1. Antibes – Antibes is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice. The Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it. Traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found in the areas of the cathedral. However, most trade was via the Phocaeans of Marseille. Antipolis was founded from Massilia. As a Greek settlement, it was known as Antipolis from its position relative to Nice. The exact location of the Greek city is not well known. Given colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes in today's old city. Traces of occupation of the Hellenistic period have been identified around the church. The goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with indigenous ceramics. Early in the second BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia and Antipolis. The Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius took Aegythna from the Décéates. Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the propraetorial province of Narbonesian Gaul, in which it remained for the next 500 years.Antibes – View of Antibes by the Mediterranean
2. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the government's external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role before 1815. France fared poorly in the Second World War. Since 1945 France has been a founding member of the United Nations, of the European Coal and Steel Community. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany. It fought expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria and Spain. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. While his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent staff. His chief Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns and besieging enemy cities. Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system.Foreign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
3. Horace Walpole – Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford — also known as Horace Walpole — was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. Walpole had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London, reviving some decades before his Victorian successors. His literary reputation rests on his Gothic novel, his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. Walpole was the son of the first British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. As he was childless, his barony descended to his cousin of the same surname, created the new Earl of Orford. He was born in the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole and his wife Catherine. Like his father, he received early education in Bexley; he was also educated at King's College, Cambridge. Walpole's first friends were probably his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became especially Henry. At Eton Walpole formed with George Montagu the "Triumvirate", a schoolboy confederacy. More important were another group of friends dubbed the "Quadruple Alliance": Walpole, Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton. At Cambridge he came under the influence of an unorthodox theologian. He left without taking a degree. In 1737 Walpole's mother died. Walpole did not have any serious relationships with women; he has been called "a natural celibate". Walpole's sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation.Horace Walpole – Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds 1756 National Portrait Gallery, collection London.
4. Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland – It has traditionally followed a non-aligned foreign policy. The country is an important staging-post for US troops in Western Europe. Ireland's official relationship with the People's Republic of China began on 22 June 1979. Following his visit to China in 1998, former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern authorised the establishment of an Asia Strategy. The aim of this Strategy was to ensure that Irish enterprise work coherently to enhance the important relationships between Ireland and Asia. Ireland has raised its concerns in the area of human rights on a number of occasions. On 12 May 2007, during a visit to Beijing, former Taoiseach Brian Cowen discussed human issues with Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing. Former Tánaiste Mary Coughlan also raised issues and concerns with visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Zeng Peiyan. Ireland also participates in the EU-China Human Rights Dialogue. Concerning the Taiwan issue, Ireland follows a One-China policy. Taiwan's official status is that of a Province of China... Ireland recognises the Government of the PRC as the legitimate government of China. There is no inter-Governmental contact between the two sides. A Taipei Representative Office, established in 1988, has a representative function in relation to economic and cultural promotion, but no diplomatic or political status. From the onset of the Troubles in 1969, the two governments sought to bring the violence to an end. The Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985 were important steps in this process.Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland – Embassy of Ireland in Beijing
5. Pisa – Pisa is a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, straddling the River Arno just before it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the city of the Province of Pisa. Much of the city's architecture was financed as one of the Italian maritime republics. The origin of Pisa, is a mystery. Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls. The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins after the fall of Troy. The maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast from Genoa to Ostia. Pisa served against Ligurians, Gauls and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore.Pisa – Pisa
6. Sidon – Sidon or Saïda is the third-largest city in Lebanon. In Genesis, Sidon is a son of a grandson of Noah. Its name coincides with the Arabic word for ` fishery'. Two castles there were restored by the French in the early 20th century. Sidon has been inhabited since early in prehistory. It may have been the oldest. From other ports a great Mediterranean commercial empire was founded. Homer praised the skill of its craftsmen in producing glass, its women's skill at the art of embroidery. It was also from here that a colonizing party went to found the city of Tyre. In subsequent years there was competition between the two, each claiming to be the metropolis of Phoenicia. The production of purple dye was almost as important. The small shell of the Murex trunculus was broken in order to extract the pigment, so rare it became the mark of royalty. In AD 1855, the sarcophagus of King Eshmun’azar II was discovered. In this inscription the gods Eshmun and Ba‘al Sidon'Lord of Sidon' are mentioned as chief gods of the Sidonians. ‘Ashtart is entitled ‘Ashtart-Shem-Ba‘al'‘Ashtart the name of the Lord', a title also found in an Ugaritic text.Sidon – Sidon صيدا
7. 1800 – As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. World population approaches the billion milestone which it will attain in 1802. Dutch East India Company dissolves. February 7 – A public plebiscite in France confirms Napoleon as First Consul by a substantial majority. February 13 – The Banque de France is founded. February 28 – United Irishman Roddy McCorley is executed in Toomebridge for his part in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. March 14 – Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope. He is crowned on March 21 in Venice. March 20 – Alessandro Volta describes his new invention, the voltaic pile, the first chemical battery, in a letter to the Royal Society of London. March 26 – British Royal Navy officer Henry Waterhouse first charts the Antipodes Islands. April – Voting begins in the United States presidential election, 1800; it will last until October. The result is not announced until February 1801. April 2 Première of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 1 at the Burgtheater in Vienna. April 24 – The U.S. Library of Congress is founded in Washington, D.C.1800 – Napoleon crosses the Alps.
