1. Bugatti – Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their design beauty and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 55 sports car. No more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company released one last model in the 1950s, before eventually being purchased in the 1960s. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of exclusive cars. The name is owned by German automobile manufacturing Volkswagen. Using a chassis with a 2,000 wheelbase. The others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm respectively. The company also enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful car with over 2,000 wins. Bugattis swept through 1929.Bugatti – 1913 Bugatti 22, 3 seat Vinet
2. Art Deco – Art Deco, or Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in 1925. It combined modernist styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured expensive materials such as ebony and ivory and exquisite craftsmanship. Other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. After the Great Depression, the style became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, plastic. A more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s; it featured smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the United States, Russia, Latin America, Asia. The style came with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced by the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modernism and the International Style of architecture. The term décoratifs was first used in France in 1858; published in the Bulletin de la Société française de photographie. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra.Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
3. Aston Martin – Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The car is regarded as a cultural icon. In March 2007, a consortium of investors, led by David Richards, purchased 92 % of Aston Martin for # million, with Ford retaining a # 40 million stake. David Richards became chairman of Aston Martin. In December 2012, the private equity fund Investindustrial signed a deal to buy 37.5 % of Aston Martin, investing # 150 million as a capital increase. Aston Martin was founded by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The pair decided to make their own vehicles. The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini. They produced their first car in March 1915. Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford the Royal Army Service Corps. All machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company. After the war, the company was refounded at Abingdon Road, a new car designed to carry the Aston-Martin name. The company was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set speed endurance records at Brooklands.Aston Martin – Early Aston Martin marque
4. Brabham – Motor Racing Developments Ltd. commonly known as Brabham /ˈbræbəm/, was a British racing car manufacturer and Formula One racing team. Jack Brabham's 1966 Drivers' Championship remains the only such achievement using a car bearing the driver's own name. During this period, teams using Brabham cars won championships in Formula Two and Formula Three. Brabham cars also competed in the Indianapolis 500 and in Formula 5000 racing. The team won two more Formula One Drivers' Championships in the 1980s with Brazilian Nelson Piquet. British businessman Bernie Ecclestone owned Brabham during most of the 1970s and 1980s, later became responsible for administering the commercial aspects of Formula One. Ecclestone sold the team in 1988. Its last owner was the Middlebridge Group, a Japanese engineering firm. Midway through the 1992 season, the team collapsed financially as Middlebridge was unable to make repayments against loans provided by Landhurst Leasing. The case was investigated by the United Kingdom Serious Fraud Office. In 2009, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a German organisation to enter the 2010 Formula One season using the Brabham name. Brabham went in 1955 to further his racing career. In 1960, Brabham won the Formula One World Drivers' Championship in Cooper's mid-engined cars. Despite their innovation of putting the engine behind the driver, the Coopers and their Chief Designer Owen Maddock were generally resistant to developing their cars. Brabham played a significant role in developing "lowline" car, with input from his friend Tauranac.Brabham – Jack Brabham was 40 when he won the F1 drivers' title in a Brabham car.
6. Formula One – Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing, sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The "formula", designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, to which all participants' cars must conform. The F1 season consists of a series of races, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA. The races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 380 km/h with engines currently limited to a maximum of 15,000 RPM. The cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners. The formula has radically changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing became the most popular type internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the legal holder of the commercial rights. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s. The formula is a set of rules that all participants' cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II with the first non-championship races being held that year.Formula One – Juan Manuel Fangio 's 1951 title-winning Alfa Romeo 159
7. Monaco Grand Prix – The Monaco Grand Prix is a Formula One motor race held each year on the Circuit de Monaco. The circuit has been called "an exceptional location of prestige". In spite of the relatively low average speeds, it often involves the intervention of a safety car. It is the only Grand Prix that does not adhere to the FIA's mandated minimum race distance. The event was included in the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950. Graham Hill was known due to his five Monaco wins in the 1960s. Brazil's Ayrton Senna won more times than any other driver with six victories, winning five races consecutively between 1989 and 1993. Fernando Alonso is the only driver to have won the race in consecutive years for different constructors, winning for McLaren in 2007. Like European races, the Monaco Grand Prix predates the current World Championship. The principality's first Grand Prix was organised in 1929 by Antony Noghès, through the Automobile Club de Monaco. Antony's father, was founding president of the ACM, originally named Sport Vélocipédique Monégasque. The ACM made their first foray by holding the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1911. Their application was refused due to the lack of a major event held wholly within Monaco's boundaries. The rally could not be considered as it mostly used the roads of European countries. In order to attain national status, Noghès proposed the creation of an automobile Grand Prix in the streets of Monte Carlo.Monaco Grand Prix – William Grover-Williams at the 1929 Monaco Grand Prix
