1. U.S. state – A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government. States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959. The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substanceU.S. state – U.S. states
2. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
3. Arctic Ocean – The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the worlds five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean, located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Ocean is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America. It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter, the summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center uses satellite data to provide a record of Arctic sea ice cover. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history within a few years or by 2040, for much of European history, the north polar regions remained largely unexplored and their geography conjectural. He was probably describing loose sea ice known today as growlers or bergy bits, his Thule was probably Norway, early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as land or water. The makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank and this lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an Open Polar Sea was persistent, john Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. In the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane, even quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a crossing of the Arctic Ocean. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard, with air support. The first nautical transit of the pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean, scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes. In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was heavily contested, the Arctic Ocean occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2, almost the size of Antarctica. The coastline is 45,390 km long and it is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and by several islands. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea, countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are, Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada and the United States. There are several ports and harbours around the Arctic Ocean In Alaska, in Canada, ships may anchor at Churchill in Manitoba, Nanisivik in Nunavut, Tuktoyaktuk or Inuvik in the Northwest territoriesArctic Ocean – A bathymetric / topographic of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
4. Alaska – Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are also a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas, California, and Montana. It is also larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase. The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the regionAlaska – Denali is the highest peak in North America.
5. Hawaii – Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21,1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania and it is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U. S. state not located in the Americas, the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast, Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and the Island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group, it is called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania, Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U. S. states. It is the state with an Asian plurality. The states coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, the state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that was named for Hawaiʻiloa and he is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori, Rarotongan and Samoan. According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the home, but in Hawaii. A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as an official state language. The title of the constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii, diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the okina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications, department and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel lengthHawaii – Hawaii from space, January 26, 2014
6. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
7. Superpower – Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale. This is done through the combined-means of technological, cultural, military and economic strength, as well as international relations. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers, the term was first applied to the British Empire, the United States, and the Soviet Union. At the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, There have been many attempts by historians to apply the term superpower to a variety of past entities. However, since even the most powerful empires of old had little to no means to exert influence over very long distances, no agreed definition of what is a superpower exists, and may differ between sources. This was because the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union had proved themselves to be capable of casting great influence in global politics and military dominance. The term in its current political meaning was coined by Dutch-American geostrategist Nicholas Spykman in a series of lectures in 1943 about the shape of a new post-war world order. A year later, in 1944, William T. R, according to him, there were three states that were superpowers, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. According to Lyman Miller, The basic components of superpower stature may be measured along four axes of power, military, economic, political, although, many modifications may be made to this basic definition. According to Professor June Teufel Dreyer, A superpower must be able to project its power, soft and hard, in his book, Superpower, Three Choices for Americas Role in the World, Dr. There have been attempts by historians to apply the term superpower retrospectively. Recognition by historians of these states as superpowers may focus on various superlative traits exhibited by them. The two countries opposed each other ideologically, politically, militarily, and economically, the Soviet Union promoted the ideology of communism, planned economy and a one-party state, whilst the United States promoted the ideologies of liberal democracy and the free market. This was reflected in the Warsaw Pact and NATO military alliances, respectively and these alliances implied that these two nations were part of an emerging bipolar world, in contrast with a previously multipolar world. Additionally, much of the conflict between the superpowers was fought in wars, which more often than not involved issues more complex than the standard Cold War oppositions. After the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, the term began to be applied to the United States. This term, popularized by French foreign minister Hubert Védrine in the late 1990s, is controversial, one notable opponent to this theory, Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power. In 1999, Samuel P. However, he rejected the claim that the world was unipolar, but that does not mean that the world is unipolar, describing it instead as a strange hybrid, a uni-multipolar system with one superpower and several major powersSuperpower – U.S. President Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (right), former leaders of the Cold War 's two rival superpowers, meeting in Geneva in 1985. The Suez Crisis in 1956, which ended the British Empire's status as a superpower, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's only superpower. As of 2015, this status remains unchanged.
8. History of the United States – The date of the start of the history of the United States is a subject of debate among historians. In recent decades American schools and universities typically have shifted back in time to more on the colonial period. Indigenous people lived in what is now the United States for thousands of years before European colonists began to arrive, mostly from England, the Spanish built small settlements in Florida and the Southwest, and the French along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast. By the 1770s, thirteen British colonies contained two and a million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. After the end of the French and Indian Wars in the 1760s, Tax resistance, especially the Boston Tea Party, led to punitive laws by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. American Patriots adhered to an ideology called republicanism that emphasized civic duty, virtue. Armed conflict began in 1775 as Patriots drove the royal officials out of every colony and assembled in mass meetings, in 1776, the Second Continental Congress declared that there was a new, independent nation, the United States of America, not just a collection of disparate colonies. With large-scale military and financial support from France and the leadership of General George Washington. The peace treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River, the central government established by the Articles of Confederation proved ineffectual at providing stability, as it had no authority to collect taxes and had no executive officer. Congress called a convention to meet secretly in Philadelphia in 1787 and it wrote a new Constitution, which was adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights, with Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief political and financial adviser, a strong central government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, a second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812. Encouraged by the notion of Manifest Destiny, federal territory expanded all the way to the Pacific, the U. S. always was large in terms of area, but its population was small, only 4 million in 1790. Population growth was rapid, reaching 7.2 million in 1810,32 million in 1860,76 million in 1900,132 million in 1940, Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even faster. However, compared to European powers, the military strength was relatively limited in peacetime before 1940. The expansion was driven by a quest for land for yeoman farmers. The expansion of slavery was increasingly controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, the 1860 presidential election of Republican Abraham Lincoln was on a platform of ending the expansion of slavery and putting it on a path to extinction. Seven cotton-based deep South slave states seceded and later founded the Confederacy months before Lincolns inauguration, No nation ever recognized the Confederacy, but it opened the war by attacking Fort Sumter in 1861History of the United States – The Spanish conquistador Coronado explored parts of the American Southwest from 1540 to 1542.
9. United States Marine Corps – The U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military officer in the U. S. Armed Forces, is a Marine Corps general, the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working closely with naval forces for training, transportation, and logistics. The USMC operates posts on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world, two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting for independence both at sea and on shore. The role of the Corps has since grown and evolved, expanding to aerial warfare and earning popular titles such as, Americas third air force, and, second land army. By the mid-20th century, the U. S. Marine Corps had become a major theorist of and its ability to rapidly respond on short notice to expeditionary crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy. As of 2016, the USMC has around 182,000 active duty members and it is the smallest of the U. S. The USMC serves as an expeditionary force-in-readiness and this last clause, while seemingly redundant given the Presidents position as Commander-in-chief, is a codification of the expeditionary responsibilities of the Marine Corps. It derives from similar language in the Congressional acts For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps of 1834, in 1951, the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee called the clause one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps. In addition to its duties, the Marine Corps conducts Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure operations, as well as missions in direct support of the White House. The Marine Band, dubbed the Presidents Own by Thomas Jefferson, Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. The Executive Flight Detachment also provides transport to Cabinet members. The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself, for over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, in 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of War furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on December 15,1948, during the first year of the MSG program,36 detachments were deployed worldwide. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore, the Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, battleships, Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ships landing force, manning the ships weapons and providing shipboard security. Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II, during World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital shipsUnited States Marine Corps
10. United States Navy – The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows then as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the CongressUnited States Navy
11. United States Department of the Navy – The Secretary of the Navy is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. They supervise their military services of the Department of the Navy. They are assisted by a Vice Chief of Naval Operations and an Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. Unlike its U. S. Army and U. S. Air Force counterparts, the Department of the Navy consists of all elements of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. According to Navy Regulations Section 0204-2, the term Navy Department refers only to the offices at the seat of government. The bill passed in the House on 17 May 2007, but encountered opposition among members of the DoD civilian leadership and among senior Navy admirals, in the Senate, the provision was replaced in S. Amdt. 2011, an amendment in the nature of a substitute proposed by Senator Carl Levin of Michigan on 9 July 2007, the amendment removed the renaming provision and also made other changes. The House version including the provision was withdrawn in conference committee, Naval Vessel Register Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations United States Navy Regulations, Accessed on 2011-03-23. Department of the Navy website US Marine Corps official website US Navy official website Department of Defense website Department of the Navy in the Federal RegisterUnited States Department of the Navy – Seal of the U.S. Department of the Navy
12. American Revolutionary War – From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences. Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper handAmerican Revolutionary War – Clockwise from top left: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis after the Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Trenton, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Guilford Court House
13. Amphibious warfare – Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach. Through history the operations were conducted using ships boats as the method of delivering troops to shore. Amphibious warfare includes operations defined by their type, purpose, scale, all armed forces that employ troops with special training and equipment for conducting landings from naval vessels to shore agree to this definition. Since the 20th century an amphibious landing of troops on a beachhead is acknowledged as the most complex of all military maneuvers, an amphibious operation is both similar and different in many ways to both land, naval and air operations. Historically, within the scope of these phases a vital part of success was based on the military logistics, naval gunfire. Another factor is the variety and quantity of specialised vehicles and equipment used by the force that are designed for the specific needs of this type of operation. The purpose of operations is always offensive, but limited by the plan. Landings on islands less than 5,000 km2 in size are tactical, usually with the objectives of neutralising enemy defenders. Such an operation may be prepared and planned in days or weeks, a strategic landing operation requires a major commitment of forces to invade a national territory in the archipelagic, such as the Battle of Leyte, or continental, such as Operation Neptune. Such an operation may require multiple naval and air fleets to support the landings, although most amphibious operations are thought of primarily as beach landings, they can take exploit available shore infrastructure to land troops directly into an urban environment if unopposed. In this case non-specialised ships can offload troops, vehicles and cargo using organic or facility wharf-side equipment, tactical landings in the past have utilised small boats, small craft, small ships and civilian vessels converted for the mission to deliver troops to the waters edge. Preparation and planning the naval landing operation requires the assembly of vessels with sufficient capacity to lift necessary troops employing combat loading, the military intelligence services produce a briefing on the expected opponent which guides the organisation and equipping of the embarked force. First specially designed landing craft were used for the Gallipoli landings, helicopters were first used to support beach landings during Operation Musketeer. Hovercraft have been in use for naval landings by military forces since the 1960s, recorded amphibious warfare goes back to ancient times. The Sea Peoples menaced the Egyptians from the reign of Akhenaten as captured on the reliefs at Medinet Habu, the Hellenic city states routinely resorted to opposed assaults upon each others shores, which they reflected upon in their plays and other expressions of art. In 1565, the island of Malta was invaded by the Ottoman Turks during the Great Siege of Malta, forcing its defenders to retreat to the fortified cities. A strategic choke point in the Mediterranean Sea, its loss would have been so menacing for the Western European kingdoms that forces were raised in order to relieve the island. But it took four months to train, arm, and move a 5, then, Philip II, King of Spain decided to train and assign amphibious-assault skilled units to the Royal ArmadaAmphibious warfare – Two USMC AAVS emerge from the surf at Freshwater Bay, Australia.
14. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of JapanWorld War II – Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front in December 1943, a U.S. naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
15. Michele S. Jones – Michele S. Jones was the first woman in the United States Army Reserve to reach the position of command sergeant major of the U. S. Army Reserve. She was the first female non-commissioned officer to serve in the highest enlisted position of a component of the U. S. Jones serves as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, Jones was born 24 November 1963 in Randallstown, Maryland. She grew up in the Baltimore area and she is a graduate of Milford Mill Academy. She was for a time a Baltimore Colts cheerleader, at Fayetteville State University, she graduated cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree in business administration. Jones originally joined the U. S. Army because she liked the uniform and she said she took the advertising slogan to heart, Be All You Can Be In The Army, and enlisted in September 1982. In her 1997–1998 class of the United States Army Sergeants Major Academy and she traveled the world, seeking out and initiating solutions to U. S. Army and Army Reserve enlisted personnel resource problems. She served state-side on active duty assignments during the Kosovo War as well as during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, ebony magazine featured a portrait and short biography of Jones in June 2003, on a one-page monthly feature entitled Speaking of People. The next month, Jones was honored with the Meritorious Service Award by the NAACP, at the Sheridan Army Reserve Center in northwest Baltimore in 2006, she actively demonstrated her stance on the matter to the enlisted leaders of the 80th Division. She slid her body underneath a chair and addressed them from position, Lets say youre a soldier and youre a mechanic. If youre not physically fit, you may not be able to fit under the vehicle, the year 2007, she was profiled in American Black Military Leaders, a book by Walter Lee Hawkins. Jones was invited to speak at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, on 27 August, she delivered her text, an endorsement of then-Senator Barack Obama. In her speech, she shared her projection of how Obama would serve as commander-in-chief of the military and she said, Hell fully fund the VA, so all our returning heroes get the quality care they deserve. And when it comes to the shame of too many homeless veterans, Barack Obama has one simple policy. On 19 May 2009, she was among the four American women given the 2009 Spirit of Democracy Award by the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation, the other awardees were California Representative Barbara Lee, actress Sheryl Lee Ralph and magazine editor Susan Taylor. A supporter of Barack Obama since his campaign for president, Jones serves him in a role as the Special Assistant to Robert Gates. In this position, Jones is the Pentagon-based liaison to the White House, joness name was in the news in December 2009 when Tareq and Michaele Salahi, a prominent Washington couple, gained access to the White House without invitation. News agencies discovered that Jones was a Facebook friend of Paul W, the couple went to the dinner and enjoyed themselves, only to be discovered the next day after Michaele Salahi posted her photos of the event on her Facebook page. Leading up to the evening, Jones repeatedly told the Salahis that she had no tickets for them, even though I informed them of this, they still decided to comeMichele S. Jones – Command Sergeant Major Michele S. Jones
16. Sergeant major – Sergeant major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, the degrees of sergeant major are appointments held by warrant officers. In the United States, there are various grades of sergeant major. In 16th century Spain, the mayor was a general officer. He commanded an infantry, and ranked about third in the armys command structure. In the 17th century, sergeant majors appeared in individual regiments and these were field officers, third in command of their regiments, with a role similar to the older, army-level sergeant majors. The older position became known as sergeant major general to distinguish it, over time, the term sergeant was dropped from both titles, giving rise to the modern ranks of major and major general. It is about time that the U. S. and British histories of the title diverge. A sergeant major is an appointment, not a rank and it is normally held by the senior warrant officer of an army or marine unit. These appointments are made at several levels, for example, the warrant officer of a company, battery or squadron. The title normally consists of the title followed by sergeant major. A sergeant major of a regiment or battalion is known as a sergeant major. In the Australian Defence Force, in addition to CSMs and RSMs, Sergeant majors are normally addressed as sir or maam by subordinates, and by Mr or Ms by superiors, with the term RSM/CSM/etc reserved for the sergeant majors commanding officer. In the British Armed Forces, the plural is sergeant majors, the appointment of sergeant major is given to the senior non-commissioned member within sub-units, units and some formations of the Canadian Army. The regimental sergeant-major is the sergeant major in a battalion-sized unit, including infantry battalions and artillery, armoured, engineer. This appointment is held by a chief warrant officer. The same position can also be held by a warrant officer in anticipation of promotion. In artillery batteries, this appointment is known as battery sergeant-major, while in units with a cavalry heritage, company sergeant-majors and their equivalents are normally addressed as Sergeant-Major or by rankSergeant major – Warrant officer class 1 rank badge 1921-2002
17. Grant Park (Chicago) – Grant Park is a large urban park in the Loop community area of Chicago. Located in Chicagos central business district, the parks most notable features are Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain, the Art Institute of Chicago, originally known as Lake Park, and dating from the citys founding, it was renamed in 1901 to honor Ulysses S. Grant. The parks area has expanded several times through land reclamation. It is bordered on the north by Randolph Street, on the south by Roosevelt Road and McFetridge Drive, on the west by Michigan Avenue, the park contains performance venues, gardens, art work, sporting, and harbor facilities. It hosts public gatherings, and several annual events. The park is often called Chicagos front yard and it is governed by the Chicago Park District. The original plans for the town of Chicago left the area east of Michigan Avenue unsubdivided and vacant, when the former Fort Dearborn Reserve became part of the townsite in 1839, the plan of the area east of Michigan Avenue south of Randolph was marked Public ground. Forever to remain vacant of buildings, the city officially designated the land as a park on April 29,1844, naming it Lake Park. When the Illinois Central Railroad was built into Chicago in 1852, the resulting lagoon became stagnant, and was largely filled in 1871 with debris from the Great Chicago Fire, increasing the parkland. In 1896, the city began extending the park into the lake with landfill, on October 9,1901, the park was renamed Grant Park in honor of American Civil War commanding General and United States President Ulysses S. Grant. At the 1868 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Grant had been nominated for his first presidential term, the legal restrictions prohibiting any buildings in the park were ignored in the 19th century, as various civic buildings were sited there. At various times, a post office, exposition center, armory, a 1904 plan prepared by the Olmsted Brothers recommended locating the Field Museum as the parks centerpiece, an idea integrated into Daniel Burnham and Edward H. Bennetts 1909 Plan of Chicago. Chicago businessman Aaron Montgomery Ward ultimately fought four court battles, opposed by nearly every civic leader, the one exception Ward consented to was for the Art Institute of Chicago, constructed in 1892. More landfill in the 1910s and 1920s provided sites for the Adler Planetarium, Field Museum of Natural History, and Shedd Aquarium, in 2004, a section of northern Grant Park, previously occupied by Illinois Central railyards and parking lots, was covered and redeveloped as Millennium Park. The park has been the site of large civic events. It served as the ground for the citys funeral procession for Abraham Lincoln. In 1911, the hosted the major Chicago International Aviation Meet. The park was the scene of clashes between Chicago Police and demonstrators during the 1968 Democratic National Convention, pope John Paul II celebrated an outdoor mass to a large crowd here in 1979Grant Park (Chicago) – Grant Park
18. Fireworks – Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display, Fireworks competitions are also regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects, noise, light, smoke and they may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the point of many cultural. Fireworks were invented in ancient China in the 7th century to scare evil spirits. Such important events and festivities as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were, China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in the world. Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework, in the latter case they may provide their own propulsion or be shot into the air by a mortar. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material, a number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used in war. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of todays commercial aerial display, such rocket technology has also been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. The earliest documentation of fireworks dates back to 7th century China, the fireworks were used to accompany many festivities. It is thus a part of the culture of China and had its origin there, the art and science of firework making has developed into an independent profession. In China, pyrotechnicians were respected for their knowledge of techniques in mounting firework displays. Chinese people originally believed that the fireworks could expel evil spirits and bring about luck, during the Song Dynasty, many of the common people could purchase various kinds of fireworks from market vendors, and grand displays of fireworks were also known to be held. In 1110, a fireworks display in a martial demonstration was held to entertain Emperor Huizong of Song. A record from 1264 states that a rocket-propelled firework went off near the Empress Dowager Gong Sheng, rocket propulsion was common in warfare, as evidenced by the Huolongjing compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu. In 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of gunpowder and its uses from China, with the development of chinoiserie in Europe, Chinese fireworks began to gain popularity around the mid-17th century. Lev Izmailov, ambassador of Peter the Great, once reported from China and his writings would be translated in 1765, resulting in the popularization of fireworks and further attempts to uncover the secrets of Chinese fireworksFireworks – Sydney leads the world in one of the first major New Year celebrations each year.
19. Petrillo Music Shell – It serves as host to many large annual music festivals in the city such as Chicago Blues Festival, Chicago Jazz Festival, Taste of Chicago and Lollapalooza. It was formerly located at the South end of Grant Park and was relocated in 1978, the shell was commissioned in 1931 by Mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak in the wake of the Great Depression to help lift the spirits of the citizenry with free concerts. The music shell was named after James C, Petrillo was a commissioner of the Chicago Park District from 1934 to 1945. Until the 1990s, the shell was known for a traditional Independence Day concert celebration coordinated with the citys fireworks display on July 3. In 1915, the commissioners of South Park located a temporary wooden bandshell in the Park near Michigan and it hosted large events as well as band performances and remained in place for five or six years. In 1931, Cermak suggested free concerts to lift spirits of Chicagoans during the Great Depression, the Depression and the proliferation of new technological innovations such as records, radios and sound films led to a declining demand for live music and a shrinking job market for musicians. Construction on the wood and fiber E. V. Buchsbaum design began on a budget of $12,500, construction was completed in three weeks. Originally referred to as the Grant Park Band Shell, the bandshell was renamed and dedicated in honor of Petrillo in 1975, there were numerous plans and proposals to replace the original band shell beginning almost as soon as the Festival began. In 1953 a referendum was almost held on the November 3 Election Day ballot for a $3 million structure, in 1963, a plan for a ten thousand seat music bowl was propounded. By the 1970s the original bandshell had deteriorated to the point where stagehands, performers, amid the catastrophes, the musicians joked about the need for hard hats. Despite $77,000 in 1977 repair expenditures by the city, in 1839, United States Secretary of War Joel Roberts Poinsett declared the land between Randolph Street and Madison Street east of Michigan Avenue Public Ground forever to remain vacant of buildings. As a result, the city has what are termed the Montgomery Ward height restrictions on buildings, in 1972, plans were in place to build a C. F. The newly relocated bandshell was built at its current location in 1978.75 miles north of the original location, the bandshell was designed to be temporary, but the Park District has never dismantled it. The semi-permanent designation averted the Ward prohibitions and cost only $3 million, the places it a block east of the Art Institute of Chicago, a block north of Buckingham Fountain, a block south of Daley Bicentennial Plaza and southeast of Millennium Park. The amphitheater and paved surface for public seating is in the southwest corner of the block and this has served as one of the main stages for recent Lollapalooza celebrations. Concerts began at the shell in August 1931. In 1934, the separate parks merged under the Park Consolidation Act. Mayor Edward Kelley named Chicago Federation of Musicians President Petrillo to the board of the Chicago Park District, Petrillo suggested a free symphonic concert series in Grant ParkPetrillo Music Shell – Petrillo lawn with the band shell in the upper right and Buckingham Fountain at the top in the background
20. USS Constellation (1797) – USS Constellation was a 38-gun frigate, one of the Six Original Frigates authorized for construction by the Naval Act of 1794. She was distinguished as the first U. S. Navy vessel to put to sea, constructed in 1797, she was modified several times in succeeding decades, and finally rebuilt beginning in 1853 as the sloop of war USS Constellation. Congress responded with the Naval Act of 1794, by the time of the conclusion in 1815, of the later War of 1812 with Great Britain, the United States had fought a series of three brief, but savage naval and amphibious wars. Joshua Humphreys design was long on keel and narrow of beam to allow the mounting of heavy guns. The design incorporated a diagonal scantling scheme to limit hogging and included extremely heavy planking and this gave the hull greater strength than those of more lightly built frigates. Humphreys developed his design after realizing that the fledgling United States could not match for size the navies of the European states and he therefore designed his frigates to be able to overpower other frigates, but with the speed to escape from a ship of the line. It was situated east of Fells Point and south of where modern-day Patterson Park, the ratings by number of guns were meant only as an approximation, as Constellation could and did often carry up to 48 guns. U. S. Navy ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns such as modern Navy ships carry, the guns were designed to be completely portable and often were exchanged between ships as situations warranted. Each commanding officer outfitted armaments to his liking, taking into consideration such as the overall tonnage of cargo, complement of personnel aboard. Consequently, the armaments on ships changed often during their careers, on 9 February 1799, under the command of Captain Thomas Truxtun, Constellation fought and captured the frigate LInsurgente of 36 guns, the fastest ship in the French Navy. The battle started about 18 miles NE of the island of Nevis about midday when Constellation spotted LInsurgente, LInsurgente had recently captured Retaliation, a schooner, in November 1798 and three weeks previous had been chased by the Constitution and had escaped. L’Insurgentes job was that of commerce raiding, she wanted nothing to do with another warship, within an hour of hauling in chase Truxtun was close enough to make private signals to identify if the ship he was pursuing was British or not. With no answer, he proceeded to chase LInsurgente down, clearing for action, Truxtun made private signals for the US Navy and again received no answer. Constellation crowded on all sail despite a rising squall that threatened to tear a sail or throw a spar. Reefing sail just long enough to weather the short squall, Constellation hardly paused, Captain Barreaut ordered LInsurgente to lay up and prepared to fight. Constellation was outfitted with 24 pounder guns that caused her to lean too much to lee due to topweight and she was refitted with 18-pounder long guns in her next refit. LInsurgente raised the French Tricolor and Captain Barreaut tried to ask for parley, Captain Truxtun refused to answer as his orders were to attack any French warship or privateer and answered when his last gun could be brought to bear. American warships of this period fired for the hull as did the British, LInsurgente fired as per her training at the Constellations masts and riggingUSS Constellation (1797) – Design of the hull of "USF Constellation", which it shared with "USF Congress".
21. USS Insurgent (1799) – The Insurgente was a 40-gun Sémillante-class frigate of the French Navy, launched in 1791. USS Constellation, Captain Thomas Truxtun in command, captured her off the island of Nevis during the Quasi-War, after her capture she served in the US Navy, patrolling the waters in the West Indies. In September 1800 she was caught up in a storm and was presumed lost at sea. Insurgente was built by Pierre-Joseph Pénétreau at Lorient and launched on 27 April 1793, in January or February 1794, Insurgente captured the Ann off Cape Clear Island as Ann was sailing from Newfoundland to Bristol. Insurgente put a crew aboard Ann, but left her mate. When Ann was in sight of the French coast, the British sailors succeeded in recapturing her from the prize crew, on 16 January 1794 Insurgente captured the American ship John and James, of 335 tons, and brought her into Brest. John and James had been built at Philadelphia for George Morrison of Petersburg and she had left Petersburg with 450 hogsheads of tobacco and 12,000 staves. On 27 December 1794 the Tribunal of Commerce ordered John and James released to Captain James Johnson, on 25 April Insurgente captured the Freundschaft Lourentz, Colandt, master, as Freundschaft Lourentz was sailing from Lisbon to London. However two Scilly boats, recaptured her the day and brought her into St Ives, Cornwall. On 9 February 1799, after being at sea for three days, the USS Constellation spotted Insurgente approximately six leagues northeast off Nevis. Shortly after being spotted by Constellation this second time the ships encountered a squall during which a violent gust of wind snapped Insurgentes topmast, impairing her speed. As Constellation approached, Captain Michael-Pierre Barreaut first attempted to seek haven by making for St. Eustatius, but to no avail, after being overtaken she hoisted American colors, at which time the Constellation hoisted the private signals. This was the first time since the American Revolution that a shot had been fired from a vessel at an American ship. Truxtun gave the order to clear the deck of Constellation for action, both ships bore up to take positions to engage. The Constellation fired the first broadside, double-shotted, inflicting damage to the French vessels hull. Insurgente responded and fired a broadside, inflicting damage to Constellations rigging and top foremast. At 3,30 PM after an hour and a half of running battle, first Lieutenant John Rodgers, Midshipman David Porter along with eleven men were put on board the captured vessel to take possession and to secure the prisoners who were sent to the lower hold. She had lost 70 men from a crew of 409, while Constellation, badly damaged also and this was the first post-Revolutionary War American victory against a foreign naval vesselUSS Insurgent (1799) – Naval encounter during the Quasi-War between USS Constellation and French ship Insurgente (right) on 9 February 1799.
