1. Bugatti – Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their beauty and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 Royale, the Type 57 Atlantic and the Type 55 sports car. The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, no more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, in the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen, the company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettores family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and later to Paris and he exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1, 368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a Type 13 with a body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase. The others were a Type 22 and a Type 23 with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm respectively, the company also enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing, in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice, Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race, the 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who also drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon, Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane and this would be the Bugatti 100P, which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his Type 7.5 lifting body, Ettore Bugatti also designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti. The death of Ettore Bugattis son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a point in the companys fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory, World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the propertyBugatti – 1913 Bugatti 22, 3 seat Vinet
2. Art Deco – Art Deco, sometimes simply referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Decorators, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 and it combined modernist styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured rare and expensive materials such as ebony and ivory, the Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel and plastic, a more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s, it featured curving forms and smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the style came to an end with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced as the dominant global style by the functional and unadorned styles of modernism. The term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858, in 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de lOpéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile, jewelry and glass designers and it took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. The term Art déco was then used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major book on the style. Hillier noted that the term was already being used by art dealers and cites The Times, in 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, the term arts décoratifs had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture, textiles, and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, a similar movement developed in Italy. The first international exhibition devoted entirely to the arts, the Esposizione international dArte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration, Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, and later in the Salon dautomne. French nationalism also played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts, in 1911 the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
3. Aston Martin – Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford and their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to HRH the Prince of Wales since 1982, headquarters and the main production site are in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England, on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martins recent cars was named after the 1950s Vulcan Bomber, Aston Martin has diversified to speed boats, and real estate development. Aston Martin had a troubled history after the quarter of the 20th century but has also enjoyed long periods of success. “In the first century we went bankrupt seven times, ” incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe, “The second century is about making sure that is not the case. ”Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they also serviced GWK, Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles. The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini and they acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of World War I, all machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company. After the war found new premises at Abingdon Road, Kensington. Bamford left in 1920 and Aston Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski, in 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Approximately 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations, long chassis and short chassis, Aston Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Aston Martin failed again in 1925 and the closed in 1926. Later that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business and they renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. The only Renwick and Bertelli motor car made, it was known as Buzzbox, between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as Bertelli cars. They included the 1½-litre T-type, International, Le Mans, MKII and its derivative, the Ulster, and the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative. Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertellis brother Enrico, with a number of long-chassis four-seater tourers, dropheads. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers, the LM team cars were very successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans and the Mille MigliaAston Martin – Early Aston Martin marque
4. Brabham – Motor Racing Developments Ltd. commonly known as Brabham /ˈbræbəm/, was a British racing car manufacturer and Formula One racing team. Founded in 1960 by two Australians, driver Jack Brabham and designer Ron Tauranac, the team won four Drivers, Jack Brabhams 1966 Drivers Championship remains the only such achievement using a car bearing the drivers own name. In the 1960s, Brabham was the worlds largest manufacturer of open wheel racing cars for sale to customer teams, during this period, teams using Brabham cars won championships in Formula Two and Formula Three. Brabham cars also competed in the Indianapolis 500 and in Formula 5000 racing, the team won two more Formula One Drivers Championships in the 1980s with Brazilian Nelson Piquet. He won his first championship in 1981 in the Ground effects BT49-Ford, in 1983 the Brabham BT52, driven by Piquet and Italian Riccardo Patrese, was powered by the BMW M12 Straight-4 engine, and powered Brabham to four of the teams 35 Grand Prix victories. British businessman Bernie Ecclestone owned Brabham during most of the 1970s and 1980s, Ecclestone sold the team in 1988. Its last owner was the Middlebridge Group, a Japanese engineering firm, midway through the 1992 season, the team collapsed financially as Middlebridge was unable to make repayments against loans provided by Landhurst Leasing. The case was investigated by the United Kingdom Serious Fraud Office, in 2009, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a German organisation to enter the 2010 Formula One season using the Brabham name. The Brabham team was founded by Jack Brabham and Ron Tauranac, Brabham was the more successful driver and went to the United Kingdom in 1955 to further his racing career. In 1959 and 1960, Brabham won the Formula One World Drivers Championship in Coopers revolutionary mid-engined cars, despite their innovation of putting the engine behind the driver, the Coopers and their Chief Designer Owen Maddock were generally resistant to developing their cars. Brabham pushed for further advances, and played a significant role in developing Coopers highly successful 1960 T53 lowline car, Brabham describes Tauranac as absolutely the only bloke Id have gone into partnership with. Later, Brabham offered a Coventry-Climax FWE-engined version of the Herald, with 83 hp, to meet that aim, Brabham and Tauranac set up Motor Racing Developments Ltd. deliberately avoiding the use of either mans name. Unveiled in the summer of 1961, the MRD was soon renamed, motoring journalist Jabby Crombac pointed out that way a Frenchman pronounces those initials—written phonetically, em air day—sounded perilously like the French word. Gavin Youl achieved a finish at Goodwood and another at Mallory Park in the MRD-Ford. The cars were known as Brabhams, with type numbers starting with BT for Brabham Tauranac. By the 1961 Formula One season, the Lotus and Ferrari teams had developed the approach further than Cooper. The Brabham Racing Organisation started the year fielding a customer Lotus chassis, Brabham took two points finishes in Lotuses, before the turquoise-liveried Brabham BT3 car made its debut at the 1962 German Grand Prix. It retired with a problem after 9 of the 15 lapsBrabham – Jack Brabham was 40 when he won the F1 drivers' title in a Brabham car.
5. Formula One – Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners. The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, suspension, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s. The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competitionFormula One – Juan Manuel Fangio 's 1951 title-winning Alfa Romeo 159
6. Monaco Grand Prix – The Monaco Grand Prix is a Formula One motor race held each year on the Circuit de Monaco. The circuit has been called an exceptional location of glamour and prestige. The race is held on a course laid out in the streets of Monaco, with many elevation changes and tight corners as well as a tunnel. In spite of the low average speeds, it is a dangerous place to race. It is the only Grand Prix that does not adhere to the FIAs mandated 305-kilometre minimum race distance, the event was part of the pre-Second World War European Championship and was included in the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950. It was designated the European Grand Prix two times,1955 and 1963, when title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe. Graham Hill was known as Mr. Monaco due to his five Monaco wins in the 1960s, brazils Ayrton Senna won the race more times than any other driver, with six victories, winning five races consecutively between 1989 and 1993. Fernando Alonso is the driver to have won the race in consecutive years for different constructors, winning for Renault in 2006. Like many European races, the Monaco Grand Prix predates the current World Championship, the principalitys first Grand Prix was organised in 1929 by Antony Noghès, under the auspices of Prince Louis II, through the Automobile Club de Monaco. Alexandre Noghès, Antonys father, was founding president of the ACM, the ACM made their first foray into motorsport by holding the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1911. Their application was refused due to the lack of a major event held wholly within Monacos boundaries. The rally could not be considered as it used the roads of other European countries. To attain full national status, Noghès proposed the creation of an automobile Grand Prix in the streets of Monte Carlo, Noghès obtained the official support of Prince Louis II. Noghès also gained support for his plans from Monegasque Louis Chiron, Chiron thought that the topography of the location would be well suited to setting up a race track. The first race, held on 14 April 1929, was won by William Grover-Williams driving a Bugatti, the first Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco was an invitation-only event, but not all of those invited decided to attend. The leading Maserati and Alfa Romeo drivers decided not to compete, Mercedes sent their leading driver Rudolf Caracciola to drive a Mercedes SSK. Caracciola drove a race, bringing his SSK up to second position at the end of the race. The race was won by Williams driving a Bugatti Type 35B painted dark green, another driver who competed using a pseudonym was Georges Philippe, the Baron Philippe de RothschildMonaco Grand Prix – William Grover-Williams at the 1929 Monaco Grand Prix
7. Ferrari – Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari. Ferrari bought, prepared and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death later that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, FerrariFerrari – 166MM Barchetta 212/225