8. Grasse – It is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department, on the French Riviera. The town is considered the world's capital of perfume. Grasse was made "Ville d'Art et d'Histoire". Three perfume factories offer daily demonstrations, which draw in many of the region's visitors. In addition to the perfumeries, Grasse's main attraction is the Cathedral, dedicated to Notre Dame du Puy and founded in the 11th century. In the interior, are three works by one by Jean-Honoré Fragonard, a French painter native of the town. Other sights include: Saracen Tower, standing at 30m. The first festival was on August 1946. Decorated floats drive with young women in skimpy costumes on board, throwing flowers into the crowd. The fire department fills a fire truck with jasmine-infused water to spray on the crowds. There are also fireworks, free parties, street performers. There is also an international exhibition of roses held in May each year. The Gare de Grasse station offers connections with Cannes, Nice and Ventimiglia. It is known as the world's perfume capital. Many "noses" have spent time in Grasse to distinguish over 2,000 kinds of scent.Grasse – A general view of Grasse
9. Nice – It is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The urban area of Nice extends with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2. Its airport is a gateway to the principality as well. The area of today's Nice contains an archaeological site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille called it Nikaia, after Nike, the goddess of victory. Through the ages, the town has changed many times. Port significantly contributed to its maritime strength. The city's main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais owes its name to visitors to the resort. For decades now, the picturesque Nicean surroundings have attracted not only those in search of relaxation, but also those seeking inspiration. Their work is commemorated in many including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts. It is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year. Nice also has the third busiest airport after the two main Parisian ones. Nice is the historical city of the County of Nice. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice. In the 7th century, it joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria.Nice – Nice Port
10. Provence – The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name. It was ruled until 1481 when it became a province of the Kings of France. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet between Monaco and Menton. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. At the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than today's sea level. The changes in the level led in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille. The entrance led above level. Since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the imported pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasseens, arrived in Provence. They were farmers and warriors, gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.Provence – The historical province of Provence (orange) within the modern region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeast France
11. Anthony Burgess – John Anthony Burgess Wilson, FRSL – who published under the pen name Anthony Burgess – was an English writer and composer. Although Burgess was predominantly a comic writer, A Clockwork Orange remains his best known novel. In 1971 it was adapted by Stanley Kubrick, which Burgess said was chiefly responsible for the popularity of the book. He produced Earthly Powers, regarded by most critics as his greatest novel. Burgess wrote screenplays, including for the 1977 TV mini-series Jesus of Nazareth. Burgess wrote studies of classic writers, notably James Joyce. Burgess lectured in phonetics, translated Cyrano de Bergerac, Oedipus the King and the opera Carmen, among others. He was born to Catholic parents, Joseph and Elizabeth Wilson. Burgess was known as Jack, Little Jack, Johnny Eagle. At his confirmation, he became John Anthony Burgess Wilson. Burgess began using the pen name Anthony Burgess for a Tiger. His mother Elizabeth died at the age of 30 November 1918 during the 1918 flu pandemic. The causes listed on her certificate were influenza, acute pneumonia, cardiac failure. His Muriel had died four days earlier on 15 November from influenza, broncho-pneumonia, cardiac failure, aged eight. He believed he was resented for having survived when his mother and sister did not.Anthony Burgess – Anthony Burgess in 1986
12. Nikos Kazantzakis – Nikos Kazantzakis was a Greek writer, celebrated for his novels, which include Zorba the Greek, Christ Recrucified, Captain Michalis, The Last Temptation of Christ. He also wrote plays, philosophical essays such as The Saviors of God: Spiritual Exercises. Universally recognised as a giant of Greek literature, Kazantzakis was nominated in nine different years. His fame was further spread by The Last Temptation of Christ. Then he went to the Sorbonne in 1907 to study philosophy. There he fell under the influence of Henri Bergson. Upon his return to Greece, he began translating works of philosophy. In 1914 he met Angelos Sikelianos. Together they travelled for two years in places where Greek Orthodox Christian culture flourished, largely influenced by the enthusiastic nationalism of Sikelianos. Kazantzakis married Galatea Alexiou in 1911; they divorced in 1926. He married Eleni Samiou in 1945. While in Berlin, where the political situation was explosive, Kazantzakis discovered communism and became an admirer of Vladimir Lenin. He never stayed with the Left Opposition politician and writer Victor Serge. He witnessed the rise of Joseph Stalin, became disillusioned with Soviet-style communism. Around this time, his earlier nationalist beliefs were gradually replaced by a more universalist ideology.Nikos Kazantzakis – Nikos Kazantzakis
13. Prince – A prince is a male ruler, monarch, or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from primus + capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler, prince". , became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion. The term may be broadly used of persons in various cultures, eras. In Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy, Germany, Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank. This is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. Most small territories designated during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles. They reflect not only different but mutually exclusive concepts. This distinction had evolved before the 18th century for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany. Note that the princely title was used to his Christian name, which also became customary.Prince – Cicero attacks Catiline in the Senate of the Roman Republic.
