indian Wars especially—and involved French support for Native American attacks on the British frontiers. By 1760, France was defeated and the British seized its colonies, on the eastern seaboard of what became the United States, the four distinct British regions were, New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies, and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region of the Frontier which was never separately organized, see timeline of Colonial America for list of historical events. Colonizers came from European kingdoms that had highly developed military, naval, governmental and these efforts were managed respectively by the Casa de Contratación and the Casa da Índia. England, France, and the Netherlands had also started colonies in both the West Indies and North America and they had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Portugal and Spain. However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a foundation of merchant-based investment that seemed to need much less government support, initially, matters concerning the colonies were dealt with primarily by the Privy Council and its committees. The Commission of Trade was set up in 1625 as the first special body convened to advise on colonial questions, mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies from the 1660s. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold, the government took its share through duties and taxes, with the remainder going to merchants in Britain. The government spent much of its revenue on a superb Royal Navy which protected the British colonies, thus, the British Navy captured New Amsterdam in 1664. The colonies were captive markets for British industry, and the goal was to enrich the mother country, the prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. People fleeing persecution by King Charles I were responsible for settling most of New England, anonymous Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to map the future eastern seaboard of the U. S. from New York to Florida, as documented in the Cantino planisphere of 1502Colonial history of the United States – Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He explored in Florida, which he named.
115. Thirteen Colonies – The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political, constitutional, and legal systems and they were part of Britains possessions in the New World, which also included colonies in present-day Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. However, the Thirteen Colonies had a degree of self-government and active local elections. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with each other instead of dealing directly with Britain, Colonial decisions were subject to approval by the governor and the home government. There were also substantial populations of African slaves in some of the colonies, especially Virginia, the Carolinas, the names of the colonies were chosen by the founders and proprietors, subject to royal approval, and given in the founding charters. Nine of the thirteen chose to include in their names the term Province of, later residents tended to drop the ambiguous terminology, as in the map shown in the article Province of New Jersey, which is labeled simply East Jersey and West Jersey. In July 1776, they formed a new nation called the United States of America, the new nation achieved that goal by winning the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France, the Netherlands, and Spain. The American flag features thirteen horizontal stripes which represent these original thirteen colonies, besides these thirteen colonies, Britain had another dozen in the New World. Those in the British West Indies, Newfoundland, the Province of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Bermuda, and East and West Florida remained loyal to the crown throughout the war. The British crown had recently acquired those lands, and many of the issues facing the Thirteen Colonies did not apply to them, especially in the case of Quebec. Contemporary documents usually list the thirteen colonies of British North America in geographical order, the consolidation collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, and the nine former colonies re-established their separate identities in 1689. Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled in 1630 by Puritans from England, the colonial charter was revoked in 1684, and a new charter was issued in 1691 establishing an enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay. Province of Maine Settled in 1622, the Massachusetts Bay Colony claimed the Maine territory in the 1650s, then limited to present-day southernmost Maine. Parts of Maine east of the Kennebec River were also part of New York in the half of the 17th century. These areas were made part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Plymouth Colony Settled in 1620 by the Pilgrims, plymouth was merged into the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Saybrook Colony Founded in 1635 and merged with Connecticut Colony in 1644, New Haven Colony Settled in late 1637. New Netherland Extensive region centered about New Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan IslandThirteen Colonies – Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule.
116. United States Declaration of Independence – Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast, a committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term Declaration of Independence is not used in the document itself, John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The next day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, but Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms and it was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for printing has been lost. Jeffersons original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric, and his policies and this has been called one of the best-known sentences in the English language, containing the most potent and consequential words in American history. The passage came to represent a standard to which the United States should strive. Believe me, dear Sir, there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose, and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America. By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, however, had developed a different conception of the empire, the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, and colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliaments authority in the colonies. In the colonies, however, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, after the Townshend Acts, some essayists even began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at allUnited States Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy
117. Reconstruction Era – Johnson followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincolns last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. A Republican coalition came to power in all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army. The Bureau protected the rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts. Thousands of Northerners came South as missionaries, teachers, businessmen, rebuilding the rundown railroad system was a major strategy, but it collapsed when a nationwide depression struck the economy. The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnsons opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges, in early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmens Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. Meanwhile, self-styled Conservatives strongly opposed reconstruction and they alleged widespread corruption by the Carpetbaggers, excessive state spending and ruinous taxes. Southern democrats and conservatives violently counterattacked and had regained power in each redeemed Southern state by 1877, meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North, as voters decided that the Civil War and years of conflict should stop. Reconstruction was a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States, in the different states Reconstruction began and ended at different times, federal Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in 1863 rather than 1865, Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1,1863. As Confederate states came back under control of the US Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in Tennessee, Arkansas and he experimented by giving land to blacks in South Carolina. By fall 1865, the new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity, Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnsons lenient terms, rejected new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before. Johnson broke with the Republicans after vetoing two key bills that supported the Freedmens Bureau and provided federal civil rights to the freedmen and that same year, Congress removed civilian governments in the South, and placed the former Confederacy under the rule of the U. S. Army. In ten states, coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North, Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and whites who supported Reconstruction. Most of the violence was carried out by members of the Ku Klux Klan, Klan members attacked and intimidated blacks seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the south favoring those civil rights. One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the 1868 presidential election was Republican Congressman James M. Hinds of Arkansas, widespread violence in the south led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1871, which suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, white Democrats, calling themselves Redeemers, regained control of the state by state, sometimes using fraud. The end of Reconstruction was a process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different statesReconstruction Era – The southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865
118. Korean War – The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel. After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. SKorean War – Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division 's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of an American M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
119. Cold War – The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. The term cold is used there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, the Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press, a small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the USSR and USA competed for influence in Latin America, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets, the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, the United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the reforms of perestroika and glasnost. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. The United States remained as the only superpower. The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfareCold War – Photograph of the Berlin Wall taken from the West side. The Wall was built in 1961 to prevent East Germans from fleeing and to stop an economically disastrous drain of workers. It was a symbol of the Cold War and its fall in 1989 marked the approaching end of the war.
120. Vietnam War – It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and later on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962. Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has also been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is also called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decadesVietnam War – Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Offensive, two Douglas A-4C Skyhawks en route for airstrikes against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre.
121. War on Terrorism – The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is a metaphor of war referring to the international military campaign that started after the September 11th attacks on the United States. U. S. President George W. Bush first used the term War on Terror on 20 September 2001 and it was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with Islamic terrorist organizations including al-Qaeda and like-minded organizations. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced that the United States was no longer pursuing a War on Terror, in 2017 Donald Trump assumed presidency of the United States and vowed that the fight against ISIL is his number one priority. Trump has also agreed to work together and carry joint operations with Russian President Vladimir Putin in the war on terror. The phrase War on Terror has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. The conflict has also referred to by names other than the War on Terror. Author Shane Harris asserts this was a reaction to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, Bush later apologized for this remark due to the negative connotations the term crusade has to people, e. g. of the Muslim faith. The word crusade was not used again, on 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, Bush stated that ur war on terror begins with al-Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, in April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase War on Terror as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more recently by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller, in her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were a crime, not an act of war. So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror. U. S. President Barack Obama has rarely used the term, in March 2009 the Defense Department officially changed the name of operations from Global War on Terror to Overseas Contingency Operation. In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term, basic objectives of the Bush administration war on terror, such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. Because the actions involved in the war on terrorism are diffuse, jackson cites among many examples a statement by John Ashcroft that the attacks of September 11 drew a bright line of demarcation between the civil and the savage. Administration officials also described terrorists as hateful, treacherous, barbarous, mad, twisted, perverted, without faith, parasitical, inhuman, Americans, in contrast, were described as brave, loving, generous, strong, resourceful, heroic, and respectful of human rights. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to the Soviet war in Afghanistan, a small number of Afghan Arab volunteers joined the fight against the Soviets, including Osama bin Laden, but there is no evidence they received any external assistance. On 7 August 1998, al-Qaeda struck the U. S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 224 people, the plant produced much of the regions antimalarial drugs and around 50% of Sudans pharmaceutical needs. The strikes failed to kill any leaders of WIFJAJC or the Taliban, next came the 2000 millennium attack plots, which included an attempted bombing of Los Angeles International AirportWar on Terrorism – Clockwise from top left: Aftermath of the 11 September attacks; American infantry in Afghanistan; an American soldier and Afghan interpreter in Zabul Province, Afghanistan; explosion of an Iraqi car bomb in Baghdad.
122. Federal government of the United States – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsFederal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
123. Supreme Court of the United States – The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution. The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court also ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v. Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase, Waite, and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to voteSupreme Court of the United States – Chief Justice Marshall
124. United States court of appeals – The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system. A court of appeals decides appeals from the courts within its federal judicial circuit. The United States courts of appeals are considered among the most powerful, because of their ability to set legal precedent in regions that cover millions of Americans, the United States courts of appeals have strong policy influence on U. S. law. The Ninth Circuit in particular is influential, covering 20% of the American population. There are currently 179 judges on the U. S. courts of appeals authorized by Congress in 28 U. S. C. §43 pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution. These judges are nominated by the President of the United States and they have lifetime tenure, earning an annual salary of $215,400. The eleven numbered circuits and the D. C. Circuit are geographically defined, the thirteenth court of appeals is the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which has nationwide jurisdiction over certain appeals based on their subject matter. All of the courts of appeals also hear appeals from some administrative decisions and rulemaking. Decisions of the U. S. courts of appeals have been published by the private company West Publishing in the Federal Reporter series since the courts were established, only decisions that the courts designate for publication are included. The unpublished opinions are published separately in Wests Federal Appendix, more recently, court decisions have also been made available electronically on official court websites. However, there are also a few federal court decisions that are classified for security reasons. The number of judges that the U. S. Congress has authorized for each circuit is set forth by law in 28 U. S. C. §44, while the places where those judges must regularly sit to hear appeals are prescribed in 28 U. S. C, the current courts of appeals system was established in the Judiciary Act of 1891, also known as the Evarts Act. Because the courts of appeals possess only appellate jurisdiction, they do not hold trials, instead, appeals courts review decisions of trial courts for errors of law. Accordingly, a court considers only the record from the trial court. These arguments, which are presented in form and can range in length from dozens to hundreds of pages, are known as briefs. Sometimes lawyers are permitted to add to their written briefs with oral arguments before the appeals judges, at such hearings, only the parties lawyers speak to the court. The rules that govern the procedure in the courts of appeals are the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, in a court of appeals, an appeal is almost always heard by a panel of three judges who are randomly selected from the available judgesUnited States court of appeals – Map of the geographic boundaries of the various United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts
125. Policing in the United States – Law enforcement in the United States is one of three major components of the criminal justice system of the United States, along with courts and corrections. Although each component operates semi-independently, the three form a chain leading from investigation of suspected criminal activity to administration of criminal punishment. Also, courts are vested with the power to make determinations regarding the conduct of the other two components. Law enforcement operates primarily through governmental police agencies, other duties may include the service and enforcement of warrants, writs, and other orders of the courts. Policing in the United States is conducted by close to 18,000 federal, state, local, every state has its own nomenclature for agencies, and their powers, responsibilities and funding vary from state to state. Both police and law enforcement agencies operate at the highest level and are endowed with police roles, the agencies have nationwide jurisdiction for enforcement of federal law. All federal agencies are limited by the U. S. Code to investigating matters that are explicitly within the power of the federal government. However, federal powers have become very broad in practice. The Department of Justice is responsible for most law enforcement duties at the federal level, the Department of Homeland Security is another branch with numerous federal law enforcement agencies reporting to it. U. S. Customs and Border Protection, U. S and it should be noted that the United States Coast Guard is assigned to the United States Department of Defense in the event of war. Command in such situations remains a complex and flexible issue, each of the United States 50 federated states retain their own police, military and domestic law-making powers. The US Constitution gives the government the power to deal with foreign affairs. For policing, this means if a non-federal crime is committed in a US state and the fugitive does not flee the state. Most states operate statewide government agencies that provide law enforcement duties, including investigations and they may be called state police or highway patrol, and are normally part of the state Department of Public Safety. In addition, the Attorney Generals office of state has its own state bureau of investigation. In Texas, the Texas Ranger Division fulfill this role though they have their history in the period before Texas became a state, in Colorado, for instance, the Department of Revenue has its own investigative branch, as do many of the state-funded universities. Also known as parishes and boroughs, county law enforcement is provided by sheriffs departments or offices, County police tend to exist only in metropolitan counties and have countywide jurisdiction. In some areas, there is a department which only handles minor issues such as service of papersPolicing in the United States – United States Secret Service Uniformed Division officers
126. Defense Intelligence Agency – The Defense Intelligence Agency is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence. It also provides assistance, integration and coordination across uniformed military service intelligence components. The agencys role encompasses the collection and analysis of military-related foreign political, economic, industrial, geographic, DIA produces approximately one-fourth of all intelligence content that goes into the Presidents Daily Brief. DIAs intelligence operations extend beyond the zones of combat, and approximately half of its employees serve overseas at hundreds of locations, the agency specializes in collection and analysis of human-source intelligence, both overt and clandestine, while also handling American military-diplomatic relations abroad. DIA concurrently serves as the manager for the highly technical measurement and signature intelligence. The agency has no law enforcement authority, but it is portrayed so in American popular culture. DIA has a tradition of marking unclassified deaths of its employees on the organizations Memorial Wall and he is the primary intelligence adviser to the Secretary of Defense and also answers to the Director of National Intelligence. Additionally, he chairs the Military Intelligence Board, which coordinates activities of the defense intelligence community. DIA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. on Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling, with operational activities at the Pentagon, at each Unified Combatant Command. Embassies around the world, where it alongside other government partners. Additionally, the agency has staff deployed at the Col. James N, DIA and the Central Intelligence Agency are distinct organizations with different functions. DIA focuses on national level defense-military topics, while CIA is concentrated on broader, more general needs of the President. DIA is not a collective of all U. S. military intelligence units, DIA does, however, lead coordination efforts with the military intelligence units and with the national DOD intelligence services in its role as chair of the Military Intelligence Board. It globally deploys teams of officers, interrogation experts, field analysts, linguists, technical specialists. Defense Attache System, DAS represents the United States in defense and it also manages and conducts overt human intelligence collection activities. Defense Attaches serve from Defense Attache Offices co-located at more than a hundred United States Embassies in foreign nations, Defense Attaches also represent the Secretary of Defense in diplomatic relations with foreign governments and militaries and coordinate military activities with partner nations. Defense Cover Office – DCO is a DIA component responsible for executing cover programs for agencys intelligence operatives, Directorate for Analysis, The Directorate of Analysis manages the all-source analysis elements of DIA. Analysts contribute to the Presidents Daily Brief and the National Intelligence Estimates, analysts serve DIA in all of the agencys facilities as well as globally in the fieldDefense Intelligence Agency – Bird's eye view of DIA HQ from the Potomac in Washington, DC
127. United States Army – The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784, the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed service, the Army is part of the Department of the Army. As a branch of the forces, the mission of the U. S. The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States, the United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S, the army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources, a number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills. The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–81 sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, hitting where the British were weakest, to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776, with a decisive victory at Yorktown, and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates, State militias became the new nations sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Points arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops, were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant, and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides, the United States and Great Britain, returned to the status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict, the armys major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars to defeat the Seminoles and move them to OklahomaUnited States Army – Storming of Redoubt #10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted the British government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and British recognition of the United States of America.
