1. Venice – Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 117 small islands that are linked by bridges. These are located in an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, artwork. A part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is only a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th BC. The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. This made a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known especially the Renaissance period. It is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. The Venetia, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Eneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root * wen, so * wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly".Venice – A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore
2. Italian language – Italian is a Romance language. It is the second-closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary after Sardinian. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Istria. Italian is spoken by small minorities in places such as Crimea, France, Belgium, Montenegro and Tunisia. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and regional languages. Including Italian speakers on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical opera. Its influence is also widespread in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world. Its development was also influenced by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Unlike most Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. However, some surrounding regions has a longer history. Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.Italian language – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
3. Venetian language – Although referred to as an Italian dialect even by its speakers, Venetian is a separate language. Its precise place within the Romance family is controversial; see below. Like all Italian dialects in the Romance family, Venetian is descended from Vulgar Latin and influenced by the Italian language. Venetian is attested as a written language in the 13th century. There are also influences and parallelisms in words such as pirón, inpiràr, caréga and fanèla. The language enjoyed substantial prestige in the days of the Venetian Republic, when it attained the status of a franca in the Mediterranean. Venetian-language authors include the playwrights Ruzante, Carlo Goldoni and Carlo Gozzi. Following the Italian theatre tradition, they used Venetian in their comedies as the speech of the common folk. Plays by Goldoni and Gozzi are still performed today all over the world. Notable works in Venetian are the translations of the Iliad by Casanova and Francesco Boaretti, the poems of Biagio Marin. However, as a literary language Venetian was overshadowed like Occitan and the Oïl languages. Virtually all modern Venetian speakers are diglossic with Italian. The present situation raises questions about the language's medium survival. Despite recent steps to recognize it, Venetian remains far below the threshold of inter-generational transfer with younger generations preferring standard Italian in many situations. The dilemma is further complicated by the large-scale arrival of immigrants, who only speak or learn standard Italian.Venetian language – A sign in Venetian reading "Here we also speak Venetian".
4. Capital city – A capital city is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government. Including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the seat of government, in another place. The capital derives from the Latin caput, meaning "head". In English-speaking states, the terms county town, county seat, borough seat are also used in lower subdivisions. In unitary states, subnational capitals are commonly known as "administrative centres". An alternative term is headtown. The capital is often, not necessarily, the largest city of its constituent. Historically, the economic centre of a state or region often becomes the focal point of political power, becomes a capital through conquest or federation. Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Constantinople, Chang ` an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Berlin. Some of these cities were also religious centres, e.g. Constantinople, Rome, Jerusalem, Ancient Babylon, Moscow, Belgrade, Paris, Peking. The convergence of political and cultural power is by no means universal. Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e.g. Nanking by Shanghai, numerous US state capitals. The decline of a culture could also mean the extinction of its capital city, as occurred at Babylon and Cahokia. In Canada, there is a federal capital, while three territories all have capital cities.Capital city – Parliament Hill, the national legislative buildings, in Ottawa, the capital of Canada.
5. Italian regions – The regions of Italy are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes. Each region, except for the Aosta Valley, is divided into provinces. Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution. The original list comprised the Salento region. Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963. Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted. Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001, which granted residual policy competence. The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging to 82 % against in Calabria. Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995: Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union. These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948.Italian regions – Autonomous regions
6. Veneto – Veneto or Venetia is one of the twenty regions of Italy. Its population is ranking fifth in Italy. Largest city is Venice. Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th AD. Later, after a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until 1797. Venice ruled in the world. The Statute of Veneto describes Venetians as a "people". Besides Italian, most inhabitants also speak Venetian. The region is home to a nationalist movement. The region's largest party is a founding member of Lega Nord. Veneto is the 8th largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2. At its northernmost corner it borders also on Austria. The north-south extension of Veneto is 210 km from the Austrian border to the mouth of the River Po. By area, 29% of its surface is mountainous. The highest massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada-massif at 3,342 m.Veneto – Venice, the primary tourist destination and the capital of Veneto
7. Padua, Italy – Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000. The city is sometimes included, with Venice and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, having a population of c. 1,600,000. Padua stands on 29 southeast of Vicenza. The Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain. To the city's south west lies the Euganaean Hills, praised by Lucan and Martial, Petrarch, Ugo Foscolo, Shelley. It hosts the University of Padua, founded in 1222, where Galileo Galilei was a lecturer. Padua is the setting for most of the action in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. The original significance of the Roman name Patavium is uncertain. It may be connected with the ancient name of the River Po. Additionally, the -, in the Indo-European language may refer to a wide open plain as opposed to nearby hills. The ending -ium, signifies the presence of villages that have united themselves together.Padua, Italy – Remnants of Padua's Roman amphitheatre wall.