22. Pat Nixon – Thelma Catherine Pat Nixon was the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States, and First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974. Born in Ely, Nevada, she grew up with her two brothers in what is now Cerritos, California, graduating high school in 1929. She attended Fullerton Junior College and later the University of Southern California and she paid for her schooling by working multiple jobs, including pharmacy manager, typist, radiographer, and retail clerk. In 1940, she married lawyer Richard Nixon and they had two daughters, Nixon campaigned for her husband in his successful congressional campaigns of 1946 and 1948. Richard Nixon was elected Vice President in the Eisenhower administration, whereupon Pat undertook many missions of goodwill with her husband and she assisted her husband in both his unsuccessful 1960 presidential campaign and later in his successful 1968 presidential campaign. As First Lady, Pat Nixon promoted a number of charitable causes and she oversaw the collection of more than 600 pieces of historic art and furnishings for the White House, an acquisition larger than that of any other administration. She was the most traveled First Lady in U. S. history and these trips gained her favorable reception in the media and the host countries. Her tenure ended when, after being re-elected in a victory in 1972. Her public appearances became increasingly rare later in life and she and her husband returned to California, and later moved to New Jersey. She suffered two strokes, one in 1976 and another in 1983, then was diagnosed with cancer in 1992. She died in 1993, aged 81, thelma Catherine Ryan was born in the small mining town of Ely, Nevada, the day before Saint Patricks Day. Her father, William M. Ryan Sr. was a sailor, gold miner, Pat was a nickname given to her by her father, referring to her birthdate and Irish ancestry. After her birth, the Ryan family moved to California, thelma Ryans high-school yearbook page gives her nickname as Buddy and her ambition to run a boarding house. During this time she worked on the farm, and also at a local bank as a janitor. Her mother died of cancer in 1924, Pat, who was 12 at the time, assumed all the household duties for her father, who died in 1929 of silicosis, and two older brothers, William Jr. and Thomas. She also had a half-sister, Neva Bender, and a half-brother, Matthew Bender, from her mothers first marriage and it has been said that few, if any, First Ladies worked as consistently before their marriage as did Pat Nixon. As she told the writer Gloria Steinem during the 1968 presidential campaign, I never had time to think things like that—who I wanted to be, or who I admired. I never had time to dream about being anyone else, after graduating from Excelsior High School in 1929, she attended Fullerton Junior CollegePat Nixon – Pat Nixon
23. President of the United States – The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislationPresident of the United States – Incumbent Barack Obama since January 20, 2009 (2009-01-20)
24. White House – The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. It has been the residence of every U. S. president since John Adams in 1800, the term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in The White House announced that. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style, construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior, reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824, because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years later in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, in the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as an area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space, by 1948, the houses load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the rooms were completely dismantled. Once this work was completed, the rooms were rebuilt. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, the property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the Presidents Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of Americas Favorite Architecture, in May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it. The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790, the July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction. The City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morriss city house at 190 High Street for Washingtons presidential residence, the first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797, and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House. As part of an effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away. President John Adams also occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800, on Saturday, November 1,1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House. The Presidents House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, the Presidents House was a major feature of Pierre Charles LEnfants plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. CWhite House – Top: the northern facade, facing Lafayette Square Bottom: the southern facade, facing The Ellipse
25. Watergate scandal – When the conspiracy was discovered and investigated by the U. S. Congress, the Nixon administrations resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis. The term Watergate, by metonymy, has come to encompass an array of clandestine and those activities included such dirty tricks as bugging the offices of political opponents and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious. The scandal also resulted in the indictment of 69 people, with trials or pleas resulting in 48 being found guilty, the affair began with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the DNC headquarters at the Watergate complex on Saturday, June 17,1972. In July 1973, evidence mounted against the Presidents staff, including testimony provided by staff members in an investigation conducted by the Senate Watergate Committee. The investigation revealed that President Nixon had a system in his offices. After a protracted series of court battles, the U. S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the president was obliged to release the tapes to government investigators. The tapes revealed that Nixon had attempted to cover up activities that took place after the break-in, facing virtually certain impeachment in the House of Representatives and equally certain conviction by the Senate, Nixon resigned the presidency on August 9,1974. On September 8,1974, his successor, Gerald Ford, the name Watergate and the suffix -gate have since become synonymous with political and non-political scandals in the United States. According to Dean, this marked the scene of the worst political scandal of the twentieth century. Mitchell viewed the plan as unrealistic, Liddy was nominally in charge of the operation, but has since insisted that he was duped by Dean and at least two of his subordinates. These included former CIA officers E. Howard Hunt and James McCord, in May, McCord assigned former FBI agent Alfred C. Baldwin III to carry out the wiretapping and monitor the telephone conversations afterward. McCord testified that he selected Baldwins name from a registry published by the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI to work for the Committee to Re-elect the President, Baldwin first served as bodyguard to Martha Mitchell, the wife of John Mitchell, who was living in Washington. Baldwin accompanied Martha Mitchell to Chicago, Martha did not like Baldwin and described him as the gauchest character Ive ever met. The Committee replaced Baldwin with another security man, the room 419 was booked in the name of McCord’s company. At behest of G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt, McCord and his team of burglars prepared for their first Watergate break-in, two phones inside the offices of the DNC headquarters were said to have been wiretapped. The FBI found no evidence that OBriens phone was bugged, however, it was determined that an effective listening device had been installed in Olivers phone. Despite the success in installing the devices, the Committee agents soon determined that they needed to be repaired. They planned a burglary in order to take care of thisWatergate scandal – Watergate complex
26. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
27. Mikhail Gorbachev – Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 and he was the countrys head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant Ukrainian–Russian family and he graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While he was at the university, he joined the Communist Party, in 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of the Politburo in 1979. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief interregna of Andropov and Chernenko, before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in Western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level. Gorbachevs policies of glasnost and perestroika and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War. He was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in 1989, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 and this was Gorbachevs third attempt to establish a political party, having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social Democrats in 2007. Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, into a mixed Russian-Ukrainian family of migrants from Voronezh, as a child, Gorbachev experienced the Soviet famine of 1932–1933. He recalled in a memoir that In that terrible year nearly half the population of my village, Privolnoye, starved to death. Both of his grandfathers were arrested on charges in the 1930s. His father was a combine harvester operator and World War II veteran and his mother, Maria Panteleyevna Gorbacheva, was a kolkhoz worker. He was brought up mainly by his Ukrainian maternal grandparents, in his teens, he operated combine harvesters on collective farms. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law, in 1967 he qualified as an agricultural economist via a correspondence masters degree at the Stavropol Institute of Agriculture. While at the university, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and soon very active within the party. Gorbachev met his wife, Raisa Titarenko, daughter of a Ukrainian railway engineer. They married in September 1953 and moved to Stavropol upon graduation and she gave birth to their only child, daughter Irina Mikhailovna Virganskaya, in 1957. Raisa Gorbacheva died of leukemia in 1999, Gorbachev has two granddaughters and one great granddaughter. Gorbachev attended the important twenty-second Party Congress in October 1961, where Nikita Khrushchev announced a plan to surpass the U. S. in per capita production within twenty years, Gorbachev rose in the Communist League hierarchy and worked his way up through territorial leagues of the partyMikhail Gorbachev – Gorbachev in 1987
28. John Tyler – John Tyler was the tenth President of the United States. He was also, briefly, the tenth Vice President, elected to office on the 1840 Whig ticket with William Henry Harrison. Tyler became president after Harrisons death in April 1841, only a month after the start of the new administration. Still, the circumstances of his rise to the presidency. A firm believer in manifest destiny, President Tyler sought to strengthen and preserve the Union through territorial expansion, Tyler, born to an eminent Virginia family, came to national prominence at a time of political upheaval. In the 1820s the nations only political party, the Democratic-Republicans, though initially a Democrat, his opposition to Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren led him to ally with the Whig Party. Tyler served as a Virginia state legislator, governor, U. S. representative and he was put on the ticket to attract states rights Southerners to what was then a Whig coalition to defeat Van Burens re-election bid. Harrisons death made Tyler the first vice president to succeed to the presidency without being elected to the office, because of the short duration of Harrisons one-month term, Tyler served longer than any president in U. S. history who was never elected to the office. A strict constructionist, Tyler found much of the Whig platform unconstitutional, believing that the president should set policy instead of deferring to Congress, he attempted to bypass the Whig establishment, most notably Kentucky Senator Henry Clay. Most of Tylers Cabinet resigned soon into his term, and the Whigs, dubbing him His Accidency, though Tyler was not the first president to veto bills, he was the first to see his veto overridden by Congress. Although he faced a stalemate on domestic policy, he had several achievements, including the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain. He initially sought election to a term as president, but after failing to gain the support of either Whigs or Democrats. When the American Civil War began in 1861, Tyler sided with the Confederate government, although some have praised Tylers political resolve, his presidency is generally held in low esteem by historians. He is considered an obscure president, with presence in American cultural memory. John Tyler was born on March 29,1790, like his future running mate William Henry Harrison, he hailed from Charles City County, Virginia, both descended from aristocratic and politically entrenched families. The Tyler family traced its lineage to colonial Williamsburg in the 17th century, the elder Tyler served four years as Speaker of the House of Delegates before becoming a state court judge. He subsequently served as governor and as a judge on the U. S. District Court at Richmond and his wife, Mary Marot, was the daughter of a prominent plantation owner, Robert Booth Armistead. She died of a stroke when her son John was seven years old, with his two brothers and five sisters, Tyler was raised on Greenway Plantation, a 1, 200-acre estate with a six-room manor house his father had builtJohn Tyler – John Tyler
29. United States Whig Party – The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four US presidents belonged to the party while in office and it emerged in the 1830s as the immediate successor to the National Republican and Anti-Masonic Parties, and was also rooted in the tradition of the Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s and it originally formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of the US Congress over the Presidency and favored a program of modernization, banking and it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters, reformers and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants, and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal, Party founders chose the Whig name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The underlying political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not directly related to the British Whig party, the Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, another war hero, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey was the Whig Partys last presidential nominee, in 1852. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates, Harrison and Taylor, elected president, John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrisons death in 1841, but was expelled from the party later that year. Millard Fillmore, who became president after Taylors death in 1850, was the last Whig president, the party fell apart because of the internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories. Most Whig Party leaders eventually quit politics or changed parties, the northern voter base mostly gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, the Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades and played a role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction. The name Whig derived from a term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution and it indicated hostility to the British Sovereign, and despite the identical name, did not directly derive from the British Whig Party. The American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as a man on horseback with a reactionary opposition to the forces of social, economic. Casting their enemy as King Andrew, they sought to identify themselves as opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jeffersons Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements, and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back. In 1831, Henry Clay re-entered the Senate and started planning a new party and he defended national rather than sectional interests. His Jacksonian opponents, however, distrusted the government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvementsUnited States Whig Party – Handbill for Clay-Frelinghuysen, 1844
30. Hugo Gernsback – Hugo Gernsback, born Hugo Gernsbacher, was a Luxembourgish-American inventor, writer, editor, and magazine publisher, best known for publications including the first science fiction magazine. His contributions to the genre as publisher were so significant that, along with the novelists H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, in his honour, annual awards presented at the World Science Fiction Convention are named the Hugos. Gernsback was born in 1884 in Bonnevoie in Luxembourg, to Berta, a housewife, and Moritz Gernsbacher, Gernsback emigrated to the United States in 1904 and later became a naturalized citizen. He married three times, to Rose Harvey in 1906, Dorothy Kantrowitz in 1921, and Mary Hancher in 1951. In 1925, Hugo founded radio station WRNY which broadcast from the 18th floor of The Roosevelt Hotel in New York City and was involved in the first television broadcasts and he is also considered a pioneer in amateur radio. Before helping to create science fiction, Gernsback was an entrepreneur in the industry, importing radio parts from Europe to the United States. In April 1908 he founded Modern Electrics, the worlds first magazine about both electronics and radio, called wireless at the time. While the cover of the magazine itself states it was a catalog, most historians note that it contained articles, features, under its auspices, in January 1909, he founded the Wireless Association of America, which had 10,000 members within a year. In 1912, Gernsback said that he estimated 400,000 people in the U. S. were involved in amateur radio, in 1913, he founded a similar magazine, The Electrical Experimenter, which became Science and Invention in 1920. He died at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City on August 19,1967, Gernsback started the modern genre of science fiction in 1926 by founding the first magazine dedicated to it, Amazing Stories. The inaugural April issue comprised a one-page editorial and reissues of six stories and he said he became interested in the concept after reading a translation of the work of Percival Lowell as a child. His idea of a science fiction story was 75 percent literature interwoven with 25 percent science. He also played a key role in starting science fiction fandom, so, the science fiction fans began to organize, and became aware of themselves as a movement, a social force, this was probably decisive for the subsequent history of the genre. He also created the term “science fiction”, though he preferred the term scientifiction, in 1929, he lost ownership of his first magazines after a bankruptcy lawsuit. There is some debate whether this process was genuine, manipulated by publisher Bernarr Macfadden. After losing control of Amazing Stories, Gernsback founded two new science magazines, Science Wonder Stories and Air Wonder Stories. Gernsback returned in 1952–53 with Science-Fiction Plus, Gernsback was noted for sharp business practices, and for paying his writers extremely low fees or not paying them at all. H. P. Lovecraft and Clark Ashton Smith referred to him as Hugo the Rat, Gernsback wrote fiction, including the novel Ralph 124C 41+ in 1911, the title is a pun on the phrase one to foresee for manyHugo Gernsback – Gernsback portrait by Fabian, date unknown
31. Amazing Stories – Amazing Stories is an American science fiction magazine launched in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsbacks Experimenter Publishing. It was the first magazine devoted solely to science fiction, Science fiction stories had made regular appearances in other magazines, including some published by Gernsback, but Amazing helped define and launch a new genre of pulp fiction. Amazing was published, with interruptions, for almost eighty years, going through a half-dozen owners. Gernsback was forced into bankruptcy and lost control of the magazine in 1929, and by 1938 it was purchased by Ziff-Davis, Palmer made the magazine successful though it was not regarded as a quality magazine within the science fiction community. Amazing switched to a digest size format in 1953, shortly before the end of the pulp-magazine era. Ted White took over as editor in 1969, eliminated the reprints and made the magazine respected again, several other owners attempted to create a modern incarnation of the magazine in the following decades, but publication was suspended after the March 2005 issue. A new incarnation appeared in July 2012 as an online magazine, Gernsbacks initial editorial approach was to blend instruction with entertainment, he believed science fiction could educate readers. His audience rapidly showed a preference for implausible adventures, however, despite this, Gernsback had an enormous impact on the field, the creation of a specialist magazine for science fiction spawned an entire genre publishing industry. The letter columns in Amazing, where fans could make contact with other, led to the formation of science fiction fandom. Writers whose first story was published in the magazine include John W. Campbell, Isaac Asimov, Howard Fast, Le Guin, Roger Zelazny, and Thomas M. Disch. Overall, though, Amazing itself was rarely an influential magazine within the genre after the 1920s, by the end of the 19th century, stories centered on scientific inventions, and stories set in the future, were appearing regularly in popular fiction magazines. The market for short stories lent itself to tales of invention in the tradition of Jules Verne, Magazines such as Munseys Magazine and The Argosy, launched in 1889 and 1896 respectively, carried a few science fiction stories each year. In 1908, Hugo Gernsback published the first issue of Modern Electrics and it was an immediate success, and Gernsback began to include articles on imaginative uses of science, such as Wireless on Saturn. In 1920 Gernsback retitled the magazine Science and Invention, and through the early 1920s he published much scientific fiction in its pages, Gernsback had started another magazine called Practical Electrics in 1921. However, in 1926 he decided to go ahead, and ceased publication of The Experimenter to make room in his schedule for a new magazine. The editor of The Experimenter, T. OConor Sloane, became the editor of Amazing Stories, the first issue appeared on 10 March 1926, with a cover date of April 1926. Initially the magazine focussed on reprints, the first original story was “The Man From the Atom ” by G. Peyton Wertenbaker in the May 1926 issue, in the August issue, new stories were noted with an asterisk in the table of contents. The editorial work was largely done by Sloane, but Gernsback retained final say over the fiction content, Two consultants, Conrad A. Brandt and Wilbur CAmazing Stories – First issue of Amazing Stories, art by Frank R. Paul. This copy was autographed by Hugo Gernsback in 1965
32. 1858 – As of the start of 1858, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January – William I of Prussia becomes regent for his brother, Frederick William IV, january 14 – Orsini affair, Felice Orsini and his accomplices fail to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris but their bombs kill 8 and wound 142 people. Because of the involvement of French émigrés living in Britain, there is a brief anti-British feeling in France, Orsini is executed by guillotine on March 13 of this year. February 13 – Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke become the first Europeans to discover Lake Tanganyika, March 21 – Indian Rebellion, British troops retake Lucknow. March 30 – Hymen Lipman patents a pencil with an eraser in the United States. April 16 – The Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is wound up, april 19 – Treaty with Yankton Sioux Tribe. April 28–May 1 – Battle of Grahovac between Ottoman and Montenegrin forces, may–July – Mahtra War, Peasants in the Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire revolt against ongoing serfdom, which was officially abolished in 1816. May 11 – Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd U. S. state, may 13 – John Ruskin begins a tour of Europe. He considers it a significant turning point in his life, may 14 – Dr David Livingstones 6-year Second Zambesi Expedition arrives at the African coast. May 19 – The Marais des Cygnes massacre is perpetrated by pro-slavery forces in Bleeding Kansas, june 2 – Comet Donati, the first comet to be photographed, is discovered by Giovanni Battista Donati and remains visible for several months afterwards. June 13–June 17 – Treaty of Tientsin signed, ending the first part of the Second Opium War, june 16 – Abraham Lincoln accepts the Republican Party nomination for a seat in the United States Senate, delivering his House Divided speech in Springfield, Illinois. June 17 – The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad opens, operating 95 miles from Goldsboro, North Carolina to New Bern, june 20 – The last rebels of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 surrender in Gwalior. June 23 – Police of the Papal States seize Jewish boy Edgardo Mortara, july Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour goads Austria into attacking Sardinia. Fifty-Niners stream into the Rocky Mountains of the western United States during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush, july 1 – Joint presentation of papers by Darwin and Wallace announcing a theory of evolution by natural selection are read at Londons Linnean Society. July 8 – Peace treaty to end the Indian Rebellion, july 12 – The Advertiser, the daily news paper still in circulation, begins publication in Adelaide, Australia. July 17 – The Lutine bell, is salvaged and subsequently hung in Lloyds of London, july 28 – In Bengal/India, British officer William James Herschel uses the hand impression of Rajyadhar Konai as a contract fingerprint signature. July 29 – The United States and Japan sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, august – The first aerial photography is carried out by Nadar from a moored balloon in France. August 3 – John Hanning Speke discovers Lake Victoria, source of the river Nile, august 5 – Cyrus West Field and others complete the first transatlantic telegraph cable after several unsuccessful attempts1858 – August 5: First transatlantic telegraph cable.
33. James Buchanan – James Buchanan, Jr. was the 15th President of the United States, serving immediately prior to the American Civil War. He is the president from Pennsylvania, the only president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Beginning in the 1820s, he represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives and later the Senate, Buchanan was nominated by the Democratic Party in the 1856 presidential election, on a ticket with former Kentucky Representative John C. He defeated both the incumbent President Pierce and Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas to win the nomination and his subsequent election victory took place in a three-man race against Republican John C. Shortly after taking office, Buchanan lobbied the Supreme Court to issue a ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford. He allied with the South in attempting to gain the admission of Kansas to the Union as a state under the Lecompton Constitution. In the process, he alienated both Republican abolitionists and Northern Democrats, most of whom supported the principle of sovereignty in determining a new states slaveholding status. He was often called a doughface, a Northerner with Southern sympathies, and he fought with Douglas, in the midst of the growing sectional crisis, the Panic of 1857 struck the nation. Buchanan indicated in his 1857 inaugural address that he would not seek a second term, he kept his word, Breckinridge in the 1860 presidential election. In response, seven Southern states declared their secession from the Union, Buchanans view was that secession was illegal, but that going to war to stop it was also illegal, and so didnt confront the new polity militarily. Buchanan, an attorney, was noted for his mantra, I acknowledge no master, Buchanan supported the United States during the Civil War, and publicly defended himself against charges that he was responsible for the Civil War. Shortly after the Union victory, he published his memoirs, Mr. Buchanans Administration on the Eve of Rebellion and he died in 1868 at age 77. Buchanan aspired to be a president who would rank in history with George Washington, historians who participated in a 2006 survey voted his failure to deal with secession the worst presidential mistake ever made. His parents were both of Ulster Scots descent, the father having emigrated from Milford, County Donegal, Ireland, one of eleven siblings, Buchanan was the oldest child in the family to survive infancy. Shortly after Buchanans birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, Buchanans father became the wealthiest person in town, becoming a prosperous merchant and investing in real estate. The family home in Mercersburg was later turned into the James Buchanan Hotel, Buchanan attended the village academy and, starting in 1807, Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Though he was expelled at one point for poor behavior, he pleaded for a second chance. Later that year, he moved to Lancaster, which, at the time, was the capital of Pennsylvania, James Hopkins, the most prominent lawyer in Lancaster, accepted Buchanan as a student, and in 1812 Buchanan was admitted to the bar after an oral examJames Buchanan – James Buchanan
34. Victoria of the United Kingdom – Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, publicly, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina, Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, George, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptiveVictoria of the United Kingdom – Victoria wearing her small diamond crown Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
35. 1777 – As of the start of 1777, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 3 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Princeton, American general George Washingtons army again defeats the British, january 12 – Mission Santa Clara de Asís is founded in what is now Santa Clara, California. January 15 – Vermont declares its independence from New York, becoming the Vermont Republic, an independent country, March – Third voyage of James Cook, English explorer Captain Cook discovers Mangaia and Atiu in the Cook Islands. May 8 – First performance of Richard Brinsley Sheridans comedy of manners The School for Scandal at the Theatre Royal, may 16 – Lachlan McIntosh and Button Gwinnett shoot each other during a duel near Savannah, Georgia. Gwinnett, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, june 13 – American Revolution, The Marquis de Lafayette lands near Georgetown, South Carolina, to help the Continental Congress train its army. June 14 – The Stars and Stripes is adopted by the Continental Congress as the flag of the United States, july 8 – The 1777 Constitution of Vermont is signed, officially abolishing slavery. July 6 – American Revolutionary War – Siege of Fort Ticonderoga, After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York. August 6 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Oriskany, Loyalists gain a victory over Patriots. August 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Bennington, British, august 22 – American Revolutionary War – Siege of Fort Stanwix is ended by withdrawal of British forces following a ruse by Benedict Arnold to persuade them that a much larger force is arriving. September 3 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Coochs Bridge, British and Hessian forces defeat American militia in a skirmish in New Castle County. September 11 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Brandywine, The British gain a victory in Chester County. October 4 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Germantown, Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe. October 6 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, British troops capture Fort Clinton, october 7 – American Revolutionary War – Second Battle of Saratoga, Battle of Bemis Heights, British General John Burgoyne is defeated by American troops. October 17 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Saratoga, British General John Burgoyne surrenders to the American troops, november 15 – American Revolution, After 16 months of debate, the Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation in the temporary American capital at York, Pennsylvania. November 17 – American Revolution, The Articles of Confederation are submitted to the states for ratification, november 29 – San Jose, California is founded. It is the first pueblo in Spanish Alta California, december 19 – American Revolutionary War, George Washingtons Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. December 24 – Third voyage of James Cook, English explorer Captain Cook locates Kiritimati, december 30 – Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria dies & is succeeded by his distant cousin Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria. The 2nd edition of Encyclopædia Britannica is published, the code duello is adopted at the Clonmel Summer Assizes as the form for pistol duels in Ireland1777 – Carl Friedrich Gauss
36. Kingdom of Great Britain – The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm, the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. Also after the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. On 1 January 1801, the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom, the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used officially in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Edward IV of Englands daughter Cecily and James III of Scotlands son James. The Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be United into one Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain. However, both the Acts and the Treaty also refer numerous times to the United Kingdom and the longer form, other publications refer to the country as the United Kingdom after 1707 as well. The websites of the UK parliament, the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, additionally, the term United Kingdom was found in informal use during the 18th century to describe the state. The new state created in 1707 included the island of Great Britain, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a union in 1603. Each of the three kingdoms maintained its own parliament and laws and this disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800, legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the location in Westminster. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws. As a result of Poynings Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, the Act was repealed by the Repeal of Act for Securing Dependence of Ireland Act 1782. The same year, the Irish constitution of 1782 produced a period of legislative freedom, the 18th century saw England, and after 1707 Great Britain, rise to become the worlds dominant colonial power, with France its main rival on the imperial stageKingdom of Great Britain – Lord Clive meeting Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762)
37. Duchy of Brunswick – The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick and it was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation and it was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick. The title Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg was held, from 1235 on and these holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. The unifying element of all territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II, following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, received the southern half of Brunswick-Lüneburg as Prince of Wolfenbüttel while his brother John became Prince of Lüneburg. Wolfenbüttel fell to his brother Albert II, Otto the Mild 1318–1344, son of Albert II, was Prince of Wolfenbüttel and Prince of Göttingen. After his death his son Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367, Magnus the Pious became Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1344–1369. Magnus son Magnus II with the Necklace, Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1369–1373, the War of the Lüneburg Succession continued until 1388. Frederick 1373–1400, son of Magnus II, conquered Lüneburg in 1388, succeeded by his brothers, Henry the Mild, 1400–1408 Bernard, 1409–1428. Returned control of Wolfenbüttel to his nephew, Henrys son, was deprived by his brother, Henry the Peaceful 1432–1473, moved the residence to Wolfenbüttel. William regained control of Wolfenbüttel after his brothers death, and left the Principality to his two sons, Frederick III 1482–1484, imprisoned and deprived of power by his younger brother, William IV 1484–1491. Took control of all of Wolfenbüttel, then ceded Wolfenbüttel to his sons, co-rulers, sons of William IV, Eric I 1491–1494. Divided the territory in 1494, taking Calenberg, sole ruler in Wolfenbüttel from 1494. Acquired Calenberg in 1584 on the death of his cousin Eric II, last of the male descendants of Albert the Tall. On Frederick Ulrichs death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg, Wolfenbüttel was eventually awarded to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Augustus 1635–1666 Augustuss sons succeeded him, sometimes ruling together, Rudolph Augustus 1666–1704 Anthony Ulrich 1685–1702, deposed 1702–1704 for allying with France in the War of the Spanish SuccessionDuchy of Brunswick – The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1645.
38. Battle of Bennington – Baums detachment was a mixed force of 700 composed primarily of Hessians but also including small amounts of dismounted Brunswick dragoons, Canadians, Loyalists, and Indians. He was sent by Burgoyne to raid Bennington in the disputed New Hampshire Grants area for horses, draft animals, provisions, believing the town to be only lightly defended, Burgoyne and Baum were unaware that Stark and 1,500 militiamen were stationed there. After a rain-caused standoff, Starks men enveloped Baums position, taking many prisoners, reinforcements for both sides arrived as Stark and his men were mopping up, and the battle restarted, with Warner and Stark driving away Breymanns reinforcements with heavy casualties. The victory galvanized colonial support for the movement, and played a key role in bringing France into the war on the rebel side. The battles anniversary is celebrated in the state of Vermont as Bennington Battle Day, with the American Revolutionary War two years old, the British changed their plans. Giving up on the rebellious New England colonies, they decided to split the Thirteen Colonies, the British command devised a grand plan to divide the colonies via a three-way pincer movement. The western pincer, under the command of Barry St, the northern pincer, proceeding southward from Montreal, enjoyed the most success. Burgoynes progress towards Albany had initially met some success, including the scattering of Seth Warners men in the Battle of Hubbardton. However, his advance had slowed to a crawl by late July, due to difficulties, exacerbated by the American destruction of a key road. Burgoynes concern over supplies was magnified in early August when he received word from Howe that he was going to Philadelphia, Baums detachment was primarily made up of dismounted Brunswick dragoons of the Prinz Ludwig regiment. Along the way it was joined by companies of Loyalists, some Canadians and about 100 Indians. Baum was originally ordered to proceed to the Connecticut River valley where they believed horses could be procured for the dragoons, New Hampshire responded on July 18 by authorizing John Stark to raise a militia for the defense of the people or the annoyance of the enemy. Using funds provided by John Langdon, Stark raised 1,500 New Hampshire militiamen in the space of six days and they were first marched to the Fort at Number 4, then crossed the river border into the Grants and stopped at Manchester, where Stark conferred with Warner. Stark refused, stating that he was responsible to the New Hampshire authorities. Stark then went on to Bennington with Warner as a guide, Baums movements significantly altered these plans. Baums Germans left Burgoynes camp at Fort Edward on August 9 and marched to Fort Miller, where they waited until they were joined by the Indians, the company marched off toward Bennington on August 11. In minor skirmishes along the way they learned from prisoners taken that a force was in place at Bennington. On August 14 Baums men encountered a detachment of Starks men that had sent out to investigate reports of Indians in the areaBattle of Bennington – General John Stark
39. New York (state) – New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita. Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that yearNew York (state) – British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.
40. SR-71 Blackbird – The Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird was a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force. It was developed as a project from the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft in the 1960s by Lockheed. American aerospace engineer Clarence Kelly Johnson was responsible for many of the innovative concepts. During aerial reconnaissance missions, the SR-71 operated at high speeds, if a surface-to-air missile launch was detected, the standard evasive action was simply to accelerate and outfly the missile. The SR-71 was designed with a reduced radar cross-section, the SR-71 served with the U. S. Air Force from 1964 to 1998. A total of 32 aircraft were built,12 were lost in accidents, the SR-71 has been given several nicknames, including Blackbird and Habu. It has held the record for the fastest air-breathing manned aircraft since 1976. Lockheeds previous reconnaissance aircraft was the relatively slow U-2, designed for the Central Intelligence Agency, in late 1957, the CIA approached the defense contractor Lockheed to build an undetectable spy plane. The project, named Archangel, was led by Kelly Johnson, head of Lockheeds Skunk Works unit in Burbank, the work on project Archangel began in the second quarter of 1958, with aim of flying higher and faster than the U-2. Out of 11 successive designs drafted in a span of 10 months, despite this, however, its shape made it vulnerable to radar detection. After a meeting with the CIA in March 1959, the design was modified to have a 90% reduction in radar cross-section, the CIA approved a US$96 million contract for Skunk Works to build a dozen spy planes, named A-12 on 11 February 1960. The 1960 downing of Francis Gary Powerss U-2 underscored its vulnerability, the A-12 first flew at Groom Lake, Nevada, on 25 April 1962. Thirteen were built, two variants were developed, including three of the YF-12 interceptor prototype, and two of the M-21 drone carrier. The aircraft was meant to be powered by the Pratt & Whitney J58 engine, but development ran over schedule, the J58s were retrofitted as they became available, and became the standard powerplant for all subsequent aircraft in the series as well as the SR-71. The A-12 flew missions over Vietnam and North Korea before its retirement in 1968, the programs cancellation was announced on 28 December 1966, due both to budget concerns and because of the forthcoming SR-71, a derivative of the A-12. During the later period of its testing, the B-70 was proposed for a reconnaissance/strike role, when it was clear that the A-12 performance potential was much greater, the Air Force ordered a variant of the A-12 in December 1962. Originally named R-12 by Lockheed, the Air Force version was longer and heavier than the A-12, with a longer fuselage to hold more fuel, Reconnaissance equipment included signals intelligence sensors, a side looking airborne radar and a photo camera. Air Force Chief of Staff General Curtis LeMay preferred the SR designation, before the July speech, LeMay lobbied to modify Johnsons speech to read SR-71 instead of RS-71SR-71 Blackbird – SR-71 "Blackbird"
41. Reconnaissance aircraft – A reconnaissance aircraft is a manned or unmanned military aircraft designed, or adapted, to carry out aerial reconnaissance. Their roles are to collect intelligence, signals intelligence, and measurement. During the Napoleonic Wars and Franco-Prussian War, balloons were used for reconnaissance by the French. In World War I, aircraft were deployed during the phases in reconnaissance roles to aid ground forces. Aerial reconnaissance was carried out by versions of standard fighters and bombers equipped with cameras. Today, much of the role has passed over to satellites. This was proven by the use by Israel and by the Desert Storm operation by the United States. King Hawes, Lt Col, USAF Bonnier Corporation, army-Lockheed YO-3A Silent Airplane in VietnamReconnaissance aircraft – A USAF SR-71 high-speed reconnaissance aircraft
42. Flight airspeed record – An air speed record is the highest airspeed attained by an aircraft of a particular class. The rules for all official records are defined by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Speed records are divided into classes with sub-divisions. There are three classes of aircraft, landplanes, seaplanes, and amphibians, then within these classes, there are still further sub-divisions for piston-engined, turbojet, turboprop, and rocket-engined aircraft. Within each of groups, records are defined for speed over a straight course. Records in gray font color are unofficial, including unconfirmed or unpublicized secrets, the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird holds the official Air Speed Record for a manned airbreathing jet aircraft with a speed of 3,530 km/h. It was capable of taking off and landing unassisted on conventional runways, the record was set on 28 July 1976 by Eldon W. Joersz and George T. Morgan Jr. near Beale Air Force Base, California, US. SR-71 pilot Brian Shul reported in The Untouchables that he flew in excess of Mach 3.5 on April 15,1986, over Libya in order to avoid a missile. Whereas these were both demilitarised, modified fighters, the fastest piston-engined aeroplane in stock condition was the German Dornier Do 335 Pfeil, with a maximum speed of 474 mph in level flight. The unofficial record for fastest piston-engined aeroplane is held by a Supermarine Spitfire Mk IXX, the last new speed record ratified before the outbreak of World War II was set on 26 April 1939 with a Me 209 V1, at 755 km/h. The chaos, and secrecy, of World War II meant that new speed breakthroughs were not publicized nor ratified, in October 1941, an unofficial speed record of 1004 km/h was secretly set by a Messerschmitt Me 163 AV4 rocket aircraft. Continued research during the war extended the secret, unofficial speed record to 1130 km/h by July 1944, the first new official record in the post-war period was achieved by a Gloster Meteor in November 1945, at 976 km/h. The first aircraft to exceed the unofficial October 1941 record of the Me 163 AV4 was the Douglas Skystreak, the July 1944 unofficial record of the Me 163B V18 was officially surpassed in November 1947, when Chuck Yeager flew the Bell X-1 to 891 mph. The official speed record for a seaplane moved by piston engine - still valid today - is 709.209 km/h, from the seaplane Macchi-Castoldi M. C.72, attained on October 23,1934, by Francesco Agello. It was equipped with the Fiat AS.6 engine developing a power of 3100 hp at 3300 rpm, the original Macchi-Castoldi MC72 MM.181 seaplane that holds the record is kept in the Air Force Museum at Vigna di Valle in Italy. The fastest manned atmospheric vehicle of all time was the Apollo Command Module, while different from most peoples idea of an aircraft, the capsule did have a lift to drag ratio of around 0.368, which was used to control the flight trajectory. Flying between any two airports allow a number of combinations, so setting a speed record is fairly easy with an ordinary aircraft. List of vehicle speed records Lockheed X-7 - Mach 4.31 in the 1950s World record Allward, modern Combat Aircraft 4, F-86 SabreFlight airspeed record – The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record-holder for a manned airbreathing jet aircraft.
43. Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird – The Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird was a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force. It was developed as a project from the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft in the 1960s by Lockheed. American aerospace engineer Clarence Kelly Johnson was responsible for many of the innovative concepts. During aerial reconnaissance missions, the SR-71 operated at high speeds, if a surface-to-air missile launch was detected, the standard evasive action was simply to accelerate and outfly the missile. The SR-71 was designed with a reduced radar cross-section, the SR-71 served with the U. S. Air Force from 1964 to 1998. A total of 32 aircraft were built,12 were lost in accidents, the SR-71 has been given several nicknames, including Blackbird and Habu. It has held the record for the fastest air-breathing manned aircraft since 1976. Lockheeds previous reconnaissance aircraft was the relatively slow U-2, designed for the Central Intelligence Agency, in late 1957, the CIA approached the defense contractor Lockheed to build an undetectable spy plane. The project, named Archangel, was led by Kelly Johnson, head of Lockheeds Skunk Works unit in Burbank, the work on project Archangel began in the second quarter of 1958, with aim of flying higher and faster than the U-2. Out of 11 successive designs drafted in a span of 10 months, despite this, however, its shape made it vulnerable to radar detection. After a meeting with the CIA in March 1959, the design was modified to have a 90% reduction in radar cross-section, the CIA approved a US$96 million contract for Skunk Works to build a dozen spy planes, named A-12 on 11 February 1960. The 1960 downing of Francis Gary Powerss U-2 underscored its vulnerability, the A-12 first flew at Groom Lake, Nevada, on 25 April 1962. Thirteen were built, two variants were developed, including three of the YF-12 interceptor prototype, and two of the M-21 drone carrier. The aircraft was meant to be powered by the Pratt & Whitney J58 engine, but development ran over schedule, the J58s were retrofitted as they became available, and became the standard powerplant for all subsequent aircraft in the series as well as the SR-71. The A-12 flew missions over Vietnam and North Korea before its retirement in 1968, the programs cancellation was announced on 28 December 1966, due both to budget concerns and because of the forthcoming SR-71, a derivative of the A-12. During the later period of its testing, the B-70 was proposed for a reconnaissance/strike role, when it was clear that the A-12 performance potential was much greater, the Air Force ordered a variant of the A-12 in December 1962. Originally named R-12 by Lockheed, the Air Force version was longer and heavier than the A-12, with a longer fuselage to hold more fuel, Reconnaissance equipment included signals intelligence sensors, a side looking airborne radar and a photo camera. Air Force Chief of Staff General Curtis LeMay preferred the SR designation, before the July speech, LeMay lobbied to modify Johnsons speech to read SR-71 instead of RS-71Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird – SR-71 "Blackbird"
44. Texas Medical Center – The Texas Medical Center, located in Houston, Texas, is the largest medical center in the world. It has one of the highest densities of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science, some member institutions are located outside of the city of Houston. More heart surgeries are performed in Texas Medical Center than anywhere else in the world with 13,600 heart surgeries annually, the TMC performs 1 surgery every 3 minutes. Over 25,000 babies are delivered each year, more than 1 baby every 20 minutes, the Texas Medical Center offers over 9,200 total patient beds. The Texas Medical Center receives an average of 3,300 patient visits a day and over eight million annual patient visits, the TMC has over 750,000 ER visitors each year. In 2011, the center employed over 106,000 people, including 20,000 physicians, scientists, researchers, the Texas Medical center has over 160,000 people visit each day. The Texas Medical Center is home to the largest childrens hospital in the world, adjacent to the Center are Rice University, Hermann Park, NRG Park, and the Museum District. The Texas Medical Center was established in 1945 in part with funds endowed to the M. D. Anderson Foundation by businessman Monroe Dunaway Anderson, the funds first gift was a check of $1,000 to the Junior League Eye Fund for eyeglasses. In 1941, the Texas State Legislature granted funds to the University of Texas for the purpose of starting a research hospital. M. D. Anderson Foundation matched the states gift to the university by supplying funds and land on the conditions that the hospital be established in Houston and be named after its founder. President Roosevelt approved the purchase of 118 acres from the Hermann Estate in 1944 for the construction of a 1, the hospital, later renamed the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, opened in 1946 and became a teaching facility for the Baylor College of Medicine. The M. D. Anderson Hospital for Cancer Research of the University of Texas began construction in 1953, Texas Childrens Hospital admitted its first patient in 1954. During the late 1950s, the Texas Institute for Rehabilitation and Research opened, the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston added the Gimbel Research Wing. Texas Womans University Nursing Program began instruction, in 1962, the Texas Heart Institute was chartered and became affiliated with Baylor St. Lukes Medical Center and Texas Childrens Hospital. Ben Taub General Hospital of the Harris Health System opened in 1963, the Proton Therapy Center, the largest facility in the United States where proton therapy is used to treat cancer, opened in July 2006. The Memorial Hermann Healthcare System constructed the six-floor,165, 000-square-foot Memorial Hermann Heart & Vascular Institute, also recently completed is the 30-story Memorial Hermann Medical Plaza, which is now the largest medical office building in the Texas Medical Center. At night, it is recognizable by its unique rainbow lantern, the new construction is part of the systems citywide Century Project initiative. Baylor College of Medicine opened The Baylor Clinic on June 29,2005, Texas Childrens Hospital announced the largest investment and program expansion ever by a single pediatric organizationTexas Medical Center – Fannin Street within the Texas Medical Center, viewed from the crosswalk between two buildings of the Houston Methodist hospital
45. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center – The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted. It was built and leased to NASA by Joseph L. Smith & Associates and it was renamed in honor of the late U. S. president and Texas native, Lyndon B. Johnson, by an act of the United States Senate on February 19,1973 and it consists of a complex of one hundred buildings constructed on 1,620 acres in the Clear Lake Area of Houston which acquired the official nickname Space City in 1967. The center is home to NASAs astronaut corps and is responsible for training astronauts from both the U. S. and its international partners. It has become known for its flight control function, identified as Mission Control during the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo–Soyuz. The Manned Spacecraft Center grew out of the Space Task Group headed by Robert Gilruth, the STG was based at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, but reported organizationally to the Goddard Space Flight Center. To meet the needs of the US human spaceflight program, plans began in 1961 to expand its staff to its own organization. This was constructed in 1962 and 1963 on land donated by the Humble Oil company through Rice University, today, JSC is one of ten major NASA field centers. The STG originally reported to the Goddard Space Flight Center organization, with a staff of 45, including eight secretaries and computers. This was expanded in 1959 by the addition of 32 Canadian engineers put out of work by the cancellation of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow project, nineteen days earlier, he had written a memo to his yet-unnamed successor, recommending a new site be chosen. By the time President John F, in 1961, Congress held hearings and passed a $1.7 billion 1962 NASA appropriations bill which included $60 million for the new manned spaceflight laboratory. A set of requirements for the new site was drawn up and released to the Congress, in August 1961, Webb tasked Associate Director of the Ames Research Center John F. Parsons with heading a site selection team, which included Philip Miller, Wesley Hjornevik, and I. Edward Campagna, the engineer for the STG. The team visited all 23 sites between August 21 and September 7,1961, senators and Congressmen from sites in Missouri and California similarly lobbied the selection team. Following its tour, the team identified MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa as its first choice, the Houston Rice University site was second, and the Benicia Ordnance Depot in San Francisco was third. Before a decision could be made, however, the Air Force decided not to close MacDill, omitting it from consideration and moving the Rice University site to first place. ”The Executive Office and NASA made advance notifications of the award, and the public announcement of the location followed on September 19,1961. According to Texas A&M University historian Henry C, Dethloff, Although the Houston site neatly fit the criteria required for the new center, Texas undoubtedly exerted an enormous political influence on such a decision. Finally, Sam Rayburn was Speaker of the House of Representatives, the land for the new facility was 1,000 acres donated to Rice by the Humble Oil company, situated in an undeveloped area 25 miles southeast of Houston adjacent to Clear Lake near Galveston BayLyndon B. Johnson Space Center – Aerial view of JSC in 1989
46. Mission Control Center – A mission control center is a facility that manages space flights, usually from the point of launch until landing or the end of the mission. It is part of the segment of spacecraft operations. A staff of flight controllers and other support personnel monitor all aspects of the mission using telemetry, the training for these missions usually falls under the responsibility of the flight controllers, typically including extensive rehearsals in the MCC. Prior to liftoff, missions are controlled from the Launch Control Center located at NASAs Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, the MCC also manages the U. S. portions of the International Space Station. European Space Operations Centre is responsible for ESAs satellites and space probes and it is located in Darmstadt, Germany. The Mission Control Center of the Russian Federal Space Agency, also known by its acronym ЦУП is located in Korolyov and it contains an active control room for the ISS. It also houses a control room for the Mir where the last few orbits of Mir before it burned up in the atmosphere are shown on the display screens. Beijing Aerospace Command and Control Center is a center for the Chinese space program which includes the Shenzhou missions. The building is inside a complex nicknamed Aerospace City, the city is located in a suburb northwest of Beijing. America Boeing Satellite Development Center Mission Control Center in El Segundo, California, in charge of several military satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland provides mission control for the Hubble Space Telescope, lockheed Martin A2100 Space Operations Center in Newtown, Pennsylvania, US. In charge of military satellites. Mercury Control Center was located on the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and was used during Project Mercury, one of its still standing buildings now serves as a makeshift bunker for the media if a rocket explodes near the ground. Mobile Servicing System Control and Training at Saint-Hubert, Quebec, Canada, supports Canadarm2 and dextre robotics operations. Space Systems/Loral Mission Control Center in Palo Alto, California, US, the MESSENGER and New Horizons missions were controlled from the Applied Physics Laboratory near Baltimore, Maryland. Asia ISRO SHAR Mission Control Centre, Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, jAXAs satellite operations are also based here. Europe The ATV Control Centre is located at the Toulouse Space Centre in Toulouse and it is the mission control center for the European Automated Transfer Vehicles, that regularly resupply ISS. The Columbus Control Center at the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen and it is the mission control center for the European Columbus research laboratory at the International Space StationMission Control Center – International Space Station control rooms in Russia and in the United States.