128. United States Navy – The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows then as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the CongressUnited States Navy
129. United States Air Force – The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly, fight, and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air, space, and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, moreover, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner. Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety, security and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe, secure and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries, allies, and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft, loss, and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, control, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its sourceUnited States Air Force – First F-35 Lightning II of the 33rd Fighter Wing arrives at Eglin AFB
130. United States Coast Guard – The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the countrys seven uniformed services. This has happened twice, in 1917, during World War I, created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue Marine, by the 1860s, the service was known as the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue Marine gradually fell into disuse, the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury. As one of the five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War. As of 2014 the Coast Guard had over 36,000 men and women on duty,7,350 reservists,29,620 auxiliarists. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the worlds 12th largest naval force. Because of its authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the U. S. Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with Title 14 USC 1–3. The Coast Guards enduring roles are maritime safety, security, to carry out those roles, it has 11 statutory missions as defined in 6 U. S. C. §468, which include enforcing U. S. law in the worlds largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles, the Coast Guards motto is the Latin phrase, Semper Paratus. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, the Coast Guards most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit. Wil Milam, a swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, In the Navy. Practicing for war, training for war, in the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself. The Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are subdivided into eleven statutory missions. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for military and civilian search and rescue. The two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators, previously located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. The NRC also takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports, details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution, the five uniformed services that make up the U. SUnited States Coast Guard – A boatswain's mate watches from the side port door as Coast Guard Cutter Bertholf's Over-The-Horizon small boat departs to receive personnel from Coast Guard Cutter Chandeleur in 2008.
131. Elections in the United States – The United States is a federal republic, with elected officials at the federal, state and local levels. On a national level, the head of state, the President, is elected indirectly by the people of each state, today, the electors virtually always vote with the popular vote of their state. All members of the legislature, the Congress, are directly elected by the people of each state. There are many elected offices at state level, each state having at least an elective Governor, there are also elected offices at the local level, in counties, cities, towns, townships, boroughs, and villages. According to a study by political scientist Jennifer Lawless, there were 519,682 elected officials in the United States as of 2012, the United States Constitution defines how the elections of federal officials are conducted in each state, in Article One and Article Two and various amendments. The restriction and extension of voting rights to different groups has been a contested process throughout the United States history, the federal government has also been involved in attempts to increase voter turnout, by measures such as the National Voter Registration Act of 1993. The financing of elections has always been controversial, because private sources make up substantial amounts of campaign contributions, voluntary public funding for candidates willing to accept spending limits was introduced in 1974 for presidential primaries and elections. S. The most common used in U. S. elections is the first-past-the-post system. Some may use a system, where if no candidate receives a required number of votes then there is a runoff between the two candidates with the most votes. Since 2002, several cities have adopted instant-runoff voting in their elections, Voters rank the candidates in order of preference rather than voting for a single candidate. If a candidate more than half of votes cast, that candidate wins. Otherwise, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated, ballots assigned to the eliminated candidate are recounted and assigned to those of the remaining candidates who rank next in order of preference on each ballot. This process continues until one wins by obtaining more than half the votes. The eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the constitution, the constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color, sex or age for citizens eighteen years or older. Beyond these basic qualifications, it is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate voter eligibility, some states ban convicted criminals, especially felons, from voting for a fixed period of time or indefinitely. The number of American adults who are currently or permanently ineligible to vote due to felony convictions is estimated to be 5.3 million, while the federal government has jurisdiction over federal elections, most election laws are decided at the state level. All U. S. states except North Dakota require that citizens who wish to vote be registered. Traditionally, voters had to register at state offices to vote, other states allow citizens same-day registration on Election DayElections in the United States – An 1846 painting, The County Election by George Caleb Bingham, showing a polling judge administering an oath to a voter.
132. Red states and blue states – Since then, the use of the term has been expanded to differentiate between states being perceived as liberal and those perceived as conservative. All states contain both liberal and conservative voters and only appear red/blue on the map because of the winner-take-all system used by most states in the Electoral College. Indeed, until the 1980s, Republicans were often represented by blue, the current terminology of red states and blue states came into use in the United States presidential election of 2000 on an episode of the Today show on October 30,2000. According to The Washington Post, the terms were coined by journalist Tim Russert, the colors red and blue also are featured on the U. S. flag. Traditional political mapmakers, at least throughout the 20th century, have used blue to represent the modern-day Republicans and this may have been a holdover from the American Civil War, during which the predominantly Republican north was considered blue. However, at time, a maker of widely-sold maps accompanied them with blue pencils in order to mark Confederate force movements. The parties themselves had no official colors, with candidates variously using either or both of the color palette of red and blue. In 1908, The New York Times printed a special color map, using blue for Democrats and yellow for Republicans, the advent of color television prompted television news reporters to rely on color-coded electoral maps, though sources conflict as to the conventions they followed. One source claims that in the six elections prior to 2000 every Democrat, according to another source, in 1976, John Chancellor, the anchorman for NBC Nightly News, asked his networks engineers to construct a large illuminated map of the United States. The map was placed in the networks news studio. If Jimmy Carter, the Democratic candidate that year, won a state, it would light up in red, if Gerald Ford, NBC continued to use the color scheme employed in 1976 for several years. NBC newsman David Brinkley famously referred to the 1980 election map outcome showing Republican Ronald Reagans 44-state landslide as resembling a suburban swimming pool, CBS, from the 1984 election on, used the opposite scheme, blue for Democrats, red for Republicans. ABC used yellow for Republicans and blue for Democrats in 1976, however, in 1980 and 1984, ABC used red for Republicans and blue for Democrats. Similarly, in 1992 and 1996, at least one network would have used yellow to indicate a state won by Ross Perot, on Election Night that year, there was no coordinated effort to code Democratic states blue and Republican states red, the association gradually emerged. Partly as a result of this eventual and near-universal color-coding, the red states. After the results were final, journalists stuck with the scheme, as The Atlantics December 2001 cover story by David Brooks entitled, One Nation, Slightly Divisible. Thus, red and blue became fixed in the media and in peoples minds. Some Republicans argue the GOP should retain its link with blueRed states and blue states – States carried by the Republican in all four elections
133. County (United States) – In the United States, an administrative or political sub-division of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term county is used in 48 U. S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes, most counties have subdivisions which may include municipalities and unincorporated areas. Others have no divisions, or may serve as a singular consolidated city-county. Some municipalities are in multiple counties, New York City is uniquely partitioned into multiple counties/boroughs, the U. S. federal government uses the term county equivalent to describe non-county administrative or statistical areas that are comparable to counties. Alaskas Unorganized Borough is divided into 11 census areas that are equivalent to counties. As of 2013, the United States has 3,007 counties and 137 county equivalents for a total of 3,144 counties, the number of counties per state ranges from the 3 counties of Delaware to the 254 counties of Texas. Counties have significant governmental functions in all states except Rhode Island and Connecticut, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has removed most government functions from eight of its 14 counties. The county with the largest population, Los Angeles County, counties were among the earliest units of local government established in the Thirteen Colonies that would become the United States. Virginia created the first counties in order to ease the workload in Jamestown. Americas oldest intact county court records can be found at Eastville, Virginia, in Northampton County, maryland established its first county, St. Marys, in 1637, and Massachusetts followed in 1643. When independence came, the framers of the Constitution did not provide for local governments, rather, they left the matter to the states. Subsequently, early state constitutions generally conceptualized county government as an arm of the state, in some states, these powers are partly or mostly devolved to the counties smaller divisions usually called townships, though in New York, New England and Wisconsin they are called towns. The county may or may not be able to override its townships on certain matters, the newest county in the United States is the city and county of Broomfield, Colorado, established in 2001 as a consolidated city-county. The newest county-equivalents are the Alaskan boroughs of Skagway established in 2007, Wrangell established in 2008, there are 40 consolidated city-counties in the U. S. Similarly, some of Alaskas boroughs have merged with their principal cities creating unified city-boroughs. Some such consolidations and mergers have created cities that rank among the geographically largest cities in the world, see also, #County names, regarding Louisiana. Independent cities, These are cities that legally belong to no county, Washington, D. C. outside the jurisdiction of any state, has a special status. The city of Washington comprises the entirety of the District of Columbia, when founded in 1801, the District consisted of two counties and three cities. In 1846, Alexandria County – including the then–City of Alexandria – was given back to Virginia, in 1871, the three remaining entities – the City of Washington, Georgetown City, and Washington County – were merged into a consolidated government by an act of CongressCounty (United States) – A highway sign designating the border between Nicholas and Greenbrier counties in West Virginia along a secondary road.
134. New England – New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeast United States, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and south, the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Its largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston, which also includes Worcester, Manchester, ten years later, more Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston, thus forming Massachusetts Bay Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the British and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in North America. In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts and surrounding areas experienced one of the most infamous cases of hysteria in the history of the Western Hemisphere. The Boston Tea Party was a protest to which Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government, the confrontation led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775, and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. Each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns. The only unincorporated areas in the region exist in the populated northern regions of Vermont, New Hampshire. The region is one of the U. S. Census Bureaus nine regional divisions, the earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages. Prominent tribes included the Abenaki, Mikmaq, Penobscot, Pequot, Mohegans, Narragansett Indians, Pocumtuck, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine. Their principal town was Norridgewock in present-day Maine, the Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine. The Narragansett and smaller tribes under Narragansett sovereignty lived in most of modern-day Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, the Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Marthas Vineyard and Nantucket. The Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, and the Mohegan and Pequot tribes in the Connecticut region, the Connecticut River Valley includes parts of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and linked different indigenous communities culturally, linguistically, and politically. As early as 1600, French, Dutch, and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal, glass, on April 10,1606, King James I of England issued a charter for each of the Virginia Companies, London and Plymouth. These were privately funded ventures, intended to land for England, conduct trade. In 1620, Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts was settled by Pilgrims from the Mayflower, in 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region New England. As the first colonists arrived in Plymouth, they wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact, the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633, roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, and founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636New England – Clockwise from top: skyline of Boston, Massachusetts financial district at night; a building of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut; a view from Nubble Light on Cape Neddick, Maine; view from Mount Mansfield, Vermont; and a fisherman on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
135. Southern United States – The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States, arizona and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, usually, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European, African, and some Native American components. Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political, demographic, and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, indeed, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, morality, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, however, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization. The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are includedSouthern United States – Texas Hill Country
136. Southwestern United States – The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico. The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave, yucca and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Phoenix, Tucson, Mesa, Chandler, Glendale, also within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona. In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest, driest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest regionSouthwestern United States – Panoramic view of the southwestern United States.
137. Appalachian Mountains – The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period and it once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before naturally occurring erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines, definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the mountain range with its surrounding hills. The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrezs map of 1562, the name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the regions of the Appalachians. In northern parts of the range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈleɪtʃᵻnz/ or /ˌæpəˈleɪʃᵻnz/, the third syllable is like lay. There is often debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlætʃiən/, the whole system may be divided into three great sections, Northern, The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are also unassociated with the Appalachians, Central, The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia. Southern, The southern section runs from the New River onwards and it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, and the Cumberland PlateauAppalachian Mountains – View from the slopes of Back Allegheny Mountain, looking east; visible are Allegheny Mountain (in the Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia, middle distance) and Shenandoah Mountain (in the George Washington National Forest of Virginia, far distance)
138. Mississippi River – The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, then settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and then as a vital transportation artery and communications link. Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is also noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, however, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, Missouri, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper riverMississippi River – Mississippi River near Fire Point in Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa
139. Extreme points of the United States – This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. Also included are extreme points in elevation, extreme distances, North Dakota has the northernmost geographic center of the 48 contiguous states. Hawaii has the southernmost geographic center of all the states, Florida has the southernmost geographic center of the 48 contiguous states. Point Udall, Guam – westernmost point in all U. S. S and it possesses the highest longitude west figure before 180° longitude, which passes west of it. After 180°, longitude is termed east and declines numerically, oregon has the westernmost geographic center of the 48 contiguous states. There are three methods for reckoning the eastern and western extremes of the United States, one method is to use the Prime Meridian as the dividing line between east and west. This meridian running through Greenwich, London, is defined as zero degrees longitude and could be called the least eastern, the 180th meridian, on the opposite side of the globe, is therefore the easternmost and westernmost place in the world. Another method is to use the International Date Line as the easternmost–westernmost extreme, on the equinox, the easternmost place would be where the day first begins, and the westernmost is where the day last ends. Still another method is to first determine the center of the country. All U. S. territory is spread across less than 180° of longitude, so from any spot in the U. S. it is direct to reach Point Udall, U. S. Virgin Islands. Likewise, there is not a point in U. S. territory from which heading east is a shorter route to Point Udall, Guam, than heading west would be. The two Udalls for whom the two Points are named were brothers, Mo Udall in Guam and Stewart Udall in the Virgin Islands. S, leadville, Colorado 39°14′50″N 106°17′30″W – highest city in all U. S. territory at 10,152 feet. Lake County Airport, Colorado 39°13′13″N 106°19′00″W – highest airfield in all U. S. S. S. State low point at 3,317 feet Beech Mountain, North Carolina 36°12′23″N 81°52′59″W is the highest incorporated community at an elevation of 5,506 feet east of the Mississippi River. Boone, North Carolina 36°12′41″N 81°40′7″W has the highest elevation of any town of its size east of the Mississippi River, eisenhower Tunnel west of Denver, Colorado is the highest point on the Interstate Highway System at 11,158 feet. The geographic center of the North American continent is located at 48°10′N 100°10′W, about 6 miles west of Balta in Pierce County, the Continental United States southwest most point is within Border Field State Park. Cape Flattery is the northwest most point of the contiguous United States, Territory at 206.73 square miles Whidbey Island, Washington 48°8′11″N 122°34′57″W – most extensive island of Puget Sound at 168. Commonly called the largest lake by surface area when Lake Michigan, greatest distance between any two points within U. S. Territory,9,514 miles from Point Udall, Guam to Point Udall, St. Croix, U. S. Virgin IslandsExtreme points of the United States – Extreme points in the 50 states: Point Barrow, Ka Lae, Sail Rock, Peaked Island
140. United States dollar – The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or also accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, there, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more commonUnited States dollar – Series of 1917 $1 United States bill