8. Ferrari – Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However the company's inception as an manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the world's most powerful brand according to Brand Finance. Fiat S.p.A. expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90 percent of Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari literally is usually used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought, fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers. A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari. The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a car -- the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition.Ferrari – 166MM Barchetta 212/225
9. Koenigsegg – Koenigsegg Automotive AB is a Swedish manufacturer of high-performance sports cars, based in Ängelholm, Skåne County, Sweden. The company was founded with the intention of producing a "world-class" supercar. Many years of prototyping led to the company's first street-legal production delivery in 2002. In 2006 Koenigsegg began production of the CCX, which uses an engine created in-house especially for that vehicle. The CCX is street-legal in most countries, including the US. In March 2009 the Koenigsegg CCXR was chosen by Forbes to be one of the most beautiful cars in history. In December 2010 the Koenigsegg Agera won the BBC Top Gear Hypercar of the Year Award. Koenigsegg also is working on a camless engine for the Regera. Koenigsegg produces most of the main systems, components needed for their cars in-house instead of relying on subcontractors. At the end of 2015 Koenigsegg had 97 employees in total with an engineering department of 25 engineers led by Christian von Koenigsegg himself. The initial design of the Koenigsegg CC was drawn by Christian von Koenigsegg. He then took his sketches to Industrial Designer David Crafoord in order for him to realise the sketches as a 1:5 scale model. David then laid his personal touch to the design brief and finished the model. This model was later scaled up in order to create the base plug for the initial Koenigsegg prototype, finished in 1996. New prototypes were built.Koenigsegg – Koenigsegg CCX
10. Le Mans – Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River. Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region. Its inhabitants are called Manceaux and Mancelles. Since 1923, the city has hosted the internationally famous 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance sports race. First mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, the Roman Vindinium was the capital of the Aulerci, a sub tribe of the Aedui. Le Mans Cenomanus. Their city, seized in 47 BC, was within the ancient Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. A 3rd-century amphitheatre is still visible. The thermae were demolished during the crisis of the third century when workers were mobilized to build the city's defensive walls. The ancient wall around Le Mans is one of the most complete circuits of Gallo-Roman city walls to survive. As the use of the French language replaced late Vulgar Latin in the area, Cenomanus, with dissimilation, became known as Celmans. Cel - was replaced by le, which means "the". Gregory of Tours mentions a sub-king Rigomer, killed by King Clovis I in his campaign to unite the Frankish territories. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror established an occupation. In 1069 the citizens of Maine expelled the Normans, resulting in Hugh V being proclaimed count of Maine.Le Mans – Top row: left, Le Mans 24-hr automobile race in June; right, Le Mans Justice Department Office; Middle row: View of Sarthe River and historic area, including the Palais of Comtes du Maine; Bottom row: left, Le Mans Tramway in Gambetta Street; center, Facade built in Le Mans Commerce Center; right, Saint Julien Cathedral
11. McLaren – McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but won the Indianapolis 500 and the Canadian-American Challenge Cup. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari. They are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 12 drivers' championships and eight constructors' championships. The team is a wholly owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972 and Johnny Rutherford in 1974 and 1976. The combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant -- together they won all but one race in 1988 -- Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, the two winning every constructors' title between 1994. However, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired in 2009 handing the former role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. After the team's worst season since 2004, Whitmarsh was ousted. McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. In 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, then Feltham, before settling on premises in Colnbrook.McLaren – The McLaren Racing team's founder Bruce McLaren
12. Porsche – Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is owned by Volkswagen AG, itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called "Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH" in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart. Initially, the company did not build any cars under its own name. One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, a "Volkswagen". This resulted in one of the most successful car designs of all time. The Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle. During Volkswagen production turned to the military version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen, 52,000 produced, Schwimmwagen, 15,584 produced. However, not all this work was wasted, as the Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche also developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the closing stages of the war, producing two prototypes. At the end of World War II in 1945, the factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, but not tried.Porsche – Panzerjäger Elefant, after the loss of the contract to the Tiger I Porsche recycled his design into a tank destroyer.
