Sicily (theme)

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Theme of Sicily
Σικελία, θέμα Σικελίας
Theme of the Byzantine Empire

687/695–902
 

Capital Syracuse, then Rhegion
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Established 687/695
 •  Fall of Taormina 902
 •  Theme renamed to Calabria Mid-10th century
Today part of  Italy
 Malta

The Theme of Sicily (Greek: θέμα Σικελίας, Thema Sikelias) was a Byzantine province (thema, theme) existing from the late 7th to the 10th century, encompassing the island of Sicily and the region of Calabria in the Italian mainland. Following the Muslim conquest of Sicily, from 902 the theme was limited to Calabria, but retained its original name until the middle of the 10th century.

History[edit]

Ever since its reconquest from the Ostrogoths by Belisarius in 535–536, Sicily had formed a distinct province under a praetor, while the army was placed under a dux.[1][2] A strategos (military governor) is attested on the island in Arab sources between 687 and 695, and it is at that time that the island was probably made into a theme.[3]

The theme was based in Syracuse, traditionally the chief city of Sicily. It comprised not only the island, which was divided into districts called tourmai, but also the mainland duchy of Calabria (Greek: δουκᾶτον Καλαυρίας, doukaton Kalavrias), which extended roughly up to the river Crati.[3][4][5] In addition, the strategos of Sicily exercised some authority—varying according to the prevailing local political faction—over the autonomous duchies of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi.[6]

The Muslim conquest of the island began in 826. Following the fall of Syracuse in 878 and the conquest of Taormina in 902, the strategos moved to Rhegion, the capital of Calabria. During the first half of the 10th century, the Byzantines launched a number of failed expeditions to regain the island and maintained a few isolated strongholds near Messina until 965, when Rometta, the last Byzantine outpost, fell. The post of "strategos of Sicily" was thus retained as the official title until the mid-10th century, when the "strategos of Calabria" begins to appear in the lists.[7][8][9]

List of known strategoi of Sicily[edit]

Note: Holders of the office known only from seals who can not be precisely dated are not included.

Name Tenure Appointed by Notes Refs
Salventius c. 687–695 Justinian II (?) Only known through two seals dating to the late 7th century, which give his titles as patrikios and strategos, without geographic qualification. His Latin name points to a Western origin, possibly from the senatorial aristocracy of Rome; as the only Western theme at the time was Sicily, he is held to have been strategos there, probably appointed by Justinian II during his first reign. [10]
Theophylact c. 700 Tiberios III Four seals attest to the existence of a koubikoularios, parakoimomenos, and strategos of Sicily with that name. The dating, as well as the attribution of the seals to the same person, are uncertain, but some scholars (e.g., Vitalien Laurent and Nicolas Oikonomides) identify him with the namesake Exarch of Ravenna, who was appointed in October 701 and came from Sicily. This attribution would also make him the first known parakoimomenos. [11][12]
Theodore c. 710–713 Justinian II First attested in October 710, when Pope Constantine healed him from an illness. Following the murder of Exarch John III Rizocopus in 711, he was sent to Italy to restore order. He killed or captured the rebels, many of whom were exiled to Constantinople, including Archbishop Felix of Ravenna. He probably remained in charge of the Exarchate until the arrival of a new exarch, Scholasticus, in 713. [13][14]
Sergios 717–718 Leo III the Isaurian The patrikios Sergios was strategos of Sicily in 717, when false news reached the island that Constantinople had fallen to the Umayyads. He then proclaimed one of his aides, Basil Onomagoulos, as emperor. Emperor Leo III quickly sent a new strategos to the island to suppress the inadvertent revolt. Sergius managed to flee to the Lombards, but later secured a pardon and returned to Byzantine territory. Some scholars have proposed an identification with the namesake strategos of 731. [15][16]
Paul 718–723 (?) Leo III the Isaurian Originally the personal chartoularios of the emperor, he was sent to suppress the revolt of Sergios and Basil Onomagoulos. He is commonly identified as the Paul who became Exarch of Ravenna in 723, and may have remained in office in Sicily until then, but neither is certain. The Exarch Paul was killed during a rebellion in Ravenna in 726/27. [17][18]
Sergios c. 730–735 Leo III the Isaurian Sometimes identified with the strategos of 717. He was involved in promoting Leo's iconoclast policies with the Pope, as well as implementing his administrative and fiscal reforms, in Sicily and Calabria. He was possibly the Byzantine commander in a naval defeat at the hands of the Umayyads under Ubayd Allah ibn al-Habhab al-Mawsili in 734/35, and may have been the author of a truce concluded in 728. [19][20]
Antiochos c. 760–763 (?) Constantine V He was strategos of Sicily, and the chief imperial commander (monostrategos) in Italy, probably in c. 760–763, perhaps as late as 766. He also occupied the post of logothetes tou dromou, unusually in tandem with the post of strategos. He was implicated in a conspiracy of nineteen of the highest state officials, headed by the brothers Strategios and Constantine Podopagouros, against Constantine V. After the plot's discovery, the conspirators were publicly paraded and humiliated at the Hippodrome of Constantinople on 25 August 766, following which Antiochos and most of the other conspirators were blinded and exiled. [21][22]
Elpidios 780–782 Leo IV the Khazar
Irene of Athens
[23][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1891.
  2. ^ Nesbitt & Oikonomides 1994, p. 22.
  3. ^ a b Oikonomides 1972, p. 351.
  4. ^ Nesbitt & Oikonomides 1994, pp. 19, 22.
  5. ^ Pertusi 1952, p. 179.
  6. ^ Brown 2008, pp. 457–459.
  7. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1892.
  8. ^ Oikonomides 1972, pp. 351, 356.
  9. ^ Pertusi 1952, pp. 178–180.
  10. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 98–99.
  11. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 99–101.
  12. ^ PmbZ, Theophylaktos (#8270); Theophylaktos (#8291).
  13. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 101–103.
  14. ^ PmbZ, Theodoros (#7521).
  15. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 103–105.
  16. ^ PmbZ, Sergios (#6594).
  17. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 105–106.
  18. ^ PmbZ, Paulos (#5815).
  19. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, p. 107.
  20. ^ PmbZ, Sergios (#6596).
  21. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 107–114.
  22. ^ PmbZ, Antiochos (#513); Antiochos (#518).
  23. ^ Prigent & Nichanian 2003, pp. 114–117.
  24. ^ PmbZ, Elpidios (#1515/corr.).

Sources[edit]