1. Visual arts – The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, literature, and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design. Current usage of the visual arts includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts. The increasing tendency to painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes, training in the visual arts has generally been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. Visual arts have now become a subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a variety of tools. Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are also used, the main techniques used in drawing are, line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman, drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus, often depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture, drawings on Greek vases, initially geometric, later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier, like drawing, painting has its documented origins in caves and on rock faces. The finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet, in shades of red, brown, yellow and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt, in the great temple of Ramses II, Nefertari, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis. The Greeks contributed to painting but much of their work has been lost, one of the best remaining representations are the hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle AgesVisual arts – Vincent van Gogh: The Church at Auvers (1890)
2. Visual – The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions. It detects and interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding environment, the psychological process of visual information is known as visual perception, a lack of which is called blindness. Non-image forming visual functions, independent of perception, include the pupillary light reflex. This article mostly describes the system of mammals, humans in particular. Together the cornea and lens refract light into a small image, the retina transcribes this image into electrical pulses using rods and cones. The optic nerve then carries these pulses through the optic canal, upon reaching the optic chiasm the nerve fibers decussate. The fibers then branch and terminate in three places, most end in the lateral geniculate nucleus. Before the LGN forwards the pulses to V1 of the visual cortex it gauges the range of objects, the LGN also sends some fibers to V2 and V3. V1 performs edge-detection to understand spatial organization, V2 both forwards pulses to V1 and receives them. Pulvinar is responsible for saccade and visual attention, V2 serves much the same function as V1, however, it also handles illusory contours, determining depth by comparing left and right pulses, and foreground distinguishment. V3 helps process ‘global motion’ of objects, V3 connects to V1, V2, and the inferior temporal cortex. V4 recognizes simple shapes, gets input from V1, V2, V3, LGN, v5’s outputs include V4 and its surrounding area, and eye-movement motor cortices. V5’s functionality is similar to that of the other V’s, however, V6 works in conjunction with V5 on motion analysis. V5 analyzes self-motion, whereas V6 analyzes motion of objects relative to the background, v6’s primary input is V1, with V5 additions. V6 houses the topographical map for vision, V6 outputs to the region directly around it. V6A has direct connections to arm-moving cortices, including the premotor cortex, the inferior temporal gyrus recognizes complex shapes, objects, and faces or, in conjunction with the hippocampus, creates new memories. The pretectal area is seven unique nuclei, anterior, posterior and medial pretectal nuclei inhibit pain, aid in REM, and aid the accommodation reflex, respectively. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus moderates pupil dilation and aids in convergence of the eyes, nuclei of the optic tract are involved in smooth pursuit eye movement and the accommodation reflex, as well as REMVisual – S. Ramón y Cajal, Structure of the Mammalian Retina, 1900
3. Painting – Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, gesture, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols. In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, rather, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in musicPainting – The Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable paintings in the world.
4. Architecture – Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, science, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity. An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power. For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and culturalArchitecture – Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th-century, not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.
5. Photography – Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. A negative image on film is used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print. The word photography was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, light and γραφή representation by means of lines or drawing, several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung. Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, later Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid also independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566, wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694. The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, the discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley, a hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with inventing means to capture, renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means dark chamber in Latin and it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance and he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. The shadow images eventually darkened all over, the first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825, in 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature. Because Niépces camera photographs required a long exposure, he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy, Daguerres efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype processPhotography – Lens and mounting of a large-format camera
6. Printmaking – Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print produced is not considered a copy but rather is considered an original, a print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to multiple impressions. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a screen to a sheet of paper or other material. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process, other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the matrix form an edition. Prints may also be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artists books, Printmaking techniques are generally divided into the following basic categories, Relief, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix. Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, etching, mezzotint, aquatint, planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image. Planographic techniques include lithography, monotyping, and digital techniques, stencil, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screenprinting and pochoir. Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing, collagraphy is a printmaking technique in which textured material is adhered to the printing matrix. This texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process, Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital, photographic, and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can also be combined, especially within the same family, for example, Rembrandts prints are usually referred to as etchings for convenience, but very often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, and sometimes have no etching at all. Woodcut, a type of print, is the earliest printmaking technique. It was probably first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, and slightly later in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text, the artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper which is transferred to the woodPrintmaking – Rembrandt, Self-portrait, etching, c.1630.
7. Sculpture – Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, India and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may also decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting, stamping and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies. The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple. Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of TutankhamunSculpture – The Dying Gaul, or The Capitoline Gaul a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BCE Capitoline Museums, Rome
8. Music – Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch, rhythm, dynamics, different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. The word derives from Greek μουσική, Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as the harmony of the spheres and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, There is no noise, the creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. There are many types of music, including music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal, within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, the word derives from Greek μουσική. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the music is derived from mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica the art of music and this is derived from the. Greek mousike of the Muses, from fem. of mousikos pertaining to the Muses, from Mousa Muse. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. With the advent of recording, records of popular songs. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their songs, which serve as a self-portrait. An environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved, amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings, There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians, in community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras. However, there are many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is also recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music loversMusic – A painting on an Ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BC).
9. Crafts – A craft is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. The traditional terms craftsman and craftswoman are nowadays often replaced by artisan, the beginning of crafts in areas like the Ottoman empire involved the governing bodies requiring members of the city who were skilled at creating goods to open shops in the center of town. These people slowly stopped acting as subsistence farmers and began to represent what we think of a craftsman today, historically, craftsmen tended to concentrate in urban centers and formed guilds. The households of craftsmen were not as self-sufficient as those of people engaged in agricultural work, once an apprentice of a craft had finished his apprenticeship, he would become a journeyman searching for a place to set up his own shop and make a living. After he set up his own shop, he could call himself a master of his craft. But crafts have undergone deep structural changes during and since the era of the Industrial Revolution, thus, they participate in a certain division of labour between industry and craft. There are three aspects to human creativity - Art, Crafts, and Science, roughly determinated, art relies upon intuitive sensing, vision and expression, crafts upon sophisticated technique and science upon knowledge. Handicraft is the main sector of the crafts, it is a type of work where useful. Usually the term is applied to traditional means of making goods, the individual artisanship of the items is a paramount criterion, such items often have cultural and/or religious significance. Items made by mass production or machines are not handicraft goods, handicraft goods are made with craft production processes. Crafts practiced by independent artists working alone or in groups are often referred to as studio craft. Studio craft includes studio pottery, metal work, weaving, wood turning, paper and other forms of working, glass blowing. A craft fair is an event to display and sell crafts. There are craft shops where such goods are sold and craft communities, such as Craftster, a tradesperson is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. Economically and socially, a status is considered between a laborer and a professional, with a high degree of both practical and theoretical knowledge of their trade. In cultures where professional careers are highly prized there can be a shortage of skilled manual workers, media related to Crafts at Wikimedia CommonsCrafts – Woodworking being done in a workshop
10. Handicraft – One of the worlds oldest handicraft is Dhokra, this is a sort of metal casting has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. Collective terms for handicrafts include artisanry, handicrafting, crafting, many handicrafters use natural, even entirely indigenous, materials while others may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, and even upcycle industrial materials. The individual artisanship of an item is the paramount criterion. Most crafts require the development of skill and the application of patience, like folk art, handicraft output often has cultural and/or religious significance, and increasingly may have a political message as well, as in craftivism. The Arts and Crafts movement originated as a late 19th-century design reform and social movement principally in Europe, North America and Australia and this was held up in contrast to what was perceived to be the alienating effects of industrial labor. These activities were called crafts because originally many of them were professions under the guild system, adolescents were apprenticed to a master craftsman, and refined their skills over a period of years in exchange for low wages. Simple arts and crafts projects are an elementary and middle school activity in both mainstream and alternative education systems around the world. e. The use of traditional handicrafting techniques by professional fine artists, many community centers and schools run evening or day classes and workshops, for adults and children, offering to teach basic craft skills in a short period of time. If sold, they are sold in Direct sales, Gift shops, Public markets, in developing countries, handicrafts are sold to locals and as Souvenirs to tourists. Sellers tend to speak at least a few words of common tourist languagesHandicraft – A handicraft Selling-Factory shop, Isfahan - Iran
11. Applied art – The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday objects to make them aesthetically pleasing. The term is applied in distinction to the arts which aims to produce objects which are beautiful or provide intellectual stimulation. In practice, the two often overlap, the fields of industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design, and the decorative arts are considered applied arts. In a creative or abstract context, the fields of architecture and photography are also considered applied artsApplied art – This street-sweeping machine appears to have been streamlined for purely aesthetic purposes, since it moves only at the walking pace of the operator.
12. The Yellow Christ – The Yellow Christ is a painting executed by Paul Gauguin in 1889 in Pont-Aven. Together with The Green Christ, it is considered to be one of the key works of Symbolism in painting, Gauguin first visited Pont-Aven in 1886. He returned to the village in early 1888 to stay until mid-October, early in 1889, Gauguin was back to Pont-Aven to stay there until spring 1890. It was only for a visit in summer 1889 to Paris to see the Exposition universelle. Gauguin relies heavily on bold lines to define his figures and reserves shading only for the women, the autumn palette of yellow, red and green in the landscape echoes the dominant yellow in the figure of Christ. The bold outlines and flatness of the forms in this painting are typical of the cloisonnist style. A study for The Yellow Christ in pencil is preserved in the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Gauguin et le Christ jaune, Musée de Pont-Aven,2000 ISBN 2-910128-21-0The Yellow Christ – The Yellow Christ
13. 1889 – As of the start of 1889, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 A total eclipse of the Sun is seen over parts of California, wovoka experiences a vision leading to the start of the Ghost Dance movement in the Dakotas. January 4 – An Act to Regulate Appointments in the Marine Hospital Service of the United States is signed by President Grover Cleveland and it establishes a Commissioned Corps of officers as a predecessor to the modern-day U. S. January 5 – Preston North End F. C. is declared the winner of the inaugural Football League in England, january 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his electric tabulating machine in the United States. January 15 – The Coca-Cola Company is originally incorporated as the Pemberton Medicine Company in Atlanta, january 22 – Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, D. C. January 30 – Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria, and his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera commit a suicide in the Mayerling hunting lodge. February 5 – The first issue of Glasgow University Magazine is published, February 15 – The first issue of La Solidaridad is published. February 11 – The Meiji Constitution of Japan is adopted, the 1st Diet of Japan convenes in 1890, February 22 – President Grover Cleveland signs a bill admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington as U. S. states. March 4 – Benjamin Harrison is sworn in as President of the United States, March 9 – Yohannes IV, Emperor of Ethiopia, is killed in the Battle of Metemma, Sudanese forces, who had been almost defeated, rally and destroy the Ethiopian army. Yohannes is probably the worlds last ruler ever to die in battle, Menelik II proclaims himself as the successor on March 25. March 11 – The North Carolina Legislature issues a charter for the creation of Elon College, March 15 – Samoan crisis, German and American warships keep each other at bay in a standoff in Apia harbor, ending when a cyclone blows in and sinks them all. March 22 – English Association football team Sheffield United F. C. formed at the Adelphi Hotel, March 23 – Claiming to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founds the Ahmadiyya Muslim community in Punjab Province. March 31 – The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated, at 300 m, its height exceeds the previous tallest structure in the world by 130 m. Contemporary critics regard it as aesthetically displeasing, april 1 – Following a failed attempt at a coup, French defense minister Georges Boulanger is forced to flee the country. April 10 – The Hammarby Roddförening is founded in Sweden, april 16 – Charlie Chaplin is born in London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. April 20 – Adolf Hitler is born at Braunau am Inn in Austria-Hungary on the border with Bavaria, april 22 – At high noon in Oklahoma Territory, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Rush of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed, may 2 – Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia, signs a treaty of amity with Italy, giving Italy control over what will become Eritrea. May 6 – The Exposition Universelle opens in Paris with the Eiffel Tower as its entrance arch, the Galerie des machines, at 111 m, spans the longest interior space in the world at this time1889 – January 30: Rudolf & Maria at Mayerling.
