1. Antibes – Antibes is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte dAzur between Cannes and Nice. The town of Juan-les-Pins is in the commune of Antibes and the Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it, traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found in the areas of the castle and cathedral. However, most trade was with the Greek world, via the Phocaeans of Marseille, Antipolis was founded by Phocaeans from Massilia. As a Greek colony settlement, it was known as Antipolis from its close to Nice. The exact location of the Greek city is not well known, given Greek colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes in todays old city. Traces of occupation in the Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle, the goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics. Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia, the Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens, Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the province of Narbonesian Gaul. Antipolis grew into the largest town in the region and an entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such as aqueducts, fortified walls. The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts, the Fontvieille aqueduct rises in Biot and eventually joins the coast below the RN7 and the railway track at the Fort Carré. It was discovered and restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier dAguillon for supplying the modern city, the aqueduct called the Bouillide or Clausonnes rises near the town of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque, like most Roman towns Antipolis possessed these buildings for shows and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the child Septentrion, the inscription says he danced and was popular on the stage of the theatre. The theatre was located, like the amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near the Porte Royale, the back wall is positioned substantially next to Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the side of the bus station. A plan of the made in the 16th century is in the Marciana National Library of Venice. The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the 17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the city, a concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the seventeenth century and in a map of Antibes from the early nineteenth centuryAntibes – View of Antibes by the Mediterranean
2. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the governments external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role in European diplomacy and warfare before 1815, in the 19th century it built a colonial empire second only to the British Empire, but was humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which marked the rise of Germany to dominance in Europe. France was on the side of the First World War. Since 1945 France has been a member of the United Nations, of NATO. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany, as a charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. France is also a member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Under the long reigns of kings Louis XIV and Louis XV, France was second in size to Russia but first in terms of economic and it fought numerous expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria, warfare defined the foreign policies of Louis XIV, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, while his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent support staff. His chief engineer Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns, the finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system, Louis XIV made France prouder in psychology but poorer in wealth, military glory and cultural splendor were exalted above economic growth. Under Louis XIV, France fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, Louis XV did merge Lorraine and Corsica into France. However France was badly defeated in the Seven Years War and forced to give up its holdings in North America and it ceded New France to Great Britain and Louisiana to Spain, and was left with a bitter grudge that sought revenge in 1778 by helping the Americans win independence. Norman Davies characterized Louis XVs reign as one of debilitating stagnation, characterized by lost wars, a few scholars defend Louis, arguing that his highly negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution. Jerome Blum described him as a perpetual adolescent called to do a mans job, France played a key role helping the American Patriots win their War of Independence against Britain 1775–1783. Motivated by a rivalry with Britain and by revenge for its territorial losses during Seven Years WarForeign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
3. Horace Walpole – Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford — also known as Horace Walpole — was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. He had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London and his literary reputation rests on his Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto and his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. He was the son of the first British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, as Horace Walpole was childless, on his death his barony descended to his cousin of the same surname, who was created the new Earl of Orford. Walpole was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, like his father, he received early education in Bexley, he was also educated at Eton College and Kings College, Cambridge. Walpoles first friends were probably his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became strongly attached, at Eton he formed with Charles Lyttelton and George Montagu the Triumvirate, a schoolboy confederacy. More important were another group of friends dubbed the Quadruple Alliance, Walpole, Thomas Gray, Richard West, at Cambridge Walpole came under the influence of Conyers Middleton, an unorthodox theologian. Walpole came to accept the nature of Middletons attitude to some essential Christian doctrines for the rest of his life, including a hatred of superstition. Walpole ceased to reside at Cambridge at the end of 1738, according to one biographer his love for his mother was the most powerful emotion of his entire life. the whole of his psychological history was dominated by it. Walpole did not have any relationships with women, he has been called a natural celibate. Walpoles sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation, many contemporaries described him as effeminate. Biographers such as Timothy Mowl explore his possible homosexuality, including a passionate, some previous biographers such as Lewis, Fothergill, and Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer, however, have interpreted Walpole as asexual. Upon coming of age he became Comptroller of the Pipe and Clerk of the Estreats which gave him an income of £300 per annum, Walpole decided to go travelling with Thomas Gray and wrote a will whereby he left Gray all his belongings. They left Dover on 29 March and arrived at Calais later that day and they then travelled through Boulogne, Amiens and Saint-Denis, arriving at Paris on 4 April. Here they met many aristocratic Englishmen, in early June they left Paris for Rheims, then in September going to Dijon, Lyons, Dauphiné, Savoy, Aix-les-Bains, Geneva, and then back to Lyons. In October they left for Italy, arriving in Turin in November, then going to Genoa, Piacenza, Parma, Reggio, Modena, Bologna, and in December arriving at Florence. Here he struck up a friendship with Horace Mann, an assistant to the British Minister at the Court of Tuscany and wrote Epistle from Florence to Thomas Ashton, tutor to the Earl of Plymouth, a mixture of Whig history and Middletons teachings. In February 1740 Walpole and Gray left for Rome with the intention of witnessing the papal conclave upon the death of Pope Clement XII, Walpole wanted to attend fashionable parties and Gray wanted to visit all the antiquities. At social occasions in Rome he saw the Old Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart, Walpole and Gray returned to Florence in JulyHorace Walpole – Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds 1756 National Portrait Gallery, collection London.
4. Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland – It is one of the group of smaller nations in the EU, and has traditionally followed a non-aligned foreign policy. This policy has been moderated in recent years and the country is an important staging-post for US troops in Western Europe, Irelands official relationship with the Peoples Republic of China began on 22 June 1979. Following his visit to China in 1999, former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern authorised the establishment of an Asia Strategy, the aim of this Strategy was to ensure that the Irish Government and Irish enterprise work coherently to enhance the important relationships between Ireland and Asia. In recent years due to the expansion of the Chinese economy, China is becoming a key trade partner of Ireland. Ireland has raised its concerns in the area of human rights with China on a number of occasions, on 12 May 2007, during a visit to Beijing, former Taoiseach Brian Cowen discussed human rights issues with Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing. Former Tánaiste Mary Coughlan also raised human rights issues and concerns with visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Zeng Peiyan, Ireland also participates in the EU-China Human Rights Dialogue. Concerning the Taiwan issue, Ireland follows a One-China policy, since at least the 1600s Ireland has had political connections with the United Kingdom, with the whole island becoming a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. From the time of Ireland declaring itself independent from the United Kingdom in 1937, from the onset of the Troubles in 1969, the two governments sought to bring the violence to an end. The Sunningdale Agreement of 1973 and the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985 were important steps in this process, in 1998, both states signed the Good Friday Agreement and now co-operate closely to find a solution to the regions problems. As part of the Good Friday Agreement, the states also ended their dispute over their names, Ireland. Each agreed to accept and use the correct name. In 1973 three ships of the Irish Naval Service intercepted a ship carrying weapons from Libya which were destined for Irish Republican paramilitaries. Law enforcement acts such as these additionally improved relations with the government of the United Kingdom, Ireland is one of the parties to the Rockall continental shelf dispute that also involves Denmark, Iceland, and the United Kingdom. Ireland and the United Kingdom have signed an agreement in the Rockall area. However, neither have concluded similar agreements with Iceland or Denmark, Iceland now claims a substantial area of the continental shelf to the west of Ireland, to a point 49°48N 19°00W, which is further south than Ireland. The controversial Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north-western England has also been an issue between the two governments. The Irish government has sought the closure of the plant, taking a case against the UK government under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, however, the European Court of Justice found that the case should have been dealt with under EU law. In 2006, however, both came to a friendly agreement which enabled both the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Garda Síochána access to the site to conduct investigationsForeign relations of the Republic of Ireland – Embassy of Ireland in Beijing
5. Pisa – Pisa is a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its tower, the city of over 90,834 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces. Much of the architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics. The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery, while the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city. Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks, the presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city, strabo referred Pisas origins to the mythical Nestor, king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was already a center by the times described. The Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the port along the western coast from Genoa to Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians, Gauls, in 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium, Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore, however, due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 kilometres north of the Arnos, the shore moved west. Strabo states that the city was 4.0 kilometres away from the coast, currently, it is located 9.7 kilometres from the coast. However it was a city, with ships sailing up the Arno. In the 90s AD, a complex was built in the city. During the later years of the Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the cities of Italy, probably thanks to the complexity of its river system. After Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, politically it became part of the duchy of LuccaPisa – Pisa
6. Sidon – Sidon or Saïda is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate of Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast, about 40 kilometres north of Tyre and 40 km south of the capital, in Genesis, Sidon is a son of Canaan, a grandson of Noah. Its name coincides with the modern Arabic word for fishery, two castles there were cleaned and restored by the French in the early 20th century. Sidon has been inhabited very early in prehistory. It was one of the most important Phoenician cities, and it may have been the oldest, from there and other ports a great Mediterranean commercial empire was founded. Homer praised the skill of its craftsmen in producing glass, purple dyes and it was also from here that a colonizing party went to found the city of Tyre. Tyre also grew into a city, and in subsequent years there was competition between the two, each claiming to be the metropolis of Phoenicia. Glass manufacturing, Sidons most important enterprise in the Phoenician era, was conducted on a vast scale, the small shell of the Murex trunculus was broken in order to extract the pigment that was so rare it became the mark of royalty. In AD1855, the sarcophagus of King Eshmun’azar II was discovered, in this inscription the gods Eshmun and Ba‘al Sidon Lord of Sidon are mentioned as chief gods of the Sidonians. ‘Ashtart is entitled ‘Ashtart-Shem-Ba‘al ‘Ashtart the name of the Lord, a title found in an Ugaritic text. In the years before Christianity, Sidon had many conquerors, Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, both Jesus and Saint Paul are said to have visited it, too. The city was conquered by the Arabs and then by the Ottoman Turks. Like other Phoenician city-states, Sidon suffered from a succession of conquerors, at the end of the Persian era in 351 BC, it was invaded by the emperor Artaxerxes III and then by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, when the Hellenistic era of Sidon began. Under the successors of Alexander, it enjoyed autonomy and organized games. When Sidon fell under Roman domination, it continued to mint its own silver coins, the Romans also built a theater and other major monuments in the city. In the reign of Elagabalus a Roman colony was established there, during the Byzantine period, when the great earthquake of AD551 destroyed most of the cities of Phoenice, Beiruts School of Law took refuge in Sidon. The town continued quietly for the century, until it was conquered by the Arabs in AD636. On 4 December 1110 Sidon was captured, a decade after the First Crusade, by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem and it then became the centre of the Lordship of Sidon, an important lordship in the Kingdom of JerusalemSidon – Sidon صيدا
7. 1800 – As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, world population approaches the 1 billion milestone which it will attain in 1802. February 7 – A public plebiscite in France confirms Napoleon as First Consul by a substantial majority, February 13 – The Banque de France is founded. February 28 – United Irishman Roddy McCorley is executed in Toomebridge for his part in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, March 14 – Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope. He is crowned on March 21 in Venice, March 17 – The British Royal Navy ship of the line HMS Queen Charlotte catches fire off the coast of Capraia, with the loss of 673 lives. March 20 – Alessandro Volta describes his new invention, the voltaic pile, March 26 – British Royal Navy officer Henry Waterhouse first charts the Antipodes Islands. April – Voting begins in the United States presidential election,1800, the result is not announced until February 1801. April 2 Première of Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No.1 at the Burgtheater in Vienna, library of Congress is founded in Washington, D. C. May 14 – Second Coalition, French forces under General Louis-Alexandre Berthier are halted by 400 Austro-Piedmont soldiers at Fort Bard in the Aosta Valley, may 15 – Napoleon and his French army —not including the field artillery and baggage trains— begins crossing the Alps. He selects the shortest route through the Great St. Benard Pass, june 2 – First smallpox vaccination is made in North America, at Trinity, Newfoundland. June 4 – Siege of Genoa, The French army is evacuated from Geona, masséna is allowed to march out with all the honours of war. A portion of his force joins General Louis-Gabriel Suchet and the rest is conveyed in British ships to Antibes, june 14 Battle of Marengo, Napoleon defeats the Austrian troops near Marengo, Italy. Assassination of French general Jean-Baptiste Kléber in Cairo by Syrian Kurdish Muslim student Suleiman al-Halabi, the British act is signed by King George III of the United Kingdom in August. July 10 – Fort William College is established by Lord Wellesley, British Governor-General of India, in Calcutta to promote Bengali, Hindi, september 4 – The French garrison in Valletta surrenders to British troops who had been called at the invitation of the Maltese. The islands of Malta and Gozo become the Malta Protectorate, October – Volcanic eruption of Mount Guntur in West Java. September 30 – The Convention of 1800, or Treaty of Mortefontaine, is signed between France and the United States of America, ending the Quasi-War, October 1 – Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain returns Louisiana to France in return for the Tuscany area of Italy. October 7 – French privateer Robert Surcouf leads the 150-man crew of his corvette Confiance to capture the 40-gun, november 1 U. S. President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion. Middlebury College is granted its charter by the Vermont General Assembly, november 17 – The United States Congress holds its first Washington, D. C. session1800 – Napoleon crosses the Alps.
8. Grasse – Grasse is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department, on the French Riviera. The town is considered the capital of perfume. It obtained two flowers in the Concours des villes et villages fleuris contest and was made Ville dArt et dHistoire, three perfume factories offer daily tours and demonstrations, which draw in many of the regions visitors. In addition to the perfumeries, Grasses other main attraction is the Cathedral, dedicated to Notre Dame du Puy, in the interior, are three works by Rubens and one by Jean-Honoré Fragonard, a French painter native of the town. Other sights include, Saracen Tower, standing at 30m, the first festival was on August 3-4,1946. Decorated floats drive through the town, with women in skimpy costumes on board. Garlands of jasmine decorate the center, and the fire department fills a fire truck with jasmine-infused water to spray on the crowds. There are also fireworks, free parties, folk music groups, there is also an annual international exhibition of roses held in May each year. The Gare de Grasse railway station offers connections with Cannes, Nice, Grasse is the centre of the French perfume industry and is known as the worlds perfume capital. Many noses are trained or have spent time in Grasse to distinguish over 2,000 kinds of scent, Grasse produces over two-thirds of Frances natural aromas. This industry turns over more than 600 million euros a year, Grasses particular microclimate encouraged the flower farming industry. It is warm and sufficiently inland to be sheltered from the sea air, there is an abundance of water, thanks to its situation in the hills and the 1860 construction of the Siagne canal for irrigation purposes. The town is 350 m above sea level and 20 km from the Coast, jasmine, a key ingredient of many perfumes, was brought to southern France by the Moors in the 16th century. Twenty-seven tonnes of jasmine are now harvested in Grasse annually, there are numerous old parfumeries in Grasse, such as Galimard, Molinard and Fragonard, each with tours and a museum. The trade in leather and tanning work developed during the twelfth century around the canal that runs through the city. This activity produced a strong unpleasant odor, at the time of the Renaissance perfume manufacturers began production of gloves, handbags and belt, to meet the new fashion from Italy with the entourage of Queen Catherine de Medici. The countryside around the city began to grow fields of flowers, in 1614, the king recognized the new corporation of glovers perfumers. In the middle of the century, the perfumery was experiencing a very important developmentGrasse – A general view of Grasse
9. Nice – Nice is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The urban area of Nice extends beyond the city limits. Nice is about 13 kilometres from the principality of Monaco, the city is nicknamed Nice la Belle, which means Nice the Beautiful, which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. The area of todays Nice contains Terra Amata, a site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength, for centuries it was a dominion of Savoy, and was then part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to Piedmont-Sardinia until its re-annexation by France in 1860. The citys main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais owes its name to visitors to the resort, for decades now, the picturesque Nicean surroundings have attracted not only those in search of relaxation, but also those seeking inspiration. The clear air and soft light have particularly appealed to some of Western cultures most outstanding painters, such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Their work is commemorated in many of the museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse. Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities and it also has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the capital city of the County of Nice. Nice was probably founded around 350 BC by the Greeks of Massalia, the ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice. In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens, but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, during the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, during the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa. The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town, the landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis. The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill, another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the area was also defended by wallsNice – Nice Port
10. Provence – The largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region into the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana and it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence until 1481, when it became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity. The coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dated to 1 to 1.05 million years BC were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco. The Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate, with the arrival, at the beginning of the Paleolithic period, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than it is today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped 100 to 150 metres lower than sea level. The cave dwellings of the inhabitants of Provence were regularly inundated by the rising sea or left far from the sea. The changes in the sea led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille, the entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, seals, auks, horses and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC. The end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other easily hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits, snails, since they were settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by the pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery to be made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east and they were farmers and warriors, and gradually displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands. They were followed in about 2500 BC by another wave of people, also farmers, known as the Courronniens, traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern day Liguria and they were of uncertain origin, they may have been the descendants of the indigenous neolithic peoplesProvence – The historical province of Provence (orange) within the modern region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeast France
11. Anthony Burgess – John Anthony Burgess Wilson, FRSL – who published under the pen name Anthony Burgess – was an English writer and composer. From relatively modest beginnings in a Catholic family in Manchester, he became one of the best known English literary figures of the latter half of the twentieth century. Although Burgess was predominantly a comic writer, his dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange remains his best known novel, in 1971 it was adapted into a highly controversial film by Stanley Kubrick, which Burgess said was chiefly responsible for the popularity of the book. Burgess produced numerous other novels, including the Enderby quartet, and Earthly Powers and he wrote librettos and screenplays, including for the 1977 TV mini-series Jesus of Nazareth. He worked as a critic for several publications, including The Observer and The Guardian. A versatile linguist, Burgess lectured in phonetics, and translated Cyrano de Bergerac, Oedipus Rex, Burgess also composed over 250 musical works, he sometimes claimed to consider himself as much a composer as an author, although he enjoyed considerably more success in writing. Burgess was born at 91 Carisbrook Street in Harpurhey, a suburb of Manchester, to Catholic parents, Joseph and he was known in childhood as Jack, Little Jack, and Johnny Eagle. At his confirmation, the name Anthony was added and he became John Anthony Burgess Wilson and he began using the pen name Anthony Burgess upon the publication of his 1956 novel Time for a Tiger. His mother Elizabeth died at the age of 30 at home on 19 November 1918, the causes listed on her death certificate were influenza, acute pneumonia, and cardiac failure. His sister Muriel had died four days earlier on 15 November from influenza, broncho-pneumonia, Burgess believed he was resented by his father, Joseph Wilson, for having survived, when his mother and sister did not. After the death of his mother, Burgess was raised by his aunt, Ann Bromley. During this time, Burgesss father worked as a bookkeeper for a market by day. After his father married the landlady of this pub, Margaret Dwyer, in 1922, by 1924 the couple had established a tobacconist and off-licence business with four properties. On 18 April 1938, Joseph Wilson died from cardiac failure, pleurisy, Burgess stepmother died of a heart attack in 1940. Burgess has said of his largely solitary childhood, I was either distractedly persecuted or ignored, ragged boys in gangs would pounce on the well-dressed like myself. He attended St. Edmunds Elementary School before moving on to Bishop Bilsborrow Memorial Elementary School and he later reflected, When I went to school I was able to read. At the Manchester elementary school I attended, most of the children could not read, a little apart, rather different from the rest. Good grades resulted in a place at Xaverian College, as a young child he did not care about music, until he heard on his home-built radio a quite incredible flute solo, which he characterised as sinuous, exotic, erotic, and became spellboundAnthony Burgess – Anthony Burgess in 1986
12. Nikos Kazantzakis – Nikos Kazantzakis was a Greek writer, celebrated for his novels, which include Zorba the Greek, Christ Recrucified, Captain Michalis, and The Last Temptation of Christ. He also wrote plays, travel books, memoirs and philosophical essays such as The Saviors of God, universally recognised as a giant of modern Greek literature, Kazantzakis was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in nine different years. His fame was spread in the English speaking world by cinematic adaptations of Zorba the Greek. When Kazantzakis was born in 1883 in Heraklion, Crete had not yet joined the modern Greek state, from 1902 to 1906 Kazantzakis studied law at the University of Athens, his 1906 Juris Doctor thesis title was Ο Φρειδερίκος Νίτσε εν τη φιλοσοφία του δικαίου και της πολιτείας. Then he went to the Sorbonne in 1907 to study philosophy, there he fell under the influence of Henri Bergson. His 1909 doctoral dissertation at the Sorbonne was a version of his 1906 dissertation under the title Friedrich Nietzsche dans la philosophie du droit et de la cité. Upon his return to Greece, he began translating works of philosophy, in 1914 he met Angelos Sikelianos. Together they travelled for two years in places where Greek Orthodox Christian culture flourished, largely influenced by the enthusiastic nationalism of Sikelianos, Kazantzakis married Galatea Alexiou in 1911, they divorced in 1926. He married Eleni Samiou in 1945, between 1922 and his death in 1957, he sojourned in Paris and Berlin, Italy, Russia, Spain, and then later in Cyprus, Aegina, Egypt, Mount Sinai, Czechoslovakia, Nice, China, and Japan. While in Berlin, where the situation was explosive, Kazantzakis discovered communism. He never became a committed communist, but visited the Soviet Union and stayed with the Left Opposition politician and he witnessed the rise of Joseph Stalin, and became disillusioned with Soviet-style communism. Around this time, his earlier nationalist beliefs were gradually replaced by a more universalist ideology, in 1945, he became the leader of a small party on the non-communist left, and entered the Greek government as Minister without Portfolio. He resigned this post the following year, in 1946, The Society of Greek Writers recommended that Kazantzakis and Angelos Sikelianos be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1957, he lost the Prize to Albert Camus by one vote, Camus later said that Kazantzakis deserved the honour a hundred times more than himself. In total Kazantzakis was nominated in nine different years, late in 1957, even though suffering from leukemia, he set out on one last trip to China and Japan. Falling ill on his flight, he was transferred to Freiburg, Germany. He is buried on the surrounding the city of Heraklion near the Chania Gate. His epitaph reads I hope for nothing, the 50th anniversary of the death of Nikos Kazantzakis was selected as main motif for a high-value euro collectors coin, the €10 Greek Nikos Kazantzakis commemorative coin, minted in 2007Nikos Kazantzakis – Nikos Kazantzakis
13. Prince – A prince is a male ruler, monarch, or member of a monarchs or former monarchs family. Prince is also a title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess, the English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus + capio, meaning the chief, most distinguished, ruler, prince. The Latin word prīnceps, became the title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire. Emperor Augustus established the position of monarch on the basis of principate. The term may be used of persons in various cultures. These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, in medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories, especially in Italy, Germany, and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, prince is used of any and all rulers and this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Niccolò Machiavellis famous work, Il Principe. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial and this is attested in some surviving styles for e. g. British earls, marquesses, and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high, in parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the familys hereditary titles. Gradual substitution of the title of Prinz for the title of Fürst occurred. Both Prinz and Fürst are translated into English as prince, but they not only different. This distinction had evolved before the 18th century for dynasties headed by a Fürst in Germany, note that the princely title was used as a prefix to his Christian name, which also became customary. Cadets of Frances other princes étrangers affected similar usage under the Bourbon kings, the post-medieval rank of gefürsteter Graf embraced but elevated the German equivalent of the intermediate French, English and Spanish nobles. By the 19th century, cadets of a Fürst would become known as Prinzen, the husband of a queen regnant is usually titled prince consort or simply prince, whereas the wives of male monarchs take the female equivalent of their husbands title. In Brazil, Portugal and Spain, however, the husband of a monarch was accorded the masculine equivalent of her title. To complicate matters, the style His/Her Highness, a prefix often accompanying the title of a dynastic prince, although the arrangement set out above is the one that is most commonly understood, there are also different systems. Depending on country, epoch, and translation, other usages of prince are possible, foreign-language titles such as Italian principe, French prince, German Fürst and Prinz, Russian knyaz, etc. are usually translated as prince in EnglishPrince – Cicero attacks Catiline in the Senate of the Roman Republic.
14. John Coltrane – John William Coltrane, also known as Trane, was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Working in the bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career and he led at least fifty recording sessions during his career, and appeared as a sideman on many albums by other musicians, including trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist Thelonious Monk. As his career progressed, Coltrane and his music took on a spiritual dimension. Coltrane influenced innumerable musicians, and remains one of the most significant saxophonists in music history and he received many posthumous awards and recognitions, including canonization by the African Orthodox Church as Saint John William Coltrane and a special Pulitzer Prize in 2007. His second wife was pianist Alice Coltrane and their son Ravi Coltrane is also a saxophonist, Coltrane was born in his parents apartment at 200 Hamlet Avenue, Hamlet, North Carolina on September 23,1926. His father was John R. Coltrane and his mother was Alice Blair and he grew up in High Point, North Carolina, attending William Penn High School. Beginning in December 1938 Coltranes aunt, grandparents, and father all died within a few months of one another, leaving John to be raised by his mother, in June 1943 he moved to Philadelphia. In September of that year his mother bought him his first saxophone, Coltrane played the clarinet and the alto horn in a community band before taking up the alto saxophone during high school. He had his first professional gigs in early to mid-1945 – a cocktail lounge trio, with piano and guitar. To avoid being drafted by the Army, Coltrane enlisted in the Navy on August 6,1945, by the time he got to Hawaii, in late 1945, the Navy was already rapidly downsizing. As the Melody Masters was a band, however, Coltrane was treated merely as a guest performer to avoid alerting superior officers of his participation in the band. He continued to other duties when not playing with the band, including kitchen. By the end of his service, he had assumed a role in the band. His first recordings, a session in Hawaii with Navy musicians. Coltrane played alto saxophone on a selection of standards and bebop tunes. In Philadelphia after the war, he studied theory with guitarist and composer Dennis Sandole. Originally an altoist, in 1947 Coltrane also began playing saxophone with the Eddie Vinson Band. Coltrane later referred to point in his life as a time when a wider area of listening opened up for meJohn Coltrane – Coltrane in 1963
15. 1938 FIFA World Cup – The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938. Italy retained the championship, beating Hungary 4–2 in the final, France was chosen as hosts by FIFA in Berlin on August 13,1936. France defeated Argentina and Germany in the first round of voting, the decision caused outrage in South America where it was believed that the venue would alternate between the two continents, instead, it was the second tournament in a row to be played in Europe. This was the last World Cup to be staged before the outbreak of the Second World War and it was the first time that the hosts and the title holders qualified automatically. Title holders were given an entry into the World Cup until 2006 when this was abolished. Of the 14 remaining places, eleven were allocated to Europe, as a result, only three non-European nations took part, Brazil, Cuba and the Dutch East Indies. This is the smallest ever number of teams from outside the host continent to compete at a FIFA World Cup, Austria qualified for the World Cup, but after qualification was complete, the Anschluss united Austria with Germany. Austria subsequently withdrew from the tournament, with some Austrian players joining the German squad and this tournament saw the first, and as of 2016 the only, participation in a World Cup tournament from Cuba and the Dutch East Indies. It also saw the World Cup debuts of Poland and Norway, Poland and the Netherlands would not reappear at a finals tournament until 1974, while Norway would not qualify for another World Cup finals until 1994. A unified Germany team would not appear again until 1994, the knockout format from 1934 was retained. If a match was tied after 90 minutes, then 30 minutes of time were played. If the score was tied after extra time, the match would be replayed. This was the last of the two World Cup tournaments that used a knockout format. Germany, France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Cuba and Brazil were seeded for draw taking place in Paris, five of the seven first round matches required extra time to break the deadlock, two games still went to a replay. In one replay, Cuba advanced to the round at the expense of Romania. In the other replay, Germany, which had led 1–0 in the first game against Switzerland, led 2–0 and this remains, as of 2014, the only time in World Cup history in which Germany failed to advance to the final eight. Sweden advanced directly to the quarter-finals as a result of Austrias withdrawal, the hosts, France, were beaten by the holders, Italy, and Switzerland were seen off by Hungary. Czechoslovakia took Brazil to extra time in a notoriously feisty match in Bordeaux before succumbing in a replay and this was the last ever match to be replayed in a World Cup, with all winners of replay matches in 1938 having been eliminated in the next round1938 FIFA World Cup – Official poster
16. The Big Blue – The Big Blue is a 1988 English-language film in the French Cinéma du look visual style, made by French director Luc Besson. President of France, Jacques Chirac, referred to the film in describing Mayol, after his death in 2001, the story was heavily adapted for cinema — in real life Mayol lived from 1927 to 2001 and Maiorca retired from diving to politics in the 1980s. Two children, Jacques Mayol and Enzo Molinari, have grown up on the Greek island of Amorgos in the 1960s and they challenge each other to collect a coin on the sea floor and Jacques loses. Later Jacques father — who harvests shellfish from the using a pump-supplied air hose. His breathing apparatus and rope gets caught and punctured by rocks on the reef and weighed down by water, Jacques and Enzo can do nothing but watch in horror as he is killed. By the 1980s, both are well known freedivers, swimmers who can remain underwater for great times and at great depths, Enzo is on Sicily now, where he rescues a trapped diver from a shipwreck. Insurance broker Johana Baker visits the station for work purposes and is introduced to Jacques and she secretly falls in love with him. When she hears that Jacques will be at the World Diving Championships in Taormina, Sicily, she fabricates an insurance problem that requires her presence there and she and Jacques fall in love. However none of them realize the extent of Jaques allurement with the depths, Jacques beats Enzo by 3 feet at this, their first competition and Enzo offers them a glass dolphin as a gift, and a tape measure to show the small difference between Jacques and Enzo’s records. Johana goes back home to New York but is fired after her deception is discovered, she leaves New York and begins to live with Jacques. She hears the story that if one truly loves the sea, then a mermaid will appear at the depths of the sea. At the next World Diving Championships, Enzo beats Jacques record, the depths at which the divers are competing enter new territory and the dive doctor suggests they should cease competing, but the divers decide to continue. Back at the competition, other divers attempt to break Enzo’s new record, Jacques then attempts his next dive and reaches 400 ft breaking Enzos world record. Angered by this, Enzo prepares to break Jacques new world record, Enzo dismisses the advice and attempts the dive anyway, but is unable to make his way back to the surface. Jacques dives down to rescue him, Enzo, dying, tells Jacques that the doctor was right and also that it is better down there, and begs Jacques to help him back down to the depths, where he belongs. Jacques is grief-stricken and refuses, but after Enzo dies in his arms, finally honors his dying wish and takes Enzos body back down to 400feet, leaving him to drift to the ocean floor. Johana, who has just discovered she is pregnant, returns to check up on Jacques in the middle of the night, but finds him lying awake yet unresponsive in his bed with bloody ears and a bloody nose. Johana attempts to him, but Jacques begins to get up and walk to the empty diving boatThe Big Blue – Theatrical poster
17. Graham Greene – Henry Graham Greene OM CH, better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by some as one of the great writers of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquired an early in his lifetime as a major writer. He was shortlisted, in 1966 and 1967, for the Nobel Prize for Literature, through 67 years of writings, which included over 25 novels, he explored the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world, often through a Catholic perspective. Greene was born in Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire into a large, influential family that included the owners of the Greene King Brewery and he later boarded at Berkhamsted School in Hertfordshire, where his father taught and became headmaster. Unhappy at the school, he attempted several times. He went up to Balliol College, Oxford, to study history, after graduating, Greene worked first as a private tutor and then as a journalist – first on the Nottingham Journal and then as a sub-editor on The Times. He converted to Catholicism in 1926 after meeting his future wife, later in life he took to calling himself a Catholic agnostic, or even at times a Catholic atheist. He published his first novel, The Man Within, in 1929 and he supplemented his novelists income with freelance journalism, and book and film reviews. His 1937 film review of Wee Willie Winkie, commented on the sexuality of the nine-year-old star and this provoked Twentieth Century Fox to sue, prompting Greene to live in Mexico until after the trial was over. While in Mexico, Greene developed the ideas for The Power, Greene had a history of depression, which had a profound effect on his writing and personal life. In a letter to his wife, Vivien, he told her that he had a character profoundly antagonistic to ordinary life, and that unfortunately. William Golding described Greene as the chronicler of twentieth-century mans consciousness. He died in 1991, at age 86, of leukaemia, Henry Graham Greene was born in 1904 in St. John’s House, a boarding house of Berkhamsted School, Hertfordshire, where his father was housemaster. He was the fourth of six children, his brother, Hugh, became Director-General of the BBC, and his elder brother, Raymond. Charles Greene was second master at Berkhamsted School, where the headmaster was Dr Thomas Fry, another cousin was the right-wing pacifist Ben Greene, whose politics led to his internment during World War II. In his childhood, Greene spent his summers with his uncle, Sir William, in Greenes description of his childhood, he describes his learning to read there, It was at Harston I found quite suddenly I could read — the book was Dixon Brett, Detective. Graham also attended the school as a boarder, bullied and profoundly depressed, he made several suicide attempts, including, as he wrote in his autobiography, by Russian roulette and by taking aspirin before going swimming in the school pool. In 1920, aged 16, in what was a step for the time, he was sent for psychoanalysis for six months in LondonGraham Greene – Graham Greene
18. Eilat – Eilat is Israels southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba. The citys beaches, coral reef, nightlife and desert landscapes make it a destination for domestic. A concerted effort by the Israeli Government to populate Elat began in 1955, Eilats arid desert climate and low humidity are moderated by proximity to a warm sea. Temperatures often exceed 40 °C in summer, and 21 °C in winter, Eilat averages 360 sunny days a year. With an annual rainfall of 28 millimetres and summer temperatures of 40 °C and higher, water resources. The main elements that influenced the history were the copper resources and other minerals, the ancient international roads that crossed the area. These resulted in a settlement density that defies the environmental conditions, like numerous other localities, Eilat is mentioned in the Bible both in singular and plural form. The original settlement was probably at the tip of the Gulf of Eilat. Ancient Egyptian records also document the extensive and lucrative mining operations, Eilat is mentioned in antiquity as a major trading partner with Elim, Thebes Red Sea Port, as early as the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt. In antiquity Eilat bordered the states of Edom, Midian and the territory of the Rephidim. Eilat is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Exodus, the first six stations of the Exodus are in Egypt. The 7th is the crossing of the Red Sea and the 9th–13th are in and around Eilat, after the exodus from Egypt, station 12 refers to a dozen campsites in and around Timna in Modern Israel near Eilat. When King David conquered Edom, which up to then had been a border of Edom and Midian, he took over Eilat. The commercial port city and copper based industrial center were maintained by Egypt until reportedly rebuilt by Solomon at a known as Ezion-Geber. In 2 Kings 14, 21–22 All the people of Judah took Uzziah, who was sixteen years old and he rebuilt Elath, and restored it to Judah, after his fathers death. And again in 2 Kings 16,6, At that time the king of Edom recovered Elath for Edom and it was a prosperous Judean trading port from the 9th through 7th centuries BCE. Naʾaman, Nadav. During the Roman period a road was built to link the area with the Nabataean city of Petra, in the writings of medieval Muslim scholars, such as Al-Waqidi, it is told that Muhammad made a treaty with Eilats population, Jews and Christians. In the treaty, Muhammad offered protection to the Jews and the Christians, preserving their self-rule over the city, another reference to the Eilat in Islamic texts is believed to appear in the Quran, sura 7, 163–169Eilat – Evening view of Eilat marina
19. The Razor's Edge – The Razors Edge is a novel by W. Somerset Maugham. The book was first published in 1944 and it tells the story of Larry Darrell, an American pilot traumatised by his experiences in World War I, who sets off in search of some transcendent meaning in his life. The story begins through the eyes of Larrys friends and acquaintances as they witness his personality change after the War and his rejection of conventional life and search for meaningful experience allows him to thrive while the more materialistic characters suffer reversals of fortune. The book was adapted into film, first in 1946 starring Tyrone Power and Gene Tierney, and Herbert Marshall as Maugham and Anne Baxter as Sophie. Maugham begins by characterizing his story as not really a novel and he includes himself as a minor character, a writer who drifts in and out of the lives of the major players. Larry Darrells lifestyle is contrasted throughout the book with that of his fiances uncle, Elliott Templeton, an American expatriate living in Paris and a shallow and unrepentant yet generous snob. For example, while Templetons Roman Catholicism embraces the hierarchical trappings of the Church, Larrys proclivities tend towards the 13th-century Flemish mystic and saint John of Ruysbroeck. He wants to delay their marriage and refuses to take up a job as an offered to him by Henry Maturin. Meanwhile, Larrys childhood friend, Sophie, settles into a marriage, only later tragically losing her husband. Larry moves to Paris and immerses himself in study and bohemian life, after two years of this loafing, Isabel visits and Larry asks her to join his life of wandering and searching, living in Paris and travelling with little money. She cannot accept his vision of life and breaks their engagement to go back to Chicago, there she marries the millionaire Gray, who provides her a rich family life. Meanwhile, Larry begins a sojourn through Europe, taking a job at a mine in Lens, France. Kostis influence encourages Larry to look toward things spiritual for his answers rather than in books, Larry and Kosti leave the coal mine and travel together for a time before parting ways. Larry then meets a Benedictine monk named Father Ensheim in Bonn, after spending several months with the Benedictines and being unable to reconcile their conception of God with his own, Larry takes a job on an ocean liner and finds himself in Bombay. Larry has significant spiritual adventures in India and comes back to Paris, however, I should add that except for this conversation, I would perhaps not have thought it worthwhile to write this book. The 1929 stock market crash has ruined Gray, and he, Gray is often incapacitated with agonising migraines due to a general nervous collapse. Larry is able to him using an Indian form of hypnotic suggestion. Sophie has also drifted to the French capital, where her friends find her reduced to alcohol, opium, Larry first sets out to save her and then decides to marry her, a plan that displeases Isabel, who is still in love with himThe Razor's Edge – Cover of 1st edition
20. Alpes-Maritimes – Alpes-Maritimes is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in the extreme southeast corner of France. The inhabitants of the department are called Maralpins, but are referred to as Azuréens. The Alpes-Maritimes department is surrounded by the departments of Var in the southwest, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence in the north-west, Italy, and it surrounds the Principality of Monaco on the west, north, and east. The highest point of the department is the Cime du Gélas on the Franco-Italian border which dominates the Vallée des Merveilles further east, in fact the summit of Monte Argentera is certainly higher at 3297 m above sea level but it is located in Italian territory. There is also Mount Mounier which dominates the south of the vast Dôme de Barrot which is formed of a mass of more than 900 m thick red mudstones deeply indented by the gorges of Daluis and Cians. Except in winter, four passes allow passage to the north of the Mercantour/Argentera mountain range whose imposing 62 km long barrier covered in snow which is visible from the coast. From the west the Route des Grandes Alpes enters the Cayolle Pass first on the way to the Alps, then the route follows the Col de la Bonette - the highest pass in Europe at 2715 m - to connect to the valley of the Tinée then the Ubaye. Further east, the Lombard pass above Isola 2000 allows access to the shrine of Saint-Anne de Vinadio in Italy, finally, at its eastern end, the Col de Tende links with Cuneo in Italy. The rivers in order are, It is the climate that made the Côte dAzur famous. The coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, towards the interior, especially in the north, a mountain climate. One of the attractions of the department is its level of sunshine,300 days per year, despite this the department is also the most stormy of France with an average of 70 to 110 thunderstorm days per year. Alpes-Maritimes is divided into 2 arrondissements, the Grasse and the Nice,27 cantons and 163 communes, in 2002 there were 14 intercommunalities. At its greatest extent in AD297, the province reached north to Digne, a first French département of Alpes-Maritimes existed in the same area from 1793 to 1814. Its boundaries differed from those of the department, however. In 1793 Alpes-Maritimes included Monaco and San Remo, but not Grasse which was part of the départment of Var. Sanremo, cantons, Sanremo, Bordighera, Dolceacqua, Pigna, Taggia, Triora, Puget-Théniers, cantons, Puget-Théniers, Beuil, Gilette, Guillaumes, Roquesteron, Saint-Étienne-de-Tinée and Villars-sur-Var. Its population in 1812 was 131,266, and its area was 322,674 hectares, the department was reconstituted in 1860 when the county of Nice was annexed by France. It included the county of Nice as well as the independent towns of Menton and RoquebruneAlpes-Maritimes – Nice & Côte d'Azur
21. Cannes – Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune of France located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, the city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, and for several conferences. On 3 November 2011 it also played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations, by the 2nd century BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna. Historians are unsure what the name means, the area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands. In 69 AD, it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Otho and Vitellius, in the 10th century, the town was known as Canua. The name may derive from canna, a reed, Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps where the city now stands, most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins Islands and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands. An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, the insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by then known as Cannes, one took a century to build. Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years, during the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary. They had many different purposes, at the end of the 19th century, henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise. His work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who built winter residences. At the end of the 19th century, several railways were completed, in Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue dAntibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs, an establishment was built for the rich winter clientele. This casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979, in the 20th century, new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Majestic, Martinez, and JW Marriott Cannes were built. The city was modernised with a centre, a post office. There were fewer British and German tourists after the First World War, winter tourism gave way to summer tourism and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructedCannes – The Promenade de la Croisette and the port
22. Jack L. Warner – Jack Leonard J. L. Warner, born Jacob Warner, in London, Ontario, was a Canadian-American film executive who was the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Warners career spanned some forty-five years, its duration surpassing that of any other of the seminal Hollywood studio moguls, as co-head of production at Warner Bros. Studios, he worked with his brother, Sam Warner, to procure the technology for the industrys first talking picture. After Sams death, Jack clashed with his older brothers, Harry. Although Warner was feared by many of his employees and inspired ridicule with his attempts at humor, he earned respect for his shrewd instincts. He recruited many of Warner Bros. top stars and promoted the social dramas for which the studio became known. Given to decisiveness, Warner once commented, If Im right fifty-one percent of the time, Throughout his career, he was viewed as a contradictory and enigmatic figure. Although he was a staunch Republican, Warner encouraged film projects that promoted the agenda of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal and he opposed European fascism and criticized Nazi Germany well before Americas involvement in World War II. Despite his controversial image, Warner remained a force in the motion picture industry until his retirement in the early 1970s. Jack Warner was born in London, Ontario, in 1892 and his parents were Jewish immigrants from Poland who spoke mainly Yiddish. Jack was the surviving son of Benjamin Warner a cobbler from Krasnosielc, Poland, and his wife. Following their marriage in 1876, the couple had three children in Poland, one of whom died at a young age, one of the surviving children was Jacks eldest brother, Hirsch. The Warner family had occupied a hostile world, where the night-riding of cossacks, the burning of houses, and the raping of women were part of lifes burden for the Jews of the shtetl. In 1888, in search of a future for his family and himself, Benjamin made his way to Hamburg, Germany. Pearl Warner and the two children joined him in Baltimore, Maryland, less than a year later. In Baltimore, the couple had five children, including Abraham and Sam Warner. Benjamin Warners decision to move to Canada in the early 1890s was inspired by a friends advice that he could make an excellent living bartering tin wares with trappers in exchange for furs and their sons Jack and David were born in Ontario. After two arduous years in Canada, Benjamin and Pearl Warner returned to Baltimore, bringing along their growing family, two more children, Sadie and Milton, were added to the household thereJack L. Warner – Portrait of Jack L.Warner in 1955
23. Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department – The following is a list of the 163 communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. Communauté dagglomération du Pôle Azur Provence, created in 2002, communauté dagglomération de la Riviera Française, created in 2002. Communauté urbaine de Nice-Côte dAzur, created in 2002, communauté dagglomération de Sophia Antipolis, created in 2002Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department – (CAP) Communauté d'agglomération du Pôle Azur Provence (seat: Grasse), created in 2002.
24. Sidney Bechet – Sidney Bechet was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, and composer. He was one of the first important soloists in jazz and was perhaps the first notable jazz saxophonist and his playing is characterized by forceful delivery, well-constructed improvisations, and a distinctive wide vibrato. Bechets erratic temperament hampered his career, however, and not until the late 1940s did he earn wide acclaim, Bechet was born in New Orleans in 1897 to a middle-class Creole of color family. His older brother Leonard Victor Bechet was a full-time dentist and a part-time trombonist, Sidney quickly learned to play several musical instruments kept around the house, mostly by teaching himself, he soon decided to specialize in clarinet. At the age of six, he started playing along with his brothers band at a birthday party. Later in his youth, Bechet studied with such renowned Creole clarinetists as Lorenzo Tio, Big Eye Louis Nelson Delisle, soon after, Bechet began to play in many New Orleans ensembles, using the improvisational techniques of the time. He performed in parades with Freddie Keppards celebrated brass band, the Olympia Orchestra, in 1911–12, Bechet performed with Bunk Johnson in the Eagle Band of New Orleans, and in 1913–14, with King Oliver in the Olympia Band. Bechet spent his childhood and adolescence in New Orleans, but from 1914 to 1917 he was touring and traveling, going as far north as Chicago, in the spring of 1919, Bechet traveled to New York City, where he joined Will Marion Cooks Syncopated Orchestra. Soon after, the orchestra traveled to Europe, almost immediately upon arrival, the group was warmly received, and Bechet was especially popular, attracting attention near and far. While in London, Bechet discovered the straight soprano saxophone and quickly developed a style quite unlike his warm and his saxophone sound could be described as emotional, reckless, and large. He often used a very broad vibrato, similar to what was common among some New Orleans clarinetists at the time, Bechet was convicted of assaulting a woman and was imprisoned in London from September 13 to 26,1922. He was deported to the United States, leaving Southampton on November 3, on July 30,1923, he began recording, it is some of his earliest surviving studio work. The session was led by Clarence Williams, a pianist and songwriter, better known at time for his music publishing. Bechet recorded Wild Cat Blues and Kansas City Man Blues, Wild Cat Blues is in a multithematic ragtime tradition, with four 16-bar themes, and Kansas City Man Blues is a 12-bar blues. He interpreted and played each uniquely, with outstanding creativity and innovation for the time, on September 15,1925, Bechet and other members of the Revue Nègre, including Josephine Baker, sailed to Europe, arriving at Cherbourg, France, on September 22. The revue opened at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, Paris, on October 2, Bechet toured Europe with various bands, reaching as far as Russia in mid-1926. In 1928, he led his own band at the famous Bricktops Club in Montmartre. Bechet was jailed for 11 months in Paris when a passerby was wounded during a shoot-outSidney Bechet – Bechet's childhood home in the 7th Ward of New Orleans
25. Cambrai – Cambrai is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river. A sub-prefecture of the department, Cambrai is a town which had 32,518 inhabitants in the Census of 2009 and it is in the heart of the urban unit of Cambrai which, with 47,138 inhabitants, ranks as 7th largest of the department. Its urban area, an extensive range, included 65,986 inhabitants in 2009. With Lille and the towns of the former Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin, towards the end of the Roman Empire, Cambrai replaced Bavay as the capital of the land of the Nervii. The bishopric had some limited power and depended on the Holy Roman Empire until annexation to France in 1678. Fénelon, nicknamed the Swan of Cambrai, was the most renowned of the archbishops, the fertile lands which surround it and the textile industry gave it prosperity in the Middle Ages, but in modern times it is less industrialised than its neighbours of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. Cambrai was the Duke of Wellingtons headquarters, for the British Army of Occupation, occupied and partly destroyed by the German army during World War I, Cambrai saw unfold in its vicinity the Battle of Cambrai where tanks were massively and successfully used for the first time. A second Battle of Cambrai took place between 8 and 10 October 1918 as part of the Hundred Days Offensive, World War II was followed by reconstructions and a rapidly developing economy and population, abruptly reversed by the 1973 oil crisis. Cambrai today is a city and, despite the past destruction. Cambrai is affirmed as the centre of Cambrésis. Its economic life is strengthened by its position on the local highway. The town of Cambrai is located in the south of the Nord Department, the regional capital of Lille is 52 kilometres away. Cambrai is not very far from several European capitals, Brussels is 108 kilometres, Paris is 160 kilometres, the city was born and developed on the right bank of the Scheldt river. Locally known as the Escaut, the river has its source in the department of Aisne, the Saint-Quentin canal, the Canal du Nord, the A1, A2 and A26 autoroutes all borrow all this passage between the basin of the Seine and the plains of the Nord department. The chalky subsoil allowed, as in medieval cities, the digging of a network of cellars, tunnels. The poor quality of the Cambrai chalk was reserved for use in the manufacture of lime or filling, for prestigious buildings, stone from the nearby villages of Noyelles-sur-Escaut, Rumilly or Marcoing was used. The city is bordered in its part, as well as to the north. Cambrai is built on the bank of the ScheldtCambrai – The bell tower of the town hall, where Martin and Martine (fr) mark the hours
26. Newport Beach, California – Newport Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, United States. Its population was 85,287 at the 2010 census, Newport Beach is also home to Newport Harbor. The citys median family income and property values consistently place high in national rankings, the Upper Bay of Newport is a canyon, which was carved by a stream in the Pleistocene period. The lower bay of Newport was formed later by sand that was brought along by ocean currents. Before settlers reached the coasts of California, the Newport area, Indian shells and relics can still be found today scattered throughout the area. Though, throughout the 1800s, settlers began to settle the area due to the availability of land, the State of California sold acre-plots of land for $1 a piece in the Newport area. James Irvine, after hearing the news, quickly traveled from his home in San Francisco to the San Joaquin Ranch. In 1905 city development increased when Pacific Electric Railway established a southern terminus in Newport connecting the beach with downtown Los Angeles, in 1906, the scattered settlements were incorporated as the City of Newport Beach. Settlements filled in on the Peninsula, West Newport, Newport Island, Balboa Island, in 1923 Corona del Mar was annexed and in 2002 Newport Coast, East Santa Ana Heights and San Joaquin Hills, were annexed. In 2008, after a battle with the city of Costa Mesa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 53.0 square miles. 23.8 square miles of it is land and 29.2 square miles of it is water. Areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Balboa Peninsula, Lido Peninsula, Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, and Santa Ana Heights, Newport Harbor is a semi-artificial harbor that was formed by dredging Newport Bay estuary during the early 1900s. Newport Harbor once supported maritime industries such as boatbuilding, shipbuilding, and commercial fishing and its shores are occupied mostly by private homes and private docks. With approximately 9,000 boats, Newport Harbor is one of the largest recreational boat harbors on the U. S. west coast and its a popular destination for all boating activities, including sailing, fishing, rowing, canoeing, kayaking, and paddleboarding. Newport Bay is divided by the Pacific Coast Highway bridge, which is too low for most sailboats, North of the bridge is referred to as Upper Newport Bay, or the Back Bay. South of the bridge is commonly called Lower Newport Bay, or Newport Harbor, however the Back Bay also has harbor facilities, especially the marina and launch ramp at The Dunes. The north end of the Newport Harbor channels around Lido Island have a number of business centers and were at one time used by the fishing fleets as their homeNewport Beach, California – Aerial view of Newport Beach in July 2014
27. Polis – Polis, plural poleis literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens, in modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as city-state. The term city-state, which originated in English, does not fully translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, the term polis, which in archaic Greece meant city, changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify state. Finally, with the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and other poleis as such, they often spoke instead of the Athenians, Lacedaemonians, Thebans and so on. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the polis in ancient Greece. The Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, the best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one that leads to the common good. The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, in Platos analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis, in The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society, mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the structure of an ideal polis. According to Plato, there are five main classes of any polis, producers, merchants, sailors/shipowners, retail traders. Along with the two principles and five classes, there are four virtues. The four virtues of a just city include, wisdom, courage, moderation, with all of these principles, classes, and virtues, it was believed that a just city would exist. Publication of state functions, laws, decrees, and major fiscal accounts were published, synoecism, conurbation, Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, and the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis. Many of a polis citizens lived in the suburbs or countryside, most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries, and finally génea. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, and bear arms, metics could not vote, be elected to office, bear arms, or serve in war. They otherwise had full personal and property rights, albeit subject to taxation, slaves, chattel in full possession of their owner, and with no privileges other than those that their owner would grant at willPolis – Acropolis of Athens, a noted polis of classical Greece.
28. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was a nickname, a reference to his Greek origin, El Greco was born in Crete, which was at that time part of the Republic of Venice, and the center of Post-Byzantine art. He trained and became a master within that tradition before traveling at age 26 to Venice, in 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style elements of Mannerism. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death, in Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Grecos dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries, El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, El Grecos father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, also Greek, El Grecos older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos, was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life in El Grecos Toledo home. El Greco received his training as an icon painter of the Cretan school. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a master, meaning he was already a master of the guild and presumably operating his own workshop. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, most scholars believe that the Theotokópoulos family was almost certainly Greek Orthodox, although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth. One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, and his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete, prevelakis goes even further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was ever a practicing Roman Catholic. Important for his biography, El Greco, still in Crete, painted his Dormition of the Virgin near the end of his Cretan period. Three other signed works of Doménicos are attributed to El Greco, in 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was already an enrolled master of the local guild, presumably in charge of his own workshop. He left for Venice a few later, and never returned to Crete. His Dormition of the Virgin, of before 1567 in tempera, the painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian Mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements, and incorporates stylistic elements of the Cretan School. It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567. Knowledge of El Grecos years in Italy is limited and this may mean he worked in Titians large studio, or notEl Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
29. Charles III of Spain – Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. While he was the son of Philip V of Spain, he was the eldest son of Philips second wife. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1734, as Duke of Parma, he conquered the kingdoms of Naples and of Sicily, and was crowned king on 3 July 1735, reigning as Charles VII of Naples and Charles V of Sicily until 1759. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Polish king Augustus III, Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years. Charles succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, after the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain who left no heirs. As King of Spain Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce and he also tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars. His previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable as King of Spain and he did not achieve complete control over the States finances, and was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses. Most of his reforms proved to be successful and his important legacy lives on to this day, historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III was probably the most successful European ruler of his generation. He had provided firm, consistent, intelligent leadership, personal life had won the respect of the people. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, and the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Minorca, in 1700, Charles father, originally a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V. For the remainder of his reign, he attempted to regain the ceded territories. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714, she proved a domineering consort. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid and he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers, the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, and Ferdinand. Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and she also sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was also childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de Medici, the birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia, in 1718, Alberoni also ordered the invasion of Sicily, which was also ruled by the House of SavoyCharles III of Spain – Charles III
30. Norman Wisdom – He was awarded the 1953 BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles following the release of his film Trouble in Store. Charlie Chaplin once referred to Wisdom as his favourite clown, Wisdom later forged a career on Broadway in New York and as a television actor, winning critical acclaim for his dramatic role of a dying cancer patient in the television play Going Gently in 1981. He toured Australia and South Africa, after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, a hospice was named in his honour. In 1995 he was given the Freedom of the City of London, the same year he received an OBE. Wisdom was knighted in 2000 and spent much of his life on the Isle of Man. His later appearances included roles in Last of the Summer Wine and Coronation Street and he died on 4 October 2010, at age 95. Norman Joseph Wisdom was born in the Marylebone district of London and his parents were Frederick, a chauffeur, and Maud Wisdom, a dressmaker who often worked for West End theatres, and had made a dress for Queen Mary. The couple married in Marylebone on 15 July 1912, Wisdom had an elder brother, Frederick Thomas Fred Wisdom. The family lived at 91 Fernhead Road, Maida Vale, London W9, Wisdom quipped, I was born in very sorry circumstances. Both of my parents were very sorry and he and his brother were raised in extreme poverty and were frequently hit by their father. After a period in a home in Deal, Kent, Wisdom ran away when he was 11. Having been kicked out of his home by his father and become homeless, in 1929 he walked to Cardiff, Wales and he later also worked as a coal miner, waiter and page boy. Wisdom first enlisted into the Kings Own Royal Regiment, but his mother had him discharged as he was under age and he later re-enlisted as a drummer boy in the 10th Royal Hussars of the British Army. In 1930 he was posted to Lucknow, in the United Provinces of British India, there he gained an education certificate, rode horses, became the flyweight boxing champion of the British Army in India and learned to play the trumpet and clarinet. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Wisdom was sent to work in a centre in a command bunker in London. Whilst performing a shadow boxing routine in the gym, Wisdom discovered he had a talent for entertainment. In 1940 aged 25, at a NAAFI entertainment night, during a routine, Wisdom stepped down from his position in the orchestra pit. Over the next few years, until he was demobilized in 1945, his routine included his characteristic singing, after Wisdom appeared at a charity concert at Cheltenham Town Hall, actor Rex Harrison came backstage and urged him to become a professional entertainerNorman Wisdom – Norman Wisdom, Peel, Isle of Man, 2005
31. Diamonds Are Forever (film) – Diamonds Are Forever is the seventh spy film in the James Bond series by Eon Productions, and the sixth and final Eon film to star Sean Connery as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film is based on Ian Flemings 1956 novel of the same name, Bond has to battle his nemesis for one last time, to stop the smuggling and stall Blofelds plan of destroying Washington, D. C. and extorting the world with nuclear supremacy. The producers were inspired by Goldfinger, eventually hiring that films director, Guy Hamilton, locations included Las Vegas, California, Amsterdam and Lufthansas hangar in Germany. Diamonds Are Forever was a success, but received criticism for its humorous camp tone. The film marked the appearance of the SPECTRE organization in Eons Bond films until the 2015 film of the same name. James Bond—Agent 007—pursues Ernst Stavro Blofeld out of revenge, hunting down SPECTRE operatives across the world and he eventually finds him at a facility where Blofeld look-alikes are being created through plastic surgery. Bond kills a test subject, and later the real Blofeld, disguised as professional smuggler and assassin Peter Franks, Bond travels to Amsterdam to meet contact Tiffany Case. The real Franks shows up on the way, but Bond intercepts and kills him, Case and Bond then go to Los Angeles, smuggling the diamonds inside Franks corpse. At the airport Bond meets his CIA ally Felix Leiter, then travels to Las Vegas, at a funeral home, Franks body is cremated and the diamonds are passed on to another smuggler, Shady Tree. Bond tells Leiter to ship him the real diamonds, Bond then goes to the Whyte House, a casino-hotel owned by the reclusive billionaire Willard Whyte, where Tree works as a stand-up comedian. Bond watches Trees act and afterwards goes to his room, where he discovers there that Tree has been killed by Wint and Kidd. At the craps table Bond meets the opportunistic Plenty OToole, and after gambling, gang members ambush them, throwing OToole out the window and into a pool. Bond spends the rest of the night with Tiffany Case, instructing her to retrieve the diamonds at the Circus Circus casino. Tiffany reneges on her deal to back with Bond and instead flees. However, seeing that OToole was killed after being mistaken for her and she drives Bond to the airport, where the diamonds are given to Whytes casino manager, Bert Saxby, who is followed to a remote facility. Bond enters the apparent destination of the diamonds, a laboratory owned by Whyte, where a satellite is being built by Professor Metz. Bond fakes Metz by telling him he is Klaus Hergersheimer, a technician he met in the facility and his cover is blown when he is seen by a technician, but evades the security guards by stealing a moon buggy and reunites with Tiffany. They are seen by the Las Vegas police, and assuming Bond is a saboteur and they soon engage in a car chase, but Bond manages to evade all the carsDiamonds Are Forever (film) – British cinema poster for Diamonds Are Forever, designed by Robert McGinnis
32. Georg Solti – Born in Budapest, he studied there with Béla Bartók, Leó Weiner and Ernő Dohnányi. In the 1930s, he was a répétiteur at the Hungarian State Opera and his career was interrupted by the rise of the Nazis, and being of Jewish background he fled the increasingly restrictive anti-semitic laws in 1938. After conducting a season of Russian ballet in London at the Royal Opera House he found refuge in Switzerland, prohibited from conducting there, he earned a living as a pianist. After the war, Solti was appointed director of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich in 1946. In 1952 he moved to the Frankfurt Opera, where he remained in charge for nine years and he took West German citizenship in 1953. In 1961 he became director of the Covent Garden Opera Company. During his ten-year tenure, he introduced changes that raised standards to the highest international levels, under his musical directorship the status of the company was recognised with the grant of the title the Royal Opera. He became a British citizen in 1972, in 1969 Solti became music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, a post he held for 22 years. He relinquished the position in 1991 and became the music director laureate. Known in his early years for the intensity of his music making and he recorded many works two or three times at various stages of his career, and was a prolific recording artist, making more than 250 recordings, including 45 complete opera sets. The most famous of his recordings is probably Deccas complete set of Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen, Soltis Ring has twice been voted the greatest recording ever made, in polls for Gramophone magazine in 1999 and the BBCs Music Magazine in 2012. Solti was repeatedly honoured by the industry with awards throughout his career. Solti also received the Academy’s 1995 Lifetime Achievement Award, Solti was born György Stern on Maros utca, in the Hegyvidék district of the Buda side of Budapest. He was the younger of the two children of Móricz Stern and his wife Teréz, née Rosenbaum, both of whom were Jewish, in the aftermath of the First World War it became the accepted practice in Hungary for citizens with Germanic surnames to adopt Hungarian ones. The right wing regime of Admiral Horthy enacted a series of Hungarianisation laws, Mor Stern, a self-employed merchant, felt no need to change his surname, but thought it prudent to change that of his children. He renamed them after Solt, a town in central Hungary. His sons given name, György, was acceptably Hungarian and was not changed, Solti described his father as a kind, sweet man who trusted everyone. He shouldnt have, but he did, jews in Hungary were tremendously patrioticGeorg Solti – Solti by Allan Warren, 1975
33. Paul Signac – Paul Victor Jules Signac was a French Neo-Impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the Pointillist style. Paul Signac was born in Paris on 11 November 1863 and he followed a course of training in architecture before deciding at the age of 18 to pursue a career as a painter after attending an exhibit of Monets work. He sailed around the coasts of Europe, painting the landscapes he encountered and he also painted a series of watercolors of French harbor cities in later years. In 1884 he met Claude Monet and Georges Seurat, many of Signacs paintings are of the French coast. He loved to paint the water and he left the capital each summer, to stay in the south of France in the village of Collioure or at St. Tropez, where he bought a house and invited his friends. Paul Signac, Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon and Georges Seurat were among the founders of the Société des Artistes Indépendants, the association began in Paris 29 July 1884 with the organization of massive exhibitions, with the device No jury nor awards. The purpose of Société des Artistes Indépendants—based on the principle of abolishing admission jury—is to allow the artists to present their works to public judgement with complete freedom, for the following three decades their annual exhibitions set the trends in art of the early 20th century. At the 1905 Salon des Indépendants, Henri Matisse exhibited the proto-Fauve painting Luxe, Signac purchased the work after the 1905 Salon des Indépendants. In 1908 Signac was elected president of the 24th Salon des Indépendants, in 1886 Signac met Vincent van Gogh in Paris. In 1887 the two regularly went to Asnières-sur-Seine together, where they painted such subjects as river landscapes. Initially, Van Gogh chiefly admired Signac’s loose painting technique, in March 1889, Signac visited Van Gogh at Arles. The next year he made a trip to Italy, seeing Genoa, Florence. In 1888, Signac discovered anarchist ideas by reading Elisee Reclus, Kropotkin and Jean Grave, with his friends Angrand Cross, Maximilien Luce and Camille Pissarro he contributed to Jean Grave’s paper Les Temps Nouveaux. His financial support was considerable, he sent regular cheques and made a gift of his works for five lotteries between 1895 and 1912, from his various ports of call, Signac brought back vibrant, colorful watercolors, sketched rapidly from nature. From these sketches, he painted large canvases that are carefully worked out in small, mosaic-like squares of color, quite different from the tiny. Signac himself experimented with various media, as well as oil paintings and watercolors he made etchings, lithographs, and many pen-and-ink sketches composed of small, laborious dots. The Neo-Impressionists influenced the next generation, Signac inspired Henri Matisse and André Derain in particular, as president of the Société des Artistes Indépendants from 1908 until his death, Signac encouraged younger artists by exhibiting the controversial works of the Fauves and the Cubists. Signac served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, in September 1913, Signac rented a house at Antibes, where he settled with Jeanne Selmersheim-Desgrange, who gave birth to their daughter Ginette on 2 October 1913Paul Signac – Paul Signac with his palette, ca. 1883
34. Keith Jarrett – Keith Jarrett is an American jazz and classical music pianist. Jarrett started his career with Art Blakey, moving on to play with Charles Lloyd, since the early 1970s he has enjoyed a great deal of success as a group leader and a solo performer in jazz, jazz fusion, and classical music. His improvisations draw from the traditions of jazz and other genres, especially Western classical music, gospel, blues, and ethnic folk music. In 2003, Jarrett received the Polar Music Prize, the first recipient not to share the prize with a co-recipient, in 2008, he was inducted into the Down Beat Hall of Fame in the magazines 73rd Annual Readers Poll. Keith Jarrett was born on May 8,1945, in Allentown, Pennsylvania, to a mother of Hungarian descent and he grew up in suburban Allentown with significant early exposure to music. Jarrett possesses absolute pitch, and he displayed musical talents as a young child. He began piano lessons just before his birthday, and at age five he appeared on a TV talent program hosted by the swing bandleader Paul Whiteman. Jarrett gave his first formal piano recital at the age of seven, playing works by composers including Mozart, Bach, Beethoven and Saint-Saëns, encouraged especially by his mother, Jarrett took intensive classical piano lessons with a series of teachers, including Eleanor Sokoloff of the Curtis Institute. In his teens, as a student at Emmaus High School in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, Jarrett learned jazz, in his early teens, he developed a strong interest in the contemporary jazz scene, a Dave Brubeck performance was an early inspiration. Following his graduation from Emmaus High School in 1963, Jarrett moved from Allentown to Boston where he attended the Berklee College of Music, after a year he moved to New York City where he played at the Village Vanguard. In New York, Art Blakey hired Jarrett to play with the Jazz Messengers, during a show with that group he was noticed by Jack DeJohnette who immediately recognized the unknown pianists talent and unstoppable flow of ideas. DeJohnette talked to Jarrett and soon recommended him to his own band leader, the Quartets tours across America and Europe, even to Moscow, made Jarrett a widely noticed musician in rock and jazz underground circles. It also laid the foundations of a musical bond with drummer Jack DeJohnette. The two would cooperate in many contexts during their later careers, in those years, Jarrett also began to record his own tracks as a leader of small informal groups, at first in a trio with Charlie Haden and Paul Motian. Not only does Jarrett barely touch the piano, but he plays all the instruments on what is essentially a folk-rock album. Another trio album with Haden and Motian, titled Somewhere Before, followed later in 1968, the Charles Lloyd Quartet with Jarrett, Ron McClure and DeJohnette came to an end in 1968, after the recording of Soundtrack, because of disputes over money as well as artistic differences. Jarrett was asked to join the Miles Davis group after the trumpeter heard him in a New York City club, after Corea left in 1970, Jarrett often played electric piano and organ simultaneously. Despite his growing dislike of amplified music and electric instruments within jazz, Jarrett continued with the out of respect for DavisKeith Jarrett – Jarrett, c. 1980
35. Hundred Days – The Hundred Days marked the period between Napoleons return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign, the phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king back to Paris on 8 July. Napoleon returned while the Congress of Vienna was sitting, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars pitted France against various coalitions of other European nations nearly continuously from 1792 onward. The overthrow and subsequent public execution of Louis XVI in France had greatly disturbed other European leaders, rather than leading to Frances defeat, the wars allowed the revolutionary regime to expand beyond its borders and create client republics. The success of the French forces made an out of their best commander. In 1799, Napoleon staged a successful coup détat and became First Consul of the new French Consulate, five years later, he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I. The rise of Napoleon troubled the other European powers as much as the revolutionary regime had. Despite the formation of new coalitions against him, Napoleons forces continued to conquer much of Europe, the tide of war began to turn after a disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812 that resulted in the loss of much of Napoleons army. The following year, during the War of the Sixth Coalition, Coalition forces defeated the French in the Battle of Leipzig, following its victory at Leipzig, the Coalition vowed to press on to Paris and depose Napoleon. In the last week of February 1814, Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher advanced on Paris, the Battle of Reims went to Napoleon, but this victory was followed by successive defeats from increasingly overwhelming odds. Coalition forces entered Paris after the Battle of Montmartre on 30 March 1814, on 6 April 1814, Napoleon abdicated his throne, leading to the accession of Louis XVIII and the first Bourbon Restoration a month later. The defeated Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, Napoleon spent only nine months and 21 days in uneasy retirement on Elba, watching events in France with great interest as the Congress of Vienna gradually gathered. He had been escorted to Elba by Sir Neil Campbell, who remained in there while performing other duties in Italy. Equally threatening was the situation in Europe which had been stressed and exhausted during the previous decades of near constant warfare. The conflicting demands of major powers were for a time so exorbitant as to bring the Powers at the Congress of Vienna to the verge of war with each other. Thus every scrap of news reaching remote Elba looked favourable to Napoleon to retake power as he reasoned the news of his return would cause a popular rising as he approached. So threatening were the symptoms that the royalists at Paris and the plenipotentiaries at Vienna talked of deporting him to the Azores or to Saint Helena, at the Congress of Vienna the various participating nations had very different and conflicting goals. Tsar Alexander of Russia had expected to absorb much of Poland and to leave a Polish puppet state, the renewed Prussian state demanded all of the Kingdom of SaxonyHundred Days – The journey of a modern hero, to the island of Elba. Print shows Napoleon seated backwards on a donkey on the road "to Elba" from Fontainebleau; he holds a broken sword in one hand and the donkey's tail in the other while two drummers follow him playing a farewell(?) march.