8. Koenigsegg – Koenigsegg Automotive AB is a Swedish manufacturer of high-performance sports cars, based in Ängelholm, Skåne County, Sweden. The company was founded in 1994 in Sweden by Christian von Koenigsegg, many years of development and prototyping led to the companys first street-legal production car delivery in 2002. In 2006 Koenigsegg began production of the CCX, which uses an engine created in-house especially for that vehicle, the CCX is street-legal in most countries, including the United States. In March 2009 the Koenigsegg CCXR was chosen by Forbes to be one of the most beautiful cars in history, in December 2010 the Koenigsegg Agera won the BBC Top Gear Hypercar of the Year Award. Koenigsegg is also active in development programs of plug-in electric cars systems, Koenigsegg also is working on a camless piston engine for the Regera. Koenigsegg develops and produces most of the systems, subsystems. At the end of 2015 Koenigsegg had 97 employees, with a department of 25 engineers. The initial design of the Koenigsegg CC was drawn by Christian von Koenigsegg and he then took his sketches to Industrial Designer David Crafoord in order for him to realise the sketches as a 1,5 scale model. David then laid his personal touch to the brief and finished the model. This model was scaled up in order to create the base plug for the initial Koenigsegg prototype that was finished in 1996. During the next years the prototype went through extensive testing and several new prototypes were built, Christian von Koenigsegg got the idea to build his own car after watching the Norwegian stop-motion animated movie Pinchcliffe Grand Prix in his youth. He took his first steps in the world of business in his early 20s running a company called Alpraaz in Stockholm. Alpraaz exported food from Europe to the developing world, the success of this venture gave von Koenigsegg the necessary financial standing to launch his chosen career as a car manufacturer. Initially, Koenigsegg Automotive was based in Olofström, in 1997 the company needed larger facilities and moved to a farm, just outside Ängelholm. However, on 22 February 2003, one of the production facilities caught fire and was badly damaged, from 2003 and on Koenigsegg has converted two large fighter-jet hangars and an office building into a car factory. Since the factory is located on the still-active Ängelholm airport, clients can arrive by private jet next to the factory, Koenigsegg controls and uses the former military runway for shakedown runs of production cars and high speed testing. The Koenigsegg badge was designed in 1994 by Jacob Låftman, based on the coat of arms of the Koenigsegg family. The shield has been the coat of arms since the 12th century when a family member was knighted by the Germany-based Holy Roman EmpireKoenigsegg – Koenigsegg CCX
9. Le Mans – Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department, Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region. Its inhabitants are called Manceaux and Mancelles, since 1923, the city has hosted the internationally famous 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance sports car race. First mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, the Roman city Vindinium was the capital of the Aulerci, Le Mans is also known as Civitas Cenomanorum, or Cenomanus. Their city, seized by the Romans in 47 BC, was within the ancient Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis, a 3rd-century amphitheatre is still visible. The thermae were demolished during the crisis of the century when workers were mobilized to build the citys defensive walls. The ancient wall around Le Mans is one of the most complete circuits of Gallo-Roman city walls to survive, as the use of the French language replaced late Vulgar Latin in the area, Cenomanus, with dissimilation, became known as Celmans. Cel- was taken to be a form of the French word for this and that, and was replaced by le, gregory of Tours mentions a Frankish sub-king Rigomer, who was killed by King Clovis I in his campaign to unite the Frankish territories. As the principal city of Maine, Le Mans was the stage for struggles in the century between the counts of Anjou and the dukes of Normandy. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror successfully invaded England, in 1069 the citizens of Maine revolted and expelled the Normans, resulting in Hugh V being proclaimed count of Maine. Geoffrey V of Anjou married Matilda of England in the cathedral and their son Henry II Plantagenet, king of England, was born here. The airfield was declared operational on 3 September and designated as A-35 and it was used by several American fighter and transport units until late November of that year in additional offensives across France, the airfield was closed. Le Mans has an old town and the Cathédrale St-Julien, dedicated to St Julian of Le Mans. Remnants of a Roman wall are visible in the old town and these walls are highlighted every summer evening in a light show that tells the history of the town. Arboretum de la Grand Prée Part of the former Cistercian abbey de lEpau, founded by Queen Berengaria, jardin des Plantes du Mans Musée de la reine Bérengère, a museum of Le Mans history located in a gothic manor house. Musée de Tessé, the arts museum of the city, displaying painting. Le Mans has an oceanic climate influenced by the mild Atlantic air travelling inland, summers are warm and occasionally hot, whereas winters are mild and cloudy. Precipitation is relatively uniform and moderate year round, at the 1999 French census, there were 293,159 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Le Mans, with 146,105 of these living in the city properLe Mans – Top row: left, Le Mans 24-hr automobile race in June; right, Le Mans Justice Department Office; Middle row: View of Sarthe River and historic area, including the Palais of Comtes du Maine; Bottom row: left, Le Mans Tramway in Gambetta Street; center, Facade built in Le Mans Commerce Center; right, Saint Julien Cathedral
10. McLaren – McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has competed in and won the Indianapolis 500. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari and they are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 182 races,12 drivers championships and eight constructors championships. The team is an owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972, the combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but later their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, however, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing the role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. At the end of 2013, after the teams worst season since 2004, McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 world championship. In 1964 and 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, then Feltham, during this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and also entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it. He continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that teams form to be waning, Bruce made the teams Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race. His race ended after nine laps due to an oil leak. Neither car brought great success, the best result being a fourth at Monaco, for 1968, after driving McLarens sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, who was already racing for McLaren in Can-Am. That years new M7A car, Herds final design for the team, was powered by Cosworths new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine, Hulme also won the Italian and Canadian Grands Prix later in the year, helping the team to second in the constructors championship. The year 1970 started with a place each for Hulme. After his death, Teddy Mayer took over control of the team, Hulme continued with Dan Gurney. Gurney won the first two Can-Am events at Mosport and St. Jovite and placed ninth in the third, but left the team mid-season, and Gethin took over from thereMcLaren – The McLaren Racing team's founder Bruce McLaren
11. Porsche – F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, Porsches current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman,911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called Dr. Ing. h. c, F. Porsche GmbH in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart. Initially, the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, that is a Volkswagen. This resulted in the Volkswagen Beetle, one of the most successful car designs of all time, the Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle. During World War II, Volkswagen production turned to the version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen,52,000 produced. Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that ultimately led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II. However, not all work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche also developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the stages of the war. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British, Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, and Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, during his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsches son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy. He also had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his fathers release in August 1947, the first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Gmünd, Austria. The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, and when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry, many regard the 356 as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of 356 was taken over by the fathers Dr. Ing. h. c. In 1952, Porsche constructed a plant across the street from Reutter Karosserie, the main road in front of Werk 1. The 356 was road certified in 1948, Porsches company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free Peoples State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital. The arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, on 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke. The 356, however, had several stages, A, B, and C, while in productionPorsche – Panzerjäger Elefant, after the loss of the contract to the Tiger I Porsche recycled his design into a tank destroyer.
12. Williams Grand Prix Engineering – Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded and is run by team owner Sir Frank Williams, the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations, Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf-Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called FW then a number, Williams first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the year, and Switzerlands Clay Regazzoni won Williams first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. Williams won nine Constructors Championships between 1980 and 1997 and this stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones, Rosberg, Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most successfully with Renault, Williams won five of their nine constructors titles with the French company. Williams F1 also has business interests beyond Formula One racing, in April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, despite the promise of a new owner in the form of Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team rebranded as Wolf-Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Eventually Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as Williams Grand Prix Engineering, Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the Williams-Head partnership. In February 2011, Williams F1 announced their intention to float via a public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Swiss-based Bank am Bellevue AG will act as sole global co-ordinator of up to 27. 39% of existing shares, Sir Frank Williams will remain majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO. The shares are valued at between 24 and 29 euros, which values the Williams F1 team at 265 million euros. In February 2017 the shares are divided in this way, Frank Williams 52, 25%, Brad Hollinger 14, 75%, Patrick Head 9%, 20% on the market place. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season, lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix. The new team failed to score a point, achieving a best finish of 7th at the Italian Grand Prix, for the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car, the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom PryceWilliams Grand Prix Engineering – The Williams FW06 from 1978, being raced at Silverstone in 2007.
13. 1929 – This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, the Peruvian Air Force was created. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky, the Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East, the centenary of Western Australia was celebrated. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, in Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent, Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The German airship LZ127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days, on August 1 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Palestinians and Jews over control of the Western Wall. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, in total,133 Jews and 116 Palestinians were killed. The Palestinians had been told that Jews were killing Palestinians, Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six-Day War in 1967. The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews were killed by Palestinians in Safed in similar fashion, elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraq took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I, in September, Great Britain announced it would support Iraqs inclusion in the League of Nations, signaling the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region. Early in 1929 the Afghan leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution, habibullāhs rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years, in India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchouli after issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated, the Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, the Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports were more sensitive to economic problems, in the Pacific, on December 28 – Black Saturday in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa1929 – February 26: Grand Teton National Park.