8. Adriatic Sea – The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along its eastern, Croatian, coast. It is divided into three basins, the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. An underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally. The water temperatures generally range from 30 ° C in summer to 12 ° C in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era. The plate's movement contributed to the formation of Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast. The western coast is terraced, while the eastern coast is highly indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity. The sea is abundant in fauna -- more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic, rare and threatened ones.Adriatic Sea – Bay of Kotor, a ria in the Southern Adriatic
9. Luigi Barzini, Jr. – Barzini junior was born in Milan, the son of Luigi Barzini, Sr. a famous journalist. After completing his studies at Columbia University, Barzini Jr. worked for two New York newspapers, including the New York World. In 1928, together with Richard Washburn Child, a supporter of Benito Mussolini, he ghostwrote The Autobiography of Benito Mussolini. He returned in 1930 to become a correspondent for Corriere della Sera. His father had access to highest political circles of Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Luigi Jr. however, frequently associated around Galeazzo Ciano, the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Mussolini's son-in-law. As the Corriere della Sera Asian correspondent, he went to China. On 11 he was aboard the USS Panay on the Yangtze Patrol in Nanking at the prompting of George Atcheson, a U.S. Embassy official. Atcheson had invited them aboard the Panay so that they could document the fall of the city from relative safety. During the attack Barzini, although wounded, performed heroically providing first aid to the best of his ability. This episode of the incident was captured in a 1937 Wide World Photos shot titled "Consoling dying Panay victim". In April 1940, he was arrested on charges of making disparaging remarks about Mussolini. He founded Il Globo. Subsequently he served as the chief editor of several newspapers and magazines. A staunch anti-Communist, he was a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies from 1958 to 1972, for the centre-right Italian Liberal Party.Luigi Barzini, Jr. – Luigi Barzini, Jr. in 1962.
10. The New York Times – The New York Times has won more than any other news organization. The New York Times is ranked 39th in the world by circulation. Following industry trends, its circulation has fallen to fewer than one million daily since 1990. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". The New York Times is owned by The New York Times Company. Jr. the Publisher and the Chairman of the Board, is a member of the Ochs-Sulzberger family that has controlled the paper since 1896. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the International New York Times. The paper's motto, "That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. The newspaper shortened its name in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the 1890s. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his presidential campaign. The New York Times was acquired in 1896. Under Ochs' guidance, expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, reputation.The New York Times – Cover of The New York Times (November 15, 2012), with the headline story reporting on Operation Pillar of Defense.
11. The Times – The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London, England. It began under the title The Daily Universal Register adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967. Its news and its editorial comment have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been with 10 Downing Street. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had an daily circulation of 394,448 in March 2014; in the same period, The Sunday Times had an average daily circulation of 839,077. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006. It has been heavily used by researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A historical file of the digitised paper is online from Gage Cengage publisher. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 with Walter in the role of editor. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up. It was in that time when Henry Johnson invented a new typography, faster and more precise. To use it, he decided to open a printing house, where he would daily produce an advertising sheet.The Times – Front page of The Times from 4 December 1788
12. Venetian Lagoon – The Venetian Lagoon is an enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, in which the city of Venice is situated. The Venetian Lagoon stretches in the north to the Brenta in the south, with a surface area of around 550 square kilometres. It is around 8% land, including Venice itself and many smaller islands. The lagoon is the largest wetland in the Mediterranean Basin. It is connected by three inlets: Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia. The Lagoon of Venice is the most important survivor of a system of estuarine lagoons that in Roman times extended from Ravenna north to Trieste. In the sixth century, the Lagoon gave security to Romanised people fleeing invaders. Later, it provided naturally protected conditions for the growth of its maritime empire. The Lagoon was formed about six to seven thousand years ago, when the marine transgression following the Ice Age flooded the upper coastal plain. The present aspect of the Lagoon is due to human intervention. In the sixteenth centuries, Venetian hydraulic projects to prevent the lagoon from turning into a marsh reversed the natural evolution of the Lagoon. Pumping of aquifers since the nineteenth century has increased subsidence. A gradual programme of drainage rendered them habitable. Many of the smaller islands are entirely artificial, while some areas around the seaport of the Mestre are also reclaimed islands. The remaining islands are essentially dunes, including those of the coastal strip.Venetian Lagoon – Aerial view of the Venetian Lagoon, showing many of the islands including Venice itself, center rear, with the bridge to the mainland
13. Po River – The Po is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy. The Po flows either 682 km -- considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary. The Po ends at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice. It has a drainage area of 74,000 km ² in 29,000 on the plain. The Po is the longest river in Italy; at its widest point its width is 503 m. The Po extends along the parallel north. The river flows through many Italian cities, including Turin, Piacenza and Ferrara. It is connected through a net of channels called navigli, which Leonardo da Vinci helped design. Near the end of its course, it creates a wide delta at the southern part of, an area famous for eels. The Po valley was the territory of the Roman Cisalpine Gaul, divided into Transpadane Gaul. The Po begins in the Alps, flows eastward. The river is subject to heavy flooding. Consequently, over half its length dikes. The slope of the valley decreases to 0.14 % in the east, a low gradient. There are 450 standing lakes.Po River – Old iron bridge over the Po, Cremona, Lombardy