14. John Coltrane – John William Coltrane, also known as "Trane", was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. As his career progressed, Coltrane and his music took on an increasingly spiritual dimension. Coltrane influenced innumerable musicians, remains one of the most significant saxophonists in music history. He received many posthumous awards and recognitions, including canonization by the African Orthodox Church as Saint John William Coltrane and a special Pulitzer Prize in 2007. His second wife was pianist Alice Coltrane and their son Ravi Coltrane is also a saxophonist. Coltrane was born on September 1926. His father was John R. Coltrane and his mother was Alice Blair. He grew up in High Point, North Carolina, attending William Penn High School. In June 1943 he moved to Philadelphia. In September of that year his mother bought him his first saxophone, an alto. Coltrane played the alto horn in a band before taking up the saxophone during high school. He had his professional gigs in early to mid-1945 -- a "trio", with piano and guitar. By the time he got to Hawaii, in late 1945, the Navy was already rapidly downsizing. He continued to perform other duties when not playing with the band, including kitchen and security details. By the end of his service, he had assumed a leadership role in the band.John Coltrane – Coltrane in 1963
15. 1938 FIFA World Cup – The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938. Italy retained the championship, beating Hungary 4–2 in the final. France was chosen as hosts on August 13, 1936. France defeated Argentina and Germany in the first round of voting. This was the last World Cup to be staged before the outbreak of the Second World War. It was the first time that the title holders qualified automatically. Title holders were given an automatic entry until 2006 when this was abolished. Of the 14 remaining places, eleven were allocated to Asia. As a result, only three non-European nations took part: Brazil, the Dutch East Indies. This is the smallest ever number of teams outside the host continent to compete at a FIFA World Cup. After qualification was complete, the Anschluss united Austria with Germany. Austria subsequently withdrew with some Austrian players joining the German squad. This tournament saw the first, as of 2016 the only, participation from Cuba and the Dutch East Indies. It also saw the World Cup debuts of Poland and Norway. The Netherlands would not reappear at a finals tournament until 1974, while Norway would not qualify for another World Cup finals until 1994.1938 FIFA World Cup – Official poster
16. The Big Blue – The Big Blue is a 1988 English-language film in the French Cinéma du look visual style, made by French director Luc Besson. Jacques Mayol and Enzo Molinari, have grown up on the Greek island of Amorgos in the 1960s. Jacques loses. Later Jacques' father -- who harvests shellfish from the seabed using helmet -- goes diving for shellfish. His breathing rope gets caught and punctured by rocks on the reef and weighed down by water, he drowns. Jacques and Enzo watch in horror as he is killed. By the 1980s, both are swimmers who can remain underwater for great times and at great depths. Enzo is on Sicily now, where he rescues a trapped diver from a shipwreck. Insurance broker Johana Baker is introduced to Jacques. She secretly falls with him. She and Jacques fall in love. However none of them realize the extent of Jaques' allurement with the depths. Johana is fired after her deception is discovered; she leaves New York and begins to live with Jacques. At the next World Diving Championships, Enzo beats Jacques' record. The divers decide to continue.The Big Blue – Theatrical poster
17. Graham Greene – Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, he acquired as a major writer, both of thrillers. He was shortlisted, in 1967, for the Nobel Prize for Literature. He was born into a influential family that included the owners of the Greene King Brewery. Greene later boarded in Hertfordshire where his father became headmaster. Unhappy at the school, he attempted suicide several times. Greene converted after meeting his future wife, Vivien Dayrell-Browning. Later in life he took to calling himself a "Catholic agnostic", or even at times a "Catholic atheist". He published The Within, in 1929; its favourable reception enabled him to work full-time as a novelist. Greene supplemented his novelist's income with film reviews. His 1937 review of Wee Willie Winkie, commented on the sexuality of Shirley Temple. This provoked prompting Greene to live in Mexico after the trial was over. While in Mexico, Greene developed the ideas for The Power and the Glory. Greene had a history of depression, which had a profound effect on his writing and personal life. William Golding described Greene as "the ultimate chronicler of twentieth-century man's consciousness and anxiety." He died in 1991, at age 86, of leukaemia, was buried in Corseaux cemetery.Graham Greene – Graham Greene
18. Eilat – Eilat is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba. The city's beaches, coral reef, desert landscapes make it a popular destination for domestic and international tourism. Low humidity are moderated by proximity to a warm sea. Temperatures often exceed 40 °C in summer, 21 °C in winter, while water temperatures range between 20 and 26 °C. Eilat averages 360 sunny days a year. With an average rainfall of 28 millimetres and summer temperatures of 40 ° C and higher, water resources and vegetation are limited. These resulted in a density that defies the environmental conditions." Like other localities, Eilat is mentioned in the Bible both in singular and plural form. The original settlement was probably at the northern tip of the Gulf of Eilat. Eilat is mentioned as a major trading partner with Elim, Thebes' Red Sea Port, as early as the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt. In antiquity Eilat bordered the tribal territory of the Rephidim, the indigenous inhabitants of the Sinai Peninsula. Eilat is first mentioned in the Book of Exodus. The first six stations of the Exodus are in Egypt. Station 12 refers in Modern Israel near Eilat. The commercial port copper based industrial center were maintained by Egypt until reportedly rebuilt by Solomon at a location known as Ezion-Geber.Eilat – Evening view of Eilat marina
