1. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
2. Alchemy – Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Egypt and Asia. It aimed to purify, mature, perfect certain objects. In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects. Islamic and European alchemists developed a structure of basic laboratory techniques, theory, terminology, experimental method, some of which are still in use today. However, they continued antiquity's belief in four elements and guarded their work in secrecy including cyphers and cryptic symbolism. Their work was guided by Hermetic principles related to magic, mythology, religion. The former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who examine the subject in terms of protochemistry, medicine, charlatanism. The latter interests historians of esotericism, psychologists, some philosophers and spiritualists. The subject has also made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts. The word alchemy was borrowed from Old French alquemie, alkimie, taken from Medieval Latin alchymia, in turn borrowed from Arabic al-kīmiyā’ ‘philosopher's stone’. The Arabic word is borrowed from Late Greek chēmeía, chēmía ‘black magic’ with the agglutination of the Arabic definite article al-. This ancient Greek word was derived from the early Greek name for Egypt, Chēmia, based on the Egyptian name for Egypt, kēme. The Medieval Latin form was influenced by Greek chymeia meaning ‘mixture’ and referring to pharmaceutical chemistry. Alchemy covers several philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships.Alchemy – The Emerald Tablet, a key text of Western Alchemy, in a 17th-century edition.
3. Abacus – The use of the word abacus dates before 1387 AD, when a Middle English work borrowed the word from Latin to describe a sandboard abacus. The Latin word came from ἄβαξ abax which means something without base, improperly, any piece of rectangular board or plank. Alternatively, "drawing-board covered with dust". Greek ἄβαξ itself is probably a borrowing of a Northwest Semitic, perhaps word akin to Hebrew ʾābāq, "dust". The preferred plural of abacus is a subject of disagreement, with both abaci in use. The user of an abacus is called an abacist. Some scholars point to a character from the Babylonian cuneiform which may have been derived from a representation of the abacus. Archaeologists have found ancient disks of various sizes that are thought to have been used as counters. However, wall depictions of this instrument have not been discovered. During the Achaemenid Empire, around 600 BC the Persians first began to use the abacus. The earliest archaeological evidence for the use of the Greek abacus dates to the 5th BC. Also Demosthenes talked of the need to use pebbles for calculations too difficult for your head. The Greek abacus was a table of wood or marble, metal for mathematical calculations. This Greek abacus saw use in Achaemenid Persia, the Etruscan civilization, until the French Revolution, the Western Christian world. A tablet found in 1846 AD, dates back to 300 BC, making it the oldest counting board discovered so far.Abacus – A Chinese abacus
4. Asphalt – Asphalt, also known as bitumen is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be a refined product; it is a substance classed as a pitch. Until the 20th century, the asphaltum was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt/bitumen is in construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete. Its main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms bitumen are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, asphalt is the carefully refined residue from the process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is often called bitumen. Geologists often prefer the bitumen. Common usage often refers to various forms of asphalt/bitumen such as at the La Brea Tar Pits. Another archaic term for asphalt/bitumen is "pitch". Naturally occurring asphalt/bitumen is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". The Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural bitumen, covering an area larger than England. Additionally, most natural bitumens contain organosulfur compounds, resulting in an overall content of up to 4 %.Asphalt – Natural asphalt/bitumen from the Dead Sea
5. Alphabet – This is to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries and logographies. The Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet is considered to be the first alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, possibly Brahmic. According to terminology introduced by Peter T. Daniels, an "alphabet" is a script that represents both consonants as letters equally. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the Greek alphabet, developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet. In alphabetic scripts such as the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic, letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants; such a script is also called an abjad. There are dozens of alphabets in the most popular being the Latin alphabet. Many languages use modified forms of the Latin alphabet, with additional letters formed using diacritical marks. While most alphabets have letters composed of lines, there are also exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille. Alphabets are usually associated with a standard ordering of letters. This makes them useful for purposes of collation, specifically by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It also means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, as numbered lists and number placements. Beta in turn came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, aleph which meant ox and bet which meant house. The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt.Alphabet – Edward Bernard 's "Orbis eruditi", comparing all known alphabets as of 1689.