14. Piave River – The Piave is a river in northern Italy. It begins in the Alps and flows southeast for 220 kilometres into the Adriatic Sea near the city of Venice. One of its tributaries is the Boite. In 1809 it was the scene of a battle during the Napoleonic Wars, in which Franco-Italian and Austrian forces clashed. The Battle of the Piave was the decisive battle of World War I on the Italian Front. The river is thus called in Italy Fiume Sacro alla Patria and is mentioned in the patriotic song "La leggenda del Piave". Here both red and white wine is produced, mostly as varietal wines, with Merlot being the dominant grape of the region. Among the other grapes grown in the region are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Pinot blanc, Pinot grigio, Pinot nero, Raboso, Friulano, Verduzzo Trevigiano and Verduzzo Friulano. The finished wines also must meet a minimum alcohol level—11.5% for all varieties except Merlot and Friulano which only need to reach 11% alcohol by volume. Site of italian newspaper "Il Piave" Official website of Consorzio Tutela Vini del Piave DOC - Consorzio Vini VeneziaPiave River – Pave
15. Mestre – Administratively speaking, Mestre forms one of the six boroughs of the commune of Venice. Sometimes considered as a frazione, it is Italy's most populated, with 89,373 inhabitants. Mestre maintained it briefly till 1926, when was annexed to the commune of Venice. Public transport is managed by Azienda del Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano. There are one tramway line. According to legends, Mestre was founded by a companion of the hero Antenor, a fugitive from Troy who founded Padua. The historical mention is from an Imperial diploma by Otto III, by which Rambald, count of Treviso, received land in the area named Mestre. In 1257 the bishops ceded it to podestat of Treviso. The port benefited from the economic growth of Venice, constituting its main connection to the Italian mainland. The inhabitants moved to a location nearby, Castelnuovo. No traces remain today of the old castle. The Scaliger family from Verona conquered Mestre and Treviso in 1323. The Venetians, fearing the excessive Veronese power in the mainland, conquered Mestre on September 1337. An artificial channel was built to facilitate the transport of goods. The Venetian domination ended on July 1797.Mestre – The Clock tower in Piazza Ferretto
16. Republic of Venice – It existed from the late seventh century AD until 1797. Although it had a long history of conquest, the republic's modern reputation is chiefly based as an economic and trading power. He was the first historical Doge of Venice. Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Deusdedit, moved his seat to Malamocco in the 740s. He was the son of Ursus and represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were ultimately unsuccessful. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported mostly by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A pro-Lombard faction was interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom. The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence.Republic of Venice – Sack of Constantinople
17. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
18. Renaissance – This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. The Renaissance first began in Florence, in the 14th century. Major centres were Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, finally Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The word Renaissance, literally meaning "Rebirth" in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word also occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France. The word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected intellectual life in the modern period. Renaissance scholars searched in art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, to understand it rationally. Others see more general competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand.Renaissance – David, by Michelangelo (Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence) is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art.
19. Crusades – The First Crusade arose after a call by Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks in Anatolia. Others, historians argue, participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and find opportunities for economic and political gain. Regardless of the motivation, the response to Urban's preaching across Western Europe established the precedent for later crusades. Different perspectives of the actions carried out, at least nominally, during the crusades have polarised historians. Crusaders often pillaged as they travelled, while their leaders retained control of much captured territory rather than returning it to the Byzantines. The People's Crusade included the Rhineland massacres: the murder of thousands of Jews. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade, rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, literature. The crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, militarism. The crusade is derived from a Middle Latin cruxata, cruciata. Use of cruxata for "military expedition against enemies of the church" is in use by the 1280s. Spanish cruzada are recorded by the 16th century. The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271/2. Usage of the term "crusade" may differ depending on the author.Crusades – Madrid Skylitzes illuminated manuscript depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing ninth-century Cretan Saracens
20. Battle of Lepanto – The battle was in essence an "battle on floating platforms". It was the largest naval battle in Western history since classical anquity, involving more than 400 warships. On 1 the Venetians had surrendered after being reassured that they could leave Cyprus freely. However, Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha, who had lost some 50,000 men in the siege, broke his word, imprisoning the Venetians. The banner for the fleet, blessed by the Pope, reached the Kingdom of Naples on 14 August 1571. The combined Christian fleet was placed with Marcantonio Colonna as his principal deputy. The Christian contingents met the main force, that of Venice, in July and August 1571 at Messina, Sicily. John of Austria arrived on 23 August. See Battle of Lepanto order of battle for a detailed list of ships and commanders involved in the battle. This fleet of the Christian alliance was manned by oarsmen. The Turks were significantly deficient in their elite corps of Janissaries. The number of oarsmen was about 37,000, virtually all of many of them Christians, captured in previous conquests and engagements. The Ottoman galleys were manned by 34,000 soldiers. An advantage for the Christians was their numerical superiority in guns and as well as the superior quality of the Spanish infantry. It is estimated that the Christians had 1,815 guns, while the Turks had only 750 with insufficient ammunition.Battle of Lepanto – The Battle of Lepanto, unknown artist, late 16th century