14. Post-Impressionism – Post-Impressionism is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as a reaction against Impressionists concern for the depiction of light. The movement was led by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, the term Post-Impressionism was first used by art critic Roger Fry in 1906. Three weeks later, Roger Fry used the term again when he organized the 1910 exhibition, Manet, the Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with what they felt was the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to make of Impressionism something solid and durable and he achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the saturated colours of Impressionism. The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid-1880s and the early 1890s, Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement, yet, the abstract concerns of harmony and structural arrangement, in the work of all these artists, took precedence over naturalism. Artists such as Seurat adopted a scientific approach to colour. Younger painters during the early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism. Most of the artists in Frys exhibition were younger than the Impressionists, Fry later explained, For purposes of convenience, it was necessary to give these artists a name, and I chose, as being the vaguest and most non-committal, the name of Post-Impressionism. This merely stated their position in time relatively to the Impressionist movement, john Rewald limited the scope to the years between 1886 and 1892 in his pioneering publication on Post-Impressionism, From Van Gogh to Gauguin. This volume would extend the period covered to other artistic movements derived from Impressionism, though confined to the late 19th, Rewald focused on such outstanding early Post-Impressionists active in France as van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, and Redon. Pont-Aven School, implying more than that the artists involved had been working for a while in Pont-Aven or elsewhere in Brittany. Symbolism, a highly welcomed by vanguard critics in 1891. Rewald wrote that the term Post-Impressionism is not a precise one. Convenient, when the term is by definition limited to French visual arts derived from Impressionism since 1886, rewalds approach to historical data was narrative rather than analytic, and beyond this point he believed it would be sufficient to let the sources speak for themselves. Rival terms like Modernism or Symbolism were never as easy to handle, for they covered literature, architecture and other arts as well, Symbolism, however, is considered to be a concept which emerged a century later in France, and implied an individual approachPost-Impressionism – Henri Rousseau, The Centenary of Independence, 1892, Getty Center, Los Angeles
15. Albright-Knox Art Gallery – The Albright–Knox Art Gallery is an art museum located at 1285 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, New York in Delaware Park. The gallery is a showplace for modern art and contemporary art. It is located directly across the street from Buffalo State College, the parent organization of the Albright–Knox Art Gallery is the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, founded in 1862. It is one of the oldest public institutions in the United States. In 1890, Buffalo entrepreneur and philanthropist, John J. Albright, the building was designed by prominent local architect Edward Brodhead Green. It was originally intended to be used as the Fine Arts Pavilion for the Pan-American Exposition in 1901, in 1962, a new addition was made to the gallery through the contributions of Seymour H. Knox, Jr. and his family, and many other donors. At this time the museum was renamed the Albright–Knox Art Gallery, the new building was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill architect Gordon Bunshaft, who is noted for the Lever House in New York City. The Albright–Knox Art Gallery is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, the museum first began discussing a possible expansion in 2001. In 2012, the board commissioned the architectural firm Snøhetta to produce a plan for future growth. In 1978, the Albright–Knox Art Gallerys exhibition on the work of Richard Diebenkorn was chosen to represent the United States at the 28th Venice Biennale. In 1988, the again won the competition to organize the exhibition representing the United States in Venice. The Albright–Knox Art Gallery has long operated not by collecting artists’ work in depth, the gallerys collection includes several pieces spanning art throughout the centuries. Impressionistic and Post-Impressionistic styles can be found in works by artists of the century such as Paul Gauguin. Because of Seymour H. Knox and Gordon M. Smith, a former director, the museum bought Anselm Kiefers large-scale Die Milchstrasse in 1988 to celebrate its 125th anniversary. The Albright-Knox’s current exhibition space can accommodate only 200 works — just 3% of its 6, 740-piece collection. The Albright-Knox has more than 6,500 works in its collection, below is a list highlighting a few notable paintings and this was the highest price ever paid at auction for an antiquity or a sculpture of any period, according to Sothebys. It was purchased by the London dealer Giuseppe Eskenazi on behalf of a private European collector, the event brought national attention to what until then had been a local question, the mission of the Albright-Knox. This definition made public critics wonder whether the position at the Gallery of William Hogarths Ladys Last Stake or Sir Joshua Reynolds Cupid as a Link Boy were secureAlbright-Knox Art Gallery – Albright-Knox Art Gallery
16. Northwest Coast art – Two-dimensional Northwest Coast art is distinguished by the use of formlines, and the use of characteristic shapes referred to as ovoids, U forms and S forms. Before European contact, the most common media were wood, stone, and copper, since European contact, paper, canvas, glass, if paint is used, the most common colours are red and black, but yellow is also often used, particularly among Kwakwakawakw artists. Chilkat weaving applies formline designs to textiles, Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian have traditionally produced Chilkat woven regalia, from wool and yellow cedar bark, that is important for civic and ceremonial events, including potlatches. Totem poles are the most well-known artifacts produced using this style, Northwest Coast artists are also notable for producing characteristic bent-corner or bentwood boxes, masks, and canoes. Although highly conventionalized decorative design occurs all along the coast, to the south and north of this center the representational motive becomes progressively stronger. Krickeberg characterizes this as a fresh naturalism to the south among the Kwakiutl, Nootka, and Salish, the shift in emphasis is gradual - Bella Bella art, for example, has a close affinity to its Coast Tsimshian counterpart. Two-dimensional art of all groups, however, is much more closely related than is their sculpture, especially among the northern tribes of Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian. Textile arts from the Northwest Coast include Chilkat weaving, Ravens Tail Weavings, Button Blankets, three dimension art was created from many materials, notably wood. Social organization involved groups of kin, reckoned variously matrilineally, matrilineally or bi-lineally and these groups hold various tangible and intangible rights and properties. Many instances of Northwest coast art are visual references to these stories, the production of their art dropped drastically as well. Toward the end of the 19th century, Northwest Coast artists began producing work for commercial sale, the end of the 19th century also saw large-scale export of totem poles, masks and other traditional art objects from the region to museums and private collectors around the world. Some of this export was accompanied by financial compensation to people who had a right to sell the art, in the early 20th century, very few First Nations artists in the Northwest Coast region were producing art. A tenuous link to older traditions remained in such as Charles Gladstone, Henry Speck, Ellen Neel, Stanley George. A revival of ceremonial ways also drove the increased production of traditional arts. This time also saw a demand for the return of art objects that were illegally or immorally taken from First Nations communities. This demand continues to the present day, today, there are numerous art schools teaching formal Northwest Coast art of various styles, and there is a growing market for new art in this style. The revival of life, following the lifting of the potlatch ban - have also driven production of traditional clothing, painting and carving for use in ceremonies. Traditionally, within a community, some patterns and motifs could be used only by certain families and lineagesNorthwest Coast art – Totem Poles, a type of Northwest Coast art
17. Tlingit – The Tlingit are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is Lingít, meaning People of the Tides, the Russian name Koloshi or the related German name Koulischen may be encountered referring to the people in older historical literature, such as Shelikhovs 1796 map of Russian America. The Tlingit have a kinship system, with children considered born into the mothers clan. Their culture and society developed in the temperate rainforest of the southeast Alaska coast, the Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. An inland group, known as the Inland Tlingit, inhabits the far part of the province of British Columbia. With regular travel up rivers, the Tlingit developed extensive trade networks with Athabascan tribes of the interior. They also overlap in territory with various Athabascan peoples, such as the Tahltan, Kaska, in Canada, the modern communities of Atlin, British Columbia, Teslin, Yukon, and Carcross, Yukon have reserves and are the representative Interior Tlingit populations. The territory occupied by the modern Tlingit people in Alaska is not restricted to particular reservations, the corporation in the Tlingit region is Sealaska Corporation, which serves the Tlingit as well as the Haida and Tsimshian in Alaska. Tlingit people as a participate in the commercial economy of Alaska. As a consequence, they live in typically American nuclear family households with private ownership of housing, many also possess land allotments from Sealaska or from earlier distributions predating ANCSA. Despite the legal and political complexities, the territory occupied by the Tlingit can be reasonably designated as their modern homeland. Tlingit people today consider the land from around Yakutat south through the Alaskan Panhandle, and including the lakes in the Canadian interior, as being Lingít Aaní, the Land of the Tlingit. Northern Tinglit live north of Frederick Sound to Cape Spencer, and including Glacier Bay and their territory can be battered by Pacific storms. These academic classifications are supported by similar self-identification among the Tlingit, the Tlingit culture is multifaceted and complex, a characteristic of Northwest Pacific Coast people with access to easily exploited rich resources. In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship, wealth and economic power are important indicators of rank, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of good breeding and ties to aristocracy. Tlingit society is divided into two moieties, the Raven and the Eagle and these in turn are divided into numerous clans, which are subdivided into lineages or house groups. They have a kinship system, with descent and inheritance passed through the mothers line. These groups have heraldic crests, which are displayed on poles, canoes, feast dishes, house posts, weavings, jewelryTlingit – Hoonah, Alaska, a traditional Tlingit village near Glacier Bay, home of the Xúnaa Kháawu
18. Tsimshian – The Tsimshian are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Their communities are mostly in coastal British Columbia and far southern Alaska, around Terrace and Prince Rupert in British Columbia, the Tsimshian people consist of approximately 10,000 members of seven First Nations. The Tsimshian are one of the largest First Nations peoples in northwest British Columbia, some Tsimshian migrated to Annette Island, Alaska, where their descendants in the Metlakatla Indian Community number about 1450. Similar to numerous Native American peoples, the Tsimshian have a kinship system, with a societal structure based on a clan system. Descent and property are figured through the maternal line, early anthropologists and linguists had classified the Gitksan and Nishga as Tsimshian because of apparent linguistic affinities. The three were all referred to as Coast Tsimshian, even though some communities were not coastal and these three groups, however, identify as separate nations. Tsimshian translates to Inside the Skeena River, at one time the Tsimshian lived on the upper reaches of the Skeena River near present-day Hazelton, British Columbia. The majority of Tsimshian still live in the lower Skeena River watershed near Kitimat, there are distinct groups of Tsimshian native peoples, the Nishga, the Gitksan, the Coast Tsimshian, and the Southern Tsimshian. The southern Tsimshian language had more prestige than the others and was used ceremonially by the Nishga. Kitkatla is still considered to be the most conservative of the Tsimshian villages, over time, these groups developed a new dialect of their ancestral language and came to regard themselves as a distinct population, the Tsimshian-proper. They continued to share the rights and customs of those who are known as the Gitxsan, in late prehistoric times, the Coastal Tsimshian gradually moved their winter villages out to the islands of Venn. They returned to their villages along the lower Skeena River when the salmon returned. Archaeological evidence shows 5,000 years of inhabitation in the Prince Rupert region. Kitkatla was probably the first Tsimshian village contacted by Europeans when Captain Charles Duncan, when the Hudsons Bay Company moved their fort to modern-day Port Simpson in 1834, nine Tsimshian villages moved to the surrounding area. Many of the Tsimshian peoples in Canada still live in these regions, throughout the second half of the 19th century, epidemics of infectious disease contracted from Europeans ravaged their communities, as the First Nations had no acquired immunity to these diseases. In 1862 a smallpox epidemic killed many of the Tsimshian people, altogether, one in four Tsimshian died in a series of at least three large-scale outbreaks. In 1835, the population of the Tsimshian peoples was estimated at 8,500. By 1885, the population had dropped to 4,500,817 of whom moved to Alaska two years laterTsimshian – Ed Bryant (Tsimshian), drumming at a meeting in Wuppertal, 1999
19. First Nations – The First Nations are the predominant Aboriginal peoples of Canada south of the Arctic. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit, the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations primarily between First Nations people and Europeans. There are currently 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a group, along with women, visible minorities. First Nations are not defined as a minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use—replacing the deprecated term Indians—for the indigenous peoples of the Americas, individuals using the term outside Canada include supporters of the Cascadian independence movement, as well as U. S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest. The singular, commonly used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person, North American indigenous peoples have cultures spanning thousands of years. Some of their oral traditions accurately describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700, written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century. European accounts by trappers, traders, explorers, and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture, in addition, archeological and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Combined with later development, this relatively non-combative history has allowed First Nations peoples to have an influence on the national culture. Collectively, First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples constitute Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, First Nations came into common usage in the 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language. Elder Sol Sanderson says that he coined the term in the early 1980s, others say that the term came into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists, some Aboriginal peoples in Canada have also adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community. While the word Indian is still a term, its use is erratic. Some First Nations people consider the term offensive, while others prefer it to Aboriginal person/persons/people, the term is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent. The use of the term Native Americans, which the United States government and it refers more specifically to the Aboriginal peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States. The parallel term Native Canadian is not commonly used, but Natives and autochthones are, under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the Indian Magna Carta, the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations. The term First Nations is capitalized, unlike alternative terms, bands and nations may have slightly different meaningsFirst Nations
20. Legendary creature – A legendary creature is an animal or part human described in non-historical stories that sometimes involve the supernatural. In the classical era, monstrous creatures such as the Cyclops, other creatures, such as the unicorn, were claimed in accounts of natural history by various scholars of antiquity. Some legendary creatures have their origin in traditional mythology and were believed to be creatures, for example dragons, griffins. Others were based on real encounters, originating in garbled accounts of travelers tales, such as the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, a variety of mythical animals appear in the art and stories of the Classical era. For example in the Odyssey, monstrous creatures include the Cyclops, Scylla, in other tales there appear the Medusa to be defeated by Perseus, the Minotaur to be destroyed by Theseus, and the Hydra to be killed by Heracles, while Aeneas battles with the harpies. These monsters thus have the function of emphasising the greatness of the heroes involved. Some classical era creatures, such as the centaur, chimaera, Triton, similarly, sphinxes appear as winged lions in Indian art. In Medieval art, animals, both real and mythical, played important roles and these included decorative forms as in Medieval jewellery, sometimes with their limbs intricately interlaced. Animal forms were used to add humour or majesty to objects, in Christian art, animals carried symbolic meanings, where for example the lamb symbolised Christ, a dove indicated the Holy Spirit, and the classical griffin represented a guardian of the dead. Medieval bestiaries included animals regardless of reality, the basilisk represented the devil. One function of animals in the Middle Ages was allegory. Unicorns, for example, were described as swift and unable to be caught by traditional methods. It was believed that the way for one to catch this beast was to lead a virgin to its dwelling. Then, the unicorn was supposed to leap into her lap and go to sleep, in terms of symbolism, the unicorn was a metaphor for Christ. Unicorns represented the idea of innocence and purity, in the King James Bible, Psalm 92,10 states, My horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn. This is because the translators of the King James erroneously translated the Hebrew word reem as unicorn, later versions translate this as wild ox. The unicorn’s small size signifies the humility of Christ, another common legendary creature which served allegorical functions within the Middle Ages was the dragon. Dragons were identified with serpents, though their attributes were greatly intensified, the dragon was supposed to have been larger than all other animalsLegendary creature – A carving of a dragon from Imperial City, Huế in Vietnam