6. Art – Until the 17th century, art was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with science". Related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, military arts. However, there are many colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is not rational. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation -- through narrative or character, through drama or no drama. Aristotle constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. The more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, ideas through the senses.Art – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
7. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
8. Andy Warhol – Andy Warhol was an American artist, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became a renowned and sometimes controversial artist. His art used many types of media, including hand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, music. He produced a band which had a strong influence on the evolution of punk rock music. He founded Interview magazine and was the author of numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism: The Warhol Sixties. Warhol has been the subject of documentary films. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 6, 1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Mikó, located in today's northeastern Slovakia, part of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine. The family lived at 55 Beelen Street and later at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh.Andy Warhol – Warhol in 1975
9. Albert Speer – Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer was a German architect, for most of World War II, Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany. Speer was Adolf Hitler's chief architect before assuming ministerial office. Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931, launching himself on a governmental career which lasted fourteen years. He became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Hitler instructed him to construct structures including the Reich Chancellery and the Zeppelinfeld stadium in Nuremberg where Party rallies were held. Speer also made plans to reconstruct Berlin on a grand scale, with a reorganized transportation system. In February 1942, Hitler appointed Speer Minister of Armaments and War Production. Despite repeated attempts to gain early release, he served most of it at Spandau Prison in West Berlin. He later wrote Infiltration, about the SS. Speer died to London. Speer was born into an upper-middle-class family. He was the second of three sons of Albert Friedrich Speer. In 1918, the family moved permanently on Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg, Heidelberg. Speer was active in sports, mountaineering. Speer was a participant.Albert Speer – Speer in 1933
10. Antisemitism – Antisemitism is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. The root Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. Although the term did not come until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. The origin of "antisemitic" terminologies is found to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: "The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his'anti-Semitic prejudices'." Avner Falk similarly writes: ` The German antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile. Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan's false ideas to "Aryan races"'. He coined the phrase "the Jews are our misfortune" which would later be widely used by Nazis. In German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both "Jewry" and "jewishness". In the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga, apparently named to follow the "Anti-Kanzler-Liga". The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, "In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks as a designation which recently came into use. On 19 the editor says, ` This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old."'Antisemitism – Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition
11. Alabaster – Alabaster is a mineral or rock, soft and often used for carving, as well as being processed for plaster powder. However there are two different types, with broadly similar properties: gypsum and calcite, two distinct varieties of minerals. Both are usually light-coloured, soft stones that have been used mainly for carving decorative artifacts. Geologists define alabaster strictly as a compact and fine-grained variety of gypsum. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium. In general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is probably calcite, but may be either. Both are easy to work and slightly water-soluble. They have been used for making a variety of indoor artworks and carvings, as they will not survive long outdoors. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, while gypsum alabaster remains nearly unaffected when thus treated. The Greek words were used to identify a vase made of alabaster. This name may be derived further from the Egyptian a-labaste, which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast. She was represented as a lioness and frequently depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels. The softness of alabaster enables it to be carved readily into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough, whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre.Alabaster – Three Maries, alabaster sculpture by Master of the Rimini Crucifixion (c. 1430), National Museum, Warsaw.
12. Abraham – Abraham, originally Abram, is the first of the three patriarchs of Judaism. The biblical narrative revolves around the themes of land. All are dismissed except for Isaac, his son by his half-sister Sarah. The story of Abraham is related of the Hebrew Bible. The ninth in descent from Noah, begat three sons: Abram, Nahor, Haran. Haran died in his native city, Ur of the Chaldees. Abram married Sarai, barren. Terah, with Abram, Sarai, Lot, settled in a place named Haran, where Terah died at the age of 205. There was a severe famine in the land of Canaan, so that their households, traveled south to Egypt. On the way Abram told his wife Sarai to say that the Egyptians would not kill him. However, God afflicted his household with great plagues, for which he tried to find the reason. Upon discovering that Sarai was a married woman, Pharaoh demanded that their household leave immediately, with all their goods. When they came back to Abram's and Lot's sizable livestock herds occupied the same pastures. This became a problem for the herdsmen who were assigned to each family's cattle. Abram settled in the plain of Mamre, where he built another altar to worship God.Abraham – The bosom of Abraham - medieval illustration from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg (12th century)
13. Abydos, Egypt – It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26 ° 10' N, near the Egyptian towns of el - ` Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju. The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers on the Hellespont. It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti I's father, Ramesses I. Most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the artifacts within them are considered irretrievable and lost; many may have been destroyed by the new construction. Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, whose town, temple and tombs have been found there. The cemetery was used continuously. The pharaohs of the first dynasty were buried including Narmer, regarded as founder of the first dynasty, his successor, Aha. It was in this period that the Abydos boats were constructed. Some pharaohs of the second dynasty were also buried in Abydos. The temple was enlarged by these pharaohs as well. From the fifth dynasty, foremost of the Westerners, came to be seen as a manifestation of the dead pharaoh in the underworld. Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Isis and Osiris cult. Khentiamentiu's name became an epithet of Osiris.Abydos, Egypt – Façade of the Temple of Seti I in Abydos