21. Silk – Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity. Generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level. Some insects such as webspinners and raspy crickets produce silk throughout their lives. Production also occurs in Hymenoptera, silverfish, mayflies, thrips, leafhoppers, beetles, lacewings, fleas, flies, midges. Other types of arthropod produce most notably various arachnids such as spiders. The silk comes from Old English sioloc, from Greek σηρικός serikos, "silken", ultimately from an Asian source. However, the scale of production was always far smaller for cultivated silks. Thus, the only way to obtain silk suitable for spinning into textiles in areas where commercial silks are not cultivated was by labor-intensive carding. Commercial silks originate from reared pupae, which are bred to produce a white-colored silk thread with no mineral on the surface. The pupae are killed by either dipping them by piercing them with a needle. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye from the cultivated silkworm. Genetic modification of domesticated silkworms is used to facilitate the production of more useful types of silk.Silk – Four of the most important domesticated silk moths. Top to bottom: Bombyx mori, Hyalophora cecropia, Antheraea pernyi, Samia cynthia. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885–1892)
22. Grain – Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption. Agronomists also call the plants producing such seeds "grain crops". The two main types of commercial grain crops are legumes such as beans and soybeans. Ubiquity of grain as a source encouraged use of the term to describe other particles with volume or mass similar to an individual seed. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than staple foods, such as starchy fruits and tubers. Thus, global commodity markets exist for canola, maize, rice, soybeans, wheat, other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. In botany, cereals are synonymous with caryopses, the fruits of the grass family. In commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses. For example, amaranth products may be described as "whole grains". At the higher elevations, none of the grains was a cereal. All three grains native to the Andes are broad-leafed plants rather than grasses such as corn, wheat. All cereal crops are members of the family. Cereal grains contain a substantial amount of a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy. Proteins in pulses are typically incomplete, as they do not contain all the essential amino acids. Pulses may also contain fats.Grain – Food grains at a weekly market
23. Spice trade – The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World. The Greco-Roman world followed along the Incense route and the Roman-India routes. The Kingdom of Axum had pioneered the Red Sea route before the 1st AD. By mid-7th AD after the rise of Islam, Arab traders started dominating the maritime routes. Maritime trade routes led to tremendous growth in commercial activities. The trade was changed by the European Age of Discovery, during which the trade, particularly in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders. There were different way that spices were used in antiquity. European dominance was slow to develop. The Portuguese trade routes were mainly limited by the use of ancient routes, ports, nations that were difficult to dominate. The Egyptians had traded from the "Land of Punt" and from Arabia. Luxury goods traded along the Incense Route included Indian spices, ebony, fine textiles. The trade was associated with overland routes early on but maritime routes proved to be the factor which helped the trade grow. The Ptolemaic dynasty had developed trade with India using the Red Sea ports. People from the Neolithic period traded in spices, obsidian, sea shells, other high value materials as early as the 10th millennium BC.Spice trade – The economically important Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue) blocked by the Ottoman Empire ca. 1453 with the fall of the Byzantine Empire, spurring exploration motivated initially by the finding of a sea route around Africa and triggering the Age of Discovery.
24. Art – Until the 17th century, art was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with science". Related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, military arts. However, there are many colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is not rational. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation -- through narrative or character, through drama or no drama. Aristotle constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. The more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, ideas through the senses.Art – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
25. Antonio Vivaldi – Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was an Italian Baroque composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric. His influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe. He composed many instrumental concertos, for the violin and as well as sacred choral works and more than forty operas. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons. Vivaldi also had some success with expensive stagings of his operas in Venice, Mantua and Vienna. After meeting the Emperor Charles VI, Vivaldi moved to Vienna, hoping for preferment. However, Vivaldi himself died less than a year later in poverty. Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was born in 1678 in Venice, then the capital of the Republic of Venice. He was baptized immediately by the midwife, which led to a belief that his life was somehow in danger. In the trauma of the earthquake, Vivaldi's mother may have dedicated him to the priesthood. Vivaldi's official baptism took place two months later. Vivaldi's parents were Giovanni Battista Vivaldi and Camilla Calicchio, as recorded in the register of San Giovanni in Bragora. Giovanni Battista was one of an association of musicians. The president of the Sovvegno was Giovanni Legrenzi, the maestro di cappella at St Mark's Basilica. It is possible that Legrenzi gave his first lessons in composition.Antonio Vivaldi – Antonio Vivaldi
26. Ca' d'Oro – Ca' d'Oro is a palace on the Grand Canal in Venice, northern Italy. The palace was built between 1430 for the Contarini family, who provided Venice with eight Doges between 1043 and 1676. The architects of the Ca d'Oro were his son Bartolomeo Bon. Following the fall of the Venetian Republic in 1797, the palace changed several times. The ballet dancer Marie Taglioni, removed the Gothic stairway from the inner courtyard and destroyed the ornate balconies overlooking the court. In 1916, Franchetti bequeathed the Ca' d'Oro to the Italian State. It is now open to the public as a gallery: Galleria Giorgio Franchetti alla Ca' d'Oro. The principal façade of Ca' d'Oro facing onto the Grand Canal is built in the Bon's Venetian Gothic style. Nearby buildings in this style are Palazzo Barbaro and the Palazzo Giustinian. This linear style favoured by the Venetian architects was not totally superseded by the Baroque one until the end of the 16th century. On the floor, a recessed colonnaded loggia gives access to the entrance hall directly from the canal. Above this colonnade is the enclosed balcony of the principal salon on the nobile. The palace has a inner courtyard. Goy, Richard J.. The House of Gold.Ca' d'Oro – Ca' d'Oro façade overlooking the Grand Canal.