19. The Razor's Edge – The Razor's Edge is a novel by W. Somerset Maugham. The book was first published in 1944. The story begins through the eyes of Larry's acquaintances as they witness his personality change after the War. His rejection of conventional search for meaningful experience allows him to thrive while the more materialistic characters suffer reversals of fortune. Maugham begins by characterizing his story as a thinly veiled true account. He includes himself as a writer who drifts in and out of the lives of the major players. For example, while Templeton's Roman Catholicism embraces the hierarchical trappings of the Church, Larry's proclivities tend towards saint John of Ruysbroeck. Meanwhile, Sophie, settles into a happy marriage, only later tragically losing her husband and baby in a car accident. Larry immerses himself in study and bohemian life. She breaks their engagement to go back to Chicago. There she marries the millionaire Gray, who provides her a rich life. Kosti's influence encourages Larry to look toward things spiritual for his answers rather than in books. Larry and Kosti travel together for a time before parting ways. Larry then meets a Benedictine monk named Father Ensheim in Bonn, Germany while Father Ensheim is from his monastery doing academic research. Larry comes back to Paris.The Razor's Edge – Cover of 1st edition
20. Alpes-Maritimes – Alpes-Maritimes is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the extreme southeast corner of France. The inhabitants of the department are usually referred to as Azuréens. The Alpes-Maritimes department is surrounded by the departments of Var in the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It surrounds the Principality of Monaco on the west, east. Its topography is very mixed. The highest point of the department is the Cime du Gélas on the Franco-Italian border which dominates the Vallée des Merveilles further east. It is located in Italian territory. East the Lombard pass above Isola 2000 allows access to the shrine of Saint-Anne de Vinadio in Italy. Finally, at its eastern end, the Col de Tende links with Cuneo in Italy. The rivers in alphabetical order are: It is the climate that made the Côte d'Azur famous. The coastal area has a Mediterranean climate. Towards the interior, especially in the north, a mountain climate. One of the attractions of the department is its level of sunshine: 300 days per year. Despite this the department is also the most stormy of France with an average of 70 to 110 thunderstorm days per year. Alpes-Maritimes is divided into 2 arrondissements: the Grasse and the Nice, 163 communes.Alpes-Maritimes – Nice & Côte d'Azur
21. Cannes – Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. The city is known with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, for several conferences. On November 2011 it also played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations. By the 2nd BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna. Historians are unsure what the name means. The area was a village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands. In 69 AD, it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Otho and Vitellius. In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from "canna," a reed. Later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands. The history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands. An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle at the Suquet. One took a century to build.Cannes – The Promenade de la Croisette and the port
22. Jack L. Warner – Jack Leonard "J. L." Warner, born Jacob Warner in London, Ontario, was a Canadian-American film executive, the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. Warner's career spanned its duration surpassing that of any other of the seminal Hollywood studio moguls. As co-head of production at Warner Bros. Studios, he worked with Sam Warner, to procure the technology for the film industry's first talking picture. After Sam's death, Jack clashed with his surviving older brothers, Albert Warner. He recruited many of Warner Bros.' Top stars and promoted the hard-edged social dramas for which the studio became known. Given to decisiveness, Warner once commented, "If I'm right fifty-one percent of the time, I'm ahead of the game." Throughout his career, he was viewed as a enigmatic figure. Although he was a staunch Republican, Warner encouraged film projects that promoted the agenda of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. He criticized Nazi Germany well before America's involvement in World War II. Despite his public image, Warner remained a force in the motion picture industry until his retirement in the early 1970s. Jack Warner was born in 1892.Jack L. Warner – Portrait of Jack L.Warner in 1955
23. Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department – The following is a list of the 163 communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. Communauté d'agglomération du Pôle Azur Provence, created in 2002. Communauté d'agglomération la Riviera Française, created in 2002. Communauté urbaine de Nice-Côte d'Azur, created in 2002. Communauté d'agglomération de Sophia Antipolis, created in 2002.Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department – (CAP) Communauté d'agglomération du Pôle Azur Provence (seat: Grasse), created in 2002.