14. Akkadian Empire – The empire united all the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC. The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though there are earlier Sumerian claimants. However Nimrod was a Hebrew name and it's unclear what his Sumerian identity was. Many have pointed out similarities with the legend of Gilgamesh who founded Uruk, said to be the city Nimrod came to power. Today, some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period alone are known, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many later texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia also deal with the Akkadian Empire. Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts. Likewise, material, thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period. The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated. The Akkadian period is generally dated to 2350–2170 BC according to the Middle Chronology, or 2230–2050 BC according to the Short chronology. It was preceded by the Early Dynastic period and succeeded by the Ur III period, although both transitions are blurry.Akkadian Empire – Map of the Akkadian Empire (brown) and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows)
15. Amasis II – Amasis II or Ahmose II was a pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. Most of our information about him can only be imperfectly verified by monumental evidence. According to the Greek historian, he was of common origins. He was originally an officer in the Egyptian army. His birthplace was Siuph at Saïs. He took part in Nubia. A revolt which broke out among Egyptian soldiers gave him his opportunity to seize the throne. Apries was killed mounting an invasion of his native homeland in 567 BCE with the aid of a Babylonian army. Amasis then married Chedebnitjerbone one of the daughters of his predecessor Apries, in order to legitimise his kingship. A block from Mehallet el-Kubra also establishes that his maternal grandmother -- Tashereniset's mother -- was a certain Tjenmutetj. His court is well known. The head of the gate guard Ahmose-sa-Neith appears on numerous monuments, including the location of his sarcophagus. He was referenced on monuments of the 30th dynasty and apparently had a special significance in his time. Wahibre was ` Leader of the southern foreigners' and ` Head of the doors of foreigners', so he was the highest official for security.Amasis II – A fragmentary statue head of Amasis II
16. Ambergris – Ambergris, ambergrease or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour, produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. The word "amber" is derived from the Arabic word for ambergris, "ʿanbar". Freshly-produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odour. However, as it ages, it acquires a earthy scent, commonly likened to the fragrance of rubbing alcohol, without the vaporous astringency. Although ambergris used to be highly valued by perfumers as a fixative, it has largely been replaced by synthetic ambroxan. The word ambergris comes from the Old French "ambre gris" or "grey amber", which in turn derives from the Arabic word "ʿanbar", meaning ambergris. It is also sometimes found in the abdomens of dead sperm whales. If one travels down the gut, it will be covered in ambergris. Ambergris is usually passed in the fecal matter. Ambergris takes years to form. Ambergris is rare; once expelled by a whale, it often floats for years before making landfall. The very small chance of finding ambergris, the legal ambiguity involved led perfume makers away from ambergris. Most commercially collected ambergris comes from the Bahamas in the Caribbean, particularly New Providence. Fossilised ambergris from 1.75 million years ago has also been found. Ambergris is found in lumps of various sizes, usually weighing to 50 kg sometimes more.Ambergris – Ambergris
17. Archimedes – Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding statics, including an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed despite orders that he should not be harmed. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. The date of birth is based by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years. In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his father's name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to the ruler of Syracuse. This work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure. It is unknown, for instance, whether he ever had children. During his youth, Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries. He referred as his friend while two of his works have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes. According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. He declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem.Archimedes – Archimedes Thoughtful by Fetti (1620)
18. Art Deco – Art Deco, or Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in 1925. It combined modernist styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured expensive materials such as ebony and ivory and exquisite craftsmanship. Other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. After the Great Depression, the style became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, plastic. A more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s; it featured smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the United States, Russia, Latin America, Asia. The style came with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced by the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modernism and the International Style of architecture. The term décoratifs was first used in France in 1858; published in the Bulletin de la Société française de photographie. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra.Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
19. Assyria – Assyria was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East. Centered in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. In the 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. "Assyria" can also refer to heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered. The Eastern Aramaic-speaking Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, c. 6000 BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism. This has prompted scholars to refer in the third millennium BC as a sprachbund. It is highly likely that the city was named with the same name. The city of Aššur, together with a number of other Assyrian cities, seem to have been established by 2600 BC. However it is likely that they were initially administrative centres. In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash, then the dominant Sumerian ruler in Mesopotamia, mentions "smiting Subartu". Similarly, in the early 25th century BC, Lugal-Anne-Mundu the king of the Sumerian state of Adab lists Subartu as paying tribute to him. Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is known. In the Assyrian King List, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya.Assyria – Letter sent by the high-priest Lu'enna to the king of Lagash (maybe Urukagina), informing him of his son's death in combat, c. 2400 BC, found in Girsu.