13. Williams Grand Prix Engineering – Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It is run by team Sir Frank Williams and automotive engineer Sir Patrick Head. The team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams' two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations: Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf-Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called "FW" then the FW being the initials of Frank Williams. Williams's first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the following year, Switzerland's Clay Regazzoni won Williams's first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. Williams won nine Constructors' Championships between 1980 and 1997. This stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones, Rosberg and Villeneuve actually defended their title while still with the team. Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most successfully with Renault: Williams won five of their nine constructors' titles with the French company. Williams F1 also has business interests beyond Formula One racing. It has established Williams Advanced Engineering and Williams Hybrid Power which take technology originally developed for Formula One and adapt it for commercial applications. In April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a technology centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfits, Frank Williams Racing Cars, failed to achieve the success he desired.Williams Grand Prix Engineering – The Williams FW06 from 1978, being raced at Silverstone in 2007.
14. 1929 – In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico. A British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, while the Museum of Modern Art opened in New York City. The Peruvian Air Force was created. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin adopted a policy of collectivization. The Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East. The centenary of Western Australia was celebrated. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, went into effect. In Europe, the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent. Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from American countries. The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin flew in 21 days. On August 16 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out over control of the Western Wall. In total, 116 Palestinians were killed.1929 – February 26: Grand Teton National Park.
15. Alfa Romeo – Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian car manufacturer, founded as A.L.F.A. ("Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili" on June 24, 1910, in Milan — and involved in car racing since 1911. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became a subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On June 1910, a new company was founded named A.L.F.A. initially still in partnership with Darracq. The non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi. A.L.F.A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto, which backed the Ing. In 1925, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which then had effective control. The company turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models. In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain until 1994.Alfa Romeo – A 1908 Darracq 8/10 HP assembled by Alfa Romeo's predecessor, Darracq Italiana
16. Tazio Nuvolari – Tazio Giorgio Nuvolari was an Italian racing driver. First he raced motorcycles and then he concentrated on single-seaters. Resident in Mantua, Nuvolari was nicknamed ` Nivola'. Ferdinand Porsche called him "the greatest driver of the past, the future." He started racing motorcycles at the age of 27 winning the 1925 350cc European Championship. After Alfa Romeo officially withdrew from Grand Prix racing Nuvolari drove for Scuderia Ferrari, who ran the Alfa Romeo cars semi-officially. It was the only time a non-German car won a European Championship race to 1939. Nuvolari raced an Auto Union in that year's Swiss Grand Prix. The only European race he never won was the Czechoslovakian Grand Prix. When Nuvolari resumed racing after the war Nuvolari was 54 and in poor health. Nuvolari died from a stroke. He was born in Castel d'Ario near Mantua on 16 November 1892 to his wife Elisa Zorzi. He obtained his license for racing in 1915 at the age of 23. Nuvolari also raced cars, winning the Coppa Verona trial in 1921. In 1925 Nuvolari became the 350 cc European champion by winning the European Grand Prix.Tazio Nuvolari – Tazio Nuvolari
17. Minardi – Minardi was an Italian automobile racing team and constructor founded in Faenza in 1979 by Giancarlo Minardi. It competed in the Formula One World Championship until 2005 with little success nevertheless acquiring a loyal following of fans. During its time in F1, the team scored a total of 38 championship points; 16 of these were earned by Pierluigi Martini. The team never achieved a finish, only managing three 4th-place finishes: Martini twice in 1991 and Christian Fittipaldi in 1993. Before Minardi's demise, the team was a particularly well-liked team within Formula One circles for its friendliness, accessibility, lack of corporate culture. They also resisted employing pay-drivers more than financially strapped teams. The Minardi family has a longstanding involvement in motorsport. Giancarlo Minardi's grandfather had a Fiat dealership in Faenza since 1927, while Giovanni Minardi, competed in his own cars in the late 1940s. After his death, Giancarlo took over the racing part of the business. Martini Sr. failed to start the race after an accident during the opening lap. The team then competed at the BRDC International Trophy in Silverstone where Martini finished 10th. The team first competed in the 1980 European Formula Two championship. Minardi enjoyed four moderately successful Formula Two seasons with a variety of young South American drivers, including Alessandro Nannini and Johnny Cecotto. The team's most notable result was a 1981 win at the Misano round by Michele Alboreto. During 1984, Minardi took the decision to enter the following year.Minardi – Minardi