24. Sidney Bechet – Sidney Bechet was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, composer. Bechet was perhaps the notable jazz saxophonist. A distinctive, wide vibrato characterized Bechet's playing. Bechet's erratic temperament hampered his career, however, not until the late 1940s did he earn wide acclaim. He was born to a middle-class Creole of family. Sidney's older Leonard Victor Bechet was a part-time trombonist and bandleader. Sidney Bechet quickly learned to play several musical instruments kept around the house, mostly by teaching himself; he soon decided to specialize in clarinet. At the age of six, Sidney started playing along with his brother's band at a family birthday party, debuting his talents to acclaim. Later in his youth, he studied as Lorenzo Tio, "Big Eye" George Baquet. Soon after, Bechet began to play in many New Orleans ensembles, using the improvisational techniques of the time. These ensembles included work with Freddie Keppard's celebrated Brass Band, John Robichaux's "genteel" dance orchestra. In 1911-12, he performed with King Oliver in the Olympia Band. In the spring of 1919, Bechet traveled to New York City, where he joined Will Marion Cook's Syncopated Orchestra. Soon after, the orchestra journeyed to Europe where, immediately upon arrival, they performed in London. Bechet was especially popular, attracting attention far.Sidney Bechet – Bechet's childhood home in the 7th Ward of New Orleans
25. Cambrai – A sub-prefecture of Cambrai is a town which had 32,518 inhabitants in the Census of 2009. It is in the heart of the urban unit of Cambrai which, with 47,138 inhabitants, ranks as 7th largest of the department. A more extensive range, included 65,986 inhabitants in 2009. Towards the end of the Roman Empire, Cambrai replaced Bavay as the "capital" of the land of the Nervii. The bishopric depended on the Holy Roman Empire until annexation to France in 1678. Fénelon, nicknamed the "Swan of Cambrai", was the most renowned of the archbishops. Cambrai was the Duke of Wellington's headquarters, from 1815 to 1818. A second Battle of Cambrai took October 1918 as part of the Hundred Days Offensive. World War II was followed by population, abruptly reversed by the 1973 oil crisis. Despite the past destruction, maintains a rich monumental heritage. Cambrai is affirmed as the urban centre of Cambrésis. Its economic life is strengthened on the main local highway and river. The town of Cambrai is located in the south of the Nord Department, of which it is chef-lieu of the arrondissement. The regional capital of Lille is 52 kilometres away. Cambrai is not very far from several European capitals: Brussels is 108 kilometres, London is 280 kilometres.Cambrai – The bell tower of the town hall, where Martin and Martine (fr) mark the hours
26. Newport Beach, California – Newport Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, United States. Its population was 85,287 at the 2010 census. Newport Beach is also home to Newport Harbor. The city's median family income and property values consistently place high in national rankings. The Upper Bay of Newport is a canyon, carved by a stream in the Pleistocene period. Before settlers reached the coasts of California, the Newport area and surrounding areas were very prominent Indian lands. Indian shells and relics can still be found today scattered throughout the area. Though, throughout the 1800s, settlers began to settle the area due to the availability of land. The State of California sold acre-plots of land for $1 a piece in the Newport area. James Irvine, after hearing the astonishing news, quickly traveled from his home in San Francisco to the San Joaquin Ranch. In 1905 city development increased when Pacific Electric Railway established a southern terminus in Newport connecting the beach with downtown Los Angeles. In 1906, the scattered settlements were incorporated as the City of Newport Beach. Settlements filled on the Peninsula, Lido Isle. In 1923 Corona del Mar was annexed and in 2002 Newport Coast, East Santa Ana Heights and San Joaquin Hills, were annexed. In 2008, after a long battle with the city of Costa Mesa, Newport Beach annexed West Santa Ana Heights.Newport Beach, California – Aerial view of Newport Beach in July 2014
27. Polis – Polis, plural poleis literally means city in Greek. It can also mean body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, thus is often translated as "city-state". The term "city-state", which originated in English, does not fully translate the Greek term. The polis, which in archaic Greece meant "city", changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify "state". Finally, with the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, it came to describe the entire body of citizens. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the polis in ancient Greece. The Greek term that specifically meant the totality of urban spaces is ἄστυ. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, itself derives from the polis. The best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one that leads to the common good. The king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, he is acquainted with the Form of the Good. In Plato's analogy of the ship of state, the king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis. In The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society: mutual differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the economic structure of an ideal polis.Polis – Acropolis of Athens, a noted polis of classical Greece.
28. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was born in Crete, at that part of the center of Post-Byzantine art. He became a master before traveling at age 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done. In 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Greco's expressionistic style found appreciation in the 20th century. El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for often phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting. Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and collector. Nothing is known about also Greek. Manoússos Theotokópoulos, spent the last years of his life in El Greco's Toledo home. El Greco received his initial training as an painter of a leading center of post-Byzantine art. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name as μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος.El Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
29. Charles III of Spain – Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; she died in 1760. He never achieved satisfactory control over finances, was obliged to borrow to meet expenses. His reforms proved short-lived and Spain relapsed after his death, but his legacy lives on to this day. Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was probably the most successful European ruler of his generation. He had provided firm, consistent, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers.... Personal life had won the respect of the people." Moreover, the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of the fortress at Gibraltar. In 1700, Charles' father, originally a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V. For the remainder of his reign, he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories. In 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid.Charles III of Spain – Charles III
30. Norman Wisdom – Charlie Chaplin once referred to Wisdom as his "favourite clown". He toured Australia and South Africa. After the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, a hospice was named in his honour. In 1995 he was given the Freedom of the City of London and of Tirana. Wisdom received an OBE. Wisdom was knighted in 2000 and spent much of his later life on the Isle of Man. He died on 4 October 2010, at age 95. Norman Joseph Wisdom was born in the Marylebone district of London. His parents were Maud Wisdom, a dressmaker who often worked for West End theatres, had made a dress for Queen Mary. The couple married in Marylebone on 15 July 1912. Wisdom had an elder brother, Frederick Thomas "Fred" Wisdom. The family lived at 91 London W9, where they slept in one room. Wisdom quipped, "I was born in very sorry circumstances. Both of my parents were very sorry." His brother were frequently hit by their father.Norman Wisdom – Norman Wisdom, Peel, Isle of Man, 2005
31. Diamonds Are Forever (film) – The film is the second of four James Bond films directed by Guy Hamilton. The producers were inspired by Goldfinger, eventually hiring Guy Hamilton, as well as Shirley Bassey performing vocals on the title theme song. Locations included Las Vegas, California, Lufthansa's hangar in Germany. Diamonds Are Forever received criticism for its humorous camp tone. The film marked the "Spectre" organisation's final appearance in Eon's Bond films until the 2015 film of the same name. James Bond -- agent 007 -- eventually finds him at a facility where Blofeld look-alikes are being created through surgery. Bond kills later the "real" Blofeld, by drowning him in a pool of superheated mud. Disguised as assassin Peter Franks, Bond travels to Amsterdam to meet contact Tiffany Case. Bond intercepts and kills him, then switches IDs to make it seem like Franks is Bond. Case and Bond then go to Los Angeles, smuggling the diamonds inside Franks' corpse. At the airport Bond meets his CIA ally Felix Leiter, then travels to Las Vegas. At a funeral home, the diamonds are passed on to another smuggler, Shady Tree. Bond tells Leiter to ship the real diamonds. Bond then goes to a casino-hotel owned by the reclusive billionaire Willard Whyte, where Tree works as a stand-up comedian. At the craps table Bond meets after gambling, brings her to his room.Diamonds Are Forever (film) – British cinema poster for Diamonds Are Forever, designed by Robert McGinnis
32. Georg Solti – Born in Budapest, he studied there with Ernő Dohnányi. In the 1930s, he worked for Arturo Toscanini. His career was interrupted by the rise of the Nazis, being of Jewish background he fled the increasingly restrictive anti-semitic laws in 1938. Prohibited from conducting there, he earned a living as a pianist. After the war, Solti was appointed musical director of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich in 1946. In 1952 he moved to the Frankfurt Opera, where he remained in charge for nine years. He took West German citizenship in 1953. In 1961 he became musical director of the Covent Garden Opera Company, London. During his ten-year tenure, he introduced changes that raised standards to the highest international levels. Under his musical directorship the status of the company was recognised with the grant of the title "the Royal Opera". He became a British citizen in 1972. In 1969 Solti became director of a post he held for 22 years. He became a position he held until his death. Known for the intensity of his making, Solti was widely considered to have mellowed as a conductor in later years. The most famous of his recordings is probably Decca's complete set of Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, made between 1958 and 1965 with the Vienna Philharmonic.Georg Solti – Solti by Allan Warren, 1975