20. Aswan – Aswan, formerly spelled Assuan, is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate. Aswan is a busy market and centre located just north of the Aswan Dams on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract. The modern city includes the formerly separate community on the island of Elephantine. Aswan is the ancient city of Swenett, which in antiquity was the town of Ancient Egypt facing the south. Swenett is supposed to have derived its name from an Egyptian goddess with the same name. The ancient name of the city also is said to be derived from market. Navigation to the delta was possible from this location without encountering a barrier. The stone quarries of ancient Egypt located here especially for the granitic rock called Syenite. A road, 6.5 km in length, was cut beside them from Syene to Philae. Swenett was equally important as a military station as a place of traffic. Under every dynasty it was a town; and here tolls and customs were levied on all boats passing southwards and northwards. Around 330, the legion stationed here received a bishop from Alexandria; this later became the Coptic Diocese of Syene. It appears on the Antonine Itinerary. It also is mentioned in the Book of Isaiah. The latitude of the city that would become Aswan -- located at ° 5 ′ 23 ″ -- was an object of great interest to the ancient geographers.Aswan – River Nile in Aswan
21. Alexandria – Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80 % of Egypt's exports. Alexandria is an important industrial center from Suez. It is also an important destination. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome. It was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. It was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. Its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was recently rediscovered under water.Alexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
22. Beer – Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. The process causes a natural carbonation effect, although this is often removed during processing, replaced with forced carbonation. Beer is sold in cans; it may also be available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. Archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilisations. Approximately 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid in beer. The earliest known chemical evidence of barley beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran. The Ebla tablets, discovered in Ebla, Syria, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented beverage using fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mould was not used to saccharify the rice; the rice was probably prepared by mastication or malting. Almost any substance containing sugar can naturally undergo alcoholic fermentation. It is likely that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer. Beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilisations. It was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised by most people today.Beer – Schlenkerla Rauchbier being poured from a cask
23. Bible – Many different authors contributed to the Bible. And what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on groups; a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Greek Septuagint; the Hebrew Bible is known in Judaism as the Tanakh. The New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Greek writings consist of narratives, letters, apocalyptic writings. Attitudes towards the Bible also differ amongst Christian groups. Many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching. With estimated total sales of over billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the best-selling book of all time. The Bible was the first book ever printed using movable type. Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural. Latin sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself came to be used as the ordinary word for "book". The Greek biblia was "an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F.F.Bible – The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible
24. Beadwork – Beads come in a variety of materials, sizes. Beads are used to create jewelry or other articles of personal adornment; they are also used in wall hangings and sculpture and other artworks. Beadwork techniques are broadly divided into loom and off-loom weaving, stringing, bead embroidery, bead knitting. Beads, made of durable materials, survive in the archaeological record appearing with the very advent of Homo sapiens. Beads are used for religious purposes, as good luck talismans, as curative agents. Modern beadwork is often used as a creative hobby to create jewelry, handbags, dozens of other crafts. Beads are available in many different designs, sizes, colors, materials, allowing much variation among bead artisans and projects. Tutorials can be found in Internet. Faience is a mixture of lime, soda and silica sand. This is molded around a small stick or bit of straw. It is then ready to be fired into a bead. As the bead heats up, the soda, lime melt into glass that incorporates and covers the clay. The result is a hard bead covered in bluish glass. This process was probably then imported to Egypt. However, it was the Egyptians who made their own art form.Beadwork – Ethiopian beadwork on basket, from the ethnographic collection of the National Museum, Addis Ababa
25. Bird – Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. The fossil record indicates that birds are the last surviving group of dinosaurs, having evolved within the theropod group of saurischian dinosaurs. True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous period, around million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous -- Palaeogene event that killed off all other dinosaurs. Birds, especially those in the southern continents, then migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. Bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moas and elephant birds. The respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, also members of the duck family, have further evolved for swimming. Birds, specifically Darwin's finches, played an important part by natural selection. Many species annually migrate great distances. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or, rarely, polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually incubated by the parents.Bird – Archaeopteryx lithographica is often considered the oldest known true bird.