47. Fortune 500 – The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest U. S. corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes public companies, along with privately held companies for which revenues are publicly available, the concept of the Fortune 500 was created by Edgar P. Smith, a Fortune editor, and the first list was published in 1955. The Fortune 500 is more used than its subset Fortune 100 or wider list Fortune 1000. The original Fortune 500 was limited to companies whose revenues were derived from manufacturing, mining, at the same time, Fortune published companion Fortune 50 lists of the 50 largest commercial banks, utilities, life insurance companies, retailers and transportation companies. Fortune magazine changed its methodology in 1994 to include service companies, with the change came 291 new entrants to the famous list including three in the Top 10. The Fortune 500 was first published in 1955, created by Edgar P. Smith, the original top ten companies were General Motors, Exxon Mobil, U. S. Steel, General Electric, Esmark, Chrysler, Armour, Gulf Oil, Mobil and DuPontFortune 500 – The July 24, 2006 issue of Fortune, featuring its Fortune 500 list
48. Houston Museum District – The Houston Museum District currently includes 19 museums that recorded a collective attendance of over 8.7 million visitors a year. All of the museums offer free times or days and 11 of the museums are free all the time, Thursdays the Museum District gets particularly crowded because of museum free days. Houstons Museum District is walkable and bikeable, sidewalks are wide and well-maintained, and attractions and restaurants are situated near each other. The Museum District Civic Association compared the area to Georgetown in Washington, D. C. the beginnings of the Museum District are found in 1977, when it became apparent that some action needed to be taken to provide easier access to the museums of the area. This call for community improvement evolved into the non-profit Montrose Project by the mid-1980s, based on the works of this organization, the Museum District was formally recognized by the City of Houston in 1989. The founding organization was dissolved in 1994, but the Museum District is now under the auspices of the Houston Museum District Association, founded in 1997. The Museum District attracts visitors, students and volunteers of all ages, backgrounds, and ethnicities to learn about and celebrate art, history, culture, more information on the 20 institutions of Houstons Museum District may be found on their official website. In such a strongly vehicle-oriented city, and one which to this day retains the title of the largest city in the United States without zoning, this was fairly progressive. It took advantage of the opportunity to create in Houston an area of vital importance, similar to the French Quarter in New Orleans, St. Germain in Paris. 1977, Concept formulated, area associations involved, july 1986, Montrose Project becomes the Museum District Development Association of Houston. March 1987, MDDAH gains 5013 status, may 1988, “Raiders of the Lost Art” event held to raise funds and awareness of the District. September 1989, The Museum District receives a Clean Houston Honorable Mention in the Proud Partners Awards for its Museum District Improvement program, september 1989, Business leaders, museum directors and members gathered to sign a coalition agreement supporting a City of Houston Resolution creating an official Museum District. December 1991, MDDAH helped host the 5th Annual Christmas and Hanukkah in Neartown, with a tree lighting, caroling, may 1992, “Savor the Flavors” benefit held for the Museum District, highlighting 23 local restaurants. 1994, The organized abandonment/dissolution of the 5013 Museum District Development Association of Houston, records were handed off to the South Main Center Association for further collaboration and development within the community. January 1997, Eleven institutions reincorporated the Houston Museum District Association as a 5013 corporation, five new museums joined in 2002 and two more in 2007. According to 1st board meeting notes, Directors, Alexandra Marshall, Chairman Ora Harrison, today, total operating budgets for the member museums exceed $80 million, funded almost completely from revenues and private donations. The John P. McGovern Foundation, The Wortham Foundation, Inc, susan Vaughan Foundation, Inc. and corporate support from KHOU-TV Channel 11, KUHT-TV, the Houston Chronicle, Texas Monthly, Exxon, and Cadillac. The HMDA also serves as an intermediary, which fosters an ongoing dialogue among the museums in the district to maintain continuing interest, several apartment and/or condo communities are already in the area and new ones are currently being built and developedHouston Museum District – A direction sign in the Museum District
49. Memphis, Tennessee – Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf, Memphis had a population of 653,450 in 2013, making it the largest city in the state of Tennessee. It is the largest city on the Mississippi River, the third largest in the greater Southeastern United States, the greater Memphis metropolitan area, including adjacent counties in Mississippi and Arkansas, had a 2014 population of 1,317,314. This makes Memphis the second-largest metropolitan area in Tennessee, surpassed by metropolitan Nashville, Memphis is the youngest of Tennessees major cities, founded in 1819 as a planned city by a group of wealthy Americans including judge John Overton and future president Andrew Jackson. A resident of Memphis is referred to as a Memphian, and the Memphis region is known, particularly to media outlets, as Memphis and the Mid-South. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years. The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants, French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto would encounter the Chickasaw in that area, in the 16th century. J. D. L. Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present day location of Memphis, spain and the United States vied for control of this site, which was a favorite of the Chickasaws. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River, the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its lumber and iron to their locations in Arkansas. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, by this time, the Spanish had departed. The forts ruins went unnoticed twenty years later when Memphis was laid out as a city, the city of Memphis was founded on May 22,1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River, Memphis developed as a trade and transportation center in the 19th century because of its flood-free location high above the Mississippi River. Located in the delta region along the river, its outlying areas were developed as cotton plantations. The cotton economy of the antebellum South depended on the labor of large numbers of African-American slaves. Through the early 19th century, one million slaves were transported from the Upper South, Many were transported by steamboats along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. This gave planters and cotton brokers access to the Atlantic Coast for shipping cotton to England, the citys demographics changed dramatically in the 1850s and 1860s under waves of immigration and domestic migration. Due to increased immigration since the 1840s and the Great Famine, ethnic Irish made up 9.9 percent of the population in 1850, but 23.2 percent in 1860, when the total population was 22,623. They had encountered considerable discrimination in the city but by 1860 and they also gained many elected and patronage positions in the Democratic Party city government, and an Irish man was elected as mayor before the Civil WarMemphis, Tennessee – From top to bottom and left to right: Downtown Memphis skyline, Beale Street, Graceland, Orpheum Theatre, Beale Street Landing, and the Hernando de Soto Bridge
50. Rock and roll – While elements of rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until the 1950s. For the purpose of differentiation, this deals with the first definition. The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Beyond simply a style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teens enjoyed the music and it went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply rock music or rock. The term rock and roll now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage, the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s. In 1934, the song Rock and Roll by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round, in 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term rock-and-roll to describe upbeat recordings such as Rock Me by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the Rock and Roll Inn in South Merchantville, in 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it. The origins of rock and roll have been debated by commentators. The migration of former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called race music, particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, gospel, country, and folk. The 1940s saw the use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics. In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, similarly, country boogie and Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that would be seen as characteristic of rock and roll. Rock and roll arrived at a time of technological change, soon after the development of the electric guitar, amplifier and microphone. It was the realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were listening to music that led to the development of what was to be defined as rock. Because the development of rock and roll was a process, no single record can be identified as unambiguously the first rock. Other artists with rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee LewisRock and roll – Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio in the origins of rock and roll
51. Elvis (1968 TV program) – Elvis, starring Elvis Presley, is a United States television special that aired on December 3,1968 on the NBC television network. The special is commonly referred to as the 68 Comeback Special and it was directed by Steve Binder and produced by Binder and Bones Howe. Music from the special was released before the broadcast, on the album Elvis, Presleys informal jamming in front of a small audience in the special is regarded as a forerunner of the unplugged concept, later popularized by MTV. Despite huge success in both his music and acting careers following his release from the army in 1960, Presley never toured in the United States from 1962 to 1968. Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys manager, had found it difficult to secure the usual $1,000,000 fee for a Presley film. Parker negotiated a deal with NBC for $1,250,000 to finance both a special and a film. Parker wanted the show, which was scheduled as a Christmas season broadcast and he believed the special could simply be a TV-version of the Christmas radio show Presley had contributed to the year before. Binder argued that the special was an opportunity to re-establish the singers reputation after years of formulaic movies and he and Howe hired writers to script a show with specific themes, large set designs, dance sequences and big productions of Presleys hits. However, Binder was open to any variations on this that would showcase the singers talent, the special ends with Presley appealing for world peace and tolerance with the song If I Can Dream. Other musicians included drummer Hal Blaine, pianist Don Randi, guitarist Tommy Tedesco, bass player Larry Knechtel and it was after rehearsals at Western Recorders that Binder took special note of how Presley and the other musicians would spontaneously unwind by improvising old blues and rock n roll numbers. Binder commented. and thats when I really got the idea, Wouldnt it be great if I had a camera in here, Presley is said to have been very apprehensive about the idea of performing live. His last live concert had been at the Bloch Arena in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Binder offered a lot of support and reassurance to stop the singer from rejecting the idea of any live segments. He realized some songs already re-recorded or scheduled would need to be cut and he also brought in Presleys friends Alan Fortas, Lance LeGault and Charlie Hodge to encourage Presley and make him feel at ease. Two sessions took place, each two hours in length, the first on June 24 and the second on the 25th. Both took place in the surroundings of the dressing room at NBC. They were recorded by Presleys friend Joe Esposito using the singers own tape recorder, many songs were tried, including Danny Boy, Blue Moon, Thats My Desire and I Got A Woman, before the final repertoire was decided for the actual TV recording. Subsequently, at 6. 00pm, June 27, Presley took to the stage for the first time in seven years. Clad in black leather, Presley sat down and jammed with band mates for two shows, each show having a different audience, there was a one-hour break between themElvis (1968 TV program) – Elvis Presley in his '68 Comeback Special
52. Las Vegas, Nevada – The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city known primarily for its gambling, shopping, fine dining, entertainment and it is the leading financial, commercial, and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World and it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the worlds most visited tourist destinations. The citys tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, and has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, films, television programs, Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and officially incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century, population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, and between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85. 2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, and according to a 2013 estimate, perhaps the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago, a young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829. Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, the area was named Las Vegas, which is Spanish for the meadows, as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as desert spring waters for westward travelers. The year 1844 marked the arrival of John C, frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas Fremont Street is named after him, eleven years later members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies. The fort was abandoned several years afterward, the remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city,1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas. At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks and this year also witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam. The influx of workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935, in 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Currently known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the team called the ThunderbirdsLas Vegas, Nevada – In order from top left, clockwise: 1. World Market Center Las Vegas; 2. Fremont East; 3. Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health; 4. Smith Center for the Performing Arts; 5. Downtown Las Vegas with the Las Vegas Valley in the background; 6. Grand Central Parkway Interchange; 7. Symphony Park; 8. Downtown Arts District; 9. Las Vegas industrial district looking North away from the Las Vegas Strip during First Friday
53. Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite – Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite is a concert that was headlined by Elvis Presley, and was broadcast live via satellite on January 14,1973. The concert took place at the Honolulu International Center in Honolulu and aired in over 40 countries across Asia, despite the satellite innovation, the United States did not air the concert until April 4,1973. Viewing figures have been estimated to be between 1 and 1.5 billion viewers worldwide, the show was the most expensive entertainment special at the time, costing $2.5 million. On July 8,1972, inspired by a recent visit made by U. S, as the show had already been planned prior to this upset, the original shows, now set for November, would still go ahead but without being filmed. Parker held another conference on September 4,1972, in Las Vegas to confirm that the concert, now titled Aloha From Hawaii. Two weeks after the Las Vegas press conference Parker received a letter from Honolulu Advertiser columnist Eddie Sherman, Sherman had read in news accounts that there was to be no charge for admittance to the concerts, instead a donation for charity was required. Seeing the chance to publicize Presleys charitable nature once again, Parker eagerly agreed, producer-director Marty Pasetta had attended one of Presleys concerts at Long Beach in mid-November, and he had found it to be boring and lacking in any physical excitement. He approached Parker with ideas about the broadcast, including a runway that led out from the stage so Presley could get closer to his audience, Parker insisted that the ideas were useless, and that Presley would agree that they were useless. Pasetta, however, decided to approach Presley about the ideas anyway and was surprised to find that he would be happy to do whatever Pasetta felt was best for the show. This was another example of the rift between Presley and his manager. He also announced officially that it would now be in aid of the Kui Lee Cancer Fund, Presley arrived in Hawaii again on January 9, a day after his 38th birthday, to begin rehearsals. He had lost twenty-five pounds for the show and was confident after news that his sales were increasing. Rehearsals were held at the Hilton Hawaiian Village while the set was being constructed. Although there were technical problems, the rehearsals were an overall success. Presley taped a January 12 rehearsal concert as a fail-safe in case anything went wrong with the satellite during the actual broadcast, for both shows, Presley was dressed in a white American Eagle jumpsuit designed by Bill Belew. The broadcast was directed by Marty Pasetta, who was then in charge of directing the Oscar ceremonies, audience tickets for the January 14 concert and its January 12 pre-broadcast rehearsal show carried no price. Each audience member was asked to pay whatever he or she could afford, the performance and concert merchandise sales raised $75,000 for the Kui Lee Cancer Fund in Hawaii. According to Elvis Presley Enterprises, between 1 and 1.5 billion people watched the one-hour broadcast live, the album containing the music from the concert was a blockbuster hit, becoming Presleys first chart-topping album in the US since the soundtrack to Roustabout in 1965Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite – Aloha from Hawaii via Satellite
54. Hall of fame – A hall, wall, or walk of fame is a list of individuals, achievements, or animals, usually chosen by a group of electors, to mark their fame in their field. Sometimes, the plaques may instead be posted on a wall or inscribed on a sidewalk. In other cases, the hall of fame is more figurative, the lists are maintained by an organization or community, and may be national, state, local, or private. The English-language term was popularised in the United States by the Hall of Fame for Great Americans at Bronx Community College, in New York City and its inspiration is the Ruhmeshalle in Munich, Germany. The Walhalla memorial in Bavaria, Germany, is an earlier hall of fame, conceived in 1807. The meaning of fame has changed over the years, originally meaning renown as opposed to more common meaning of celebrityHall of fame – Walhalla hall of fame temple, Germany
55. Fort Mason – Fort Mason served as an Army post for more than 100 years, initially as a coastal defense site and subsequently as a military port facility. During World War II, it was the port for the Pacific campaign. Today it is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and it is a National Historic Landmark District with over 49 buildings of historic significance, spread over 1,200 acres. Fort Mason can be split into two distinct areas, the upper area, sometimes called Fort Mason, is situated on a headland and was the site of the original coastal fortifications. The lower area, Fort Mason Center, is situated close to level to the west of Upper Fort Mason. The Marina Green lies to the west of Fort Mason, while Aquatic Park is to the east, the nucleus of Fort Mason was a private property owned by John C. Frémont, the explorer of the US west, who also spearheaded the conquest of California from Mexico. Appointed a Major General in the Union army at the start of the Civil War, in 1863, the government seized the property without payment, by executive order of Lincoln, on the grounds it was needed for the war effort. Frémont would again contest the US presidency in 1864, running as the candidate of radical Republicans, the 1968 lawsuit was perhaps the last shot of a century-long legal struggle to obtain compensation for the seized realty. In 1870, the government returned property to 49 parties in the vicinity, but not to Frémont, but in 1968 the Frémont heirs complained it had failed to carry out this direction, with John Frémont then recently dead and his widow Jessie nearly 70 years old. The Civil War prompted the construction of coastal defense batteries located inside the Golden Gate. A breast-high wall of brick and mounts for six 10-inch Rodman cannons, excavation in the early 1980s uncovered the well-preserved remains of the western-half of the temporary battery, and it has now been restored to its condition during the Civil War. The fort was named Fort Mason in 1882, after Richard Barnes Mason, President Grover Cleveland established the Endicott Board in 1885 for the purpose of modernizing the nations coastal fortifications. Chaired by Secretary of War William Endicott, the board recommended new defenses at 22 U. S. seaports, as a result, an extensive series of forts, batteries, and guns were built on the harbor, including Fort Mason. The piers and sheds of Lower Fort Mason were originally built from 1912 to warehouse army supplies, by this time, the US Army began to build new bases in Hawaii, the Philippines, and various other Pacific islands. Most of the materiel for those bases was shipped through San Francisco, by 1915, the three piers together with their associated warehouse had been completed, and Fort Mason Tunnel driven under Upper Fort Mason to connect with the railroad network along the Embarcadero. With these new facilities, Fort Mason was transformed from a defense post into a logistical. The Army ferry USAT General Frank M. Coxe provided scheduled transportation from Fort Mason to the center at Fort McDowell on Angel Island up to eight times per day during the warFort Mason – San Francisco Port of Embarkation, US Army
56. San Francisco – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
57. Joseph Barbera – Through his young adult years, Barbera lived, attended college, and began his career in New York City. After working odd jobs and as a banker, Barbera joined Van Beuren Studios in 1932, in 1937, he moved to California and while working at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Barbera met William Hanna. The two men began a collaboration that was at first best known for producing Tom and Jerry, in 1967, Hanna-Barbera was sold to Taft Broadcasting for $12 million, but Hanna and Barbera remained heads of the company until 1991. At that time, the studio was sold to Turner Broadcasting System, Hanna and Barbera won seven Academy Awards and eight Emmy Awards. Their cartoon shows have become icons, and their cartoon characters have appeared in other media such as films, books. Hanna-Barberas shows had an audience of over 300 million people in the 1960s and have been translated into more than 20 languages. His family moved to Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York when he was four months old and he had two younger brothers, Larry and Ted, both of whom served in World War II. As a member of the United States Army, Larry participated in the invasion of Sicily, Ted was a fighter pilot with the United States Army Air Forces and served in the Aleutian Islands Campaign. Barberas father, Vincent, was the owner of three barbershops who squandered the family fortunes on gambling. By the time Barbera was 15, his father had abandoned the family, Barbera displayed a talent for drawing as early as the first grade. He graduated from Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn in 1928, while in high school, Barbera won several boxing titles. He was briefly managed by World Lightweight Boxing Champion Al Singers manager, in 1935, Barbera married his high school sweetheart, Dorothy Earl. In school, they had known as Romeo and Juliet. Barbera and his wife briefly separated when he went to California and they reunited but were on the verge of another separation when they discovered that Dorothy was pregnant with their first child. They had 4 children, two sons and two daughters, the marriage officially ended in 1963. Shortly after his divorce, Barbera met his wife, Sheila Holden, at Musso & Franks restaurant. Unlike Dorothy, who had preferred to stay at home with the children, during high school, Barbera worked as a tailors delivery boy. During the Great Depression, he tried unsuccessfully to become a cartoonist for a magazine called The NY Hits Magazine and he supported himself with a job at a bank, and continued to pursue publication for his cartoonsJoseph Barbera – Joseph Barbera in 1993
58. Bette Davis – Ruth Elizabeth Bette Davis was an American actress of film, television, and theater. After appearing in Broadway plays, Davis moved to Hollywood in 1930, however, her early films for Universal Studios were unsuccessful. She joined Warner Bros. in 1932 and established her career with several critically acclaimed performances, in 1937, she attempted to free herself from her contract. Although she lost the legal case against the studio, it marked the beginning of the most successful period of her career. Until the late 1940s, she was one of American cinemas most celebrated leading ladies, known for her forceful, Davis gained a reputation as a perfectionist who could be highly combative and confrontational. She clashed with executives and film directors as well as many of her co-stars. Her forthright manner, idiosyncratic speech and ubiquitous cigarette contributed to a public persona, Davis was the co-founder of the Hollywood Canteen, and was the first female president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Her career went through periods of eclipse, and she admitted that her success had often been at the expense of her personal relationships. Married four times, she was widowed and three times divorced, and raised her children as a single parent. In 1999, Davis was placed second behind Katharine Hepburn on the American Film Institutes list of the greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Bettys younger sister, Barbara Harriet Bobby, was born October 25,1909, at 55 Ward Street in Somerville, Massachusetts, in 1915, Daviss parents separated and Betty and Bobby attended a Spartan boarding school called Crestalban in Lanesborough, which is located in the Berkshires. In 1921, Ruth Davis moved to New York City with her daughters, Betty changed the spelling of her name to Bette after Honoré de Balzacs La Cousine Bette. Davis attended Cushing Academy, a school in Ashburnham, Massachusetts. In 1926, she saw a production of Henrik Ibsens The Wild Duck with Blanche Yurka and Peg Entwistle, Davis later recalled for Al Cohn of Newsday, The reason I wanted to go into theater was because of an actress named Peg Entwistle. She auditioned for admission to Eva LeGalliennes Manhattan Civic Repertory, but was rejected by LeGallienne who described her attitude as insincere, upon graduating from Cushing Academy, Bette enrolled in John Murray Andersons Dramatic School. In 1929, Davis was chosen by Blanche Yurka to play Hedwig, after performing in Philadelphia, Washington and Boston, she made her Broadway debut in 1929 in Broken Dishes, and followed it with Solid South. In 1930, Davis moved to Hollywood to screen test for Universal Studios, Davis and her mother traveled by train to Hollywood and arrived on December 13,1930. She would later recount her surprise that nobody from the studio was there to meet her at the train, in fact, a studio employee had waited for her, but left because he saw nobody who looked like an actressBette Davis – Studio portrait, 1940
59. Maggie Gyllenhaal – Margalit Ruth Maggie Gyllenhaal is an American actress. She is the daughter of filmmakers Stephen Gyllenhaal and Naomi Achs and she began her film career as a teenager with roles in her fathers films and appeared alongside her brother in the psychological horror film Donnie Darko. She garnered critical praise for starring as Lee Holloway in Secretary, for her performance in Sherrybaby, she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. She also received recognition for starring as Rachel Dawes in The Dark Knight, for her performance in the musical-drama Crazy Heart, she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. She subsequently starred in Nanny McPhee and the Big Bang, Wont Back Down and Frank, in 2014, she made her Broadway debut in a revival of The Real Thing, and also starred in the television BBC miniseries The Honourable Woman. For her performance in the latter she won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Emmy Award, Gyllenhaal was born in New York City, the daughter of Naomi Foner Gyllenhaal and Stephen Gyllenhaal. Her father is a director and writer and her mother is a screenwriter. She has one sibling, actor Jake Gyllenhaal and her father, who was raised in the Swedenborgian religion, is of Swedish and English ancestry, and is a member of the Gyllenhaal family. Her mother was born in New York City, and is from a Jewish family which emigrated from Russia and her mothers first husband was Eric Foner, a noted historian and history professor at Columbia University. Gyllenhaal has stated that she grew up mostly Jewish, culturally and her parents married in 1977, and filed for divorce in October 2008. The first name on Maggies birth certificate is Margalit, which she did not discover until 2013, Margalit is a Hebrew word meaning pearl, some news stories have spelled it Margolit. Gyllenhaal grew up in Los Angeles, and studied at the Harvard–Westlake prep school and she spent four months as a student at The Mountain School, a semester school for high school juniors in Vermont. In 1995, she graduated from Harvard–Westlake and moved to New York to attend Columbia University and she also studied acting for a summer term at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, England. With their mother, she and Jake appeared in two episodes of Molto Mario, an Italian cooking show on the Food Network, after graduating from college, she played supporting roles in films like Cecil B. Demented and Riding in Cars with Boys, Gyllenhaal later achieved recognition in her own right playing her real brothers on-screen sister in the indie cult hit Donnie Darko. She made her debut in the Berkeley Repertory Theatre production of Patrick Marbers Closer. Production started in May 2000 and ended in mid-July of that year, Gyllenhaal has performed in several other plays, including The Tempest, Antony and Cleopatra, The Butterfly Project, and No Exit. Gyllenhaals break-out role was in the black comedy Secretary, a film about two people who embark on a mutually fulfilling BDSM lifestyleMaggie Gyllenhaal – Gyllenhaal at the 2010 Academy Awards
60. Anthony Michael Hall – Michael Anthony Hall, known professionally as Anthony Michael Hall, is an American actor, film producer, and director who starred in several teen-oriented films of the 1980s. Hall began his career in commercials and on stage as a child and his films with director-screenwriter John Hughes, beginning with the popular 1983 comedy National Lampoons Vacation and the coming-of-age comedy Sixteen Candles, shaped his early career. Halls next movies with Hughes were the teen classics The Breakfast Club and Weird Science, after a series of minor roles in the 1990s, he starred as Microsofts Bill Gates in the 1999 television film Pirates of Silicon Valley. He had the role in the USA Network series The Dead Zone from 2002 to 2007. The show was one of the cable television series during its run. Hall was born in West Roxbury, a neighborhood in Boston and he is the only child of blues-jazz singer Mercedes Halls first marriage. She divorced Halls father, Larry, an owner, when their son was six months old. When Hall was three, he and his mother relocated to the West Coast, where she found work as a featured singer, after a year and a half, they returned to the East, eventually moving to New York City, where Hall grew up. Halls ancestry is Irish and Italian and he has one half-sister, Mary Chestaro, from his mothers second marriage to Thomas Chestaro, a show business manager. His half-sister is pursuing a career as a singer under the name of Mary C. Hall uses the name Anthony, rather than Michael. He transposed his first and middle names when he entered show business because there was another actor named Michael Hall who was already a member of the Screen Actors Guild. Hall attended St. Hildas & St. Hughs School of New York before moving on to Manhattans Professional Childrens School, Hall began his acting career at age eight and continued throughout high school. I did not go to college, he has said, through the 1980s, Halls mother managed his career, eventually relinquishing that role to her second husband. Hall assists at-risk youth through his program, The Anthony Michael Hall Literacy Club. Following family tradition, Hall is pursuing his passion, music. He is the singer and songwriter for his band, Hall of Mirrors. Hall is godfather to Robert Downey, Jr. s son Indio Falconer Downey, Hall has been involved in multiple disputes with neighbors and his most recent one was taped, showing him pushing the neighbor to the ground. Whether these altercations were associated with drinking are not clear although Hall is known to have a history of problems associated with drinking, Hall started his career in commercials when he was seven years oldAnthony Michael Hall – Hall at the 2013 Wizard World New York Experience in Manhattan.