36. French Riviera – The Côte dAzur, often known in English as the French Riviera, is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco. There is no boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from the Italian border in the east to Saint-Tropez, Hyères, Toulon. This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas and it began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. In the summer, it played home to many members of the Rothschild family. After World War II, it became a popular tourist destination and convention site, many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region. Officially, the Côte dAzur is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents and its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060. The city is the center of a communauté urbaine – Nice-Côte dAzur – bringing together 24 communes, Nice is home to Nice Côte dAzur Airport, Frances third-busiest airport, which is on an area of partially reclaimed coastal land at the western end of the Promenade des Anglais. A second airport at Mandelieu was once the commercial airport. The A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road known as the Route nationale 7. Trains serve the region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in five. The French Riviera has a population of more than two million. The region has 35,000 students, of whom 25 percent are working toward a doctorate, the French Riviera is a major yachting and cruising area with several marinas along its coast. As a tourist center, French Riviera benefits from 310 to 330 days of sunshine per year,115 kilometres of coastline, the name Côte dAzur was given to the coast by the writer Stéphen Liégeard in his book, La Côte d’azur, published in December 1887. Liégeard was born in Dijon, in the French department of Côte-dOr, the term French Riviera is typical of English use. It was built by analogy with the term Italian Riviera, which extends east of the French Riviera. As early as the 19th century, the British referred to the region as the Riviera or the French Riviera, usually referring to the part of the coast. Originally, riviera is an Italian noun which means coastline, in Occitan and French, the only usual names are Còsta dAzur in Occitan and Côte dAzur in French. A name like French Riviera is unusual and sounds odd, it could work as a word-to-word translation of the British point of viewFrench Riviera – The lighthouse of Nice, on the French Riviera
37. Zelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Fitzgerald was a novelist, American socialite, and the wife of American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, she was noted for her beauty and high spirits and she and Scott became emblems of the Jazz Age, for which they are still celebrated. The immediate success of Scotts first novel This Side of Paradise brought them into contact with high society, Ernest Hemingway, whom Zelda disliked, blamed her for Scotts declining literary output, though her extensive diaries provided much material for his fiction. After being diagnosed with depression, she was increasingly confined to specialist clinics. Zelda died 7 years later in a fire at her hospital in Asheville, a 1970 biography by Nancy Milford was on the short list of contenders for the Pulitzer Prize. In 1992, Zelda was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame and her life was dramatized in the 2017 TV series Z, The Beginning of Everything. Born in Montgomery, Alabama, Zelda Sayre was the youngest of six children and her mother, Minerva Buckner Minnie Machen, named her after characters in two little-known stories, Jane Howards Zelda, A Tale of the Massachusetts Colony and Robert Edward Francillons Zeldas Fortune. The family was descended from settlers of Long Island, who had moved to Alabama before the Civil War. By the time of Zeldas birth, the Sayres were a prominent Southern family. S and her siblings were Anthony Dickinson Sayre, Jr. Marjorie Sayre, Rosalind Sayre and Clothilde Sayre. As a child, Zelda Sayre was extremely active and she danced, took ballet lessons and enjoyed the outdoors. In 1914, Sayre began attending Sidney Lanier High School and she was bright, but uninterested in her lessons. Her work in ballet continued into high school, where she had a social life. She drank, smoked and spent much of her time with boys, a newspaper article about one of her dance performances quoted her as saying that she cared only about boys and swimming. She developed an appetite for attention, actively seeking to flout convention—whether by dancing the Charleston, or by wearing a tight, flesh-colored bathing suit to fuel rumors that she swam nude. Her fathers reputation was something of a safety net, preventing her social ruin, consequently, Sayres antics were shocking to many of those around her, and she became—along with her childhood friend and future Hollywood starlet Tallulah Bankhead—a mainstay of Montgomery gossip. Her ethos was encapsulated beneath her high-school graduation photo, Why should all life be work, lets think only of today, and not worry about tomorrow. Zelda first met the future novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald in July 1918, when he had volunteered for the army, Scott began to call her daily, and came into Montgomery on his free days. He talked of his plans to be famous, and sent her a chapter of a book he was writing and he was so taken by Zelda that he redrafted the character of Rosalind Connage in This Side of Paradise to resemble herZelda Fitzgerald – Zelda Sayre at age 17
38. Frances Scott Fitzgerald – Frances Scott Scottie Fitzgerald was the only child of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald. She was a writer, a journalist, and a prominent member of the Democratic Party and she was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame in 1992. Fitzgerald was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, upon her birth, her mother supposedly remarked that she hoped Scottie would be a beautiful little fool. In 1936, Fitzgerald began attending the Ethel Walker School, a school in Connecticut. She attended Vassar and graduated in 1942, hoping that she would not repeat his academic failures, her father wrote letters to her urging her to take rigorous classes and work hard. Fitzgerald and her first husband, Samuel Jackson Jack Lanahan, a prominent Washington lawyer, were popular hosts in Washington in the 1950s and 1960s. During this period, she wrote musical comedies about the Washington social scene that were performed annually to benefit the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Washington and her show Onward and Upward with the Arts was considered for a Broadway run by director David Merrick. Fitzgerald had four children with her first husband, Thomas Addison Lanahan, Eleanor Ann Lanahan, Samuel Jackson Lanahan, Jr. and their eldest child, Thomas, known as Tim, committed suicide at age 27. Eleanor Bobbie Lanahan, an artist and writer, wrote a biography of her mother, Scottie, the Life of Frances Scott Fitzgerald Lanahan Smith. Fitzgeralds second marriage, to Grove Smith, ended in divorce in 1979, Scottie Fitzgerald lived the last years of her life in her mother Zeldas hometown of Montgomery, Alabama, and died there at age 64 in 1986. She is buried near her parents in Rockville, Maryland, the Scottie Fitzgerald Smith Papers, Vassar College Archives and Special Collections Library Frances Scott Fitzgerald at the Internet Movie DatabaseFrances Scott Fitzgerald – F. Scott Fitzgerald in 1921
39. Stephen Roche – Stephen Roche is an Irish former professional road racing cyclist. Roches rise coincided with that of fellow Irishman Sean Kelly, although one of the finest cyclists of his generation and admired for his pedalling style, he struggled with knee injuries and never contended in the Grand Tours post-1987. He had 58 professional career wins, all of these wins still stand, despite Roche having been accused by an Italian judge of taking EPO in the later part of his career. Soon after his arrival Roche won the amateur Paris–Roubaix, escaping with Dirk Demol, Roche was told by his directeur sportif that if he did not win he would be sent home to Ireland that day. He also finished on the podium at the early-season Paris – Ezy road race, however, a knee injury caused by a poorly fitted shoe plate led to a disappointing ride in Moscow, where he finished 45th. However, on return to France, August to October saw Roche win 19 races and that led to a contract with the Peugeot professional cycling team for 1981. Roche scored his first professional victory by beating Bernard Hinault in the Tour of Corsica, in total, his debut yielded 10 victories. In the 1983 Tour de France, Roche finished 13th and he finished the 1983 season with a medal in the world cycling championship at Alterheim in Zurich. In 1984, riding for La Redoute following contractual wrangles with Peugeot he repeated his Tour de Romandie win, won Nice-Alassio and he finished 25th in that years Tour de France. In 1985, Roche won the Critérium International, the Route du Sud and came second in Paris–Nice, in the 1985 Tour de France Roche won stage 18 to the Aubisque and finished on the podium in 3rd position,4 minutes and 29 seconds behind winner Bernard Hinault. In 1986 at an event with UK professional Tony Doyle at Paris-Bercy. This destroyed his 1986 season at new team Carrera–Inoxpran with little to other than second in a stage of the Giro. Roche finished the 1986 Tour de France 48th, 1h 32m behind Greg LeMond, the injury and then associated back problems recurred throughout his career and a series of operations appeared to only address direct or consequential symptoms of the core injury. Later non-surgical intervention under Dr. Hans-Wilhelm Müller-Wohlfahrt in Munich made some difference, by the end of his career Roche was unable to compete at his best because of back problem which led to a loss of power in the left leg. In retirement he described riding the 1993 Tour de France just for fun and he finished 13th, riding for Claudio Chiappucci). In 1987, Roche had a tremendous season, in the spring, he won the Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana, taking a third victory in the Tour de Romandie and fourth place plus a stage win in Paris–Nice. He also finished second in Liège–Bastogne–Liège, the closest he got to winning a professional Monument Classic and he blamed it on tactical naiveté and riding like an amateur. In the Giro dItalia, Roche took three stage wins en route to victory and became the first Giro victor from outside mainland EuropeStephen Roche – Roche at the 1993 Tour de France