141. Federal Reserve System – The Federal Reserve System is the central banking system of the United States. Over the years, events such as the Great Depression in the 1930s, the U. S. Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act, maximizing employment, stabilizing prices, and moderating long-term interest rates. The first two objectives are sometimes referred to as the Federal Reserves dual mandate. S, the Fed conducts research into the economy and releases numerous publications, such as the Beige Book. S. member banks, and various advisory councils. The federal government sets the salaries of the seven governors. Nationally chartered commercial banks are required to hold stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of their region, thus, the Federal Reserve System has both private and public components to serve the interests of the public and private banks. The structure is considered unique among central banks and it is also unusual in that the United States Department of the Treasury, an entity outside of the central bank, prints the currency used. The U. S. Government receives all the annual profits, after a statutory dividend of 6% on member banks capital investment is paid. In 2015, the Federal Reserve made a profit of $100.2 billion, the primary motivation for creating the Federal Reserve System was to address banking panics. Before the founding of the Federal Reserve System, the United States underwent several financial crises, a particularly severe crisis in 1907 led Congress to enact the Federal Reserve Act in 1913. Today the Federal Reserve System has responsibilities in addition to ensuring the stability of the financial system. S. S and this practice is called fractional-reserve banking. As a result, banks usually invest the majority of the funds received from depositors, on rare occasions, too many of the banks customers will withdraw their savings and the bank will need help from another institution to continue operating, this is called a bank run. Bank runs can lead to a multitude of social and economic problems, the Federal Reserve System was designed as an attempt to prevent or minimize the occurrence of bank runs, and possibly act as a lender of last resort when a bank run does occur. Many economists, following Milton Friedman, believe that the Federal Reserve inappropriately refused to lend money to banks during the bank runs of 1929. Because some banks refused to clear checks from certain others during times of economic uncertainty, to address these problems, Congress gave the Federal Reserve System the authority to establish a nationwide check-clearing system. It took over this role from the private sector clearing houses which operated during the Free Banking Era, whether public or private, through its discount window and credit operations, Reserve Banks provide liquidity to banks to meet short-term needs stemming from seasonal fluctuations in deposits or unexpected withdrawals. Longer term liquidity may also be provided in exceptional circumstances, the rate the Fed charges banks for these loans is called the discount rate. By making these loans, the Fed serves as a buffer against unexpected day-to-day fluctuations in reserve demand and this contributes to the effective functioning of the banking system, alleviates pressure in the reserves market and reduces the extent of unexpected movements in the interest rates. For example, on September 16,2008, the Federal Reserve Board authorized an $85 billion loan to stave off the bankruptcy of international insurance giant American International GroupFederal Reserve System – Public finance
142. Personal income in the United States – Personal income is an individuals total earnings from wages, investment interest, and other sources. The US Census Bureau reported a personal income of $30,240 for all workers over age 15 with income. Inflation-adjusted per-capita disposable personal income rose steadily in the U. S. from 1945 to 2008, Income patterns are evident on the basis of age, sex, ethnicity and educational characteristics. In 2005 roughly half of all those with graduate degrees were among the nations top 15% of income earners, according to the US Census, men tended to have higher income than women while Asians and Whites earned more than African Americans and Hispanics. In the United States the most widely cited personal income statistics are the Bureau of Economic Analysiss personal income, the two statistics spring from different traditions of measurement—personal income from national economic accounts and money income from household surveys. BEAs statistics relate personal income to measures of production, including GDP, the Census Bureaus statistics provide detail on income distribution and demographics and are used to produce the nations official poverty statistics. Personal income also includes income received by nonprofit institutions serving households, by private non-insured welfare funds, BEA also publishes disposable personal income, which measures the income available to households after paying federal and state and local government income taxes. Income from production is generated both by the labor of individuals and by the capital that they own, Income that is not earned from production in the current period—such as capital gains, which relate to changes in the price of assets over time—is excluded. BEAs monthly personal income estimates are one of several key macroeconomic indicators that the National Bureau of Economic Research considers when dating the business cycle, Personal income and disposable personal income are provided both as aggregate and as per capita statistics. BEA produces monthly estimates of income for the nation, quarterly estimates of state personal income. More information is found on BEAs website, the CPS is the source of the official national estimates of poverty and the most widely cited source of annual household income estimates for the United States. The CPS measure of income is defined as the total pre-tax cash income received by people on a regular basis, excluding certain lump-sum payments. The Census Bureau releases estimates of money income as medians, percent distributions by income categories. Estimates are available by demographic characteristics of householders and by the composition of households, more details on income concepts and sources are found on the Census Bureaus website. Of those individuals with income who were older than 15 years of age, the distribution of income among individuals differs substantially from household incomes as 39% of all households had two or more income earners. As a result, 25% of households have incomes above $100,000, as a reference point, the US minimum wage since 2009 has been $7.25 per hour or $15,080 for the 2080 hours in a typical work year. Annual wages of $30,160, $45,240, $75,400, $150,800, SOURCE, US Census Bureau, Current Population Survey 2016 This chart is median income of 15 year olds or older, who have non-zero income. Amounts are shown in dollars and in real dollars in parentheses,2004 dollarsPersonal income in the United States – Per capita United States income, 2001-2011
143. Passenger vehicles in the United States – Note, this article adopts the U. S. Department of Transportations definition of a passenger vehicle, to mean a car or truck, used for passengers, excluding buses and trains. The United States is home to the second largest passenger vehicle market of any country in the second now to China. Overall, there were an estimated 260 million registered vehicles in the United States in 2014. This number, along with the age of vehicles, has increased steadily since 1960. The United States is also home to three large vehicle manufacturers, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler, which have historically referred to as the Big Three. In 2001, 70% of Americans drove to work in cars, new York City is the only locality in the country where more than half of all households do not own a car. According to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics for 2012, there were 254,639,386 registered vehicles. Of these,183,171,882 were classified as Light duty vehicle, short wheel base, while another 50,588,676 were listed as Light duty vehicle, long wheel base. Another 8,190,286 were classified as vehicles with two axles and six or more tires and 2,469,094 were classified as Truck, there were 8,454,939 motorcycles also listed along with 764,509 buses. According to cumulative data by the Federal Highway Administration the number of vehicles increased steadily from 1960 to 2006, only stagnating once in 1997. Since the study by the FHWA, the number of vehicles has increased by eleven million. The largest percentage increase was between the years of 1972 and 1973 when the number of cars increased by 5. 88%, there are three main reasons commercial VIO data differs from data from the US government. The first is due to variation when data is reported by states to the US government, States are required to report registrations using form FHWA-561 once per calendar year or fiscal year. Forty six states end their year on June 30 and four end in March. This data is due to the FHWA by January 1 of the year, creating a lag time of about six months. Second, the definitions of vehicle classifications change over time. A footnote added to FHWA datafiles states. Data for 2007-10 were calculated using a new methodology developed by FHWA, Data for these years are based on new categories and are not comparable to previous years. Third, the government can include vehicles not in use, or double-count vehicles that have been transferred across two states, registration practices for commercial vehicles differ greatly among StatesPassenger vehicles in the United States – A typical American car dealership in Fremont, California. Between 2002 and 2003, the number of vehicles in the United States increased by three million.
144. Trucking industry in the United States – Trucks are also used in the construction industry, as dump trucks and portable concrete mixers move the large amounts of rocks, dirt, concrete, and other building materials used in construction. Trucks in America are responsible for the majority of movement over land, and are tools in the manufacturing, transportation. Large trucks and buses require a drivers license to operate. Obtaining a CDL requires extra education and training dealing with the special knowledge requirements, drivers of commercial motor vehicles must adhere to the hours of service, which are regulations governing the driving hours of commercial drivers. These, and all rules regarding the safety of interstate commercial driving, are issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. The FMCSA is a division of the United States Department of Transportation, which governs all transportation-related industries such as trucking, shipping, railroads, some other issues are handled by another branch of the USDOT, the Federal Highway Administration. Developments in technology, such as computers, satellite communication, in 2006, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented revised emission standards for diesel trucks which promises to improve air quality and public health. The trucking industry has affected the political and economic history of the United States in the 20th century, before the invention of automobiles, most freight was moved by train or horse-drawn vehicle. Trucks were first used extensively by the military during World War I, with the increase in construction of paved roads, trucking began to achieve significant foothold in the 1930s. Public safety concerns made it necessary to implement various government regulations of how long drivers were allowed to work, in 1956, Taxpayers provided funds to build the Interstate Highway System, an extensive network of highways and freeways that linked major cities across the continent. Trucking achieved national attention during the 1960s and 70s, when songs, Truck drivers participated in widespread strikes against the rising cost of fuel, during the energy crises of 1973 and 1979. Congress deregulated the industry with the passage of the Motor Carrier Act of 1980. Advances in modern technology have enabled significant improvements within the trucking industry, trucks are commonly equipped with satellite communication features, automatic transmissions are gaining in popularity, and truck stops featuring WiFi Internet access are now commonplace. The particulate matter of diesel exhaust has been linked to cancer, chronic bronchitis. For these and other reasons, alternatives and improvements to standard diesel fuel have been developed, biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable form of diesel fuel made from vegetable oil, usually soybean oil or recycled restaurant grease. Biodiesel promises a reduction in some exhaust emissions, as well as reduced dependence on foreign petroleum supplies, starting in June 2006, petroleum refiners were required by the EPA to begin producing ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, which has 97% less sulfur than the previous low sulfur diesel fuel. When fuel containing sulfur is burned, sulfur dioxide is produced, ULSD, together with new air pollution control technologies required in trucks, will reduce harmful emissions by 90%. By the time the action is implemented, the EPA estimates that 2.6 million tons of smog-causing nitrogen oxide emissions will be eliminated each yearTrucking industry in the United States – A common property-carrying commercial vehicle in the United States is the tractor-trailer, also known as an "18-wheeler" or "semi".
145. Tourism in the United States – Tourism in the United States is a large industry that serves millions of international and domestic tourists yearly. Tourists visit the US to see wonders, cities, historic landmarks. Americans seek similar attractions, as well as recreation and vacation areas, Tourism in the United States grew rapidly in the form of urban tourism during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By the 1850s, tourism in the United States was well established both as an activity and as an industry. New York, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D. C. and San Francisco, all major US cities, by 1915, city touring had marked significant shifts in the way Americans perceived, organized, and moved. Democratization of travel occurred during the twentieth century when the automobile revolutionized travel. Similarly air travel revolutionized travel during 1945–1969, contributing greatly to tourism in the United States, purchases of travel and tourism-related goods and services by international visitors traveling in the United States totaled $10.9 billion during February 2013. The travel and tourism industry in the United States were among the first commercial casualties of the September 11,2001 attacks, terrorists used four commercial airliners as weapons of destruction, all of which were destroyed in the attacks. In the US, tourism is either the first, second, or third largest employer in 29 states, employing 7.3 million in 2004, as of 2007, there are 2,462 registered National Historic Landmarks recognized by the United States government. As of 2016, Orlando is the most visited destination in the United States, tourists spend more money in the United States than any other country, while attracting the second-highest number of tourists after France. The discrepancy may be explained by longer stays in the US, the rise of locomotive steam-powered trains during the 1800s enabled tourists to travel more easily and quickly. In the United States 2,800 miles of track had been completed by 1840, by 1860 all major eastern US cities were linked by rail, and by 1869 the first trans-American railroad link was completed. Yosemite Park was developed as a tourist attraction in the late 1850s and early 1860s for an audience who wanted a national icon and place to symbolize exotic wonder of its region. Photography played an important role for the first time in the development of tourist attractions, New York, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D. C. and San Francisco, all major US cities, attracted a large number of tourists by the 1890s. New Yorks population grew from 300,000 in 1840 to 800,000 in 1850, Chicago experienced a dramatic increase from 4,000 residents in 1840 to 300,000 by 1870. Dictionaries first published the word tourist sometime in 1800, when it referred to going to Europe or making a round trip of natural wonders in New York. The absence of urban tourism during the century was in part because American cities lacked the architecture. American cities tended to offend the sensitive with ugliness and commercialism rather than inspire awe or aesthetic pleasure, as American cities developed, new institutions to accommodate and care for the insane, disabled and criminal were constructedTourism in the United States – The Grand Canyon of Arizona attracts approximately 4.41 million visitors each year.
146. Religion in the United States – Religion in the United States is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. Various religious faiths have flourished within the United States, a majority of Americans report that religion plays a very important role in their lives, a proportion unique among developed countries. Historically, the United States has always marked by religious pluralism and diversity. In colonial times, Anglicans, Roman Catholics and mainline Protestants, as well as Jews, Eastern Orthodoxy has been present since the Russian colonization of Alaska. Various dissenting Protestants, who left the Church of England, greatly diversified the religious landscape, the Great Awakenings gave birth to multiple Evangelical Protestant denominations, membership in Methodist and Baptist churches increased drastically in the Second Great Awakening. In the 18th century, deism found support among American upper classes, the Episcopal Church, splitting from the Church of England, came into being in the American Revolution. Pentecostalism emerged in the early 20th century as a result of the Azusa Street Revival, Unitarian Universalism resulted from the merge of Unitarian and Universalist churches in the 20th century. Beginning in 1990s, the share of Christians is decreasing due to secularization, while Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam. Protestantism, historically dominant, ceased to be the category of the majority in the early 2010s. The majority of Americans identify themselves as Christians, while close to a claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions make up about 6% of the population. According to a 2012 survey by the Pew forum,36 percent of Americans state that they attend services every week or more. From early colonial days, when some English and German settlers came in search of religious freedom and that influence continues in American culture, social life, and politics. It guarantees the free exercise of religion while also preventing the government from establishing a state religion, however the states were not bound by the provision and as late as the 1830s Massachusetts provided tax money to local Congregational churches. The Supreme Court since the 1940s has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment as applying the First Amendment to the state and local governments. President John Adams and a unanimous Senate endorsed the Treaty of Tripoli in 1797 that stated, the survey report stated that the results showed America having a greater similarity to developing nations than to other wealthy nations, where religion plays a minor role. In 1963, 90% of Americans claimed to be Christians while only 2% professed no religious identity, in 2014, the percentage of Christians was closer to 70% with close to 23% claiming no religious identity. The United States federal government was the first national government to have no official state-endorsed religion, however, some states had established religions in some form until the 1830sReligion in the United States – Washington National Cathedral, the Episcopal cathedral in Washington, D.C.
147. Poverty in the United States – Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. The most common measure of poverty in the U. S. is the poverty threshold set by the U. S. government and this measure recognizes poverty as a lack of those goods and services commonly taken for granted by members of mainstream society. The official threshold is adjusted for inflation using the price index. Most Americans will spend at least one year below the poverty line at some point between ages 25 and 75, Poverty rates are persistently higher in rural and inner city parts of the country as compared to suburban areas. In 2015,13. 5% Americans lived in poverty, starting in the 1930s, relative poverty rates have consistently exceeded those of other wealthy nations. The lowest poverty rates are found in New Hampshire, Vermont, Minnesota and Nebraska, in 2009 the number of people who were in poverty was approaching 1960s levels that led to the national War on Poverty. In 2012 the percentage of seniors living in poverty was 14% while 18% of children were, the addition of Social Security benefits contributed more to reduce poverty than any other factor. Recent census data shows that half the population qualifies as poor or low income, academic contributors to The Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States postulate that new and extreme forms of poverty have emerged in the U. S. In 2011, child poverty reached record levels, with 16.7 million children living in food insecure households. A2013 UNICEF report ranked the U. S. as having the second highest relative poverty rates in the developed world. There were about 643,000 sheltered and unsheltered homeless people nationwide in January 2009. About 1.56 million people, or about 0. 5% of the U. S. population, around 44% of homeless people are employed. There are two versions of the federal poverty measure, the poverty thresholds, and the poverty guidelines. The Orshansky Poverty Thresholds form the basis for the current measure of poverty in the U. S, mollie Orshansky was an economist working for the Social Security Administration. Her work appeared at an opportune moment, Orshanskys article was published later in the same year that Johnson declared war on poverty. Since her measure was absolute, it made it possible to answer whether the U. S. government was winning this war. The newly formed United States Office of Economic Opportunity adopted the lower of the Orshansky poverty thresholds for statistical, planning, the Bureau of the Budget adopted Orshanskys definition for statistical use in all Executive departments. The measure gave a range of income cutoffs, or thresholds, adjusted for such as family size, sex of the family head, number of children under 18 years oldPoverty in the United States – Camden, New Jersey is one of the poorest cities in the United States.