61. Ethan Hawke – Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor, writer, and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award, Hawke has directed two feature films, three Off-Broadway plays, and a documentary, and written the novels The Hottest State, Ash Wednesday, and Rules for a Knight. He made his debut in 1985 with the science fiction feature Explorers. He then appeared in films before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X drama Reality Bites. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for films, along with BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to Leslie, a charity worker, and James Hawke, Hawkes parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth, Texas, and married young, when Hawkes mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later, Hawkes parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, and separated and later divorced in 1974. After the separation, Hawke was then raised by his mother, the two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawkes mother remarried when he was 10 and the moved to West Windsor Township, New Jersey. He later transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a boarding school. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, and he twice enrolled in New York Universitys English program, but dropped out both times to pursue acting roles. Hawke obtained his mothers permission to attend his first casting call at age 14 and he secured his first film role in 1985s Explorers, in which he played an alien-obsessed schoolboy alongside River Phoenix. The film received favorable reviews but had poor box office revenues, Hawke later described the disappointment as difficult to bear at such a young age, adding I would never recommend that a kid act. His next film appearance was not until 1989s comedy drama Dad, in 1989, Hawke made his breakthrough appearance, playing a shy student opposite Robin Williamss inspirational English teacher in Dead Poets Society. The film was critically well-received, the Variety reviewer noted Hawke, with revenue of US$235 million worldwide, the film remains Hawkes most commercially successful picture to date. Hawke later described the opportunities he was offered as a result of the success as critical to his decision to continue acting, I didnt want to be an actor. But then the success was so monumental that I was getting offers to be in such interesting movies and be in such interesting places, Hawkes next film, 1991s White Fang, brought his first leading role. The film, an adaptation of Jack Londons novel of the name, featured Hawke as Jack ConroyEthan Hawke – Hawke at the 2009 Venice International Film Festival
62. Katie Holmes – Kate Noelle Katie Holmes is an American actress, model, and filmmaker who first achieved fame for her role as Joey Potter on The WB television teen drama Dawsons Creek from 1998 to 2003. She appeared in 1998s Disturbing Behavior, a thriller, which won her an MTV Movie Award for Best Breakthrough Performance, in 2000 Holmes featured in Wonder Boys which got positive attention from many leading critics. Holmes had a role in 2003s Pieces of April, a gritty comedy about a dysfunctional family on Thanksgiving. In the 2005 film Batman Begins, the most successful film of her career to date, she played Rachel Dawes, Gotham Citys assistant district attorney and Bruce Waynes childhood sweetheart. She also appeared in art films such as The Ice Storm, horror films such as Dont Be Afraid of the Dark. She has also played on Broadway in a production of Arthur Millers All My Sons and had numerous guest roles on programs such as How I Met Your Mother. In 2011, she starred as Jacqueline Kennedy in the The Kennedys miniseries and her marriage to actor Tom Cruise from 2006 to 2012 led to a great deal of media attention, with the pair being called a supercouple and given the nickname TomKat. Holmes was born in Toledo, Ohio and she is the youngest of five children born to Kathleen, a homemaker and philanthropist, and Martin Joseph Holmes, Sr. an attorney. She has three sisters and one brother, Holmes was baptized a Roman Catholic and attended Christ the King Church in Toledo. She graduated from the all-female Notre Dame Academy in Toledo, where she was a 4.0 student. At St. Johns Jesuit and St. Francis de Sales, nearby high schools, Holmes appeared in school musicals, playing a waitress in Hello, Dolly. She scored 1310 out of 1600 on her SAT and was accepted to Columbia University, at age 14, she began classes at a modeling school in Toledo which led her to the International Modeling and Talent Association Competition held in New York City in 1996. Eventually, Holmes was signed to an agent after performing a monologue from To Kill a Mockingbird, in January 1997, Holmes went to Los Angeles for pilot season, when producers cast and shoot new programs in the hopes of securing a spot on a network schedule. The Toledo Blade reported she was offered the lead in Buffy the Vampire Slayer, I was doing my school play, Damn Yankees. I even got to wear the feather boa, I thought, There is no way Im not playing Lola to go audition for some network. I couldnt let my school down and we had already sold a lot of tickets. So I told Kevin and The WB, Im sorry, I just cant meet with you this week. The producers permitted her to audition on videotape, Holmes read for the part of Joey Potter, the tomboy best friend of the title character Dawson, on a videotape shot in her basement, her mother reading Dawsons linesKatie Holmes – Holmes at the National Memorial Day in Washington, D.C., May 24, 2009
63. Janet Jackson – Janet Damita Jo Jackson is an American singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. After signing a contract with A&M Records in 1982, she became a pop icon following the release of her third studio album Control. Her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, funk, disco, rap, and industrial beats, which led to crossover success in popular music. In 1991 Jackson signed the first of two record-breaking multimillion-dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest paid artists in the industry. Her debut album under the label, Janet, saw her develop an image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her work. That same year, she appeared in her first starring role in Poetic Justice. By the end of the 1990s, she was the second most successful recording artist of the decade, the release of her seventh studio album All for You coincided with a celebration of her impact on popular music as the inaugural MTV Icon. After parting ways with Virgin she released her studio album, Discipline, her first. In 2015 she partnered with BMG Rights Management to launch her own label, Rhythm Nation. Having sold over 100 million records, Jackson is one of the artists in the history of contemporary music. In 2016, Billboard placed her number seven on its list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, in December 2016, the magazine named her the second most successful dance artist of all-time. One of the worlds most awarded artists, her longevity, records and she has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers. Janet Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, the youngest of ten children, to Katherine Esther, the Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovahs Witnesses, although Jackson would later refrain from organized religion. At a young age, her brothers began performing as The Jackson 5 in the Chicago-Gary area, in March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, and soon had their first number-one hit. The family then moved to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles, Jackson had initially desired to become a horse racing jockey or entertainment lawyer, with plans to support herself through acting. Despite this, she was anticipated to pursue a career in entertainment, at age seven, Jackson performed at the Las Vegas Strip at the MGM Casino. A biography revealed her father, Joseph Jackson, was emotionally withdrawn and she began acting in the variety show The Jacksons in 1976. In 1977, she was selected to have a role as Penny Gordon Woods in the sitcom Good TimesJanet Jackson – Jackson performing on her Unbreakable World Tour, 2015
64. Michael Jackson – Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, actor, and philanthropist. Called the King of Pop, his contributions to music, dance, the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music, the popularity of these videos helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Jacksons 1987 album Bad spawned the U. S and he continued to innovate with videos such as Black or White and Scream throughout the 1990s, and forged a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and his distinctive sound and style has influenced numerous artists of various music genres. Thriller is the album of all time, with estimated sales of 65 million copies worldwide. Jacksons other albums, including Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous and he is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records. Jackson won hundreds of awards, making him the most awarded recording artist in the history of popular music. He became the first artist in history to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when Love Never Felt So Good reached number nine on May 21,2014. Jackson traveled the world attending events honoring his humanitarianism, and, in 2000, aspects of Jacksons personal life, including his changing appearance, personal relationships, and behavior, generated controversy. In 1993, he was accused of sexual abuse, but the civil case was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of child sexual abuse allegations. While preparing for his concert series, This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication on June 25,2009. The Los Angeles County Coroner ruled his death a homicide, and his personal physician, Jacksons death triggered a global outpouring of grief, and a live broadcast of his public memorial service was viewed around the world. Forbes ranks Jackson as the dead celebrity with earnings of $825 million in 2016. Michael Joseph Jackson was born on August 29,1958 and his mother, Katherine Esther Scruse, was a devout Jehovahs Witness. She played clarinet and piano and once aspired to be a country-and-western performer, michaels father, Joseph Walter Joe Jackson, a former boxer, was a steelworker at U. S. SteelMichael Jackson – Jackson performing in 1988, during the Bad World Tour
65. Angelina Jolie – Angelina Jolie Pitt, DCMG is an American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards, and has cited as Hollywoods highest-paid actress. Jolie made her debut as a child alongside her father, Jon Voight. Her film career began in earnest a decade later with the low-budget production Cyborg 2, followed by her first leading role in a major film, Hackers. She starred in the critically acclaimed biographical cable films George Wallace and Gia, Jolies starring role as the video game heroine Lara Croft in Lara Croft, Tomb Raider established her as a leading Hollywood actress. Beginning in the 2010s, she expanded her career into directing, screenwriting and her biggest commercial success came with the fantasy picture Maleficent. Her personal life is the subject of wide publicity, divorced from actors Jonny Lee Miller and Billy Bob Thornton, she separated from her third husband, actor Brad Pitt, in September 2016. They have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally, born in Los Angeles, California, Jolie is the daughter of actors Jon Voight and Marcheline Bertrand. She is the sister of actor James Haven and niece of singer-songwriter Chip Taylor and her godparents are actors Jacqueline Bisset and Maximilian Schell. On her fathers side, Jolie is of German and Slovak descent, and on her mothers side, she is of primarily French Canadian, Dutch, like her mother, Jolie has stated that she is part Iroquois, although her only known indigenous ancestors were 17th-century Hurons. After her parents separation in 1976, Jolie and her brother lived with their mother, when Jolie was six years old, Bertrand and her live-in partner, filmmaker Bill Day, moved the family to Palisades, New York, they returned to Los Angeles five years later. Jolie then decided she wanted to act and enrolled at the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute, Jolie first attended Beverly Hills High School, where she felt isolated among the children of some of the areas affluent families because her mother survived on a more modest income. She was teased by other students, who targeted her for being extremely thin and her early attempts at modeling, at her mothers insistence, proved unsuccessful. She dropped out of her classes and aspired to become a funeral director. She also struggled with insomnia and an eating disorder, and began experimenting with drugs, by age 20, she had used just about every drug possible, particularly heroin. Jolie suffered episodes of depression and twice planned to commit suicide—at age 19 and again at 22, when she was 24, she experienced a nervous breakdown and was admitted for 72 hours to UCLA Medical Centers psychiatric ward. Two years later, after adopting her first child, Jolie found stability in her life, later stating, I knew once I committed to Maddox, I would never be self-destructive again. Jolie has had a dysfunctional relationship with her father, which began when Voight left the family when his daughter was less than a year oldAngelina Jolie – Jolie at the Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict in June 2014
66. Diane Keaton – Diane Keaton is an American film actress, director and producer. She began her career on stage and made her debut in 1970. Her next two films with Allen, Sleeper and Love and Death, established her as a comic actor and her fourth, Annie Hall, won her the Academy Award for Best Actress. Keaton subsequently expanded her range to avoid becoming typecast as her Annie Hall persona and she became an accomplished dramatic performer, starring in Looking for Mr. Goodbar and received Academy Award nominations for Reds, Marvins Room and Somethings Gotta Give. Some of her later films include Baby Boom, Father of the Bride, The First Wives Club. Keatons films have earned a gross of over US$1.1 billion in North America. In addition to acting, she is also a photographer, real estate developer, author, Diane Keaton was born as Diane Hall on January 5,1946, in Los Angeles, California. Her mother, Dorothy Deanne, was a homemaker and amateur photographer, her father, John Newton Ignatius Jack Hall, was a real estate broker, Keaton was raised a Free Methodist by her mother. Her mother won the Mrs. Los Angeles pageant for homemakers, Keaton has said that the theatricality of the event inspired her first impulse to be an actress, and led to her wanting to work on stage. She has also credited Katharine Hepburn, whom she admires for playing strong and independent women, Keaton is a 1964 graduate of Santa Ana High School in Santa Ana, California. During her time there, she participated in singing and acting clubs at school, after graduation, she attended Santa Ana College, and later Orange Coast College as an acting student, but dropped out after a year to pursue an entertainment career in Manhattan. Upon joining the Actors Equity Association, she changed her surname to Keaton, her mothers maiden name, for a brief time, she also moonlighted at nightclubs with a singing act. She would later revisit her nightclub act in Annie Hall and And So It Goes, Keaton began studying acting at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. She has described her acting technique as, only as good as the person youre acting with, as opposed to going it on my own and forging my path to create a wonderful performance without the help of anyone. I always need the help of everyone, according to Jack Nicholson, She approaches a script sort of like a play in that she has the entire script memorized before you start doing the movie, which I dont know any other actors doing that. In 1968, Keaton became a member of the Tribe and understudy to Sheila in the original Broadway production of Hair. She gained some notoriety for her refusal to disrobe at the end of Act I when the cast performs nude, after acting in Hair for nine months, she auditioned for a part in Woody Allens production of Play It Again, Sam. After nearly being passed over for being too tall, she won the part, after being nominated for a Tony Award for Play It Again, Sam, Keaton made her film debut in Lovers and Other StrangersDiane Keaton – Keaton in 2011
67. Brad Pitt – William Bradley Brad Pitt in Shawnee Oklahoma. He is an American actor and producer and he has received multiple awards and nominations including an Academy Award as producer under his own company Plan B Entertainment. Pitt first gained recognition as a hitchhiker in the road movie Thelma & Louise. His first leading roles in big-budget productions came with the dramas A River Runs Through It and Legends of the Fall, Pitt starred in the cult film Fight Club and the heist film Oceans Eleven and its sequels, Oceans Twelve and Oceans Thirteen. As a public figure, Pitt has been cited as one of the most influential and powerful people in the American entertainment industry, as well as the worlds most attractive man and his personal life is also the subject of wide publicity. Divorced from actress Jennifer Aniston, to whom he was married for five years and they have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally. In September 2016, Jolie filed for divorce from Pitt, William Bradley Pitt was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma, to William Bill Alvin Pitt, manager of a trucking company, and Jane Etta, a school counsellor. The family soon moved to Springfield, Missouri, where he lived together with his siblings, Douglas. Pitt has described Springfield as Mark Twain country, Jesse James country, having grown up with a lot of hills, Pitt attended Kickapoo High School, where he was a member of the golf, swimming and tennis teams. He participated in the schools Key and Forensics clubs, in school debates, following his graduation from high school, Pitt enrolled in the University of Missouri in 1982, majoring in journalism with a focus on advertising. As graduation approached, Pitt did not feel ready to settle down and he loved films—a portal into different worlds for me—and, since films were not made in Missouri, he decided to go to where they were made. Two weeks before earning his degree, Pitt left the university and moved to Los Angeles, while struggling to establish himself in Los Angeles, Pitt took lessons from acting coach Roy London. Pitts acting career began in 1987, with uncredited parts in the films No Way Out, No Mans Land and his television debut came in May 1987 with a two-episode role on the NBC soap opera Another World. In November of the same year Pitt had a guest appearance on the ABC sitcom Growing Pains and he appeared in four episodes of the CBS primetime series Dallas between December 1987 and February 1988 as Randy, the boyfriend of Charlie Wade. Later in 1988, Pitt made a guest appearance on the Fox police drama 21 Jump Street, in the same year, the Yugoslavian–U. S. Co-production The Dark Side of the Sun gave Pitt his first leading film role, the film was shelved at the outbreak of the Croatian War of Independence, and was not released until 1997. He made guest appearances on television series Head of the Class, Freddys Nightmares, Thirtysomething, and Growing Pains. Pitt was cast as Billy Canton, an addict who takes advantage of a young runaway in the 1990 NBC television movie Too Young to Die. the story of an abused teenager sentenced to death for a murderBrad Pitt – Pitt at the premiere of Fury in Washington D.C, October 2014
68. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, and the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an aunt and she moved to Chicago when her mother remarried in 1929, and later took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, Night into Morning, and Donovans Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, who was president of the Screen Actors Guild. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husbands victory in the 1980 presidential election. She was criticized early in his first term, largely due to her decision to replace the White House china and she aimed to restore a Kennedy-esque glamour to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the Just Say No drug awareness campaign and she had a strong influence on her husband, and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Reagan devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, who was diagnosed with Alzheimers disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5,2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of stem cell research. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6,1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women and she was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman who had been born into a once-prosperous family, and his actress wife, radio actress Edith Prescott Luckett. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova, from birth, she was commonly called Nancy. She lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York City, in a house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928, after their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Reagan was raised in Bethesda, Maryland, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, and uncle, Audley Gailbraith. Nancy later described longing for her mother during those years, My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, in 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago. Nancy and her stepfather got along well, she later wrote that he was a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values. He formally adopted her in 1935, and she would refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy DavisNancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
69. Reese Witherspoon – Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon is an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur. Her leading role of Tracy Flick in Election was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, Witherspoons breakthrough role was playing Elle Woods in the 2001 film Legally Blonde, for which she received her second Golden Globe nomination. The following year, she starred in the romantic comedy Sweet Home Alabama, which emerged as her biggest live-action commercial success. In 2005, she portrayed June Carter in Walk the Line, which earned her the Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, and Critics Choice Award for Best Actress. Other notable films of hers include Legally Blonde 2, Red, White & Blonde, Monsters vs. Aliens, Water for Elephants, in 2017, she produced and starred in the HBO drama series Big Little Lies. Witherspoon owns a company, Pacific Standard, and she is actively involved in childrens and womens advocacy organizations. She serves on the board of the Childrens Defense Fund and was named Global Ambassador of Avon Products in 2007 and she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2010. Witherspoon was born on March 22,1976 in Southern Baptist Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, while her father and her father was born in Georgia and served as a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army Reserve. He was in practice as an otolaryngologist until 2012. In 1988, her mother began nursing babies back to health in the intensive care unit of Vanderbilt University Hospital until she retired. Her parents are legally married, although they separated in 1996, due to her fathers alcoholism, infidelity, overspending. Because Witherspoons father worked for the U. S. military in Wiesbaden, Germany, after returning to the U. S. she spent her childhood in Nashville, Tennessee in the suburb of Belle Meade. She was raised as an Episcopalian and her older brother, John Jr. is a real estate agent. She received high grades in school, loved reading, and considered herself a big dork who read loads of books, on mentioning her love for books, she said, I get crazy in a bookstore. It makes my heart beat hard because I want to buy everything, Witherspoon attended middle school at Harding Academy and graduated from the all-girls Harpeth Hall School in Nashville, during which time she was a cheerleader. She attended Stanford University as an English literature major, after completing one year of studies, she left Stanford to pursue an acting career. Witherspoon is proud of the definitive Southern upbringing which she received, Witherspoon is described as a multi-achiever and was given the nickname Little Type A by her parents. On discussing her early achievements, she told Interview magazine, I just dont see any of it as that remarkable, maybe thats the attitude I choose to have to keep me sane and keep my feet on the groundReese Witherspoon – Witherspoon at the 2014 Toronto International Film Festival
70. James Robert Baker – James Robert Baker was an American author of sharply satirical, predominantly gay-themed transgressional fiction. A native Californian, his work is set almost entirely in Southern California, after graduating from UCLA, he began his career as a screenwriter, but became disillusioned and started writing novels instead. According to his partner, this was a contributing factor in his suicide. Bakers work has achieved status in the years since his death. First-edition copies of his works have become collectors items. His novel Testosterone was adapted to a film of the same name, two other books have been optioned for films, but they have not been produced. Baker was born in Long Beach, California and raised in what he considered a stifling, rebelling against his parents, he became attracted to the fringe elements of society, including beatniks, artists and gays. In high school during the 1960s he explored his sexuality at underground gay teen nightclubs, at one point, his father hired a private detective to follow him, when he suspected Baker was having an affair with a male neighbor. This family dynamic would be used in many of his novels, Baker began taking drugs, and became, in his own words, an out of control, teenage speed freak. He also began drinking heavily, attributing it to the fact that he was closeted, however, even after coming out, his substance abuse remained excessive and still had a life of its own. After sobering up, he attended UCLA film school, where he was one of the winners of the Samuel Goldwyn Writing Awards and it is also credited with having caused Michael Medved to abandon his dream of film making and instead become a film critic. Bakers lifelong ambition was to write, upon graduating from UCLA, he spent approximately five years writing Hollywood screenplays in the early 1980s, a process he hated. While financially successful, he was frustrated that his work was not being produced, I felt like a door-to-door salesman going to all these pitch meetings. He became discouraged and disillusioned, and turned his attention to novels and his first book, Adrenaline, was published under the pseudonym James Dillinger. A story of two gay fugitive lovers on the run, it presaged the satire and drug fueled violence so prominent in his later books and its plot device of underdog characters forced into flight due to circumstances beyond their control was one Baker explored in all of his subsequent work. The modest success of this encouraged him to devote himself to what have become his best known works, Fuel-Injected Dreams. After the novel was published, he stopped screenwriting in order to concentrate on books. He spent the bulk of each day writing and researching, and acted out characters and his primary focus was gay-themed writing, though he also wrote about the entertainment industryJames Robert Baker – Baker in 1988
71. William Gibson – William Ford Gibson is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk. Gibson notably coined the term cyberspace in his short story Burning Chrome and these early works have been credited with renovating science fiction literature after it had fallen largely into insignificance in the 1970s. In the 1990s, Gibson composed the Bridge trilogy of novels, which explored the sociological developments of urban environments, postindustrial society. These works saw his name reach mainstream bestseller lists for the first time and his more recent novel, The Peripheral, returned to a more overt engagement with technology and recognizable science fiction concerns. In 1999, The Guardian described Gibson as probably the most important novelist of the past two decades, while the Sydney Morning Herald called him the prophet of cyberpunk. His work has been cited as an influence across a variety of disciplines spanning academia, design, film, literature, music, cyberculture and his family moved frequently during Gibsons youth owing to his fathers position as manager of a large construction company. In Norfolk, Virginia, Gibson attended Pines Elementary School, where the lack of encouragement for him to read was a cause of dismay for his parents. While Gibson was still a child, a little over a year into his stay at Pines Elementary. His mother, unable to tell William the bad news, had someone else inform him of the death, tom Maddox has commented that Gibson grew up in an America as disturbing and surreal as anything J. G. Ballard ever dreamed. A few days after the death, Gibsons mother returned them from their home in Norfolk to Wytheville, at the age of 12, Gibson wanted nothing more than to be a science fiction writer. He spent a few years at basketball-obsessed George Wythe High School. Becoming frustrated with his academic performance, Gibsons mother threatened to send him to a boarding school, to her surprise. He resented the structure of the boarding school but was in retrospect grateful for its forcing him to engage socially. On the SAT exams, he scored 148 out of 150 in the section but 5 out of 150 in mathematics. In 1967, he elected to move to Canada in order to avoid the Vietnam war draft, at his draft hearing, he honestly informed interviewers that his intention in life was to sample every mind-altering substance in existence. Gibson has observed that he did not literally evade the draft, as they never bothered drafting me, after the hearing he went home and purchased a bus ticket to Toronto, and left a week or two later. He elaborated on the topic in a 2008 interview, After weeks of nominal homelessness, Gibson was hired as the manager of Torontos first head shop, a retailer of drug paraphernalia. He found the citys community of American draft dodgers unbearable owing to the prevalence of clinical depression, suicideWilliam Gibson – Gibson on his 60th birthday in Paris during a promotional interview for the French release of Spook Country (March 17, 2008)
72. Rufus Wilmot Griswold – Rufus Wilmot Griswold was an American anthologist, editor, poet, and critic. Born in Vermont, Griswold left home when he was 15 years old and he worked as a journalist, editor, and critic in Philadelphia, New York City, and elsewhere. He built up a literary reputation, in part due to his 1842 collection The Poets. This anthology, the most comprehensive of its time, included what he deemed the best examples of American poetry and he produced revised versions and similar anthologies for the remainder of his life, although many of the poets he promoted have since faded into obscurity. Many writers hoped to have their work included in one of these editions, Edgar Allan Poe, whose poetry had been included in Griswolds anthology, published a critical response that questioned which poets were included. This began a rivalry grew when Griswold succeeded Poe as editor of Grahams Magazine at a higher salary than Poes. Later, the two competed for the attention of poet Frances Sargent Osgood and they never reconciled their differences and, after Poes mysterious death in 1849, Griswold wrote an unsympathetic obituary. Claiming to be Poes chosen literary executor, he began a campaign to harm Poes reputation that lasted until his own death eight years later, Griswold considered himself an expert in American poetry and was an early proponent of its inclusion on the school curriculum. He also supported the introduction of legislation, speaking to Congress on behalf of the publishing industry. A fellow editor remarked, even while haranguing the loudest, is purloining the fastest, Griswold was born to Rufus and Deborah Griswold on February 13,1815, in Vermont, near Rutland, and raised a strict Calvinist in the hamlet of Benson. He was the twelfth of fourteen children and his father was a farmer and shoemaker, in 1822, the family sold the Benson farm and moved to nearby Hubbardton. As a child, Griswold was complex, unpredictable, and reckless and he left home when he was 15, calling himself a solitary soul, wandering through the world, a homeless, joyless outcast. Griswold moved to Albany, New York, to live with a 22-year-old flute-playing journalist named George C, Foster, a writer best known for his work New-York by Gas-Light. Griswold lived with Foster until he was 17, and the two may have had a romantic relationship, when Griswold moved away, Foster wrote to him begging him to return, signing his letter come to me if you love me. Griswold attempted to enroll at the Rensselaer School in 1830, but was not allowed to take any classes after he was attempting to play a prank on a professor. After a brief spell as an apprentice, Griswold moved to Syracuse where, with some friends. This publication purposefully targeted locals for what was remembered as merely malicious critique. He moved to New York City in 1836 and, in March of that year, was introduced to 19-year-old Caroline Searles and he was employed as an editor for various publications in the New York areaRufus Wilmot Griswold – 1855 engraving by Miner Kilbourne Kellogg
73. Ernest Hemingway – Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His economical and understated style had a influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 and he published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, four short story collections, and three works, were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature, Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, in 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms, in 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers. He published his novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926. Martha Gellhorn became his wife in 1940, they separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. He was present at the Normandy landings and the liberation of Paris, Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba, and in 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where he killed himself in mid-1961. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21,1899, in Oak Park, Illinois and his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, and his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician. Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said. For a short period after their marriage, Clarence and Grace Hemingway lived at first with Graces father, Ernest Hall, their first sons namesake. Later, Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, the family eventually moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingways mother frequently performed in concerts around the village, as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm. The family spent summers at Windemere on Walloon Lake, near Petoskey, from 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School. He took part in a number of sports—boxing, track and field, water polo and he excelled in English classes, and with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two yearsErnest Hemingway – Ernest Hemingway working at his book For Whom the Bell Tolls at Sun Valley, Idaho in December 1939
74. Jenna Jameson – Jenna Jameson is an American entrepreneur, webcam model and former pornographic film actress, who has been called the worlds most famous adult entertainment performer and The Queen of Porn. She started acting in erotic videos in 1993 after having worked as a stripper, by 1996, she had won the top newcomer award from each of the three major adult-movie organizations. She has since won more than 35 adult-video awards, and has been inducted into the X-Rated Critics Organization, Jameson founded the adult-entertainment company ClubJenna in 2000 with Jay Grdina, whom she later married and divorced. Initially a single website, this expanded into managing similar websites of other stars. The first such movie, Briana Loves Jenna, was named at the 2003 AVN Awards as the best-selling and best-renting pornographic title for 2002, by 2005, ClubJenna had revenues of US$30 million with profits estimated at half that. Advertisements for her site and films, often bearing her picture, have towered on a 48-foot-tall billboard in New York Citys Times Square, Jameson has also crossed over into mainstream pop culture, starting with a minor role in Howard Sterns 1997 film Private Parts. Her mainstream appearances continued with several guest-hosting and guest-starring on various television programs, Playboy TV hosted her Jennas American Sex Star reality show, in which aspiring porn stars competed for a ClubJenna contract. Her 2004 autobiography, How to Make Love Like a Porn Star, A Cautionary Tale, Jameson announced her retirement from pornography at the 2008 AVN Awards, stating that she would never return to the industry. Although she no longer performs in films, she has been working as a webcam model since 2013. Jenna Marie Massoli was born in Las Vegas, Nevada and her father, Laurence Henry Massoli, was a police officer at the Las Vegas Sheriffs Department and program director for KSNV-DT. Her mother, Judith Brooke Hunt, was a Las Vegas showgirl who danced in the Folies Bergère show at the Tropicana Resort & Casino and her mother died of melanoma on February 20,1976, two months prior to her daughters second birthday. The cancer treatments bankrupted the family and they relocated in Nevada, Arizona and Montana and she and her older brother Tony were raised Catholic, though they were essentially left to parent each other. Jameson was a frequent entrant in beauty pageants as a child, in a featurette on the Zombie Strippers DVD, Jameson indicates she trained in dance for fifteen years. The incident began after she attempted to hitchhike home and that she entered the car of the four boys while believing that she would be driven to her home and she reported being raped a second time while still 16 by Preacher, her boyfriend Jacks biker uncle. Preacher has denied the rape ever occurred, rather than tell her father, she left home and moved in with Jack in her first serious relationship. Jack was a tattoo artist and gave her the first of a series of tattoos, one of which would become her trademark tattoo, according to E. her brother Tony, who later owned a tattoo parlor himself, added the inscription Heart Breaker. She tried to follow in her mothers career as a Las Vegas showgirl and she was hired at Disneyland Resort, but left after two months stating concerns over the schedule and salary. Her boyfriend Jack encouraged her to apply for jobs as a dancer, after she was rejected from the Crazy Horse Too strip club because of her orthodontia, she removed her braces with pliers and was acceptedJenna Jameson – Jenna Jameson on March 11, 2008
75. James Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets that rivaled the popularity of British poets and these writers usually used conventional forms and meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. Lowell graduated from Harvard College in 1838, despite his reputation as a troublemaker and he published his first collection of poetry in 1841 and married Maria White in 1844. The couple had children, though only one survived past childhood. After moving back to Cambridge, Lowell was one of the founders of a journal called The Pioneer and he gained notoriety in 1848 with the publication of A Fable for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. The same year, he published The Biglow Papers, which increased his fame and he went on to publish several other poetry collections and essay collections throughout his literary career. Maria died in 1853, and Lowell accepted a professorship of languages at Harvard in 1854 and he traveled to Europe before officially assuming his teaching duties in 1856, and married Frances Dunlap shortly thereafter in 1857. That year, Lowell also became editor of The Atlantic Monthly and it was not until 20 years later that he received his first political appointment, the ambassadorship to the Kingdom of Spain. He was later appointed ambassador to the Court of St. Jamess and he spent his last years in Cambridge in the same estate where he was born, and died there in 1891. Lowell believed that the poet played an important role as a prophet and he used poetry for reform, particularly in abolitionism. However, his commitment to the anti-slavery cause wavered over the years and he attempted to emulate the true Yankee accent in the dialogue of his characters, particularly in The Biglow Papers. This depiction of the dialect, as well as his satires, was an inspiration to writers such as Mark Twain. James Russell Lowell was born February 22,1819 and he was a member of the eighth generation of the Lowell family, the descendants of Percival Lowle who settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1639. His parents were the Reverend Charles Russell Lowell, Sr. a minister at a Unitarian church in Boston who had studied theology at Edinburgh. By the time that James Russell Lowell was born, the owned a large estate in Cambridge called Elmwood. He was the youngest of six children, his siblings were Charles, Rebecca, Mary, William, Lowells mother built in him an appreciation for literature at an early age, especially in poetry, ballads, and tales from her native Orkney. In his sophomore year, he was absent from required chapel attendance 14 times, in his senior year, he became one of the editors of Harvardiana literary magazine, to which he contributed prose and poetry that he admitted was of low quality. As he said later, I was as great an ass as ever brayed & thought it singing, during his undergraduate years, Lowell was a member of Hasty Pudding and served both as Secretary and PoetJames Russell Lowell – James Russell Lowell circa 1855
76. Master Juba – Master Juba was an African-American dancer active in the 1840s. He was one of the first black performers in the United States to play onstage for white audiences and his real name was believed to be William Henry Lane, and he was also known as Bozs Juba following Dickenss graphic description of him in American Notes. As a teenager, he began his career in the saloons and dance halls of Manhattans Five Points neighborhood. Master Juba frequently challenged and defeated the best white dancers, including the period favorite, at the height of his American career, Jubas act featured a sequence in which he imitated a series of famous dancers of the day and closed by performing in his own style. Being a black man, he appeared with minstrel troupes in which he imitated white minstrel dancers caricaturing black dance using the phenomenon Blackface, even with his success in America, his greatest success came in England. In 1848 Bozs Juba traveled to London with the Ethiopian Serenaders, Bozs Juba became a sensation in Britain for his dance style. He was a favorite and the most written about performer of the 1848 season. Nevertheless, an element of exploitation followed him through the British Isles, records next place Juba in both Britain and America in the early 1850s. His American critics were less kind, and Juba faded from the limelight and he died in 1852 or 1853, likely from overwork and malnutrition. He was largely forgotten by historians until a 1947 article by Marian Hannah Winter resurrected his story. Existing documents offer confused accounts of Jubas dancing style, but certain themes emerge, it was percussive, varied in tempo, lightning-fast at times, expressive, and unlike anything seen before. The dance likely incorporated both European folk steps, such as the Irish jig, and African-derived steps used by plantation slaves, by having an effect upon blackface performance, Juba was highly influential on the development of such American dance styles as tap, jazz, and step dancing. Little is known about Jubas life, scant details appear in primary sources, and secondary sources—most dating to years after his death—are of dubious validity. Dance historian Marian Hannah Winter proposed that Juba was born to parents in 1825 or later. Showman Michael B. Leavitt wrote in 1912 that Juba came from Providence, Rhode Island, according to an item in the August 11,1895 edition of the New York Herald, Juba lived in New Yorks Five Points District. This was a slum where Irish immigrants and free people lived amidst brothels, dance houses. The Irish and black populations intermingled and borrowed elements of culture from each other. One area of exchange was dance, and the Irish jig blended with black folk steps, in this environment, Juba learned to dance from his peers, including Uncle Jim Lowe, a black jig and reel dancer who performed in low-brow establishmentsMaster Juba – Portrait of Boz's Juba from an 1848 London playbill
77. Edgar Allan Poe – Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and he is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole, and he was one of the countrys earliest practitioners of the short story. Poe is generally considered the inventor of the fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction. He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a difficult life. Poe was born in Boston, the child of two actors. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died the following year, thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia. They never formally adopted him, but Poe was with them well into young adulthood, tension developed later as John Allan and Edgar repeatedly clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, and the cost of secondary education for the young man. Poe attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money, Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. It was at time that his publishing career began, albeit humbly, with the anonymous collection of poems Tamerlane and Other Poems. With the death of Frances Allan in 1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement, however, Poe later failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, and he ultimately parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the several years working for literary journals and periodicals. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, in Richmond in 1836, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem The Raven to instant success and his wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. For years, he had been planning to produce his own journal The Penn, Poe and his works influenced literature in the United States and around the world, as well as in specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography. Poe and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, a number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19,1809 and he had an elder brother William Henry Leonard Poe, and a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had emigrated from Cavan, Ireland to America around the year 1750, Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeares King Lear, a play that the couple were performing in 1809Edgar Allan Poe – This plaque in Boston marks the approximate location where Edgar Poe was born.
78. Nathaniel Parker Willis – Nathaniel Parker Willis, also known as N. P. Willis, was an American author, poet and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day, for a time, he was the employer of former slave and future writer Harriet Jacobs. His brother was the composer Richard Storrs Willis and his sister Sara wrote under the name Fanny Fern, born in Portland, Maine, Willis came from a family of publishers. His grandfather Nathaniel Willis owned newspapers in Massachusetts and Virginia, and his father Nathaniel Willis was the founder of Youths Companion, Willis developed an interest in literature while attending Yale College and began publishing poetry. After graduation, he worked as a correspondent for the New York Mirror. He eventually moved to New York and began to build his literary reputation, working with multiple publications, he was earning about $100 per article and between $5,000 and $10,000 per year. In 1846, he started his own publication, the Home Journal, shortly after, Willis moved to a home on the Hudson River where he lived a semi-retired life until his death in 1867. Willis embedded his own personality into his writing and addressed his readers personally, specifically in his travel writings, critics, including his sister in her novel Ruth Hall, occasionally described him as being effeminate and Europeanized. Willis also published poems, tales, and a play. Despite his intense popularity for a time, at his death Willis was nearly forgotten, Nathaniel Parker Willis was born on January 20,1806, in Portland, Maine. His father Nathaniel Willis was a newspaper proprietor there and his grandfather owned newspapers in Boston, Massachusetts and his mother was Hannah Willis from Holliston, Massachusetts and it was her husbands offer to edit the Eastern Argus in Maine that caused their move to Portland. Williss younger sister was Sara Willis Parton, who would become a writer under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. His brother, Richard Storrs Willis, became a musician and music journalist known for writing the melody for It Came Upon the Midnight Clear and his other siblings were Lucy Douglas, Louisa Harris, Julia Dean, Mary Perry, Edward Payson, and Ellen Holmes. In 1816, the moved to Boston, where Williss father established the Boston Recorder and, nine years later, the Youths Companion. The elder Williss emphasis on religious themes earned him the nickname Deacon Willis, after attending a Boston grammar school and Phillips Academy at Andover, Nathaniel Parker Willis entered Yale College in October 1823 where he roomed with Horace Bushnell. Willis credited Bushnell with teaching him the technique for sharpening a razor by drawing it from heel to point both ways. The two cross frictions correct each other, at Yale, he further developed an interest in literature, often neglecting his other studies. He graduated in 1827 and spent time touring parts of the United States, in Montreal, he met Chester Harding, with whom he would become a lifelong friendNathaniel Parker Willis – Portrait of Willis by Mathew Brady studios, circa mid-1850s
79. Aaliyah – Aaliyah Dana Haughton was an American singer, dancer, actress, and model. She was born in Brooklyn, New York, and raised in Detroit, at the age of 10, she appeared on the television show Star Search and performed in concert alongside Gladys Knight. At age 12, Aaliyah signed with Jive Records and her uncle Barry Hankersons Blackground Records, Hankerson introduced her to R. Kelly, who became her mentor, as well as lead songwriter and producer of her debut album, Age Aint Nothing but a Number. The album sold three million copies in the United States and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. After facing allegations of a marriage with R. Kelly, Aaliyah ended her contract with Jive. Aaliyah worked with record producers Timbaland and Missy Elliott for her album, One in a Million. In 2000, Aaliyah appeared in her first film, Romeo Must Die and she contributed to the films soundtrack, which spawned the single Try Again. The song topped the Billboard Hot 100 solely on airplay, making Aaliyah the first artist in Billboard history to achieve this goal, Try Again earned Aaliyah a Grammy Award nomination for Best Female R&B Vocalist. After completing Romeo Must Die, Aaliyah filmed her role in Queen of the Damned and she released her third and final album, Aaliyah, in July 2001. On August 25,2001, Aaliyah and eight others were killed in a crash in the Bahamas after filming the music video for the single Rock the Boat. The pilot, Luis Morales III, was unlicensed at the time of the accident and toxicology tests revealed that he had traces of cocaine, Aaliyahs family later filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Blackhawk International Airways, which was settled out of court. Aaliyahs music has continued to achieve success with several posthumous releases. Aaliyah has sold an estimated 24 to 32 million albums worldwide and she has been credited for helping redefine contemporary R&B, pop and hip hop, earning her the nicknames Princess of R&B and Queen of Urban Pop. She is listed by Billboard as the tenth most successful female R&B artist of the past 25 years, Aaliyah Dana Haughton was born on January 16,1979, in Brooklyn, New York, and was the younger child of Diane and Michael Miguel Haughton. She was African American, and had Native American heritage from a grandmother, at a young age, Aaliyah was enrolled in voice lessons by her mother. She started performing at weddings, church choir and charity events, when she was five years old, her family moved to Detroit, Michigan, where she was raised along with her older brother, Rashad. She attended a Catholic school, Gesu Elementary, where in first grade, from then on, she was determined to become an entertainer. In Detroit, her father working in the warehouse businessAaliyah – Aaliyah in 2000
80. Alice in Chains – Alice in Chains is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1987 by guitarist and songwriter Jerry Cantrell and original lead vocalist Layne Staley. The initial lineup was rounded out by drummer Sean Kinney and bassist Mike Starr, although widely associated with grunge music, the bands sound incorporates heavy metal elements. Since its formation, Alice in Chains has released five studio albums, the band is known for its distinctive vocal style, which often included the harmonized vocals of Staley and Cantrell. Alice in Chains rose to fame as part of the grunge movement of the early 1990s, along with other Seattle bands such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam. The band was one of the most successful acts of the 1990s, selling over 20 million records worldwide. In 1992 the bands album, Dirt, was released to critical acclaim and was certified quadruple platinum. Their third album, Alice in Chains, was released in 1995 and has been certified double platinum and it achieved No.1 position on the Billboard 200 chart. The band has had 14 top ten songs on the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart, although never officially disbanding, Alice in Chains was plagued by extended inactivity from 1996 onwards due to Staleys substance abuse, which resulted in his death in 2002. The band reunited in 2005 for a benefit show, performing with a number of guest vocalists. They toured in 2006, with William DuVall taking over as lead vocalist full-time, the new line-up released the bands fourth studio album, Black Gives Way to Blue, in 2009. The album received gold certification by the RIAA, in 2013, the band released The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here, its fifth studio album. The band has toured extensively and released videos in support of these albums. Alice in Chains is currently working on their studio album. Other members of this group at that time were guitarists Johnny Bacolas and Zoli Semanate, drummer James Bergstrom and this was prompted by a conversation that Bacolas had with a singer from another band about backstage passes. Staley met guitarist Jerry Cantrell while working with Alice N Chains at Music Bank rehearsal studios, the two struggling musicians became roommates, living in a rehearsal space they shared. Alice N Chains soon disbanded, and Staley joined a band that also required a guitarist at the time. Staley asked Cantrell to join as a sideman, Cantrell agreed on condition that Staley join Cantrells band, which at the time included drummer Sean Kinney and bassist Mike Starr. Local promoter Randy Hauser became aware of the band at a concert, however, one day before the band was due to record at the Music Bank studio in Washington, police shut down the studio during the biggest cannabis raid in the history of the stateAlice in Chains – Alice in Chains in September 2007. (l-r): William DuVall, Sean Kinney and Jerry Cantrell.
81. Damageplan – Damageplan was an American heavy metal band from Dallas, Texas, formed in 2003. Following the demise of their previous group Pantera, brothers Dimebag Darrell, the pair recruited former Diesel Machine and Halford guitarist Pat Lachman on vocals, and later Bob Zilla on bass. Damageplan released their studio album New Found Power in the United States on February 10,2004. Although no motive was found, some witnesses claimed Gale blamed the brothers for Panteras breakup, the bands manager confirmed there are unreleased Damageplan recordings, although they have not surfaced, and the band has not performed since the incident. Abbott and Zilla have joined the band Hellyeah, and Lachman joined The Mercy Clinic, by 2003, guitarist Dimebag Darrell and drummer Vinnie Paul Abbott were not pleased with the difficulties heavy metal band Pantera was experiencing. Abbott described the level of Panteras vocalist, Phil Anselmo, as hit and miss. They thought it was time to move on and, upon disbanding Pantera, a demo of the song Crawl was sent to former Halford guitarist Pat Lachman who auditioned as vocalist. When writing music, Vinnie claimed, we put no boundaries on it and we wanted it to be very diverse, and Darrell said We wanted to stretch out and expand our capabilities to their fullest. The band changed its name to Damageplan and decided to name the first album New Found Power. The single Save Me debuted on American radio on January 26,2004, the album was recorded at the brothers backyard studio, Chasin Jason in Arlington, Texas, where previous Pantera albums were recorded. Abbott found that during recording everyone was willing to contribute and put 100% effort into it, New Found Power sold 44,676 copies in its first week to debut at number 38 on the Billboard 200. Alice in Chains vocalist/guitarist Jerry Cantrell attended a Thanksgiving party hosted by the brothers, Darrell and Vinnie had a demo of the first song they wrote titled Ashes to Ashes. Lachman insisted it was on the backburner until Cantrell showed interest, the band entered the brothers backyard studio with Cantrell to record Ashes to Ashes. Although the song was not completed in time to be featured on New Found Power, it was included on the Japanese version, to promote New Found Power, the band toured with Hatebreed, Drowning Pool, and Unearth on the second installment of the Headbangers Ball. On December 8,2004, the band was on a tour at Alrosa Villa, moments into the concert, Nathan Gale, a former U. S. Marine, climbed onto the stage and shot Dimebag Darrell in the head multiple times. Head of Security for the band Jeffery Mayhem Thompson engaged in combat with Gale. A fan named Nathan Bray, who attempted to give CPR to Thompson and Darrell, and Erin Halk, once the police arrived, an officer named James Niggemeyer approached the stage from the side and saw Gale holding a gun to a hostage. Niggemeyer killed him with a shotgun blast to the headDamageplan – From left to right: Bob Zilla, Vinnie Paul, Pat Lachman, Dimebag Darrell.
82. Flea (musician) – Michael Peter Balzary, better known by his stage name Flea, is an Australian-American musician and actor best known as a founding member of the rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers. Flea briefly appeared as the bassist for such bands as What Is This and he has also performed with rock supergroups Atoms for Peace, Antemasque, Pigface, and Rocket Juice & the Moon. Flea has also collaborated with artists including The Mars Volta, Johnny Cash, Tom Waits, Alanis Morissette, in 2009, Rolling Stone readers ranked Flea the second-best bassist of all time, behind John Entwistle. In 2012 he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame with the members of the Red Hot Chili Peppers. In 2014, Flea returned to acting in the film Low Down, Flea is the co-founder of Silverlake Conservatory of Music, a non-profit music education organization founded in 2001 for underprivileged children. Michael Peter Balzary was born on October 16,1962 in the Melbourne suburb of Mount Waverley and he is of Hungarian and Irish descent. His father, Mick Balzary, a fisherman, often took him fishing. When Flea was seven, his family moved to Larchmont, New York for his fathers career, Flea and his siblings stayed with their mother Patricia, who soon remarried to a jazz musician. He was first called Flea as a child for his inability to sit still. Fleas stepfather, Walter Abdul Urban, frequently invited musicians to his house, the family moved again to Los Angeles, California, where Flea became fascinated with the trumpet. He had no interest in music at the time, he idolized jazz musicians like Miles Davis, Louis Armstrong. His stepfather was an alcoholic, who eventually became involved in shoot-outs with police. I was raised in a violent, alcoholic household, Flea later said, I grew up being terrified of my parents. It caused a lot of later in life. To cope, Flea began smoking cannabis at 13, and became a daily user, Flea, who was then nicknamed Mike K the Flea, attended Fairfax High School, and was somewhat of an outcast due to his taste in music and sex fetishes. However, he soon met Anthony Kiedis, and after a brief confrontation, Kiedis recalled, We were drawn to each other by the forces of mischief and love and we became virtually inseparable. We found each other and it turned out to be the friendship of my life. Flea was turned on to music by Hillel SlovakFlea (musician) – Flea performing with Red Hot Chili Peppers at the 2006 Oxegen Festival using his Modulus guitar
83. Frank Klepacki – Frank Klepacki is an American musician, video game music composer and sound director best known for his work on the Command & Conquer series. Having learned to play drums as a child, he joined Westwood Studios as a composer when he was 17 years old. He has scored several games there, including the Lands of Lore series, Westwood Studios Dune games, The Legend of Kyrandia series, Blade Runner, and his work in Command & Conquer, Red Alert won two awards. He lives in Las Vegas, where he has shaped a solo career and his personal and band work touches upon several genres, including orchestral, rock music, hip hop music, soul music, and funk. He has dubbed the style of music he writes as Rocktronic and his work has appeared in various media, including the Spike TV program The Ultimate Fighter. Klepacki is currently the director of Petroglyph games, where he scored Star Wars. Klepacki was contacted to score Command & Conquer 3, Tiberium Wars, but was too busy with Petroglyph to take the project, Klepacki composed three songs, including Hell March 3, for Command & Conquer, Red Alert 3 by EA Los Angeles. His solo CD entitled Viratia is packaged with a comic he helped produce, Klepacki was raised by a family of musicians of Polish and Italian descent who played on the Las Vegas strip. He drew art as a hobby, but music prevailed in his early interests and he received his first drumset at age 8 and began performing professionally by age 11. Among his early influences were electronica and heavy metal groups, including Depeche Mode, Afrika Bambaataa, AC/DC, seeking to master guitar, bass, and keyboards, he formed local bands and created a demo tape of original material by age 17. His impetus for diversifying his instrumental abilities was not being able to communicate with other members on ideas. for original songs. His first piece of gear was a TASCAM 4-track cassette recorder, which he used to record demos, band practices. After learning to program BASIC on a Tandy 1000 and becoming interested in computer and video games and he submitted his demo tape—described as an acoustic guitar song with electric guitar leads and keyboard strings, and raining sound effects—to the companys audio director. The growing company enlisted him as a composer for the NES port of DragonStrike and he later composed with MIDI sequencing for several other Dungeons & Dragons games. In 1992, he helmed the audio of Dune II, attempting to complement the music of the original Dune and he later noted that he pushed the sequencing program on his Amiga to the limit while scoring the game. While working on Disneys The Lion King in 1994, he, film composer Hans Zimmer later praised Klepacki for reworking his scores. In 1994, Klepacki met with Westwood Studios developers to discuss the soundtrack of the companys next project—Command & Conquer. To define the style, Klepacki listened to a number of bands, including Nine Inch Nails and MinistryFrank Klepacki – Frank Klepacki, from his album Morphscape
84. David Lovering – David Lovering is an American musician and magician. He is best known as the drummer for the rock band Pixies. After the bands breakup in 1993, Lovering drummed with several acts, including The Martinis, Cracker, Nitzer Ebb. He also pursued a career as The Scientific Phenomenalist, performing scientific. When the Pixies reunited in 2004, Lovering returned as the bands drummer, as a drummer Lovering was inspired by bands from a variety of genres, including Rush and Steely Dan. David Lovering was born in Burlington, Massachusetts and he learned to play drums during his teenage years and joined his high schools marching band. According to his friend John Murphy, Lovering was always very drum oriented in his musical taste. In his high school entry, Lovering stated his three main ambitions, to be in a rock band, to be an electrical engineer. After graduating from school, Lovering studied electronic engineering at the Wentworth Institute of Technology in Boston. He got a job at a Radio Shack store with Murphy, one such incident involved Lovering wiring the store toilet to a fire alarm. After graduating from Wentworth with a degree in 1982, he took a job building lasers. A number of different genres of music have influenced him, including bands Steely Dan, Led Zeppelin, on Memorial Day 1985, Lovering attended Murphy and Kim Deals wedding service. In January 1986 Deal was hired to play bass in the newly formed Pixies, Murphy suggested that Lovering audition for the band – who were still without a drummer. Lovering had stopped drumming by this point and was at first unimpressed by the performance of the bands songs. However, after playing along he agreed to join, Lovering and the band wrote and rehearsed material throughout 1985 and 1986 and performed at small venues in Boston. The band decided to record 18 songs for a tape in 1987. Lovering co-wrote one of the songs, Levitate Me and appeared on the cassettes front cover. Levitate Me later appeared on the bands first release Come on Pilgrim, the Pixies entered the studio again in 1988 to record their second album Surfer RosaDavid Lovering – David Lovering at the Reliant Arena in Houston, Texas in 2004
85. Leo Ornstein – Leo Ornstein was a Russian-American composer and pianist of the early twentieth century. His performances of works by composers and his own innovative. Ornstein was the first important composer to make use of the tone cluster. As a pianist, he was considered a world-class talent, by the mid-1920s, he had walked away from his fame and soon disappeared from popular memory. Though he gave his last public concert before the age of forty, he continued writing music for another half-century, largely forgotten for decades, he was rediscovered in the mid-1970s. Ornstein completed his eighth and final piano sonata in September 1990 at the age of ninety-four, Ornstein was born in Kremenchug, a large town in the Ukrainian province of Poltava, then under Imperial Russian rule. He grew up in a musical environment—his father Avrom Gornshtein was a Jewish cantor, Ornstein was recognized early on as a prodigy on the piano, in 1902, when the celebrated Polish pianist Josef Hofmann visited Kremenchug, he heard the six-year-old Ornstein perform. Hofmann gave him a letter of recommendation to the highly regarded St. Petersburg Conservatory, soon after, Ornstein was accepted as a pupil at the Imperial School of Music in Kiev, then headed by Vladimir Puchalsky. A death in the family forced Ornsteins return home, in 1903, Osip Gabrilovich heard him play and recommended him to the Moscow Conservatory. In 1904, the eight-year-old Ornstein auditioned for and was accepted by the St. Petersburg school, there he studied composition with Alexander Glazunov and piano with Anna Yesipova. By the age of eleven, Ornstein was earning his way by coaching opera singers, to escape the pogroms incited by the nationalist and antisemitic organisation Union of the Russian People, the family emigrated to the United States in February 1906. They settled in New Yorks Lower East Side, and Ornstein enrolled in the Institute of Musical Art—predecessor to the Juilliard School—where he studied piano with Bertha Feiring Tapper, in 1911, he made a well-received New York debut with pieces by Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, and Schumann. Ornstein soon moved in a different direction. He began imagining and then writing works with new sounds, dissonant, Ornstein himself was unsettled by the earliest of these compositions, I really doubted my sanity at first. I simply said, what is that and it was so completely removed from any experience I ever had. On March 27,1914, in London, he gave his first public performance of works then called futurist, in addition to a Busoni arrangement of three Bach choral preludes and several pieces by Schoenberg, Ornstein played a number of his own compositions. The concert caused a major stir, one newspaper described Ornsteins work as the sum of Schoenberg and Scriabine squared. Others were less analytical, We have never suffered from such insufferable hideousness, Ornsteins follow-up performance provoked a near-riot, At my second concert, devoted to my own compositions, I might have played anythingLeo Ornstein – Leo Ornstein as a young man
86. Ellis Paul – Ellis Paul is an American singer-songwriter and folk musician. His pop music songs have appeared in movies and on television, Paul grew up in a small Maine town. He attended Boston College on a scholarship, majoring in English. Injured during his year, Paul began playing guitar to help fill his free time. After graduating college Paul played at open mic nights in the Boston area while working with inner-city school children and he won a Boston Acoustic Underground songwriter competition and gained national exposure on a Windham Hill Records compilation which helped him choose music as a career. Paul had released 19 albums by the end of 2014 and received 14 Boston Music Awards and he has published a book of original lyrics, poems, and drawings and released a DVD that includes a live performance, guitar instruction, and a road-trip documentary. In 2014, his childrens CD Hero in You was published as a book by Albert Whitman & Company, Paul plays almost 200 live shows a year. Ellis Paul was born in Fort Kent, Maine, a small, Pauls family had strong connections to the potato industry — his father, Ed Plissey, was Executive Director of the Maine Potato Commission and his grandfather owned a 140-acre potato farm. Schools in the area closed for three each year so that school children could help with the potato harvest. Paul spent many working on his grandfathers farm. Pauls mother, the former Marilyn Bonney of Buckfield, Maine, is a University of Maine graduate and was an agent for northern Aroostook County. She and her often worked together on special projects for the service. In the 1960s, Mrs. Plissey produced her own television show The Aroostook Homemaker which aired every week on Presque Isle television station WAGM-TV. While attending high school in Presque Isle, Maine, Paul listened to Top-40 radio and he played trumpet in the schools stage band where he was introduced to the big band jazz music of Stan Kenton and Maynard Ferguson. He excelled in track, becoming the Maine State champion in five-kilometer distance running, having graduated high school with the class of 1983, Paul relocated to Boston, leaving small-town rural life behind. In an interview with Daniel Gewertz of the Boston Herald Paul stated, Paul was particularly moved when he heard Bob Dylan singing The House of the Rising Sun. It was then that he began to take music seriously. Paul was inducted into the Presque Isle High School Athletic Hall of Fame on Jan, Paul majored in English at Boston College where he continued to participate in trackEllis Paul – Paul performing at the University of Maine at Presque Isle May 18, 2014
87. The Smashing Pumpkins – The Smashing Pumpkins are an American alternative rock band from Chicago, Illinois, formed in 1988. Formed by frontman Billy Corgan and James Iha, the band included Darcy Wretzky and it has undergone many line-up changes over the course of its existence, with the current lineup being Corgan and rhythm guitarist Jeff Schroeder. The Smashing Pumpkins broke into the mainstream with their second album. The group built its audience with extensive touring and their 1995 follow-up, the double album Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness, with 20 million albums sold in the United States alone, The Smashing Pumpkins were one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed bands of the 1990s. However, internal fighting, drug use, and diminishing record sales led to a 2000 break-up, in 2006, Corgan and Chamberlin reconvened to record a new Smashing Pumpkins album, Zeitgeist. After touring throughout 2007 and 2008 with a lineup including new guitarist Jeff Schroeder, by mid-2016, Corgan stated that they were considering reforming the bands original lineup, though no concrete plans have been revealed. While working there, he met guitarist James Iha, adorning themselves with paisley and other psychedelic trappings, the two began writing songs together that were heavily influenced by The Cure and New Order. The duo performed live for the first time on July 9,1988 at the Polish bar Chicago 21 and this performance included only Corgan on bass and Iha on guitar with a drum machine. Shortly thereafter, Corgan met Darcy Wretzky after a show by the Dan Reed Network where they argued the merits of the band, after finding out Wretzky played bass guitar, Corgan recruited her into the lineup and the now-trio played a show at the Avalon Nightclub. After this show, Cabaret Metro owner Joe Shanahan agreed to book the band on the condition that they replace the machine with a live drummer. Jazz drummer Jimmy Chamberlin was recommended by a friend of Corgans, Chamberlin knew little of alternative music and immediately changed the sound of the nascent band. As Corgan recalled of the period, We were completely into the sad-rock and it took about two or three practices before I realized that the power in his playing was something that enabled us to rock harder than we could ever have imagined. On October 5,1988, the band took the stage for the first time at the Cabaret Metro. In 1989, The Smashing Pumpkins made their first appearance on record with the compilation album Light Into Dark, the group released its first single, I Am One, in 1990 on local Chicago label Limited Potential. The single sold out and they released a follow-up, Tristessa, on Sub Pop, the band recorded their 1991 debut studio album Gish with producer Butch Vig at his Smart Studios in Madison, Wisconsin for $20,000. In order to gain the consistency he desired, Corgan often played all instruments excluding drums, the music fused heavy metal guitars, psychedelia, and dream pop, garnering them comparisons to Janes Addiction. Gish became a success, with the single Rhinoceros receiving some airplay on modern rock radio. After releasing the Lull EP in October 1991 on Caroline Records, the band signed with Virgin RecordsThe Smashing Pumpkins – 2012 line-up of The Smashing Pumpkins (left to right): Nicole Fiorentino, Billy Corgan, and Jeff Schroeder (Mike Byrne is obscured at the drums) performing at Chaifetz Arena in St Louis, Missouri, on October 18, 2012
88. Frank Zappa – Zappa also directed feature-length films and music videos, and designed album covers. He is considered one of the most innovative and stylistically diverse rock musicians of his generation, as a self-taught composer and performer, Zappas diverse musical influences led him to create music that was sometimes difficult to categorize. While in his teens, he acquired a taste for 20th-century classical composers such as Edgard Varèse, Igor Stravinsky and he began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in rhythm and blues bands, later switching to electric guitar. His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. He continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the format was rock. Zappas output is unified by a conceptual continuity he termed Project/Object, with musical phrases, ideas. His lyrics reflected his views of established social and political processes, structures and movements. Unlike many other musicians of his era, he personally disapproved of and seldom used drugs. During Zappas lifetime, he was a productive and prolific artist, earning widespread acclaim from critics. He had some success, particularly in Europe, and worked as an independent artist for most of his career. He remains an influence on musicians and composers. His honors include an induction into the 1995 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number 71 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, Zappa was born in Baltimore, Maryland. His mother, Rosemarie was of Italian and French ancestry, his father, whose name was Anglicized to Francis Vincent Zappa, was an immigrant from Partinico, Sicily, with Greek and Arab ancestry. Frank, the eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was often spoken by his grandparents, the family moved often because his father, a chemist and mathematician, worked in the defense industry. After a time in Florida in the 1940s, the returned to Maryland. Due to their homes proximity to the arsenal, which stored mustard gas, gas masks were kept in the home in case of an accident and this had a profound effect on Zappa, and references to germs, germ warfare and the defense industry occur throughout his work. Zappa was often sick as a child, suffering from asthma, earaches, a doctor treated his sinusitis by inserting a pellet of radium into each of Zappas nostrilsFrank Zappa – Zappa performing in Ekeberghallen, Oslo, on January 16, 1977
89. Nick Adenhart – Nicholas James Nick Adenhart was an American right-handed baseball starting pitcher who played two seasons in Major League Baseball for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. In four career games, Adenhart pitched 18 innings and posted a record of 1–0, with nine strikeouts. A graduate of Williamsport High School, Adenhart was highly touted as a high school prospect until an injury in his final game required Tommy John surgery. He was drafted by the Angels in the 14th round of the 2004 Major League Baseball draft and he spent three full seasons in the minor leagues before making his major league debut on May 1,2008. After appearing in three games, Adenhart spent the rest of 2008 in the minor leagues developing his skills, just after pitching his first start of 2009, Adenhart was killed in a collision with a drunk driver. Both the Angels and the Salt Lake Bees, for whom Adenhart played in 2008, Nicholas James Adenhart was born in Silver Spring, Maryland, the only son of Janet and Jim Adenhart, a former United States Secret Service officer. His parents divorced and Janet later remarried Duane Gigeous, with whom she had a son named Henry, Adenhart played Halfway Little League Baseball for Gehr Construction and attended Springfield Middle School in Williamsport, Maryland. He pitched for the Hagerstown PONY League for six years, and was a member of the 1999 team that won the Maryland District 1 title, after graduating from middle school, Adenhart attended Saint Maria Goretti High School in Hagerstown, Maryland. He played shortstop and outfield, in addition to pitching, while attending Saint Maria Goretti, Adenhart was a guard on the basketball team that won the Baltimore Catholic League championship. At the age of 14, Adenhart joined the Oriolelanders, a team composed of Maryland amateur players and sponsored by the Baltimore Orioles. In 2003, at the age of 16, Adenhart pitched for the Youses Maryland Orioles, Adenhart transferred to Williamsport High School after his sophomore year, where he gave up basketball to focus solely on baseball, as a pitcher. Scouts began closely following him when he was named the top prospect by Baseball America. Adenhart had a 6–0 record with a 1.04 earned run average during the season in his junior year. In a 1–0 loss during the quarterfinal matchup, he threw a no-hitter and had 14 strikeouts. Entering his final high school season, Baseball America dubbed Adenhart the top high school prospect in the country, in his senior year, Adenhart threw a perfect game in his very first outing, striking out 15 of the 21 batters faced. Entering the final season game of his high school career, he had a 5–1 record, a 0.73 ERA. In his final high school game, in front of two dozen scouts, Adenhart felt a pop in his elbow after throwing a curveball to the third batter. The injury, which ended his season, was a partial ligament tear in his elbow that required Tommy John surgeryNick Adenhart – Adenhart pitching for the Salt Lake Bees in 2008
90. Shelton Benjamin – Shelton James Benjamin is an American professional wrestler and former amateur wrestler currently signed to WWE on the SmackDown Live brand. Prior to becoming a wrestler, he was a two-sport athlete in college. Benjamin won an NJCAA championship in track and field and collegiate wrestling. After attending junior college, he completed his degree from the University of Minnesota, WWE then moved him to the main roster in 2003 where he formed an alliance, with Kurt Angle and Charlie Haas, known as Team Angle. During his tenure with the company, he won the Intercontinental Championship three times, the United States Championship once, and the WWE Tag Team Championship twice with Haas, Benjamin was born and raised in Orangeburg, South Carolina. He began wrestling his sophomore year at Orangeburg-Wilkinson High School, Benjamin recorded an 122–10 overall win-loss record in his high school career and was a two-time South Carolina state high school heavyweight wrestling champion. He then transferred to the University of Minnesota on a scholarship for his junior and senior years of college where he achieved a 36–6 overall win-loss record. After graduation, he served as an assistant wrestling coach at his alma mater, Benjamin thought about trying to qualify for the 2000 Summer Olympics but decided instead to pursue a professional wrestling career. In 2000, Benjamin signed a contract with the World Wrestling Federation and was placed in its developmental territory Ohio Valley Wrestling, there, he formed a tag team with Brock Lesnar, where he was Brocks wrestling coach at the University of Minnesota. Together, they were known as the Minnesota Stretching Crew, the first two reigns occurred during February and July 2001. They won the title for a time from Rico Constantino. Benjamin then wrestled at house shows for the main WWE roster. He joined WWEs SmackDown brand as a villain on December 26,2002, forming an alliance with Charlie Haas and their first official match together in WWE was on the January 2,2003 episode of SmackDown against Edge and Chris Benoit. They continued their feud with Benoit until No Way Out, when Benoit teamed with Brock Lesnar to defeat Team Angle, the duo won the WWE Tag Team Championship just a month after their debut by defeating the champions, Los Guerreros on February 6,2003. The two then went on to compete in their first WrestleMania match at WrestleMania XIX, retaining their tag title in a Triple Threat match against Los Guerreros, Team Angle later lost the title to Eddie Guerrero and his new partner Tajiri at Judgment Day in a ladder match. The storyline concluded on the June 12,2003 episode of SmackDown, when Angle confronted Benjamin and Haas and fired them from Team Angle. They then began referring to themselves as The Worlds Greatest Tag Team and they lost the title on September 18, after Benjamin suffered a legitimate knee injury during a match against Los Guerreros. Benjamin was sidelined for one month, but the pair competed together againShelton Benjamin – Benjamin in April 2013.
91. Tim Duncan – Timothy Theodore Duncan is an American retired professional basketball player who played his entire 19-year career with the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. Widely considered to be the greatest power forward of all time, he is a five-time NBA champion, two-time NBA MVP, three-time NBA Finals MVP, and NBA Rookie of the Year. He is also a 15-time NBA All-Star and the player to be selected to both the All-NBA and All-Defensive Teams in all of his first 13 seasons. Duncan started out as a swimmer and only began playing basketball in ninth grade after Hurricane Hugo destroyed the only Olympic-sized pool on his home of Saint Croix and he played for St. Duncan graduated from college before entering the 1997 NBA draft as the number one pick. Off the court, Duncan is known for his quiet and unassuming ways and he holds a degree in psychology and created the Tim Duncan Foundation to raise general health awareness and fund education and youth sports in various parts of the United States. Duncan is the son of Ione Duncan, a midwife, and William Duncan, a mason. He was born and raised in Christiansted, a town on Saint Croix, in school, Duncan was a bright pupil and dreamt of becoming an Olympic-level swimmer like his sister Tricia. Duncan was dealt another blow when his mother was diagnosed with breast cancer. In her last days, she made Duncan and his sisters promise to finish college with a degree, Duncan never swam competitively again, but was inspired by his brother-in-law to turn to basketball. Duncan initially had difficulties adapting to the game he thought would help relieve his pain, nancy Pomroy, the athletic director of the St. Croix Country Day School was quoted, was so huge. So big and tall, but he was awkward at the time. He overcame this to become a standout for the St. Dunstans Episcopal High School and his play attracted the attention of several universities, despite having only picked up the game in ninth grade. Wake Forest University basketball coach Dave Odom in particular interested in Duncan after the 16-year-old allegedly played NBA star Alonzo Mourning to a draw in a 5-on-5 pick-up game. Odom was searching for a tall, physical player to play near the basket, however, after the first talk, Odom understood that this was just Duncans way of paying attention, and discovered that he was not only athletically talented, but also a quick learner. Eventually, despite offers by the University of Hartford, the University of Delaware and Providence College. In the year before Duncans arrival at Wake Forest University, the Demon Deacons reached the Sweet 16, but then lost main scorer Rodney Rogers, Duncans style of play was simple but effective, combining an array of low-post moves, mid-range bank shots and tough defense. He was chosen to represent the U. S. in the 1994 Goodwill Games, meanwhile, Duncan worked towards a degree in psychology and also took classes in anthropology and Chinese literature. Despite focusing heavily on basketball, Wake Forest psychology department chairperson Deborah Best was quoted, other than his height, I couldnt tell him from any other student at Wake ForestTim Duncan – Duncan in 2011
92. Orval Grove – Orval Leroy Grove was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for ten seasons in the American League with the Chicago White Sox. In 207 career games, Grove pitched 1,176 innings and posted a record of 63–73, with 66 complete games,11 shutouts. The only freshman on the Proviso High School varsity baseball team, after signing with the team in 1937, Grove moved between the major leagues and minor leagues for a few seasons until 1943, when he found a solid place in the White Soxs pitching rotation. Grove had a career-year in 1943, finishing the season with career-bests in ERA, wins, Grove spent four more full seasons with the White Sox, and after pitching one game in 1949, was sent to the Sacramento Solons of the Pacific Coast League. After playing four seasons with them, he retired from professional baseball. After retirement, he worked with his uncle in a business in Chicago while continuing to pitch at the semi-pro level. In 1992, Grove died at the age of 72, Grove was born in West Mineral, Kansas, on August 29,1919, and was raised in Maywood, Illinois. By eighth grade, Grove developed a fondness for baseball and began pitching for the Proviso East High School baseball team and he became the first freshman member of the varsity team in school history. During a high school pitching career of three years, Grove lost only two games and pitched a no-hitter and two one-hitters. Over the summer of 1937, Grove attracted the attention of Chicago White Sox talent scout Doug Minor, later that year, Grove was signed by the White Sox for $2,500 and began his minor league career, foregoing his senior season of high school. Grove began his career with the Dallas Steers of the Texas League at the start of the 1938 season and he played with the Steers until management began to replace young players with veterans due to the teams struggling form and moved Grove to the Longview Cannibals. As his first minor league season drew to a close, Grove planned on returning to Proviso High School to complete his education, at the end of the season, the St. Paul Saints purchased Groves contract to replenish their pitching staff. After the 1939 season had begun, Grove became part of the Oklahoma City Indians of the Texas League, Grove played well enough over the course of the season to receive votes for Most Valuable Player, which ultimately went to Nick Cullop. In 1939, Grove had a game while pitching against the Tulsa Oilers. As the 1940 season began, Grove became a part of the White Sox roster, during spring training in 1940, Hall of Fame pitcher Ted Lyons said that Grove would have a great career, stating, Theyll never drive that sinker very far. Grove was a part of the 40-man roster as the 1940 season began. The White Sox planned to use three rookie pitchers, including Grove, during the week of May, as they had three doubleheaders that week. Grove made his Major League debut on May 28,1940 and he pitched in two more games for the White Sox that season before being sent back to Oklahoma CityOrval Grove – Orval Grove in 1948
93. Art Houtteman – Arthur Joseph Houtteman was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for 12 seasons in the American League with the Detroit Tigers, Cleveland Indians and Baltimore Orioles. In 325 career games, Houtteman pitched 1,555 innings and posted a record of 87–91, with 78 complete games,14 shutouts. Known on the sandlot for his motion, Houtteman was signed by scout Wish Egan in 1945 at 17 years of age. He was recruited by major league teams, and joined a Tigers pitching staff that had lost players to injuries, after moving between the major and minor leagues over the next few years, he was nearly killed in an automobile accident just before the 1949 season. Houtteman rebounded from his injuries and went on to win 15 games that season and he played three more seasons with the Tigers, then was sold to Cleveland, where he pitched for the pennant-winning Indians during their 1954 season. After losing his job, he played two more seasons with the Indians before he was bought by the Orioles, and he finished his final season in Major League Baseball with them. Houtteman ended his career in the minor leagues and became a sales executive in Detroit. In 2003, Houtteman died at the age of 75, Art Houtteman was born in Detroit, Michigan, on August 7,1927. He was a second-generation American citizen, his grandfather Joseph had emigrated from Belgium, the only son born to the Houtteman family, Arts father, also named Arthur, vowed that his son would become a major league player by the time he turned 17. Houtteman played baseball at Detroit Catholic Central High School, where his pitching caught the attention of baseball scout Wish Egan, who praised Houttemans perfect pitching motion. Houtteman was signed by the Detroit Tigers late in 1944 and began to practice with the Tigers in spring training before the 1945 season along with fellow Detroit sandlot player Billy Pierce and he spent most of the 1945 season playing for Detroits top minor league affiliate, the Buffalo Bisons. But injuries plagued the Tigers pitching staff, and the 17-year-old Houtteman was called up by the parent club, due to Tiger pitching injuries, and with many top players still in the military late in World War II, he made his major league debut on April 29. He also appeared in 13 games as a pitcher, and finished his minor league season with no wins. He was not on the roster, and as a result did not pitch during the Tigers World Series victory over the Chicago Cubs. Houtteman was the youngest major leaguer in 1946 but played one game for the Tigers that season, allowing eight runs. He spent most of 1946 in the leagues, finished at 16–13. Minor league third baseman Johnny Bero liked Houttemans fielding ability so much that he called him a fifth infielder, despite his newfound top prospect status Houtteman remained in Buffalo at the beginning of the 1947 season before being recalled to the Tigers in July. He was relegated to the bullpen for a time, and saw little action and he tossed a five-hit shutout and Tiger general manager Billy Evans said, In 40 years Ive never seen a better pitching job by a first-year pitcherArt Houtteman – Art Houtteman in 1953
94. Michael Jordan – Michael Jeffrey Jordan, also known by his initials, MJ, is an American retired professional basketball player, businessman, and principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets. Jordan played 15 seasons in the National Basketball Association for the Chicago Bulls and his biography on the NBA website states, By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time. Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s, Jordan played three seasons for coach Dean Smith at the University of North Carolina. As a freshman, he was a member of the Tar Heels national championship team in 1982, Jordan joined the Bulls in 1984 as the third overall draft pick. He quickly emerged as a star, entertaining crowds with his prolific scoring. His leaping ability, demonstrated by performing slam dunks from the throw line in slam dunk contests, earned him the nicknames Air Jordan. He also gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball, in 1991, he won his first NBA championship with the Bulls, and followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a three-peat. Jordan retired for a time in January 1999, but returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Wizards. Among his numerous accomplishments, Jordan holds the NBA records for highest career regular season scoring average and highest career playoff scoring average. In 1999, he was named the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century by ESPN and he became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. Jordan is also known for his product endorsements and he fueled the success of Nikes Air Jordan sneakers, which were introduced in 1985 and remain popular today. Jordan also starred in the 1996 feature film Space Jam as himself, in 2006, he became part-owner and head of basketball operations for the then-Charlotte Bobcats, buying a controlling interest in 2010. In 2015, Jordan became the first billionaire NBA player in history as a result of the increase in value of NBA franchises and he is the third richest African American, behind Oprah Winfrey and Robert F. Smith. Jordan was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Deloris, who worked in banking and his family moved to Wilmington, North Carolina, when he was a toddler. Jordan is the fourth of five children and he has two older brothers, Larry Jordan and James R. Jordan, Jr. one older sister, Deloris, and a younger sister, Roslyn. Jordans brother James retired in 2006 as the Command Sergeant Major of the 35th Signal Brigade of the XVIII Airborne Corps in the U. S. Army. Jordan attended Emsley A. Laney High School in Wilmington, where he highlighted his athletic career by playing basketball, baseball and he tried out for the varsity basketball team during his sophomore year, but at 511, he was deemed too short to play at that level. His taller friend, Harvest Leroy Smith, was the only sophomore to make the team, motivated to prove his worth, Jordan became the star of Laneys junior varsity squad, and tallied several 40-point gamesMichael Jordan – Jordan in 2006
95. Bart King – John Barton Bart King was an American cricketer, active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. King was part of the Philadelphia team that played from the end of the 19th century until the outbreak of World War I and this period of cricket in the United States was dominated by gentlemen cricketers—men of independent wealth who did not need to work. King, an amateur from a family, was able to devote time to cricket thanks to a job set up by his teammates. A skilled batsman who proved his worth as a bowler, King set numerous records in the continent of North America during his career and he successfully competed against the best cricketers from England and Australia. King was the dominant bowler on his team when it toured England in 1897,1903 and he dismissed batsmen with his unique delivery, which he called the angler, and helped develop the art of swing bowling in the sport. Sir Pelham Warner described Bart King as one of the finest bowlers of all time, King was born in Philadelphia in 1873. Early in his life, he worked in a linen trade, although this was the family business, his father later allowed him to leave to enter the insurance industry. King was not a member of the aristocratic and wealthy families of Philadelphia that produced many of the top cricketers. Kings obituary in Cricket Quarterly suggests that his career in insurance was set up for him by those families to allow him to playing the game. In 1913, King married Fannie Lockhart, the marriage lasted for fifty years, Kings wife died in 1963, and he died in 1965 in his native Philadelphia two days before his 92nd birthday. Bart King was regarded by many of his contemporaries as an affable person, ralph Barker called him the Bob Hope of cricket thanks to his quips and stories. King was also noted for making jabs at opponents, but leaving them laughing at themselves, the same held true when he would question umpires that turned down his appeals. He is said to have spoken for ninety minutes at a dinner during his last tour to England, the dinner guests were kept laughing even while King spoke with a dead-pan expression. One man who attended the noted that King told his impossible tales with such an air of conviction. That his audiences were always in doubt when to take him seriously and he made their task doubly difficult by sprinkling in a fair mixture of truth with his fiction. Like most young American men of this era, Bart King came to only after first playing baseball. He began to club cricket at Tioga Cricket Club in 1888, aged 15. Tioga was one of the lesser Philadelphian cricket clubs, King played his first recorded match for the club in 1889, when he was tried as a bowler due to his physiqueBart King – Bart King
96. Jimmy McAleer – James Robert Loafer McAleer was an American center fielder, manager, and stockholder in Major League Baseball who assisted in establishing the American League. He spent most of his 13-season playing career with the Cleveland Spiders, and went on to manage the Cleveland Blues, St. Louis Browns, shortly before his retirement, he became a major shareholder in the Boston Red Sox. During his brief tenure as co-owner of the Red Sox, McAleer quarreled with longtime friend and colleague Ban Johnson, in the wake of this disagreement, he sold off his shares in the Red Sox and broke off his relationship with Major League Baseball. McAleers rift with Johnson, along with his retirement, damaged his professional reputation. Today, he is most often remembered for initiating the customary request that the President of the United States throw out the first ball of the season, McAleer was born in Youngstown, Ohio, an industrial center located near the border of western Pennsylvania. His father, Owen McAleer, died at an age, leaving McAleers mother, Mary. The family lived on the citys west side, where the McAleer children were raised to value the concept of formal education, McAleer attended local public schools and graduated from Rayen High School. In later years, all three of the McAleer brothers moved on to careers, and the oldest, Owen McAleer. A strapping six-foot 175-pound outfielder, McAleer won early recognition for his physical speed and he became involved with a Youngstown minor league baseball club in 1882, remaining with the team until 1884. In 1885, McAleer joined another minor league organization in Charleston, South Carolina and his skill as a center fielder was recognized in 1888, while he was playing for a club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Although his primary focus was organized sports, McAleer was also drawn to the field of entertainment, during one season of his minor league career, he became part-owner of the DeHaven Comedy Company, a theatrical road troupe that was organized in Youngstown. His interest in show business remained a constant, and in later years McAleer developed a friendship with Broadway composer and performer George M. Cohan. On April 24,1889, McAleer broke into the Major Leagues in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1891, when Patsy Tebeau became manager of the Cleveland Spiders, the club became known for its aggressive tactics. Tebeau encouraged players to block and hold runners, while he openly challenged and harassed officials. In 1896, the Cleveland manager was jailed for attacking an umpire who decided it was too dark to continue a game, on June 27,1896, McAleer was among several Cleveland players to be fined by a Louisville judge for their role in the incident. Later that year, the clubs notoriety prompted other National League teams to propose a boycott of Cleveland, McAleers periodic displays of temper were in keeping with this rowdy environment. At the same time, McAleer proved a strong performer, a later newspaper account described him as an outstanding outfielder who was blessed with excellent speed. The article noted that McAleers skills as a sprinter helped him steal 51 bases in one year and 41 in anotherJimmy McAleer – James McAleer
97. Bob Meusel – Robert William Meusel was an American baseball left and right fielder who played in Major League Baseball for eleven seasons from 1920 through 1930, all but the last for the New York Yankees. Meusel, noted for his strong throwing arm, batted fifth behind Baseball Hall of Famers Babe Ruth. In 1925, he became the second Yankee, after Ruth, to lead the AL in the offensive categories, home runs, runs batted in. Meusel ended his career in 1930 with the Cincinnati Reds and he hit for the cycle three times, and was the second of four major leaguers to accomplish this feat as many as three times during a career. His older brother, Emil Irish Meusel, was an outfielder in the National League during the same period. Meusel was born in San Jose, California, the youngest of Charlie, at an early age he moved to Los Angeles, where he attended Los Angeles High School. Meusel started his career with the Vernon Tigers of the Pacific Coast League in 1917 and he joined the US Navy during World War I and played for the Navy baseball team. He went back to the Tigers for the 1919 season, batting.330 and he also played third base in the minors. On December 14,1921, Meusel married Edith Cowan, with whom he had one daughter, Meusels contract was purchased by the New York Yankees in early 1920. After a productive spring training, Meusel replaced future Hall of Famer Frank Baker at third base and he played his first game on April 14,1920. In his rookie season, Meusel had a.328 batting average with 11 home runs and 83 runs batted in over 119 games and he finished fourth in the league in doubles with 41 while sharing time with Duffy Lewis in left field. In the 1921 season, Meusel started in 149 out of 154 games and he batted.318, finishing second in the league in home runs with 24 and third in the league with 136 runs batted in. He hit for the cycle in a win against the Washington Senators on May 7, in the second game of a September 5 doubleheader, he tied a major league record for outfielders by recording four assists. He broke a record and tied Jack Tobin of the St. Louis Browns for the league lead in outfield assists with 28. Meusels brother, Irish, was acquired by the New York Giants from the Philadelphia Phillies mid-season, the two brothers played against each other in the 1921 World Series, where the Giants faced their tenants. Bob Meusel stole home in Game 3 of the Series and he doubled in Babe Ruth for the winning run in Game 5 for a one-game lead, but the Yankees lost the next three games and the Series. His batting average in eight games was a mere.200. At the same time, Meusel, Bill Piercy, and Ruth signed up to play in a barnstorming tour and it was a violation of baseball rules at the time, and Meusel and Ruth had previously been warned about playing with the tourBob Meusel – Bob Meusel
98. CM Punk – Punk began his professional wrestling career on the American independent circuit, primarily with Ring of Honor until 2005, when he signed with World Wrestling Entertainment. Throughout his career, he won championships, including the WWE Championship twice. In WWE, Punk was also a one-time World Tag Team Champion, throughout his career, Punk consistently portrayed the character of an outspoken, sharp-tongued, anti-establishment, straight edge iconoclast. Most of the straight edge principles he portrayed, such as not drinking alcohol or not taking drugs, are his real life views. Depending on his alignment as a hero or villain, he emphasized different aspects of the straight edge culture to garner the desired audience reaction. After retiring from wrestling in 2014, Punk pursued a career in mixed martial arts and was signed by the UFC in December of that year. His first professional fight took place on September 10,2016, at UFC203 against Mickey Gall, Brooks was born in Chicago, Illinois and raised in nearby Lockport, Illinois. He is one of five children, his father was an engineer, Brooks father struggled with alcoholism which inspired him to become straight edge from an early age. He attended Lockport Township High School, Brooks first venture into wrestling was a stint in a backyard wrestling federation called the Lunatic Wrestling Federation with his friends and brother Mike Brooks in the mid-late 1990s. He first started using the ring name CM Punk when he was put into a tag team named The Chick Magnets with CM Venom after another performer skipped out on the card. Unlike his friends, Punk genuinely wanted to be a wrestler, as part of the training, he wrestled at Steel Domain Wrestling in St. Paul, Minnesota. It was in the Steel Domain that he met Scott Colton, Punk and Cabana became best friends and spent most of their early career together working in the same independent promotions, as both opponents and tag team partners. In the independents, along with fellow Steel Domain graduates Colt Cabana, Chucke E. Smooth, Adam Pearce, Punks home promotion for his early career was considered to be the Independent Wrestling Association Mid-South. J. Styles, Cabana and even Eddie Guerrero in matches for the heavyweight championship, Punks feud with Hero included a 55-minute TLC match, a 93-minute two out of three falls match, and several 60-minute time limit draws. Punks matches with Cabana led him to being hired by the Ring of Honor promotion, from February 2003 until May 2004, Punk refused to wrestle for IWA Mid-South, explaining this as a protest to Ian Rottens mistreatment of Chris Hero in the company. Hero, however, has stated he believes there were other reasons, eventually Punk returned to IWA Mid-South and continued to perform as a wrestler and commentator for them until 2005 when he was signed to World Wrestling Entertainment. His last appearance in IWA Mid-South was on July 2,2005 in which he competed in a 60-minute time limit draw against Delirious. Initially, Punk joined Ring of Honor as a face, and their rivalry was rooted in Punks straight-edge lifestyle, with him likening Raven to his alcoholic father, it lasted most of 2003 and was considered one of ROHs top feuds of the yearCM Punk – Punk at the 2011 Nickelodeon Australian Kids' Choice Awards
99. Jackie Robinson – Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson was an American professional baseball second baseman who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball in the modern era. Robinson broke the color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15,1947. The Dodgers, by signing Robinson, heralded the end of segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s. Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, Robinson had an exceptional 10-year baseball career. Robinson played in six World Series and contributed to the Dodgers 1955 World Series championship, in 1997, MLB universally retired his uniform number,42, across all major league teams, he was the first pro athlete in any sport to be so honored. MLB also adopted a new tradition, Jackie Robinson Day, for the first time on April 15,2004. Robinsons character, his use of nonviolence, and his unquestionable talent challenged the basis of segregation which then marked many other aspects of American life. He influenced the culture of and contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement, Robinson also was the first black television analyst in MLB, and the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full oNuts. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, in recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Robinson was born on January 31,1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo and he was the youngest of five children born to Mallie and Jerry Robinson, after siblings Edgar, Frank, Matthew, and Willa Mae. His middle name was in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, after Robinsons father left the family in 1920, they moved to Pasadena, California. The extended Robinson family established itself on a residential plot containing two small houses at 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena, Robinsons mother worked various odd jobs to support the family. Growing up in poverty in an otherwise affluent community, Robinson. As a result, Robinson joined a gang, but his friend Carl Anderson persuaded him to abandon it. In 1935, Robinson graduated from Washington Junior High School and enrolled at John Muir High School, recognizing his athletic talents, Robinsons older brothers Mack and Frank inspired Jackie to pursue his interest in sports. At Muir Tech, Robinson played several sports at the varsity level and lettered in four of them, football, basketball, track and he played shortstop and catcher on the baseball team, quarterback on the football team, and guard on the basketball team. With the track and field squad, he won awards in the broad jump and he was also a member of the tennis team. In late January 1937, the Pasadena Star-News newspaper reported that Robinson for two years has been the athlete at Muir, starring in football, basketball, track, baseballJackie Robinson – Jackie Robinson
100. Bill Russell – William Felton Bill Russell is an American retired professional basketball player. Russell played center for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association from 1956 to 1969, a five-time NBA Most Valuable Player and a twelve-time All-Star, he was the centerpiece of the Celtics dynasty, winning eleven NBA championships during his thirteen-year career. Along with Henri Richard of the National Hockey Leagues Montreal Canadiens, before his professional career, Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships. He also won a medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics as captain of the U. S. national basketball team. Russell is widely considered one of the best players in NBA history and he was listed as between 6 ft 9 in and 6 ft 10 in, and his shot-blocking and man-to-man defense were major reasons for the Celtics success. He also inspired his teammates to elevate their own defensive play, Russell was equally notable for his rebounding abilities. He led the NBA in rebounds four times, had a dozen consecutive seasons of 1,000 or more rebounds and he is one of just two NBA players to have grabbed more than 50 rebounds in a game. Though never the point of the Celtics offense, Russell also scored 14,522 career points. Playing in the wake of pioneers like Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and he also served a three-season stint as player-coach for the Celtics, becoming the first African American NBA coach. For his accomplishments in the Civil Rights Movement on and off the court, Russell is one of only seven players in history to win an NCAA Championship, an NBA Championship, and an Olympic gold medal. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, in 2007 he was enshrined in the FIBA Hall of Fame. In Russells honor the NBA renamed the NBA Finals Most Valuable Player trophy in 2009, Bill Russell was born to Charles Russell and Katie Russell in West Monroe, Louisiana. Like almost all towns and cities of that time, West Monroe was a highly segregated place. Once, Russells father was refused service at a gas station until the staff had taken care of all the white customers. When his father attempted to leave and find a different station, at another time, Russells mother was walking outside in a fancy dress when a policeman accosted her. He told her to go home and remove the dress, which he described as white womans clothing, while there the family fell into poverty, and Russell spent his childhood living in a series of public housing projects. Charles Russell is described as a stern, hard man who was initially a janitor in a paper factory, being closer to his mother Katie than to his father, Russell received a major emotional blow when she suddenly died when he was 12. His father gave up his job and became a steel worker to be closer to his semi-orphaned childrenBill Russell – Russell in February 2011
101. Sigi Schmid – Siegfried Sigi Schmid is a German-American soccer coach who most recently coached Seattle Sounders FC in Major League Soccer. Born in Tübingen, West Germany, he moved to the United States with his family when he was a child and he played college soccer from 1972 to 1975 at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was a starting midfielder in each of his four years. He coached his former team, the UCLA Bruins, between 1980 and 1999. During that period, he one of the most successful collegiate coaches of all time. The team made 16 consecutive playoff appearances from 1983 to 1998, winning the championship in 1985,1990. Schmid also worked with US Soccer throughout the 1990s, Schmid coached the Los Angeles Galaxy and the Columbus Crew in MLS, before becoming the head coach of Seattle Sounders FC in 2009. Despite never having played soccer at a level, he has the most coaching wins in MLS history and was the recipient of the MLS Coach of the Year Award in 1999 and 2008. Throughout his career, Schmid has received praise from critics for his ability to new talent. His defensive tactics are also regarded in the press and often cited as a factor in his success. However, their deployment in his two seasons with Los Angeles led directly to the termination of his contract. After winning the MLS Cup with Columbus in 2008, Schmid was hired by the expansion Seattle Sounders as their first head coach. From 2009 to 2016, Schmid led the Sounders to seven appearances, four Lamar Hunt U. S. Open Cup titles. After lackluster performances in the playoffs and missteps during the first half of the 2016 season, Schmid and his wife have four children, and he has a younger brother named Roland Schmid. Sigi Schmid was born in Tübingen, West Germany, on March 20,1953, at the age of four, he moved with his family to the United States, they took up residence in Torrance, California, in 1962. Schmids father, Fritz, who had been a prisoner of war during World War II, worked at Pabst Brewing, his mother, Doris, ran a Los Angeles-based German deli, where Schmid worked on weekends. Schmids family spoke German at home, making him feel German despite spending so much of his life in America and he began school in the United States with little understanding of English and a stuttering speech disorder he did not overcome until high school. In his youth, Schmid visited Germany every summer, playing soccer with the local children, in 1964, Schmid played for the inaugural American Youth Soccer Organization team, an achievement for which he was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1996. Despite Schmids early soccer experience, his parents thought a career in the sport was unfeasible and he enrolled at UCLA in 1972 and was a starting midfielder for the UCLA Bruins from 1972 to 1975Sigi Schmid – Schmid after a Sounders match in 2010
102. Ozzie Smith – Osborne Earl Ozzie Smith is an American former baseball shortstop who played in Major League Baseball for the San Diego Padres and St. Louis Cardinals from 1978 to 1996. A 15-time All-Star, he accumulated 2,460 hits and 580 stolen bases during his career and he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility in 2002. He was also elected to the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame in the class of 2014. Smith was born in Mobile, Alabama, but his family moved to Watts, Los Angeles, drafted as an amateur player by the Padres, Smith made his major league debut in 1978. He quickly established himself as a fielder, and later became known for performing backflips on special occasions while taking his position at the beginning of a game. Smith won his first Gold Glove Award in 1980, and made his first All-Star Game appearance in 1981, when conflict with Padres ownership developed, he was traded to the Cardinals for shortstop Garry Templeton in 1982. Upon joining the Cardinals, Smith helped the team win the 1982 World Series, three years later, his game-winning home run during Game 5 of the 1985 National League Championship Series prompted broadcaster Jack Bucks Go crazy, folks. Despite a rotator cuff injury during the 1985 season, Smith posted career highs in multiple categories in 1987. Smith continued to earn Gold Gloves and All-Star appearances on a basis until 1993. During 1995 season, Smith had shoulder surgery and was out nearly three months, after tension with his new manager Tony La Russa developed in 1996, Smith retired at seasons end, and his uniform number was subsequently retired by the Cardinals. Smith also served as host of the television show This Week in Baseball from 1997 to 1998, Smith was born in Mobile, Alabama, the second of Clovi and Marvella Smiths six children. While the family lived in Mobile, his father worked as a sandblaster at Brookley Air Force Base, when Smith was six his family moved to the Watts section of Los Angeles. His father became a truck driver for Safeway stores, while his mother became an aide at a nursing home. His mother was a part of his life who stressed the importance of education. Smith played a variety of sports in his youth, but considered baseball to be his favorite, when not at the local YMCA or playing sports, Smith sometimes went with friends to the neighborhood lumberyard, springboarding off inner tubes and doing flips into sawdust piles. In 1965, at age ten, he endured the Watts Riots with his family, recalling that, while Smith was attending junior high school, his parents divorced. Continuing to pursue his interest in baseball, he would ride the bus for nearly an hour to reach Dodger Stadium, upon becoming a student at Locke High School, Smith played on the basketball and baseball teams. Smith was a teammate of future National Basketball Association player Marques Johnson on the teamOzzie Smith – Smith with the Cardinals in 1983
103. Tyrone Wheatley – He earned All-America track honors in both high school and college. He ranks among the Wolverines all-time rushing leaders in numerous categories and he was named to All-Big Ten teams in football and track and field a total of four times, and he earned portions of seven Big Ten championships. Following his graduation from the University of Michigan, Wheatley was selected by the New York Giants of the NFL in the first round of the 1995 NFL Draft. As a running back for the Giants, he was the teams all-purpose yards leader in 1996, despite his success on the field, he developed a reputation for indolence. He was traded to the Miami Dolphins, but cut before the 1999 season began and he signed with the Oakland Raiders and flourished, leading the team in rushing three times and twice finishing among the NFLs top ten players in rushing touchdowns. During his NFL career, he totaled over 6,500 all-purpose yards as a running back, after retiring from the NFL, Wheatley returned to his hometown to coach his high school alma mater, Dearborn Heights Hamilton J. Robichaud High School. Wheatley was born in Inkster, Michigan, Inkster is located in Metropolitan Detroit, east of both Ann Arbor and University of Michigan. Wheatleys father suffered a gunshot wound to the head in 1974 when Wheatley was two years old. Wheatleys stepfather died of an attack when he was 13, leaving behind Wheatley, his sister. Shortly afterward, Wheatleys mother, Patricia, was laid off, with the effective loss of his two parents, Wheatley and his sister were forced to move in with an aunt, where he lived through the rest of his childhood. Due to family difficulties, Wheatley acts as the guardian of two cousins and his half brother, Mongo was ten years younger than Wheatley, and graduated from high school in New Jersey in 2004—thirteen years after Wheatley had graduated from high school. Because of his trouble, he assumed a family leadership role at a relatively young age. Wheatley made it clear to his brothers and sisters that when came to their lives, they should to turn to him because he would be there. When he was in school, he would take his younger siblings to basketball games. Wheatleys guardianship continued throughout his career at the University of Michigan, as Mongos guardian, Wheatley moved Mongo to New Jersey for school. Mongo later earned outstanding freshman athlete honors during the Bergen County, New Jersey outdoor track championships while living with Wheatley, in 2004, with his graduation from high school imminent, Mongo signed a letter of intent with Utah State as a defensive back. Wheatley attended Hamilton J. Robichaud High School in Dearborn Heights, Michigan, during his time at Robichaud High School, he became a nine-time MHSAA state champion. In the 1990 MHSAA Championship game against upper peninsula powerhouse Kingsford High School at the Pontiac Silverdome, Wheatley ran for 165 yards and that season, he led the Bulldogs to a 12–1 record, and to their only state football championshipTyrone Wheatley – Wheatley earned the 1993 Rose Bowl MVP.
104. Simon Bolivar Buckner – Simon Bolivar Buckner was an American soldier and politician who fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky, after graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Buckner became an instructor there. He took a hiatus from teaching to serve in the Mexican–American War and he resigned from the army in 1855 to manage his father-in-laws real estate in Chicago, Illinois. He returned to his state of Kentucky in 1857 and was appointed adjutant general by Governor Beriah Magoffin in 1861. In this position, he tried to enforce Kentuckys neutrality policy in the days of the Civil War. When the states neutrality was breached, Buckner accepted a commission in the Confederate Army after declining a commission to the Union Army. In 1862, he accepted Ulysses S. Grants demand for a surrender at the Battle of Fort Donelson. He was the first Confederate general to surrender an army in the war and he spent five months as a prisoner of war. After his release, Buckner participated in Braxton Braggs failed invasion of Kentucky, in the years following the war, Buckner became active in politics. He was elected governor of Kentucky in 1887 and it was his second campaign for that office. His term was plagued by violent feuds in the part of the state, including the Hatfield–McCoy feud. His administration was rocked by scandal when state treasurer James Honest Dick Tate absconded with $250,000 from the states treasury, as governor, Buckner became known for vetoing special interest legislation. In the 1888 legislative session alone, he issued more vetoes than the previous ten governors combined, in 1895, he made an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U. S. Senate. The following year, he joined the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats and he was the Gold Democrats candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1896 election, but polled just over one percent of the vote on a ticket with John M. Palmer. He never again sought public office and died January 8,1914, Buckner, was born at Glen Lily, his familys estate near Munfordville, Kentucky. He was the child and second son of Aylett Hartswell. His closest friend in Munfordville was Thomas J. Wood, who would become a Union Army general opposing Buckner at the Battle of Perryville, Buckners father was an iron worker, but found that Hart County did not have sufficient timber to fire his iron furnace. Consequently, in 1838, he moved the family to southern Muhlenberg County where he organized an iron-making corporation, Buckner attended school in Greenville, and later at Christian County Seminary in HopkinsvilleSimon Bolivar Buckner – Simon Bolivar Buckner
105. Henry Cornelius Burnett – Henry Cornelius Burnett was a U. S. Representative from the state of Kentucky and a Confederate States senator, a lawyer by profession, Burnett had held only one public office—circuit court clerk—before being elected to Congress. He represented Kentuckys 1st congressional district prior to the Civil War. This district contained the entire Jackson Purchase region of the state, Burnett promised the voters of his district that he would have President Abraham Lincoln arraigned for treason. Unionist newspaper editor George D. Prentice described Burnett as a big, burly, loud-mouthed fellow who is forever raising points of order and objections, besides championing the Southern cause in Congress, Burnett also worked within Kentucky to bolster the states support of the Confederacy. He presided over a sovereignty convention in Russellville in 1861 that formed a Confederate government for the state, the delegates to this convention chose Burnett to travel to Richmond, Virginia to secure Kentuckys admission to the Confederacy. Burnett also raised a Confederate regiment at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, Camp Burnett, a Confederate recruiting post two miles west of Clinton in Hickman County, Kentucky, was named after him. Burnetts actions were deemed treasonable by his colleagues in Congress, and he is one of only five members of the House of Representatives ever to be expelled. Following his expulsion, Burnett served in the Provisional Confederate Congress and he was indicted for treason after the war, but never tried. He returned to the practice of law, and died of cholera in 1866 at the age of 40, Henry Cornelius Burnett was born to Dr. Isaac and Martha F. Burnett on October 25,1825, in Essex County, Virginia. In his early childhood, he moved to Cadiz, Kentucky and he was educated in the common schools of the area and at an academy in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Following this, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1847 and he was a member of the Cadiz Christian Church. On April 13,1847, Burnett married Mary A. Terry and they had four children, John, Emeline, Henry, and Terry. The younger Henry Burnett became a lawyer in Paducah and, later. In the first election following the ratification of the Kentucky Constitution of 1850, Burnett was elected clerk of the court of Trigg County, Kentucky. He resigned in 1853 to run for Congress, later that year, he was elected as a Democrat to the 34th Congress, succeeding Speaker of the House Linn Boyd. Burnett supported fellow Kentuckian John C, Breckinridge for president in the 1860 presidential election, but Breckinridge lost to Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed and his victory in the election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the UnionHenry Cornelius Burnett – Henry Burnett
106. Frederick Russell Burnham – Frederick Russell Burnham DSO was an American scout and world-traveling adventurer. He is known for his service to the British South Africa Company and to the British Army in colonial Africa and he helped inspire the founding of the international Scouting Movement. Burnham was born on a Dakota Sioux Indian reservation in Minnesota where he learned the ways of American Indians as a boy. By the age of 14, he was supporting himself in California, while also learning scouting from some of the last of the cowboys, Burnham had little formal education, never finishing high school. After moving to the Arizona Territory in the early 1880s, he was drawn into the Pleasant Valley War and he escaped and later worked as a civilian tracker for the United States Army in the Apache Wars. Feeling the need for new adventures, Burnham took his family to southern Africa in 1893, Burnham distinguished himself in several battles in Rhodesia and South Africa and became Chief of Scouts. Despite his U. S. citizenship, his title was British. He had become friends with Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War in Rhodesia, teaching him outdoor skills, Burnham returned to the United States, where he became involved in national defense efforts, business, oil, conservation, and the Boy Scouts of America. During World War I, Burnham was selected as an officer and recruited volunteers for a U. S. Army division similar to the Rough Riders, for political reasons, the unit was disbanded without seeing action. After the war, Burnham and his business partner John Hays Hammond formed the Burnham Exploration Company, Burnham joined several new wilderness conservation organizations, including the California State Parks Commission. In the 1930s, he worked with the BSA to save the big horn sheep from extinction and this effort led to the creation of the Kofa and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona. He earned the BSAs highest honor, the Silver Buffalo Award, in 1936, to symbolise the friendship between Burnham and Baden-Powell, the mountain beside Mount Baden-Powell in California was formally named Mount Burnham in 1951. Burnham was born on May 11,1861 on a Dakota Sioux Indian reservation in Minnesota, to a family living near the small pioneer town of Tivoli. His father, the Reverend Edwin Otway Burnham, was a Presbyterian minister educated and ordained in New York, he was born in Ghent, Kentucky. His mother Rebecca Russell Burnham had spent most of her childhood in Iowa, having emigrated with her family from Westminster and she hid Frederick in a basket of green corn husks in a corn field and fled for her life. Once the Sioux attack had been repulsed, she returned to find their house burned down, the young Burnham attended schools in Iowa. There he met Blanche Blick, whom he later married, Two years later, Edwin died, leaving the family destitute. For the next few years, Burnham worked as a messenger for the Western Union Telegraph Company in CaliforniaFrederick Russell Burnham – Major Burnham in his British Army uniform in 1901
107. Wesley Clark – Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr. is a retired General of the United States Army. He graduated as valedictorian of the class of 1966 at West Point and was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford and he later graduated from the Command and General Staff College with a masters degree in military science. He spent 34 years in the U. S. Army, receiving military decorations, several honorary knighthoods. Clark commanded Operation Allied Force in the Kosovo War during his term as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1997 to 2000. Clark leads a political committee, WesPAC, which he formed after the 2004 primaries. Clark was considered a candidate for the Democratic nomination in 2008. After Clinton dropped out of the race, Clark endorsed the then-presumptive Democratic nominee. Clark serves as the co-chairman of Growth Energy, a lobbying group. Since July 2012, he acts as an honorary special advisor to Romanian prime minister Victor Ponta on economic. Clarks fathers family was Jewish, his paternal great-grandfather immigrated to the United States from Belarus in response to the Pale of Settlement, Kanne, living in Chicago, became involved with ward politics in the 1920s as a prosecutor and served in local offices. He served as a delegate to the 1932 Democratic National Convention that nominated Franklin D. Roosevelt as the presidential candidate. His mother was of English ancestry and was a Methodist, Clark was born Wesley Kanne in Chicago on December 23,1944. His father Benjamin died on December 6,1948, his mother moved the family to Little Rock. Once in Little Rock, Veneta married Viktor Clark, whom she met while working as a secretary at a bank, Viktor raised Wesley as his son, and officially adopted him on Wesleys 16th birthday. Wesleys name was changed to Wesley Kanne Clark, Viktor Clarks name actually replaced that of Wesleys biological father on his birth certificate, something Wesley would later say that he wished they had not done. Veneta raised Wesley without telling him of his Jewish ancestry to him from the anti-Jewish activities of the Ku Klux Klan in the southern U. S. Although his mother was Methodist, Clark chose a Baptist church after moving to Little Rock and he graduated from Hall High School with a National Merit Scholarship. He helped take their team to the state championship, filling in for a sick teammate by swimming two legs of a relayWesley Clark – Wesley Clark
108. Brian Eaton – Air Vice Marshal Brian Alexander Eaton, CB, CBE, DSO & Bar, DFC was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force. Born in Tasmania and raised in Victoria, he joined the RAAF in 1936 and was promoted to lieutenant on the outbreak of World War II. He held training positions before being posted to No.3 Squadron at the beginning of 1943, flying P-40 Kittyhawk fighter-bombers in North Africa. Despite being shot three times within ten days soon after arriving, Eaton quickly rose to become the units commanding officer. His leadership earned him the Distinguished Service Order and Bar in 1944–45 and he was also awarded the US Silver Star in 1946 in recognition of his war service. In the decade following World War II, Eaton led No.81 Wing in Japan and he commanded RAAF Base Williamtown from 1957 to 1959, after which he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire. As Director-General of Operational Requirements in 1965, Eaton argued for increased RAAF co-operation with the Australian Army in light of growing involvement in the Vietnam War and he was promoted to air vice marshal the next year, and became Deputy Chief of the Air Staff. He then served as Air Member for Personnel, before being selected as AOC Operational Command in 1973, Eaton retired from the RAAF in December that year, and became an executive for Rolls-Royce in Canberra. He died in 1992 at the age of 75, Brian Eaton was born in Launceston, Tasmania, on 15 December 1916, to Sydney and Hilda Eaton. The family later moved to Canterbury, Victoria, and Brian was educated at Carey Grammar and his early ambition to be a doctor was curtailed when his father died and he had to leave school early. He enlisted as an air cadet in the Royal Australian Air Force on 20 January 1936, Eaton was commissioned as a pilot officer upon graduation from flying school in January 1937, and posted to No.1 Squadron. Within six months he was promoted to flying officer and joined No.21 Squadron at RAAF Station Laverton, in 1938, he became an instructor at Point Cooks No.1 Flying Training School, where he also took part in the RAAFs early long navigation exercises. He was promoted to lieutenant on 1 September 1939. In April 1940, Eaton was assigned to the newly re-formed Central Flying School at Camden, New South Wales, promoted to temporary squadron leader in September 1940, he was transferred to the Directorate of Training in June 1941. He became a fighter controller at No.5 Fighter Sector Headquarters, Darwin, Northern Territory, in October that year, he departed Australia for North Africa via India and the United Kingdom, fearful that the fighting would be over before he arrived. He posted in to No.1 Middle East Training School in January 1943 prior to taking up duties with No.3 Squadron RAAF, eatons combat career began inauspiciously, when he was shot down three times in the space of ten days. On the first occasion, his P-40 Kittyhawk was hit by 20 mm cannon shells from a fighter that he never saw. He later recalled, I was too busy getting the kite down to be frightened, but my God was I surprisedBrian Eaton – Group Captain Brian Eaton, Malta, c. 1953–54
109. Thomas C. Kinkaid – Thomas Cassin Kinkaid served as an admiral in the United States Navy during World War II. He built a reputation as an admiral in the aircraft carrier battles of 1942. Born into a family, Kinkaid was ranked in the lower half of his class on his graduation from the United States Naval Academy in June 1908. His early commissioned service was spent aboard battleships, in 1913, he began instruction in ordnance engineering and served in that field for many years. He saw action during the 1916 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic, during World War I, he was attached to the Royal Navy before serving as Gunnery Officer aboard the battleship USS Arizona. After the war, he was Assistant Chief of Staff to the Commander U. S. Naval Detachment in Turkey, Kinkaid received his first command, the destroyer USS Isherwood, in 1924. He was Executive Officer of the battleship USS Colorado when the 1933 Long Beach earthquake struck and he received his second command in 1937, the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis. From 1938 to 1941, Kinkaid was a naval attaché in Italy, in the months prior to U. S. entry into World War II, he commanded a destroyer squadron. Promoted to rear admiral in 1941, he assumed command of a U. S and his cruisers defended the aircraft carrier USS Lexington during the Battle of the Coral Sea and USS Hornet during the Battle of Midway. Kinkaid was placed in charge of the North Pacific Force in January 1943 and he was promoted to vice admiral in June 1943. During the Battle of the Surigao Strait he commanded the Allied ships in the last naval battle between battleships in history, following the demise of Japanese naval power in the region, the Allied navies supported the campaigns in the Philippines and Borneo. Kinkaid was promoted to admiral on 3 April 1945, after the Pacific War ended in August 1945, the Seventh Fleet assisted in operations on the Korean and China coasts. Admiral Kinkaid was Commander Eastern Sea Frontier and the Sixteenth Fleet from 1946 until his retirement in May 1950 and he was a member of the National Security Training Commission for much of the rest of the decade. He also served with the American Battle Monuments Commission for 15 years, Thomas Cassin Kinkaid was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, on 3 April 1888, the second child and only son of Thomas Wright Kinkaid, a naval officer, and his wife Virginia Lee née Cassin. At the time, Thomas Wright Kinkaid was on leave from the U. S. Navy and employed at the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. When Thomas was only an old, his father was posted to USS Pinta, and the family moved to Sitka, Alaska. He sought and secured an appointment to Annapolis from President Theodore Roosevelt, the Navy was undergoing a period of expansion, and the intake of midshipmen was double that of two years earlier. Of the 350 who took the examination,283 were admitted, the class was the largest since the Academy had opened in 1845Thomas C. Kinkaid – Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid
110. John McCain – John Sidney McCain III is an American politician who currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for the 2008 U. S. presidential election, McCain followed his father and grandfather, both four-star admirals, into the United States Navy, graduating from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1958. He became an aviator, flying ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he was almost killed in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, in October 1967, while on a bombing mission over Hanoi, he was shot down, seriously injured, and captured by the North Vietnamese. He was a prisoner of war until 1973, McCain experienced episodes of torture, and refused an out-of-sequence early repatriation offer. His war wounds have left him with physical limitations. He retired from the Navy as a captain in 1981 and moved to Arizona, elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1982, McCain served two terms. He was first elected to the U. S. Senate in 1986, winning re-election easily five times, while generally adhering to conservative principles, McCain at times has had a media reputation as a maverick for his willingness to disagree with his party on certain issues. He is also known for his work in the 1990s to restore relations with Vietnam. McCain ran for the Republican nomination in 2000 but lost a primary season contest to George W. Bush of Texas. He subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and largely opposed actions of the Obama administration, by 2013, however, he had become a key figure in the Senate for negotiating deals on certain issues in an otherwise partisan environment. In 2015, McCain became chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, John McCain was born on August 29,1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He has a brother named Joe and an elder sister named Sandy. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control, McCains family tree includes Scots-Irish and English ancestors. Both his father and his grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. became four-star United States Navy admirals. The McCain family followed his father to various postings in the United States. Altogether, he attended about 20 schools, in 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, and McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria. He excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954, following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy at AnnapolisJohn McCain – John McCain
111. Fred Moosally – Fred P. Moosally is a former captain in the United States Navy. During his naval career, Moosally served in many different assignments, including commander of a destroyer, Moosally was captain of the Iowa when the center gun of one of the ships main gun turrets exploded on April 19,1989, killing 47 crewmen. During the investigation into the cause of the explosion, Moosally testified that the Navy had assigned personnel of inferior quality to the Iowa, the investigation found that Iowa had been operating with severe deficiencies in safety and training procedures, for which Moosally was disciplined. The Navy stated that the deficiencies were unrelated to the turret explosion, Moosallys testimony was widely reported in the media. Moosally retired from the Navy soon after in May 1990, in 1999, Moosally began working for Lockheed Martin. In 2002 he was appointed president of the companys MS2 division, in this capacity, Moosally has helped lead Lockheed Martins involvement in the Freedom-class littoral combat ship and Integrated Deepwater System programs. Fred Moosally led MS2 from a $1B organization to an organization when he retired in January 2010. Fred Moosally was succeeded in his position by Orlando Carvahlo, former General Manager and Vice President of the Lockheed Martin MS2 Moorestown, NJ site. It was announced on 12 February 2010 that Moosally was hired as President and Chief Executive Officer of Fincantieri Marine Group, Moosally, born and raised in Youngstown, Ohio, was one of six children in a family of three sons and three daughters. His father was a salesman and the family attended the local Syriac Maronite Church. At Ursuline High School, according to Charles Thompson, Moosally played American football, a defensive tackle, he was selected as a second-string member of the all-city squad. Moosally also lifted weights, ran track, and played summer baseball and he graduated high school in 1962 and was recruited by Penn State and the University of Pittsburgh to play football. He instead decided to attend the United States Naval Academy after speaking with the football coach. Moosally played defensive tackle on the football team. In 1964 he and the played in the Cotton Bowl Classic. One of Moosallys teammates in the game was Heisman Trophy winner Roger Staubach, in 1965 Moosally was awarded the Annapolis Touchdown Clubs Silver Helmet trophy as the teams Most Valuable Player and was selected to play in the Blue-Gray Football Classic. Moosally graduated in 1966 with a ranking of 812 out of 868. His classmates nicknamed him Moose because of his presence and his slap-on-the-back personalityFred Moosally – Captain Fred Moosally (at podium) speaks at a ceremony on USS Iowa on January 4, 1990 to unveil a plaque commemorating the 47 crewmen killed in the turret explosion on April 19, 1989.
112. Uriel Sebree – Uriel Sebree was a career officer in the United States Navy. He entered the Naval Academy during the Civil War and served until 1910 and he is best remembered for his two expeditions into the Arctic and for serving as acting governor of American Samoa. He was also commander-in-chief of the Pacific Fleet and that mission to rescue Adolphus Greely and the survivors of the Lady Franklin Bay expedition was a success. Sebree was subsequently appointed as the acting governor of American Samoa. He served in this position for only a year before returning to the United States and he retired in 1910 and died in Coronado, California, in 1922. Two geographical features in Alaska—Sebree Peak and Sebree Island—are named for Admiral Sebree. Uriel Sebree was born in Fayette, Missouri, on February 20,1848, to Judge John Sebree, called one of the prominent citizens of old Howard County by the Jefferson County Tribune, uriel was the first of two sons. His brother, Frank P. Sebree, became a lawyer, uriel entered the United States Naval Academy on July 23,1863, during the American Civil War. After his graduation in 1867, his first assignment was on board USS Canandaigua, over the next few years Sebree won repeated promotion, to ensign in 1868, master in 1870, and lieutenant in 1871. In 1873 he transferred to the ironclad USS Dictator, one episode in Sebrees early military history which influenced his later career was his participation in the second Polaris rescue mission. The Polaris expedition was an 1871–72 exploration of the Arctic that had aimed to reach the North Pole, the expedition was troubled from the start, its leader, Charles Francis Hall, died in mysterious circumstances before the end of their first winter. The following year, the Polaris remained trapped in ice and unable to return home, during a violent storm, the crew was separated into two groups, a small group of explorers was stranded on the now-crippled Polaris and the remainder were marooned on an ice floe. These latter 19 survivors were discovered by chance and rescued by the civilian whaler USS Tigress, because of the Tigresss success, the Navy chartered the ship, temporarily rechristened her USS Tigress, and used her to launch a rescue attempt to locate the remainder of the crew. For this attempt the ship would be commanded by a group of eight officers, led by Captain James A. Greer. Lieutenant Sebree was one of the chosen for the mission. This rescue mission was the first official United States military expedition to the Arctic, previous expeditions, including that of the Polaris itself, had been led by civilians. The Tigress sailed from New York on July 14,1873, traveling first to St. Johns, Newfoundland and then to Godhavn, the missing men, the rescuers were told, had constructed makeshift boats salvaged from their destroyed ship and traveled south. Once there, they learned that the Polaris survivors had been rescued by a British ship, after returning to New York the Tigress was transferred back to civilian useUriel Sebree – Rear Admiral Uriel Sebree
113. William Tecumseh Sherman – William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. Sherman began his Civil War career serving in the First Battle of Bull Run and he served under General Ulysses S. In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the Western Theater of the war and he proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Shermans subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacys ability to continue fighting and he accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida in April 1865, after having been present at most major military engagements in the Western Theater. When Grant assumed the U. S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, as such, he was responsible for the U. S. Armys engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years. Sherman advocated total war against hostile Indians to force them back onto their reservations and he steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War. British military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was the first modern general, Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father Charles Robert Sherman, a lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children, Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him. Shermans older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge, one of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U. S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker, Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her. Shermans unusual given name has attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his name came from his father having caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees. Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has often reported that, as an infant. According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name William at age nine or ten and his foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle, was of Irish ancestry and a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, though he left the church. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs that his father named him William Tecumseh, Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant, as an adult, Sherman signed all his correspondence – including to his wife – W. T. Sherman. His friends and family called him CumpWilliam Tecumseh Sherman – Sherman as a major general in May 1865. The black ribbon of mourning on his left arm is for U.S. President Lincoln. Portrait by Mathew Brady.
114. Stephen Trigg – Stephen Trigg was an American pioneer and soldier from Virginia. A son of William and Mary Trigg, he worked as a public servant and militia officer during the early years of the frontier counties of southwest Virginia. He was one reportedly of the wealthiest men on the frontier and he was also elected to the Virginia House of Delegates. Trigg was appointed to the Virginia Land Court Commission in 1779 and he then settled in Kentucky himself. In 1782, a party of Shawnee Indians led by British and Loyalist officers attacked Bryan Station. Kentucky militia companies then pursued the fleeing invaders, Trigg commanded half of the men, Daniel Boone the other. Ignoring Boones warnings of a trap, the militiamen charged into an Indian ambush at Blue Licks, Trigg and many others, including Boones youngest son, were killed. Triggs body was found cut into pieces. Trigg County, Kentucky, was named in memory of Stephen Trigg, Trigg was the son of William Trigg and Mary Trigg, whose family was prominent on the Virginia frontier. His father served as a Judge of the Court of Chancery, an equity court, Trigg had four brothers, William, John, Abram and Daniel, who were all soldiers in the Revolutionary War. Two of these brothers, John and Abram, later represented Virginia in the U. S. Congress, Stephen married Mary Christian, daughter of another Virginia pioneer, Israel Christian. Trigg lived the part of his life in southwest Virginia. Trigg and his wife had three sons and two daughters, the western county of Augusta in Virginia could no longer serve the needs of the far flung pioneers along the New River, and so in 1769, the county of Botetourt was created. Trigg was one of several appointed as its first justices of the peace, from 1770 to 1771, he served as magistrate, Justice of the County Court in Chancery and a Justice of Oyer and Terminer, which was a criminal court. Due to the needs of a population, the southwestern half of Botetourt County was separated in 1772. Trigg was installed as one of its first justices of the peace, Trigg also continued pursuing his livelihood as a merchant at Dunkard Bottom in present-day Pulaski County. From 1773 to 1774, he partnered with David Ross and operated a community store in New Dublin, with branches located in Meadow Creek, Reed Creek, at this time, many indentured servants came to this area of the state. Short of money, they sold themselves to the owners for passage to America for a term of servitude that gained them landStephen Trigg – This headstone at the Blue Licks Battlefield State Park marks the mass grave where Trigg and his men were buried.
115. Samuel Adams – Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a cousin to fellow Founding Father, President John Adams. Adams was born in Boston, brought up in a religious, a graduate of Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and tax collector before concentrating on politics. His 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, continued resistance to British policy resulted in the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the coming of the American Revolution. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774, at which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia which was convened to coordinate a colonial response, Adams returned to Massachusetts after the American Revolution, where he served in the state senate and was eventually elected governor. Samuel Adams later became a figure in American history. Accounts written in the 19th century praised him as someone who had been steering his fellow colonists towards independence long before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. This view gave way to negative assessments of Adams in the first half of the 20th century, both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. Samuel Adams was born in Boston in the British colony of Massachusetts on September 16,1722, an Old Style date that is sometimes converted to the New Style date of September 27. Adams was one of children born to Samuel Adams, Sr. and Mary Adams in an age of high infant mortality. Adamss parents were devout Puritans and members of the Old South Congregational Church, the family lived on Purchase Street in Boston. Adams was proud of his Puritan heritage, and emphasized Puritan values in his political career, Samuel Adams, Sr. was a prosperous merchant and church deacon. Deacon Adams became a figure in Boston politics through an organization that became known as the Boston Caucus. The Boston Caucus helped shape the agenda of the Boston Town Meeting, Deacon Adams rose through the political ranks, becoming a justice of the peace, a selectman, and a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. In the coming years, members of the party became known as Whigs or Patriots. The younger Samuel Adams attended Boston Latin School and then entered Harvard College in 1736 and his parents hoped that his schooling would prepare him for the ministry, but Adams gradually shifted his interest to politics. After graduating in 1740, Adams continued his studies, earning a degree in 1743. Adamss life was affected by his fathers involvement in a banking controversySamuel Adams – In this c. 1772 portrait by John Singleton Copley, Adams points at the Massachusetts Charter, which he viewed as a constitution that protected the peoples' rights.
116. Charles Carroll the Settler – Charles Carroll, sometimes called Charles Carroll the Settler to differentiate him from his son and grandson, was a wealthy lawyer and planter in colonial Maryland. Carroll, a Catholic, is best known because his efforts to hold office in the Protestant-dominated colony resulted in the disfranchisement of the colonys Catholics. The second son of Irish Catholic parents, Carroll was educated in France as a lawyer before returning to England, before that career developed, he secured a position as Attorney General of the young colony of Maryland. Its founder George Calvert and his descendants intended it as a refuge for Catholics, Carroll supported Charles Calvert, the colonys Catholic proprietor, in an unsuccessful effort to prevent the Protestant majority from gaining political control over Maryland. He was the wealthiest man in the colony by the time of his death, in the last years of his life, Carroll attempted to regain some vestige of political power for Catholics in the colony, but the Protestant colonial assembly and Governor John Hart disfranchised them. Carroll was the second of four born to Daniel Carroll of Aghagurty and Littermurna. The exact place of his birth is unclear, though it occurred near the small town of Aghagurty that Carrolls father took as part of his name. Some of the property near Aghagurty was obtained by a friend, Richard Grace. This action gave the family a livelihood, but the continued to have limited means compared to their former status. It is likely that Charles Carroll was fostered by the wealthier Grace, with Graces support, Carroll was able to attend school in France—at Lille and at the University of Douai—where he studied the humanities, philosophy, and civil and canon law. According to family tradition, Carroll secured a position as clerk to William Herbert, 1st Marquess of Powis, according to Carroll family tradition, Powis told his new clerk that he believed King James was receiving bad advice related to the religious turmoil in England. Powis was concerned about the consequences for English Catholics and he supposedly spoke on Carrolls behalf to an associate of his, Charles Calvert, proprietor of the Maryland colony. Charles Calverts grandfather, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, was a member of Parliament and Secretary of State to James I. Intense lobbying by George Calvert had led to the granting of a charter to the Calvert family. The Maryland colony was established in the 1630s on land granted by this charter and it was intended as a haven for English Catholics and other religious minorities. Carroll received a commission from Calvert as the colonys Attorney General on July 18,1688, en route, Carroll changed his family motto from In fide et in bello forte to Ubicumque cum libertate. This event, known as the Glorious Revolution, had implications for the future of the Maryland colony. Soon after his arrival in Maryland, Carroll presented his commission to the council and was recognized as the new Attorney General of the colonyCharles Carroll the Settler – Charles Carroll the Settler
117. Grover Cleveland – Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. He was also the first and to date only President in American history to serve two terms in office. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation, imperialism and his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance, integrity, and he fought political corruption, patronage, and bossism. As a reformer Cleveland had such prestige that the wing of the Republican Party, called Mugwumps, largely bolted the GOP presidential ticket. As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a national depression. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian, the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, and he also drew corresponding criticism, critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nations economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. Even so, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term, biographer Allan Nevins wrote, n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have and he possessed honesty, courage, firmness, independence, and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not, today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader, generally ranked among the second tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18,1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey to Richard Falley Cleveland, Clevelands father was a Presbyterian minister who was originally from Connecticut. His mother was from Baltimore and was the daughter of a bookseller, on his fathers side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635. On his mothers side, he was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and he was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, Ohio, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell and he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, neighbors later described him as full of fun and inclined to play pranks, and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Clevelands father took a pastorate in Clinton, Oneida County, New York, despite his fathers dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a mercantile apprenticeship in FayettevilleGrover Cleveland – Caldwell Presbyterian parsonage, birthplace of Grover Cleveland
118. John J. Crittenden – John Jordan Crittenden was a politician from the U. S. state of Kentucky. He was also the 17th governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislature, although frequently mentioned as a potential candidate for the U. S. presidency, he never consented to run for the office. During his early career, Crittenden served in the Kentucky House of Representatives and was chosen as speaker on several occasions. With the advent of the Second Party System, he allied with the National Republican Party and was a fervent supporter of Henry Clay and opponent of Democrats Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. He was returned to the Senate in 1842, serving until 1848, Taylor was elected, but Crittenden refused a post in his cabinet, fearing he would be charged with making a corrupt bargain, as Clay had been in 1825. Following Taylors death in 1850, Crittenden resigned the governorship and accepted Millard Fillmores appointment as attorney general, as the Whig Party crumbled in the mid-1850s, Crittenden joined the Know Nothing Party. After the expiration of his term as general, he was again elected to the U. S. Senate. In December 1860, he authored the Crittenden Compromise, a series of resolutions and constitutional amendments he hoped would avert the Civil War, one of Crittendens sons, George B. Crittenden, became a general in the Confederate Army, another son, Thomas Leonidas Crittenden, became a general in the Union Army. The elder Crittenden was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1861, however, he criticized many of the policies of President Abraham Lincoln and the U. S. Congress, including the Emancipation Proclamation and the admission of West Virginia to the Union. He continued to work for reconciliation of the states throughout his time in office and he declared his candidacy for re-election to the House in 1863, but died before the election took place. John Jordan Crittenden was born September 10,1787, near Versailles and he was the second child and first son of Revolutionary War veteran John Crittenden and his wife Judith Harris. John and Judith Crittenden had four sons and five daughters, all, on his fathers side, he was of Welsh ancestry, while his mothers family was French Huguenot. His father had surveyed land in Kentucky with George Rogers Clark, two of Crittendens brothers, Thomas and Robert, became lawyers, while the third, Henry, was a farmer. Crittenden began a college preparatory curriculum at Pisgah Academy in Woodford County and he was then sent to a boarding school in Jessamine County. Among his classmates were Thomas Alexander Marshall and Francis P. Blair, Crittenden became especially close friends with Blair, and later political differences did little to diminish their friendship. After a year at boarding school, Crittenden moved to the Lexington, Kentucky and he began his tertiary studies at Washington College in Lexington, Virginia. During his brief tenure there, he studied mathematics and belles-lettres, Crittenden was dissatisfied with the curriculum at Washington College and matriculated to the College of William and MaryJohn J. Crittenden – John Crittenden
119. John W. Johnston – John Warfield Johnston was an American lawyer and politician from Abingdon, Virginia. He served in the Virginia State Senate, and represented Virginia in the United States Senate when the state was readmitted after the American Civil War and he was United States Senator for 13 years. In national politics, he was a Democrat, however, his restrictions were removed at the suggestion of the Freedmens Bureau when he aided a sick and dying former slave after the War. He was the first person who had sided with the Confederacy to serve in the United States Senate, several issues marked Johnstons senatorial career. He was caught in the middle during the debate over the Arlington Memorial, Johnston was an outspoken opponent of the Texas-Pacific Bill, a sectional struggle for control of railroads in the South, which figured in the Compromise of 1877. He was also an outspoken Funder during Virginias heated debate as to how much of its debt the state ought to have been obliged to pay back. The controversy culminated in the formation of the Readjuster Party and the appointment of William Mahone as its leader, Johnston was born in his paternal grandfathers house, Panicello, near Abingdon, Virginia. He was the child of Dr. John Warfield Johnston. His grandfather was Judge Peter Johnston, who had fought under Henry Light Horse Harry Lee during the Revolutionary War and his mother was the sister of Rees T. Bowen, a Virginia politician, and his paternal uncles included Charles Clement Johnston and General Joseph Eggleston Johnston. His first cousin was U. S, Johnstons ancestry was Scottish, English, Welsh, and Scots-Irish. Johnston attended Abingdon Academy, South Carolina College at Columbia, and he was admitted to the bar in 1839 and commenced practice in Tazewell, Virginia. On October 12,1841, he married Nicketti Buchanan Floyd, the daughter of Governor John Floyd and Letitia Preston, and his wife was Catholic, having converted when young, Johnston converted after the marriage. In 1859, he moved his family to Abingdon, Virginia, an Abingdon resident noted that it was a delightful home to visit and the young men enjoyed the cordial welcome that they received from the old and the young. While there, the family started construction of a new home called Eggleston and they moved in sometime after August 1860. Both the Johnston Memorial Hospital in Abingdon and the Johnston-Willis Hospital in Richmond are named after him, Johnston served as commonwealth attorney for Tazewell County between 1844 and 1846. In 1846, he was elected to serve the remainder of the 1846–1847 term in the Virginia Senate, representing Tazewell, Wythe, Grayson, Smyth, Carroll and he was re-elected for the 1847–1848 session. During the Civil War, he held the position of Confederate States receiver, not much is known of his activities during the war, but he did send a letter to Brigadier-General John Echols that the Order of Heroes of America, was growing fearfully in southwest Virginia. This secret order was composed of Union sympathizers and this information was used in conjunction with other reports to request a suspension of habeas corpus so that the military could make arrestsJohn W. Johnston – John W. Johnston
120. Edwin P. Morrow – Edwin Porch Morrow was an American politician, of Scottish descent, who served as the 40th Governor of Kentucky from 1919 to 1923. He was the only Republican elected to this office between 1907 and 1927 and he championed the typical Republican causes of his day, namely equal rights for African-Americans and the use of force to quell violence. Morrow had been schooled in his partys principles by his father, Thomas Z. Morrow, who was its candidate for governor in 1883, and his uncle, William O. Bradley, both men were founding members of the Republican Party in Kentucky. After rendering non-combat service in the Spanish–American War, Morrow graduated from the University of Cincinnati Law School in 1902 and opened his practice in Lexington, Kentucky. He made a name for himself almost immediately by securing the acquittal of a man who had been charged with murder based on an extorted confession. He was appointed U. S. District Attorney for the Eastern District of Kentucky by President William Howard Taft in 1910, in 1915, he ran for governor against his good friend, Augustus O. Stanley. Stanley won the election by 471 votes, making the 1915 contest the closest gubernatorial race in the states history, Morrow ran for governor again in 1919. His opponent, James D. Black, had ascended to the governorship earlier that year when Stanley resigned to take a seat in the U. S. Senate. Morrow encouraged voters to Right the Wrong of 1915 and ran on a platform that included womens suffrage. He charged the Democratic administration with corruption, citing specific examples, with a friendly legislature in 1920, he passed much of his agenda into law including an anti-lynching law and a reorganization of state government. He won national acclaim for preventing the lynching of a prisoner in 1920. He was not hesitant to remove officials who did not prevent or quell mob violence. By 1922, Democrats regained control of the General Assembly, following his term as governor, he served on the United States Railroad Labor Board and the Railway Mediation Board, but never again held elected office. He died of an attack on June 15,1935. Edwin Morrow was born to Thomas Zanzinger and Virginia Catherine Morrow in Somerset, Kentucky and he and his twin brother, Charles, were the youngest of eight children. His father was one of the founders of the Republican Party in Kentucky and his mother was a sister to William OConnell Bradley, who was elected the first Republican governor of Kentucky in 1895. Morrows great-grandfather Thomas Morrow emigrated to America from Scotland before the Revolutionary War, Morrows early education was in the public schools of Somerset. At age 14, he entered school at St. Marys College near LebanonEdwin P. Morrow – Edwin P. Morrow
121. Barack Obama – Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but also spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009. Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama also advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating. He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a yearBarack Obama – Barack Obama
122. Rosa Parks – Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called the first lady of civil rights and the mother of the freedom movement. On December 1,1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blakes order to give up her seat in the section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation, Parks act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an icon of resistance to racial segregation. At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP and she had recently attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen tired of giving in, although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act, she was fired from her job as a seamstress in a local department store, and received death threats for years afterwards. Shortly after the boycott, she moved to Detroit, where she found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers and she was also active in the Black Power movement and the support of political prisoners in the US. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that the struggle for justice was not over, in her final years, she suffered from dementia. Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman and her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in California and Missouri, and Ohio and Oregon. Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4,1913, to Leona, a teacher, and James McCauley, a carpenter. She was of African ancestry, though one of her great-grandfathers was Scots-Irish and she was small as a child and suffered poor health with chronic tonsillitis. When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to Pine Level, just outside the state capital and she grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents, mother, and younger brother Sylvester. They all were members of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, an independent black denomination founded by free blacks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. McCauley attended rural schools until the age of eleven, as a student at the Industrial School for Girls in Montgomery, she took academic and vocational courses. Bus and train companies enforced seating policies with separate sections for blacks, School bus transportation was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South, and black education was always underfunded. Parks recalled going to school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs. But to me, that was a way of life, we had no choice, the bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white worldRosa Parks – Rosa Parks in 1955, with Martin Luther King, Jr. in the background
123. Paul E. Patton – Paul Edward Patton is an American politician. He was the 59th Governor of Kentucky, serving from 1995 to 2003, because of a 1992 amendment to the Kentucky Constitution, he was the first governor eligible to succeed himself in office since James Garrard in 1800. Since 2013, he has been the chancellor of the University of Pikeville in Pikeville and he also served as chairman of the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education from 2009 to 2011. After graduating from the University of Kentucky in 1959, Patton became wealthy operating coal mines for 20 years and he sold most of his coal interests in the late 1970s and entered politics, serving briefly in the cabinet of Governor John Y. Brown, Jr. and chairing the state Democratic Party, in 1981, he was elected judge/executive of Pike County. He made a bid for lieutenant governor in 1987, but was elected in 1991, serving concurrently as lieutenant governor. Four years later, Patton was elected Governor over Republican Larry Forgy, the economic prosperity that fueled Pattons first term success faded into a recession in the early 2000s. After initially denying the affair, Patton later admitted to it, later in his term, Patton was attacked for pardoning four of his political advisers who were indicted for violating Kentuckys campaign finance laws and for allegedly abusing his patronage powers. These successive scandals derailed any further political aspirations, Patton was born in Fallsburg, Kentucky on May 26,1937, in a retrofitted silo with no indoor plumbing, electricity, or telephone. He was the son of the three children born to Ward and Irene Patton. The family moved often because Ward Patton, a teacher, was assigned to a different school every year, when he was hired by a railroad in Pike County, he and his wife agreed that she would remain in Fallsburg with the children until they finished school. Patton attended Fallsburg Elementary School, a schoolhouse in his hometown. He was active in the 4-H club, where he began to develop his public speaking ability, in 1951, he enrolled at Louisa High School in Louisa, Kentucky. He was a student, a member of the drama club, a football and baseball player. In 1955, he graduated with the third-highest grade point average in his class of 73, after high school, Patton matriculated to the University of Kentucky. During the spring of 1956 he was initiated into the Kappa Sigma Fraternity, later that year he unsuccessfully sought a seat in the Student Government Association. Following his sophomore year, he married Carol Cooley, daughter of a Floyd County, Kentucky and they had two children together – Nikki and Christopher. Patton borrowed money from his father-in-law to finish his education, and he was later awarded an honorary Doctor of Public Service degree from the University of LouisvillePaul E. Patton – at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, 2012
124. Theodore Roosevelt – Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle and he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a cowboy persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College and his first of many books, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the faction of Republicans in New Yorks state legislature. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of New York in 1898, the state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless role of vice presidential candidate as McKinleys running mate in the election of 1900. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country, helping McKinleys re-election in a victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity. Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the office at age 42, making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nations natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal and he greatly expanded the United States Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, to succeed him in the presidency, after leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe. Returning to the United States, he became frustrated with Tafts approach, failing to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1912, Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912, Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades. Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led an expedition to the Amazon basin. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and offered his military services, although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest American presidents. Historians admire Roosevelt for rooting out corruption in his administration, but are critical of his 1909 libel lawsuits against the World and his face was carved into Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27,1858, at East 20th Street in New York City and he was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch and glass businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt SrTheodore Roosevelt – Theodore Roosevelt
125. Terry Sanford – James Terry Sanford was a United States politician and educator from North Carolina. A member of the Democratic Party, Sanford was the 65th Governor of North Carolina, Presidential candidate in the 1970s and a U. S. Senator. From 1969 to 1985, Sanford was President of Duke University, an Eagle Scout as a youth, Sanford became an FBI agent after graduating from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1939. During World War II, he saw combat in the European Theatre, Sanford was born in 1917 in Laurinburg, North Carolina, the son of Elizabeth Terry and Cecil Leroy Sanford, both of English descent. He became an Eagle Scout in Laurinburgs Troop 20 of the Boy Scouts of America, shortly before he died, Sanford related his Scouting experience to journalist David Gergen and said that it probably saved my life in the war. Boys who had been Scouts or had been in the CCC knew how to look after themselves in the woods, what I learned in Scouts sustained me all my life, it helped me make decisions about what was best. The BSA recognized him with its Distinguished Eagle Scout Award, Sanford graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1939 and then served as a special agent in the FBI for two years. He married Margaret Rose Knight on July 4,1942, during World War II, he enlisted as a private in the US Army and later attained the rank of first lieutenant. He parachuted into France with the 517th Parachute Infantry Regiment and subsequently fought in the Battle of the Bulge and he was awarded the Bronze Star and Purple Heart for his bravery and wounds, respectively. Sanford was honorably discharged in 1946, Sanford later served as a company commander with the rank of captain in Company K of 119th Infantry Regiment of the North Carolina Army National Guard from 1948 to 1960. Sanford was an assistant director of the Institute of Government of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1946 until 1948, Sanford served one term as a state senator, and chose not to run for a second term. He ran for governor of North Carolina in 1960, defeating I, beverly Lake, Sr. Malcolm Buie Seawell, and John D. Larkins in the Democratic primary and Robert Gavin in the general election. Elected to a term, Sanford served from January 1961 through January 1965. Driven by his belief that a person could accomplish anything with a good education and he began consolidating the University of North Carolina system to ensure its solvency and strength and oversaw the creation of the North Carolina Community College System. He conceived the idea for the Governors School of North Carolina and he fought for racial desegregation, and even sent his son to a desegregated public school at a time when such a position was politically unpopular and possibly dangerous. He also established the North Carolina Fund under the leadership of George Esser to fight poverty, controversial tax increases were made to finance these educational programs. One such tax, on food, roused much opposition and was decried as regressive by many, the food tax, nicknamed Terrys Tax, and other taxes implemented by Sanford diminished his popularity and were heavily criticized by his political opponents. Governor Sanford was a political ally of President John F. KennedyTerry Sanford – Terry Sanford
126. Antonin Scalia – Antonin Gregory Scalia was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Courts conservative wing. Scalia was born in Trenton, New Jersey and he attended Xavier High School in Manhattan and then college at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. He obtained his law degree from Harvard Law School and spent six years in a Cleveland law firm before becoming a law professor at the University of Virginia. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations and he spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society. In 1982, Ronald Reagan appointed him as judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, in 1986, Reagan appointed him to the Supreme Court. Scalia was unanimously confirmed by the Senate, becoming the first Italian-American justice and he was a strong defender of the powers of the executive branch, believing presidential power should be paramount in many areas. He opposed affirmative action and other policies that treated minorities as special groups and he filed separate opinions in many cases and often castigated the Courts majority in his minority opinions using scathing language. Antonin Scalia was born on March 11,1936, in Trenton, New Jersey and his father, Salvatore Eugene Scalia, an Italian immigrant from Sommatino, Sicily, was a graduate student at Columbia University and clerk at the time of his sons birth. The elder Scalia would become a professor of Romance languages at Brooklyn College and his mother, Catherine Louise Scalia, was born in Trenton to Italian immigrant parents and worked as an elementary school teacher. In 1939, Scalia and his moved to the Elmhurst section of Queens, New York. He later stated that he spent much of his time on schoolwork and admitted, while a youth, he was also active as a Boy Scout and was part of Scoutings national honor society, the Order of the Arrow. Classmate and future New York State official William Stern remembered Scalia in his school days. He could have been a member of the Curia and he was the top student in the class. He was brilliant, way above everybody else, in 1953, Scalia enrolled at Georgetown University, where he graduated valedictorian and summa cum laude in 1957 with a Bachelor of Arts in history. While in college, he was a champion debater in Georgetowns Philodemic Society. He took his junior year abroad at the University of Fribourg, Scalia studied law at Harvard Law School, where he was a Notes Editor for the Harvard Law Review. He graduated magna cum laude from Harvard in 1960, becoming a Sheldon Fellow of Harvard University, the fellowship enabled him to travel throughout Europe during 1960–1961Antonin Scalia – The Honorable Antonin Scalia
127. Jerry Voorhis – Horace Jeremiah Jerry Voorhis was a Democratic politician from California. He served five terms in the United States House of Representatives from 1937 to 1947 and he was the first political opponent of Richard Nixon, who defeated Voorhis for re-election in 1946 in a campaign cited as an example of Nixons use of red-baiting during his political rise. Voorhis was born in Kansas, but the family relocated frequently in his childhood and he earned a bachelors degree from Yale University and a masters degree in education from Claremont Graduate School. In 1928, he founded the Voorhis School for Boys and became its headmaster and he retained the post into his congressional career. In the House of Representatives, Voorhis was a supporter of the New Deal. His major legislative achievement was the Voorhis Act of 1940 requiring registration of certain organizations controlled by foreign powers, Nixon won the Republican-leaning district by over 15,000 votes and Voorhis refused to run against Nixon in 1948. During a writing career spanning a half-century, Voorhis penned several books, following his defeat by Nixon, he retired from politics and worked for almost twenty years as an executive in the cooperative movement. He died in a California retirement home in 1984 at the age of 83, Voorhis was born in Ottawa, Kansas, on April 6,1901, to Charles Brown Voorhis, of Dutch descent, and Ella Ward Voorhis. Charles Voorhis took work in an investment company and as a baseball player. Jerry Voorhis began school in Ottawa, but also attended school in Oklahoma City, Peoria, Illinois and Pontiac and he attended The Hotchkiss School, an elite boys boarding school in Connecticut with close ties to Yale University, and subsequently attended Yale, graduating in 1923. Voorhis was elected as a member of Phi Beta Kappa, was president of the Christian Association, Voorhis resisted all encouragement toward a business or management career, much to his fathers disappointment. He later stated that he lacked the faith in his own judgment to leave Yale, however, once he graduated, Voorhis engaged a room at a boarding house and went to work as a receiving clerk, a job he soon exchanged for one as a freight handler. Later in 1923, he was laid off, in 1923 and 1924, he served as a traveling representative for the YMCA in Germany, though his stay was cut short by illness. Suffering from pneumonia, Voorhis spent six weeks recovering in a London nursing home, Charles Voorhiss job with Nash had taken him to a new home in Kenosha, Wisconsin, Jerry Voorhis joined his parents there on his return from Europe. As part of his recovery from his illness, he spent several weeks in northwestern Wyoming, working on a ranch, in Kenosha, he met a social worker named Alice Louise Livingston and married her on November 27,1924, in her hometown of Washington, Iowa. This was followed by a year in Laramie, Wyoming, where the Voorhises founded, in 1927, the now-retired Charles Voorhis offered his son an opportunity to found a boys academy near the elder Voorhiss home in Pasadena, California. Jerry Voorhis responded by moving to California, in 1928, he founded and became headmaster of the Voorhis School for Boys in San Dimas, California, a post he retained after his election to Congress. In addition to academic tutelage, the Voorhis Schools boys received training in farming, mechanical work, Charles and Jerry Voorhis would put much of the family fortune into the schoolJerry Voorhis – Jerry Voorhis
128. Daniel Webster – Daniel Webster was an American politician who twice served in the United States House of Representatives, representing New Hampshire and Massachusetts, served as a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts and was twice the United States Secretary of State, under Presidents William Henry Harrison and John Tyler and he and James G. Blaine were the only two people to serve as Secretary of State under three presidents. Webster also sought the Whig Party nomination for President three times, in 1836,1840 and 1852. As a diplomat he is best known for negotiating the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with Great Britain, Webster was an outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader. He spoke for conservatives and led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and he was a spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his opponents in Jacksonian democracy. He was a thoroughgoing elitist, and he reveled in it, chiefly recognized for his Senate tenure, Webster was a key figure in the institutions Golden days. Webster was the Northern member of the Great Triumvirate, with his colleagues Henry Clay from the West and his Reply to Hayne in 1830 has been regarded as one of the greatest speeches in the Senates history. As with his fellow Whig Henry Clay, Webster wanted to see the Union preserved and they both worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the North and the South. Websters support for the Compromise of 1850, devised in part by Clay, in 1957, a Senate committee selected Webster as one of the five greatest U. S. Senators with Clay, Calhoun, Robert La Follette, and Robert A. Taft, Daniel Webster was born on January 18,1782, in Salisbury, New Hampshire, the present-day city of Franklin. He was the son of Abigail and Ebenezer Webster and he and his nine siblings grew up on their parents farm, a small parcel of land granted to his father. His ancestors were among the settlers of Salisbury. Webster attended Phillips Exeter Academy, a school in Exeter. He was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the town, in 1800. After he graduated from Dartmouth, Webster was apprenticed to the lawyer Thomas W. Thompson in Salisbury, in 1802 Webster began as the headmaster of the Fryeburg Academy, Maine, where he served for one year. When Ezekiels education could no longer be sustained, Webster returned to his apprenticeship, in 1804 he left New Hampshire and got a position in Boston under the prominent attorney Christopher Gore. Clerking for Gore – who was involved in international, national, in 1805 Webster was admitted to the bar. He returned to New Hampshire to set up a practice in Boscawen and he began to speak locally in support of Federalist causes and candidatesDaniel Webster – Daniel Webster
129. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and then as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but then relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security. His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work also influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was presidentFranklin D. Roosevelt – Roosevelt in 1933
130. Harry S. Truman – Harry S. Truman was an American politician who served as the 33rd President of the United States, assuming the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt during the waning months of World War II. In domestic affairs, he was a moderate Democrat whose liberal proposals were a continuation of Franklin Roosevelts New Deal, but the conservative-dominated Congress blocked most of them. He also used weapons to end World War II, desegregated the U. S. armed forces, supported a newly independent Israel. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, and spent most of his youth on his familys 600-acre farm near Independence, in the last months of World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he owned a haberdashery in Kansas City, Missouri, and joined the Democratic Party. Truman was first elected to office as a county official in 1922. After serving as a United States Senator from Missouri and briefly as Vice President, he succeeded to the presidency on April 12,1945, upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Germany surrendered on Trumans 61st birthday, just a few weeks after he assumed the presidency, but the war with Imperial Japan raged on and was expected to last at least another year. Although this decision and the issues that arose as a result of it remain the subject of debate to this day. Truman presided over a surge in economic prosperity as America sought readjustment after long years of depression. His presidency was a point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy. Truman helped found the United Nations in 1945, issued the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to contain Communism and his political coalition was based on the white South, labor unions, farmers, ethnic groups, and traditional Democrats across the North. Truman was able to rally groups of supporters during the 1948 presidential election. The Soviet Union became an enemy in the Cold War, Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949, but was unable to stop Communists from taking over China. When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he sent U. S. troops, after initial successes in Korea, however, the UN forces were thrown back by Chinese intervention, and the conflict was stalemated throughout the final years of Trumans presidency. Scholars, starting in 1962, ranked Trumans presidency as near great, Harry S. Truman was born on May 8,1884, in Lamar, Missouri, the oldest child of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman. His parents chose the name Harry after his mothers brother, Harrison Harry Young, while the S did not stand for any one name, it was chosen as his middle initial to honor both of his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. The initial has been written and printed followed by a periodHarry S. Truman – Harry S. Truman
131. David A. Johnston – David Alexander Johnston was an American USGS volcanologist who was killed by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington. A principal scientist on the USGS monitoring team, Johnston was killed in the eruption while manning an observation post 6 miles away on the morning of May 18,1980 and he was the first to report the eruption, transmitting Vancouver. Before he was swept away by a lateral blast, despite a thorough search, Johnstons body was never found, but state highway workers discovered remnants of his USGS trailer in 1993. Johnstons career took him across the United States, where he studied Augustine Volcano in Alaska, the San Juan volcanic field in Colorado, Johnston was a meticulous and talented scientist, known for his analyses of volcanic gases and their relationship to eruptions. This, along with his enthusiasm and positive attitude, made him liked and respected by many co-workers, after his death, other scientists lauded his character, both verbally and in dedications and letters. Johnston felt scientists must do what is necessary, including taking risks and his work, and that of fellow USGS scientists convinced authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the public before the 1980 eruption. They maintained the closure despite heavy pressure to re-open the area and his story became intertwined within the popular image of volcanic eruptions and their threat to society, and a part of volcanologys history. To date, Johnston, along with Harry Glicken, is one of two American volcanologists known to have died in a volcanic eruption. Following his death, Johnston was commemorated in several ways, including a fund established in his name at the University of Washington to fund graduate-level research. Two volcano observatories were established and named him, one in Vancouver, Washington. Johnstons life and death are featured in documentaries, films, docudramas. Along with others who died during the eruption, Johnstons name is inscribed on memorials dedicated to their memory, Johnston was born at the University of Chicago Hospital on December 18,1949, to Thomas and Alice Johnston. They originally lived in Hometown, Illinois, but moved to Oak Lawn shortly after Johnstons birth, Johnston grew up with one sister. His father worked as an engineer at a company and his mother as a newspaper editor. Johnston often took photographs for his mothers newspaper and contributed articles to his schools newspaper, after graduating from high school, Johnston attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He planned to study journalism, but became discouraged after a poor grade in a lecture class. He was intrigued by a geology class, and changed his major. His first geologic project was a study of the Precambrian rock that forms Michigans Upper Peninsula, There he investigated the remains of an ancient volcano, a suite of metamorphosed basalts, a gabbroic sill, and volcanic roots in the form of a dioritic and gabbroic intrusionDavid A. Johnston – David A. Johnston, 13 hours before his death at the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
132. Glynn Lunney – Glynn S. Lunney is a retired NASA engineer. At the end of the Apollo program, he became manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, later, he served as manager of the Space Shuttle program before leaving NASA in 1985 and later becoming a vice president of the United Space Alliance. Lunney was a key figure in the US manned space program from Project Mercury through the coming of the Space Shuttle and he has received numerous awards for his work, including the National Space Trophy, which he was given by the Rotary Club in 2005. Glynn Lunney grew up in the city of Old Forge. He was the eldest son of William Lunney, a welder and former miner who encouraged his son to get an education, Lunney graduated from the Scranton Preparatory School in 1953. A childhood interest in model airplanes prompted Lunney to study engineering in college, the center was a part of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, a United States federal agency founded to promote aeronautical research. Cooperative students at NACA took part in a program that combined work and study, Lunney graduated from college in June 1958, with a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace engineering. After graduation, Lunney remained with NACA and his first job was as a researcher in aerospace dynamics at Lewis Research Center, where he worked with a team studying the thermodynamics of vehicles during high-speed reentry. Using a B-57 bomber, the team sent small rockets high into the atmosphere in order to measure their heating profile, only a month after Lunney graduated, President Eisenhower signed into existence the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, into which NACA was subsumed. His timing was perfect, for as Lunney later said, there was no such thing as space flight until the month I got out of college, aged twenty-one, he was the youngest of the forty-five members of the group. A member of the Flight Operations Division, Lunney was one of the responsible for planning and creating procedures for Project Mercury. He took part in the writing of the first set of mission rules and his colleague Gene Kranz described him as the pioneer leader of trajectory operations, who turned his craft from an art practiced by a few into a pure science. It was during these years that Lunney became the protege of flight director Chris Kraft, Lunney worked both in the Control Center and at remote sites, during the flight of John Glenn, Americas first orbital spaceflight, he was serving as the FIDO in Bermuda. In September 1961, NASAs Space Task Group was reorganized into the Manned Spacecraft Center and moved to Houston, Texas, and Lunney moved with it. Gemini was a forward for NASAs manned space program, the Gemini capsule was larger and more advanced than Mercury. Because of the longer durations, Mission Control began to be manned in shifts. In 1964, Glynn Lunney and Gene Kranz were selected by Chris Kraft to join Kraft, aged only twenty-eight, Lunney was the youngest of the four. Lunney worked backup on Gemini 3, taking charge of the newly established Mission Control Center in Houston, on Gemini 4, he again was working backup, this time in Florida, supporting the first mission that was controlled entirely from HoustonGlynn Lunney – Glynn Lunney in 1974, as manager of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
133. Barbara McClintock – Barbara McClintock was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. McClintock received her PhD in botany from Cornell University in 1927, there she started her career as the leader in the development of maize cytogenetics, the focus of her research for the rest of her life. From the late 1920s, McClintock studied chromosomes and how they change during reproduction in maize and she developed the technique for visualizing maize chromosomes and used microscopic analysis to demonstrate many fundamental genetic ideas. One of those ideas was the notion of genetic recombination by crossing-over during meiosis—a mechanism by which exchange information. She produced the first genetic map for maize, linking regions of the chromosome to physical traits and she demonstrated the role of the telomere and centromere, regions of the chromosome that are important in the conservation of genetic information. She was recognized among the best in the field, awarded prestigious fellowships, during the 1940s and 1950s, McClintock discovered transposition and used it to demonstrate that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off. She developed theories to explain the suppression and expression of genetic information from one generation of plants to the next. Due to skepticism of her research and its implications, she stopped publishing her data in 1953, later, she made an extensive study of the cytogenetics and ethnobotany of maize races from South America. Barbara McClintock was born Eleanor McClintock on June 16,1902 in Hartford, Connecticut, Thomas McClintock was the child of British immigrants, and Sara Handy, born Grace, descended from an old American Mayflower family. Marjorie, the oldest child, was born in October 1898, Mignon, the youngest, Malcolm Rider, was born 18 months after Barbara. As a young girl, her parents determined that Eleanor, a feminine and delicate name, was not appropriate for her, McClintock was an independent child beginning at a very young age, a trait she later identified as her capacity to be alone. She was described as a solitary and independent child and she was close to her father, but had a difficult relationship with her mother, tension that began when she was young. The McClintock family moved to Brooklyn in 1908 and McClintock completed her education there at Erasmus Hall High School. She discovered her love of science and reaffirmed her solitary personality during high school and she wanted to continue her studies at Cornell Universitys College of Agriculture. Her mother resisted sending McClintock to college, for fear that she would be unmarriageable, McClintock was almost prevented from starting college, but her father intervened just before registration began, and she matriculated at Cornell in 1919. McClintock began her studies at Cornells College of Agriculture in 1919, there, she participated in student government and was invited to join a sorority, though she soon realized that she preferred not to join formal organizations. Instead, McClintock took up music, specifically jazz and she studied botany, receiving a BSc in 1923. Her interest in genetics began when she took her first course in that field in 1921, the course was based on a similar one offered at Harvard University, and was taught by C. BBarbara McClintock – Barbara McClintock shown in her laboratory.