27. Grand Canal of Venice – The Grand Canal is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the water-traffic corridors in the city. Many tourists explore the canal by gondola. It is 30 to 90 m wide, with an average depth of five meters. The churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Centuries-old traditions, such as the Historical Regatta, are perpetuated every year along the Canal. Most of the palaces emerge without pavement. Consequently, one can only tour by boat. The Grand Canal probably follows the course of an ancient river flowing into the lagoon. Adriatic Veneti groups already lived before the Roman age. They lived on fishing and commerce. Increasing trade found in the deep Grand Canal a safe and ship accessible canal-port. Along the Canal, the number of "fondaco" houses increased, buildings combining the merchant's residence. A portico facilitates the ships' unloading. From the portico a corridor flanked by storerooms reaches a courtyard.Grand Canal of Venice – Two gondoliers pull out with clients on board from a row of gondolas on the Grand Canal near the Rialto Bridge.
28. Palazzo – The word itself is derived for Palatine Hill, the hill which housed the Imperial residences in Rome. In many parts of Europe, the term is also applied to private mansions of the aristocracy. Historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. His descendants, especially Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over until it took up the hill top. The Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, writing c. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. In modern times, the term has been applied to large structures that housed combined ruler, court and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.Palazzo – Schwerin Palace in Germany, historical ducal residence of Mecklenburg since 1348.
29. Polychrome – Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc. in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors. Some very early polychrome pottery has been excavated on Minoan Crete such as at the site of Phaistos. In ancient Greece sculptures were painted in strong colors. The paint was frequently limited to parts depicting hair, on, with the skin left in the natural color of the stone. But it could cover sculptures in their totality. An early example of polychrome decoration was found in the Parthenon atop the Acropolis of Athens. By the time European antiquarianism took off in the 18th century, however, the paint, on classical buildings had completely weathered off. However, some classicists such as Jacques Ignace Hittorff noticed traces of paint on classical architecture and this slowly came to be accepted. An example of architectural polychrome may be seen in the full size replica of the Parthenon exhibited in Nashville, Tennessee, US. Throughout medieval Europe religious sculptures in wood and other media were often brightly painted or colored, as were the interiors of church buildings. The exteriors of churches were painted as well, but little has survived. Exposure to the elements and changing tastes and religious approval over time acted against their preservation. With the arrival of European porcelain in the 18th century, brightly colored pottery figurines with a wide range of colors became very popular. Polychrome brickwork is a style of architectural brickwork which emerged in the 1860s and used bricks of different colors in patterned combination to highlight architectural features.Polychrome – Reconstructed color scheme of the entablature on a Doric temple.
30. Contarini – Contarini is a noted Venetian family, from which eight Doges to the Republic of Venice emerged, as well as other notables. Alvise Contarini was given the fiefdoms of Solarino as part of the dowry. The family remains in Sicily today, carrying the title Duke of Castrofilippo. Lucius Aurelius Cotta was elected prefect of the Reno; the area around the Reno near Bologna. His male grandchildren continued in this position and added the cognomen Reno, becoming Cotta Reno or Cottareno. In 1043 Domenico I became the first Doge in the family Contarini. By 1797, when the last Doge was forced to abdicate, the family had produced eight Doges of their own. The Contarini also counts various important diplomats, navy commanders among them. The Venetian Republic, in another, lasted as a functioning independent state for over 1100 years until Napoleon's march into Venice sounded its demise. Andrea Palladio, employed by their relatives, designed several of the most outstanding neo-classical structures in the Veneto's environs. Importantly, his works satisfied his clients, which, full-circle, he had helped to create. Such works are found to have often favored a minimalist, if neo-classical, dialog among their design elements. "name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.Contarini – The Ca' d'Oro, built for the Contarini family 1428-30.