148. Educational attainment in the United States – The educational attainment of the U. S. As a whole, the population of the United States is spending more years in formal educational programs, as with income, levels differ by race, age, household configuration and geography. Overall the households and demographics featuring the highest educational attainment in the United States are also among those with the highest household income, thus, while the population as a whole is proceeding further in formal educational programs, income and educational attainment remain highly correlated. In 2003, the percentage of the population who had completed high school or had not completed high school but obtained a GED increased for the first time since 2000. This increase follows a trend that the Current Population Survey has shown since educational attainment was first measured in 1947. Since 1983 the percentage of people either graduating from school or failing to complete high school. The greatest increases in educational attainment were documented in the 1950s, 60s and 70s, in the 1950s and much of the 1960s high school graduates constituted about 50% of those considered adults. For young adults aged between 25 and 29, the percentage of high school graduates or GED obtainers was roughly 50% in 1950 versus 90% today. For the past fifty years, there has been a gap in the achievement of males and females in the United States. In the 1970s and 1980s, data showed girls trailing behind boys in a variety of performance measures, specifically in test scores in math. Traditionally, girls have outperformed boys in reading and writing, although this gap may be minimal in kindergarten, it grows as students continue their education. On the 2008 test, female students continued to have higher average reading scores than students at all three ages. The gap between male and female 4th graders was 7 points in 2008, by 12th grade, there was an 11-point gap between males and females. On the 2002 National Writing Assessment, boys scored on average 17 points lower than girls in 4th grade, the average gap increased to 21 points by 8th grade and widened to 24 points by senior year in high school. In the more recent 2007 National Assessment of Writing Skills, female students continued to score higher than male students, the average score for female eighth-graders was 20 points higher than males, down 1 point from the 2002 score. For twelfth-graders, females outscored males by 18 points as opposed to 24 points in 2002, all of these assessments were conducted on a 100-point scale. Overall, women have surpassed men in terms of completing secondary and post-secondary education with the gender gap almost completely reversed, in 2006,10. 3% of males and 8. 3% of females dropped out of high school. In 2005/2006, women earned 62% of associate degrees, 58% of bachelors degrees,60. 0% of masters degrees, according to recent data,55 percent of college students are females and 45 percent are malesEducational attainment in the United States – Achievement gaps between boys and girls in the United States are more pronounced in reading and writing than in math and science.
149. Public holidays of the United States – Public holidays in the United States are largely controlled by private sector employers, who employ approximately 62% of the total U. S. population who are given paid time off. A typical work week is generally 40 hours a week with a Saturday-Sunday weekend, public holidays with paid time off is generally defined to occur on a day that is within the employees work week. When a holiday occurs on Saturday or Sunday, that holiday is shifted to either Friday or Monday, most employers follow a holiday schedule similar to the federal holidays of the United States, with exceptions or additions. The federal holiday schedule mainly benefits employees of government and government regulated businesses, however, this sector only comprises 15% of the working population. Besides paid holidays are festival and food holidays that also have wide acceptance based on sales of goods, halloween and Valentines Day are such examples of widely celebrated uncompensated holidays. Public holidays had their origins from established federal holidays that were enacted by Congress. S, demographics and have changed over time. Observances of holidays are most commonly observed with paid time off, however, some are observed with community work depending on the meaning of the holiday. They are however not mandated by any government, agencies, whether it be federal, state, there are no national holidays on which all businesses are closed by law. Federal holidays are only established for certain federally chartered and regulated businesses, all other public holidays are created by the States, most states also allow local jurisdictions to establish their own local holidays. As a result, holidays have not historically been governed at the federal level, some states restrict some business activities on some holidays. Business closures are mandated on some holidays in some states for certain kinds of businesses by Blue Laws, for example, some businesses cannot open on Thanksgiving Day in some New England states if the businesses operated on more than 5000 square feet of space. The most notable businesses to close on such occasions are car dealerships, as of 2012, there were eleven federal holidays in the United States, ten annual holidays and one quadrennial holiday. Pursuant to the Uniform Monday Holiday Act of 1968, official holidays are observed on a Monday, except for New Years Day, Independence Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving, many states also have additional holidays that are not observed by the U. S. federal government. Many businesses likewise observe certain holidays as well, which are not mandated by any government agency. Day to embrace the mostly disenfranchised African American community in the form of festivals, illinois and Berkeley, California are two places where Malcolm X is honored with a legal holiday with offices closed whereas Missouri honored Rosa Parks on her birthday. Today, the United States is the 85th most ethnically diverse country in the world, while the popularity of each public holiday cannot easily be measured, the holiday with the highest greeting card sales is Christmas. Major retail establishments such as malls, shopping centers and most retail stores only on Thanksgiving and Christmas and some on Easter Sunday as well. Virtually all companies observe and close on the major holidays, some non-retail business close on the day after Thanksgiving, while some are not allowed to close on the day after ThanksgivingPublic holidays of the United States – Independence Day fireworks
150. Television in the United States – Television is one of the major mass media of the United States. The peak ownership percentage of households with at least one television set occurred during the 1996–97 season, individual broadcast television stations in the U. S. transmit on either VHF channels 2 through 13 or UHF channels 14 through 51. Over-the-air and subscription television networks, however, are not required to file for a license to operate, channels are usually sold in groups, rather than singularly. A la carte subscription services in the U. S, the United States has a decentralized, market-oriented television system, particularly in regard to broadcast television. The nation has a public television service known as the Public Broadcasting Service. Local media markets have their own stations, which may either be affiliated with or owned and operated by a television network. Arrangements in which television stations carried more than one network on its main signal were more common between the 1940s and the 1960s, although some continued as late as 2010. However unlike in other countries, to ensure local presences in television broadcasting, the international programming model is used in the U. S. The five major U. S. broadcast television networks are the National Broadcasting Company, CBS, the American Broadcasting Company, the Fox Broadcasting Company and the CW Television Network. The first and elder three began as radio networks, NBC and CBS respectively began operations in 1924 and 1927, weekday schedules on ABC, CBS, and NBC affiliates tend to be similar, with programming choices sorted by dayparts. Network daytime schedules consist of shows and soap operas, although one network – CBS – still carries game shows. Syndicated talk shows are shown in the afternoon, followed by additional local newscasts in the early evening time period. ABC, CBS and NBC offer network news programs each evening, local newscasts or syndicated programs fill the prime access hour or half-hour, and lead into the networks prime time schedules, which are the days most-watched three hours of television. The traditional prime time runs from 8,00 to 11,00 p. m. in the Eastern. Hour and leave that hour for their affiliates to provide programming of their own, later in the evening, drama series of various types air. Sunday is the night on American television, with many of TVs most popular shows airing on that night. At the end of time, another local news program is broadcast. Saturday mornings usually feature network programming aimed at children, while Sunday mornings include a form of public affairs program known as the Sunday morning talk shows, both of these help fulfill stations legal obligations, respectively to provide educational childrens programs and public service programmingTelevision in the United States – Satellite TV receiver dishes.
151. Hollywood, Los Angeles, California – Hollywood is an ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry. Hollywood was a community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, in 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished, the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the Father of Hollywood, along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed, the Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, I holly-wood, meaning hauling wood. H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood, Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States, Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E. C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a later date, before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurds wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others. Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and she recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. In August 1887, Wilcox filed with the Los Angeles County Recorders office a deed and parcel map of property he had sold named Hollywood, Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent, the old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood. The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard, having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitleys company developed and sold one of the residential areasHollywood, Los Angeles, California – The Four Ladies installation at the Hollywood Boulevard – La Brea Avenue Gateway
152. Folklore of the United States – Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales, stories, tall tales, and customs that are the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared, the study of folklore is sometimes called folkloristics. In usage, there is a continuum between folklore and mythology, American folklore encompasses the folk traditions that have evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. While it contains much in the way of Native American tradition, Native American cultures are rich in myths and legends that explain natural phenomena and the relationship between humans and the spirit world. According to Barre Toelken, feathers, beadwork, dance steps and music, the events in a story, Native American cultures are numerous and diverse. Though some neighboring cultures hold similar beliefs, others can be different from one another. The most common myths are the myths, that tell a story to explain how the earth was formed. Others may include explanations about the sun, moon, constellations, specific animals, seasons, tories not only entertain but also embody Native behavioral and ethical values. There are many different kinds of stories, some are called hero stories, these are stories of people who lived at one time, and who were immortalized and remembered through these tales. There are trickster stories, about the different trickster figures of the tribes, spirits who may be helpful or dangerous. There are also tales that are simply warnings, they warn against doing something that may harm in some way, many of these tales have morals or some form of belief that is being taught. This is how the things were remembered, the founding of the United States is often surrounded by legends and tall tales. These narratives may be true and may be false or may be a true and a little false. Christopher Columbus, as a hero and symbol, is an important figure in the pantheon of American myth and his status, not unlike most American icons, is representative not of his own accomplishments, but the self-perception of the society which chose him as a hero. Having effected a separation from England and its cultural icons, America was left without history—or heroes on which to base a sense of their social selves. Washington Irving was instrumental in popularizing Columbus and his version of Columbus life, published in 1829, was more a romance than a biography. As a consequence of his vision and audacity, there was now a free from kings. In the years following the Revolution the poetic device Columbia was used as a symbol of both Columbus and America, kings College of New York changed its name in 1792 to Columbia, and the new capitol in Washington was subtitled District of ColumbiaFolklore of the United States – Plymouth Rock Monument designed for the Tercentenary (1920)
153. Poetry of the United States – Unsurprisingly, most of the early colonists work relied on contemporary British models of poetic form, diction, and theme. However, in the 19th century, a distinctive American idiom began to emerge, the history of American poetry is not easy to know. The received narrative of Modernism proposes that Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot were perhaps the most influential modernist English-language poets in the period during World War I. But this narrative leaves out African American and women poets who were published, by the 1960s, the young poets of the British Poetry Revival looked to their American contemporaries and predecessors as models for the kind of poetry they wanted to write. There are 14 such writers whom we might on that basis call American poets, early examples include a 1616 testimonial poem on the sterling warlike character of Captain John Smith and Rev. One of the first recorded poets of the British colonies was Anne Bradstreet, the poems she published during her lifetime address religious and political themes. She also wrote tender evocations of home, family life and of her love for her husband, edward Taylor wrote poems expounding Puritan virtues in a highly wrought metaphysical style that can be seen as typical of the early colonial period. This narrow focus on the Puritan ethic was, understandably, the dominant note of most of the written in the colonies during the 17th. Of course, being a Puritan minister as well as a poet, a distinctly American lyric voice of the colonial period was Phillis Wheatley, a slave whose book Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, was published in 1773. She was one of the poets of her day, at least in the colonies. The 18th century saw an emphasis on America itself as fit subject matter for its poets. The work of Rebecca Hammond Lard, although old, still apply to life in todays world. She writes about nature, not only the nature of environment, on the whole, the development of poetry in the American colonies mirrors the development of the colonies themselves. The early poetry is dominated by the need to preserve the integrity of the Puritan ideals that created the settlement in the first place, as the colonists grew in confidence, the poetry they wrote increasingly reflected their drive towards independence. This shift in subject matter was not reflected in the mode of writing which tended to be conservative and this can be seen as a product of the physical remove at which American poets operated from the center of English-language poetic developments in London. The first significant poet of the independent United States was William Cullen Bryant, whose contribution was to write rhapsodic poems on the grandeur of prairies. Formed the Fireside Poets were a group of 19th-century American poets from New England, the poets primary subjects were the domestic life, mythology, and politics of the United States, in which several of the poets were directly involved. Other notable poets to emerge in the early and middle 19th century include Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry David Thoreau, Sidney Lanier, and James Whitcomb RileyPoetry of the United States – Title page, second (posthumous) edition of Anne Bradstreet 's poems, 1678
154. Beat generation – The Beat Generation is a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s, Allen Ginsbergs Howl, William S. Burroughss Naked Lunch and Jack Kerouacs On the Road are among the best known examples of Beat literature. Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the focus of obscenity trials that helped to liberalize publishing in the United States. The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, later, in the mid-1950s, the central figures ended up together in San Francisco where they met and became friends of figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance. In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the hippie, Neal Cassady, the driver for Ken Keseys bus Further, was the primary bridge between these two generations. Allen Ginsbergs work also became an element of early 1960s hippie culture. Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase Beat Generation in 1948 to characterize a perceived underground, the name arose in a conversation with writer John Clellon Holmes. Kerouac allows that it was street hustler Herbert Huncke who originally used the phrase beat, the origins of the Beat Generation can be traced to Columbia University and the meeting of Kerouac, Ginsberg, Lucien Carr, Hal Chase and others. Jack Kerouac attended Columbia on a football scholarship, though the beats are usually regarded as anti-academic, many of their ideas were formed in response to professors like Lionel Trilling and Mark Van Doren. Classmates Carr and Ginsberg discussed the need for a New Vision, to counteract what they perceived as their teachers conservative, Burroughs had an interest in criminal behavior and got involved in dealing stolen goods and narcotics. He was soon addicted to opiates, Burroughs guide to the criminal underworld was small-time criminal and drug-addict Herbert Huncke. The Beats were drawn to Huncke, who started to write himself. The police attempted to pull Ginsberg over while he was driving with Huncke, Ginsberg crashed the car while trying to flee and escaped on foot, but left incriminating notebooks behind. He was given the option to plead insanity to avoid a term, and was committed for 90 days to Bellevue Hospital. Carl Solomon was arguably more eccentric than psychotic, a fan of Antonin Artaud, he indulged in self-consciously crazy behavior, like throwing potato salad at a college lecturer on Dadaism. Solomon was given shock treatments at Bellevue, this one of the main themes of Ginsbergs Howl. Solomon later became the contact who agreed to publish Burroughs first novel Junky in 1953. Beat writers and artists flocked to Greenwich Village in New York City in the late 1950s because of low rent, folksongs, readings and discussions often took place in Washington Square ParkBeat generation – Lawrence Ferlinghetti
155. Abstract expressionism – Abstract Expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the art world. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky, technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic, or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollocks dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst, and David Alfaro Siqueiros. His long essay Totem Art had considerable influence on artists as Martha Graham, Isamu Noguchi, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko. Around 1944 Barnett Newman tried to explain Americas newest art movement, paalen is mentioned twice, other artists mentioned are Gottlieb, Rothko, Pollock, Hofmann, Baziotes, Gorky and others. Motherwell is mentioned with a question mark, additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of working in New York who had quite different styles. Yet all four artists are classified as abstract expressionists, Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate, American social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s. It had been influenced not only by the Great Depression, but also by the muralists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros, the political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early forties at galleries in New York such as The Art of This Century Gallery. The McCarthy era after World War II was a time of censorship in the United States, but if the subject matter were totally abstract then it would be seen as apolitical. Or if the art was political, the message was largely for the insiders, many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show, a famous exhibition curated by Leo Castelli on East Ninth Street in New York City in 1951. Although the abstract expressionist school spread throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City. At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act, what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event. In the 1940s there were not only few galleries but also few critics who were willing to follow the work of the New York Vanguard, there were also a few artists with a literary background, among them Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newman, who functioned as critics as well. Hess, the editor of ARTnews, championed Willem de KooningAbstract expressionism – Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948, oil on fiberboard, 244 × 122 cm. (96 × 48 in.), private collection
156. Prohibition in the United States – Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation and sale of alcoholic beverages that remained in place from 1920 to 1933. One result was that many communities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries introduced alcohol prohibition, Prohibition supporters, called drys, presented it as a victory for public morals and health. Promoted by the dry crusaders, a movement was led by rural Protestants and social Progressives in the Prohibition, Democratic and it gained a national grass roots base through the Womans Christian Temperance Union. After 1900 it was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League, Prohibition was mandated in state after state, then finally nationwide under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the ban, for example, religious uses of wine were allowed. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, in the 1920s the laws were widely disregarded, and tax revenues were lost. Opposition mobilized nationwide, and Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, some states continued statewide prohibition, marking one of the last stages of the Progressive Era. Anti-prohibitionists, known as wets, criticized the ban as an intrusion of mainly rural Protestant ideals on a central aspect of urban, immigrant. Some researchers contend that its failure is attributable more to a changing historical context than to characteristics of the law itself. Criticism remains that Prohibition led to unintended consequences such as the growth of urban crime organizations, as an experiment it lost supporters every year, and lost tax revenue that governments needed when the Great Depression began in 1929. The U. S. Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18,1917, upon being approved by a 36th state on January 16,1919, the amendment was ratified as a part of the Constitution. The Wartime Prohibition Act took effect June 30,1919, with July 1,1919, on October 28,1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilsons veto. The act established the definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalties for producing them. Although the Volstead Act prohibited the sale of alcohol, the government lacked resources to enforce it. By the terms of the amendment, the country went dry one year later, by 1925, in New York City alone, there were anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000 speakeasy clubs. While Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, it stimulated the proliferation of rampant underground, organized, many were astonished and disenchanted with the rise of spectacular gangland crimes, when prohibition was supposed to reduce crime. Prohibition lost its advocates one by one, while the wet opposition talked of personal liberty, new tax revenues from legal beer and liquor, and the scourge of organized crime. On March 22,1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Cullen–Harrison Act, legalizing beer with a content of 3. 2%Prohibition in the United States – Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine brewery during the Prohibition era
157. Immigration to the United States – It has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. Prior to 1965, policies such as the national origins formula limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Western Europe. Exclusion laws enacted as early as the 1880s generally prohibited or severely restricted immigration from Asia, the Civil Rights Movement led to the replacement of these ethnic quotas with per-country limits. Since then, the number of immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled. As for economic effects, research suggests that immigration to the United States is beneficial to the US economy, Research finds that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate in the United States. Research shows that the United States excels at assimilating first- and second-generation immigrants relative to many other Western countries, American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs, the colonial period, the mid-19th century, the start of the 20th century, and post-1965. Each period brought distinct national groups, races and ethnicities to the United States, during the 17th century, approximately 400,000 English people migrated to Colonial America. Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants, the mid-19th century saw mainly an influx from northern Europe, the early 20th-century mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe, post-1965 mostly from Latin America and Asia. Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants came to the United States from Europe between 1600 and 1799, the 1790 Act limited naturalization to free white persons, it was expanded to include blacks in the 1860s and Asians in the 1950s. In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year, from 1836 to 1914, over 30 million Europeans migrated to the United States. The death rate on these voyages was high, during which one in seven travelers died. In 1875, the nation passed its first immigration law, the Page Act of 1875, in the late 1800s, immigration from other Asian countries, especially to the West Coast, became more common. The peak year of European immigration was in 1907, when 1,285,349 persons entered the country, by 1910,13.5 million immigrants were living in the United States. In 1921, the Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924, Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression. In the final year,1929, there were 279,678 immigrants recorded. In the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than to it, the U. S. government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico, but thousands were deported against their will. Altogether about 400,000 Mexicans were repatriated, most of the Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazis and World War II were barred from coming to the United States. In the post-war era, the Justice Department launched Operation Wetback, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, abolished the system of national-origin quotasImmigration to the United States – Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1902
158. List of Presidents of the United States – The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is elected to a four-year term by the people through an Electoral College. Since the office was established in 1789,44 people have served as president, the first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two terms in office, and is counted as the nations 22nd and 24th president. Thus the incumbent, Donald Trump, is the nations 45th president, there are currently five living former presidents. The most recent death of a president was on December 26,2006 with the death of Gerald Ford. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office, dying 31 days after taking office in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes, four were assassinated, the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tylers precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed Gerald Ford to the office, later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. Previously, a vacancy was left unfilled. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties, the Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and he was, and remains, the only U. S. president never to be affiliated with a political party. Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a party at the time they assumed office. Four presidents held other high U. S. federal offices after leaving the presidency, several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U. S. state or federal elective offices after leaving the presidency. Additionally, one president, John Tyler, served in the government of the Confederate States during the American Civil WarList of Presidents of the United States – The White House in Washington, D.C. is the president's official residence, the center of the administration, and a prominent symbol of the office.