33. Paul Signac – Paul Victor Jules Signac was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style. Paul Signac was born in Paris on 11 November 1863. He sailed around the coasts of Europe, painting the landscapes he encountered. He also painted a series of watercolors of French harbor cities in later years. In 1884 he met Georges Seurat. Many of Signac's paintings are of the French coast. He loved to paint the water. Paul Signac, Albert Dubois-Pillet, Georges Seurat were among the founders of the Société des Artistes Indépendants. The association began in Paris 29 July 1884 with the organization with the device "No jury nor awards". For the following three decades their annual exhibitions set the trends in art of the 20th century. At the 1905 Salon des Indépendants, Henri Matisse exhibited Luxe, Calme et Volupté. Signac purchased the work after the 1905 Salon des Indépendants. In 1908 Signac was elected president of the 24th Salon des Indépendants. In 1886 Signac met Vincent van Gogh in Paris. In 1887 the two artists cafés.Paul Signac – Paul Signac with his palette, ca. 1883
34. Keith Jarrett – Keith Jarrett is an American pianist and composer who performs both jazz and classical music. He started his career with Art Blakey, moving on to play with Charles Lloyd and Miles Davis. His improvisations draw from the traditions of jazz and other genres, especially Western classical music, gospel, ethnic folk music. In 2008, Jarrett was inducted in the magazine's 73rd Annual Readers' Poll. Keith Jarrett was born on May 8, 1945, to a mother of Hungarian descent and a father of either French or Scots-Irish descent. Jarrett grew up in suburban Allentown to music. He displayed prodigious musical talents as a young child. Encouraged especially by his mother, he took intensive classical piano lessons including Eleanor Sokoloff of the Curtis Institute. As a student at Emmaus High School in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, he learned jazz and quickly became proficient in it. In his early teens, he developed a strong interest in the contemporary scene; a Dave Brubeck performance was an early inspiration. After a year Jarrett moved to New York City where he played at the Village Vanguard. In New York, Art Blakey hired Jarrett to play with the Jazz Messengers. During a show with that group Jarrett was noticed by Jack DeJohnette who immediately recognized the unknown pianist's talent and unstoppable flow of ideas. DeJohnette soon recommended him to his own band leader, Charles Lloyd. The Quartet's tours across America and Europe, even to Moscow, made a widely noticed musician in rock and jazz underground circles.Keith Jarrett – Jarrett, c. 1980
35. Hundred Days – This period includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns. Napoleon returned while the Congress of Vienna was sitting. The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars pitted France against various coalitions of European nations nearly continuously from 1792 onward. The subsequent execution of Louis XVI in France had greatly disturbed other European leaders, who vowed to crush the French Republic. Rather than leading to France's defeat, the wars allowed the revolutionary regime to create client republics. The success of the French forces made a hero out of Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1799, Napoleon became First Consul of the new French Consulate. Five years later, he crowned Emperor Napoleon I. The rise of Napoleon troubled the other European powers as the earlier revolutionary regime had. Despite the formation of new coalitions against him, Napoleon's forces continued to conquer much of Europe. The tide of war began to turn in 1812 that resulted in the loss of much of Napoleon's army. The following year, during the War of the Sixth Coalition, Coalition forces defeated the French in the Battle of Leipzig. Following its victory at Leipzig, the Coalition vowed to depose Napoleon. In the last week of February 1814, Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher advanced on Paris. This victory was followed by successive defeats from increasingly overwhelming odds.Hundred Days – The journey of a modern hero, to the island of Elba. Print shows Napoleon seated backwards on a donkey on the road "to Elba" from Fontainebleau; he holds a broken sword in one hand and the donkey's tail in the other while two drummers follow him playing a farewell(?) march.