26. Book – A single sheet within a book is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page. A set of illustrated pages produced in electronic format is known as an electronic book, or e-book. Books may also refer to a main division of such a work. In library and science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, or newspapers. The body of all written works including books is literature. In sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books. An avid reader of books is a colloquially, bookworm. A shop where books are sold is a bookshop or bookstore. Books can also be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. The book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root" * bōk -", cognate to "beech". Similarly, in Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood. Similarly, the Latin codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant "block of wood". When writing systems were created in a variety of objects, such as stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets, might be used for writing.Book – Books
27. Ball – A ball is a round object with various uses. Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch, marbles and juggling. Balls made from hard-wearing materials are used in engineering applications to provide very low friction bearings, known as ball bearings. Black-powder weapons use metal balls as projectiles. Although many types of balls are today made from rubber, this form was unknown outside the Americas after the voyages of Columbus. The Spanish were the first Europeans to see bouncing rubber balls which were employed most notably in the Mesoamerican ballgame. No Old English representative of any of these is known. If ball - was native in Germanic, it may have been a cognate with the Latin foll-is in sense of a "thing inflated." French balle is assumed to be of itself, however. In Ancient Greek the πάλλα for "ball" is attested besides the word" σφαίρα", sphere. A ball, as the essential feature in many forms of gameplay requiring physical exertion, must date from the very earliest times. A rolling object appeals not only to a kitten and a puppy. Some form of game with a ball is played among aboriginal tribes at the present day. In Homer, Nausicaa was playing at ball with her maidens when Odysseus first saw her in the land of the Phaeacians. And Halios and Laodamas performed with ball play, accompanied with dancing.Ball – Russian leather balls (Russian: мячи), 12th-13th century.
28. Boat – A boat is a watercraft of a large range of sizes designed to float, plane, work or travel on water. Small boats are typically found in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed from a ship in an offshore environment. In naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel. Another less restrictive definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water. Some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes are called oreboats. For reasons of naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as ` boats' rather than ` ships', regardless of their shape. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on their larger size, passenger capacity. Boats have a wide variety of shapes, construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials or local traditions. Various versions are used throughout the world for transportation, fishing or sport. Fishing boats vary widely in style partly to match local conditions. Pleasure boats include ski boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term housing. Small boats can convey cargo to and from large ships. Lifeboats have safety functions.Boat – At 17 metres long, the Severn-class lifeboats are the largest class of UK lifeboat.
29. Bronze – These additions produce a range of alloys that may have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Age. The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons, building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors. It was later that tin was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from refining are not toxic. The earliest bronze dates to 4500 BCE in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Africa, Susa and some ancient sites in China, Luristan and Mesopotamia. The far rarer tin are not often found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded far as Phoenicia in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Europe, typically socketed axes, are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented from other sources, the case is very clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, also used by the living for ritual offerings. Careful control of the tempering eventually allowed for wrought iron with properties comparable to modern steel.Bronze – Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. 12th century AD
30. Backgammon – Backgammon is one of the oldest board games known. Backgammon is a member of one of the oldest classes of board games in the world. Backgammon involves a combination of luck. With each roll of the dice, players must anticipate possible counter-moves by the opponent. If the cube is used players may raise the stakes during the game. Like chess, backgammon has been studied by computer scientists. Owing to this research, software has been developed, capable of beating world-class human players. Backgammon playing pieces are known variously as checkers, draughts, stones, men, counters, pawns, discs, pips, nips. The objective is to remove all of one's own checkers from the board before one's opponent can do the same. In the most often-played variants the checkers are scattered at first; as the game progresses they may be hit by the opponent. Each side of the board has a track of called points. The points are numbered from 1 to 24. The two players move their checkers from the 24-point towards the 1-point. Points 7 through 12 are called the outer board. The 7-point is referred to the 13-point as the midpoint.Backgammon – Doubling cube
31. Book of Daniel – In more mundane language, it is "an account of Daniel, a noble Jew exiled at Babylon." In the Hebrew Bible it is found in the Ketuvim, while in Christian Bibles it is grouped with the Major Prophets. The book divides into a set of six court tales in chapters 1 -- 6 followed by four apocalyptic visions in chapters 7 -- 12. The literary structure of the book of Daniel is marked by three prominent features. The most fundamental is a genre division between the apocalyptic visions of 7 -- 12. The second is the Aramaic of chapters 2 -- 7. This division is reinforced by the chiastic arrangement of the Aramaic chapters. Various suggestions have been made by scholars to explain the fact that the genre division does not coincide with the other two. It should also be noted that the time settings of chapters 1–6 show a progression from Babylonian to Median times, repeated in chapters 7–12. Among them are Daniel and his three companions, who refuse to touch the royal food and wine for fear of defilement. They are allowed to continue to refrain to Daniel God gives insight into visions and dreams. In the second year of his reign Nebuchadnezzar is troubled by demands that his wise men tell him its content. When the wise men protest that this is beyond the power of any man he sentences all, including his friends, to death. Nebuchadnezzar acknowledges the supremacy of Daniel's god, places him and his companions over the province of Babylon. Daniel's companions Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego are thrown into a fiery furnace.Book of Daniel – Tanakh (Judaism)