159. List of United States military history events – This timeline of United States government military operations is based on Committee on International Relations. Dates show the years in which U. S. government military units participated, items in bold are the U. S. government wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public. Note that instances where the U. S. government gave aid alone, with no military personnel involvement, are excluded, portions of this list are from the Congressional Research Service report RL30172. 1775–1783, American Revolutionary War, a struggle for secession from the British Empire by the Thirteen Colonies that would subsequently become the United States. The goal of the campaign was to affirm American sovereignty over the region, 1786–1787, Shays Rebellion, a Western Massachusetts debtors revolt over a credit squeeze that had financially devastated many farmers. 1791–1794, Whiskey Rebellion, a series of protests against the institution of a tax on the distillation of spirits as a revenue source for repaying the nations war bonds. The revolt was centered upon southwestern Pennsylvania, although violence occurred throughout the Trans-Appalachian region, 1798–1800, Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with France over American default on its war debt. An additional mitigating factor was the continuation of American trade with Britain and this contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic city of Puerto Plata, where U. S. Marines captured a French vessel under the guns of the forts, Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes. 1799–1800, Fries Rebellion, a string of protests against the enactment of new real estate taxes to pay for the Quasi-War, hostilities were concentrated in the communities of the Pennsylvania Dutch. 1801–1805, First Barbary War, a series of battles in the Mediterranean against the Kingdom of Tripoli. Action was in response to the capture of numerous American ships by the infamous Barbary pirates, the federal government rejected the Tripolitan request for an annual tribute to guarantee safe passage, and an American naval blockade ensued. After the seizure of the USS Philadelphia, American forces under William Eaton invaded coastal cities, a peace treaty resulted in the payment of a ransom for the return of captured American soldiers and only temporarily eased hostilities. 1806, Action in Spanish Mexico, The platoon under Captain Zebulon Pike invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from General James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present-day Colorado, taken to Mexico and he was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River. 1812–1815, War of 1812, On June 18,1812,1815, Battle of New Orleans, On January 15,1815, General Andrew Jackson went to New Orleans to stop the British from attacking them from the back. They hide and start shooting the British and win, even though the war of 1812 already ended, but it did boost Americans pride. 1813, West Florida, On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers, a small Spanish garrison gave wayList of United States military history events – Map of military operations since 1950
160. List of U.S. federal prisons – It also does not include detention centers and facilities and processing centers run by Immigration and Customs Enforcement. USP Atlanta, USP Leavenworth, USP Lompoc, and USP Marion are medium-security facilities, USP Hazelton is in the process of adding a medium-security facility to its existing high-security unit. USP Marion contains a highly restrictive Communication Management Unit, which holds inmates under stricter controls, many USPs include minimum-security satellite camps on the same property and under the same administration as the higher-security unit. FCI Terre Haute contains a more restrictive section designated as a Communication Management Unit for inmates considered high-security risks, the agency expects to allow current contracts on its thirteen remaining private facilities to expire. Those facilities are, Federal Prison Camps are minimum-security facilities, which have dormitory housing, a relatively low staff-to-inmate ratio, administrative facilities, except the ADX, are capable of holding inmates in all security categories. † Includes female inmates †† Female-only facility Federal Bureau of Prisons Incarceration in the United States List of detention sites in the United StatesList of U.S. federal prisons – The seal of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the agency that manages U.S. federal prisons.
161. List of Interstate Highways – Primary Interstate Highways of the United States are numbered with one- or two-digit designations. Their associated auxiliary highways have three-digit numbers, routes divisible by 5 are major routes, often running coast-to-coast or border-to-border. Five pairs of numbers are duplicated throughout the system, the highways are separated by large distances which prevent confusion. Below, these are differentiated from each other by West and East, the main list is followed by sections listing the primary Interstate highways in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. There are 68 primary Interstate Highways listed in the table below, in addition to the 48 contiguous states, Interstate Highways are found in Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico. The Federal Highway Administration funds four routes in Alaska and three routes in Puerto Rico under the program as the rest of the Interstate Highway System. They are fully controlled-access routes built to the standards as the mainland Interstate Highways. Alaskas Interstate Highways are unsigned, although all have state highway numbers that do not match the Interstate Highway numbers. Like Alaska, Puerto Rico signs its Interstate Highways as territorial routes, many of the territorys routes are freeway-standard toll roads. The title of interactive fiction I-0 refers to the fictional Interstate ZeroList of Interstate Highways – Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states
162. List of United States Numbered Highways – The following is a list of United States numbered highways. Numbered Highways both past and present, with the former shaded in gray, three-digit subsidiaries are grouped with their one- or two-digit parent. The list is based on American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials definitions, with details on extensions and truncations. Discrepancies with state specifications are noted, Highways that exist entirely within one state. Since the current policy on numbering and designating US Highways was written in 1991, AASHTO has been in the process of eliminating all intrastate U. S. Roads portal Endpoints of US Highways, from Dale Sanderson US Highway Endings, from Adam Froehlig U. S. Highways, from US1 to at the Wayback Machine, from Robert V. DrozList of United States Numbered Highways – Map of the present U.S. Highway network
163. Hurricane Andrew – Hurricane Andrew was, at the time of its occurrence in August 1992, the most destructive hurricane in United States history. Passing directly through the town of Homestead, Florida, a city south of Miami, Andrew obliterated entire blocks of homes, over 25,000 houses were destroyed in Miami-Dade County alone, and nearly 100,000 more were severely damaged. 65 people were killed and the total across the affected regions exceeded $26 billion. Andrew originated from a wave over the central Atlantic, becoming the fourth tropical cyclone. In Miami-Dade County alone, damage was estimated at $25 billion. Several hours later, the hurricane emerged over the Gulf of Mexico at Category 4 strength, with the Gulf Coast of the United States in its projected path, after weakening slightly, Andrew moved ashore near Morgan City, Louisiana, as low-end Category 3 storm. The effects of land caused the hurricane to rapidly lose its intensity. The next day, Andrew merged with a system over the southern Appalachian Mountains. In the Bahamas, Andrew brought storm surge, hurricane-force winds, about 800 houses were destroyed in the archipelago, and there was substantial damage to the transport, water, sanitation, agriculture, and fishing sectors. Overall, Andrew left four dead and $250 million in damage throughout the Bahamas, in parts of southern Florida, Andrew produced severe winds, a wind gust of 177 mph was observed at a house in Perrine. These winds wreaked catastrophic damage in Florida—Miami-Dade County cities of Florida City, Homestead, a total of 63,000 homes were destroyed and more than 101,000 others were damaged, leaving roughly 175,000 people homeless. As many as 1.4 million people lost power at the height of the storm, in the Everglades,70,000 acres of trees were downed. Rainfall in Florida was substantial, peaking at 13.98 in in western Miami-Dade County, altogether, Andrew killed 44 and left a record $25 billion in damage in the state. Before moving ashore Andrew caused extensive damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and it produced hurricane-force winds along its path through Louisiana, leaving about 152,000 without electricity. Over 80% of trees in the Atchafalaya River Basin were downed, throughout the basin and Bayou Lafourche,187 million freshwater fish were killed in the hurricane. An F3 tornado in St. John the Baptist Parish wrecked 163 structures, with 23,000 houses damaged,985 others destroyed, and 1,951 mobile homes demolished, property losses in Louisiana exceeded $1.5 billion. The hurricane caused the deaths of 17 people in the state, Andrew spawned at least 28 tornadoes along the Gulf Coast, especially in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 14, under the influence of a ridge of high pressure to its north, the wave tracked quickly westwardHurricane Andrew – Hurricane Andrew at peak intensity
164. John C. Breckinridge – John Cabell Breckinridge was a lawyer, politician, and soldier from the U. S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States and he served in the U. S. Senate during the outbreak of the American Civil War, but was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He remains the only Senator of the United States convicted of treason against the United States of America by the Senate and he was appointed Confederate Secretary of War late in the war. Elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1851, after reapportionment in 1854 made his re-election unlikely, he declined to run for another term. The Democrats won the election, but Breckinridge had little influence with Buchanan and, as presiding officer of the Senate, in 1859, he was elected to succeed U. S. Senator John J. Crittenden at the end of Crittendens term in 1861, as vice president, Breckinridge joined with Buchanan in supporting the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, which led to a split in the Democratic Party. The Southern wing was led by Breckinridge, doughfaced Northerner Buchanan, and the northern wing, a third party, the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell. Taking his seat in the Senate, he urged compromise to preserve the Union although seven states had already seceded, Unionists took control of the state legislature when Kentuckys neutrality was breached. After this occurred, Breckinridge fled behind Confederate battle lines where he was commissioned a brigadier general, following the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, he was promoted to major general, and in October he was assigned to the Army of Mississippi under General Braxton Bragg. After participating in Jubal Earlys 1864 campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley, Breckinridge was charged with defending Confederate supplies in Tennessee, in February 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of War. Concluding that the war was hopeless, he urged Davis to arrange a national surrender, after the fall of the Confederate capital at Richmond, he ensured the preservation of Confederate military and governmental records. He traveled south from Richmond and managed to capture by Federal forces. He then fled to Cuba, Great Britain, and finally, in exile, he toured Europe from August 1866 to June 1868. When President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to all former Confederates in late 1868, he returned to Kentucky, War injuries sapped his health, and after two operations, he died on May 17,1875. John Cabell Breckinridge was born at Thorn Hill, his familys estate near Lexington, Kentucky, the fourth of six children born to Joseph Cabell and Mary Clay Breckinridge, he was their only son. His mother was the daughter of Samuel Stanhope Smith, who founded Hampden–Sydney College in 1775, and granddaughter of John Witherspoon, having previously served as Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives, his father had been appointed Kentuckys Secretary of State just prior to his sons birth. In February, the family moved with Governor John Adair to the Governors Mansion in Frankfort, in August 1823, an illness referred to as the prevailing fever struck Frankfort, and Cabell Breckinridge took his children to stay with his mother in Lexington. On his return, both he and his wife fell ill, he died, but she survived and his assets were not enough to pay his debts, and his wife joined the children in Lexington, supported by her mother-in-lawJohn C. Breckinridge – John C. Breckinridge
165. Peter Dinklage – Peter Hayden Dinklage is an American actor and film producer. He has received accolades as a Golden Globe Award and two Primetime Emmy Awards. Born and raised in Morristown, New Jersey, Dinklage began acting as a child in a fifth grade production of The Velveteen Rabbit and he went on to study acting at Bennington College, starring in a number of amateur stage productions. He made his debut in Living in Oblivion. He first gained notice for his role in the comedy-drama film The Station Agent. Since 2011, Dinklage has portrayed Tyrion Lannister in the HBO series Game of Thrones, in 2017, Dinklage became one of the highest paid actors on television and earned US$1.1 million per episode of Game of Thrones. Dinklage was born in Morristown, New Jersey, the son of John Carl Dinklage, an insurance salesman, and Diane Dinklage. He was born with achondroplasia, a form of dwarfism. Dinklage got his first taste of success in a fifth grade production of The Velveteen Rabbit. Playing the lead, he was delighted by the response to the show. When you get your first solo bow, that feels pretty good, in 1987 Dinklage graduated from Delbarton School, a Catholic prep school for boys, where he continued to develop his acting as part of the schools drama club. He then attended Bennington College, where he appeared in productions before graduating in 1991. After that he moved to New York City with his friend Ian Bell, failing to pay the rent, they both moved out. The play True West, written by American playwright Sam Shepard, Dinklage made his film debut in the low-budget independent comedy-drama Living in Oblivion where he played alongside Steve Buscemi. The film tells the story of an independent director, crew. He played the role of an actor with dwarfism who complains about his clichéd roles. The following year he appeared on the crime drama Bulle starring rapper Tupac Shakur weeks before his death and he played the role of a building manager. After a recommendation from Buscemi to the director Alexandre Rockwell, Dinklage was cast in the comedy 13 Moons and his breakout role was starring in the 2003 Tom McCarthy-directed film The Station Agent, which had him play a quiet, withdrawn, unmarried manPeter Dinklage – Dinklage at the 2013 San Diego Comic Con International
166. On the Mindless Menace of Violence – On the Mindless Menace of Violence was a speech given by Senator Robert F. Kennedy at the City Club of Cleveland on April 5,1968, the day after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. He sought to counter the riots and disorder emerging in the United States cities, Kennedy gave no specific solutions, but called upon people to enact change in the future to bring peace. He also spoke with Coretta Scott King, Martin Luther King Jr. s wife, offering his condolences and dispatching John Lewis and that night at the Marott Hotel, Kennedy hosted a meeting with 14 local black leaders. The meeting had been arranged before the assassination by aide James Tolan, the group had debated among themselves as to whether they should hold the meeting. Kennedy eventually arrived, and the conversation turned heated as leaders began accusing him of being an unreliable member of the white establishment. He lost his temper, saying, I dont need all this aggravation, I could sit next to my swimming pool. You know, Gods been good to me and I really dont need anything, but I just feel that if Hes been that good, I should try to put something back in. And you all call yourselves leaders and youve been moaning and groaning about personal problems and you havent once talked about your own people. The meeting ended with most attendees pledging their support to Kennedys campaign, meanwhile in their rooms, Kennedys speechwriters Adam Walinsky and Jeff Greenfield began working on a formal response with assistance over the phone from Theodore Sorenson in Dallas. At about 02,30 on April 5, Kennedy discovered Walinsky asleep over his typewriter, Kennedy personally pulled the covers over Greenfield. The next morning, Walinsky and Greenfield inserted Sorensons contributions and finished the speech and this was just before Kennedy left for Cleveland, after he had an interview with Jack Paar. During the flight he edited the speech and ultimately decided to talk about the violence of institutions inflicted against disadvantaged and disenfranchised peoples, Kennedy rode into Cleveland in a white convertible. An aide from a phone-equipped vehicle waived down his car and informed him that police believed a sniper might be hiding in a church steeple across from the hotel where he was to give the speech. Bill Barry, Kennedys bodyguard, suggested that the senator wait alongside the road while he would drive ahead to investigate, Kennedy angrily dismissed the suggestion, saying, No. Well never stop for that kind of threat, the speech was delivered during a hotel luncheon to approximately 2,200 members of the City Club of Cleveland, lasting only for 10 minutes. He called for a cleaning of violence in society in order to solve the contemporary problems of the United States. Kennedy listed no specific programs and gave no specific solutions to the problems at hand and he finished, The audience gave Kennedy a standing ovation. Jack Newfield said the speech was probably the best written text of the campaign, Newfield also asserted that the address was a suitable epitaph for Kennedy himselfOn the Mindless Menace of Violence – Life