31. Doge of Venice – The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy. Commonly the man selected as Doge was the shrewdest elder in the city. The doge was neither a duke in the modern sense, nor the equivalent of a hereditary duke. The title "doge" was the title of the senior-most elected official of Venice and Genoa; both cities were republics and elected doges. A doge was referred to variously by the titles "My Lord the Doge", "Most Serene Prince", "His Serenity". After a deadlocked tie at the election of 1229, the number of electors was increased from forty to forty-one. New regulations for the elections of the doge introduced in 1268 remained in force until the end of the republic in 1797. Their object was to minimize as far as possible the influence of individual great families, this was effected by a complex elective machinery. The twenty-five were reduced by lot to nine and the nine elected forty-five. Then the forty-five were once more reduced by lot to eleven, the eleven finally chose the forty-one who actually elected the doge. A detailed description of this process, the ceremonial procession that followed, is preserved in Martin Da Canale's work Les Estoires de Venise. This practice came to an end in 1423, after the election of Francesco Foscari, presented with the unconditional words "Your doge". The doges normally ruled for life. After a doge's death, a commission of inquisitori passed judgment upon his acts, his estate was liable to be fined for any discovered malfeasance.Doge of Venice – Ludovico Manin
32. Doge's Palace – The Doge's Palace is a palace built in Venetian Gothic style, one of the main landmarks of the city of Venice in northern Italy. The palace was the residence of the Doge of the supreme authority of the former Republic of Venice, opening as a museum in 1923. It is one of the 11 museums run by the Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia. However, no trace remains of that 9th-century building as the palace was partially destroyed by a fire. The following reconstruction works were undertaken at the behest of Doge Sebastiano Ziani. He would drastically change the entire layout of the St. Mark's Square. The new palace was built out of fortresses, the other overlooking the St. Mark's Basin. The Gothic palace's constructions started around 1340, focusing mostly on the side of the building facing the lagoon. In 1483, a violent fire broke out in the side of the palace overlooking the canal, where the Doge's Apartments were. Again, an important reconstruction became necessary and was commissioned from Antonio Rizzo, who would introduce the new Renaissance language to the building's architecture. Another huge fire in 1547 fortunately without undermining the structure as a whole. However, there are some classical features -- since the 16th century, the palace has been linked to the prison by the Bridge of Sighs. Finally in 1866 it became part of Italy. Over this period, the palace was occupied by administrative offices as well as housing the Biblioteca Marciana and other important cultural institutions within the city. In 1923, owner of the building, entrusted the management to the Venetian municipality to be run as a museum.Doge's Palace – Doge's Palace
33. Bartolomeo BonBartolomeo Bon – Well of Ca' d'Oro.
34. Gothic architecture – Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Its characteristics include the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. The term "Gothic architecture" originated as a pejorative description. Which belong to the Gothic." Gothic architecture is the architecture of the late medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, characteristic forms were applied to other types of buildings. The greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states and kingdoms. Norway came under the influence of England, while Poland were influenced with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition to Southern Italy while Lusignan kings introduced Gothic architecture to Cyprus. Throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns.Gothic architecture – Façade of Reims Cathedral, France
35. Monumental sculpture – The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and criticism, but not always consistently. It may include an element of a third more subjective concept. It is often used for all sculptures that are large. Monumental sculpture is therefore distinguished from small portable figurines, small metal or ivory reliefs, the like. The third concept that may be involved when the term is used is not specific to sculpture, as the other two essentially are. ... It is not a synonym for'large'. It is so large as to dominate the entire entrance. Nonetheless, parts of the Murray's concept are included in his meaning, although "simple in execution" hardly seems to apply. In Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza may be older than the Pyramids of Egypt. Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear though producing very sophisticated figurines and seals. The Mississippian culture seems to have progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. When a culture ceases to produce monumental sculpture, there may be a number of reasons. The most common is the Classic Maya collapse in Mesoamerica. Another may be aniconism, religiously motivated, as followed the Muslim conquests.Monumental sculpture – Romanesque portal of Moissac Abbey; a classic example of what is meant by "monumental sculpture" in ancient and medieval art history.