18. Gallura – Gallura is a region in the northeast of the island of Sardinia, Italy. The Gallùra means "area located on high ground". It is situated between 40 ° 55' 20 "64 latitude north and 09 ° 29' 11 "76 east longitude. It is 11 kilometers from the French island of Corsica. Monte Limbara is the highest mountain. The nearby region called Logudoro. Its highest peak is Punta Balestrieri. In the past, Monte Limbara used to be a Carabinieri's barrack. It is used as a telecommunications center for the Italian Air Force and a heliport for the Servizio Antincendi. It is also the location of all the major TV relay stations of West Sardinia. Another small mountain is Monte Cruzitta. Even if it is not very high, it offers a very characteristic landscape. The climate is typical of the Mediterranean. The weather is clear. The human settlements in Gallura date back to 700.000 years ago, when the first populations crossed the strait between Tuscany and Sardinia.Gallura – map of Gallura
19. Alsace – Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace is located on the west bank of the upper Rhine adjacent to Germany and Switzerland. Until January 2016 Alsace was the smallest of 22 administrative regions in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est.. The political status of Alsace has been heavily influenced by historical decisions, strategic politics. The cultural capital as well as largest city of Alsace is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies. The name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain". An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began clearing and cultivating the land. It should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture.Alsace
20. Rallying – Rallying is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. Rallies may be won within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages. The term "rally", as a branch of motorsport, probably dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other events used the term. Levassor's time for the 1,178 course, running virtually without a break, was 48 hours and 48 minutes, an average speed of 24 km/h. The French government banned this style of event. Racing was going its separate way. Italy had been running road competitions since 1895, when a reliability trial was run to Asti and back. The country's true motor race was held in 1897 along the shore of Lake Maggiore, from Arona to Stresa and back. The first Alpine event was held through South Tyrol, which included the infamous Stelvio Pass. Seventy vehicles took part, the majority of them trade entries. On rest days and at lunch halts, the cars were shown to the public in exhibition halls. The Motor Cycling Club allowed cars to enter its runs from 1904. In 1924, the exercise was repeated as the Small Car Trials. In Germany, the Herkomer Trophy was first held in 1905, again in 1906.Rallying – Petter Solberg driving on gravel at the 2006 Cyprus Rally, a World Rally Championship event
21. Modena – Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The 360 Modena, was named after the town itself. Military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, partly housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace. The Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is also known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers both affluents of the Po River. Their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected by the Naviglio channel. The Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni. These are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall. This climate is described as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had an consecutive series of Communist mayors.Modena – Top left:Modena Cathedral and Ghirladinn Tower, Top right:Modena City Hall, Bottom left:Stoa of Portici del Collegio in Emilia Street, Bottom right:View of Modena Ducal Palace and San Domenico Cathedral from Dante Square
22. Ettore Bugatti – Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti was an Italian-born French automobile designer and manufacturer. He is remembered as the proprietor of the automobile manufacturing company Automobiles E. Bugatti. Ettore Bugatti was born with its origin in Milan, Italy. He was the elder son of Carlo Bugatti, his wife Teresa Lorioli. His younger brother was Rembrandt Bugatti. Luigia Bugatti, was the wife of the painter Giovanni Segantini. Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, was an architect and sculptor. Bugatti's design also caught the eye of Baron de Dietrich who offered the opportunity to come and design automobiles at his car factory in Niederbronn. From 1902 through 1904, De Dietrich built Type 5/6/7, identified at the time with the name "De Dietrich, Licence Bugatti". While working for De Dietrich Bugatti met Émile Mathis. He produced several prototypes, collaborating closely with the Cologne based Deutz company. In 1907, Bugatti was appointed Production Director with Deutz. Here he designed the Type 8/9. While employed at Deutz, Bugatti built the Type 10 in the basement of his home. In 1913, Bugatti designed a small car for the Type 19 Bébé.Ettore Bugatti – Ettore Bugatti (1932)
23. Wolfsburg – Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony. Located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig, it lies 230 km west of Berlin. In 2013, Wolfsburg ranked with a GDP per capita of $128,000 due to its thriving auto industry. Wolfsburg is famous as the location of the world's biggest car plant. Wolfsburg is one of the German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. In 1972, the population first exceeded 100,000. Wolfsburg is located at the Mittellandkanal. It is bordered by the districts of Gifhorn and Helmstedt. The annual precipitation is about 532 mm, quite low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all observation stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst record lower data. The month is October, most precipitation is measured in June where observation stations measure 1.9 times more precipitation than in October. Precipitation hardly is constantly distributed all over the year. Only 17% of observation stations measure lower annual deviation. The castle "Wolfsburg" was first mentioned in a document as the domicile of the noble lineage of Bartensleben. Originally a keep next to the Aller, it was protected by a moat some centuries later.Wolfsburg – Wolfsburg from Above
24. Louis II, Prince of Monaco – Louis II was Prince of Monaco from 27 June 1922 until 9 May 1949. Born Louis Honoré Charles Antoine Grimaldi in Baden-Baden, Germany, he was the only child of Prince Albert I of Monaco, Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton. His mother was his wife, Princess Marie Amélie Elizabeth Caroline of Baden. A strong-willed 19-year-old, disliked Monaco and was unhappy with her husband. Thereafter, the princely couple's marriage was annulled in 1880. Unhappy, living with distant father, soon as he was old enough, Louis went to France, enrolling in the Saint-Cyr Military Academy. Four years later, after graduating, he asked to be posted with the French Foreign Legion fighting the wars in the African colonies. While stationed in Algeria, he met Marie Juliette Louvet, a cabaret singer. Juliette was already the mother of Marguerite, by her former husband, French "girlie" photographer Achille Delmaet. It has been asserted that Louis ignored his father and married Juliette in 1897: there is, however, no evidence for this allegation. Their illegitimate daughter, Charlotte Louise Juliette, was born on 30 September 1898 in Constantine, Algeria. For ten years, Louis served in the military with distinction, being awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor. In 1908 he returned home, leaving behind his mistress and daughter. At the outbreak of World War I, he re-enlisted in the French Army, proving to be one of the Fifth Army's most outstanding soldiers. He was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor and eventually became a Brigadier General.Louis II, Prince of Monaco – Louis II
25. Automotive industry – It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry. The automotive industry began with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90 % of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's production. In 1980, the U.S. became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, cause of injury. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best framework for achieving automotive functional safety.Automotive industry – Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
26. Cosworth – Cosworth is a high-performance engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in engines and electronics for automobile racing and mainstream automotive industries. Cosworth is based in Northampton, England, in Indianapolis and Mooresville, North Carolina. Cosworth has collected 176 wins in Formula One as supplier, ranking second with most wins behind Ferrari. The company was founded by Mike Costin and Keith Duckworth. When the company was founded in 1958, Duckworth left Lotus, leaving Costin at the company. Many of the other racing engines up to Mk.XII were delivered to Team Lotus. The Cosworth-designed cylinder head was for SCA series with a SOHC reverse-flow configuration similar to the Coventry Climax FWE engine. This resulted in the DFV, which dominated Formula One for many years. Another success by the BD series in the 1970s put Cosworth on a growing track. The company went through a number of ownership changes. In 1998, Vickers sold Cosworth and Pi Research to Ford. In September, 2004 Ford announced that it was selling Pi Research, along with Cosworth Racing Ltd and its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, the current Cosworth Group. Cosworth Technology was then renamed as MAHLE Powertrain on 1 July 2005. Since 2006, Cosworth has diversified to provide consultancy, high performance electronics and component manufacture services outside of its classic motorsport customer base.Cosworth – A Ford - Cosworth DFV on a Ligier JS11
27. Vehicle identification number – VINs were first used in 1954. From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats. In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format. It required all over-the-road vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I, Q. There are history services in several countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off. See the Used article for a list of countries where this service is available. There are at least four competing standards used to calculate the VIN. Modern VINs are based on two related standards, originally issued for Standardization in 1979 and 1980: ISO 3779 and ISO 3780 respectively. Different implementations of these ISO standards have been adopted by the European Union and the United States, respectively. The VIN comprises the following sections: The first three characters uniquely identify the manufacturer of the vehicle using WMI code. Some manufacturers use the third character as a code for a vehicle category, both. Within 1G, 1G1 represents Chevrolet passenger cars; 1G2, Pontiac passenger cars; and 1GC, Chevrolet trucks. The Society of Automotive Engineers in the U.S. assigns WMIs to manufacturers. The first character of the WMI is the region in which the manufacturer is located. In the notation below, assume that zero is the last number.Vehicle identification number – VIN on a Chinese moped
28. Lotus Cars – Lotus Cars is based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II airfield in Norfolk. The company builds production automobiles of light weight and fine handling characteristics. It also owns Lotus Engineering, which has facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, Malaysia. Lotus is owned through its Proton, which acquired it following the bankruptcy of former owner Romano Artioli in 1996. The company was formed in 1952. The four letters in the middle of the logo stand for the initials of company founder, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman. The first factory was situated in North London. Team Lotus, split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954, was active and competitive in Formula One racing from 1958 to 1994. The Lotus Group of Companies was formed in 1959. This was made up of Lotus Cars Limited and Lotus Components Limited, which focused on customer competition production, respectively. Lotus Components Limited became Lotus Racing Limited in 1971 but the newly renamed entity ceased operation in the same year. The track uses sections of the old runway. In its early days Lotus sold cars aimed at privateer racers and trialists. Its early road cars could be bought as kits, in order to save on purchase tax. Lotus was notable for its use of twin cam engines, initially supplied by Coventry Climax but later replaced by Lotus-Ford units.Lotus Cars – Lotus final assembly
29. Scuderia Ferrari – Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer, Ferrari, competes in Formula One racing. It is the most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors' Championships, the last of, won in 2008. Schumacher is the team's most successful driver. Joining departing in 2006 he won five drivers' titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2004. Including the constructors' title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the team's most successful period. Currently, Sebastian Vettel are the two main race drivers. The team is also known for its passionate base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team's race. Enzo Ferrari was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport for a period of four years. In 1939 Ferrari started work on the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars.Scuderia Ferrari – Phil Hill driving for Ferrari at the 1962 German Grand Prix.
30. J. R. D. Tata – Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy "J. R. D." Tata was a French-born Indian aviator, entrepreneur, chairman of Tata Group and the shareholder of Tata Sons. The founder of Pakistan, was his son-in-law by his marriage to Tata's niece, Rattanbai Petit. Tata became the first licensed pilot in 1929. J. R. D. Tata was born as Jehangir on 29 July 1904 into a Parsi family. He was his French wife, Suzanne "Sooni" Brière. His father was a first cousin of a pioneer industrialist in India. He had one elder sister Sylla, two younger brothers Darab and Jimmy Tata. Sylla, was married to Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, the second baronet of Petits. Rattanbai Petit, was the wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who later became the founder of Pakistan in August 1947. Dina Jinnah, was married to Neville Wadia, a notable businessman. As his mother was French, he spent much of his childhood as a result, French was his first language. He attended the Janson De Sailly School in Paris. One of the teachers at that school used to call L'Egyptian for some strange reason. Tata also served during the Second World War. After he left the service the whole regiment perished in Morocco.J. R. D. Tata – Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata
31. Lotus Elise – The Lotus Elise is a two-seat, rear-wheel drive, mid-engined roadster conceived in early 1994 and released in September 1996 by the British manufacturer Lotus Cars. The roadster is capable of speeds up to 240 km/h. The Elise was named after Elisa, the granddaughter of Romano Artioli, chairman of Lotus and Bugatti at the time of the car's launch. The 1996 Lotus Elise weighed 725 kg. Because of this low weight, it was able to accelerate 0-60 mph in 5.8 seconds despite its relatively low power output of 118 bhp. Consumption are also improved by the car's reduced weight. Cornering is helped by a low center of gravity height of 470mm. Series 1 was designed at Lotus's chief engineer. These were more competent on track with sports suspension, wheels and tyres, seats according to model. Lotus Elise 80 was briefly assembled on a dedicated assembly line at Proton's Shah Alam factory between 1997 and 2000. The Malaysian-assembled Elise costs less than its British-built counterpart as it was manufactured with more Malaysian-sourced components. The Malaysian-assembled Elise was also exported including Japan, Hong Kong, New Zealand. The Proton-assembled Elises were assigned the code'B' in the eleventh VIN position, while the original Hethel-built units were stamped with the code'H'. It also had more padding in the seats. The 111S had headlamp covers, rear spoiler, a six-spoke road wheel design.Lotus Elise – Lotus Elise
32. Straight-eight engine – The straight-eight engine or inline-eight engine is an eight-cylinder internal combustion engine with all eight cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase. The type has been produced in side-valve, IOE, overhead-cam configurations. A straight-8 can be timed with no unbalanced secondary forces or moments. Without such damping, fatigue cracking near the main journal may occur, leading to engine failure. The smooth running characteristics of the straight-8 made it popular in luxury and racing cars of the past. However, the engine's length demanded the use of a long engine compartment, making the basic design unacceptable in modern vehicles. Also, due to the length of the engine, torsional vibration in both camshaft can adversely affect performance at high speeds. As a result, the design has been displaced completely by the shorter V8 configuration. The first straight-eight was conceived by Charron, Girardot et Voigt in 1903, but never built. Great strides were made during World War I, as Mercedes made straight-eight aircraft engines like the Mercedes D.IV. The Duesenberg brothers introduced their first production straight-eight in 1921. Straight-8 engines were used in expensive luxury and performance vehicles until after World War II. Bugattis and Duesenbergs commonly used double overhead cam straight-8 engines. Straight-8-powered automobiles were built by Daimler, Mercedes-Benz, Isotta-Fraschini, Alfa Romeo, Stutz, Stearns-Knight and Packard. In the United States in the 1920s, automobile manufacturers, including Chandler, Gardner, Auburn, began using straight-eight engines in cars targeted at the middle class.Straight-eight engine – Delage straight-eight racing engine
33. Monte Carlo Rally – The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating innovations to automobiles. In 1909 the Automobile Club de Monaco started planning a rally at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco. The Monte Carlo Rally was to converge on Monte Carlo. The event was won in a Turcat-Méry 25 Hp. The outcry of scandal when the results were published changed nothing, so Rougier was proclaimed the first winner. The 1966 event was the most controversial in the history of the Rally. This elevated Pauli Toivonen into first place overall. Rosemary Smith was also disqualified after winning the Coupe des Dames, the ladies' class. In all, ten cars were disqualified. Teams threatened to boycott the event. The headline in Motor Sport: "The Monte Carlo Fiasco." As recently as 1991, competitors were able to choose their starting points from Monte Carlo itself. For the driver, this is often a difficult choice as the tyres that work well on ice normally perform badly on dry tarmac. This rally features one of the most famous special stages in the world.Monte Carlo Rally – Stéphane Sarrazin driving a Subaru Impreza WRC2004 on the 2005 rally.
34. BMW in Formula One – BMW has been involved in Formula One in a number of capacities since the inauguration of the World Drivers' Championship in 1950. The company entered occasional races before building the BMW M12/13 inline-four turbocharged engine in the 1980s. BMW also supplied the M12/13 on a customer basis to the ATS, Arrows, Benetton and Ligier teams with various degrees of success. Turbocharged engines were banned by the revised Formula One Technical Regulations for 1989, rendering the M12/13 obsolete. The programme resulted in the creation of a new engine which made its race début in the Williams FW22 in 2000. By 2005, BMW chose to part company and buy the rival Sauber team outright. The BMW Sauber project resulted in a substantial increase in competitiveness for the Swiss former privateer team. Two podium finishes in the first year were followed by a solid third in the Constructors' Championship in 2007. The 2009 season was a major disappointment as the F1.09 chassis proved uncompetitive. BMW-derived cars were also entered from 1951 to 1953. The entries occurred during this period because the championship was effectively run to Formula Two regulations, allowing the BMW cars to take part. For the 1968 race, Hahne returned in its Formula One history. The engine was based on a four-cylinder, 1.5-litre, normally aspirated engine that had originally been designed in the late 1950s. The M12 had also been used in racing throughout the intervening period, winning races in Formula Two and other categories. It was Bosch electronics, including fuel injection.BMW in Formula One – Robert Kubica crosses the finish line to win the 2008 Canadian Grand Prix, the only Formula One race that BMW has won as a full works team.
35. Renault in Formula One – Renault are currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault Sport Formula One Team. They have been associated since 1977. In 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the engine in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams. Although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986, then again from 1989 to 1997. Renault returned to Formula One in 2000 when it acquired the Enstone-based Benetton Formula team. For the 2011 Formula One season the team retained the Renault name. Renault has also supplied engines including Red Bull Racing, Williams. It has collected as supplier ranking third in Formula One history. Renault's first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car. The Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V6 1.5 L turbocharged engine, the first regularly used turbo engine in Formula One history. The team's début was delayed until the following round, the British Grand Prix. Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the car's turbo failed on lap 17.Renault in Formula One – Renault 1.5 litre turbo engine
36. British American Racing – British American Racing was a Formula One constructor that competed in the sport from 1999 to 2005. BAR used Supertec engines for their first year. Subsequently, they formed a partnership with Honda which lasted for the next six years. The team was named after British American Tobacco plc, which sponsored it in order to display its Lucky Strike and 555 brands. The headquarters were in Brackley, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom. In mid-November 2004, Japanese manufacturer Honda purchased 45 % of the team, in September 2005 purchased the remaining 55 % share to become the sole owner. Consequently, BAR Honda became Honda Racing F1 Team for the 2006 Formula One season. British American Tobacco had been involved in Formula One with several of its brands being displayed on F1 cars run by various teams. In 1997 the corporation was convinced by Craig Pollock to provide most of the equity to purchase the Tyrrell Formula One team for # 30 million. Pollock, Rick Gorne were the minority partners. The deal was announced on 2 December 1997. The team was still officially known as Tyrrell in 1998, before it became the following year. On July 1998 BAR announced the signing of World Champion Jacques Villeneuve away from Williams with a lucrative contract for the 1999 season. Pollock had managed Villeneuve throughout his racing career. Villeneuve was joined by F1 rookie Ricardo Zonta.British American Racing – The team had Reynard chassis and Honda engines (although in the maiden season they used Supertecs instead).
37. Luxury vehicle – Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term is also relative. Therefore, automakers differentiate with the car-buying public. Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically termed luxury cars. Although there is considerable literature about specific marques, there is a lack of scholarly work that "analyzes the luxury phenomenon itself." Vehicle makers may either be a division/subsidiary of a mass market automaker. Badge engineering is often used for example, Acura models derived from Honda. Though widely used, the luxury is highly variable. According to the European Commission, the "luxury vehicle" segment is classified as F-segment. ACRISS is a system used in the US for classifying vehicles. The system includes "Luxury" and "Premium" categories. Australia: In Australia, for taxation purposes a luxury car is defined as a passenger car whose value exceeds a certain threshold. France: In France the term "voiture de luxe" is used. Germany: In Germany the term "Upper class" is used. Russia: Russian markets use the term "representative class vehicle".Luxury vehicle – A Rolls-Royce model Phantom IV, a 1950s luxury car
38. European Grand Prix – The European Grand Prix was a Formula One event, introduced during the mid-1980s and was held regularly from 1999 until 2012. A recent venue for this event was the Valencia Street Circuit in Valencia, Spain, hosting the race until 2012. The race was removed from the calendar in 2013. The European Grand Prix was created by the FIA's predecessor in the organisation of motor racing events. After a hiatus in 1929, Spa received the last honorific title of the pre-WWII years, in 1930. All post-war honorific European Grands Prix were Formula One races except for the 1952 event, run to Formula Two regulations. The Italian Grand Prix was named the European Grand Prix seven times, more than any other race. It received the title three times in the 1920s. The event was initially created as a stop-gap. In 1983, the Formula One schedule originally featured a race near Flushing Meadows Park in New York City. The success of the event, buoyed by a spirited battle for the World Championship, led to the event returning on the schedule the following year. The race was replaced by the Hungarian Grand Prix. In 1990, a wealthy Japanese businessman, Tomonori Tsurumaki, built the Nippon Autopolis with the idea of hosting a Formula One race. In 1992, plans were made to have an Asian Grand Prix in 1993 to replace the Mexican Grand Prix on the schedule. However, these plans failed to materialize.European Grand Prix – Proposed layout of the Baku circuit
39. Lancia – Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C.. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969; Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. was established in 2007. The company is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, as Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed in January 2014. Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin. The first car manufactured by Lancia was "12 HP", which remained in production between from 1907 to 1908. It had a four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 hp. In 1910 Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were sold as SGV's by the SGV Company. In 1915, Lancia also manufactured the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company. They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer. Lancia is renowned for introducing cars with numerous innovations. These include the Theta of 1913, the European production car to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment. 1948 saw the first 5 gearbox to be fitted to a production car.Lancia – Lancia Automobiles S.p.A.