167. Samuel Brannan – Samuel Brannan was an American settler, businessman, journalist, and prominent Mormon who founded the California Star, the first newspaper in San Francisco, California. He is considered the first to publicize the California Gold Rush and was its first millionaire and he helped form the first vigilance committee in San Francisco. He used the profits from his stores and possibly the tithes contributed to him as a leader of the LDS church to buy tracts of real estate. When he could not account for the tithes given him, he was disfellowshipped from the LDS church and his wife divorced him and he was forced to liquidate much of his real estate to pay her one-half of their assets. He died poor and in relative obscurity, Brannan was born in Saco, Maine, to Thomas and Sarah Emery Brannan. Because of problems with his father, when he was fourteen years old Brannan moved with his sister and her husband to Painesville. It was there that Brannan learned the printers trade, during their journey to Ohio, the trio found themselves listening to two men whom they would later know as Orson Hyde and Heber C. Brannans brother-in-law bought a copy of the Book of Mormon from these street corner missionaries, in the neighboring town of Kirtland, Ohio, Brannan, Alexander, and Mary Ann all joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in 1842. After his fathers death, Brannan inherited a decent sum of money, bought out of his last year of his apprenticeship. Soon after making his investment and hoping to get rich because of said investment and he made a quick visit to Maine in order to see his ailing mother and then made his way to New Orleans where his brother Thomas was living. The Brannan brothers bought a press and type with what money they had. After this tragedy, Brannan made his way back to the North, stopping in Indianapolis to work on the Gazette, but that only lasted for a couple months before he returned to Painesville. Once Brannan had returned to his sisters home, he renewed his religious convictions in the LDS church and was called by the apostle Wilford Woodruff to serve a mission in Ohio. Before being called as a missionary he had married Harriet Hatch and his mission ended earlier than expected when he caught malaria and had to return home for his health. Once he had recovered he was again called to help the church. While waiting in Connecticut to meet-up with Smith, Brannan fell in love with Ann Eliza Corwin whose mother took care of the visitors in the boarding house. Brannan planned to marry her and separate from his first wife and they were eventually married although it was said that Brannan had never officially divorced his first wife. From Connecticut they went to New York City, New York, in 1844, and began printing The Prophet, shortly after the paper began, news spread that the prophet Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were murdered and Brigham Young had taken over the position as prophetSamuel Brannan – Samuel Brannan
168. Jean Brooks – Ruby Matilda Kelly, known professionally as Jean Brooks, was an American film actress and singer who appeared in over thirty films. Though she never achieved stardom in Hollywood, she had a number of prominent roles in the early 1940s as a contract player for RKO Radio Pictures. Raised in Texas and Costa Rica, she began her career as a singer in New York City before being cast in several minor parts in films. She would later appear in supporting roles in the Universal Pictures serial productions Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe and her later career was marred by struggles with alcoholism, and a series of drunken public appearances resulted in Brooks ending her contract with RKO. In 1948, she made her film appearance in Women in the Night before abandoning her career as an actress and relocating to San Francisco. She died in 1963 of complications resulting from her alcoholism, Brooks was born Ruby M. Kelly on December 23,1915 in Houston, Texas, the fourth child of Horace and Robina Kelly. Through her mother, Brooks was of English and Canadian descent and her two older brothers, Horace Jr. and Ernest, were both teenagers at the time she was born, a third son had died in 1912 at age seven of tetanus. Brooks spent her years in Texas but after her fathers death during her childhood, she and her mother relocated to Costa Rica. There, they lived on Brooks grandfathers coffee plantation, as a result, Brooks was binlingual, fluent in both English and Spanish. During her teenage years, Brooks relocated with her mother to New York City, Brooks would begin her professional career as a singer at New York Citys Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, where she sang in Enric Madrigueras orchestra. She adopted the name Jeanne Kelly for her entertainment career, with the help of Erich von Stroheim, whom Brooks had met while working at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, she began her acting career. Her first screen role was in the Arcturus Pictures release Obeah, after having bit parts in Frankie and Johnnie and Tango-Bar, she starred alongside von Stroheim in The Crime of Dr. Crespi. Brooks parted ways with von Stroheim some time after Crespi and she then acted in the stage melodrama Name Your Poison, opposite Lenore Ulrich, which premiered at the Sam S. Shubert Theatre in Newark, New Jersey on January 20,1936. In 1938, Brooks attempted to get back into film acting, after a failed screen test with 20th Century Fox, and the collapse of Major Productions, she signed a contract to star in Spanish language films for Paramount Pictures. She landed two starring roles with Paramount, acting under the stage name Robina Duarte, after the Paramount contract, Brooks spent another year taking bit parts. In 1940, she landed a contract with Universal Studios, after more bit parts and small roles, Brooks was awarded with her first leading role in a feature film, playing Laura in The Devils Pipeline in 1940. Her performance was not well received, Variety described her as flat, Universal never gave her star treatment, preferring instead to cast her in small roles and B-movies. In 1941, Jean met and married writer and future film director Richard Brooks, shortly thereafter, Universal dropped Brooks contractJean Brooks – Brooks in a publicity photo for The Seventh Victim (1943)
169. Combined DNA Index System – The Combined DNA Index System is the United States national DNA database created and maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The CODIS software contains multiple different databases depending on the type of information being searched against, examples of these databases include, missing persons, convicted offenders, and forensic samples collected from crime scenes. Each state, and the system, has different laws for collection, upload. However, for reasons, the CODIS database does not contain any personal identifying information. The uploading agency is notified of any hits to their samples and are tasked with the dissemination of personal information pursuant to their laws, the creation of a national DNA database within the US was first mention by the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods in 1989. In 1990, the FBI began a pilot DNA databasing program with 14 state, the national level of CODIS was implemented in October 1998. Today, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, federal law enforcement, the Army Laboratory, sTRs are a type of copy-number variation and comprise a sequence of nucleotide base pairs that is repeated over and over again. At each location tested during DNA analysis, also known as a locus, each set is measured and the number of repeat copies is recorded. If both strands, inherited from the parents, contain the number of repeats at that locus the person is said to be homozygous at that locus. If the repeat numbers differ they are said to be heterozygous, every possible difference at a locus is an allele. This repeat determination is performed across a number of loci and the values is the DNA profile that is uploaded to CODIS. As of January 1,2017, requirements for upload to national level for known offender profiles is 20 loci, alternatively, CODIS allows for the upload of mitochondrial DNA information into the missing persons indexes. Since mtDNA is passed down from mother to offspring it can be used to link remains to living relatives who have the same mtDNA. Prior to January 1,2017, the level of CODIS required that known offender profiles have a set of 13 loci called the CODIS core. Since then, the requirement has expanded to seven additional loci. Partial profiles are also allowed in CODIS in separate indexes and are common in crime scene samples that are degraded or are mixtures of multiple individuals. Upload of these profiles to the level of CODIS requires at least eight of the core loci to be present as well as a profile rarity of 1 in 10 million. Loci that fall within a gene are named after the gene, for example TPOX, is named after the human thyroid peroxidase geneCombined DNA Index System – CODIS markers
170. William Lofland Dudley – William Lofland Dudley was an American chemistry professor at both the University of Cincinnati and Vanderbilt University. At Vanderbilt, he was appointed dean of its medical department and he was also once vice-president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was notably director of affairs on the Tennessee Centennial Exposition executive committee. Early in Dudleys career, he and John Holland developed a method for refining iridium that paved the way for applications of the metal. He was instrumental in the establishment of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Dudley was a part of the National Collegiate Athletic Association executive and football rules committees. Known as the father of Vanderbilt football and the father of Southern football, Dudley was born on April 16,1859 in Covington, Kentucky, to George Reed Dudley and Emma Lofland. His father was an owner and manufacturer. Dudleys family was of English descent, and he was a descendant of colonial Massachusetts governor Thomas Dudley. He was educated in the Covington public schools, graduating from Covington High School in 1876 and that autumn, Dudley entered the University of Cincinnati. By 1875 he had published an article in Scientific American. He was appointed professor of chemistry at Miami in 1880. From 1880 to 1886, Dudley was a professor of chemistry and toxicology at Miami Medical College in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1886, he was elected professor and chair of chemistry at Vanderbilt University, where he introduced courses in organic chemistry to the curriculum. President Grover Cleveland appointed Dudley a member of the Assay Commission of 1887 to examine the weight, Dudley was appointed Vanderbilts first dean of the medical department in 1895. In 1880, one John Holland of Cincinnati discovered the ability to melt and make castings of iridium by fusing the white-hot ore with phosphorus and he invoked the help of Dudley in getting rid of the phosphorus, who did so by repeated applications of lime at great heat. This was the first reported method of refining iridium, Dudley then found new applications for iridium, and formed the American Iridium Company with Holland. Dudley filed a patent on his method for electroplating in 1887. Dudley was credited with discovering that a component of tobacco smoke is carbon monoxide. Dudley rejected the popularly held opinion that cigarette smoke was harmful due to the adulteration of the tobacco and his experiments showed the toxic agent to be carbon monoxide, resulting alike from cigarette, pipe, or cigar. Dudley was one of the first to publish the physiological effects of X-rays along with fellow Vanderbilt professor John Daniel, a child who had been shot in the head was brought to the Vanderbilt laboratory in 1896William Lofland Dudley – William Lofland Dudley
171. Alan Hale (astronomer) – Alan Hale is an American professional astronomer, best known for his co-discovery of Comet Hale–Bopp along with amateur astronomer Thomas Bopp. Hale specializes in the study of stars and the search for extra-solar planetary systems. The International Astronomical Union has named an asteroid in Hales honor,4151 Alanhale, Hale was born in 1958 in Tachikawa, Japan, where his father was serving in the United States Air Force. Four months later his father was transferred to Holloman Air Force Base outside Alamogordo, Hale was raised in Alamogordo where his father retired from the Air Force and worked in civil service. In 2013 Hale said, I refuse to say that I grew up there because anyone who know me knows that I really haven’t grown up yet. Hale also said that as a child he was interested in sciences as well. Hale graduated from Alamogordo High School in 1976, and then served in the United States Navy from 1976 to 1983 and he graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1980 with a bachelors degree in physics. During the 1986 Voyager 2 fly-by of Uranus, he worked with the Radio Science Experiment, using the carrier signal to deduce information about Uranus’ atmosphere. His doctoral dissertation was published in the January 1994 issue of The Astronomical Journal, after earning his doctorate, Hale worked at The Space Center in Alamogordo, New Mexico, as its staff astronomer and outreach education coordinator. In 1993 Hale founded the Southwest Institute for Space Research, which became the Earthrise Institute. In 1999 Hale assembled a group of American scientists, students, Hale feels that Science is a. universal language and it would be a great idea if we could use science as a tool to bring people together. To break down barriers between nations and between cultures, Hale uses the expression Science Diplomacy in this context, which he says its possible he coined. The sky looks the same from Iran as it does here in the US. It’s the same sky we study, Science does not know political boundaries. He immediately noticed an object in the field which wasnt present when he had observed that region of the sky two weeks earlier. After consulting his astronomical sources and determining that the comet was likely unknown, Hale says, I sent an email to Brian Marsden and Dan Green at the Central Bureau. Informing them of a comet, later, when I had verified that the object had moved against the background stars. I continued to follow the comet for a total of about 3 hours, until it set behind trees in the southwest, unknown to Hale, that night Thomas Bopp was observing the same region of the sky with friends near Stanfield, ArizonaAlan Hale (astronomer) – v
172. John Heisman – John William Heisman was a player and coach of American football, basketball, and baseball, as well as a sportswriter and actor. His 1917 Georgia Tech Golden Tornado were recognized as the national champion and he served as the athletic director at Georgia Tech from 1904 to 1919 and at Rice from 1924 to 1927. While at Georgia Tech, he also was president of the Atlanta Crackers baseball team, fuzzy Woodruff dubbed Heisman the pioneer of Southern football. Heisman was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1954 and his entry there notes that Heisman stands only behind Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, and Walter Camp as a master innovator of the brand of football of his day. One writer says Heisman, Stagg, and Warner constitute the Football Trinity, the Heisman Trophy, awarded annually to the seasons most outstanding college football player, is named after him. Heisman was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Bavarian German immigrants Sara and he grew up in northwestern Pennsylvania near Titusville, where he played varsity football for Titusville High School from 1884 to 1886, and was salutatorian of his graduating class. Although he was a student, he confessed he was football mad. Heismans father refused to him play at Titusville, calling football bestial. He went on to football as a lineman at Brown University and at the University of Pennsylvania. In constant dread that his immediate teammates—guards weighing 212 and 243—would fall on him and he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1892. In his book Principles of Football, Heisman described his strategy, The coach should be masterful and commanding. He has no time to say please or mister, at times he must be severe, arbitrary, and little short of a czar. Heisman always used a megaphone at practice, Heisman first coached at Oberlin College in 1892. Wrote The Oberlin Review in 1892, Mr. Heisman has entirely remade our football and he has taught us scientific football. Influenced by Yale and Pudge Heffelfinger, Heisman implemented seven-man interference and his best lineman at Oberlin was the half German, half Hawaiian John Henry Wise. Heisman also used a pass and a double pass. Heisman returned to Oberlin in 1894, in 1893 he moved to Buchtel College, where he helped make the first of many permanent alterations to the sport of football. It was then customary for the center to begin a play by rolling the ball backwards, under Heisman, the center began tossing the ball to Clark, a practice that evolved into the snap that today begins every playJohn Heisman – John Heisman
173. Nat Hentoff – Nathan Irving Nat Hentoff was an American historian, novelist, jazz and country music critic, and syndicated columnist for United Media. Hentoff was the critic for The Village Voice from 1958 to 2009. Following his departure from The Village Voice, Hentoff moved his column to The Wall Street Journal. He often wrote on First Amendment issues, vigorously defending the freedom of the press, Hentoff was formerly a columnist for Down Beat, JazzTimes, Legal Times, The Washington Post, The Washington Times, The Progressive, Editor & Publisher and Free Inquiry. Hentoff was born in Boston, Massachusetts on June 10,1925, as a teen, he attended Boston Latin School and worked for Frances Sweeney on the Boston City Reporter, investigating antisemitic hate groups. Sweeney was an influence on Hentoff, his memoir, Boston Boy, is dedicated to her. He was awarded his B. A. with the honors from Northeastern University. In 1950, he was a Fulbright fellow at the Sorbonne in Paris, Hentoff began his career in broadcast journalism while also hosting a weekly jazz program on WMEX, a Boston radio station. In the 1940s, he hosted two shows on WMEX, JazzAlbum and From Bach To Bartók. Hentoff continued to do a program on WMEX into the early 1950s. By the late 1950s, he was co-hosting a program called The Scope of Jazz on WBAI-FM in New York City and he went on to author numerous books on jazz and politics. Hentoff joined Down Beat magazine as a columnist in 1952, from 1953 through 1957, he was an associate editor of Down Beat. He was fired in 1957 after allegedly trying to hire an African-American writer, Hentoff co-authored with Nat Shapiro Hear Me Talkin to Ya, The Story of Jazz by the Men Who Made It. The book features interviews with musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie. Hentoff co-founded The Jazz Review in 1958, a magazine that he co-edited with Martin Williams until 1961, in 1960, Hentoff served as the A&R director of the short-lived jazz label Candid Records, which released albums by Charles Mingus, Cecil Taylor and Max Roach, among others. Hentoff wrote multiple articles to draw attention to the plight of Americas pioneering musicians of jazz and these articles were published in the Wall Street Journal and the Village Voice. Beginning in February 2008, Hentoff was a contributing columnist at WorldNetDaily. com. In January 2009, the Village Voice, which had regularly published Hentoffs commentary and criticism for fifty years, in February 2009, Hentoff joined the libertarian Cato Institute as a senior fellowNat Hentoff – Nat Hentoff