21. Totem poles – Totem poles are monumental sculptures, a type of Northwest Coast art, consisting of poles, posts or pillars, carved with symbols or figures. They are usually made from trees, mostly western red cedar. The word totem derives from the Algonquian word odoodem, his kinship group, the carvings may symbolize or commemorate cultural beliefs that recount familiar legends, clan lineages, or notable events. The poles may also serve as architectural features, welcome signs for village visitors, mortuary vessels for the remains of deceased ancestors. Given the complexity and symbolic meanings of totem pole carvings, their placement and importance lies in the observers knowledge, Totem pole carvings were likely preceded by a long history of decorative carving, with stylistic features borrowed from smaller prototypes. Renewed interest from tourists, collectors, and scholars in the 1880s and 1890s helped document and collect the remaining totem poles, twentieth-century revivals of the craft, additional research, and continued support from the public have helped establish new interest in this regional artistic tradition. Totem poles primarily serve as symbol to the animistic peoples of western North America reflecting their submission to a pantheon. Makers of these include the Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw, Nuxalk. Totem poles are carved from the highly rot-resistant trunks of Thuja plicata trees. Because of the climate and the nature of the materials used to make the poles. Noteworthy examples, some dating as far back as 1880, include those at the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria and the Museum of Anthropology at UBC in Vancouver. Totem poles are the largest, but not the objects that coastal Pacific Northwest natives use to depict worship, family legends, animals, people. The freestanding poles seen by the regions first European explorers were likely preceded by a history of decorative carving. Stylistic features of these poles were borrowed from smaller prototypes, or from the support posts of house beams. Before iron and steel arrived in the area, natives used crude tools made of stone, shells, the process was slow and laborious, axes were unknown. By the late century, the use of metal cutting tools enabled more complex carvings. The tall monumental poles appearing in front of homes in coastal villages probably did not appear until after the beginning of the nineteenth century. The scholar Eddie Malin has proposed that totem poles progressed from house posts, funerary containers, malins theory is supported by the photographic documentation of the Pacific Northwest coasts cultural history and the more sophisticated designs of the Haida polesTotem poles – A Gitxsan pole (left) and Kwakwaka'wakw pole (right) at Thunderbird Park in Victoria, British Columbia
22. Paul Kane – Paul Kane was an Irish-born Canadian painter, famous for his paintings of First Nations peoples in the Canadian West and other Native Americans in the Columbia District. A largely self-educated artist, Paul Kane grew up in Toronto and he undertook two voyages through the wild Canadian northwest in 1845 and from 1846 to 1848. The first trip took him from Toronto to Sault Ste, having secured the support of the Hudsons Bay Company, he set out on a second, much longer voyage from Toronto across the Rocky Mountains to Fort Vancouver and Fort Victoria. On both trips Kane sketched and painted Aboriginal peoples and documented their lives, upon his return to Toronto, he produced more than one hundred oil paintings from these sketches. Kanes work, particularly his field sketches, are still a resource for ethnologists. Kane was born in Mallow, County Cork in Ireland, the child of the eight children of Michael Kane. His father, a soldier from Preston, Lancashire, England, the family then settled in Ireland. Sometime between 1819 and 1822, they immigrated to Upper Canada and settled in York, which would later, in March 1834, there, Kanes father operated a shop as a spirits and wine merchant. Not much is known about Kanes youth in York, which at time was a small settlement of a few thousand people. He went to school at Upper Canada College, and then received training in painting by an art teacher named Thomas Drury at the Upper Canada College around 1830. In July 1834, he displayed some of his paintings in the first exhibition of The Society of Artists and Amateurs in Toronto, gaining a favourable review by a local newspaper, The Patriot. Kane began a career as a sign and furniture painter at York, moving to Cobourg, Ontario, in 1834. At Cobourg, he took up a job in the factory of Freeman Schermerhorn Clench. In 1836 Kane moved to Detroit, Michigan, where the American artist James Bowman was living, the two had met earlier at York. Bowman had persuaded Kane that studying art in Europe was a necessity for an aspiring painter, and they had planned to travel to Europe together. But Kane had to postpone the trip, as he was short of money to pay for the passage to Europe, for the next five years, Kane toured the American Midwest, working as an itinerant portrait painter, travelling to New Orleans. In June 1841, Kane left America, sailing from New Orleans aboard a ship bound for Marseilles in France, until autumn 1842 he stayed in Italy, before trekking across the Great St. Bernard Pass, moving to Paris and from there on to London. Catlin lectured at Egyptian Hall at Piccadilly, where he exhibited some of his paintingsPaul Kane – Self-portrait, circa 1845
23. Irish people – The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, language, music, dance, sports, cuisine, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, historically, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict, famine and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are also significant numbers in Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts. The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders, Iouerne and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and GaelIrish people – Carrowmore tomb, circa 3000 BC
24. Oregon Country – The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America. The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818, Oregon was a distinctly American term for the region. The British used the term Columbia District instead, the area now forms part of the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, all of the US states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming. George Vancouver explored Puget Sound in 1792, Vancouver claimed it for Great Britain on 4 June 1792, naming it for one of his officers, Lieutenant Peter Puget. Alexander Mackenzie was the first European to cross North America by land north of New Spain, arriving at Bella Coola on what is now the Central Coast of British Columbia in 1793. From 1805 to 1806 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the territory for the United States on the Lewis, Thompson was the first European to voyage down the entire length of Columbia River. Along the way, his party camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9,1811 and he erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post on the site. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins and this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are also two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the part of the region. Another subsequent theory is that French Canadian fur company employees called the Columbia River hurricane river le fleuve douragan and this theory was endorsed in Oregon Geographic Names as the most plausible explanation. The Oregon Country was originally claimed by Great Britain, France, Russia, and Spain, the extent of the region being claimed was vague at first, evolving over decades into the specific borders specified in the US-British treaty of 1818. The U. S. based its claim in part on Robert Grays entry of the Columbia River in 1792, Great Britain based its claim in part on British overland explorations of the Columbia River by David Thompson and on prior discovery and exploration along the Coast. Spains claim was based on the Inter caetera and Treaty of Tordesillas of 1493-94, Spain gave up its claims of exclusivity via the Nootka Conventions of the 1790s. Spain later relinquished any remaining claims to territory north of the 42nd parallel to the United States as part of the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. In the 1820s, Russia gave up its claims south of 54°40′ and east of the 141st meridian in separate treaties with the United States and Britain. Meanwhile, the United States and Britain negotiated the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 that extended the boundary between their territories west along the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains, the two countries agreed to joint occupancy of the land west of the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. Chief Factor John McLoughlin, as HBCs manager in the Columbia District, applied the law to British subjects and sought to maintain law and order over American settlers, in 1843 settlers established their own government, called the Provisional Government of Oregon. A legislative committee drafted a code of laws known as the Organic Law and it included the creation of an executive committee of three, a judiciary, militia, land laws, and four countiesOregon Country – Fort Vancouver in 1845
25. Toronto – Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, Toronto is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot, Iroquois, and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is well known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto, meaning place where trees stand in the water. This refers to the end of what is now Lake Simcoe. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759. During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the warToronto – From top left: Downtown Toronto featuring the CN Tower and Financial District from the Toronto Harbour, City Hall, the Ontario Legislative Building, Casa Loma, Prince Edward Viaduct, and the Scarborough Bluffs
26. York, Upper Canada – The Town of York was the second capital of the district of Upper Canada and the predecessor to Toronto. It was established in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe as a location for the capital of Upper Canada, while he made plans to build a capital near todays London. Simcoe renamed the location York after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Simcoe gave up his plan to build a capital at London, and York became the permanent capital of Upper Canada on February 1,1796. That year Simcoe returned to Britain and was replaced by Peter Russell. The original townsite was a compact ten blocks near the mouth of the Don River, government buildings and a law court were established. Yonge Street was built, connecting York to the Holland River to the north, to the east, Kingston Road was built to the mouth of the Trent River. In 1797, the site was expanded to the west to allow for public buildings. One of the new areas public functions, a market, was started in 1803. It continues today as St. Lawrence Market, the garrison was attacked during the War of 1812. As the British Army retreated, it blew up the garrison, leading to the death of numerous American soldiers, the victorious Americans sacked the town and burned down the government buildings. The Americans chose not to occupy the town and the British eventually returned without conflict, a retribution attack was made on the American capital of Washington. After the war was over, the continued to grow, expanding to the west, leaving the original town site. A new parliament building was erected, near the location, but this burned down. A permanent fort, Fort York, was built on the site of the garrison, Dundas Street was built to connect York to towns to the west. In the 1820s, the experienced a surge of immigrants. By 1830, this led to a political conflict which would later lead to the 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion. By 1701, the Iroquoian villages that had established along the north shore of Lake Ontario during the sixteenth century had been abandoned. The name Toronto is derived from indigenous sources, a portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the nameYork, Upper Canada – View of York from the harbour looking north, in 1803.
27. Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario – Marie is a city on the St. Marys River in Ontario, Canada, close to the US-Canada border. It is the seat of the Algoma District and the third largest city in Northern Ontario, after Sudbury, to the south, across the river, is the United States and the city of Sault Ste. These two communities were one city until a new treaty after the War of 1812 established the border between Canada and the United States in this area at the St. Marys River. In the 21st century, the two cities are joined by the International Bridge, which connects Interstate 75 on the Michigan side, French colonists referred to the rapids on the river as Les Saults de Ste. Marie and the name was derived from that. The rapids and cascades of the St. Marys River descend more than 20 feet from the level of Lake Superior to the level of the lower lakes. Hundreds of years ago, this slowed shipping traffic, requiring a portage of boats. The entire name translates to Saint Marys Rapids or Saint Marys Falls, the word sault is pronounced in French, and /ˈsuː/ in the English pronunciation of the city name. Residents of the city are called Saultites, Marie is bordered to the east by the Rankin and Garden River First Nation reserves, and to the west by Prince Township. Native American settlements, mostly of Ojibwe-speaking peoples, existed here for more than 500 years, in the late 17th century, French Jesuit missionaries established a mission at the First Nations village. This was followed by development of a fur trading post and larger settlement, as traders, trappers and it was considered one community and part of Canada until after the War of 1812 and settlement of the border between Canada and the US at the Ste. The US prohibited British traders from operating in its territory, the historic Ojibwe, an Anishinaabe language people, originally called this area Baawitigong, meaning place of the rapids. They used this as a meeting place during whitefish season in the St. Marys Rapids. After the visit of Étienne Brûlé in 1623, the French called it Sault de Gaston in honour of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, in 1668, French Jesuit missionaries renamed it as Sault Sainte Marie, and established a mission settlement on the rivers south bank. Later, a fur trading post was established and the settlement expanded to both sides of the river. Marie is one of the oldest French settlements in North America and it was at the crossroads of the 3, 000-mile fur trade route, which stretched from Montreal to Sault Ste. Marie and to the North country above Lake Superior, a cosmopolitan, mixed population of Europeans, First Nations peoples, and Métis lived at the village spanning the river. The city name originates from Saults de Sainte-Marie, archaic French for Saint Marys Falls, etymologically, the word sault comes from an archaic spelling of saut, which translates most accurately in this usage to the English word cataractSault Ste. Marie, Ontario – Ojibwe fishermen in the St. Marys Rapids, 1901
28. Rocky Mountains – The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, the Rocky Mountains were initially formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began to slide underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a belt of mountains running down western North America. Since then, further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks, at the end of the last ice age, humans started to inhabit the mountain range. The first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, the Rocky Mountains are commonly defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico. The United States definition of the Rockies includes the Cabinet and Salish Mountains of Idaho and their counterparts north of the Kootenai River, the Columbia Mountains, are considered a separate system in Canada, lying to the west of the huge Rocky Mountain Trench. This runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the bank of the Liard River. The Rockies vary in width from 70 to 300 miles, also west of the Rocky Mountain Trench, farther north and facing the Muskwa Range across the trench, are the Stikine Ranges and Omineca Mountains of the Interior Mountains system of British Columbia. A small area east of Prince George, British Columbia on the side of the Trench. In Canada geographers define three main groups of ranges, the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges and Muskwa Ranges, the Muskwa and Hart Ranges together comprise what is known as the Northern Rockies. The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City, the Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these sub-ranges from distinct ranges further to the west, most prominent among which are the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range and Coast Mountains. The Rocky Mountain System within the United States is a United States physiographic region, the Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America. The ranges highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 14,440 feet above sea level, Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 12,972 feet, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies. The Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains, triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water that falls on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific, but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, see Rivers of the Rocky Mountains for a list of rivers. Human population is not very dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer, however, the human population grew rapidly in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990. The 40-year statewide increases in range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in UtahRocky Mountains – Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada
29. Victoria, British Columbia – Victoria /vɪkˈtɔːriə/ is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, and is located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canadas Pacific coast. The city has a population of about 85,792, while the area of Greater Victoria, has a population of 367,770. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, and is located about 100 kilometres from BCs largest city of Vancouver on the mainland. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843. The city has retained a number of its historic buildings. The citys Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Franciscos, known as the The Garden City, Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is in the top twenty of world cities for quality-of-life, Victoria is very popular with boaters with its beautiful and rugged shorelines and beaches. Victoria is also popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate, prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees. The Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774 and of James Cook. In 1778, although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790,1791, the Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort. The Songhees village was moved north of Esquimalt. When the crown colony was established in 1849, a town was out on the site. Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862, in 1865, Esquimalt was made the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy, and remains Canadas Pacific coast naval base. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North Americas largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865, then the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import, the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet and his son James Dunsmuir became premier and subsequently lieutenant-governor of the province and built his own grand residence at Hatley Park in the present City of Colwood. With the economic crash and a surplus of men, Victoria became a target-rich environment for recruiting. Two militia infantry battalions, the 88th Victoria Fusiliers and the 50th Gordon Highlanders, Victoria was the home of Sir Arthur CurrieVictoria, British Columbia – Clockwise from top left: The Inner Victoria Harbour, Statue of Queen Victoria, the Fisgard Lighthouse, Neo-Baroque architecture of the British Columbia Parliament Buildings, The British Columbia Parliament Buildings, The Empress Hotel, and The Christ Church Cathedral.
30. Ethnology – Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them. The term ethnologia is credited to Adam Franz Kollár who used and defined it in his Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates published in Vienna in 1783, the distinction between the three terms is increasingly blurry. Ethnology has been considered a field since the late 18th century especially in Europe and is sometimes conceived of as any comparative study of human groups. The 15th-century exploration of America by European explorers had an important role in formulating new notions of the Occidental, such as and this term was used in conjunction with savages, which was either seen as a brutal barbarian, or alternatively, as noble savage. Thus, civilization was opposed in a dualist manner to barbary, lévi-Strauss often referred to Montaignes essay on cannibalism as an early example of ethnology. Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a method, at discovering universal invariants in human society. However, the claims of such cultural universalism have been criticized by various 19th and 20th century social thinkers, including Marx, Nietzsche, Foucault, Derrida, Althusser, list of scholars of ethnology Forster, Johann Georg Adam. Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772,3,4, the Elementary Structures of Kinship, Structural Anthropology Mauss, Marcel. Originally published as Essai sur le don, forme et raison de léchange dans les sociétés archaïques in 1925, this classic text on gift economy appears in the English edition as The Gift, The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Akwe-Shavante society, The Politics of Ethnicity, Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States, problemi generali delletnologia europea, La Ricerca Folklorica, No. Webpage History of German Anthropology/Ethnology 1945/49-1990 Languages describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, national Museum of Ethnology - Osaka, Japan Texts on Wikisource, Rhyn, G. A. F. VanEthnology – Adam František Kollár, 1779
31. Land art – Land art, earthworks, or Earth art is an art movement in which landscape and the work of art are inextricably linked. It is also an art form that is created in nature, using materials such as soil, rock, organic media. Sculptures are not placed in the landscape, rather, the landscape is the means of their creation, often earth moving equipment is involved. The works frequently exist in the open, located away from civilization, left to change. Many of the first works, created in the deserts of Nevada, New Mexico, Utah or Arizona were ephemeral in nature and they also pioneered a category of art called site-specific sculpture, designed for a particular outdoor location. Land art is an artistic protest against the perceived artificiality, plastic aesthetics, Land art was inspired by minimal art and conceptual art but also by modern movements such as De Stijl, cubism, minimalism and the work of Constantin Brâncuși and Joseph Beuys. Many of the associated with land art had been involved with minimal art. His influence on contemporary art, landscape architecture and environmental sculpture is evident in many works today. Alan Sonfist is a pioneer of an approach to working with nature and culture that he began in 1965 by bringing historical nature. His most inspirational work is Time Landscape an indigenous forest he planted in New York City, according to critic Barbara Rose, writing in Artforum in 1969, he had become disillusioned with the commodification and insularity of gallery bound art. In 1967, the art critic Grace Glueck writing in the New York Times declared the first earthwork was done by Douglas Leichter and Richard Saba at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. The movement began in October 1968 with the group exhibition Earth Works at the Dwan Gallery in New York, in February 1969, Willoughby Sharp curated the Earth Art exhibition at the Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. The artists included were Walter De Maria, Jan Dibbets, Hans Haacke, Michael Heizer, Neil Jenney, Richard Long, David Medalla, Robert Morris, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson, the exhibition was directed by Thomas W. Leavitt. Gordon Matta-Clark, who lived in Ithaca at the time, was invited by Sharp to help the artists in Earth Art with the execution of their works for the exhibition. S. How much of the work, if any, is visible is dependent on the water levels. Since its creation, the work has completely covered, and then uncovered again. Smithsons Gravel Mirror with Cracks and Dust is an example of art existing in a gallery space rather than in the natural environment. It consists of a pile of gravel by the side of a partially mirrored gallery wall, in its simplicity of form and concentration on the materials themselves, this and other pieces of land art have an affinity with minimalismLand art – Museum paper board left on the bank of the river for 4 days. By Jacek Tylicki, S.W. of Lund, Sweden, 473 X 354 mm. 1981
32. Performance art – Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated. The performance can be live or via media, the performer can be present or absent and it can be any situation that involves four basic elements, time, space, the performers body, or presence in a medium, and a relationship between performer and audience. Performance art can happen anywhere, in any type of venue or setting, the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. Performance art is a contested concept, any single definition of it implies the recognition of rival uses. As concepts like democracy or art, it implies productive disagreement with itself, the meaning of the term in the narrower sense is related to postmodernist traditions in Western culture. The ideal had been an ephemeral and authentic experience for performer, the widely discussed difference, how concepts of visual arts and concepts of performing arts are utilized, can determine the meanings of a performance art presentation. It therefore can include action or spoken word as a communication between the artist and audience, or even ignore expectations of an audience, rather than following a script written beforehand, some kinds of performance art nevertheless can be close to performing arts. Performance artists often challenge the audience to think in new and unconventional ways, break conventions of traditional arts, and break down conventional ideas about what art is. Some artists, e. g. the Viennese Actionists and neo-Dadaists, prefer to use the terms live art, action art, actions, as genres of performance art appear body art, fluxus-performance, happening, action poetry, and intermedia. Performance art activity is not confined to European or American art traditions, notable practitioners can be found in Asia, Performance artists and theorists point to different traditions and histories, ranging from tribal to sporting and ritual or religious events. There are also accounts of Renaissance artists such as itinerant poets putting on performances that could be said to be ancestors of performance art. Western cultural theorists often trace performance art activity back to the beginning of the 20th century, to the Russian constructivists, Futurists, Dada provided a significant progenitor with the unconventional performances of poetry, often at the Cabaret Voltaire, by the likes of Richard Huelsenbeck and Tristan Tzara. Russian Futurist artists could be identified as precursors of performance, such as David Burliuk, abstract expressionism and Action painting preceded the Fluxus movement, Happenings and the emergence of Performance Art. Performance art was anticipated, if not explicitly formulated, by Japans Gutai group of the 1950s, in the late 1960s Earth artists as diverse as Robert Smithson, Dennis Oppenheim, Michael Heizer and Carl Andre created environmental pieces that predict the performance art of the 1970s. Works of conceptual artists in the early 1980s, like Sol LeWitt, who converted mural-style drawing into an act of performance by others, were influenced by Yves Klein and the Earth artists as well. In the 1960s a variety of new works, concepts and the number of artists led to new kinds of performance art. Kaprow had coined the term Happening describing a new artform, at the beginning of the 1960s, a Happening allows the artist to experiment with body motion, recorded sounds, written and spoken texts, and even smellsPerformance art – Yves Klein and Dino Buzzati engaged in the ritual transfer of immateriality, January 26, 1962
33. Pre-historic art – At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures. The end-date for what is covered by the term thus varies greatly between different parts of the world, from the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art such as figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings also seen on some utilitarian objects. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture, Early rock art also first appeared in the Neolithic. It also saw the development in areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China, some cultures, notably the Maya civilization, independently developed writing during the time they flourished, which was then later lost. These cultures may be classified as prehistoric, especially if their writing systems have not been deciphered, the earliest undisputed art originated with the Aurignacian archaeological culture in the Upper Paleolithic. However, there is evidence that the preference for the aesthetic emerged in the Middle Paleolithic. Some archaeologists have interpreted certain Middle Paleolithic artifacts as early examples of artistic expression, there are other claims of Middle Paleolithic sculpture, dubbed the Venus of Tan-Tan and the Venus of Berekhat Ram. In 2002 in Blombos cave, situated in South Africa, stones were discovered engraved with grid or cross-hatch patterns and this suggested to some researchers that early Homo sapiens were capable of abstraction and production of abstract art or symbolic art. Several archaeologists including Richard Klein are hesitant to accept the Blombos caves as the first example of actual art, the oldest undisputed works of figurative art were found in the Schwäbische Alb, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The earliest of these, the Venus figurine known as the Venus of Hohle Fels, monumental open-air art in Europe from this period includes the rock-art at Côa Valley and Mazouco in Portugal, Domingo García and Siega Verde in Spain, and Rocher gravé de Fornols in France. A cave at Turobong in South Korea containing human remains has found to contain carved deer bones. Petroglyphs of deer or reindeer found at Sokchang-ri may also date to the Upper Paleolithic, potsherds in a style reminiscent of early Japanese work have been found at Kosan-ri on Jeju island, which, due to lower sea levels at the time, would have been accessible from Japan. The oldest petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Mesolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, the earliest undisputed African rock art dates back about 10,000 years. The first naturalistic paintings of humans found in Africa date back about 8,000 years apparently originating in the Nile River valley, noted sites containing early art include Tassili nAjjer in southern Algeria, Tadrart Acacus in Libya, and the Tibesti Mountains in northern Chad. Rock carvings at the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa have been dated to this age, contentious dates as far back as 29,000 years have been obtained at a site in Tanzania. A site at the Apollo 11 Cave complex in Namibia has been dated to 27,000 years, göbekli Tepe in Turkey has circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE, the worlds oldest known megaliths. Many of the pillars are decorated with abstract, enigmatic pictograms, Asia was the cradle for several significant civilizations, most notably those of China and South AsiaPre-historic art – Ceramic Moche stirrup spout vessel representing a crustacean.
34. Women artists – While women artists have been involved in making art throughout history, their work often has not been as well acknowledged as that of men. Often certain media are associated with artists, such as textile arts. Womens roles in relation to art, of course, vary in different cultures and communities, many art forms considered to be created predominantly by women have been historically dismissed from the art historical canon as craft, as opposed to fine art. Women artists faced challenges due to biases in the mainstream fine art world. They have often encountered difficulties in training, travelling and trading their work, collaboration on large projects was typical. Extrapolation to the artwork and skills of the Paleolithic era suggests that these cultures followed similar patterns, cave paintings of this era often have human hand prints, 75% of which are identifiable as womens. For about three years, the women – and only the women – of Mithila have been making devotional paintings of the gods. It is no exaggeration, then, to say that art is the expression of the most genuine aspect of Indian civilization. The earliest records of western cultures rarely mention specific individuals, although women are depicted in all of the art and some are shown laboring as artists. Ancient references by Homer, Cicero, and Virgil mention the prominent roles of women in textiles, poetry, music, Other women include Timarete, Eirene, Kalypso, Aristarete, Iaia, and Olympias. While only some of their work survives, in Ancient Greek pottery there is a hydria in the Torno Collection in Milan. It is attribute to the Leningrad painter from circa 460-450 B. C. Artists from the Medieval period include Claricia, Diemudus, Ende, Guda, Herrade of Landsberg and Hildegard of Bingen. In the early Medieval period, women worked alongside men. Manuscript illuminations, embroideries, and carved capitals from the period clearly demonstrate examples of women at work in these arts, documents show that they also were brewers, butchers, wool merchants, and iron mongers. Artists of the period, including women, were from a small subset of society whose status allowed them freedom from these more strenuous types of work. Women artists often were of two classes, either wealthy aristocratic women or nuns. Women in the category often created embroideries and textiles, those in the later category often produced illuminations. It is presumed that women were almost entirely responsible for this production, one of the most famous embroideries of the Medieval period is the Bayeux Tapestry, which was embroidered with wool and is 230 feet longWomen artists – Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Self-portrait with two pupils, 1785, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the two pupils are Marie-Gabrielle Capet and Carreaux de Rosemond.
35. Medieval art – The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa. It includes major art movements and periods, national and regional art, genres, revivals, the crafts. Art historians attempt to classify medieval art into major periods and styles, in addition each region, mostly during the period in the process of becoming nations or cultures, had its own distinct artistic style, such as Anglo-Saxon art or Norse art. Medieval art in Europe grew out of the heritage of the Roman Empire. These sources were mixed with the vigorous barbarian artistic culture of Northern Europe to produce an artistic legacy. Indeed, the history of art can be seen as the history of the interplay between the elements of classical, early Christian and barbarian art. The period ended with the self-perceived Renaissance recovery of the skills and values of art. Since a revival of interest and understanding in the 19th century it has seen as a period of enormous achievement that underlies the development of later Western art. Many regions did not regain their population levels until the 17th century. The population of Europe is estimated to have reached a low point of about 18 million in 650, doubling by 1000, in 1450 it was still only 50 million. To these figures, Northern Europe, especially Britain, contributed a lower proportion than today, and Southern Europe, including France, the increase in prosperity, for those who survived, was much less affected by the Black Death. Until about the 11th century most of Europe was short of labour, with large amounts of unused land. The medieval period saw the falling away of the invasions and incursions from outside the area that characterized the first millennium. The impression may be left by the works that almost all medieval art was religious. Most churches have been rebuilt, often times, but medieval palaces and large houses have been lost at a far greater rate. The situation is similar in most of Europe, though the 14th century Palais des Papes in Avignon survives largely intact. Paper became available in the last centuries of the period, but was extremely expensive by todays standards. Art in the Middle Ages is a subject and art historians traditionally divide it in several large-scale phases, styles or periodsMedieval art – Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are one of the great achievements of medieval art. These are from Monreale in Sicily from the late 12th century.
36. Renaissance – The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe. This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science, Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, the Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century. Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Bologna, the word Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word also occurs in Jules Michelets 1855 work, Histoire de France, the word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism, however, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were back from Byzantium to Western Europe. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe life as it really was. Others see more competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand, Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia, silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money. Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa, unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity, Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in historyRenaissance – David, by Michelangelo (Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence) is a masterpiece of Renaissance and world art.
37. Mannerism – Mannerism is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, lasting until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it. Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century, stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Where High Renaissance art emphasizes proportion, balance, and ideal beauty, Mannerism exaggerates such qualities, Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favors compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting, Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its highly florid style and intellectual sophistication. The definition of Mannerism and the phases within it continue to be a subject of debate among art historians, for example, some scholars have applied the label to certain early modern forms of literature and music of the 16th and 17th centuries. The term is used to refer to some late Gothic painters working in northern Europe from about 1500 to 1530. Mannerism also has been applied by analogy to the Silver Age of Latin literature, the word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning style or manner. Like the English word style, maniera can either indicate a type of style or indicate an absolute that needs no qualification. Vasari was also a Mannerist artist, and he described the period in which he worked as la maniera moderna, james V. Mirollo describes how bella maniera poets attempted to surpass in virtuosity the sonnets of Petrarch. This notion of bella maniera suggests that artists thus inspired looked to copying and bettering their predecessors, in essence, bella maniera utilized the best from a number of source materials, synthesizing it into something new. As a stylistic label, Mannerism is not easily defined, “High Renaissance” connoted a period distinguished by harmony, grandeur and the revival of classical antiquity. The term Mannerist was redefined in 1967 by John Shearman following the exhibition of Mannerist paintings organised by Fritz Grossmann at Manchester City Art Gallery in 1965. The label “Mannerism” was used during the 16th century to comment on social behaviour, however, for later writers, such as the 17th-century Gian Pietro Bellori, la maniera was a derogatory term for the perceived decline of art after Raphael, especially in the 1530s and 1540s. From the late 19th century on, art historians have used the term to describe art that follows Renaissance classicism. By the end of the High Renaissance, young artists experienced a crisis, no more difficulties, technical or otherwise, remained to be solved. The young artists needed to find a new goal, and they sought new approaches, at this point Mannerism started to emerge. The new style developed between 1510 and 1520 either in Florence, or in Rome, or in both cities simultaneously and this period has been described as a natural extension of the art of Andrea del Sarto, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Michelangelo from an early age had developed a style of his own, one of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur, and subsequent artists attempted to imitate itMannerism – In Parmigianino 's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective.
38. Baroque – The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, power, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is also yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by later critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, craft, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categoriesBaroque – The Triumph of the Immaculate by Paolo de Matteis
39. Romanticism – Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was embodied most strongly in the arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of heroic individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art, there was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism, the decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist. The importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich that the feeling is his law. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were laws that the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone. As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creators own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist who was able to produce his own work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism. This idea is called romantic originality. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief, however, this is particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the voice of the artist. So, in literature, much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves. In both French and German the closeness of the adjective to roman, meaning the new literary form of the novel, had some effect on the sense of the word in those languages. It is only from the 1820s that Romanticism certainly knew itself by its name, the period typically called Romantic varies greatly between different countries and different artistic media or areas of thought. Margaret Drabble described it in literature as taking place roughly between 1770 and 1848, and few dates much earlier than 1770 will be found. In English literature, M. H. Abrams placed it between 1789, or 1798, this latter a very typical view, and about 1830, however, in most fields the Romantic Period is said to be over by about 1850, or earlierRomanticism – Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818
40. Impressionism – Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the art community in France. The development of Impressionism in the arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting and they constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner. They also painted scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were painted in a studio. The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air, the Impressionists, however, developed new techniques specific to the style. The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style. In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris, the Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued, landscape, the Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artists hand in the work. Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish, the Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and they discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were led by Édouard Manet. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, during the 1860s, the Salon jury routinely rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style. In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manets The Luncheon on the Grass primarily because it depicted a woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury routinely accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, the jurys severely worded rejection of Manets painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artistsImpressionism – Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
41. Symbolism (arts) – Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaires Les Fleurs du mal, the works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s, in the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The name symbolist itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism and Impressionism. In ancient Greece, the symbolon was a shard of pottery which was inscribed, Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the imagination, and dreams. Some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before becoming symbolists, for Huysmans, the Symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that immediately preceded it. The Symbolists continued to admire Théophile Gautiers motto of art for arts sake, many Symbolist poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine, published early works in Le Parnasse contemporain, the poetry anthologies that gave Parnassianism its name. One of Symbolisms most colourful promoters in Paris was art and literary critic Joséphin Péladan, a number of Symbolists were associated with the Salon. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly, thus, they wrote in a very metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moréas published the Symbolist Manifesto in Le Figaro on 18 September 1886, the Symbolist Manifesto names Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Paul Verlaine as the three leading poets of the movement. In a nutshell, as Mallarmé writes in a letter to his friend Cazalis, to not the thing. Symbolist poems were attempts to evoke, rather than primarily to describe, – both poets seek to identify one sense experience with another. The earlier Romanticism of poetry used symbols, but these symbols were unique, the symbolists were more extreme, investing all things, even vowels and perfumes, with potential symbolic value. The physical universe, then, is a kind of language that invites a privileged spectator to decipher it, Symbolist symbols are not allegories, intended to represent, they are instead intended to evoke particular states of mind. The nominal subject of Mallarmés Le cygne is of a trapped in a frozen lake. Significantly, in French, cygne is a homophone of signe, un cygne d’autrefois se souvient que c’est lui Magnifique mais qui sans espoir se délivre. They were also portrayed as at odds with society, having tragic lives and these traits were not hindrances but consequences of their literary gifts. Schopenhauers aesthetics represented shared concerns with the symbolist programme, they tended to consider Art as a contemplative refuge from the world of strife and willSymbolism (arts) – Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Jeunes Filles au Bord de la Mer (Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea), 1879, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
42. Fauvism – While Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, and had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were Henri Matisse and André Derain, the paintings of the Fauves were characterized by seemingly wild brush work and strident colors, while their subject matter had a high degree of simplification and abstraction. Fauvism can be classified as a development of Van Goghs Post-Impressionism fused with the pointillism of Seurat and other Neo-Impressionist painters. Other key influences were Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin, whose employment of areas of saturated color—notably in paintings from Tahiti—strongly influenced Derains work at Collioure in 1905, in 1888 Gauguin had said to Paul Sérusier, How do you see these trees. So, put in yellow, this shadow, rather blue, paint it with pure ultramarine, Fauvism can also be seen as a mode of Expressionism. Moreaus broad-mindedness, originality and affirmation of the potency of pure color was inspirational for his students. Matisse said of him, He did not set us on the right roads and this source of empathy was taken away with Moreaus death in 1898, but the artists discovered other catalysts for their development. In 1896, Matisse, then an art student, visited the artist John Peter Russell on the island of Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. The next year he returned as Russells student and abandoned his earth-colored palette for bright Impressionist colors, later stating, Russell was my teacher, Russell had been a close friend of Vincent van Gogh and gave Matisse a Van Gogh drawing. In parallel with the discovery of contemporary avant-garde art came an appreciation of pre-Renaissance French art. Another aesthetic influence was African sculpture, of which Vlaminck, Derain, many of the Fauve characteristics first cohered in Matisses painting, Luxe, Calme et Volupté, which he painted in the summer of 1904, whilst in Saint-Tropez with Paul Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross. The artists shared their first exhibition at the 1905 Salon dAutomne, Henri Rousseau was not a Fauve, but his large jungle scene The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on the Antelope was exhibited near Matisses work and may have had an influence on the pejorative used. Vauxcelles comment was printed on 17 October 1905 in Gil Blas, a daily newspaper, the pictures gained considerable condemnation—A pot of paint has been flung in the face of the public, wrote the critic Camille Mauclair —but also some favorable attention. Matisses Neo-Impressionist landscape, Luxe, Calme et Volupté, had already exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in the spring of 1905. Art history History of painting Neo-Fauvism Visual arts Western painting Gerdts, the Color of Modernism, The American Fauves. Spivey, Virginia, Fauvism, Smarthistory at Khan Academy Whitfield, Fauve Painting from the Permanent Collection at the National Gallery of Art Fauvism, The Wild Beasts of Early Twentieth Century Art Rewald, Sabine. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Gelett Burgess, The Wild Men of Paris, Matisse, Picasso and Les Fauves,1910Fauvism – Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The Green Stripe), 1906, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark
43. Proto-Cubism – Proto-Cubism is an intermediary transition phase in the history of art chronologically extending from 1906 to 1910. With its roots stemming from at least the late 19th century this period can be characterized by a move towards the radical geometrization of form and a reduction or limitation of the color palette. It is essentially the first experimental and exploratory phase of an art movement that would become more extreme. Proto-Cubist artworks typically depict objects in geometric schemas of cubic or conic shapes, the illusion of classical perspective is progressively stripped away from objective representation to reveal the constructive essence of the physical world. Proto-Cubist works embrace many styles, and would affect diverse individuals, groups and movements. The building blocks that lead to the construction of proto-Cubist works are diverse in nature, neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the progression of each individual artist was unique. In anticipation of Proto-Cubism the idea of form inherent in art since the Renaissance had been questioned, the romanticist Eugène Delacroix, the realist Gustave Courbet, and practically all the Impressionists had abandoned a significant portion of Classicism in favor of immediate sensation. The dynamic expression favored by these artists presented a challenge in contrast to the means of expression promoted by the Academia. The representation of fixed objects occupying a space, was replaced by dynamic colors, yet other means would be necessary to jettison completely the long-standing foundation that surrounded them. Cézanne ambiguously writes, Interpret nature in terms of the cylinder, the sphere, in addition to his preoccupation for the simplification of geometric structure, Cézanne was concerned with the means of rendering the effect of volume and space. His rather classical color-modulating system consisted of changing colors from warm to cool as the object away from the source of light. Cézannes departure from classicism, however, would be best summarized in the treatment and of application of the paint itself, the complexity of surface variations with overlapped shifting planes, seemingly arbitrary contours, contrasts and values combined to produce a strong patchwork effect. Increasingly in his works, as Cézanne achieves a greater freedom. As the color planes acquire greater formal independence, defined objects, the art critic Louis Vauxcelles acknowledged the importance of Cézanne to the Cubists in his article titled From Cézanne to Cubism. For Vauxcelles the influence had a character, both architectural and intellectual. He stressed the statement made by Émile Bernard that Cézannes optics were not in the eye, with both his courage and experience to draw from, Cézanne created a hybrid art-form. He combined on the one hand the imitative and the immobile, a left over from the Renaissance. His own generation would see in his contradictory codes nothing more than impotence, however, the next generation would see in Cézanne greatness, precisely because of this dualityProto-Cubism – Pablo Picasso, 1909, Brick Factory at Tortosa (Briqueterie à Tortosa, L'Usine, Factory at Horta de Ebro), oil on canvas. 50.7 x 60.2 cm, (Source entry State Museum of New Western Art, Moscow) The State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg
44. Cubism – Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century, the term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Andre Lhote, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and wide-ranging, Cubism spread rapidly across the globe and in doing so evolved to a greater or lesser extent. In essence, Cubism was the origin of a process that produced diversity. In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art, in other countries Futurism, Suprematism, Dada, Constructivism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Other common threads between these movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, and the association of mechanization. Cubism began between 1907 and 1911, Pablo Picassos 1907 painting Les Demoiselles dAvignon has often been considered a proto-Cubist work. Georges Braques 1908 Houses at L’Estaque prompted the critic Louis Vauxcelles to refer to bizarreries cubiques, Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings. A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, english art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. Douglas Coopers restrictive use of terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Picasso, Gris. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed, wider views of Cubism include artists who were later associated with the Salle 41 artists, e. g. John Berger identifies the essence of Cubism with the mechanical diagram. The metaphorical model of Cubism is the diagram, The diagram being a symbolic representation of invisible processes, forces, structures. A diagram need not eschew certain aspects of appearance but these too will be treated as not as imitations or recreations. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Europeans were discovering African, Polynesian, Micronesian, artists such as Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso were intrigued and inspired by the stark power and simplicity of styles of those foreign cultures. Around 1906, Picasso met Matisse through Gertrude Stein, at a time when artists had recently acquired an interest in primitivism, Iberian sculpture, African art and African tribal masks. Picassos paintings of 1907 have been characterized as Protocubism, as seen in Les Demoiselles dAvignonCubism – Pablo Picasso, 1910, Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier), oil on canvas, 100.3 x 73.6 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
45. Futurism – Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed, technology, youth, and violence, and objects such as the car, the aeroplane, although it was largely an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England, Belgium and elsewhere. It glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past, Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurisms artistic style. Important Futurist works included Marinettis Manifesto of Futurism, Boccionis sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, to some extent Futurism influenced the art movements Art Deco, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dada, and to a greater degree Precisionism, Rayonism, and Vorticism. Futurism is a movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. He was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. We want no part of it, the past, he wrote, publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, and the Futurists wrote them on many topics, including painting, architecture, religion, clothing and cooking. The founding manifesto did not contain an artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting. This committed them to a universal dynamism, which was to be represented in painting. The motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, the Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, which had been originally created by Giovanni Segantini and others. Later, Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art. Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists, Cubism offered them a means of analysing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism. They often painted modern urban scenes, carràs Funeral of the Anarchist Galli is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904. The action of an attack and riot is rendered energetically with diagonals. His Leaving the Theatre uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated, Boccionis The City Rises represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control. The Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted, Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, Pittura scultura Futuriste, Dinamismo plastico. Ballas Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash exemplifies the Futurists insistence that the world is in constant movementFuturism – Gino Severini, 1912, Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, oil on canvas with sequins, 161.6 x 156.2 cm (63.6 x 61.5 in.), Museum of Modern Art, New York
46. Dada – Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland at the Cabaret Voltaire, in New York, and after 1920, in Paris. The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including collage, sound poetry, cut-up writing, Dadaist artists expressed their discontent with violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with the radical left. Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness, still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning in any language, reflecting the movements internationalism. The roots of Dada lay in pre-war avant-garde, the term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 to characterize works which challenge accepted definitions of art. Cubism and the development of collage and abstract art would inform the movements detachment from the constraints of reality, the work of French poets, Italian Futurists and the German Expressionists would influence Dadas rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning. Works such as Ubu Roi by Alfred Jarry, and the ballet Parade by Erik Satie would also be characterized as proto-Dadaist works, the Dada movements principles were first collected in Hugo Balls Dada Manifesto in 1916. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in Europe and North America. The beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of World War I, avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments. Futurism developed in response to the work of various artists, many Dadaists believed that the reason and logic of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos, for example, George Grosz later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest against this world of mutual destruction. According to Hans Richter Dada was not art, it was anti-art, Dada represented the opposite of everything which art stood for. Where art was concerned with aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend, as Hugo Ball expressed it, For us, art is not an end in itself. But it is an opportunity for the perception and criticism of the times we live in. A reviewer from the American Art News stated at the time that Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has ever originated from the brain of man. Art historians have described Dada as being, in large part, a systematic work of destruction and demoralization. In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege, to quote Dona Budds The Language of Art Knowledge, Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of the First World War. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich, Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuitionDada – Cover of the first edition of the publication Dada by Tristan Tzara; Zürich, 1917
47. Surrealism – Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream, leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I, the word surrealist was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire and first appeared in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, which was written in 1903 and first performed in 1917. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances, writings and art works, after the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the son of writer. He admired the young writers anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition, later Breton wrote, In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most. Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and they began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields, continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values. They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin, freuds work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. They embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness, as Salvador Dalí later proclaimed, There is only one difference between a madman and me. Beside the use of analysis, they emphasized that one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power, the group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. They wanted to people from false rationality, and restrictive customs. Breton proclaimed that the aim of Surrealism was long live the social revolution. To this goal, at various times Surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism, in 1924 two Surrealist factions declared their philosophy in two separate Surrealist Manifestos. That same year the Bureau of Surrealist Research was established, leading up to 1924, two rival surrealist groups had formed. Each group claimed to be successors of a revolution launched by Guillaume Apollinaire, the other group, led by Breton, included Louis Aragon, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Jacques Baron, Jacques-André Boiffard, Jean Carrive, René Crevel and Georges Malkine, among others. Goll and Breton clashed openly, at one point literally fighting, at the Comédie des Champs-Élysées, in the end, Breton won the battle through tactical and numerical superioritySurrealism – Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes (1921), Tate, London
48. Postmodern art – Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multimedia, the predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is contemporary art. Arthur Danto argues contemporary is the term, and postmodern objects represent a subsector of the contemporary movement. Some postmodern artists have more distinctive breaks from the ideas of modern art and there is no consensus as to what is late-modern. Ideas rejected by the modern aesthetic have been re-established, traditional techniques and subject matter have returned in art. Some critics argue much of the current postmodern art, the latest avant-gardism, as well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art, postmodern has also been used to denote a phase of modern art. Defenders of modernism, such as Clement Greenberg, as well as opponents of modernism, such as Félix Guattari. The neo-conservative Hilton Kramer describes postmodernism as a creation of modernism at the end of its tether, in the context of aesthetics and art, Jean-François Lyotard is a major philosopher of postmodernism. Many critics hold postmodern art emerges from modern art, suggested dates for the shift from modern to postmodern include 1914 in Europe, and 1962 or 1968 in America. He makes the point these debates go on all the time with respect to art movements and periods, American Marxist philosopher Fredric Jameson argues the condition of life and production will be reflected in all activity, including the making of art. Jean Baudrillard has had a significant influence on postmodern-inspired art and emphasised the possibilities of new forms of creativity, the artist Peter Halley describes his day-glo colours as hyperrealization of real color, and acknowledges Baudrillard as an influence. As with all uses of the term there are critics of its application. Kirk Varnedoe, for instance, stated there is no such thing as postmodernism. Postmodernism describes movements which both arise from, and react against or reject, trends in modernism, however, paradox is probably the most important modernist idea against which postmodernism reacts. Paradox was central to the modernist enterprise, which Manet introduced, manets various violations of representational art brought to prominence the supposed mutual exclusiveness of reality and representation, design and representation, abstraction and reality, and so on. The incorporation of paradox was highly stimulating from Manet to the conceptualists, Postmodernism rejects the notion of advancement or progress in art per se, and thus aims to overturn the myth of the avant-garde. Rosalind Krauss was one of the important enunciators of the view that avant-gardism was over, griselda Pollock studied and confronted the avant-garde and modern art in a series of groundbreaking books, reviewing modern art at the same time as redefining postmodern art. One characteristic of postmodern art is its conflation of high and low culture through the use of industrial materials and pop culture imageryPostmodern art – The juxtaposition of old and new, especially with regards to taking styles from past periods and re-fitting them into modern art outside of their original context, is a common characteristic of postmodern art.
