1. Rioni of Rome – A rione of Rome is a traditional administrative division of the city of Rome. Rione is an Italian term used since the 14th century to name a district of a town, the term was born in Rome, originating from the administrative divisions of the city. The word comes from the Latin word regio, during the Middle Ages the Latin word became rejones, currently, all the rioni are located in Municipio I of Rome. According to tradition, Servius Tullius, sixth king of Rome, first divided the city into regiones, all but Transtiberim were on the left bank of the river Tiber. During the 12th century a division in 12 parts started being used, though not officially, even if the areas were different from the ancient ones, they still used the same name, regio in Latin and rione in the vulgar language. The limits of the rioni became more definitive and official in the 13th century, their number increased to 13, in this period, anyway, the limits were quite uncertain. The rione was not an entity, but only an administrative one. The chief of a rione was the Caporione, during the Renaissance there was a deep reorganization and expansion of the city, so it became necessary to delimit the rioni exactly. In 1586 Sixtus V added to the 13 rioni another one, Borgo and this situation, thanks to the low population increase, did not change until the 19th century. In 1744 Pope Benedict XIV, because of frequent misunderstanding, decided to replan the administrative division of Rome, the marble plates defining the borders of each rione, many of which still exist, were installed in that year on the facades of houses lying at each riones border. So the smaller rioni were united to the large ones, at this time the French affixed in each street a plate with its name and the areas it belonged to. After Napoleon lost his power there were no significant changes in the organization of the city until Rome became the capital of the newborn Italy, the needs of the new capital caused a great urbanization and an increase of the population, both within the Aurelian walls and outside them. In 1874 the rioni became 15, with the addition of Esquilino, at the beginning of the 20th century some rioni started being split up and the first parts outside the Aurelian walls started being considered part of the city. In 1921 the number of the rioni increased to 22, Prati was the last rione to be established and the only one outside the walls of Urbanus VIII. The latest reform, which is still valid, was made in 1972, Rome was divided in 20 circoscrizioni and 20 rioni constituted the first one. The two remaining, Borgo and Prati, belonged to the XVIIth municipality until 2013, since then they belong too to the first Municipio. Media related to Districts of Rome at Wikimedia CommonsRioni of Rome – A map of the center of Rome ("centro storico", roughly equal to the walled city) with its rioni
2. Municipio I – The Municipio I, is an administrative subdivision of the city of Rome. It is the center of the municipality of Rome and it was firstly created by Romes City Council on 19 January 2001 and it has a president who is elected during the mayoral elections. Since 11 March 2013 its borders were modified and was expanded with the incorporation between Municipio I and Municipio XVII, Municipio I is home to the Rioni of Rome, which are the citys historic districts. Municipio I is divided into localities, The localities of Prati, Delle Vittorie. The current majority is formed by Democratic Party and Left Ecology FreedomMunicipio I – Location of Municipio I of Rome
3. Basilica – The Latin word basilica has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official. To a large extent these were the halls of ancient Roman life. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main forum, later, the term came to refer specifically to a large and important Roman Catholic church that has been given special ceremonial rights by the Pope. Roman Catholic basilicas are Catholic pilgrimage sites, receiving tens of millions of visitors per year. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Roman basilica was a public building where business or legal matters could be transacted. The first basilicas had no function at all. The central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, the oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii, probably the most splendid Roman basilica is the one begun for traditional purposes during the reign of the pagan emperor Maxentius and finished by Constantine I after 313 AD. In the 3rd century AD, the elite appeared less frequently in the forums. They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, rather than retreats from public life, however, these residences were the forum made private. Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning. A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia, in the House of the Hunt and its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that mostly also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. Clustered columns emphasised the crossing of the two axes, the remains of a large subterranean Neopythagorean basilica dating from the 1st century AD were found near the Porta Maggiore in Rome in 1915. The ground-plan of Christian basilicas in the 4th century was similar to that of this Neopythagorean basilica, the usable model at hand, when Constantine wanted to memorialise his imperial piety, was the familiar conventional architecture of the basilicas. In, and often also in front of, the apse was a platform, where the altar was placed. Constantine built a basilica of this type in his complex at Trier, later very easily adopted for use as a churchBasilica – St Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, a major basilica of the Roman Catholic Church, is a central-plan building, enlarged by a basilical nave
4. San Saba (Rome) – San Saba is an ancient basilica church in Rome, Italy. It lies on the so-called Piccolo Aventino, which is a close to the ancient Aurelian Walls next to the Aventine Hill. The current Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus S. Sabae is Jorge Medina Estévez, the titulus was established in 1959. According to legend, St. Silvia, mother of Pope Gregory I, had an estate at the site. After her death, so legend reads, her estate was transformed into a monastery of St. Andreas. The historic origin of the site goes back to the year 645. In this year, fugitive monks from the monastery of St. Sabas, here, they founded an eremitic cell. The Sabaites introduced the cult of St. Sabas to Rome, in ancient sources, their monastery however goes by the name cellas novas or cellaenovae, which refers to the cellae of their mother abbey, Mar Saba. The Sabaite monastery prospered quickly and for a long time, in the 8th and 9th centuries, San Saba was one of the most prestigious of Rome and among the leading Greek monasteries. Since 680, its abbots held important diplomatic roles in the relationships between Rome and Byzantium, and represented the Roman Church and Pope at several church councils in Constantinople, in 768, Antipope Constantine II was held prisoner in this monastery, before being killed by the Lombards. The Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino received the church after it was rebuilt in the 10th century, Anselm, the nephew of St Anselm, was one of its abbots before departing to England as a papal legate. After many years of decay, the basilica was renovated in the 13th century. In 1503 the Cistercians were entrusted with the church, which in 1573 was finally conveyed to the Jesuits, the church, preceded by a small porch from the 13th century, has a nave with two aisles. The interior is characterized by numerous interventions from different ages, the columns are from ancient buildings, and the floor is an example of Cosmatesque marble art from the beginning of the 13th century. The main artpieces are the frescoes in a room on the left side of the church. The crypt, built on the house of St. Silvia, the sacristy houses a fragment of fresco from the very first churchSan Saba (Rome) – Facade
5. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.
6. Monti (rione of Rome) – Monti is the name of one of the twenty-two Rioni of Rome, rione I, located in Municipio I. The name literally means mountains in Italian and comes from the fact that the Esquiline and the Viminal Hills, and parts of the Quirinal and its logo consists of three green mountains with three tops on a silver background. Today the Esquilino, Castro Pretorio and Celio districts do not belong to it anymore, in ancient times the rione was densely populated, in Monti there were the Forum Romanum and the so-called Suburra, this was the place poor people lived, full of disreputable locals and brothels. In the Middle Ages the situation was different, the Roman aqueducts were damaged. Hence many inhabitants moved to Campus Martius, a level part. From the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 19th century, Monti was not densely populated because of the lack of water and because it was quite far from the Vatican, the center of Christian culture. The area did not become abandoned thanks to the church of San Giovanni in Laterano, still in the Middle Ages the inhabitants of Monti, called monticiani, developed a strong identity, their Roman dialect was different from that spoken in the other rioni. Their main enemies were the people from the other rione with an identity, Trastevere. The Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum is located in Monti History, maps and images of the rioneMonti (rione of Rome) – via dei Fori Imperiali, on the edge of the rione