174. History of the Washington Redskins – The Washington Redskins have played over 1,000 games. In those games, the club has won five professional American football championships including two NFL Championships and three Super Bowls, the franchise has also captured twelve NFL divisional titles and six NFL conference championships. The Redskins won the 1937 and 1942 Championship games, as well as Super Bowl XVII, XXII and they also played in and lost the 1936,1940,1943, and 1945 Championship games, as well as Super Bowl VII and XVIII. They have made 22 postseason appearances, and have a postseason record of 23 wins and 17 losses. All of the Redskins league titles were attained during two ten-year spans, from 1936 to 1945, the Redskins went to the NFL Championship six times, winning two of them. The second period lasted between 1982 and 1991 where the Redskins appeared in the seven times, captured four Conference titles. The Redskins have also experienced failure in their history, the most notable period of failure was from 1946 to 1970, during which the Redskins did not have a single postseason appearance. During this period, the Redskins went without a winning season between 1956 and 1968. In 1961, the franchise posted their worst regular season record with a 1–12–1 showing and they are also the eighth worlds most valuable sports team, as 2016. In 2014, they generated an estimated of $439 million in revenue and they have also broken the NFLs mark for single-season attendance six years in a row from 1999 to 2005. The city of Boston, was awarded an NFL franchise on July 9,1932, under the ownership of George Preston Marshall, Vincent Bendix, Jay OBrien, despite this, neither the NFL nor the Indians claim the history of the Indians and Tornadoes as their own. Additionally, none of the members of the 1930 Newark Tornadoes roster, initially, the new team took the same name as their landlords, the Boston Braves, one of the two local baseball teams at the time. The Braves played their first game on October 2,1932, under the leadership of coach Lud Wray, against the Brooklyn Dodgers, the next week, the Braves recorded their first win, beating the New York Giants, 14–6. The team moved to Fenway Park the next year, and Marshall changed the name to the Redskins, dietzs first year as coach in 1933 was unremarkable, and the Redskins finished the season with a 5–5–2 record. Dietz was fired after posting a 6–6 record in 1934, during the 1935 season, the Redskins split their first two games before going into a season-long scoring slump, posting only 23 points during a seven-game losing streak. The Redskins posted a win and a tie in their two games, finishing with a 2–8–1 record, while only scoring 65 points on the season. Casey was fired at the end of the season, the Redskins most productive year in Boston came in 1936. It started with the first annual NFL Draft on February 8,1936 and their first selection as an NFL team was Riley Smith, a blocking back from AlabamaHistory of the Washington Redskins – 1938 Washington Redskins.
175. Interstate 55 in Louisiana – Interstate 55 is an Interstate Highway that spans a total of 65.81 miles in a north–south direction in the U. S. state of Louisiana. Along the way it passes through the city of Hammond, where it intersects two of the states major east–west routes, I-12 and US190 and it also serves the smaller city of Ponchatoula, as well as the towns of Amite City and Kentwood. I-55 is a route connecting the New Orleans metropolitan area with Jackson, Mississippi and ultimately Chicago. New Orleans is located 21 miles east of LaPlace on I-10, the southernmost 23 miles of I-55, passing between Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Maurepas, are elevated as part of the Manchac Swamp Bridge, one of the longest bridges in the world. In April 2010, Readers Digest listed I-55 in Louisiana as the one of the seven worst roads in America, originally constructed in the mid-1960s using concrete, the roadway had deteriorated to the point where rehabilitation was needed in 1989-90, but problems remained. In 2010-11, Louisiana rubblized most of the concrete on the interstate from Ponchatoula to the Mississippi state line and replaced it with asphaltInterstate 55 in Louisiana – Interstate 55
176. Klein Independent School District – Klein Independent School District is a school district that covers 87.5 square miles in Harris County, Texas, United States. The district was created in 1928, but was actually named Klein in 1938. Almost all of the territory is unincorporated, a portion of Houston is within the district. In the 2014-15 school year Klein had 49,400 students, Klein ISD is part of the taxation base for the Lone Star College System. Dr. Bret Champion is Superintendent of Schools, the district currently has 31 elementary schools, nine intermediate schools, and four high schools. A fifth high school and an intermediate school are both planned to be built in the future. Even more, Klein ISD has a Pre-K designated school for Pre-K students zoned in certain areas of the district, as of 2015, the school district is rated met standard by the Texas Education Agency. Originally named Rural High School District No and it is board policy that all high schools include the name Klein in honor of the districts namesake. In 1971, Dr. Donald Richard Collins, CPA, became the districts superintendent, under his tenure the number of schools in the district rose from 6 to over 30. Largely under his influence, the adopted a policy of naming schools after early immigrants to the area, mostly of German ancestry. In 2001, Klein Collins High School was named in his honor, the districts superintendent was Dr. Jim Cain. In late 2015, Cain announced he would retire on June 30,2016 and he will serve as a special assistant to the school board to find a new superintendent in July and August. Klein Cain High School is named after him, some areas within the Spring and Tomball postal designations, and a portion of Acres Homes within the city limits of Houston are also served by Klein ISD. The Klein ISD Board of Trustees passed a resolution at their January 2016 meeting regarding renaming the 88 square miles encompassing Klein ISD as Klein, by Texas legislative action in 1977, the area inside the boundaries of the Klein ISD was designated as Klein, Texas. On May 10,2008, a referendum for $646.9 million was passed with approximately 52% of the ballots for it. The bond was to new schools, including present-day Blackshear Elementary, Bernshausen Elementary. In May 2015, Klein ISD held another referendum for $498.1 million. The bond includes $283.6 million to accommodate growth with new construction,5, $47.1 million for Intermediate School NoKlein Independent School District – Klein High School
177. National Museum of African Art – The National Museum of African Art is the Smithsonian Institutions African art museum, located on the National Mall of the United States capital. Its collections include 9,000 works of traditional and contemporary African art from both Sub-Saharan and Arab North Africa,300,000 photographs, and 50,000 library volumes. It was the first institution dedicated to African art in the United States, the Washington Post called the museum a mainstay in the international art world and the main venue for contemporary African art in the United States. The museum was founded in 1964 by a Foreign Service officer and layman who bought African art objects in Germany, the collection focused on traditional African art and an educational mission towards black cultural heritage. To ensure the longevity, the founder lobbied Congress to adopt the museum under the Smithsonians auspices. It joined the Smithsonian in 1979 and became the National Museum of African Art two years later, a new, mostly underground museum building was completed in 1987 just off the National Mall and adjacent to other Smithsonian museums. It is among the Smithsonians smallest museums, the African art museum took a scholarly direction over the next twenty years, with less social programming. It collected traditional and contemporary works of historical importance, exhibitions include works both internal and borrowed, and have ranged from solo artist to broad, survey shows. The museum hosts two to three temporary exhibitions and ten special events annually, reviewers criticized the National Mall buildings architecture, particularly its lack of natural light. The museum is slated to be remodeled as part of the Smithsonians upcoming South Mall project, in the 1950s, American Foreign Service officer Warren M. Robbins collected African figures, masks, books, and textiles from German antique shops. Upon returning to Washington, D. C. in 1960, he purchased a house on Capitol Hill, Robbins, without museum, arts, or fundraising experience, believed that the collection could advance interracial civil rights by improving how white peoples understanding of African culture. Starting in 1963, he expanded his Capitol Hill house museum into adjacent townhouses, the collections eventually occupied nine townhouses and over a dozen other properties near the Supreme Court Building. The museum was founded in 1964 as the Museum of African Art. Under Robbinss tenure, the focused on traditional African art. Robbins referred to his museum as a department with a museum attached. By 1976, the African art museum had a 20-person staff,6, 000-object collection, to ensure the museums longevity, Robbins lobbied Congress to have the Smithsonian Institution, a federal group of museums and research centers, absorb it. The Smithsonian directors adopted the museum the next year and began plans to move the collection from the townhouses into a proper museum, in 1981, the museum was renamed the National Museum of African Art. In early 1983, former Brooklyn Museum curator of African cultures Sylvia Williams became the museums director, later that year, the Smithsonian broke ground on a new, dedicated building for the African art museum on the National MallNational Museum of African Art – National Museum of African Art
178. Phillips Exeter Academy – Phillips Exeter Academy is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day students between the 9th and 12th grade. It is located in Exeter, New Hampshire, and is one of the oldest secondary schools in the United States and it is particularly noted for its innovation and application of Harkness education, a system based on a conference format of student interaction with minimal teacher involvement. It bears similarities to the Socratic method of learning through asking questions, Phillips Exeter Academy students and alumni are called Exonians, and students, faculty and staff often refer to the school as Exeter or PEA. The school has the largest endowment of any New England boarding school, in 2015–2016, over 45% of students received financial aid from grants totalling over $19M. Phillips Exeter Academy had a rate of 11% for the 2014–2015 school year. The schools day-to-day operation are headed by a Principal, while management of the financial and physical resources are overseen by the Trustees. Trustees are drawn from former Exonians and appoint the Principal, the faculty of the school are responsible for governing matters relating to student life, both in and out of the classroom. Students are housed in 26 single-sex dormitories, each headed by a dormitory head, nearly a third of graduates go into the Ivy League. The schools first enrolled class counted 56 boys, in 1970, present-day enrollment stands at over 1,000 of a roughly equal ratio from both sexes. It is a member of the Ten Schools Admissions Organization, Phillips Exeter Academy was established in 1781 by John Phillips. As a result of family relationship, the two schools share a rivalry. The school that Phillips founded at Exeter was to educate students under a Calvinist religious framework, however, like his nephew who founded Andover, Phillips stipulated in the schools founding charter that it would ever be equally open to youth of requisite qualifications from every quarter. Phillips had previously married to Sarah Gilman, wealthy widow of Phillipss cousin, merchant Nathaniel Gilman, whose large fortune, bequeathed to Phillips. In 1814, Nicholas Gilman, signer of the U. S. Constitution, the academys first schoolhouse, the First Academy Building, was built on a site on Tan Lane in 1783, and today stands not far from its original location. The building was dedicated on February 20,1783, the day that the schools first Preceptor. This would be a revolution in methods. The result was Harkness teaching, in which a teacher and a group of work together, exchanging ideas and information. In November 1930, Harkness gave Exeter $5.8 million to support this initiative, since then, the Academys principal mode of instruction has been by discussion, seminar style, around an oval table known as the Harkness tablePhillips Exeter Academy – John Phillips, the founder of Phillips Exeter Academy
179. Red imported fire ant – The red imported fire ant, also known as the fire ant or RIFA, is a species of ant native to South America. A member of the genus Solenopsis in the subfamily Myrmicinae, it was described by Swiss entomologist Felix Santschi as a variant in 1916 and its current name invicta was given to the ant in 1972 as a separate species. However, the variant and species were the same ant, the red imported fire ant is native to South America but it has been accidentally introduced in Australia, New Zealand, several Asian and Caribbean countries and the United States. The red imported fire ant is polymorphic as workers appear in different shapes and sizes, the ants colours are red and somewhat yellowish with a brown or black gaster. Red imported fire ants are dominant in altered areas and live in a variety of habitats. They can be found in forests, in disturbed areas, deserts, grasslands, alongside roads and buildings. Colonies form large mounds constructed from dirt with no visible entrances because foraging tunnels are built and these ants exhibit a wide variety of behaviours, such as building rafts when they sense that water levels are rising. They also show necrophoric behaviour, where nestmates discard scraps or dead ants on refuse piles outside the nest, foraging takes place on warm or hot days, although they may remain outside at night. Workers communicate by a series of semiochemicals and pheromones which are used for recruitment, foraging and they are omnivores and eat dead mammals, arthropods, insects, seeds, and sweet substances such as honeydew from hemipteran insects with whom they have developed relationships. Predators include arachnids, birds and many insects including ants, dragonflies, earwigs. The ant is a host to parasites and to a number of pathogens, nematodes, nuptial flight occurs during the warm seasons, and the alates may mate for as long as 30 minutes. Colony founding can be done via a queen or a group of queens. Workers can live for months while queens can live for years. Two forms of society in the red imported fire ant exist, polygynous colonies, venom plays an important role in the ants life as it is used to capture prey or for defence. 95% of the components are water-insoluble piperidine alkaloids, and it is particularly potent on sensitive humans. More than 14 million people are stung by them in the United States annually, most victims experience intense burning and swelling, followed by the formation of sterile pustules which may remain for several days. However 0. 6% to 6% of people may suffer from anaphylaxis which can be if left untreated. Common symptoms include dizziness, chest pain, nausea, severe sweating, low pressure, loss of breathRed imported fire ant – Red imported fire ant
180. Rocky Romero – John R. Rivera is a Cuban professional wrestler better known by his ring name Rocky Romero and as the fourth incarnation of Black Tiger. Romero is a well known tag team wrestler and he was member of tag teams like The Havana Pitbulls/Los Cubanitos, No Remorse Corps, Forever Hooligans, and Roppongi Vice. In the United States he is most known for his work with Ring of Honor and was one of the wrestlers for Lucha Libre USA. As a singles wrestler, Romero won the CMLL World Super Lightweight Championship on three occasions, the IWGP Junior Heavyweight Championship and the NWA World Junior Heavyweight Championship. In the tag division, he is a former three-time ROH World Tag Team Champion. Romeros wrestling style incorporates stiff shoot-style kicks and multiple armlock variations resembling mixed martial arts, Rivera made his wrestling debut in 1997, using the ring name Rocky Romero. He was trained at NJPW Dojo in Los Angeles, on October 8,2005, Romero, as Black Tiger, defeated Tiger Mask for the IWGP Junior Heavyweight Championship. After a four-month reign, Tiger Mask regained the title from his nemesis, a few months later Los Havana Brothers began working as Rocky Romero, Pinoy Boy and Bobby Quance respectively. On September 12, Romero became CMLLs first-ever World Super Lightweight Champion after defeating Volador Jr. in a tournament final, on November 14 Virus defeated Romero to win the championship, signalling the exit of Los Havana Brothers for the time being. In late 2004 Romero made a return to CMLL and defeated Virus to regain the championship. After the title win he left CMLL again, occasionally defending the championship in Southern California, in 2005 local wrestler Tommy Williams won the Super Lightweight Championship but Romero regained it in January 2006. At that point the championship became inactive, with no mention of it, in early 2008 Romero returned to CMLL and began working under the name Grey Shadow, a masked gimmick, without CMLL opening acknowledging that it was Romero under the mask. No official references were given to his past with CMLL, nor any mention of the fact that Romero still held the CMLL World Super Lightweight Championship, on October 5,2008, Romero jumped from CMLL to rival promotion Asistencia Asesoría y Administración. He made his debut at the promotions television taping in Puebla, Puebla and was announced as a member of Sean Waltmans D-Generation MEX stable at the show. On July 4,2010, Romero turned rudo and joined La Legión Extranjera instead, however, just four days later it was reported that Romero had left AAA, after the company had asked him to take a pay cut. While in ROH, he and Reyes were also members of Homicides stable and he left the company at the end of 2005 to focus on working in Japan. Romero, however, did compete as Black Tiger in August 2007 in Chikara to compete for the NWA World Junior Heavyweight Championship against champion Mike Quackenbush. At NJPWs Resolution 09 on April 5, Romero lost in a mask vs. title match against Tiger Mask, thus ending his role as Black TigerRocky Romero – Romero in September 2015
