1. IP address – An Internet Protocol address is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: network interface location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there." IPv6 was standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998, its deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are usually displayed such as 172.16.254.1, 2001: db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1. Two versions of the Internet Protocol are in 6. Each version defines an IP address differently. Because of its prevalence, the generic address typically still refers to the addresses defined by IPv4. In IPv4 an address consists of 32 bits which limits the space to 4294967296 unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks or multicast addresses. IPv4 addresses are canonically represented in dot-decimal notation, which consists of each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by e.g. 172.16.254.1. Each part represents a group of 8 bits of the address. In some cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in binary representations.IP address – Decomposition of an IPv4 address from dot-decimal notation to its binary value.
2. Regional Internet registry – A regional Internet registry is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world. Number resources include IP autonomous system numbers. Collectively, the RIRs participate in the Number Resource Organization, formed as a body to coordinate their activities globally. The Number Resource Organization is an unincorporated organization uniting the five RIRs. AFRINIC, officially created in April 2005, joined on April 25, 2005. Country code top-level domain Geolocation software Internet governance Local Internet registry National Internet registryRegional Internet registry – Regional Internet Registry