49. Buddhist art – Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism. Buddhist art followed believers as the spread, adapted. It developed to the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of Buddhist art, in India, Buddhist art flourished and co-developed with Hindu and Jain art, with cave temple complexes built together, each likely influencing the other. During the 2nd to 1st century BCE, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and these took the form of votive tablets or friezes, usually in relation to the decoration of stupas. Although India had a sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form. This period may have been aniconic, artists were reluctant to depict the Buddha anthropomorphically, and developed sophisticated aniconic symbols to avoid doing so. This tendency remained as late as the 2nd century CE in the parts of India. It has been argued that earlier anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha may have made of wood. However, no related archaeological evidence has been found, the earliest works of Buddhist art in India date back to the 1st century B. C. The Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya became a model for similar structures in Burma, the frescoes at Sigiriya are said to be even older than the Ajanta Caves paintings. Anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha started to emerge from the 1st century CE in Northern India, the two main centers of creation have been identified as Gandhara in today’s North West Frontier Province, in Pakistan, and the region of Mathura, in central northern India. Gandharan Buddhist sculpture displays Greek artistic influence, and it has suggested that the concept of the man-god was essentially inspired by Greek mythological culture. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, the Mathuran school contributed clothes covering the left shoulder of thin muslin, the wheel on the palm, the lotus seat, etc. Mathura and Gandhara also strongly influenced each other, during their artistic florescence, the two regions were even united politically under the Kushans, both being capitals of the empire. This expression of the Buddha as both man and God became the canon for subsequent Buddhist art. It is interesting to note that the Buddha is an extensively used subject in plastic arts such as sculpture, paintings and literature, Buddhist art continued to develop in India for a few more centuries. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period to reach a high fineness of execution. The art of the Gupta school was extremely influential almost everywhere in the rest of Asia, at the end of the 12th century A. D. Buddhism in its full glory came to be preserved only in the Himalayan regions in IndiaBuddhist art – Footprint of the Buddha. 1st century, Gandhara.
50. Chinese art – Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage, early stone age art dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors. After contacts with Western art became increasingly important from the 19th century onwards, traditional Chinese painting involves essentially the same techniques as Chinese calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink, oils are not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of paper, the finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Traditional painting can also be done on album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, the two main techniques in Chinese painting are, Gong-bi, meaning meticulous, uses highly detailed brushstrokes that delimits details very precisely. It is often coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is often practised by artists working for the court or in independent workshops. Bird-and-flower paintings were often in this style and this style is also referred to as xie yi or freehand style. Artists from the Han to the Tang dynasties mainly painted the human figure, much of what is known of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, and tomb walls. Many early tomb paintings were meant to protect the dead or help their souls get to paradise, others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, or showed scenes of daily life. Most Chinese portraits showed a formal full-length frontal view, and were used in the family in ancestor veneration, Imperial portraits were more flexible, but were generally not seen outside the court, and portraiture formed no part of Imperial propaganda, as in other cultures. Many critics consider landscape to be the highest form of Chinese painting, the time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period is known as the Great age of Chinese landscape. In the south, Dong Yuan, Juran, and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer and these two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese ritual bronzes from the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties come from a period of over a thousand years from c,1500, and have exerted a continuing influence over Chinese art. They are cast with complex patterned and zoomorphic decoration, but avoid the human figure, smaller figures in pottery or wood were placed in tombs for many centuries afterwards, reaching a peak of quality in the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism is also the context of all large portrait sculpture, in total contrast to other areas in medieval China even painted images of the emperor were regarded as private. Imperial tombs have spectacular avenues of approach lined with real and mythological animals on a scale matching Egypt, and smaller versions decorate temples and palacesChinese art – Chinese jade ornament, with dragon and phoenix design, of the late Spring and Autumn Period (722–482 BC).
51. Islamic art – Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. The huge field of Islamic architecture is the subject of an article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy, painting, glass, pottery. Islamic art is not at all restricted to art, but includes all the art of the rich. It frequently includes secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, figurative painting may cover religious scenes, but normally in essentially secular contexts such as the walls of palaces or illuminated books of poetry. There are repeating elements in Islamic art, such as the use of floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible. Mistakes in repetitions may be introduced as a show of humility by artists who believe only God can produce perfection. Human portrayals can be found in all eras of Islamic art, above all in the private form of miniatures. Human representation for the purpose of worship is considered idolatry and is forbidden in some interpretations of Islamic law. There are also depictions of Muhammad, Islams chief prophet. Small decorative figures of animals and humans, especially if they are hunting the animals, are found on pieces in many media from many periods. Other inscriptions include verses of poetry, and inscriptions recording ownership or donation, Islamic calligraphy in the form of painting or sculptures are sometimes referred to as quranic art. Large inscriptions made from tiles, sometimes with the letters raised in relief, complex carved calligraphy also decorates buildings. For most of the Islamic period the majority of coins only showed lettering, the tughra or monogram of an Ottoman sultan was used extensively on official documents, with very elaborate decoration for important ones. Other single sheets of calligraphy, designed for albums, might contain short poems, Quranic verses, or other texts. The main languages, all using Arabic script, are Arabic, always used for Quranic verses, Persian in the Persianate world, especially for poetry, calligraphers usually had a higher status than other artists. The tradition of the Persian miniature has been dominant since about the 13th century, strongly influencing the Ottoman miniature of Turkey, portraits of rulers developed in the 16th century, and later in Persia, then becoming very popular. Mughal portraits, normally in profile, are very finely drawn in a realist style, while the best Ottoman ones are vigorously stylized, album miniatures typically featured picnic scenes, portraits of individuals or animals, or idealized youthful beauties of either sexIslamic art – Detail of arabesque decoration at the Alhambra in Spain
52. Laotian art – Lao art has a long and eventful history. Lao ceramics were first uncovered in 1970 at a site at kilometer 3, Thadeua Road in the Vientiane area, Mekong Valley. Construction was halted temporarily, and the kiln was hastily and unprofessionally excavated over a one-month period. Of the metals, bronze is probably the most common, but gold and it is in enshrined at Wat Po Chai in Nongkhai, Thailand, just across the Mekong River from Vientiane. The Phra Says two companion images, the Phra Seum and Phra Souk, are also in Thailand, one is in Bangkok and the other is in Lopburi. Perhaps the most famous sculpture in Laos, the Phra Bang, is also cast in gold, tradition maintains that relics of the Buddha are contained in the image. Media related to Art of Laos at Wikimedia Commons Laos Cultural ProfileLaotian art – Monument to King Setthathirat
53. List of basic visual arts topics – Visual Arts that produce three-dimensional objects, such as sculpture and architecture, are known as plastic arts. The current usage of visual arts includes fine arts as well as crafts, architecture, process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols. As a noun, it is used both for the plan or proposal, or the result of implementing that plan or proposal. Color – produced when light, striking an object, is reflected back to the eye, properties of color Hue – red, yellow, blue, green, etc. Intensity Value Space – area that an artist provides for a particular purpose, Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground, and refers to the distances or area around, between, and within things. com ArtLex - online dictionary of visual art terms. Art History Timeline by the Metropolitan Museum of ArtList of basic visual arts topics – Colour is an important aspect of many of the visual arts.
54. List of basic architecture topics – The following outline is an overview and topical guide to architecture, Architecture – the process and the product of designing and constructing buildings. Architectural works with a certain combination of design quality and external circumstances may become cultural symbols. Architecture can be described as all of the following, Academic discipline – focused study in one field or profession. A discipline incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, buildings – buildings and similar structures, the product of architecture, are referred to as architecture. One of the arts – as an art form, architecture is an outlet of expression, that is usually influenced by culture. Architecture is a manifestation of the internal human creative impulse. Fine art – in Western European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics, the word fine here does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. Its a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself, applied science – branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, such as technology or inventions. The art and science, or the action and process, of designing and constructing buildings, the design activity of the architect, the profession of designing buildings. A building designed by an architect, the end product of architectural design, a building whose design transcends mere function, a unifying or coherent form or structure. The expression of thought in building, a group or body of buildings in a particular style. A particular style or way of designing buildings, some key quotations on the subject of architecture, Vitruvius, defined the essential qualities of architecture as firmness, commodity and delight. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, I call architecture frozen music, walter Gropius, Architecture begins where engineering ends. Le Corbusier, A house is a machine for living in and this is the law, usually quoted as the architectural mantra form follows function. Mies van der Rohe, Less is more, robert Venturi, Less is a bore. Professionals involved in planning, designing, and constructing buildings include, Architect – a person trained in the planning, design, Architectural intern – a person gaining practical experience while studying to qualify as an architect. Landscape architect Project architect State architect Architectural designer – generally, an involved in architecture. Building control officer Building inspector Clerk of works Drafter or draughtsman – person trained in drawing up architectural drawings, a style may include such elements as form, method of construction, materials, and regional characterList of basic architecture topics – The Secretariat at Chandigarh, India, by Swiss architect Le Corbusier, one of the founders of modern architecture.
55. Bathsheba at Her Bath – According to the Hebrew Bible, Bat Sheva, more commonly known by the anglicized name Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. She is most known for the Bible story in which she was summoned by King David who had seen her bathing, Bathsheba was a daughter of Eliam, one of Davids thirty, Eliam was the son of Ahitophel, one of Davids chief advisors. Ahitophel was from Giloh, a city of Judah, and thus Bathsheba was from Davids own tribe and she was the mother of Solomon, who succeeded David as king, making her the Queen Mother. Bathsheba was the daughter of Eliam and her father is identified by some scholars with Eliam mentioned in 2 Samuel 23,34 as the son of Ahithophel, who is described as the Gilonite. Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite, and afterward of David, by whom she gave birth to Solomon, Davids seduction of Bathsheba, told in 2 Samuel 11, is omitted in the Books of Chronicles. The story is told that David, while walking on the roof of his palace, saw Bathsheba and he immediately desired her and later made her pregnant. But Uriah was unwilling to violate the ancient kingdom rule applying to warriors in active service, rather than go home to his own bed, he preferred to remain with the palace troops. David had Uriah himself carry the message led to his death. After Uriah was dead, David married the now widowed Bathsheba, Davids action was displeasing to the Lord, who accordingly sent Nathan the prophet to reprove the king. The king at once confessed his sin and expressed sincere repentance, Bathshebas first child by David was struck with a severe illness and died, unnamed, a few days after birth, which the king accepted as his punishment. Nathan also noted that Davids house would be punished in revenge of this murder, Bathsheba later gave birth to Davids son Solomon. Davids punishment came to pass years later one of Davids much-loved sons, Absalom. The story of Davids adultery sets up the context for the penitential Psalm 51, Bathsheba was the granddaughter of Ahithophel, Davids famous counselor. The Haggadah states that Ahithophel was misled by his knowledge of astrology into believing himself destined to become king of Israel. His astrological information had been, however, misunderstood by him, for in reality it only predicted that his granddaughter, Bathsheba, the daughter of his son Eliam, would become queen. The Midrash portrays the influence of Satan bringing about the relation of David and Bathsheba as follows, Bathsheba was bathing. Satan is depicted as coming in the disguise of a bird, David, shooting at the bird, strikes the screen, splitting it, thus Bathsheba is revealed in her beauty to David. In Matthew 1,6, the wife of Uriah is mentioned as one of the ancestors of Jesus, in Islam David is considered to be a prophet, and some Islamic tradition views the Bible story as incompatible with the principle of infallibility of the prophetsBathsheba at Her Bath – Bathsheba holding king David's letter by Willem Drost, 1654, Louvre Museum
56. Rembrandt – Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker. A prolific and versatile master across three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art. Having achieved youthful success as a painter, Rembrandts later years were marked by personal tragedy. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, Rembrandts portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime, and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called one of the great prophets of civilization. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic and he was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck. His family was quite well-to-do, his father was a miller, religion is a central theme in Rembrandts paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, and his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime. He opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend, in 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, Saskia came from a good family, her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden. When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandts relatives. In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and he also acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck. In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat, in 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house in the upscale Breestraat, today known as Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter, then a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a cause for later financial difficulties. Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income. It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes, in 1640, they had a second daughter, also named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a monthRembrandt – Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar (1659), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
57. Royal Fort House – The Royal Fort House is a historic house in Tyndalls Park, Bristol. The building currently houses the University of Bristols Faculty of Science offices, the Institute for Advanced Studies, Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research and the Cabot Institute. The house was built for Thomas Tyndall KCB, in the 18th century, on the site of bastions which were fought over during the English Civil War and demolished in 1655. The Baroque, Palladian and Rococo styles of architecture are because of the work of three different architects, James Bridges, Thomas Paty, John Wallis, the garden was laid out by Humphry Repton around 1800. The house was constructed on the site of a Civil War fortification and it was the strongest part of the defences of Bristol, designed by Dutch military engineer Sir Bernard de Gomme. It was one of the few purpose-built defensive works of the war era, the fort was designed as the western headquarters of the Royalist army under Prince Rupert. Royalists retreated into the fort when the Parliamentarians had broken through the lines in the siege of 1645, the fort was demolished around 1655. The Royal in the name was in honour of Prince Rupert, an archaeological investigation in 2009 discovered a defence ditch, two bastions and the possible foundations of a defensive wall on the summit of St Michaels Hill. The design of the house by James Bridges, for Thomas Tyndall KCB, was a compromise between the separate designs of architects Thomas Paty, John Wallis and himself. This led to different classical styles, Baroque, Palladian and Rococo and it was built between 1758 and 1761, by Thomas Paty with plasterwork by Thomas Stocking. The siting of drives in the Royal Fort park is reflected in street plans today. The current stone gatehouse, built in the Victorian era and known as the Royal Fort Lodge and it currently houses the University of Bristol security services. The house has been designated by Historic England as a grade I listed building, although owned by the University of Bristol, the Royal Fort Gardens are open to the public for the majority of the year. Repton produced a design which filled in the excavations, created an undulating lawn. A high wall surrounds and retains the garden and this would have acted as a ha-ha to gain what, at the time, would have been unspoiled vistas. The garden is now used for student activities and general relaxing. It contains a pond, trees and habitats, to increase the biodiversity. In 2016 a new installation called Hollow was produced by Katie Paterson and it is now owned by the University of Bristol, who were given the estate as a gift by Henry Herbert Wills of the Bristol tobacco company W. D. & H. O. WillsRoyal Fort House – Royal Fort House
58. Bristol – Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media, electronics and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail, sea and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms. The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Brastuile, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, Abona, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its nameBristol – Bristol
59. Hinduism – Hinduism is a religion, or a way of life, found most notably in India and Nepal. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This Hindu synthesis started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period, although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Shruti and Smriti and these texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna, Yoga, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha, karma, samsara, and the various Yogas. Hindu practices include such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals. Some Hindus leave their world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, patience, forbearance, self-restraint, Hinduism is the worlds third largest religion, with over one billion followers or 15% of the global population, known as Hindus. The majority of Hindus reside in India, Nepal, Mauritius, the Caribbean, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term, the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as an alternative name of India. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism, then spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, philosophical, because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion defies our desire to define and categorize it, Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and a way of life. From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion, in India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma, the study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of Hinduism, has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currentsHinduism – Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and USA, raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.