7. Trevi (rione of Rome) – Trevi is the rione II of Rome, located in Municipio I. Its logo is made of three swords on a red background and this rione, during the Roman republic belonged to the third region, while during the Roman empire was split up into two regions, the VI, called Alta Semita and the VII, called via Lata. During the ancient Roman period, in rione Trevi there were groups of private houses with some monumental buildings. Since that time the area was split up into two parts, a lower one, level and next to the river Tiber, and a higher one on the hills. The first one was one of the center of the activities of the city, while the one was a rich. After the fall of the Roman empire, a lot of people moved away from the hills to settle next to the river, in the lower part. The urbanization followed the people, next to the river Tiber the rione was full of buildings while almost nothing was built again on the hills until the Renaissance. In 1600 urbanization, new streets, churches and fountains caused the rione Trevi to be quite crowded, the Quirinal Hill, partially isolated from the crowded part close to the river, was slowly becoming a center of power thanks to numerous buildings belonging to the Pope. Under the domination of Napoleon, in 1811, the Quirinal Hill was selected to be the center of the power in Rome. The plan was not completed because of the fall of Napoleon, in fact nowadays several ministers are placed in the rione Trevi. This changed completely the appearance of the part of the rione. The most famous monument in the rione is Trevi Fountain, public libraries in Trevi include Romana Sarti and Casa delle Traduzioni. Piazza Barberini Piazza della Pilota Piazza del Quirinale Piazza San Bernardo Piazza San Silvestro Piazza Santi Apostoli Piazza Scanderbeg Piazza di TreviTrevi (rione of Rome) – Piazza dei Crociferi, with the Church of Santa Maria in Trivio
8. Colonna (rione of Rome) – Colonna is the III rione of Rome and located at the citys historic center in Municipio I. It takes its name from the Column of Marcus Aurelius in the Piazza Colonna, today the rione covers 0.2689 km2 and as of 2011 had 2547 inhabitants. The rione reaches to one side of the Pincian Hill, during the short-lived Roman Republic of 1798 it also included the hill itself and was called Pincio rather than Colonna. The riones insignia is a now a column representing the Column of Marcus Aurelius on a red background. However, the insignia originally consisted of three azure bands against a silver backgroundColonna (rione of Rome) – Piazza Colonna and the Column of Marcus Aurelius from which the rione takes its name
9. Ponte (rione of Rome) – Ponte is the fifth rione of Rome, and is located in Municipio I. Its name comes from Ponte SantAngelo, which connects Ponte with the rione of Borgo and this bridge was built by Emperor Hadrian in 134 AD to connect his mausoleum to the rest of the city. Though Pope Sixtus V changed the limits so that the bridge belongs now to Borgo, not to Ponte any more. Its logo is obviously a bridge, in ancient Rome, the area belonged to the IX Augustan region called Circus Flaminius, that was a part of the Campus Martius. Neros bridge was also called Pons Vaticanus, because it connected the Ager Vaticanus to the bank, later Pons ruptus. In ancient Rome there was a port that was used to carry the materials for temples, the active life of the area went on during the Middle Ages and the modern period, and this activity deleted almost all signs of ancient Rome in the rione. Moreover, the rione was on the edge of Ponte SantAngelo, thus all the streets of Rome were leading there. That is why it was full of locals, restaurants, shops of holy objects, a common event in the area was to see a small procession led by a person dressed in black, covering his face, carrying a crucifix on his shoulders. On a wagon there was a condemned man kissing continuously another image of Jesus. The destination of the procession was the square in front of Ponte SantAngelo, although Ponte was a quite rich area, it was the one most affected by the frequent flooding of the River Tiber. All the narrow leading to the river were lost, to make space for the embankments. La grande guida dei Rioni di Roma, ISBN 88-7983-509-2 History, maps and images of the rionePonte (rione of Rome) – Church of Santa Maria della Pace
10. Parione – Parione is the VI rione of Rome. It is located in Municipio I and its logo is a rampant griffon, a Greek mythological creature with the head of an eagle and the body of a lion. It was chosen as a symbol of pride and nobility, during Antiquity, it belonged to the IX Augustan region called Circo Flaminio. In this area Domitianus built his stadium and an Odeon, for musical, under Sixtus IV the rione lost its chaotic look, typical of the Middle Ages, for a cleaner and tidier one, typical of the Renaissance. Recovering buildings, enlarging streets, building the new bridge ponte Sisto connecting Trastevere and Parione, thanks to this renewal, urbanization increased between the 1400 and 1500. In the same period, several artists were asked to renew the front of the greatest buildings, in 1500 most of the commercial activity slowly moved from Campo de Fiori to Piazza Navona, that was the favorite place since it was wider. From 1574 to 1674, the appearance of Piazza Navona changed vastly, thanks to the work of Bernini, Borromini, if one palace was jutting, its front was moved backwards to preserve itParione – Sign of the rione
11. Regola – Regola is the 7th rione of Rome, Italy. It is located in Municipio I of the city, the name comes from Arenula, which was the name of the soft sand that the river Tiber left after the floods, and that built strands on the left bank. The logo of the rione is a rampant deer with a turquoise background, during the Roman empire, the area belonged to the Campus Martius. In particular, in the modern Regola there was the Trigarium, emperor Augustus divided Rome into 14 regions, according to this, the modern Regola belonged to the IX region called Circus Flaminius. In the Middle Ages it entered the fourth of the seven new ecclesiastic regions, also because of the very frequent floods of the river Tiber, the area was unhealthy and it was drained at the end of the Middle Ages. In 1586, when rione Borgo was made, the number of rioni increased to 14, and Regola became the VII with the name of Arenule et Chacabariorum. In 1875, after the walls to stop the floods of the Tiber were built, though small, the rione contains many kinds of buildings, palaces, hospitals, churches, embassies, run down prisons and dirty poor houses. Public libraries in Regola include the Biblioteca centrale Centrale dei Ragazzi, media related to Rione VII - Regola at Wikimedia Commons History, maps and images of the rioneRegola – Palazzo Farnese
12. Pigna (rione of Rome) – Pigna is the name of rione IX of Rome, located in Municipio I of the city. The name means pine cone in Italian, and the symbol for the rione is the bronze pine cone. The giant bronze pine cone once decorated a fountain in Ancient Rome next to a vast Temple of Isis, there water flowed copiously from the top of the pinecone. The Pigna was moved first to the Old Basilica of Saint Peter, there it stands today under Pirro Ligorios vast niche at the far end, flanked by a pair of Roman bronze peacocks brought from Hadrians mausoleum, the Castel SantAngelo. This rione is centrally located in the Campus Martius area of ancient Rome and it is roughly square-shaped, extending from the Pantheon on its northwest corner to the Piazza Venezia on the southeast. This relatively small area contains numerous churches and palazzi, public libraries in Pigna include RispoliPigna (rione of Rome) – Bronze Pigna at Vatican
13. Trastevere – Trastevere is the 13th rione of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City, and within Municipio I. Its name comes from the Latin trans Tiberim, meaning literally beyond the Tiber and its logo is a golden head of a lion on a red background, the meaning of which is uncertain. To the north, Trastevere borders the XIV rione, Borgo, in Romes Regal period, the area across the Tiber belonged to the hostile Etruscans, the Romans named it Ripa Etrusca. Rome conquered it to control of and access to the river from both banks, but was not interested in building on that side of the river. In fact, the connection between Trastevere and the rest of the city was a small wooden bridge called the Pons Sublicius. By the time of the Republic c.509 BC, the number of sailors and fishermen making a living from the river had increased, immigrants from the East also settled there, mainly Jews and Syrians. The area began to be considered part of the city under Augustus, since the end of the Roman Republic the quarter was also the center of an important Jewish community, which inhabited there until the end of the Middle Ages. With the wealth of the Imperial Age, several important figures decided to build their villae in Trastevere, including Clodia, and Julius Caesar. The regio included two of the most ancient churches in Rome, the Titulus Callixti, later called the Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere, and the Titulus Cecilae, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. In the Middle Ages Trastevere had narrow, winding, irregular streets, moreover, at the end of the 15th century these mignani were removed. Nevertheless, Trastevere remained a maze of narrow streets, there was a strong contrast between the large, opulent houses of the upper classes and the small, dilapidated houses of the poor. The streets had no pavement until the time of Sixtus IV at the end of the 15th century, at first bricks were used, but these were later replaced by sampietrini, which were more suitable for carriages. In 1744 Benedict XIV modified the borders of the rioni, giving Trastevere its modern limits, nowadays, Trastevere maintains its character thanks to its narrow cobbled streets lined by ancient houses. At night, natives and tourists flock to its many pubs and restaurants. The unique character of this neighborhood has attracted artists, foreign expats, in the sixties and seventies, the American musicians/composers Frederic Rzewski and Richard Teitelbaum, of the group Musica Elettronica Viva, lived in Via della Luce. Sergio Leone, the director of Spaghetti Westerns, grew up in Viale Glorioso, ennio Morricone, the film music composer, went to the same school, and for one year was in the same class as Sergio Leone. Public libraries in Trastevere include Casa della Memoria e della StoriaTrastevere – A typical narrow alley in Trastevere seen from the lower slopes of the Gianicolo hill