14. Alfa Romeo – Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. p. A. is an Italian car manufacturer, founded as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has involved in car racing since 1911. The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat group, in February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy, the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly, on 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Initially still in partnership with Darracq, the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 191024 HP, designed by Merosi. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, in 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto, which backed the Ing, Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among which was Alfa Romeo, through the Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali. In 1925, the activities were separated from the Romeo company. In 1933, the ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolinis government. The company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, in 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, and private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, and Alfa Romeo won the world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. The company gained a name in motorsport, which gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team and it holds the worlds title of the most wins of any marque in the world. The companys name is a combination of the name, A. L. F. A. and the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909Alfa Romeo – A 1908 Darracq 8/10 HP assembled by Alfa Romeo's predecessor, Darracq Italiana
15. Tazio Nuvolari – Tazio Giorgio Nuvolari was an Italian racing driver. First he raced motorcycles and then he concentrated on cars and single-seaters. Resident in Mantua, he was known as Il Mantovano Volante, ferdinand Porsche called him the greatest driver of the past, the present, and the future. Nuvolari started racing motorcycles in 1920 at the age of 27, having raced cars as well as motorcycles from 1925 until 1930, he then concentrated on cars, and won the 1932 European Championship with the Alfa Romeo factory team, Alfa Corse. After Alfa Romeo officially withdrew from Grand Prix racing Nuvolari drove for Enzo Ferraris team, Scuderia Ferrari, who ran the Alfa Romeo cars semi-officially. In 1933 he won Le Mans in an Alfa Romeo as a member of Ferraris team, and it was the only time a non-German car won a European Championship race from 1935 to 1939. The relationship with Ferrari deteriorated during 1937, and Nuvolari raced an Auto Union in that years Swiss Grand Prix and he rejoined the Auto Union team for the 1938 season and stayed with them through 1939 until Grand Prix racing was put on hiatus by World War II. The only major European race he never won was the Czechoslovakian Grand Prix, when Nuvolari resumed racing after the war he was 54 and in poor health. In his final appearance in competition, driving a Cisitalia-Abarth Tipo 204A at a Palermo hillclimb on 10 April 1950, he won his class and he died in 1953 from a stroke. Nuvolari was born in Castel dArio near Mantua on 16 November 1892 to Arturo Nuvolari and his wife Elisa Zorzi. Nuvolari was married to Carolina Perina, and together they had two children, Giorgio, who died in 1937 aged 19 from myocarditis, and Alberto, Nuvolari obtained his license for motorcycle racing in 1915 at the age of 23. He served in the Italian army as a driver in World War I. He also raced cars, winning the Coppa Verona reliability trial in 1921, in 1925 he became the 350 cc European Motorcycling champion by winning the European Grand Prix. At the time, the European Grand Prix was considered the most important race of the motorcycling season and the winners in each category were designated European Champions. He won the Nations Grand Prix four times between 1925 and 1928, and the Lario Circuit race five times between 1925 and 1929, all in the 350 cc class on a Bianchi motorcycle and he crashed when the gearbox seized, and severely lacerated his back. He was not picked for the team, six days later, in bandages, with a cushion strapped to his stomach, and lifted onto his motorcycle by Bianchi mechanics for a push-start, he won the rain-soaked Nations Grand Prix at Monza. 1930 In 1930, Nuvolari won his first RAC Tourist Trophy, Motor racing legend has it that when one of the drivers broke the window of a butchers shop, Nuvolari drove onto the pavement and tried to grab a ham as he passed. According to Sammy Davis who met him there, Nuvolari enjoyed dark humour, for example, after he got a ticket for a journey home from the Sicilian Targa Florio he said to Enzo Ferrari, What a strange businessman you areTazio Nuvolari – Tazio Nuvolari
16. Minardi – Minardi was an Italian automobile racing team and constructor founded in Faenza in 1979 by Giancarlo Minardi. It competed in the Formula One World Championship from 1985 until 2005 with little success, nevertheless acquiring a following of fans. During its time in F1, the team scored a total of 38 championship points,16 of these were earned by the teams first driver, Pierluigi Martini. Martini also recorded the only front row start, qualifying 2nd at the 1990 United States Grand Prix, and he led a lap during the 1989 Portuguese Grand Prix. The team never achieved a finish, only managing three 4th-place finishes, Martini twice in 1991 and Christian Fittipaldi in 1993. Before Minardis demise, the team was a particularly well-liked team within Formula One circles for its friendliness, accessibility, and lack of corporate culture. On the track, their cars were regarded by many as well-designed for their tiny budget and they also resisted employing pay-drivers more than most other financially strapped teams. The Minardi family has an involvement in motorsport. Giancarlo Minardis grandfather had a Fiat dealership in Faenza since 1927, while his father, Giovanni Minardi, after his death, Giancarlo took over the racing part of the family business. He ran customer cars in Formula Two under the name Scuderia Everest from 1972 to 1979 and in 1976 briefly ran a customer Formula One Ferrari 312T with Giancarlo Martini, uncle of Pierluigi Martini. Martini Sr. qualified 15th for the Race of Champions at Brands Hatch, the team then competed at the BRDC International Trophy in Silverstone where Martini finished 10th. In 1979 Minardi received financial backing from well known Italian motor racing patron Piero Mancini, the team first competed under the Minardi name in the 1980 European Formula Two championship. Rather than using a chassis, the team commissioned a BMW powered design from Giacomo Caliris FLY studios — previously responsible for the Fittipaldi Automotive teams F5A Formula One car. Minardi enjoyed four moderately successful Formula Two seasons with a variety of young Italian and South American drivers, including Alessandro Nannini, the teams most notable result was a 1981 win at the Misano round by Michele Alboreto. During 1984, Minardi took the decision to enter Formula One the following year, the engine was not ready for the start of the 1985 season, so the team converted their M185 chassis to accept a Cosworth DFV engine for the first two races. The single car team was unsuccessful in its first year, scoring no points, the new engine was underpowered and driver Pierluigi Martini finished only two races, although he was also classified 11th at the German Grand Prix despite stopping with engine problems. Martinis best position was 8th in the 1985 Australian Grand Prix, nonetheless, the team expanded to two cars for the 1986 season. In 1988 Minardi switched to Cosworth engines, and in 1989 it became top entrant for Pirellis return to Formula One, Martini in particular was synonymous with Minardi, eventually having three spells with the teamMinardi – Minardi
17. Gallura – Gallura is a region in the northeast of the island of Sardinia, Italy. The name Gallùra means area located on high ground, Gallùra has a surface of 1,370 square miles and it is situated between 40°552064 latitude north and 09°291176 east longitude. It is 187 kilometers from the Italian peninsula and 11 kilometers from the French island of Corsica, Monte Limbara is the highest mountain. It represents the boundary between Gallura and the region called Logudoro. Its highest peak is Punta Balestrieri, in the past, Monte Limbara used to be the location of an important NATO long rage radar base and a Carabinieri’s barrack. Today it is used as a center for the Italian Air Force. It is also the location of all the major TV relay stations of West Sardinia, another small mountain is Monte Cruzitta. Even if it is not very high, it offers a very characteristic landscape, the climate is typical of the Mediterranean. The mistral is the dominant wind, fresh, strong, and usually dry and cold, blowing from the northwest throughout the year, the first human settlements in Gallura date back to 700.000 years ago, when the first populations crossed the strait between Tuscany and Sardinia. This historic period is known as the Stone Age, foreign populations colonize Gallura due to its numerous natural resources. Many people from the island of Corsica came as well to Gallura during this historic period. The mid-late neolithic Arzachena culture subsisted almost exclusively in this area, the historic period that goes from 1700 BC to the Roman Age is also known in Sardinia as the Nuragic Age. The particular name of this period takes after the Nuraghes, the biggest megalithic edifices ever found in Europe. The Punic founded the city of Olbia which was conquered by the Romans with the entire Gallura in 238 BC, during the Middle Ages, Gallura represented one of the four giudicati of Sardinia. These giudicati consist of four independent kingdoms in which Sardinia was divided at that time, Civita represented the capital of the Giudicato of Gallura and also the bishop’s see. The Giudicato of Gallura included the area of Gallura, the area surrounding the city of Nuoro. It was occupied by the republic of Pisa in 1288 after the fall of the last judge Nino Visconti. At the end of the XIII century, the city of Civita takes the name of Terranova, pirates – primarily from North Africa – raided the coasts of Gallura and people moved consequently from there to the hinterlandGallura – map of Gallura
