Scamander

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Water, or the Fight of Achilles against Scamander and Simoeis by Auguste Couder, 1819.

Scamander /skəˈmændər/, Skamandros (Ancient Greek: Σκάμανδρος, ) Xanthos (Ξάνθος), was the name of a river god in Greek mythology.

Etymology[edit]

The meaning of this name is uncertain, the second element looks like it is derived from Greek ανδρος (andros) meaning "of a man", but there are sources who doubt this. The first element is more difficult to pinpoint: it could be derived from Greek σκάζω (skazo) "to limp, to stumble (over an obstacle)" or from Greek σκαιός (skaios) meaning "left(-handed)" or "awkward". The meaning of the name might then perhaps be "limping man" or "awkward man",[1] this would refer to the many bends and winds ('meanders') of the river, which does not run straight, but 'limps' its way along.[2]

Family[edit]

According to Hesiod, he is the son of Oceanus and Tethys,[3] he is alternately described as a son of Zeus. He was the father of King Teucer, whose mother was the water nymph Idaea, he was also mentioned as the father of Glaucia.

Mythology[edit]

Scamander fought on the side of the Trojans during the Trojan War (Iliad XX, 73/74; XXI), after the Greek hero Achilles insulted him. Scamander was also said to have attempted to kill Achilles three times, and the hero was only saved due to the intervention of Hera, Athena and Hephaestus. In this context, he is the personification of the Scamander River that flowed from Mount Ida across the plain beneath the city of Troy, joining the Hellespont north of the city. The Achaeans, according to Homer, had set up their camp near its mouth, and their battles with the Trojans were fought on the plain of Scamander; in Iliad XXII (149ff), Homer states that the river had two springs: one produced warm water; the other yielded cold water, regardless of the season.

According to Homer, he was called Xanthos by gods and Scamander by men, which might indicate that the former name refers to the god and the latter one to the river itself.[4]

Trojan descendants[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
Oceanus
 
Tethys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atlas
 
Pleione
 
Scamander
 
Idaea
 
Simoeis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus/Jupiter
 
Electra
 
 
Teucer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dardanus
 
 
 
 
Batea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Idaea
 
Ilus
 
Erichthonius
 
Astyoche
 
 
Hieromneme
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Callirrhoe
 
 
 
 
 
Tros
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilus
 
 
 
Assaracus
 
 
 
 
Ganymede
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laomedon
 
Themiste
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Priam
 
 
 
Anchises
 
Aphrodite/Venus
 
Latinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Creusa
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aeneas
 
 
 
Lavinia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ascanius
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
Aeneas Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brutus of Britain
 
 
 
 
 
Latinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alba
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capetus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tiberinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agrippa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Romulus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aventinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Procas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numitor
 
Amulius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rhea Silvia
 
Ares/Mars
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hersilia
 
Romulus
 
Remus
 

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Skamandros". Behind the Name. 
  2. ^ "Scamander". Mythology Names. 
  3. ^ HesiodTheogony 345.
  4. ^ HomerIliad 20.74, 21.146.

References[edit]