60. Lord Shiva – Shiva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme God within Shaivism, one of the three most influential denominations in contemporary Hinduism, Shiva is the transformer within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the Supreme being who creates, protects, in the goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power of each and he is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism. At the highest level, Shiva is regarded as formless, limitless, transcendent and unchanging absolute Brahman, Shiva has many benevolent and fearsome depictions. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives a life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati. In his fierce aspects, he is depicted slaying demons. Shiva is also known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the god of yoga, meditation. Shiva is usually worshipped in the form of Lingam. Shiva is a deity, revered widely by Hindus, in India, Nepal. The Sanskrit word Śiva means, states Monier Williams, auspicious, propitious, gracious, benign, kind, benevolent, the roots of Śiva in folk etymology is śī which means in whom all things lie, pervasiveness and va which means embodiment of grace. The word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, the term Shiva also connotes liberation, final emancipation and the auspicious one, this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics, Sharma presents another etymology with the Sanskrit root śarv-, which means to injure or to kill, interprets the name to connote one who can kill the forces of darkness. The Sanskrit word śaiva means relating to the god Shiva, and it is used as an adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism. Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word śivappu meaning red, noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun, the Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings, The Pure One, and the One who is not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti. Shiva is known by names such Viswanathan, Mahadeva, Mahesha, Maheshvara, Shankara, Shambhu, Rudra, Hara, Trilochana, Devendra, Neelakanta, Subhankara, Trilokinatha. The highest reverence for Shiva in Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva, Maheśvara, Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, the version appearing in Book 13 of the Mahabharata provides one such listLord Shiva – Shiva and Parvati
61. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entiretyIndia – Flag
62. Henri Le Secq – Jean-Louis-Henri Le Secq des Tournelles was a French painter and photographer. After the French government made the open for public in 1839. Jean-Louis-Henri Le Secq des Tournelles was born in 1818 in Paris and he was trained in sculpture and worked in several studios. He was also a collector of iron objects and the Musée le Secq des Tournelles in Rouen is devoted to him. He started his career while still working as a painter in the studio of Paul Delaroche. He experimented with various photograph processing techniques together with his colleague Charles Nègre and this process had the advantage that it produced negatives unlike the daguerreotype process. He, along with Hippolyte Bayard, Edouard Baldus, Gustave Le Gray and he worked mainly on cathedrals in Chartres, Strasbourg, Reims and near Paris. Cameras capable of taking photographs, sized up to 51 cm by 74 cm, were used. His works during this Commission des Monuments Historiques are considered his finest, in 1851 he became one of the founders of the first photographic organization of the world, the Société héliographique, which was very short lived. He gave up photography after 1856 but continued to paint and collect art, around 1870 he started reprinting his famous works as cyanotypes because he was afraid of possible loss due to fading. He gave the reprints the dates of the negatives, some of which are still in good condition. Janis, Eugenia Parry, and Josianne Sartre, Henri Le Secq, Photographe de 1850 a 1860. Catalogue Raisonné de la Collection de la Bibliothèque des Arts Decoratifs, with photographs by Henri Le Secq. NY, The Eakins Press,1970 Antic de Mondenard, La Mission heliographique, Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, published by Monum, editions du patrimoine, France,2002 Shelly, photographic exhibitions in Britain 1835 -1865 Article in TIMEHenri Le Secq – Portrait of Henri Le Secq (1848) by Gustave Le Gray
63. Johannes Josephus Aarts – Johannes Josephus Aarts was a Dutch painter, illustrator, lithographer, engraver, etcher, writer, academic teacher and director, lecturer, sculptor and book-cover designer. Jan Aarts received training in the Royal Academy of Art, The Hague and he was active there until 1911, and in Amsterdam from 1911 to 1934. Initially, until around 1900, Aarts worked above all on engravings, thereafter he began to also use other graphic methods. In his work, one found depictions of farmworkers, dyke workers and later also tramps, beggars, between 1920 and 1930 he produced mostly visionary work with apocalyptic scenes. He thereby contributed to the renewal of various techniques in the Netherlands. He painted portraits, animals and landscapes, including cityscapes and dune-landscapes, media related to Johannes Josephus Aarts at Wikimedia Commons Entry for Johannes Josephus Aarts on the Union List of Artist NamesJohannes Josephus Aarts – Nationale Tentoonstelling van Nijverheid & Kunst, June- Sept 1897.
64. Colin McCahon – Colin John McCahon was a prominent New Zealand artist whose work over forty-five years consisted of various styles including, landscape, figuration, abstraction and the overlay of painted text. Along with Toss Woollaston and Rita Angus, McCahon is credited with introducing modernism to New Zealand in the mid twentieth century and he is regarded as New Zealands most important modern artist, particularly in his landscape work. McCahon was born in Timaru on 1 August 1919 the second of three children of Ethel Beatrice Ferrier and her husband John Kernohan McCahon and he spent most of his childhood in Dunedin, although his family lived in Oamaru for one year. He showed an early interest in art, influenced by visits to exhibitions and the work of his maternal grandfather, the photographer and painter William Ferrier. He attended the Maori Hill Primary School and Otago Boys High School which he called, at the age of 14, convinced he wanted to be an artist, McCahon took Russell Clark’s Saturday morning art classes to learn the fundamental skills of painting. Visits to an exhibition by Toss Woollaston, whose landscapes, clean, bright with New Zealand light, McCahon later attended the Dunedin School of Art from 1937–1939, where his teacher Robert Nettleton Field proved to be an inspirational influence. After leaving Otago, McCahon attended King Edward Technical College Art School as a part-time student and he first exhibited his work at the Otago Art Society in 1939. His painting Harbour Cone from Peggy’s Hill was considered too abstract and was excluded from the Otago Art Societys exhibition, the protests of other young artists, who withdrew their works in sympathy, forced the society to relent and display the work. McCahon supported himself in the late-thirties with a stint of working in a variety show, stage scenery painting. Some of these jobs were undertaken during his service for the state during World War II. At the beginning of World War II, McCahon worked in prescribed industries in support of the war effort, McCahon had initially tried to enlist for military service after deciding that the defeat of Fascism was a global necessity - even from his pacifist standpoint. He was rejected from service due to an enlarged heart. In September 1940 and November 1943 he was guest exhibitor with The Group show in Christchurch and he became a member of The Group in 1947 and contributed work regularly until its demise in 1977. During 1944 McCahon collaborated with his wife producing watercolours collectively called Pictures for Children, in 1940 he had a small exhibit in Wellington and produced his first commissioned work, Otago Peninsula. Later, leaving his family at home, he traveled around the South Island for seasonal work which led to his artwork reflecting the places he traveled to. During this time, a portrait of McCahon was painted by Doris Lusk. McCahon married fellow artist Anne Hamblett in 1942 at St. Matthews Church, as a wedding present, McCahon and Hamblett received a book by C. A. Cotton, The Geomorphology of New Zealand. This book would prove to have an influence on his art, as McCahon relied on seasonal work his wife returned to live with her parentsColin McCahon – A pencil drawing of Colin McCahon by Allan Mollison (2009)
65. Jamaican art – Jamaican art dates back to Jamaicas indigenous Taino Indians who created zemis, carvings of their gods, for ritual spiritual purposes. Foremost among these were Agostino Brunias, Philip Wickstead, James Hakewill, perhaps the earliest artist to take a more Jamaican-centered approach to the island culture was Isaac Mendes Belisario. The National Gallery of Jamaica dates the nationalist-oriented art movement to the beginning of the twentieth century and her observations and journals on art and artists from that time have provided early documentation on the movements development. Her work, Bead Seller, has used as the earliest work in the National Gallery of Jamaicas permanent collection of mode. Her support of art classes at the Institute of Jamaica fostered the talents of artists such as Albert Huie, Ralph Campbell, Henry Daley. During the 1950s and 1960s, many of Jamaicas artists received training in Britain as a result of scholarships provided by the British Council. Ralph Campbell attended classes at Goldsmiths College, Barrington Watson trained at the Royal College of Art, each artist developed his own representational style, influenced by post-impressionism, realism, and cubism, respectively. All three artists returned to teach at the Jamaica School of Art, since the island declared independence in 1962, Jamaican art has swung between two styles that Chief Curator, David Boxer, has defined as mainstream and intuitive. Mainstream references Jamaicas trained artists, more exposed to art trends. The intuitive movement consists of artists who maintain stronger links with African forms of expression, are closed to any external influences. During the 1980s, a trend towards the fusion of two styles was apparent in the work of artists such as Milton George, Robert Cookhoorne. Smithsonian curator Vera Hyatt labelled them New Imagists, referencing the way the body in convulsive forms dominates their canvases and they began revisiting the sites of their ancestral origins, having a greater need to understand and visualise the Jamaican experience and their own sense of place within the Caribbean. But events in Jamaica have overtaken these concerns, turning an even younger generation of artists attention inwards, many of Jamaicas contemporary artists in the 1990s were concerned with post-colonial issues of identity and place. They explored these issues through group shows, such as the Caribbean Biennales other and this allowed them to establish commonality with artists from other islands. The art of this past decade appears to be shifting in focus once again, younger artists, such as Ebony GJamaican art – Public Monument, Negro Aroused, Kingston Waterfront
66. Folk art – Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian, Folk Art is characterized by a naïve style, in which traditional rules of proportion and perspective are not employed. The varied geographical and temporal prevalence and diversity of folk art make it difficult to describe as a whole, though some patterns have been demonstrated. On the other hand, many 18th- and 19th-century American folk art painters made their living by their work, including itinerant portrait painters, some of whom produced large bodies of work. Terms that might overlap with folk art are naïve art, tribal art, primitive art, popular art, outsider art, traditional art, tramp art and working-class art/blue-collar art. As one might expect, these terms can have multiple and even controversial connotations but are used interchangeably with the term folk art. Folk art expresses cultural identity by conveying shared community values and aesthetics and it encompasses a range of utilitarian and decorative media, including cloth, wood, paper, clay, metal and more. If traditional materials are inaccessible, new materials are often substituted, Folk art reflects traditional art forms of diverse community groups — ethnic, tribal, religious, occupational, geographical, age- or gender-based — who identify with each other and society at large. Folk artists traditionally learn skills and techniques through apprenticeships in informal community settings, antique folk art is distinguished from traditional art in that, while collected today based mostly on its artistic merit, it was never intended to be art for art’s sake at the time of its creation. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, and decoy carving continue to thrive, contemporary folk artists are frequently self-taught as their work is often developed in isolation or in small communities across the country. Folk artworks, styles and motifs have inspired various artists, for example, Pablo Picasso was inspired by African tribal sculptures and masks, while Natalia Goncharova and others were inspired by traditional Russian popular prints called luboks. In music, Igor Stravinskys seminal The Rite of Spring was inspired by religious rites. CIOFF, International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Folk ArtsFolk art – "Gran calavera eléctrica" by José Guadalupe Posada, Mexico, 1900–1913
67. Monochrome painting – Monochromatic painting has been an important component of avant-garde visual art throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century. From geometric precision to expressionism, the monochrome has proved to be an idiom in Contemporary art. Monochrome painting was initiated at the first Incoherent arts exhibition in 1882 in Paris, allais published his Album primo-avrilesque in 1897, a monograph with seven monochrome artworks. Others will come after us who will do the same and that is the tremendous secret of the future. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, and the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi. Minimalism was also a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The wide range of possibilities of interpretation of monochrome paintings is arguably why the monochrome is so engaging to so many artists, critics, although the monochrome has never become dominant and few artists have committed themselves exclusively to it, it has never gone away. It reappears as though a spectre haunting high modernism, or as a symbol of it, appearing during times of aesthetic, monochrome painting as it is usually understood today began in Moscow, with Suprematist Composition, White on White of 1918 by Suprematist artist Kazimir Malevich. This was a variation on or sequel to his 1915 work “Black Square on a White Field”, in 1921, Constructivist artist Alexander Rodchenko exhibited three paintings together, each a monochrome of one of the three primary colours. He intended this work to represent The Death of Painting, while Rodchenko intended his monochrome to be a dismantling of the typical assumptions of painting, Malevich saw his work as a concentration on them, a kind of meditation on art’s essence. Additionally, many have pointed out that it may be difficult to deduce the artist’s intentions from the painting itself, milton Resnick had a long career as an Abstract Expressionist painter. Initially, during the 1940s, he explored the then-current style of Action Painting, during the final two and a half decades of his painting career Resnicks paintings became monochromatic, albeit with thickly brushed and layered surfaces. Ad Reinhardt was an Abstract Expressionist artist notable for painting nearly “pure” monochromes over a span of time, in red or blue. One of Barnett Newman’s near monochrome paintings generated outrage and widespread ridicule in Canada when the National Gallery purchased Voice of Fire for a sum of money. Another of Barnett Newman’s very sparse geometric abstractions was slashed with a knife by a viewer in the 1980s at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. Lyrical Abstractionist painters such as Ronald Davis, Larry Poons, Walter Darby Bannard, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Ralph Humphrey, David Budd, David R. Since the 1960s artists as diverse as Frank Stella, Ellsworth Kelly, Ronald Davis, David Novros, Paul Mogensen, Patricia Johanson, while some of their monochromatic works related to minimalism none of the above were minimalists. Robert Rauschenberg, A canvas is never empty, in the early 1950s, Rauschenberg became known for white, then black, and eventually red monochrome canvasesMonochrome painting – Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition: White On White, 1918, Museum of Modern Art New York