36. Solomon – The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BC, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. Solomon was, according to ` an, a king of ancient Israel as well as the son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem. His sins led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. Solomon was born in the second born child of David and his wife Bathsheba, widow of Uriah the Hittite. Solomon had three named full brothers besides six known older half-brothers through as many mothers. According to the First Book of Kings, when David was old, "he could not get warm." "So they sought a beautiful young woman throughout all the territory of Israel, brought her to the king. The king knew her not." While David was in this state, court factions were maneuvering for power. Solomon greatly expanded his military strength, chariot arms.Solomon – The Judgment of Solomon, 1617 by Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640)
37. Gothic style – Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Its characteristics include the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of Europe. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. The term "Gothic architecture" originated as a pejorative description. Which belong for the most part to the Gothic." Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, its principles and characteristic forms were applied to other types of buildings. The greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city kingdoms. Norway came under the influence of England, while Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition to Southern Italy while Lusignan kings introduced French Gothic architecture to Cyprus. Throughout Europe at this time there was an associated growth in towns.Gothic style – Façade of Reims Cathedral, France
38. Palazzo Barbaro – They were formerly one of the homes of the patrician Barbaro family. The Palazzi are located on the Grand Canal of Venice, next to the Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti and not far from the Ponte dell'Accademia. The buildings are also known as the Palazzo Barbaro-Curtis. It is one of the least altered of the Gothic palaces of Venice. The first of the two palaces was built in 1425 by Giovanni Bon, one of Venice's master stonemasons. It belonged in the early 15th century passing though several hands before being acquired by Zaccaria Barbaro, Procurator of San Marco in 1465. In the 16th century, they gave the Barbaro permission to build on top. Antonio Gaspari made enlargements from 1694 to 1698. In the 18th century an elegant library was created with a ceiling that incorporated a rich stucco design. Tiepolo’s frescoes have all been removed. While the Palazzo remained the Barbaro family’s property, they did not always live there. In 1499 it served to the Republic of Venice. In 1524, widow of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua and the sister of Alfonso I d'Este was living at the Palazzo Barbaro. In 1797 the Palazzi belonged to Senator Zuanne Barbaro. In 1881 the older palazzo was rented by a relative of the American painter Daniel Sargent Curtis, who purchased it in 1885.Palazzo Barbaro – The Palazzo Barbaro a San Vidal
39. Palazzo Giustinian – The Palazzo Giustinian is a palace in Venice, northern Italy, situated in the Dorsoduro district and overlooking the Grand Canal next to Ca' Foscari. It was the final residence of Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France. The edifice was built in the 15th century, perhaps with the participation of Bartolomeo Bon. The palace consisted originally of one for each branch of the family, which were later harmonized through a central section in the façade. These are known as Ca' Giustinian dalle Zogie. Behind the façade, they are separated by an alley which, through portico-tunnel, connects to the central portal. The family sold it in the 19th century. The two sub-palaces share decorative features with the annexed Ca' Foscari. They have an L-shaped plan with the upper ones having mullioned windows. At the nobile they form a six-arches arcade with an interwoven motif of multi-lobes circles. The single windows are ogival, or decorated with a three-lobe motif. Ca' Giustinian dei Vescovi has in the rear a court with a Gothic staircase, while Ca' Giustinian delle Zogie has a large garden. Brusegan, Marcello. La grande guida dei monumenti di Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton.Palazzo Giustinian – Palazzo Giustinian and Cà Foscari.
40. Baroque – The style spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period. It is also modern Spanish "barroco", German "Barock", Dutch "Barok", so on. Others derive it in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca. The term "Baroque" was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style: Federico Barocci. Long despised, Baroque architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, has largely remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste. William Watson describes a late phase of Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as "baroque". The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography, direct, simple, theatrical.Baroque – The Triumph of the Immaculate by Paolo de Matteis
41. Basilica di San Marco – The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture. It lies to the Doge's Palace. The church was restored or rebuilt in 978. Nothing certain is known of the form of these early churches. From perhaps 1063 the present basilica was constructed. The consecration is variously recorded as being in 1084-5, 1093, 1117, probably reflecting a series of consecrations of different parts. In 1094 the supposed body of Saint Mark was rediscovered by Vitale Faliero, doge at the time. The building also incorporates a low tower, believed by some to have been part of the original Doge's Palace. The Pala d'Oro ordered from Constantinople was installed on the high altar in 1105. The main features of the present structure were all in place except for the narthex or porch, the facade. Gradually, the brickwork became covered with marble cladding and carvings, some much older than the building itself, such as the statue of the Four Tetrarchs. The transfer of the see was ordered during his period of control of Venice. Before this, Venice's cathedral from 1451 was the much less grand San Pietro di Castello. An important organ of the Republic of Venice, were in charge of administration; their seats were the Procuratie, in St Mark's Square.Basilica di San Marco – Saint Mark's Basilica in the evening
42. History of the Republic of Venice – Historically, Ursus was the first Doge of Venice. Deusdedit, moved his seat from Eraclea to Malamocco in the 740s. He represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. All were ultimately unsuccessful. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported mostly by clergy, they looked as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. The usurper, Galla Gaulo, suffered a like fate within a year. During the reign of Domenico Monegario, Venice changed from a fisherman's town to a port of trade and centre of merchants. The pathway to Venetian dominance of the Adriatic was laid. Also during Monegario's tenure, the dual tribunal was instituted. Two new tribunes were elected to oversee the doge and prevent abuse of power. The pro-Lombard Monegario was succeeded by a pro-Byzantine Eraclean, Maurizio Galbaio.History of the Republic of Venice – Horses of Saint Mark, brought as loot from Constantinople in 1204.