32. Bodybuilding – Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. The winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is generally recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder. The title is currently held by Phil Heath. The winner of the Women's Physique portion of the competition is widely regarded as the world's top female professional bodybuilder. The title is currently held by Juliana Malacarne. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Greece and Egypt. Western lifting developed around 1880 to 1953, challenging each other. The focus was not on the make up of their physique, these strongmen often had a large stomach and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the 19th century, promoted by the'Father of German-born Eugen Sandow. He allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a show built through Florenz Ziegfeld. The Oscar-winning 1936 musical film The Great Ziegfeld, depicts this beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. He was credited with selling the first equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells, tension bands.Bodybuilding – Eugen Sandow, the "Father of Modern Bodybuilding".
33. Brewing – Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. Archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the industry has been part of most western economies. The basic ingredients of beer are a fermentable starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is flavoured with hops. Less widely used starch sources include millet, cassava. The proportion of each source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. Steps in the process include malting, milling, mashing, lautering, boiling, fermenting, conditioning, filtering, packaging. There are three main fermentation methods, warm, spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an open or closed vessel; a secondary fermentation may also occur in the cask or bottle. There are additional brewing methods, such as barrel aging, double dropping, Yorkshire Square. Archaeological evidence suggests emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Descriptions of various beer recipes can be found from ancient Mesopotamia. Archaeological records indicate that brewing alcohol was primary an activity engaged in by women, until the industrialization of brewing began. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran.Brewing – Malted barley before kilning or roasting
34. Book of Obadiah – The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel. The text consists of a single chapter, divided into 21 verses, making the shortest book in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism and Christianity, its authorship is named himself in the first verse, Obadiah. His name means “servant of Yahweh”. In Christianity, the Book of Obadiah is classified as a minor prophet of the Old Testament, due to its short length. The book of Obadiah is based on a prophetic vision concerning the fall of a mountain dwelling nation whose Founding Father was Esau. Obadiah describes an encounter with God who charges them for their violent actions against their brother nation, the House of Jacob. The western half of ancient Edom is the Negev desert all the way to Eilat, all part of modern Israel. The eastern half is possessed by the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan. Throughout most of the history of Judah, Edom was controlled absolutely as a vassal state. Among the great powers, Edom was held in low regard. "Though you soar like the eagle and make your nest among the stars,from there I will bring you down," declares the Lord. In 597 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II sacked Jerusalem, installed a puppet ruler. The Edomites helped the Babylonians loot the city. Obadiah, writing this prophecy around 590 BCE, suggests the Edomites should have remembered that blood was thicker than water.Book of Obadiah – Tanakh (Judaism)
35. Book of Nahum – The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. It was probably written in Jerusalem in the 7th century BC. According to some, Nahum prophesied in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz. Others, however, think that his prophecies are to be referred to the latter half of the reign of Hezekiah. The book would then have been written in Jerusalem, where Nahum would have witnessed the destruction of his host. Little is known about Nahum’s personal history. Lived amongst the Elkoshites in peace. His writings were likely written before the downfall of Assyria. The subject of Nahum's prophecy is the approaching final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Ashurbanipal was at the height of his glory. Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted the destruction of the city. The Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia. Archaeological digs have uncovered the splendor of Nineveh under Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal. Massive walls were eight miles in circumference. The Babylonian chronicle of the fall of Nineveh tells the story of the end of Nineveh.Book of Nahum – Tanakh (Judaism)
36. Bean – Bean is a common name for large seeds of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae which are used for human or animal food. This was long before the New World genus Phaseolus was known in Europe. Thus the term "bean" in general usage can mean a host of different species. The bean usually excludes legumes with tiny seeds and which are used exclusively for forage, hay, silage purposes. One is that including Vigna angularis, mungo, radiata, aconitifolia, were classified as Phaseolus and later reclassified. Unlike the closely related pea, beans are a crop that need warm temperatures to grow. Maturity is typically 55–60 days from planting to harvest. The beans inside change from green to their mature colour. As a vine, bean plants need external support, which may be provided in the form of poles. Native Americans customarily grew them along with the tall cornstalks acting as support for the beans. In more recent times, the so-called "bush bean" has been developed which has all its pods develop simultaneously. This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production. Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans, also called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in the Himalayan foothills. In a form improved from naturally occurring types, they were grown since the early seventh millennium BCE, predating ceramics.Bean – "Painted Pony" dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
37. Bronze Age – The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly from outside the region. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems. Human-made technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make alloy. The Age was a time of developing trade networks. The dating of the foil has been disputed. The Age in the ancient Near East began in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics. The usual division into an Early, Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. Babylon in the Late Age similarly had large populations.Bronze Age – Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.