36. French Riviera – This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas. It began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. In the summer, it also played home to many members of the Rothschild family. After World War II, it became a popular tourist site. Many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region. Its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060. A second airport at Mandelieu was once the region's commercial airport, but is now mainly used by private and business aircraft. The A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road generally known as the Route nationale 7. Trains serve the coastal region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in five and a half hours from Paris. The French Riviera has a total population of more than two million. The region has 35,000 students, of whom 25 percent are working toward a doctorate. The French Riviera is a major area with several marinas along its coast. The d'Azur was given to the coast by the writer Stéphen Liégeard in his book, La Côte d'azur, published in December 1887. The term French Riviera is typical of English use. It was built with Italian Riviera, which extends east of the French Riviera.French Riviera – The lighthouse of Nice, on the French Riviera
37. Zelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Fitzgerald was an American socialite and novelist, the wife of American author F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose work she strongly influenced. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, she was dubbed by her husband as "the first American Flapper". She and Scott became emblems of the Age, for which they are still celebrated. Ernest Hemingway, whom Zelda disliked, blamed her for Scott's declining literary output, though her extensive diaries provided much material for his fiction. After being diagnosed with schizophrenia, the couple were living apart when Scott died suddenly in 1940. Zelda died later in Asheville, North Carolina. A 1970 biography by Nancy Milford was on the short list of contenders for the Pulitzer Prize. In 1992, Zelda was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, Zelda Sayre was the youngest of six children. The family was descended from early settlers of Long Island, who had moved before the Civil War. By the time of Zelda's birth, the Sayres were a Southern family. Her siblings were Anthony Dickinson Sayre, Jr. Marjorie Sayre, Rosalind Sayre and Clothilde Sayre. As a child, Zelda Sayre was extremely active. She danced, enjoyed the outdoors. In 1914, Sayre began attending Sidney Lanier High School.Zelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Sayre at age 17
38. Frances Scott Fitzgerald – Frances Scott "Scottie" Fitzgerald was the only child of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald. She was a writer, a prominent member of the Democratic Party. She was inducted in 1992. Fitzgerald was born in Minnesota. Upon her birth, her mother supposedly remarked that she hoped Scottie would be a "beautiful fool." In 1936, Fitzgerald was expelled for sneaking away from campus to hitchhike to Yale. She graduated in 1942. Hoping that she would not repeat his academic failures, her father wrote letters to her urging her to work hard. Samuel Jackson "Jack" Lanahan, a prominent Washington lawyer, were popular hosts in Washington in the 1950s and 1960s. During this period, she wrote musical comedies about the Washington social scene that were performed annually to benefit the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Washington. Her show Onward and Upward with the Arts was considered by director David Merrick. Fitzgerald had four children with her first husband: Thomas Addison Lanahan; Eleanor Ann Lanahan; Jr.; and Cecilia Scott Lanahan. Thomas, known as "Tim", committed suicide at age 27. Eleanor "Bobbie" Lanahan, an artist and writer, wrote a biography of her mother, Scottie, The Daughter of... The Life of Frances Scott Fitzgerald Lanahan Smith.Frances Scott Fitzgerald – F. Scott Fitzgerald in 1921
39. Stephen Roche – Stephen Roche is an Irish former professional road racing cyclist. Roche's rise coincided with that of fellow Irishman Sean Kelly. Roche had 58 professional career wins. All of these wins still stand, despite Roche having been accused by an Italian judge of taking EPO in the later part of his career. Soon after his arrival he won the amateur Paris -- Roubaix, sprinting to victory on the track at Roubaix. He was told by his sportif that if he did not win he "would be sent home to Ireland that day". However, a injury caused by a poorly fitted shoe plate led to a disappointing ride in Moscow, where he finished 45th. However, on return to France, August to October saw Roche win 19 races. That led with the Peugeot professional cycling team for 1981. He scored his professional victory by beating Bernard Hinault in the Tour of Corsica. In total, his debut yielded 10 victories. Roche finished 25th in that year's Tour de France. In 1985, he came second in Paris -- Nice and third in Liège -- Bastogne -- Liège. In 1986 at a six-day event with UK professional Tony Doyle at Paris-Bercy, he damaged his right knee. This destroyed his 1986 season at new Carrera -- Inoxpran with little to show other than second in a stage of the Giro.Stephen Roche – Roche at the 1993 Tour de France