14. Borgo (rione of Rome) – Borgo, is the 14th historic district of Rome, Italy. It lies on the west bank of the Tiber, within Municipio I and its coat of arms shows a lion, lying in front of three mounts and a star. These - together with a lion rampant - are also part of the coat of arms of Pope Sixtus V who annexed Borgo as fourteenth rione to the city of Rome. The Borgo is bordered by Vatican City to the west, the Tiber to the east, Prati to the north, the quartiere Aurelio to the southwest and Trastevere to the south. The territory of the quarter includes a part, which is made of the alluvial sands of Tiber, and a hilly zone. In administrative terms, the Borgo, following the city decree n.11 issued on 11 March 2013, before then, he was part of the XVII Municipio, together with the rione of Prati and the quartieri Trionfale and Della Vittoria. The main roads run east-west and are not named Vie, although heavily transformed during the first half of the 20th century, the Borgo maintains its historical importance as a forecourt to Saint Peters Basilica and the Vatican Palace. The territory of the Borgo during the Roman age was part of the fourteenth Regio, Transtiberim, and was named Ager Vaticanus, after the auguries, since it lay outside the Pomerium, and was plagued by malaria, this territory was used as a burial place. Some tombs reached notable proportions, among them, the so-called Terebinthus Neronis, which was a round tomb surmounted by a narrow tower, while the Meta Romuli, was demolished only in 1499. At the foot of the Vatican Hill, two roads started, the Via Cornelia, which joined the Via Aurelia near Tarquinii, and the Via Triumphalis, which met the Via Cassia a few kilometers north. The latter was so named because, beginning with Titus, the Roman Emperors used it to enter the city when celebrating their Triumphs, Emperor Gaius built on the Vatican a circus, which was then enlarged by Nero. The obelisk standing today in St. Peters Square was erected along its raised median, the circus was connected to the city through an archway. Nero also substituted the timber bridge of the Via Triumphalis with a stone bridge, Emperor Hadrian built near the Tiber his huge Mausoleum, which he connected to the left bank of the river with another Bridge, the Pons Ælius. But what changed forever the destiny of the zone was the martyrdom of St. Peter at the foot of the Vatican hill in 67, the saint was buried nearby, and this turned the Vatican into a place of pilgrimage. Above the tomb of the saint, Pope Anacletus built an oratory and this church, known today as Old Saint Peters, soon became one of the centers of Christianity. During the early Middle Ages the bridge of Nero fell into ruins, while the Mausoleum of Hadrian was converted into a stronghold, despite the wars and invasions that plagued Rome during those centuries, the flood of pilgrims to the tomb of the apostle never stopped. Pilgrims of the same nationality gathered together in associations named Scholae, whose task was to host, the most famous were those of the Franks, Saxons, Frisians and Lombards. Each Schola had its own hospice and church, one of the first – the Schola Saxonum - was built during the 8th century by Ina or Ine, king of the West SaxonsBorgo (rione of Rome) – Hadrian's Mausoleum still makes up the core of Castel Sant'Angelo. The tuff blocks visible in the lower part of the cylinder are Roman.
15. Testaccio – Testaccio is the 20th rione of Rome, deriving its name from Monte Testaccio. It is located in the citys Municipio I, the rione seal depicts one of these amphorae. In modern times, the area has been a center of activity for butchers, Testaccio was one of Rome’s traditional working class neighbourhoods, but the recent process of gentrification has changed its reputation from hard-at-work to hipster. The neighborhood is home to several of Romes culinary highlights, testaccios reputation among tourists is expanding. Story and Pictures of Testaccio Pictures of TestaccioTestaccio – Logo of the rione
16. Prati – Prati is a historic neighbourhood of Rome in the centre of the city, bordering with the north of the Vatican State, within Romes Municipio I. Its logo is the shape of Hadrians mausoleum, in a color on a silver background. Although it technically belongs to the rione Borgo, the Hadrians mausoleum is one of Pratis landmarks. In administrative terms, Prati since 2013 belongs to I Municipio while before that year together with the rione of Borgo, a solidly bourgeois district, Prati is one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods in Rome. Prati is immediately to the north of the city centre of the City. The busy Via Cola di Rienzo, one of the most famous streets in Rome, is ranked among the most important shopping streets in the city. San Gioacchino in Prati Sacro Cuore del Suffragio Santa Maria del Rosario in Prati Beata Vergine Maria del Carmine Chapel of Santa Maria Assunta Court of Cassation, Italys highest courtPrati – Piazza Cavour