38. Bee – Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. The actual number is probably higher. They are found in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants. Some species including honey bees, stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Bee pollination is important both commercially; the decline in wild bees has increased the value of pollination by commercially managed hives of honey bees. They are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies. Vertebrate predators of bees include birds such as bee-eaters; insect predators include dragonflies. Human apiculture has been practised for millennia, since at least the times of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Apart from pollination, honey bees produce beeswax, royal jelly and propolis. Yeats's poem The Lake Isle of Innisfree. Bee larvae are included in the Javanese dish tawon, where they are eaten steamed with shredded coconut. The ancestors of bees were wasps in the Crabronidae, which were predators of other insects. This evolutionary scenario may have occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the pollen wasps evolved from predatory ancestors.Bee
39. British Museum – The British Museum is dedicated to Human history, art and culture, is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of scientist Sir Hans Sloane. The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of cultural art antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum". Its foundations lie in the will of naturalist Sir Hans Sloane. On 7 King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs. While including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. A list of donations to the Museum, dated January 1784, refers to the Hamilton bequest of a "Colossal Foot of an Apollo in Marble". Notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805. In 1816 these masterpieces of western art, deposited in the museum thereafter. The collections were supplemented from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815. The Ancient Near Eastern collection also had its beginnings in 1825 from the widow of Claudius James Rich.British Museum – British Museum
40. Basenji – The Basenji is a breed of hunting dog. It was bred from stock that originated in central Africa. Most of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world place the breed in the Hound Group—more specifically, in the sighthound type. The Basenji produces an unusual yodel-like sound commonly called a "baroo", due to its unusually shaped larynx. This trait also gives the nickname "dog" Basenjis share many unique traits with pariah dog types. Basenji are prone to howls, yodels, other vocalizations over the characteristic bark of modern dog breeds. Basenjis are graceful necks. A Basenji's forehead is wrinkled, even more so when they are young or extremely excited. A Basenji's eyes are typically almond-shaped. Basenjis typically weigh about 9.1–10.9 kg and stand 41–46 cm at the shoulder. They are a square breed, which means they are as long as they are tall with males usually larger than females. Basenjis are athletic dogs, deceptively powerful for their size. They all have white feet, tail tips. They can also come in trindle, a tricolor with brindle points, a rare combination. The Basenji is alert, reserved with strangers.Basenji – A red Basenji with white markings
41. Brit milah – The brit milah is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel on the eighth day of a male infant's life. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal. 11 And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covenant betwixt Me and you. Also, Leviticus 12:3 provides: "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised." The word arel is also employed for "impermeable"; it is also applied to the first three years' fruit of a tree, forbidden. However, the Israelites born in the wilderness after the Exodus from Egypt were not circumcised. Joshua 5:2-9, explains, "all the people that came out" of Egypt were circumcised, but those "born in the wilderness" were not. Therefore, Joshua, before the celebration of the Passover, had them circumcised at Gilgal specifically before they entered Canaan. Abraham, too, was circumcised when he moved into Canaan. The penalty of non-observance is kareth, as noted in Genesis 17:1-14. Conversion to Judaism for non-Israelites in Biblical times necessitated circumcision, otherwise one could not partake in the Passover offering. Today, as in the time of Abraham, it is required of converts in Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Judaism. . The Talmud, when discussing the importance of Milah, compares it to being equal to all other mitzvot based on the gematria for brit of 612. Covenants in ancient times were sometimes sealed by severing an animal, with the implication that the party who breaks the covenant will suffer a similar fate.Brit milah – Brit milah
42. Battle of Marathon – The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. A Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. The battle was the culmination of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to subjugate Greece. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a point in the Greco-Persian Wars. They were then forced to retreat with heavy losses. In response to this raid, Darius swore to burn down Athens and Eretria. Also he charged one of his servants, to say "Master, remember the Athenians." Three times before dinner each day. At the time of the battle, Sparta and Athens were city states. Once the Ionian revolt was finally crushed in 494 BC, Darius began plans to subjugate Greece. Reaching Euboea in mid-summer after a successful campaign in the Aegean, the Persians proceeded to capture Eretria. The Persian force then sailed for Attica, landing in the bay near the town of Marathon. The Athenians, joined by a small force from Plataea, succeeded in blocking the two exits from the plain of Marathon. The Athenians also sent a message asking to the Spartans. The Athenian general, ordered a general attack against the Persians.Battle of Marathon – The plain of Marathon today