18. Alsace – Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace is located on Frances eastern border and on the west bank of the upper Rhine adjacent to Germany, from 1982 until January 2016, Alsace was the smallest of 22 administrative regions in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. The predominant historical language of Alsace is Alsatian, a Germanic dialect also spoken across the Rhine, but today most Alsatians primarily speak French, the political status of Alsace has been heavily influenced by historical decisions, wars, and strategic politics. The economic and cultural capital as well as largest city of Alsace is Strasbourg, the city is the seat of several international organizations and bodies. The name Alsace can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, an alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning seated on the Ill, a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters, by 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace, clearing and cultivating the land. It should be noted that Alsace is a surrounded by the Vosges mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had invaded and established Alsace as a center of viticulture, to protect this highly valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior, with the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni. The Alemanni were agricultural people, and their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine, Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, and Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized, Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, which was ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts, the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothars son. The rest was shared between Lothars brothers Charles the Bald and Louis the German, the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, however, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the duchy of Swabia. Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors, Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servantsAlsace
19. Rallying – Rallying is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. Rallies may be won by pure speed within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages, the term rally, as a branch of motorsport, probably dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other used the term. The first of these races was the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race of June 1895, won by Paul Koechlin in a Peugeot. Levassors time for the 1,178 km course, running virtually without a break, was 48 hours and 48 minutes, an average speed of 24 km/h. Speeds had now far outstripped the safe limits of dusty highways thronged with spectators and open to traffic, people and animals, there were numerous crashes, many injuries. The French government stopped the race and banned this style of event, from then on, racing in Europe would be on closed circuits, initially on long loops of public highway and then, in 1907, on the first purpose-built track, Englands Brooklands. Racing was going its own separate way, Italy had been running road competitions since 1895, when a reliability trial was run from Turin to Asti and back. The countrys first true motor race was held in 1897 along the shore of Lake Maggiore, from Arona to Stresa, the first Alpine event was held in 1898, the Austrian Touring Clubs three-day Automobile Run through South Tyrol, which included the infamous Stelvio Pass. Seventy vehicles took part, the majority of them trade entries and they had to complete thirteen stages of route varying in length from 43 to 123 miles at average speeds of up to the legal limit of 12 mph, and tackle six hillclimb or speed tests. On rest days and at lunch halts, the cars were shown to the public in exhibition halls, the Motor Cycling Club allowed cars to enter its trials and runs from 1904. In 1924, the exercise was repeated as the Small Car Trials, in Germany, the Herkomer Trophy was first held in 1905, and again in 1906. This challenging five-day event attracted over 100 entrants to tackle its 1,000 km road section, a hillclimb and a speed trial, but sadly it was marred by poor organisation and confusing regulations. One participant had been Prince Henry of Austria, who was inspired to do better, another trial was held in 1910. These were very successful, attracting top drivers and works cars from major teams – several manufacturers added Prince Henry models to their ranges. The first Alpine Trial was held in 1909, in Austria, by 1914, the competitive elements were slight, but getting to Monaco in winter was a challenge in itself. A second event was held in 1912, two ultra long distance challenges took place at this time. The New York–Paris of the year, which went via Japan and Siberia, was won by George SchusterRallying – Petter Solberg driving on gravel at the 2006 Cyprus Rally, a World Rally Championship event
20. Modena – Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. One of Ferraris cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself, the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II dEste in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics, medicine and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, the Biblioteca Estense houses historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997, Modena is also known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River and their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the citys center, by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel, the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni and these are, Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall and this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had a consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions, at the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council which is composed by 35 members elected every five years, Modenas executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The current mayor of Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the Democratic Party of Italy, the territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and later by Ligurian tribes, Etruscans, and the Gaulish Boii. Livy described it as a fortified citadel where Roman magistrates took shelter, the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibals arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice, the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus. The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and Brutus fled, in the civil war following Caesars assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate, cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were madeModena – Top left:Modena Cathedral and Ghirladinn Tower, Top right:Modena City Hall, Bottom left:Stoa of Portici del Collegio in Emilia Street, Bottom right:View of Modena Ducal Palace and San Domenico Cathedral from Dante Square
21. Ettore Bugatti – Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti was an Italian-born French automobile designer and manufacturer. He is remembered as the founder and proprietor of the manufacturing company Automobiles E. Bugatti. Ettore Bugatti was born into a family with its origin in Milan. He was the son of Carlo Bugatti, an important Italian Art Nouveau furniture and jewelry designer. His younger brother was an animal sculptor, Rembrandt Bugatti. His aunt, Luigia Bugatti, was the wife of the painter Giovanni Segantini and his paternal grandfather, Giovanni Luigi Bugatti, was an architect and sculptor. With financial support from his father, Ettore Bugatti developed a prototype which was a prize-winning exhibit at the Milan Trade Fair in the Spring of 1901. Bugattis design also caught the eye of Baron de Dietrich who offered Bugatti the opportunity to come, from 1902 through 1904, De Dietrich built his Type 3/4 and Type 5/6/7, identified at the time with the name De Dietrich, Licence Bugatti. While working for De Dietrich Bugatti met Émile Mathis, the two became first friends and then business partners, leaving De Dietrich in 1904 in order to produce automobiles of their own, which were identified with the name Mathis-Hermes. This arrangement lasted till 1906 after which the partners went their separate ways and he produced several prototypes, collaborating closely with the Cologne based Deutz company. In 1907, Bugatti was appointed Production Director with Deutz, here he designed the Type 8/9. While employed at Deutz, Bugatti built the Type 10 in the basement of his home, in 1913, Bugatti designed a small car for Peugeot, the Type 19 Bébé. Despite being born in Italy, Bugatti established his eponymous company, Automobiles E. Bugatti. Automobiles E. Bugatti was known for some of the fastest, most luxurious, exceptional engineering led to success in early Grand Prix motor racing, a Bugatti being driven to victory in the first Monaco Grand Prix. Between the wars Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorized railcar dubbed the Autorail Bugatti, and won a government contract to construct an airplane and it was designed by Louis de Monge using two type 50B Bugatti engines but never flew due to the outbreak of World War II. Ettore Bugattis son, Jean Bugatti, was killed on 11 August 1939 at the age of 30 while testing a Bugatti Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory, after that, the companys fortunes began to decline. World War II ruined the factory in Molsheim, and the company lost control of the property, during the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at Levallois in Paris and designed a series of new cars. Bugattis concept of customer relations was somewhat eccentric, to a Bugatti owner who complained that his car was difficult to start on cold mornings, he is said to have retorted, SirEttore Bugatti – Ettore Bugatti (1932)
22. Sports car – A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914. Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, however, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weightSports car – Mazda MX-5, the world's best selling sports car
23. Wolfsburg – Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony. Located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig, it lies about 75 km east of Hanover and 230 km west of Berlin, in 2013, Wolfsburg ranked as the richest city in Germany with a GDP per capita of $128,000, due to its thriving auto industry. Wolfsburg is famous as the location of Volkswagen AGs headquarters and the worlds biggest car plant, Wolfsburg is one of the few German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. From its foundation on 1 July 1938 as a home for workers producing the KdF-Wagen until 25 May 1945, in 1972, the population first exceeded 100,000. Wolfsburg is located at the Southern edge of the ancient river valley of the Aller at the Mittellandkanal and it is bordered by the districts of Gifhorn and Helmstedt. The total annual precipitation is about 532 mm which is low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst record lower data. The driest month is October, most precipitation is measured in June where observation stations measure 1.9 times more precipitation than in October, precipitation hardly diversifies and is constantly distributed all over the year. Only 17% of observation stations measure lower annual deviation, the castle Wolfsburg was first mentioned in 1302 in a document as the domicile of the noble lineage of Bartensleben. Originally a keep next to the Aller, it was protected by a moat some centuries later, in 1372, the first documentary reference to the Burg Neuhaus near Wolfsburg appeared. After the extinction of the Bartensleben line in 1742, the property, the communal manor was an important employer for the nearby settlements Rothenfelde and Heßlingen. Some of todays urban districts, including Heßlingen, belonged to the Duke of Magdeburg during the 18th century, in 1932, these districts were detached from the Prussian province Saxony and integrated in the administrative district of Lüneburg belonging to Hannover. Other urban districts, like Vorsfelde and the transferred to Wolfsburg from the county of Helmstedt. Fallersleben and other villages belonged to the Electorate of Braunschweig - Lüneburg or the Kingdom of Hanover, during World War II military cars, aeroplanes, and other military equipment were built there, mainly by forced workers and POWs. In 1942, the Nazis established the Arbeitsdorf concentration camp in the city for a few months, at the urging of the British occupying power, the city was renamed as Wolfsburg on 25 May 1945, after the eponymous castle located there. In 1951, Wolfsburg was separated from the District of Gifhorn, in 1955 the one-millionth VW Beetle was manufactured in Wolfsburg. Postwar Beetle production ended in Wolfsburg in 1974, though German Beetle production continued in Emden until 1978, the factories in Wolfsburg remain a key part of Volkswagens production capacity. During the German economic miracle Wolfsburg experienced an influx of immigrant workersWolfsburg – Wolfsburg from Above
24. Louis II, Prince of Monaco – Louis II was Prince of Monaco from 27 June 1922 until 9 May 1949. Born Louis Honoré Charles Antoine Grimaldi in Baden-Baden, Germany, he was the child of Prince Albert I of Monaco. His mother was a daughter of William Alexander Anthony Archibald Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton, within a year of his parents marriage Louis was born, but his mother, a strong-willed 19-year-old, disliked Monaco and was unhappy with her husband. Shortly thereafter, she left the country permanently, and the couples marriage was annulled in 1880. Louis father, Prince Albert I, was a personality who had made Monaco a center of cultural activity. Unhappy, living with his cold and distant father, as soon as he was old enough, Louis went to France, four years later, after graduating, he asked to be posted with the French Foreign Legion fighting the wars in the African colonies. While stationed in Algeria, he met Marie Juliette Louvet, a cabaret singer, Juliette was already the mother of two children, Georges and Marguerite, by her former husband, French girlie photographer Achille Delmaet. Reportedly, Prince Louis fell deeply in love but, because of what in those days was seen as her ignominious station in life and it has been asserted that Louis ignored his father and married Juliette in 1897, there is, however, no evidence for this allegation. Their illegitimate daughter, Charlotte Louise Juliette, was born on 30 September 1898 in Constantine, for ten years, Louis served in the military with distinction, being awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honor. In 1908 he returned home, leaving behind his mistress and daughter, at the outbreak of World War I, he re-enlisted in the French Army, proving to be one of the Fifth Armys most outstanding soldiers. He was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor, to ensure this did not happen, in 1911 a law was passed recognizing his illegitimate daughter, Charlotte, as Louiss acknowledged heir, and making her part of the sovereign family. This law was held to be invalid under the 1882 statutes. Thus another law was passed in 1918 modifying the statutes to allow the adoption of an heir, Charlotte was formally adopted by Louis in 1919, and became Charlotte Louise Juliette Grimaldi, Princess of Monaco, and Duchess of Valentinois. Wilhelm, 2nd Duke of Urach, thus placed further back in the line of succession to the throne of Monaco, was chosen as King of Lithuania for a few months in 1918, being known as Mindaugas II. In any case he renounced his claim to the principality in 1924, passing it to other French cousins that were descended from the Grimaldi family. On 17 July 1918, largely because of the von Urach potential claim, France and Monaco had also signed a brief, specified, Measures concerning the international relations of the Principality shall always be the subject of prior consultations between the Government of the Principality and the French Government. On 27 June 1922, Prince Albert I died in Paris, Louis Grimaldi ascended to the throne as Louis II, Prince of Monaco. While his reign never achieved the grandeur of his father, Louis II left an imprint on the tiny principalityLouis II, Prince of Monaco – Louis II
25. Tamara de Lempicka – Tamara Łempicka, commonly known as Tamara de Lempicka, was a Polish Art Deco painter and the first woman artist to be a glamour star. Influenced by Cubism, Lempicka became the representative of the Art Deco style across two continents, a favorite artist of many Hollywood stars, referred to as the baroness with a brush. She was the most fashionable portrait painter of her generation among the bourgeoisie and aristocracy, painting duchesses. Through her network of friends, she was able to display her paintings in the most elite salons of the era. She was born Maria Górska in Warsaw, Congress Poland under the rulership of the Russian Empire, into a wealthy and prominent family. Lempicka was the daughter of Boris Gurwik-Górski, a Russian Jewish attorney for a French trading company, and Malwina Dekler, Maria had two siblings and was the middle child, her older brother was named Stanczyk and her younger sister was named Adrienne. In 1912, her parents divorced, and Maria went to live with her rich Aunt Stefa in St. Petersburg, when her mother remarried, she became determined to break away to make a life of her own. In 1913, at the age of fifteen, while attending the opera, in 1917, during the Russian Revolution, Tadeusz Łempicki was arrested in the dead of night by the Bolsheviks. Maria searched the prisons for him and after weeks, with the help of the Swedish consul. They traveled to Copenhagen then to London and finally to Paris, once there, they changed their last names to de Lempicki/ka. In Paris, the Lempickis lived for a while from the sale of family jewels, Tadeusz proved unwilling or unable to find suitable work, which added to the domestic strain, while Maria gave birth to Kizette Lempicka. Her sister, the designer Adrienne Gorska, made furniture for her Paris apartment and studio in the Art Deco style, the flat at 7 Rue Mechain was built by the architect Robert Mallet-Stevens known for his clean lines. Lempickas distinctive and bold artistic style developed at the Académie de la Grand Chaumière under the instruction of Nabi painter, Maurice Denis, as well as the Cubist André Lhote. The young painter was influenced by what Lhote sometimes referred to as soft cubism and by the synthetic cubism of Denis. For her, Picasso embodied the novelty of destruction and she thought that many of the Impressionists drew badly and employed dirty colors. Lempickas technique would be novel, clean, precise, and elegant, for her first major show, in Milan, Italy in 1925, under the sponsorship of Count Emmanuele Castelbarco, Lempicka painted 28 new works in six months. Through Castelbarco, she was introduced to Italys great man of letters and notorious lover and she visited the poet twice at his villa on Lake Garda, seeking to paint his portrait, he in turn was set on seduction. After her unsuccessful attempts to secure the commission, she went away angry, in 1925, Lempicka painted her iconic work Autoportrait for the cover of the German fashion magazine Die DameTamara de Lempicka – Tamara de Lempicka, portrait photograph by Dora Kallmus of d'Ora Studio, Paris, 1929
26. Automotive industry – The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. It is one of the worlds most important economic sectors by revenue, the term automotive was created from Greek autos, and Latin motivus to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry, the automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, at that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U. S. produced about 75 percent of auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan, in 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, from 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, in the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies there is no risk of damage. Safety in the industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international. The standard ISO26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle and this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material, however, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline, the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the generations of people no longer want to own a car anymoreAutomotive industry – Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
27. Cosworth – Cosworth is a high-performance engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in engines and electronics for automobile racing and mainstream automotive industries. Cosworth is based in Northampton, England, with North American facilities in Indianapolis and Mooresville, Cosworth has collected 176 wins in Formula One as engine supplier, ranking second with most wins behind Ferrari. The company was founded as a British racing internal combustion engine maker in 1958 by Mike Costin, both of the co-founders being former employees of Lotus Engineering Ltd. Cosworth initially maintained a relationship with Colin Chapman and the initial revenues of the company came almost exclusively from Lotus. When the company was founded in 1958, Duckworth left Lotus, the first Cosworth-designed cylinder head was for SCA series with a SOHC reverse-flow configuration similar to the Coventry Climax FWE engine. This resulted in the DFV, which dominated Formula One for many years, from this time on, Cosworth was supported by Ford for many years, and many of the Cosworth designs were owned by Ford and named as Ford engines under similar contracts. Another success by the BD series in the 1970s put Cosworth on a growing track, the company went through a number of ownership changes. In 1998, Vickers sold Cosworth and Pi Research to Ford, in September,2004 Ford announced that it was selling Cosworth and Pi Research, along with Cosworth Racing Ltd and its Jaguar Formula One team. On 15 November 2004, the sale of Cosworth was completed, to Champ Car World Series owners Gerald Forsythe and Kevin Kalkhoven, Cosworth Technology was then renamed as MAHLE Powertrain on 1 July 2005. Since 2006, Cosworth has diversified to provide engineering consultancy, high performance electronics, Cosworth supplied engines to one F1 team in 2013, the Marussia F1 Team. The following is the list of products with cylinder heads modified. In addition to the above, Cosworth designed and provided the work for Lotus Elan Special Equipment optional road engines with special camshafts. The final model of the initial series was the MAE in 1965. MAE used one barrel of a two barrel Weber IDA downdraft carburetor with the other barrel blanked off, the domination of this engine was absolute as long as these regulations lasted until 1968. As Cosworth had a serious difficulty meeting the demand, the MAE was mainly sold as a kit and this experience led to the later FVA/DFV contract to be drawn where the responsibility of development rested with Cosworth, and the manufacturing right and responsibility rested with Ford. There also were some specially cast iron heads with similar dimensions to these brazed heads with Titanium alloy valve spring retainers called the Screamer Head for MAE in later years, a year before the introduction of the MAE, the single overhead cam two valve SCA was introduced. Cylinder head to block sealing was by a head gasket incorporating Cooper Rings, the SCA initially had two 40DCM2 Weber twin-choke downdraft sand-cast carburetors mounted on top to produce 115 hp, which was replaced by Lucas fuel injection in 1966, eventually reaching 140 hp. Longer stroke SCB was built to compare against 1498 cc Mk and it was the results of this four valve development work that formed the basis for many of the Cosworth engines that followedCosworth – A Ford - Cosworth DFV on a Ligier JS11
28. Vehicle identification number – VINs were first used in 1954. From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, in 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format. It required all vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I, O. There are vehicle history services in countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off. See the Used car article for a list of countries where service is available. There are at least four competing standards used to calculate the VIN, modern VINs are based on two related standards, originally issued by the International Organization for Standardization in 1979 and 1980, ISO3779 and ISO3780, respectively. Compatible but different implementations of these ISO standards have been adopted by the European Union, the VIN comprises the following sections, The first three characters uniquely identify the manufacturer of the vehicle using the world manufacturer identifier or WMI code. A manufacturer who builds fewer than 2000 vehicles per year uses a 9 as the digit. Some manufacturers use the character as a code for a vehicle category. For example, within 1G, 1G1 represents Chevrolet passenger cars, 1G2, Pontiac passenger cars, the Society of Automotive Engineers in the U. S. assigns WMIs to countries and manufacturers. The first character of the WMI is the region in which the manufacturer is located, in practice, each is assigned to a country of manufacture, although in Europe the country where the continental headquarters is located can assign the WMI to all vehicles produced in that region. In the notation below, assume that letters precede numbers and that zero is the last number, for example, 8X–82 denotes the range 8X, 8Y, 8Z,81,82, excluding 80. The fourth to eighth positions in the VIN are the vehicle descriptor section or VDS and this is used, according to local regulations, to identify the vehicle type, and may include information on the automobile platform used, the model, and the body style. Each manufacturer has a system for using this field. Most manufacturers since the 1980s have used the digit to identify the engine type whenever there is more than one engine choice for the vehicle. Example, for the 2007 Chevrolet Corvette, U is for a 6. 0L V8 engine, one element that is fairly consistent is the use of position nine as a check digit, compulsory for vehicles in North America, and used fairly consistently elsewhere. The 10th to 17th positions are used as the vehicle identifier section and this is used by the manufacturer to identify the individual vehicle in question. This may include information on options installed or engine and transmission choices, in North America, the last five digits must be numericVehicle identification number – VIN on a Chinese moped
29. Lotus Cars – Lotus Cars is an English company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars with its headquarters in Hethel, Norfolk, England, and is a subsidiary of Malaysian automotive company Proton. Notable Lotus cars include the Esprit, Elan, Europa and Elise sports cars, Lotus Cars is based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II airfield in Norfolk. The company designs and builds race and production automobiles of light weight and it also owns the engineering consultancy Lotus Engineering, which has facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, China, and Malaysia. Lotus is owned by DRB-HICOM through its subsidiary Proton, which acquired it following the bankruptcy of former owner Romano Artioli in 1996, the company was formed as Lotus Engineering Ltd. by engineers Colin Chapman and Colin Dare, both graduates of University College, London, in 1952. The four letters in the middle of the stand for the initials of company founder. When the logo was created, Colin Chapmans original partners Michael and Nigel Allen were led to believe that the letters stood for Colin Chapman, the first factory was situated in old stables behind the Railway Hotel in Hornsey, North London. Team Lotus, which was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954, was active and competitive in Formula One racing from 1958 to 1994, the Lotus Group of Companies was formed in 1959. This was made up of Lotus Cars Limited and Lotus Components Limited, Lotus Components Limited became Lotus Racing Limited in 1971 but the newly renamed entity ceased operation in the same year. The company moved to a purpose built factory at Cheshunt in 1959 and since 1966 the company has occupied a modern factory and road test facility at Hethel and this site is the former RAF Hethel base and the test track uses sections of the old runway. In its early days Lotus sold cars aimed at privateer racers and its early road cars could be bought as kits, in order to save on purchase tax. After the elegant but delicate Lotus Elite of the 1950s, Lotus found critical, Lotus was notable for its use of fibreglass bodies, backbone chassis, and twin cam engines, initially supplied by Coventry Climax but later replaced by Lotus-Ford units. Lotus worked with Ford on the Lotus Cortina, a sports saloon. The Lotus Seven, originating in the 1950s as a simple, Lotus then sold the rights to produce the Seven to Caterham, which has continued to produce the car since then. The mid engined line continued with the Lotus Esprit, which was to one of the companys longest lived. Lotus developed its own series of four cylinder DOHC engines, the Lotus 900 series, and later a V8, variants of the 900 series engine were supplied for the Jensen Healey sports car and the Sunbeam Lotus hot hatchback. In the 1980s, Lotus collaborated with Vauxhall Motors to produce the Lotus Carlton, by 1980, Group Lotus was in serious financial trouble. Production had dropped from 1,200 units per year to a mere 383, in early 1982, Chapman came to an agreement with Toyota to exchange intellectual property and applied expertise. This initially resulted in Lotus Engineering helping to develop the Mk2 Toyota Supra, secondly it allowed Lotus to launch the new Lotus Excel to replace the ageing Lotus EclatLotus Cars – Lotus final assembly
30. Scuderia Ferrari – Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer, Ferrari, and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period. Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars. The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is also commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company later switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 carsScuderia Ferrari – Phil Hill driving for Ferrari at the 1962 German Grand Prix.
31. J. R. D. Tata – Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy J. R. D. Tata was a French-born Indian aviator, entrepreneur, chairman of Tata Group and the shareholder of Tata Sons. Born into the elite class Parsi family of India, the Tata family, he was the son of notable businessman Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata and Suzanne Brière, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was married to Tatas niece, Rattanbai Petit. Tata became the first licensed pilot in India, in 1929 and he is best known for being the founder of several industries under the Tata Group, including Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Motors, Titan Industries, Tata Tea, Voltas and Air India. J. R. D. Tata was born as Jehangir on 29 July 1904 into a Parsi family and he was the second child of businessman Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata and his French wife, Suzanne Sooni Brière. His father was a first cousin of Jamsetji Tata, a pioneer industrialist in India and he had one elder sister Sylla, a younger sister Rodabeh and two younger brothers Darab and Jimmy Tata. His sister, Sylla, was married to Dinshaw Maneckji Petit and his niece, Rattanbai Petit, was the wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who later became the founder of Pakistan in August 1947. His grandniece, Dina Jinnah, was married to Neville Wadia, as his mother was French, he spent much of his childhood in France and as a result, French was his first language. He attended the Janson De Sailly School in Paris, one of the teachers at that school used to call him LEgyptian for some strange reason. Tata also served for one year in a Spahis regiment during the Second World War, after he left the service the whole regiment perished on an expedition in Morocco. He attended the Cathedral and John Connon School, Bombay, Tata got educated in London, Japan, France and India. When his father joined the Tata company he moved the family to London. During this time, J. R. Ds mother died at an age of 43 while his father was in India. After his mothers death, Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata decided to move his family to India and he was enrolled in a Grammar school, and was interested in studying Engineering at Cambridge. Just as the Grammar course was ending and he was hoping to enter Cambridge, as a citizen of France J. R. D had to enlist in the army for at least 1 year. In between the Grammar school and his time in the army, he spent a spell at home in Bombay. After joining the French Army he was posted into the regiment called Spahis, Tata was once again transferred to the more luxurious office of a colonel. After a 12-month period of conscription in the French Army he wanted to proceed to Cambridge for further education, in 1929, JRD renounced his French citizenship and became an Indian citizen, and started working at Tata. In 1930 JRD married Thelma Vicaji, the niece of Jack Vicaji, previously he had been engaged to Dinbai Mehta, the future mother of The Economist editor Shapur KharegatJ. R. D. Tata – Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata
32. Lotus Elise – The Lotus Elise is a two-seat, rear-wheel drive, mid-engined roadster conceived in early 1994 and released in September 1996 by the British manufacturer Lotus Cars. The car has a fibreglass body shell atop its bonded extruded aluminium chassis that provides a rigid platform for the suspension, while keeping weight. The roadster is capable of speeds up to 240 km/h, the Elise was named after Elisa, the granddaughter of Romano Artioli who was chairman of Lotus and Bugatti at the time of the cars launch. The 1996 Lotus Elise weighed 725 kg, because of this low weight, it was able to accelerate 0-60 mph in 5.8 seconds despite its relatively low power output of 118 bhp. Braking and fuel consumption are also improved by the reduced weight. Cornering is helped by a low center of gravity height of 470mm, Series 1 was designed by Julian Thomson, then head of design at Lotus, and Richard Rackham, Lotuss chief engineer. Besides the standard higher-performance variants listed below, Lotus also released limited edition models such as Sport 135 with approx 145 bhp, Sport 160 with 150–160 bhp. These were more competent on track with sports suspension, wheels and tyres, there were other special editions such as the 50th Anniversary Edition celebrating 50 years of Lotus cars, the Type 49, and Type 79 which refers to its successful Grand Prix car type numbers. The Series 1 Lotus Elise 80 was briefly assembled on an assembly line at Protons Shah Alam factory between 1997 and 2000. The Malaysian-assembled Elise costs less than its British-built counterpart as it was manufactured with more Malaysian-sourced components, the Malaysian-assembled Elise was also exported to regional markets, including Japan, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. It also had more padding in the seats, the 111S had headlamp covers, rear spoiler, cross drilled brake discs, alloy window winders and a six-spoke road wheel design. In 2000, the 340R limited edition model, based on a Series 1 Elise was introduced and this roofless car was a special edition, limited to only 340 cars being built. The name 340 originally referred to the 340 bhp/tonne power-to-weight ratio of the prototype which had 177 bhp while weighing just 500 kg. However, in models the 340 refers to the number of cars built. The final production versions weighed 701 kg and had a ratio of. A Track Pack was created that upped power to 192 bhp and weighed only 571 kg. In 2000, Lotus introduced the Exige — a hardtop version of the Elise with the 177 bhp engine from the 340R, as well as different front and rear body clamshells, larger wheels, and a rear wing. Many models received an upgrade to 190 bhp with better driveability due to changes to ECU, general Motors offered to fund the project, in return for a badged and GM-engined version of the car for their European brands, Opel and VauxhallLotus Elise – Lotus Elise
33. Straight-eight engine – The straight-eight engine or inline-eight engine is an eight-cylinder internal combustion engine with all eight cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase. The type has been produced in side-valve, IOE, overhead-valve, sleeve-valve, a straight-eight can be timed for inherent primary and secondary balance, with no unbalanced primary or secondary forces or moments. However, crankshaft torsional vibration, present to some degree in all engines, is sufficient to require the use of a harmonic damper at the end of the crankshaft. Without such damping, fatigue cracking near the main bearing journal may occur. Also, due to the number of power strokes per revolution. The smooth running characteristics of the straight-eight made it popular in luxury, however, the engines length demanded the use of a long engine compartment, making the basic design unacceptable in modern vehicles. Also, due to the length of the engine, torsional vibration in both crankshaft and camshaft can adversely affect reliability and performance at high speeds, as a result, the design has been displaced almost completely by the shorter V8 engine configuration. The first straight-eight was conceived by Charron, Girardot et Voigt in 1903, great strides were made during World War I, as Mercedes made straight-eight aircraft engines like the Mercedes D. IV. The disadvantages of crank and camshaft twisting were not considered at this time, unlike the V8 engine configuration, examples of which were used in De Dion-Bouton, Scripps-Booth, and Cadillac automobiles by 1914, no straight-eight engines were used in production cars before 1920. The Duesenberg brothers introduced their first production straight-eight in 1921, straight-eight engines were used in expensive luxury and performance vehicles until after World War II. Bugattis and Duesenbergs commonly used double overhead cam straight-eight engines, other notable straight-eight-powered automobiles were built by Daimler, Mercedes-Benz, Isotta-Fraschini, Alfa Romeo, Stutz, Stearns-Knight and Packard. One marketing feature of engines was their impressive length — some of the Duesenberg engines were over 4 ft long, resulting in the long hoods found on these automobiles. In the United States in the 1920s, automobile manufacturers, including Chandler, Marmon, Gardner, Engine manufacturer Lycoming built straight-eight engines for sale to automobile manufacturers, including Gardner, Auburn, and Locomobile. The automobile manufacturers within the Cord Corporation, comprising Auburn, Cord, Lycoming continues to this day as an aircraft engine manufacturer. In the late 1920s, volume sellers Hudson and Studebaker introduced straight-eight engines for the vehicles in their respective lines. They were followed in the early 1930s by Nash, REO, and the Buick, Oldsmobile, the Buick straight-eight engine was an overhead valve design, while the Oldsmobile and Pontiac straight-eights were flathead engines. Chevrolet, as a marque, did not have a straight-eight. Cadillac, the brand of General Motors, stayed with their traditional V8 enginesStraight-eight engine – Delage straight-eight racing engine
34. Monte Carlo Rally – The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France. Previously, competitors would set off all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet. From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I it was an important means of demonstrating improvements, in 1909 the Automobile Club de Monaco started planning a car rally at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco. The Monte Carlo Rally was to start at all over Europe. In January 191123 cars set out from 11 different locations, the event was won by Rougier in a Turcat-Méry 25 Hp. The rally comprised both driving and then somewhat arbitrary judging based on the elegance of the car, passenger comfort, the outcry of scandal when the results were published changed nothing, so Rougier was proclaimed the first winner. The 1966 event was the most controversial in the history of the Rally and this elevated Pauli Toivonen into first place overall. Rosemary Smith was also disqualified from sixth place, after winning the Coupe des Dames, in all, ten cars were disqualified. Teams threatened to boycott the event, the headline in Motor Sport, The Monte Carlo Fiasco. As recently as 1991, competitors were able to choose their starting points from approximately five venues roughly equidistant from Monte Carlo itself, for the driver, this is often a difficult choice as the tyres that work well on snow and ice normally perform badly on dry tarmac. The Automobile Club de Monaco confirmed on 19 July 2010 that the 79th Monte-Carlo Rally would form the round of the new Intercontinental Rally Challenge season. To mark the event, the Automobile Club de Monaco has also confirmed that Glasgow, Barcelona, Warsaw. This rally features one of the most famous special stages in the world, the stage is run from La Bollène-Vésubie to Sospel, or the other way around, over a steep and tight mountain road with many hairpin turns. On this 31km route it passes over the Col de Turini, grönholm went on to finish fifth, but Solberg was forced to retire as the damage to his car was extensive. In the same event, Sébastien Loeb set one of the fastest times in the modern era, Sospel has an elevation of 479m, and the D70 has a maximum elevation of 1603m, for an average gradient of 6. 7%. The Turini is also driven at night, with thousands of watching the Night of Turini. In the 2007 edition of the rally, the Turini was not used, for both the 2009 and 2010 event the stage was run at night and shown live on EurosportMonte Carlo Rally – Stéphane Sarrazin driving a Subaru Impreza WRC2004 on the 2005 rally.
35. BMW in Formula One – BMW has been involved in Formula One in a number of capacities since the inauguration of the World Drivers Championship in 1950. The company entered occasional races in the 1950s and 1960s, before building the BMW M12/13 inline-four turbocharged engine in the 1980s, BMW also supplied the M12/13 on a customer basis to the ATS, Arrows, Benetton and Ligier teams during this period, with various degrees of success. In 1988, Brabham temporarily withdrew from the sport and BMW withdrew its backing from the engines. Turbocharged engines were banned by the revised Formula One Technical Regulations for 1989, BMW decided to return to Formula One in the late 1990s by signing an exclusive contract with the Williams team, which needed a new long-term engine supplier after the withdrawal of Renault in 1997. The programme resulted in the creation of a new V10 engine which made its race début in the Williams FW22 in 2000, by 2005, the relationship between BMW and Williams had deteriorated, and BMW chose to part company and buy the rival Sauber team outright. The BMW Sauber project lasted from 2006 until 2009, and resulted in an increase in competitiveness for the Swiss former privateer team. Two podium finishes in the first year were followed by a third in the Constructors Championship in 2007. The 2009 season was a disappointment as the F1.09 chassis proved uncompetitive. The early years of the post-war World Drivers Championship saw private BMW racing cars, based on the pre-war BMW328 chassis, bMW-derived cars were also entered by the Alex von Falkenhausen Motorenbau and Veritas companies in occasional races from 1951 to 1953. The entries occurred during this period because the championship was run to Formula Two regulations. Amongst the modified 328s was one driven by an engine in the rear of the car, in the 1960s, the Formula One German Grand Prix was often held concurrently with a Formula Two race on the same circuit, allowing BMW F2 cars to take part. For the 1968 race, Hahne returned with the previous years combination and finished tenth, the engine was based on the M10 unit, a four-cylinder,1. 5-litre, normally aspirated engine that had originally been designed in the late 1950s. Its racing derivative, the M12 had also used in racing throughout the intervening period, winning races in Formula Two. At the same time, Jochen Neerpasch oversaw the development by Paul Rosche of a prototype 1. 4-litre turbo engine and it was equipped with a single Kühnle, Kopp & Kausch turbocharger and Bosch electronics, including fuel injection. This engine formed the basis of the M12/13 design, the unit that BMW ultimately supplied to five teams from 1982 to 1988. Initial discussions were held with double World Champion Niki Lauda and McLaren on the subject of a 1980 campaign, Neerpasch then left his position to join the French Talbot marque, which was also planning to enter Formula One, in this case with the Ligier team. BMW thus negotiated an exclusive supply of M12/13 engines to the Brabham team, testing of the M12/13 got underway in late 1980 with a Brabham BT49 chassis converted to accept the engine. The teams designer, Gordon Murray, designed a new car, the BT50 for the engine, but it was not completed until well into the 1981 seasonBMW in Formula One – Robert Kubica crosses the finish line to win the 2008 Canadian Grand Prix, the only Formula One race that BMW has won as a full works team.
36. Renault in Formula One – Renault are currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault Sport Formula One Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977, in 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams, although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986, then again from 1989 to 1997, Renault returned to Formula One in 2000 when it acquired the Enstone-based Benetton Formula team. In 2002 Renault re-branded the team as Renault F1 Team and started to use Renault as their constructor name, for the 2011 Formula One season the team competed under the name Lotus Renault GP but retained the Renault constructor name. In 2012, the changed their constructor name to Lotus and operated as Lotus F1 Team until the end of 2015. Renault has also supplied engines to teams, including Red Bull Racing, Benetton Formula. In addition to its two own F1 World Constructors Championships and two Drivers Championships, as a supplier, Renault has contributed to nine other World Drivers Championships. It has collected over 160 wins as engine supplier, ranking third in Formula One history, Renaults first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car, the Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V61.5 L turbocharged engine, the first regularly used turbo engine in Formula One history. The first race the team, under the name Equipe Renault Elf, entered was the 1977 French Grand Prix, the round of the season. The teams début was delayed until the round, the British Grand Prix. The cars first qualifying session was not a success, and Jabouille qualified 21st out of the 30 runners and 26 starters,1.62 seconds behind pole sitter James Hunt in the McLaren. Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the turbo failed on lap 17. The team missed the German and Austrian Grands Prix as the car was being improved after its British disappointment and they returned for the Dutch Grand Prix, and the qualifying performance was much improved as Jabouille qualified tenth. He had a start, but ran as high as sixth before the suspension failed on lap 40. The teams poor qualifying form returned in Italy, as Jabouille qualified 20th and he ran outside the top 10 until his engine failed on lap 24, continuing their awful run of reliability. After this, Renault did not travel to the finale in JapanRenault in Formula One – Renault 1.5 litre turbo engine
37. British American Racing – British American Racing was a Formula One constructor that competed in the sport from 1999 to 2005. BAR began by acquiring Tyrrell, and used Supertec engines for their first year, subsequently, they formed a partnership with Honda which lasted for the next six years. The team was named after British American Tobacco plc, which owned and sponsored it in order to display its Lucky Strike and 555 brands, the headquarters were in Brackley, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom. In mid-November 2004, Japanese car manufacturer Honda purchased 45% of the team, consequently, BAR Honda became Honda Racing F1 Team for the 2006 Formula One season. British American Tobacco had been involved in Formula One for many years, in 1997 the corporation was convinced by Craig Pollock to provide most of the equity to purchase the Tyrrell Formula One team for GB£30 million. Pollock, Adrian Reynard and Rick Gorne were the minority partners, the deal was announced on 2 December 1997. The team was officially known as Tyrrell in 1998, before it became BAR the following year. On 23 July 1998 BAR announced the signing of World Champion Jacques Villeneuve away from Williams with a contract for the 1999 season. Pollock had managed Villeneuve throughout his racing career, Villeneuve was joined by F1 rookie Ricardo Zonta. The cars chassis was built by Reynard Motorsport at a new factory in Brackley and was powered by Supertec engines. At the launch of their new car BAR unveiled separate liveries for their cars, Villeneuves car painted in a white and red Lucky Strike livery and Zontas carrying a blue and yellow 555 livery. The FIA deemed the dual liveries illegal under F1 regulations which state that a teams cars must carry largely identical liveries, BAR lodged a complaint with the International Chamber of Commerce but simultaneously lodged a complaint with the European Commission. Pollock was summoned to the World Motor Sport Council to explain the team behaviour and he also apologised to the Council and reiterated his acceptance of the FIAs authority. To get around the ban BAR ran one side of their cars painted in the Lucky Strike colours, BAR reverted to a more traditional style of livery for 2000 onwards. BAR had the slogan of A tradition of excellence, which was viewed as humorous by pundits as the team had no history, Adrian Reynard also made an ambitious claim that the team would win a race in their debut season. In a disastrous maiden season BAR failed to score a point in the Constructors Championship. The car was quick and often qualified in the midfield. However the car suffered from unreliability, Villeneuve started the year with 11 straight retirementsBritish American Racing – The team had Reynard chassis and Honda engines (although in the maiden season they used Supertecs instead).
38. Luxury vehicle – Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term is also broad, highly variable and relative and it is a perceptual, conditional and subjective attribute that may be comprehended differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. Therefore, automakers differentiate among their product lines in collusion with the car-buying public, while a high price is the most frequent factor, it is styling, engineering, and even public opinion which cars had the highest and lowest status associated with them. Every era in history has had a group of car marques and models that have been expensive to purchase, due to their alleged superiority of their design. Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically termed luxury cars and this term is also used for unique vehicles produced during an era when luxury was individualistic consideration, and coachwork could be tailored to an owner like a bespoke suit. Although there is literature about specific marques, there is a lack of systematic. Luxury vehicle makers may either be stand-alone companies in their own right, such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, badge engineering is often used for cost savings, for example, the Lincoln vehicles that are based on Ford platforms or Acura models derived from Honda. Though widely used, the term luxury is broad and highly variable and it is a perceptual, conditional and subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. According to the European Commission, the luxury segment is classified as F-segment. However, the boundaries between the segments are increasingly becoming blurred and diluted as features once exclusive to luxury vehicles become standard equipment on even small cars. ACRISS is a system used by many car rental companies in the US for classifying vehicles. The system includes Luxury and Premium categories, Australia, In Australia, for taxation purposes a luxury car is defined as a passenger car whose value exceeds a certain threshold. France, In France the term voiture de luxe is used, Germany, In Germany the term Upper class is used. Russia, Russian markets use the term representative class vehicle, the classification varies, for instance Consumer Guide Automotive in the U. S. The premium compact segment is targeted at a market of consumers who found the existing entry-level luxury offerings to be too expensive. By offering a smaller, lighter, more fuel-efficient, and less expensive vehicle, premium compacts introduces younger buyers to the luxury marque, in hopes of retaining the coveted customer loyalty. This includes the Acura CSX, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW2 Series, BMW i3, Cadillac ELR, Chrysler 200, Lexus CT, Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Saab 9-2X, and the Volvo V40. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped midsize cars, and with options they overlap much with compact executive cars, Premium compacts may share components with mass market cars from the marques parent company, and/or have less sophisticated platforms compared to upmarket vehicles in the lineupLuxury vehicle – A Rolls-Royce model Phantom IV, a 1950s luxury car