43. Lagoon – A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are coastal features around many parts of the world. Lagoons can also be used for wastewater treatment, as is the case for e.g. aerated lagoons and anaerobic lagoons. Lagoons are shallow, often elongated bodies of water separated by a shallow or exposed shoal, coral reef, or similar feature. Some authorities include fresh water bodies in the definition of "lagoon", while others explicitly restrict "lagoon" with some degree of salinity. The distinction between "lagoon" and "estuary" also varies between authorities. Davis does state that the terms "lagoon" and "estuary" are "loosely applied, even in scientific literature." Timothy M. Kusky characterizes lagoons as normally being elongated parallel to the coast, while estuaries are usually drowned river valleys, elongated perpendicular to the coast. Coastal lagoons are classified as inland bodies of water. Many lagoons do not include "lagoon" in their common names. In England, The Fleet at Chesil Beach has also been described as a lagoon. The brackish lagoon may be thus explicitly identified as a "coastal lagoon".Lagoon – Balos coastal lagoon of northwestern Crete. The shallow lagoon is separated from the Mediterranean sea by narrow shoals connecting to a small, rocky mountain.
44. Lombards – The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled large parts of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. In the 1st AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in northwestern Germany. Their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in southern Italy. They established a Lombard Kingdom in later named Regnum Italicum, which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was integrated into his Empire. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known by the Langbarðaland in the Norse runestones. Their legacy is also apparent in the regional Lombardy. The fullest account of Lombard origins, practices is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century. Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili dwelling in southern Scandinavia. One part left their native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was probably overpopulation. Scoringa was ruled by their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war.Lombards – The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
45. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
46. Paolo Lucio Anafesto – Paoluccio or Paolo Lucio Anafesto was the reputed first doge of Venice from 697 to 717. A noble of Eraclea, then the primary city of the region, he was elected as an official over the entire lagoon that surrounded Venice. However, Anafesto's existence is uncorroborated before the 11th century. According to John Julius Norwich, Paolo Lucio Anafesto was actually Exarch Paul. Moreover, Paul's militum had the same first name as Paoluccio's reputed successor, Marcellus Tegallianus, casting doubt on the authenticity of that doge as well. Norwich, John Julius, A History of Venice. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1982. Anonymous, Archivo Storico Italiano, Tomo VIII: Cronaca Altinate. Italy, 1845. List of Doges of VenicePaolo Lucio Anafesto – Fictional depiction of Paolo Lucio Anafesto
47. Eraclea – Eraclea is a small city and comune in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy. It is located on the Adriatic coast between the towns of Caorle and Jesolo. From its founding until 742 AD, the Republic of Venice had its capital based in Eraclea. It was replaced by Malamocco. A steady growth of foreign tourists, especially from Germany, has been recently recorded. In 2009, Eraclea Mare was awarded the "3 Sails" by the environmental NGO Legambiente. The city has been awarded the "Blue Flag" from the Foundation for Environmental Education every year for the cleanliness of its beaches and seawater. Eraclea Mare is known for the "Lagoon of the Dead". Still uncontaminated, the Mort is characterized with a sandy and muddy seabed rich in phytoplankton. The city's economy is mostly based on tourism, because of its 6 km-long beach. By road, Eraclea is accessible from Venice via the A4 through San Donà di Piave to the north. It was suppressed and see. Mario De Santis Emilio Lorenzo Stehle Józef Kowalczyk Enrico dal Covolo, S.D.B. EracleaTravel InfoTourist Information about Eracleamare. Eraclea's Tourism Portal You can find helpful information about Hotels, excursions, etc. in Eraclea.Eraclea – Eraclea
48. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
49. Wikimedia – The Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to Wikimedia projects. The movement has since expanded to many other projects, including the Wikipedia community with around 70,000 volunteers. Volunteers for other Wikimedia projects such as Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons, volunteer software developers contributing to MediaWiki. These volunteers are supported by numerous organizations including the Wikimedia Foundation, related chapters, thematic organizations, user groups. The Wikipedia community is the community of contributors of the online Wikipedia. It consists of Administrators, known as Admin. Wikimedia projects include: The Wikimedia Foundation is an American charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It operates most of the movement's websites, like Wikipedia, the Internet encyclopedia, as well as Wikimedia Commons. The WMF was founded by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. Chapters are organizations that support Wikimedia projects in geographical regions, mostly countries. There are 41 chapters. Wikimedia Deutschland is the largest chapter, with a total budget of $ million. WMDE allocates approximately $ million to support the corporation responsible for distributing donations, $4 million for transfer to the WMF. To have the same procedure, every chapter follows requests its yearly budget at the funds dissemination committee. A total of Mio USD is distributed via this way to chapters and thematic organizations.Wikimedia – Executive director Lila Tretikov, 2014