134. Otto Julius Zobel – Otto Julius Zobel was an electrical engineer who worked for the American Telephone & Telegraph Company in the early part of the 20th century. Although much of Zobels work has been superseded by more modern designs, it remains the basis of filter theory. Zobel invented the m-derived filter and the filter, which remains in use. Thus, they anticipated the work of Claude Shannon, who showed how the theoretical information rate of a channel is related to the noise of the channel. Otto Julius Zobel was born on October 20,1887 in Ripon and he first studied at Ripon College, where he received his BA in 1909 with a thesis on Theoretical and experimental treatment of electrical condensers. He later received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from Ripon and he then went to the University of Wisconsin and graduated with an MA in physics in 1910. Zobel stayed at the University of Wisconsin as an instructor from 1910 to 1915. This followed his 1913 co-authoring of a book on the subject of geophysical thermodynamics, from 1915 to 1916 he taught physics at the University of Minnesota. Having moved to Maplewood, New Jersey, he joined AT&T in 1916 and he retired from Bell Telephone in 1952. The last of his prolific list of patents occurred for Bell Labs in the 1950s, by time he was residing in Morristown. He died there of an attack in January 1970. Zobels early work on heat conduction was not pursued in his later career, there are, however, some interesting connections. Lord Kelvin in his work on the transmission line derived the properties of the electric line by analogy with heat conduction. This is based on Fouriers law and the Fourier conduction equation, Ingersoll and Zobel describe the work of Kelvin and Fourier in their book and Kelvins approach to the representation of transmission functions would consequently have been very familiar to Zobel. It is therefore no surprise that in Zobels paper on the wave filter a very similar representation is found for the transmission function of filters. Solutions to the Fourier equation can be provided by Fourier series, Ingersoll and Zobel state that in many cases the calculation involved makes the solution well-nigh impossible by analytical means. With modern technology such a calculation is trivially easy, but Ingersoll and Zobel recommend the use of harmonic analysers and these machines add together mechanical oscillations of various frequencies, phases and amplitudes by combining them through a set of pulleys or springs, one for each oscillator. The reverse process is possible, driving the machine with the functionOtto Julius Zobel – A harmonic analyser, due to Lord Kelvin, intended to be used for the prediction of tides. Ingersoll and Zobel found this design of limited use for Fourier analysis because of the very small number of frequencies measured.
135. List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. – This list of tallest buildings in Washington, D. C. ranks high-rises in the U. S. capital city of Washington, D. C. The tallest structure in the city, excluding radio towers, is the Washington Monument, the structure, however, is not generally considered a high-rise building as it does not have successive floors that can be occupied. The tallest habitable building in the city is the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, the second-tallest building in Washington is the Old Post Office Building, which is 315 feet high. The third-tallest building in the city is the Washington National Cathedral, the cathedral is built on high ground known as Mount St. Alban,400 feet above sea level, which makes the central tower the highest point in the District. As of November 2011, there are 410 completed high-rises in the city, washingtons history of skyscrapers began with the completion in 1894 of the 14-story Cairo Hotel, which is considered to be the citys first high-rise. The building rises 164 feet and 14 floors, Washington went through an early high-rise construction boom from the late 1890s to the mid-1930s, during which time the Old Post Office Building and the Federal Triangle were built. However, although the city is home to several high-rises, none are considered to be genuine skyscrapers, the height of buildings in Washington is limited by the Height of Buildings Act. The original Act was passed by Congress in 1899 in response to the 1894 construction of the Cairo Hotel, which is much taller than the majority of buildings in the city. The original act restricted the heights of any type of building in the United States capital city of Washington, however, building heights are measured from the sidewalk or curb to the edge of the roof. Architectural embellishments, mechanical rooms, and common rooftop structures may be exempted from the height limit. The heights of buildings listed here may therefore exceed the height limit as measured for the purpose of the citys zoning laws. In modern times the skyline remains low and sprawling, keeping with Thomas Jeffersons wishes to make Washington an American Paris with low and convenient buildings on light and airy streets. Washingtons height restriction, however, has been assailed as one of the reasons why the city has inflated rents, limited affordable housing. To escape the Districts height restriction, architects wishing to construct higher buildings close to downtown often do so in Rosslyn, Virginia, one of the most recently completed buildings in Washington, D. C. is Capitol View, which is 171 feet high. As of July 2008, there is one high-rise under construction in the city that is expected to rise at least 150 feet, with one more proposed and one approved for construction. Onyx on First is the only high-rise under construction in Washington, upon completion, two other large developments taking place are Square 54 Residential I, which is proposed for construction, and the PNC Bank Building, which is approved. As of July 2008, there is a total of four buildings under construction, approved for construction. This lists ranks Washington skyscrapers that stand at least 150 feet and this includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna mastsList of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. – Aerial image of Northwest Washington, D.C.
136. List of U.S. state name etymologies – The fifty U. S. states have taken their names from a wide variety of languages. Twenty-two other state names derive from European languages, seven come from Latin, five come from English, five come from Spanish, the etymologies of six states are disputed or unclear, Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Oregon, and Rhode Island. Of the fifty states, eleven are named after an individual person, of those eleven, seven are named in honor of European monarchs, the two Carolinas, the two Virginias, Maryland, Louisiana and Georgia. Native American Placenames of the United States, guyton, Kathy U. S. State Names, The Stories of How Our States Were NamedList of U.S. state name etymologies – Map showing the source languages of state names
137. List of U.S. states by population – As of April 1,2010, the date of the 2010 United States Census, the nine most populous U. S. states contain slightly more than half of the total population. The 25 least populous states contain less than one-sixth of the total population, california, the most populous state, contains more people than the 21 least populous states combined. The United States Census counts most persons residing in the United States including citizens, non-citizen permanent residents, civilian and military federal employees serving abroad and their dependents are counted in their home state. This apportionment is based on the proportion of states population to that of the Fifty States together. The Electoral College is the body that, every four years, elects the President, each states representation in the Electoral College is equal to that states total number of members in both houses of the United States Congress. The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution effectively grants the District of Columbia, which is separate from any state, three votes. More precisely, the district gets as many votes in the Electoral College as it would have if it were a state, since the Constitution guarantees every state at least one Representative and effectively guarantees every state two Senators, it effectively guarantees every state at least three electoral votes. Thus, the representation in the College is 538 members. The eleven most populous states, representing 56% of the population, currently have a majority of the Electoral College votes and these eleven states have not voted for the same candidate in any presidential election since 1984. 2010 Apportionment Population, U. S. Census Bureau, retrieved January 6,20112009 Census estimates. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07, statistical Abstract of the United States,1995, U. S. Census Bureau, Section 29, Outlying Areas, Table No.1347. Land Area and Population Characteristics, by Area,1990, retrieved May 28,2011 Specific United States Government United States Census Bureau USCB population estimates United States Office of Management and BudgetList of U.S. states by population – Map of each state's population as of 2013.
138. United States Secretary of Energy – The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the U. S. Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, and fourteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1,1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act, originally the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education, after the end of the Cold War, the departments attention also turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality. Schlesinger is also the secretary to be dismissed from the post. Hazel OLeary, Bill Clintons first Secretary of Energy, was the first female, the first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clintons second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on November 15,2004, steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 20,2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama. He is also the longest-serving Secretary of Energy, parties Democratic Republican As of April 2017, there are ten living former Secretaries of Energy, the oldest being Charles Duncan, Jr. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was James B, the most recently serving Secretary to die was James D. Watkins on July 26,2012. United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy Official site of U. S. Department of EnergyUnited States Secretary of Energy – Incumbent Ernest Moniz since May 21, 2013
139. Pre-Columbian – For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are also in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, however, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50. In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a later date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were then very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of toolsPre-Columbian – Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio
140. Territorial acquisitions of the United States – This is a United States territorial acquisitions and conquests list, beginning with American independence. Note that this list primarily concerns land the United States acquired from other nation-states, Territorial acquisitions derived from the displacement of Native Americans are not listed here. The 1783 Treaty of Paris with Great Britain defined the borders of the United States. It generally stretched from the Eastern Seaboard to the Mississippi River in the west, there were ambiguities in the treaty regarding the exact border with Canada to the north that led to disputes that were resolved by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty in 1842. Beginning in the late 18th century, the new nation organized areas west of the Original thirteen states into several United States territories, the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was negotiated with Napoleon during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, the territory was acquired from France for $15 million. A small portion of land was ceded to Britain in 1818 in exchange for the Red River Basin. More of this land was ceded to Spain in 1819 with the Florida Purchase, West Florida was declared to be a U. S. possession in 1810 by President James Madison after the territory had declared its independence from Spain. Madison ordered the U. S. Army to take control, six weeks later, the army entered and occupied the capital, St. Francisville, putting an end to the republic after 74 days of independence. Spain did not relinquish its claim to sovereignty until ratification of the Adams-Onís Treaty, general Andrew Jackson personally accepted the delivery of West Florida from its Spanish governor on July 17,1821. The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 with Spain resulted in Spains cession of East Florida, Article III of the treaty, when properly surveyed, resulted in the acquisition of a small part of central Colorado. Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with Britain split the territory in Maine and New Brunswick and finalized the border with Canada. In 1850 Britain ceded to the U. S. less than one acre of underwater rock in Lake Erie near Buffalo for a lighthouse, Congress approved the annexation of Texas on February 28,1845. On December 29,1845, Texas became the 28th state, Mexico acknowledged the loss of territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848. The San Juan Islands were claimed and jointly occupied by the U. S. arbitration led to the sole U. S. possession of the San Juan Islands since 1872. The United States paid $15 million and agreed to pay claims made by American citizens against Mexico which amounted to more than $3 million. In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the United States purchased a strip of land along the Mexico–United States border for $10 million, now in New Mexico and this territory was intended for a southern transcontinental railroad. Alaska Purchase from the Russian Empire for $7.2 million on March 30,1867, the land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory on May 11,1912, and the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959. The Kingdom of Hawaii was closely linked by missionary work and trade to the U. S. by the 1880s, in 1893 business leaders overthrew the Queen of Hawaii and sought annexationTerritorial acquisitions of the United States – Census Bureau map depicting territorial acquisitions and dates of statehood, probably created in the 1970s or thereabouts
141. American Civil War – The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864American Civil War – New Orleans the largest cotton exporting port for New England and Great Britain textile mills, shipping Mississippi River Valley goods from North, South and Border states.
142. Reconstruction Era – Johnson followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincolns last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. A Republican coalition came to power in all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army. The Bureau protected the rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts. Thousands of Northerners came South as missionaries, teachers, businessmen, rebuilding the rundown railroad system was a major strategy, but it collapsed when a nationwide depression struck the economy. The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnsons opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges, in early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmens Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. Meanwhile, self-styled Conservatives strongly opposed reconstruction and they alleged widespread corruption by the Carpetbaggers, excessive state spending and ruinous taxes. Southern democrats and conservatives violently counterattacked and had regained power in each redeemed Southern state by 1877, meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North, as voters decided that the Civil War and years of conflict should stop. Reconstruction was a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States, in the different states Reconstruction began and ended at different times, federal Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in 1863 rather than 1865, Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1,1863. As Confederate states came back under control of the US Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in Tennessee, Arkansas and he experimented by giving land to blacks in South Carolina. By fall 1865, the new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity, Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnsons lenient terms, rejected new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before. Johnson broke with the Republicans after vetoing two key bills that supported the Freedmens Bureau and provided federal civil rights to the freedmen and that same year, Congress removed civilian governments in the South, and placed the former Confederacy under the rule of the U. S. Army. In ten states, coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North, Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and whites who supported Reconstruction. Most of the violence was carried out by members of the Ku Klux Klan, Klan members attacked and intimidated blacks seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the south favoring those civil rights. One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the 1868 presidential election was Republican Congressman James M. Hinds of Arkansas, widespread violence in the south led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1871, which suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, white Democrats, calling themselves Redeemers, regained control of the state by state, sometimes using fraud. The end of Reconstruction was a process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different statesReconstruction Era – The southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865
143. World War I – World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and GermanyWorld War I – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
144. Great Depression – The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together, government and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, consumers, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930Great Depression – Dorothea Lange 's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, age 32, a mother of seven children, in Nipomo, California, March 1936
145. Korean War – The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel. After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. SKorean War – Clockwise from top: A column of the U.S. 1st Marine Division 's infantry and armor moves through Chinese lines during their breakout from the Chosin Reservoir; UN landing at Incheon harbor, starting point of the Battle of Incheon; Korean refugees in front of an American M26 Pershing tank; U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, landing at Incheon; F-86 Sabre fighter aircraft
146. Cold War – The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and powers in the Western Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. The term cold is used there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. The Cold War split the temporary alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state ruled by its Communist Party and secret police, the Party controlled the press, the military, the economy and all organizations. In opposition stood the West, dominantly democratic and capitalist with a free press, a small neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, it sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the USSR and USA competed for influence in Latin America, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. Meanwhile, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was stopped by the Soviets, the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, the United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the reforms of perestroika and glasnost. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in Eastern Europe, especially Poland, Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Warsaw Pact regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was a wave of revolutions that peacefully overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. The United States remained as the only superpower. The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy and it is often referred to in popular culture, especially in media featuring themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfareCold War – Photograph of the Berlin Wall taken from the West side. The Wall was built in 1961 to prevent East Germans from fleeing and to stop an economically disastrous drain of workers. It was a symbol of the Cold War and its fall in 1989 marked the approaching end of the war.
147. Vietnam War – It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and later on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962. Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has also been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is also called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decadesVietnam War – Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Offensive, two Douglas A-4C Skyhawks en route for airstrikes against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre.
148. Civil Rights Movement – This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South. The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance, between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to immediately to these situations. The 1950s and 1960s Civil Rights Movement witnessed the passage of several pieces of federal legislation. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities, the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 removed racial and national barriers and opened the way for non-white immigrants. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing, African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to take action. A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community. Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King, but, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to one person, organization, or strategy. Before the American Civil War, almost four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only men of property could vote. From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to free labor. Many whites resisted the changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black. In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U. S. Army, however, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to get involved. Many Republican governors were afraid of sending black militia troops to fight the clan in fear of war, for more than 60 years, blacks in the South were not able to elect anyone to represent their interests in Congress or local government. Since they could not vote, they could not serve on local juries, during this period, the white-dominated Democratic Party maintained political control of the South. With whites controlling all the seats representing the population of the South. The Republican Party—the party of Lincoln—which had been the party that most blacks belonged to, until 1965, the solid South was a one-party system under the Democrats. Outside a few areas, the Democratic Party nomination was tantamount to election for state, in 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dine at the White House, making him the first African American to attend an official dinner there. The invitation was roundly criticized by politicians and newspapersCivil Rights Movement – Four leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. From left: Bayard Rustin, Andrew Young, (N.Y. Cong. William Ryan), James Farmer, and John Lewis in 1965.
149. War on Terrorism – The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is a metaphor of war referring to the international military campaign that started after the September 11th attacks on the United States. U. S. President George W. Bush first used the term War on Terror on 20 September 2001 and it was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with Islamic terrorist organizations including al-Qaeda and like-minded organizations. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced that the United States was no longer pursuing a War on Terror, in 2017 Donald Trump assumed presidency of the United States and vowed that the fight against ISIL is his number one priority. Trump has also agreed to work together and carry joint operations with Russian President Vladimir Putin in the war on terror. The phrase War on Terror has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. The conflict has also referred to by names other than the War on Terror. Author Shane Harris asserts this was a reaction to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, Bush later apologized for this remark due to the negative connotations the term crusade has to people, e. g. of the Muslim faith. The word crusade was not used again, on 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, Bush stated that ur war on terror begins with al-Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, in April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase War on Terror as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more recently by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller, in her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were a crime, not an act of war. So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror. U. S. President Barack Obama has rarely used the term, in March 2009 the Defense Department officially changed the name of operations from Global War on Terror to Overseas Contingency Operation. In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term, basic objectives of the Bush administration war on terror, such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. Because the actions involved in the war on terrorism are diffuse, jackson cites among many examples a statement by John Ashcroft that the attacks of September 11 drew a bright line of demarcation between the civil and the savage. Administration officials also described terrorists as hateful, treacherous, barbarous, mad, twisted, perverted, without faith, parasitical, inhuman, Americans, in contrast, were described as brave, loving, generous, strong, resourceful, heroic, and respectful of human rights. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to the Soviet war in Afghanistan, a small number of Afghan Arab volunteers joined the fight against the Soviets, including Osama bin Laden, but there is no evidence they received any external assistance. On 7 August 1998, al-Qaeda struck the U. S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 224 people, the plant produced much of the regions antimalarial drugs and around 50% of Sudans pharmaceutical needs. The strikes failed to kill any leaders of WIFJAJC or the Taliban, next came the 2000 millennium attack plots, which included an attempted bombing of Los Angeles International AirportWar on Terrorism – Clockwise from top left: Aftermath of the 11 September attacks; American infantry in Afghanistan; an American soldier and Afghan interpreter in Zabul Province, Afghanistan; explosion of an Iraqi car bomb in Baghdad.
150. Demographic history of the United States – This article is about the demographic history of the United States. Note that the numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860. Most settlements were created by family groups with several generations often present in each settlement. Probably close to 80% of the owned the land they lived and farmed on. They nearly all used English Common Law as their code of law and, except for the Dutch and Germans. They established their own elected governments and courts and were, within a few years. Many new immigrants did end up on the frontiers as that was where the land was usually the cheapest, the New England colonists included more educated men as well as many skilled farmers, tradesmen and craftsmen. They were mostly farmers and settled in villages for common religious activity. Shipbuilding, commerce, and fisheries were important in coastal towns, New Englands healthy climate, and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate of any place in the world. The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the Yankee descendants of the original New Englanders. Emigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the English Civil War decreased to less than 1% in nearly all years prior to 1845. The rapid growth of the New England colonies was almost entirely due to the birth rate. The middle colonies settlements were scattered west of New York City, New York, the Dutch-started colony of New York had the most eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about 1700. The Pennsylvania colonial center was dominated by the Quakers for decades after they emigrated there, mainly from the North Midlands of England and these settlers were of about 60% British and 33% German extraction. By 1780 in New York about 17% of the population were descendants of Dutch settlers, the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Blacks. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority of British with 7-11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% black population, nearly all were at least third-generation natives. The main drive of the economy in Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina was large plantations growing staples for export, especially tobacco, outside the plantations, land was farmed by independent farmers who rented from the proprietors, or owned it outright. They emphasized subsistence farming to food for their large familiesDemographic history of the United States – Play media
151. Federal government of the United States – The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year termsFederal government of the United States – The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.
152. Law of the United States – The United States Code is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory law. Federal law and treaties, so long as they are in accordance with the Constitution, preempt conflicting state and territorial laws in the 50 U. S. states, however, the scope of federal preemption is limited because the scope of federal power is not universal. Indeed, states may grant their citizens broader rights than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional rights. Thus, most U. S. law consists primarily of state law, which can and does vary greatly from one state to the next. At both the federal and state levels, the law of the United States is largely derived from the law system of English law. However, American law has diverged greatly from its English ancestor both in terms of substance and procedure, and has incorporated a number of civil law innovations. In the United States, the law is derived from five sources, constitutional law, statutory law, treaties, administrative regulations, where Congress enacts a statute that conflicts with the Constitution, the Supreme Court may find that law unconstitutional and declare it invalid. Notably, a statute does not disappear automatically merely because it has been found unconstitutional, many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. However, under the principle of stare decisis, no sensible lower court will enforce an unconstitutional statute, conversely, any court that refuses to enforce a constitutional statute will risk reversal by the Supreme Court. The United States and most Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law tradition of English law. Certain practices traditionally allowed under English common law were expressly outlawed by the Constitution, such as bills of attainder, as common law courts, U. S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. The actual substance of English law was received into the United States in several ways. Some reception statutes impose a specific date for reception, such as the date of a colonys founding. Thus, contemporary U. S. Second, a number of important British statutes in effect at the time of the Revolution have been independently reenacted by U. S. states. Two examples that many lawyers will recognize are the Statute of Frauds, such English statutes are still regularly cited in contemporary American cases interpreting their modern American descendants. However, it is important to understand that despite the presence of reception statutes, early on, American courts, even after the Revolution, often did cite contemporary English cases. But citations to English decisions gradually disappeared during the 19th century as American courts developed their own principles to resolve the problems of the American people. The number of published volumes of American reports soared from eighteen in 1810 to over 8,000 by 1910Law of the United States – The United States Constitution
153. Policing in the United States – Law enforcement in the United States is one of three major components of the criminal justice system of the United States, along with courts and corrections. Although each component operates semi-independently, the three form a chain leading from investigation of suspected criminal activity to administration of criminal punishment. Also, courts are vested with the power to make determinations regarding the conduct of the other two components. Law enforcement operates primarily through governmental police agencies, other duties may include the service and enforcement of warrants, writs, and other orders of the courts. Policing in the United States is conducted by close to 18,000 federal, state, local, every state has its own nomenclature for agencies, and their powers, responsibilities and funding vary from state to state. Both police and law enforcement agencies operate at the highest level and are endowed with police roles, the agencies have nationwide jurisdiction for enforcement of federal law. All federal agencies are limited by the U. S. Code to investigating matters that are explicitly within the power of the federal government. However, federal powers have become very broad in practice. The Department of Justice is responsible for most law enforcement duties at the federal level, the Department of Homeland Security is another branch with numerous federal law enforcement agencies reporting to it. U. S. Customs and Border Protection, U. S and it should be noted that the United States Coast Guard is assigned to the United States Department of Defense in the event of war. Command in such situations remains a complex and flexible issue, each of the United States 50 federated states retain their own police, military and domestic law-making powers. The US Constitution gives the government the power to deal with foreign affairs. For policing, this means if a non-federal crime is committed in a US state and the fugitive does not flee the state. Most states operate statewide government agencies that provide law enforcement duties, including investigations and they may be called state police or highway patrol, and are normally part of the state Department of Public Safety. In addition, the Attorney Generals office of state has its own state bureau of investigation. In Texas, the Texas Ranger Division fulfill this role though they have their history in the period before Texas became a state, in Colorado, for instance, the Department of Revenue has its own investigative branch, as do many of the state-funded universities. Also known as parishes and boroughs, county law enforcement is provided by sheriffs departments or offices, County police tend to exist only in metropolitan counties and have countywide jurisdiction. In some areas, there is a department which only handles minor issues such as service of papersPolicing in the United States – United States Secret Service Uniformed Division officers
154. United States Department of Justice – The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan members, the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department has responsibility to investigate instances of fraud, to represent the United States in legal matters such as in the Supreme Court. The department also has responsibilities to review actions of law enforcement conduct by the Violent Crime Control. The Department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President, the current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions. The U. S. Attorney General was initially a one-person and it was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, but this grew with the bureaucracy. At one time the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, until March 3,1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salary by engaging in private practice of law. Following unsuccessful efforts to put the Attorney Generals Office on a footing, in 1869. On February 19,1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice, President Ulysses S. Grant then signed the bill into law on June 22,1870. The Department of Justice officially began operations on July 1,1870, just prior to the Civil War, in February 1861, the Confederate States of America established a Department of Justice. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as Americas first Solicitor General, both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grants first term in there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. The result was a decrease in violence in the South. Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was better or stronger then Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. Akermans successor, George H. Williams, in December 1871, the law did create a new office, that of Solicitor General, to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, new facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, and a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary, upon Medarys death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger, Borie and Medary took over the projectUnited States Department of Justice – The Robert F. Kennedy Building in August 2006. The building serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Justice.
155. United States Intelligence Community – Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence, who reports to the President of the United States, among their varied responsibilities, the members of the Community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, and perform espionage. The IC was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4,1981, the term Intelligence Community was first used during Lt. Gen. Walter Bedell Smiths tenure as Director of Central Intelligence. Intelligence is information that agencies collect, analyze, and distribute in response to government leaders questions, safeguarding these processes and this information through counterintelligence activities. Execution of covert operations approved by the President. S, international terrorist and/or narcotics activities, and other hostile activities directed against the U. S. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence, whose leadership is exercised through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Under the law, the DNI is responsible for directing and overseeing the NIP, the MIP is directed and controlled by the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. In 2005 the Department of Defense combined the Joint Military Intelligence Program, since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence, assignment of intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic. The overall organization of the IC is primarily governed by the National Security Act of 1947, the statutory organizational relationships were substantially revised with the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act amendments to the 1947 National Security Act. Prior to 2004, the Director of Central Intelligence was the head of the IC, following the passage of IRTPA in 2004, the head of the IC is the Director of National Intelligence. The member elements in the branch are directed and controlled by their respective department heads. By law, only the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the DNI, in light of major intelligence failures in recent years that called into question how well Intelligence Community ensures U. S. Attempts to modernize and facilitate cooperation within the IC include technological, structural, procedural. The U. S. intelligence budget in fiscal year 2013 was appropriated as $52.7 billion, in fiscal year 2012 it peaked at $53.9 billion, according to a disclosure required under a recent law implementing recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. The 2012 figure was up from $53.1 billion in 2010, $49.8 billion in 2009, $47.5 billion in 2008, $43.5 billion in 2007, and $40.9 billion in 2006. About 70 percent of the budget went to contractors for the procurement of technology and services. Intelligence spending has increased by a third over ten years ago, in inflation-adjusted dollars, according to the Center for Strategic, how the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries for about 100,000 people, multibillion-dollar satellite programs, aircraft, weapons, electronic sensors, intelligence analysis, spies, computers, and softwareUnited States Intelligence Community – United States Intelligence Community
156. Defense Intelligence Agency – The Defense Intelligence Agency is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence. It also provides assistance, integration and coordination across uniformed military service intelligence components. The agencys role encompasses the collection and analysis of military-related foreign political, economic, industrial, geographic, DIA produces approximately one-fourth of all intelligence content that goes into the Presidents Daily Brief. DIAs intelligence operations extend beyond the zones of combat, and approximately half of its employees serve overseas at hundreds of locations, the agency specializes in collection and analysis of human-source intelligence, both overt and clandestine, while also handling American military-diplomatic relations abroad. DIA concurrently serves as the manager for the highly technical measurement and signature intelligence. The agency has no law enforcement authority, but it is portrayed so in American popular culture. DIA has a tradition of marking unclassified deaths of its employees on the organizations Memorial Wall and he is the primary intelligence adviser to the Secretary of Defense and also answers to the Director of National Intelligence. Additionally, he chairs the Military Intelligence Board, which coordinates activities of the defense intelligence community. DIA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. on Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling, with operational activities at the Pentagon, at each Unified Combatant Command. Embassies around the world, where it alongside other government partners. Additionally, the agency has staff deployed at the Col. James N, DIA and the Central Intelligence Agency are distinct organizations with different functions. DIA focuses on national level defense-military topics, while CIA is concentrated on broader, more general needs of the President. DIA is not a collective of all U. S. military intelligence units, DIA does, however, lead coordination efforts with the military intelligence units and with the national DOD intelligence services in its role as chair of the Military Intelligence Board. It globally deploys teams of officers, interrogation experts, field analysts, linguists, technical specialists. Defense Attache System, DAS represents the United States in defense and it also manages and conducts overt human intelligence collection activities. Defense Attaches serve from Defense Attache Offices co-located at more than a hundred United States Embassies in foreign nations, Defense Attaches also represent the Secretary of Defense in diplomatic relations with foreign governments and militaries and coordinate military activities with partner nations. Defense Cover Office – DCO is a DIA component responsible for executing cover programs for agencys intelligence operatives, Directorate for Analysis, The Directorate of Analysis manages the all-source analysis elements of DIA. Analysts contribute to the Presidents Daily Brief and the National Intelligence Estimates, analysts serve DIA in all of the agencys facilities as well as globally in the fieldDefense Intelligence Agency – Bird's eye view of DIA HQ from the Potomac in Washington, DC
157. National Security Agency – NSA is concurrently charged with protection of U. S. government communications and information systems against penetration and network warfare. Moreover, NSA maintains physical presence in a number of countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, breaking and entering, additionally, the NSA Director simultaneously serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, NSA surveillance has been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, such as its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders or economic espionage. In 2013, the extent of some of the NSAs secret surveillance programs was revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, internationally, research has pointed to the NSAs ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through boomerang routing. The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28,1917, a code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section which was also known as the Cipher Bureau. It was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization, during the course of the war it was relocated in the armys organizational chart several times. On July 5,1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit, at that point, the unit consisted of Yardley and two civilian clerks. It absorbed the navys cryptoanalysis functions in July 1918, World War I ended on November 11,1918, and MI-8 moved to New York City on May 20,1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. MI-8 also operated the so-called Black Chamber, the Black Chamber was located on East 37th Street in Manhattan. Its purpose was to crack the codes of foreign governments. Other Black Chambers were also found in Europe, during World War II, the Signal Security Agency was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers. When the war ended, the SSA was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, on May 20,1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency. This organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The AFSA was tasked to direct Department of Defense communications and electronic intelligence activities, in December 1951, President Harry S. Truman ordered a panel to investigate how AFSA had failed to achieve its goals. The results of the led to improvements and its redesignation as the National Security Agency. The agency was established by Truman in a memorandum of October 24,1952. Since President Trumans memo was a document, the existence of the NSA was not known to the public at that timeNational Security Agency – After Osama bin Laden moved to Afghanistan in the 1980s, the NSA recorded all of his phone calls via satellite, logging over 2,000 minutes of conversation
158. United States Air Force – The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U. S. military to be formed, the U. S. Air Force is a military service organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for surface forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2015, the service more than 5,137 military aircraft,406 ICBMs and 63 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget with 313,242 active duty personnel,141,197 civilian employees,69,200 Air Force Reserve personnel, and 105,500 Air National Guard personnel. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF and it shall be organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The stated mission of the USAF today is to fly, fight, and win in air, space and we will provide compelling air, space, and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance, Reach and it should be emphasized that the core functions, by themselves, are not doctrinal constructs. The purpose of Nuclear Deterrence Operations is to operate, maintain, in the event deterrence fails, the US should be able to appropriately respond with nuclear options. Dissuading others from acquiring or proliferating WMD, and the means to deliver them, moreover, different deterrence strategies are required to deter various adversaries, whether they are a nation state, or non-state/transnational actor. Nuclear strike is the ability of forces to rapidly and accurately strike targets which the enemy holds dear in a devastating manner. Should deterrence fail, the President may authorize a precise, tailored response to terminate the conflict at the lowest possible level, post-conflict, regeneration of a credible nuclear deterrent capability will deter further aggression. Finally, the Air Force regularly exercises and evaluates all aspects of operations to ensure high levels of performance. Nuclear surety ensures the safety, security and effectiveness of nuclear operations, the Air Force, in conjunction with other entities within the Departments of Defense or Energy, achieves a high standard of protection through a stringent nuclear surety program. The Air Force continues to pursue safe, secure and effective nuclear weapons consistent with operational requirements, adversaries, allies, and the American people must be highly confident of the Air Forces ability to secure nuclear weapons from accidents, theft, loss, and accidental or unauthorized use. This day-to-day commitment to precise and reliable nuclear operations is the cornerstone of the credibility of the NDO mission, positive nuclear command, control, communications, effective nuclear weapons security, and robust combat support are essential to the overall NDO function. OCA is the method of countering air and missile threats, since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its sourceUnited States Air Force – First F-35 Lightning II of the 33rd Fighter Wing arrives at Eglin AFB