68. Reginald Gray (artist) – Reginald Gray was an Irish portrait artist. He studied at The National College of Art and then moved to London, becoming part of the School of London led by Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud and Frank Auerbach. In 1960, he painted a portrait of Bacon which now hangs in the permanent collection of the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 1993 Gray had an exhibition at UNESCO Paris and in 2006, his portrait The White Blouse won the Sandro Botticelli Prize in Florence. Born in Dublin, Gray grew up on Grove Avenue in Blackrock and his father worked for the Guinness company. Gray studied at All Saints, Blackrock, the Blackrock Technical Institute, after a short period he left to study under Cecil ffrench Salkeld ARHA. At the age of nineteen Gray joined The Dublin Atelier, a group of painters who exhibited at The Dublin Painters Gallery. During this period Gray was inspired by the works of the French painter Bernard Buffet who had won the Prix de la critique. Gray had a studio on Leeson Street in the early 1950s, there he made a wash drawing of the artist Patrick Swift which he used as a base for a large canvas homage to the painter some years later. Grays first paid work was a commission by University College Dublin to design the setting, the lead in the play was given to the young actor-poet John Jordan. During the preparations and rehearsals Gray painted a portrait of Jordan which now hangs in the collection of The Dublin Writers Museum. At this point the artist Cecil ffrench Salkeld ARHA took an interest in Gray, Salkeld was visited by writers, painters and musicians, such as Brian ONolan, Arland Ussher, Francis Stuart, Marten Cumberland and John Beckett, cousin of Samuel. Gray painted John Beckett during this period and the portrait now hangs in St. Columbas College, Dublin, Gray became a close friend of Brendan Behan and was asked to be best man at Behans wedding. Gray designed many settings for The Pike Theatre including the production of The Rose Tattoo by Tennessee Williams. After the success in Dublin, the play was transferred to The Grand Opera House, Belfast and Gray travelled there to redesign, look Back in Anger by John Osborne was at the same time running at the Opera House and Gray befriended and sketched the leading actress Jocelyn Britton. Later he designed the sets for Nekrassov by Jean-Paul Sartre which was mounted at The Gate Theatre, Gray later went on a tour of Ireland with The Dublin Repertory Theatre Company designing their productions, including The Wood of the Whispering by M. J. Molloy. Gray moved to London in 1957 and lived near the Portobello market, needing more solitude to paint, Gray moved to Bayswater. He got a job in the department at Whiteleys department store designing and dressing their windowsReginald Gray (artist) – Paris, 1986
69. Science of photography – The science of photography refers to the use of science, such as chemistry and physics, in all aspects of photography. This applies to the camera, its lenses, physical operation of the camera, electronic camera internals, changes to any of these elements are often measured in units known as stops, a stop is equal to a factor of two. The luminance of the scene, as measured on a light meter. The amount of light required for proper exposure depends on the film speed, with either of these changes, the aperture or shutter speed can be adjusted by an equal number of stops to get to a suitable exposure. Light is most easily controlled through the use of the cameras aperture, using faster or slower film is not usually something that can be done quickly, at least using roll film. Large format cameras use individual sheets of film and each sheet could be a different speed, also, if youre using a larger format camera with a polaroid back, you can switch between backs containing different speed polaroids. Digital cameras can easily adjust the speed they are simulating by adjusting the exposure index. For example, starting with an exposure of 1/60 at f/16, the depth-of-field could be made shallower by opening up the aperture to f/4, an increase in exposure of 4 stops. To compensate, the speed would need to be increased as well by 4 stops. Closing down the aperture limits the resolution due to the diffraction limit and this is known as reciprocity failure of the material. A photographic lens is composed of several lens elements, which combine to reduce the effects of chromatic aberration, coma, spherical aberration. A simple example is the three-element Cooke triplet, still in use over a century after it was first designed, using a smaller aperture can reduce most, but not all aberrations. They can also be reduced dramatically by using an aspheric element, fresnel lenses are not used in cameras even though they are extremely light and cheap, because they produce poor image quality. The recently developed Fiber-coupled monocentric lens consists of spheres constructed of concentric shells of different glasses tied to the focal plane by bundles of optical fibers. Monocentric lenses are not used in cameras because the technology was just debuted in October 2013 at the Frontiers in Optics Conference in Orlando. All lens design is a compromise between numerous factors, not excluding cost, zoom lenses involve additional compromises and therefore normally do not match the performance of prime lenses. The range of distances that are nearly in focus is called the depth of field, depth of field generally increases with decreasing aperture diameter. The unfocused blur outside the depth of field is used for artistic effect in photographyScience of photography – Motion blur of background while following the subject
70. Decoupage – Decoupage or Découpage is the art of decorating an object by gluing colored paper cutouts onto it in combination with special paint effects, gold leaf and other decorative elements. Commonly, an object like a box or an item of furniture is covered by cutouts from magazines or from purpose-manufactured papers. Each layer is sealed with varnishes until the stuck on appearance disappears, the traditional technique used 30 to 40 layers of varnish which were then sanded to a polished finish. Pyramid decoupage is a similar to 3D decoupage. In pyramid decoupage, a series of images are cut into progressively smaller. The word decoupage comes from Middle French decouper, meaning to cut out or cut from something, the origin of decoupage is thought to be East Siberian tomb art. Nomadic tribes used cut out felts to decorate the tombs of their deceased, from Siberia, the practice came to China, and by the 12th century, cut out paper was being used to decorate lanterns, windows, boxes and other objects. Artisans in Florence, Italy have produced decorative objects using decoupage techniques since the 18th century and they combined decoupage with other decorative techniques already popular in Florence, such as gilt with gold leaf and carved wood designs. These older techniques were used to produce articles such as furniture, frames for paintings. Known as Florentine style crafts, these items are now collectible antiques. Florentine artisans made use of decoupage by adding it to the space within a gilt frame. Artisans used pasted reproductions of artworks, nearly always religious depictions. Florentine triptychs using decoupage images of such Biblical scenes as the Crucifixion are a common motif, common household materials can be used to create effects. Here is a short list of supplies, Something to decoupage onto, examples include, furniture, photograph albums, plates, ceramics, shelving, frames, mirrors. These can come from sources, newspapers, magazines, catalogs, books, printed clip art, wrapping paper, greeting cards, fabric, tissue paper, lace. Scissors, craft knife or razor blades can be used, standard white glue works best if it is diluted with a little water. Specialty glues can be found in most crafting stores, a brayer is a specialized tool like a miniature rolling pin designed to help remove wrinkles, remove excess glue and smooth pictures. Many things around the house can be use for this, cotton swabs, rags, sponges, tissue paper to help wipe up glue and other clean upDecoupage – Henri Matisse, Blue Nude II, 1952, gouache découpée, Pompidou Centre, Paris
71. James Turrell – James Turrell is an American artist primarily concerned with light and space. Turrell was a MacArthur Fellow in 1984, Turrell is best known for his work in progress, Roden Crater, a natural cinder cone crater located outside Flagstaff, Arizona that he is turning into a massive naked-eye observatory. James Turrell was born in Los Angeles, California and his father, Archibald Milton Turrell, was an aeronautical engineer and educator. His mother, Margaret Hodges Turrell, trained as a medical doctor, Turrell obtained a pilots license when he was 16 years old. Later, registered as a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War, some writers have suggested it was a CIA mission, Turrell called it a humanitarian mission — and that he found some beautiful places to fly. For years he restored antique planes to support his art habit and he received a BA degree from Pomona College in perceptual psychology in 1965 and also studied mathematics, geology and astronomy there. Turrell enrolled in the graduate Studio Art program at the University of California, Irvine in 1966 and his studies at UC Irvine were interrupted in 1966, when he was arrested for coaching young men to avoid the Vietnam draft. He spent about a year in jail and he later received an MA degree in art from Claremont Graduate University. In 2004, he was awarded a doctorate by Haverford College. By covering the windows and only allowing prescribed amounts of light from the street outside to come through the openings, in Shallow Space Constructions he used screened partitions, allowing a radiant effusion of concealed light to create an artificially flattened effect within the given space. That same year, he participated in the Los Angeles County Museums Art and Technology Program, investigating perceptual phenomena with the artist Robert Irwin, in 1969, he made sky drawings with Sam Francis, using colored skywriting smoke and cloud-seeding materials. Turrell is perhaps best known for his work in progress, Roden Crater and he acquired an extinct cinder volcano located outside Flagstaff, Arizona in 1979. Since then he has spent decades moving tons of dirt and building tunnels, but its not about the landforms. Im working to bring celestial objects like the sun and moon into the spaces that we inhabit and he added, I apprehend light — I make events that shape or contain light. The completion date for the Crater has been pushed back several times for funding and construction reasons, with the artist missing early targets in the 1990s. The last time Turrell or his team went on talking about a completion date, the goal was 2011. Access to Roden Crater is limited to friends, though devoted fans can access by completing the Turrell Tour. As Roden Crater has been shrouded in secrecy, fans have attempted to sneak in without the artists permissionJames Turrell – Satellite view of Roden Crater, the site of an earthwork in progress by James Turrell outside Flagstaff, Arizona
72. American Impressionism – American Impressionism was a style of painting related to European Impressionism and practiced by American artists in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. American Impressionism is a style of painting characterized by loose brushwork, Impressionism emerged as an artistic style in France in the 1860s. Major exhibitions of French impressionist works in Boston and New York in the 1880s introduced the style to the American public. Some of the first American artists to paint in a mode, such as Theodore Robinson, did so in the late 1880s after visiting France. Others, such as Childe Hassam, took notice of the numbers of French impressionist works at American exhibitions. From the 1890s through the 1910s, American impressionism flourished in art colonies—loosely affiliated groups of artists who lived and worked together and shared a common aesthetic vision. Art colonies tended to form in small towns that provided affordable living, abundant scenery for painting, some American art colonies remained vibrant centers of impressionist art into the 1920s. However, impressionism in America lost its status in 1913 when a historic exhibition of modern art took place at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City. Prominent impressionist painters, from the United States include, Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Hoosier Group Richmond Group Ten American Painters Gerdts, California Art,450 Years of Painting and Other Media. The Irvine Museum and Georgia Museum of Art, New York, the National Academy of Design. Weinberg, Barbara H. Childe Hassam, American Impressionist, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Plein Air Painters of California, The North, plein Air Painters of California, The Southland. Philadelphia, James A. Michener Art Museum and University of Pennsylvania PressAmerican Impressionism – Frank W. Benson, Eleanor Holding a Shell, North Haven, Maine, 1902, private collection.
73. Chinese painting – Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. Painting in the style is known today in Chinese as guóhuà, meaning national or native painting. Traditional painting involves essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in ink or coloured pigments. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made are paper, the finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Traditional painting can also be done on album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, the two main techniques in Chinese painting are, Gongbi, meaning meticulous, uses highly detailed brushstrokes that delimits details very precisely. It is often coloured and usually depicts figural or narrative subjects. It is often practised by artists working for the court or in independent workshops. Ink and wash painting, in Chinese shui-mo also loosely termed watercolour or brush painting and this style is also referred to as xieyi or freehand style. Landscape painting was regarded as the highest form of Chinese painting, the time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period is known as the Great age of Chinese landscape. In the south, Dong Yuan, Juran, and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer and these two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese painting and calligraphy distinguish themselves from other arts by emphasis on motion. The practice is traditionally first learned by rote, in which the shows the right way to draw items. The apprentice must copy these items strictly and continuously until the movements become instinctive, in contemporary times, debate emerged on the limits of this copyist tradition within modern art scenes where innovation is the rule. Changing lifestyles, tools, and colors are also influencing new waves of masters, the earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental, they consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures. Early pottery was painted with spirals, zigzags, dots, or animals and it was only during the Warring States period that artists began to represent the world around them. Calligraphy and painting were thought to be the purest forms of art, the implements were the brush pen made of animal hair, and black inks made from pine soot and animal glue. In ancient times, writing, as well as painting, was done on silk, however, after the invention of paper in the 1st century AD, silk was gradually replaced by the new and cheaper material. Original writings by famous calligraphers have been valued throughout Chinas history and are mounted on scrollsChinese painting – A wall scroll painted by Ma Lin on or before 1246. Ink and color on silk, 226.6x110.3 cm.
74. Sanguine – Sanguine or red chalk is chalk of a reddish-brown colour, so called because it resembles the colour of dried blood. It has been popular for centuries for drawing, and the term describes a drawing done in sanguine. The word comes via French from the Italian sanguigna and originally from the Latin sanguis, sanguine /ˈsæŋɡwɪn/ lends itself naturally to sketches, life drawings, and rustic scenes. It is ideal for rendering modeling and volume, and human flesh, in the form of wood-cased pencils and manufactured sticks, sanguine may be used similarly to charcoal and pastel. As with pastel, a paper may be put to good use. A fixative may be applied to preserve the state of the drawing. The pigment used in sanguine sticks comes from red earths such as red ochre, sanguines are also available in several other tones such as orange, tan, brown, beigeSanguine – French sanguine drawing; relatively unusual in fully colouring the background
75. Niko Pirosmanashvili – Niko Pirosmani, simply referred to as Nikala, was a Georgian primitivist painter who posthumously rose to prominence. Pirosmani was born in the Georgian village of Mirzaani to a peasant family in Kakheti province and his parents, Aslan Pirosmanashvili and Tekle Toklikishvili, were farmers, who owned a small vineyard, with a few cows and oxen. He was later orphaned and left in the care of his two sisters, Mariam and Pepe. He moved with them to Tbilisi in 1870, in 1872, while living in a little apartment not far from Tbilisi railway station, he worked as a servant to wealthy families and learned to read and write Russian and Georgian. In 1876, he returned to Mirzaani and worked as a herdsman, Pirosmani gradually taught himself to paint. One of his specialties was painting directly into black oilcloth, in 1882, with self-taught George Zaziashvili, he opened a painting workshop, where they made signboards. In 1890, he worked as a railroad conductor, in 1893, he co-founded a dairy farm in Tbilisi, which he left in 1901. Throughout his life, Pirosmani, who was poor, was willing to take ordinary jobs including housepainting and whitewashing buildings and he also worked for shopkeepers in Tbilisi, creating signboards, paintings, and portraits, according to their orders. Although his paintings had some local popularity his relationship with professional artists remained uneasy, in April 1918, he died of malnutrition and liver failure. He was buried at the Nino cemetery, the location was not registered and is unknown. Pirosmani’s paintings were influenced by the conditions of his time. There are many works about merchants, shopkeepers, workmen, Pirosmani was fond of nature and rural life. He was the only Georgian animalist, Pirosmani also was attracted by historical figures and themes such as Shota Rustaveli, Queen Tamar, Giorgi Saakadze, as well as ordinary Georgian people and their everyday lives. Unlike other artists, Niko didn’t aim at a pure imitation of the nature, some of his paintings are monochrome. His paintings demonstrate the authors sharp compositional consideration, placements of the figures are frontal, while faces do not demonstrate a specific mood. In the 1910s, he won the enthusiasm of the Russian poet Mikhail Le-Dantyu, Ilia Zhdanevich wrote a letter about Pirosmani to the newspaper Zakavkazskaia Rech, which it published on February 13,1913. He undertook to publicise Pirosmanis painting in Moscow, critics writing later in the same newspaper were impressed with his talent. In the same year, an article about Niko Pirosmani and his art was published in Georgian newspaper TemiNiko Pirosmanashvili – Pirosmani, 1916