43. Beryl – Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al26. Well-known varieties of beryl include aquamarine. Naturally occurring, hexagonal crystals of beryl terminated crystals are relatively rare. It is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, red, white. The name "beryl" is derived from βήρυλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone"; akin to Prakrit verulia, veluriya. The term was later adopted for the beryl more exclusively. When the first eyeglasses were constructed in 13th century Italy, the lenses were made of beryl as glass could not be made clear enough. Consequently glasses were named Brillen in German. Beryl of various colors also occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains, limestone in Colombia. Beryl is often associated with tin and ore bodies. US beryl locations are in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, Maine, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Utah. Aquamarine is a cyan variety of beryl. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Yellow beryl, such as that occurring in Brazil, is sometimes called aquamarine chrysolite.Beryl – Three varieties of beryl: morganite, aquamarine and heliodor
44. Inedia – Inedia or breatharianism /brɛθˈɛəriənɪzəm/ is the belief that it is possible for a person to live without consuming food. The terms inedia may also refer to this philosophy when it is practiced as a lifestyle in place of the usual diet. Several adherents of these practices have died from starvation and dehydration. Though it is common knowledge that biological entities require sustenance to survive, Breatharianism continues. Nutritional science proves that fasting for extended periods leads to starvation, eventual death. In the absence of intake, the body normally burns its own reserves of glycogen, body fat, muscle. Breatharians claim that their bodies do not consume these reserves while fasting. In a handful of documented cases, individuals attempting fasting have died. Among the claims in support of Inedia investigated by the Indian Rationalist Association, all were found to be fraudulent. In other cases, people have attempted to survive on sunlight alone, only to abandon the effort after losing a large percentage of their weight. In this book, it is also stated that, "Paracelsus affirms that He has seen many of the Sages fast twenty years without eating anything whatsoever." Ram Bahadur Bomjon is a young Nepalese Buddhist monk who lives as an ascetic in a remote area of Nepal. Bomjon appears to go without ingesting either food or water. Prahlad Jani is an Indian sadhu who says he has lived for more than 70 years. His claims were investigated by doctors at Sterling Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat in 2010.Inedia – 1669 report that claims a woman fasted for 12 months
45. Copenhagen – Copenhagen; Danish: København ) is the capital and most populated city of Denmark. It has a larger urban population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over million inhabitants. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. Originally a Viking village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, waterfronts. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Copenhagen Business School. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Copenhagen – From upper left: Christiansborg Palace, Frederik's Church, Tivoli Gardens and Nyhavn.
46. Communication – Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are: The forming of communicative intent. Message composition. Message decoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Reception of signals. Reconstruction of the original message. Interpretation and making sense of the reconstructed message. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory, tactile and haptic, olfactory, electromagnetic, or biochemical. Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, gestures, body language, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication also relates to intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements such as sweating. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation, stress.Communication – Communication major dimensions scheme
47. Chemistry – Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges natural sciences, including physics, biology. For the differences between physics see comparison of physics. Scholars disagree about the etymology of the word chemistry. The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. The chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, medicine. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry". The modern alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together". In retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term "chymistry", in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, meant the subject of the material principles of mixed bodies. In 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas considered the word "chemistry" to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces. More recently, in 1998, Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of "chemistry" to mean the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Early civilizations, such as the Egyptians Babylonians, Indians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didn't develop a systematic theory.Chemistry – Solutions of substances in reagent bottles, including ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, illuminated in different colors
48. Carbon – Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is tetravalent -- making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Three isotopes occur naturally, 13C being stable while 14C is a radioactive isotope, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can be bonded together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon. The best known are graphite, amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known. Graphite is a electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They require high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes.Carbon – Graphite (left) and diamond (right), the two most well-known allotropes of carbon