181. Ronald Reagan in music – Ronald Reagan in music refers to songs, albums, music videos, and band names that refer to or depict Ronald Wilson Reagan, particularly during his two terms as president of the United States. While references to Reagan appear in pop music, his presence in song lyrics and that changed with Reagans presidency, which brought on echoes of his prior campaign against counter-cultural activists a generation earlier during his terms as governor of California. Ronald Reagan became a subject in song during the era of protests against the Vietnam War while he served as governor of California. Ochs imagines a movie based on his own song, It stars Senator Carl Hayden as Ho Chi Minh, Frank Sinatra plays Fidel Castro, Ronald Reagan plays George Murphy, Senator for the state of California. Reagan had succeeded Murphy as SAG president where he worked as an informant for the FBI during the Hollywood blacklist period, Two decades later, Reagan ran for office and became Californias governor. Tom Lehrer made a comparison in his song George Murphy. Reagans Chief of Staff, Edwin Meese III, ordered the Alameda County Sheriff to fire upon the crowds with buckshot, resulting in the death of one student and these directives had come from Reagan himself, who had been publicly critical of UC Berkeley administrators for tolerating student demonstrations. In his 1966 gubernatorial campaign he had promised to crack down on what he called a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, jefferson Starship counters Reagans prudishness with the line, Well ball in your parks. After Reagans election as U. S. president in 1980, 1981s Fascist Groove Thang by British synthpoppers Heaven 17 slammed UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher along with Reagan, denouncing the leaders policies as tending toward racism and fascism. The song was banned by the BBC over concerns of libel, in 1984 John Fogerty alluded to Reagan for his single The Old Man Down the Road. That same year the group Frankie Goes to Hollywood traced Reagans career to a future when Jesus Christ would return only after a nuclear apocalypse in their song Two Tribes. Chris Barrie, who voiced Reagan on the TV show Spitting Image, played the president on the track, quoting the song American Pie and parts of an Adolf Hitler speech as Reagan. In 1984 Eagles drummer Don Henley released the single All She Wants to Do Is Dance in protest against the U. S. involvement with the Contras in Nicaragua. Henley chastised Americans for wanting to dance while sales of guns, among the years other songs protesting Americas role in the Iran-Contra affair were Nicaragua by Bruce Cockburn, Lives in the Balance by Jackson Browne. Please Forgive Us by 10,000 Maniacs, and Untitled Song for Latin America by Minutemen, when Britains ITV network launched the satirical puppet show Spitting Image in 1984, the first record released in relation to the show was a rework of the Crystals Da Doo Ron Ron. The Spitting Image version, Da Do Run Ron, was an election campaign song for Ronald Reagan. The cover featured the puppet versions of the Reagans that appeared on the show, in 1985 former Police frontman Sting released Russians, with lyrics leveled at Reagan, the Soviets, and both countries pro-nuclear rhetoric, all set to Sergei Prokofievs Lieutenant Kije Suite. The same year jam band Phish made their own case against the presidentRonald Reagan in music – Let Them Eat Jellybeans! compilation album from 1981
182. Everett Scott – Lewis Everett Scott, nicknamed Deacon, was an American professional baseball player. Scott served as captain of both the Red Sox and Yankees, who have become fierce rivals and he compiled a lifetime batting average of.249, hitting 20 home runs with 551 runs batted in in 1,654 games. As of 2015, it is still the third-longest streak in history, after retiring from baseball, Scott became a successful professional bowler. He died in Fort Wayne, Indiana, at the age of 67 and he was posthumously inducted into the Indiana Sports Hall of Fame and Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame. Scott was born in Bluffton, Indiana and he had two brothers and a sister. His father, Lewis, had moved to Bluffton from Warren, Indiana, Lewis brother, Frame, had been a baseball player when he was younger. Scott attended Bluffton High School, where he played for the baseball and basketball teams. Scott married his school sweetheart, Gladys Watt, in 1912. After graduating from Bluffton, Scott made his professional debut in Minor League Baseball with the Kokomo Wild Cats of the Class D Northern State of Indiana League in 1909. He moved to the Fairmont Champions of the Class D Pennsylvania–West Virginia League for the remainder of the 1909 season and he began the 1910 season with Fairmont, and completed the season with Kokomo. He joined the Youngstown Steelmen of the Class C Ohio–Pennsylvania League in 1911, and remained with them in 1912, jimmy McAleer, a native of Youngstown and minority owner of the Boston Red Sox of the American League, noticed Scott playing for the Steelmen. On McAleers suggestion, the Red Sox purchased Scott from Youngstown after the 1912 season, towards the end of the 1913 season, the Red Sox recalled Scott. Bill Phillips, manager of the Indianapolis Hoosiers of the outlaw Federal League, Scott remained with the Red Sox, signing a contract for $2,500 for the 1914 season. Scott made his league debut on April 14,1914 for the Red Sox. His batting average dropped to.201 in the 1915 season, the Red Sox won the AL pennant, and defeated the Philadelphia Phillies in the 1915 World Series. Scott had one hit in 18 at bats during the series, on June 20,1916, Scott began a consecutive games played streak. Scott batted.232 in the 1916 season and led all AL shortstops in fielding percentage, in the 1916 World Series, the Red Sox defeated the Brooklyn Robins. Scott had two hits in 16 at bats, and Wilbert Robinson of the Robins nicknamed Scott Trolley Wire due to his accurate throws, after a contract dispute, when Scott refused a pay cut from the Red Sox, Scott signed a contract for the 1918 seasonEverett Scott – Everett Scott
183. Confederate States Army – The Confederate States Army was the military ground force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. S. Military Academy and colonel of a regiment during the Mexican War. In March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a more permanent Confederate States Army, the better estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. This does not include a number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications. Since these figures include estimates of the number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war. These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate naval forces, although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of Union soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures also are incomplete and unreliable, one estimate of Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from causes such as accidents. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16,1865 and June 28,1865, by the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted. The Confederacys government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April, by the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4,1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States. The Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U. S. Army forts, Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office, especially Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T, Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13,1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14. The Northern states were outraged by the Confederacys attack and demanded war and it rallied behind Lincolns call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the Union intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army and it was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, very little was done to organize the Confederate regular army, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular, volunteer, and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular ArmyConfederate States Army – Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
184. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
185. Florida – Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism, agriculture, and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century. Florida is also renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, tennis, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet. Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near StFlorida – St. Augustine is the oldest city in the U.S., established in 1565 by Spain.
186. Idaho – Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, to the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of around 1.7 million people and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the states capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited solely by Native American peoples, in the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3,1890, forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the states north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle is closely linked with Eastern Washington, the states south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains, additionally, around 38 percent of Idahos land is held by the United States Forest Service, the most of any state. Industries significant for the economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry. Idahos agricultural sector supplies a number of different products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, the official state nickname is the Gem State, which references Idahos reputation for gemstones and, more broadly, its many wilderness areas. The exact origin of the remains a mystery. Willing later claimed that he had invented the name. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861, thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado Idaho Springs. However, the name Idaho did not fall into obscurity, the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860 and it is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willings claim was revealed. Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863. Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, the name Idaho may be derived from the Plains Apache word ídaahę́, which means enemy. The Comanches used this word to refer to the Idaho Territory, a 1956 Idaho history textbook says, Idaho is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts, the first is Ee, which in English conveys the idea of coming downIdaho – Digitally colored elevation map of Idaho.
187. Illinois – Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands also had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has also said to mean tribe of superior men. The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, Illinois, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitationIllinois – Mississippian copper plate found at the Saddle Site in Union County, Illinois
188. Kansas – Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribes name is said to mean people of the wind or people of the south wind. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous, tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided. The abolitionists eventually prevailed, and on January 29,1861, after the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn, sorghum, and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th largest state by area and is the 34th most populous of the 50 United States with a population of 2,911,641, residents of Kansas are called Kansans, officially. Mount Sunflower is Kansass highest point at 4,041 feet, for a millennia, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, in 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, however, was still a part of Spain, Mexico, from 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state, the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30,1854, establishing the U. S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery, the secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas, Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29,1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature and his application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal recordKansas – Samuel Seymour's 1819 illustration of a Kansa lodge and dance is the oldest drawing known to be done in Kansas.
189. Maryland – The states largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the state is named after Henrietta Maria of France, the wife of Charles I of England. George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore and the first English proprietor of the colonial grant. Maryland was the state to ratify the United States Constitution. Maryland is one of the smallest U. S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated, Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles and is comparable in overall area with Belgium. It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D. C. which sits on land that was part of Montgomery and Prince Georges counties and including the town of Georgetown. This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Close to the town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason–Dixon line to the north, portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the states distance from seismic/earthquake zones. The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland, buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Marylands natural lakes, laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland City and adjacent to Russett. Chews Lake is a natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro. There are numerous lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake. Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible, as is typical of states on the East Coast, Marylands plant life is abundant and healthy. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay, moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the stateMaryland – Western Maryland: known for its heavily forested mountains. A panoramic view of Deep Creek Lake and the surrounding Appalachian Mountains in Garrett County.
190. Massachusetts – It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Mahican, and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three daysMassachusetts – A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland
191. Missouri – Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, then tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited what we now call Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, today, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St. Louis is also a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, however, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribeMissouri – A physiographic map of Missouri.
192. Montana – Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ is a state in the Western region of the United States. The states name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including Big Sky Country and The Treasure State, and slogans that include Land of the Shining Mountains and more recently The Last Best Place. Montana has a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It also borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total,77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas, coal and hard rock mining, lumber, the health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the states economy. Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning mountain, or more broadly, mountainous country. Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the mountainous region of the west. The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, also of Ohio, objected to the name, Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, with an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is slightly larger than Japan. It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California, the largest landlocked U. S. state, and the worlds 56th largest national state/province subdivision. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, the states topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montanas 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the western half. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the states south-central part are part of the Central Rocky MountainsMontana – Map of Montana
193. Nebraska – Nebraska /nᵻˈbræskə/ is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. Its area is just over 77,220 sq mi with almost 1.9 million people and its largest city is Omaha, which is on the Missouri River. The state is crossed by many trails and was explored by the Lewis. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867 and it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and officially nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major regions, the Dissected Till Plains and the Great Plains. The Dissected Till Plains is a region of rolling hills. The Great Plains occupy most of western Nebraska, characterized by treeless prairie, the state has a large agriculture sector and is a major producer of beef, pork, corn, and soybeans. Two major climatic zones are represented in Nebraska, the half of the state has a humid continental climate, and the western half. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration. The historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Missouria, Ponca, Pawnee, Otoe, when European exploration, trade, and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region. In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, by 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, and by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720. The party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a force of Pawnees and Otoes. The massacre of the Villasur expedition effectively put an end to Spanish exploration of Nebraska for the remainder of the 18th century, in 1762, during the Seven Years War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain. Frances withdrawal from the area left Britain and Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi, by 1773, later that year, Mackays party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U. S. Army post west of the Missouri River, the army abandoned the fort in 1827 as migration moved further west. European-American settlement did not begin in any numbers until after 1848, on May 30,1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act. The Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, the territorial capital of Nebraska was OmahaNebraska – Nebraska in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, with the approximate area of the future state highlighted.
194. New Mexico – New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, Mexico, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico. New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the stateNew Mexico – Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
195. Puerto Rico – Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones such as Mona, Culebra. The capital and most populous city is San Juan and its official languages are Spanish and English, though Spanish predominates. The islands population is approximately 3.4 million, Puerto Ricos rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world. Four centuries of Spanish colonial government transformed the ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes primarily with waves of African captives, and Canarian. In the Spanish imperial imagination, Puerto Rico played a secondary, in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States appropriated Puerto Rico together with most former Spanish colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States, however, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U. S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the level and may not vote for president. However, Congress approved a constitution, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. A fifth referendum will be held in June 2017, with only Statehood, in early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion or $12,000 per capita at a time with 12. 4% unemployment, the debt had been increasing during a decade long recession. Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is also known in Spanish as la isla del encanto. Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city. The islands name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898, the anglicized name was used by the US government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931, the ancient history of the archipelago known today as Puerto Rico is not well known. The scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts from the colonial era constitute the basis of knowledge about them. The first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, the first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland