1. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
2. Algeria – Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the largest in Africa. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999. Berbers are generally considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power. Energy exports are the backbone of the economy. The national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria is the founding member of the Maghreb Union. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā ` a truncated form of the older Jazā ` ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.Algeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
3. Albania – It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. The present territory of Albania was part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe following the Balkan Wars, Albania was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. A socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations from much of the international community. In 1991, the Republic of Albania was established. Albania is a parliamentary republic. Tirana, is its financial and industrial heartland, with a population of about 800,000. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and infrastructure. Albania provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is an upper-middle economy with the service sector dominating the country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, the Union for the Mediterranean. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.Albania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
4. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918. The country was incorporated as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are internationally recognized pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh, found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a semi-presidential republic. The country is a member state for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan holds membership in 38 international organizations. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006. Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. All major political forces in the country are secularist.Azerbaijan – Petroglyphs in Gobustan dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value"
5. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
6. Ankara – Ankara, formerly known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey. With 5,150,072 in its province, it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul. Ankara is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkey's road and railway networks. The city gave its name from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat, the Angora cat. The area is also known for its pears, muscat grapes. Ankara is Ottoman archaeological sites. The hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel. As with ancient cities, Ankara has gone by several names over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite cult Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate. The form "Angora" is preserved in the names of several locations in the US. 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites. Persian sovereignty lasted at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander stayed in the city for a short period. By that time the city also took its Ἄγκυρα which, in slightly modified form, provides the modern name of Ankara. Other centers were Pessinos, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, Tavium, for the Tolstibogii tribe.Ankara – From top to bottom and left to right: Atatürk's Mausoleum, Kızılay Square, Kocatepe Mosque, A general view of the city centre, Atakule Tower and Ulus Square.
7. Attila – Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and was unable to take Constantinople. He subsequently was unable to take Rome. He died in 453. After Attila's death his close Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed. There is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. The Gothic etymology can be tracked up in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were "not the true names of the Hun lords. Most powerful minister Onegesius, also have hypothetical Germanic etymology. Mikkola connected it with Turkic āt. Gerd Althoff considered it was Turkish at and dil. "The Gothic origin of the Attila is questionable," Snædal writes. "It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin". The article points out that the atta is a migratory term for "father/forefather" common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages.Attila – Portrait by Eugène Delacroix, painted between 1843 and 1847
8. Aegean Sea – The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected by the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. The Aegean Islands are within some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the Aegean. A possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek αἶγες -- aiges = "waves", hence "wavy sea", cf. also αἰγιαλός, hence meaning "sea-shore". In some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea. The Aegean Sea measures about 610 kilometres longitudinally and 300 kilometres latitudinally. The sea's maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south: Kythera, Antikythera, Crete, Kasos, Karpathos and Rhodes. Chains of islands, are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows: On the South. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles. The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea, then flows southwards along the east coast of Greece. Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a very uniform temperature and salinity.Aegean Sea – Map of the Aegean Sea
9. Anatolia – The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean Sea to the west. The mountainous plateau to the east of this line was historically known as the Armenian Highlands. Traditionally, Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. However, non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian, Greek. This geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, as well as the archeological community. Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in the Mesopotamian plain. Since then, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey. The oldest known reference to Anatolia -- as "Land of the Hatti" -- was found from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. The Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning "the East" or more literally "sunrise", comparable to the Latin derived terms "levant" and "orient". In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region. The Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή. The French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. In English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c.Anatolia – The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey
10. Alp Arslan – Alp Arslan, real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty. As Sultan, Alp Arslan greatly expanded consolidated power, defeating rivals to his northwest. His victory over the Byzantines at Manzikert ushered in the Turkish settlement of Anatolia. For his military fighting skills he obtained Alp Arslan, which means "Heroic Lion" in Turkish. Alp Arslan accompanied his uncle, Tughril Bey on campaigns in the south against the Shia Fatimids while his father, Çağrı Bey remained in Khorasan. Upon Alp Arslan's return to Khorasan, he began his work in administration at his father's suggestion. While there, his father introduced him in Alp Arslan's future vizier. After the death of his father, Alp Arslan succeeded him as governor of Khorasan in 1059. His Tughril was succeeded by Suleiman, Arslan's brother. His Kutalmish both contested this succession. Along with Nizam al-Mulk, he then marched into Armenia and Georgia, which he conquered in 1064. After a siege of 25 days, the Seljuks captured Ani, the capital city of Armenia, slaughtered its population. And the number of prisoners was not less than 50,000 souls. I was determined to enter city and see the destruction with my own eyes. I tried to find a street in which I would not have to walk over the corpses; but, impossible.Alp Arslan – Alp Arslan
11. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
12. Anaximander – Anaximander was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia. He learned the teachings of his master Thales. He became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and, arguably, Pythagoras amongst his pupils. Little of his work is known today. According to historical documents, he is the first philosopher known to have written down his studies, although only one fragment of his work remains. Fragmentary testimonies found in documents after his death provide a portrait of the man. Like many thinkers of his time, Anaximander's philosophy included contributions to many disciplines. In astronomy, he attempted to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies to the Earth. In physics, his postulation that the indefinite was the source of all things led Greek philosophy to a new level of conceptual abstraction. His knowledge of geometry allowed him to introduce the gnomon in Greece. He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography. He was sent as a leader to one of its colonies. Son of Praxiades, was born in the third year of the 42nd Olympiad. Establishing a timeline of his work is now impossible, since no document provides chronological references. A 4th-century Byzantine rhetorician, mentions that he was the "first of the known Greeks to publish a written document on nature."Anaximander – Relief representing Anaximander (Roma, Museo Nazionale Romano). Probably Roman copy of an earlier Greek original. This is the only existing image of Anaximander from the ancient world.
13. Alternate history – Alternate history or alternative history, sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently. These stories usually contain "what if" scenarios at crucial points in history and present outcomes other than those in the historical record. The stories are conjectural, but are sometimes based on scientific fact. Another term occasionally used for the genre is "allohistory". Cross-time, time-splitting, alternate history themes have become so closely interwoven that it is impossible to discuss them fully apart from one another. This neologism is based on the prefix ου- and the Greek χρόνος, meaning "time." A uchronia means literally " no time." This term apparently also inspired the name of the alternate history book list, uchronia.net. Several genres of fiction have been misidentified as alternate history. Alternate history is related to, but distinct from, counterfactual history. The earliest example of alternate history is found in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita Libri. Livy concluded that the Romans would likely have defeated Alexander. He saves the city from Islamic conquest, even chases the Turks deeper into lands they had previously conquered. In the English language, the first complete alternate history is "P.'s Correspondence," published in 1845. The alternate history in English would seem to be Castello Holford's Aristopia.Alternate history – The world in 1964 in the novel Fatherland where the Germans won World War II.
14. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, cultural life in Greece. In 2015, Athens was ranked the world's 29th richest city by the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. The municipality of Athens had a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the medieval Daphni Monastery. 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. In an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. Different etymologies, commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century.Athens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
15. Antoninus Pius – Antoninus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva -- the Aurelii. He was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. He was born as the only child of consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus. The Aurelii Fulvii were therefore a relatively senatorial family from Gallia Narbonensis whose rise to prominence was supported by the Flavians. The link between their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. His mother was Arria Fadilla. The Arrii Antoninii were an older senatorial family from Italy, very influential during Nerva's reign. Some time between 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They are believed to have enjoyed a happy marriage. Faustina was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Despite rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two daughters. They were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found in Rome. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome.Antoninus Pius – Bust of Antoninus Pius, at Glyptothek, Munich.
16. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
17. Anazarbus – Anazarbus was an ancient Cilician city and bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic Titular See. A lofty isolated ridge formed its acropolis. It was founded by Assyrians. Under the early Roman empire the place was known as Caesarea, was the Metropolis of Late Roman province Cilicia Secunda. It was the home of the poet Oppian. In late 1097 or early 1098 it was captured by the armies of the First Crusade and was incorporated into Bohemond’s Principality of Antioch. The Crusaders are probably responsible for the construction of an impressive donjon atop the center of the outcrop. 1111. The site briefly exchanged hands between the Greeks and Armenians, until it was formally part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Within the fortress are two Armenian chapels and the magnificent three-aisle church built by T‛oros I to celebrate his conquests. The church was once surrounded by a continuous, well-executed dedicatory inscription in Armenian. The Mamluk Empire of Egypt finally destroyed the city in 1374. The present wall of the lower city is of late construction. It encloses a mass of ruins conspicuous in which are a fine triumphal arch, the colonnades of two streets, a gymnasium, etc. A stadium and a theatre lie outside the walls to the south.Anazarbus – The triumphal arch of Anazarbus was later converted to the city's South Gate.
18. Ambracia – Ambracia, was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta. After the expulsion of Gorgus's Periander its government developed into a strong democracy. The early policy of Ambracia was its consequent aversion to Corcyra. Ambraciot politics featured many frontier disputes with the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. Hence it took a prominent part until the crushing defeat at Idomene, which crippled its resources. In 338 was besieged by Philip II of Macedon. With the assistance of Corinth and Athens, it was nevertheless forced to accept a Macedonian garrison. During the struggle of the Aetolians against Rome, it stood a stubborn siege, including the known use of poison gas against the Romans' siege tunnels. The foundation by Augustus of Nicopolis, into which the remaining inhabitants were drafted, left the site desolate. In Byzantine times a new settlement took its place under the name of Arta. Some fragmentary walls of well-dressed blocks near this latter town indicate the early prosperity of Ambracia. "Ambracia". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Ambracia – Ambracia in antiquity
19. Anno Domini – The terms anno Domini and before Christ are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The anno Domini is Medieval Latin, often translated as in the year of our Lord. It is occasionally set out more fully as anno Domini nostri Iesu Christi. Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor introduced the AD system in AD 525, counting the years since the birth of Christ. There is no zero in this scheme, so AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525, but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the "AD" abbreviation before the year number. However, BC is placed after the year number, which also preserves syntactic order. The abbreviation is also widely used after the number of a millennium, as in "fourth AD" or "second millennium AD". Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e. after the death of Jesus. ISO 8601 use the same numbers for AD years. The Anno Domini dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table. The last year of Diocletian 247, was immediately followed by the first year of AD 532. Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' Incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred.Anno Domini – Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter.
20. Agate – Agate /ˈæɡət/ is a cryptocrystalline variety of silica, chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they can be common in certain metamorphic rocks. Other chalcedonies were obtained over 3,000 years ago from the Achates River, now called Dirillo. Agate has also been known to fill cracks in volcanic or altered rock underlain by granitic intrusive masses. Such agates, when cut transversely, exhibit a succession of parallel lines, often of extreme tenuity, giving a banded appearance to the section. Such stones are known as banded agate, striped agate. Perhaps the most comprehensive review of agate chemistry is a recent text by Moxon cited below. This green silicate may give rise by alteration to a brown oxide, producing a rusty appearance on the outside of the agate-nodule. The outer surface of an agate, freed from its matrix, is often rough, apparently in consequence of the removal of the original coating. The first spread over the wall of the cavity has been called the "priming", upon this base, zeolitic minerals may be deposited. When the matrix in which the agates are embedded disintegrates, they are set free. The agates are deposited as gravel in streams and along shorelines. A Mexican agate, showing only a single eye, has received the name of cyclops agate. Dendritic agates have fern like patterns in them formed due to the presence of iron oxides. Other types of included matter deposited during agate-building include sagenitic chunks of entrapped detritus.Agate – Banded agate (agate-like onyx); the specimen is 2.5 cm (0.98 in) wide
21. Akkadian Empire – The empire united all the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC. The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though there are earlier Sumerian claimants. However Nimrod was a Hebrew name and it's unclear what his Sumerian identity was. Many have pointed out similarities with the legend of Gilgamesh who founded Uruk, said to be the city Nimrod came to power. Today, some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period alone are known, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many later texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia also deal with the Akkadian Empire. Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts. Likewise, material, thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period. The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated. The Akkadian period is generally dated to 2350–2170 BC according to the Middle Chronology, or 2230–2050 BC according to the Short chronology. It was preceded by the Early Dynastic period and succeeded by the Ur III period, although both transitions are blurry.Akkadian Empire – Map of the Akkadian Empire (brown) and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows)
22. Alaric I – Alaric I was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son of chieftain Rothestes. Alaric is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire. Alaric began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas and later joined the Roman army. In 394 he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus. Despite sacrificing around 10,000 of his men, Alaric received little recognition from the Emperor. Disappointed, he left the army and was elected reiks of the Visigoths in 395, marched toward Constantinople until he was diverted by Roman forces. He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus and destroyed Corinth, Megara, Argos, Sparta. As a response, the Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius appointed Alaric magister militum in Illyricum. He was defeated on April 6, 402. During Radagaisus' Italian invasion in 406, Alaric remained idle in Illyria. In 408, Western Emperor Flavius Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho and his family, amid rumours that the general had made a deal with Alaric. Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of foederati Goths serving in the Roman military. Subsequently, around 30,000 Gothic soldiers defected to Alaric, joined his march on Rome to avenge their murdered families. Moving swiftly along Roman roads, Alaric sacked the cities of Aquileia and Cremona and ravaged the lands along the Adriatic Sea. The Visigothic leader thereupon laid siege to Rome in 408.Alaric I – Illustration from the 1920s depicting Alaric parading through Athens after conquering the city in 395
23. Alboin – Alboin was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their migrations by settling in the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. After gathering a large coalition of peoples, Alboin crossed the Julian Alps in 568, entering an almost undefended Italy. He rapidly took control of most of Venetia and Liguria. In 569, unopposed, he took Milan. Pavia was taken only after a siege lasting three years. Alboin was assassinated on June 572, in a coup d'état instigated by the Byzantines. For many centuries following his death his success in battle were celebrated in Saxon and Bavarian epic poetry. Seven years later Walthari died, giving the opportunity to crown himself and overthrow the reigning Lethings. Alboin was probably born in the 530s in Pannonia, his wife, Rodelinda. She may have betrothed to Audoin through the mediation of Emperor Justinian. Alboin took as his first wife the Christian Chlothsind, daughter of the Frankish King Chlothar. The new Frankish alliance was important because of the Franks' known hostility to the Byzantine empire, providing the Lombards with more than one option. Alboin first distinguished himself with the Gepids. For this initiation, he went to the court of Thurisind, where the Gepid king gave Turismod's arms.Alboin – Woodcut vignette of Alboin in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
24. Severus Alexander – Severus Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of his mother. As emperor, Alexander's peace reign was prosperous. However, militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. This led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him. Under the influence of his mother, he did much to enhance the dignity of the state. Alexander employed noted jurists to oversee the administration such as the famous jurist Ulpian. Alexander also created a municipal council of 14 who assisted the urban prefect in administering the affairs of the 14 districts of Rome. In religious matters, he preserved an open mind. It was dissuaded by the pagan priests. In legal matters, he did much to aid the rights of his soldiers. Alexander confirmed that soldiers could name anyone as heirs in their will, whereas civilians had strict restrictions over who could receive a legacy. He also confirmed that soldiers could free their slaves in their wills. On the whole, Alexander's reign was prosperous until the rise, in the east, of the Sassanids under Ardashir I. Of the war that followed there are various accounts.Severus Alexander – Bust of Severus Alexander
25. Alexios I Komnenos – Alexios I Komnenos, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. The basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were also the catalyst that likely contributed to the convoking of the Crusades. Alexios was the son of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena, the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos. Alexios' father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, thus succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes, Alexios served with distinction against the Seljuq Turks. In 1074, western mercenaries led by Roussel de Bailleul rebelled in Asia Minor, but Alexios successfully subdued them by 1076. In 1078, he was appointed commander of the field army in the West by Nikephoros III. Alexios was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nikephoros Melissenos in Asia Minor but refused to fight his kinsman. While Byzantine troops were assembling for the expedition, the Doukas faction at court approached Alexios and convinced him to join a conspiracy against Nikephoros III. The mother of Alexios, Anna Dalassena, was to play a prominent role in this coup d'état of 1081, along with the current empress, Maria of Alania. First married to Michael VII Doukas and secondly to Nikephoros III Botaneiates, she was preoccupied with the future of her son by Michael VII, Constantine Doukas. Furthermore, to aid the conspiracy Maria had adopted Alexios as her son, though she was only five years older than he. Maria was persuaded to do so on the advice of her own "Alans" and her eunuchs, instigated by Isaac Komnenos.Alexios I Komnenos – Portrait of Emperor Alexios I, from a Greek manuscript
26. Alexios II Komnenos – Alexios II Komnenos or Alexius II Comnenus was Byzantine emperor from 1180 to 1183. He was the son of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and Maria, prince of Antioch. He was named Alexius as a fulfilment of the AIMA prophecy. On Manuel's death in 1180, Maria, who became a nun under the Xene, took the position of regent. She excluded her young son from power, entrusting it instead to Alexios the prōtosebastos, popularly believed to be her lover. He overthrew the government. His arrival was celebrated in Constantinople, especially the Venetian merchants, which he made no attempt to stop. Kilij Arslan II invaded the empire in 1182, resulting in the Empire losing Cotyaeum and Sozopolis. Alexios is a character in the historical novel Agnes of France by Greek writer Kostas Kyriazis. The novel Andronikos I through the eyes of Agnes. List of Byzantine emperors Pseudo-Alexios II Harris, Jonathan, the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed. Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών. Thessaloniki: Byzantine Research Centre. , Vols. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..Alexios II Komnenos – Alexios II from Guillaume Rouillé 's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum
27. Alexios III Angelos – Alexios III Angelos was Byzantine Emperor from March 1195 to July 17/18, 1203. A member of Alexios came to throne after deposing, blinding, imprisoning his younger brother Isaac II Angelos. The most significant event of his reign was the attack of the Fourth Crusade on Constantinople in 1203, on behalf of Alexios IV Angelos. Alexios III took over the defense of the city, which he mismanaged, then fled the city with one of his three daughters. From Adrianople, then Mosynopolis, he unsuccessfully attempted only to end up a captive of Marquis Boniface of Montferrat. Alexios III Angelos was the second son of Andronikos Doukas Angelos and Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa. Andronikos was a son of Theodora Komnene Angelina, the youngest daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. Thus Alexios Angelos was a member of the imperial family. Isaac was threatened with execution under orders of Andronikos I, their first-cousin once-removed, on September 11, 1185. Isaac killed their leader Stephen Hagiochristophorites. He then took refuge from there appealed to the populace. His actions provoked a riot, which resulted as Emperor. Alexios was now closer to the imperial throne than before. By 1190 Alexios had returned from whom he received the elevated title of sebastokratōr. These actions inevitably led to the financial ruin of the state.Alexios III Angelos – Alexios III from Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum
28. Alexios V Doukas – He was a member of the Doukas family, overhanging a sullen, gloomy character. Isaac II, along with his son Alexios IV Angelos, were restored to the throne through the intervention of leaders of the Fourth Crusade in July 1203. Released, Murtzuphlus was allowed the court position of protovestiarios. He was allegedly the lover of a daughter of Emperor Alexios III Angelos. Alexios Doukas emerged as a leader of the anti-Latin movement and personally led some skirmishes against the crusaders. Instead, Alexios Doukas used his access to the palace to arrest the emperors. The young Alexios IV was strangled in prison, while his father Isaac died afterwards, his death variously attributed to fright, foul play. Alexios V Doukas was crowned in early February 1204. After his coronation, Alexios V began to strengthen the defenses of Constantinople and ended negotiations with the Latins. It was too late, however, for the new Emperor to make much of a difference. An attempted attack against the camp failed despite the Emperor's personal leadership. During the ensuing fight, the defenders of Constantinople held out against the crusader counterattack of 9 April. Constantinople was under Latin control by the next day. The refugees reached the base of Alexios III Angelos, where they were initially well received, with Alexios V marrying Eudokia Angelina. However, Alexios III arranged for his new son-in-law to be blinded, making him ineligible for the imperial throne.Alexios V Doukas – Alexios V, from an illuminated manuscript
29. Algiers – Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. The two quays form a triangle. The rue la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid -- Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.Algiers – Clockwise: Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, Martyrs Memorial, Notre Dame d'Afrique, Ketchaoua Mosque, Casbah, the Grand Post Office and the Ministry of Finance of Algeria
30. Almoravid dynasty – The Almoravids were a Berber imperial dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, their capital was Marrakesh, a city they founded in 1062. This enabled them to control an empire that stretched 3,000 kilometers north to south. However, the rule of the dynasty was relatively short-lived. The Almoravids fell—at the height of their power—when they failed to quell the Masmuda-led rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. The term is related to the notion of Ribat, a frontier monastery-fortress, through the root r-b-t. Ibn Zallu sent his student Abdallah ibn Yasin to preach Malikite Islam to the Sanhaja Berbers of the Adrar. It is uncertain exactly when or why the Almoravids acquired that appellation. Al-Bakri, writing in 1068, before their apex, already calls them the al-Murabitun, but does not clarify the reasons for it. 1054, in which they had taken many losses. Contemporaries frequently referred to them as the al-mulathimun. The Almoravids veiled themselves below the eyes with a tagelmust, a custom they adapted from southern Sanhaja Berbers. It served as the uniform of the Almoravids. Under their rule, sumptuary laws forbade anybody else from wearing the veil, thereby making it the distinctive dress of the ruling class. In turn, the succeeding Almohads made a point of mocking the Almoravid veil as symbolic of effeminacy and decadence.Almoravid dynasty – Almoravid gold dinar coin from Seville, Spain, 1116. (British Museum). The Almoravid gold dinar would set the standard of the Iberian maravedi.
31. Amathus – Its ancient cult of Aphrodite was the most important, in her homeland, though the ruins of Amathus are less well-preserved than neighboring Kourion. The pre-history of Amathus mixes myth and archaeology. Though there was no city on the site, archaeology has detected human activity, evident from the earliest Iron Age, c. 1100 BC. The city's legendary founder was Cinyras, linked with the birth of Adonis, who called the city after his mother Amathous. According to Plutarch's source, Amathousians called the sacred grove where her shrine was situated the Wood of Aphrodite Ariadne. More purely Hellenic myth would have Amathus settled instead by one of the sons of Heracles, thus accounting for the fact that he was worshiped there. It was said in antiquity that the people of Amathus were autochthonous, or "Pelasgian". Amathus was built on the coastal cliffs with a natural harbor and flourished at an early date, soon requiring several cemeteries. Greeks from Euboea left their pottery from the 10th BC. A special ground for a tophet served the culture of the Phoenicians. The excavators discovered the final stage of the Temple of Aphrodite, also known as Aphrodisias, which dates approximately to the 1st century BC. The earliest remains hitherto found on the site are tombs of the early Iron Age period of Graeco-Phoenician influences. Amathus is identified with Kartihadasti in the Cypriote tribute-list of Esarhaddon of Assyria. Herodotus reports "Because he had besieged them, the Amathusians cut off Onesilos’ head and brought it to Amathous, where they hung it above the gates. As it hung there empty, a swarm of bees entered it and filled it with honeycomb.Amathus – 5th century BC sarcophagus found in Amathus integrates Greek, Cypriot, and Oriental features
32. Amazons – In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a race of women warriors. Scythian women were the real-world basis for the myth. Herodotus reported that they were placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia. Other historiographers place them in Anatolia, or sometimes Libya. Amazon warriors were often depicted with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art. The Amazons have become associated throughout the Roman Empire period and Late Antiquity. In Roman historiography, there are various accounts of Amazon raids in Anatolia. From the modern period, their name has become a term for female warriors in general. The origin of the word is uncertain. Πέρσαι», where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make". Alternatively, a Greek derivation from *ṇ-mṇ-gw-jon-es "manless, without husbands" has been proposed, an explanation deemed "unlikely" by Hjalmar Frisk. 19th scholarship also connected the term to the ethnonym Amazigh. A further explanation proposes Iranian ama-janah "virility-killing" as source. He brings its residents in direct relation to the Amazons, namely based on its customs. The location of that land well as his conclusions are controversial.Amazons – Wounded Amazon of the Capitol, Rome.
33. Abu Bakr – Abū Bakr ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah aṣ-Ṣiddīq popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a senior companion and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family. He served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, Abu Bakr was involved in several treaties. Abu Bakr ruled from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, he succeeded to the administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. Abu Bakr was commonly known as The Truthful. Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 14 days ending with his death after an illness. The lineage of Abu Bakr joined that of Muhammad in the eighth degree in their common ancestor Murrah ibn Ka'b. In Arabic, the name Abd Allah means "servant of Allah". One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to Islam, was atiqe, "the saved one". Muhammad later reaffirmed this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the "atiqe". There is a dispute over his name being Abdullah. Ibn Hajar in Al-Isaabah, vol. P. 146 and many other narrations, narrates from Qasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr, "I asked Ayesha the name of Abu Bakr.Abu Bakr – Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa)
34. Ammon – Ammon was an Iron Age Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan. The chief city of the country was site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital. Milcom and Molech are named as the gods of Ammon. The people of this kingdom are called "Children of Ammon" or "Ammonites". The first mention of the Ammonites in the Bible is in Genesis -38. It is stated there that they descended from Ben-Ammi, a son of Lot with his younger daughter. Bén'ámmî, literally means "son of my people". Their territory originally comprising all to the River Arnon. It was accounted a land of giants; and that giants formerly dwelt in it, whom the Ammonites called "Zomzommims". Shortly before the Israelite Exodus, the Amorites west under King Sihon, invaded and occupied a large portion of the territory of Moab and Ammon. The Ammonites were retreated to the mountains and valleys to the east. The invasion of the Amorites separated the two kingdoms of Ammon and Moab. Throughout the Bible, the Ammonites and Israelites are portrayed as mutual antagonists. During the Exodus, the Israelites were prohibited from passing through their lands. The Ammonites soon allied themselves in attacking Israel.Ammon – An Ammonite watch tower at Rujm Al-Malfouf in Amman
35. Ammonius Hermiae – Ammonius Hermiae was a Greek philosopher, the son of the Neoplatonist philosophers Hermias and Aedesia. He taught for most of his life, writing commentaries on Plato, Aristotle, other philosophers. Hermias, died when his brother, Heliodorus, in Alexandria. When they reached adulthood, Aedesia accompanied her sons to Athens where they studied under Proclus. Eventually, they returned to Alexandria, where Ammonius, as head of the Neoplatonist school in Alexandria, lectured on Plato and Aristotle for the rest of his life. He was still teaching in 515; Olympiodorus heard him lecture on Plato's Gorgias in that year. He also taught Asclepius of Tralles, John Philoponus, Damascius and Simplicius. He was also an accomplished astronomer; he lectured on Ptolemy and is known to have written a treatise on the astrolabe. Of his reputedly numerous writings, only his commentary on Aristotle's De Interpretatione survives intact. It contains later interpolations. In De Interpretatione, Ammonius contends that divine foreknowledge makes void the contingent. Like Boëthius in his second Commentary and The Consolation of Philosophy, this argument maintains the effectiveness of prayer. Ammonius cites Iamblichus who said "knowledge is intermediate between the knower and the known, since it is the activity of the knower concerning the known." Ammonius: On Aristotle Categories, translated by S. M. Cohen and G. B. Matthews.Ammonius Hermiae – First page of the first edition of the Isagoge commentary, Venice 1500
36. Amphipolis – Amphipolis is best known for the magnificent ancient Greek city, later Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen. Excavations around the city have revealed important buildings, ancient walls and tombs. At the vast Kasta burial mound, an important ancient Macedonian tomb has recently been revealed. The beautiful "Lion of Amphipolis" monument nearby is a popular destination for visitors. It is today a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece. The seat of the municipality is Rodolivos. A second attempt took place under the guidance of Hagnon, son of Nicias, successful. Its first walls date from this time. The new settlement took the name of a name, the subject of much debate about its etymology. However, a more probable explanation is the one given by Julius Pollux: that the name indicates the vicinity of an isthmus. Amphipolis became the main base of the Athenians in Thrace and, consequently, a target of choice for their Spartan adversaries. The Athenian population remained much in the minority in the city. For this reason Amphipolis remained an ally of the Athenians, rather than a colony or member of the confederacy. However, in 424 BC the general Brasidas easily took control of the city. Brasidas was buried at Amphipolis with impressive pomp.Amphipolis – Amphipolis
37. Andronikos III Palaiologos – Andronikos III Palaiologos, commonly Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341. Born Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos, he was the son of Michael IX Palaiologos and Rita of Armenia. In April 1321 he rebelled to his grandfather, Andronikos II Palaiologos. He was formally crowned co-emperor before becoming sole emperor on 24 May 1328. Andronikos was born in the 38th birthday of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos. Michael IX Palaiologos, began reigning in imperial style as co-emperor circa 1295. In March 1318, Andronikos married Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen. In circa 1321 she gave birth to a son, who died in infancy. In 1320, Andronikos accidentally caused the death of his brother Manuel, after which their father, co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos, died in his grief. Andronikos then waged the civil war of 1321 -- 28 against his reigning grandfather, who granted him to reign as co-emperor Andronikos III. Empress Irene died on 16/17 August 1324 with no surviving child. Theodora Palaiologina, sister of Andronikos III, married the new tsar Michael Shishman of Bulgaria in 1324. Andronikos III, then a widower, married Anna of Savoy in October 1326. In 1327 she gave birth to Maria Palaiologina. Andronikos III concluded the Treaty of Chernomen of an alliance against Stephen Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia.Andronikos III Palaiologos – Andronikos III Palaiologos, 14th century miniature. Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek
38. Andronikos II Palaiologos – Andronikos II Palaiologos, usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328. He was the eldest surviving son of grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes. Andronikos II was born Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos at Nicaea. He wasn't crowned until 1272. Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties. During his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously, while the treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue that it had previously. Later, in 1320, he failed. Andronikos II Palaiologos sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire through diplomacy. Andronikos II had resettled those Cretans in the region of Meander river, the southeastern Asia Minor frontier of Byzantium with the Turks. In spite of some successes, the Catalans were unable to secure lasting gains. There they conquered the Duchy of Athens and Thebes. Prusa fell in 1326. Also, Karasids conquered Mysia-region after 1296, Germiyan conquered Simav in 1328, Saruhan captured Magnesia in 1313, Aydinids captured Smyrna in 1310. The Empire's problems were exploited by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, who conquered much of northeastern Thrace in c. 1305 -- 07. 1305–07.Andronikos II Palaiologos – Painting of Andronikos II
39. Andronikos I Komnenos – Andronikos I Komnenos, usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185. He was the son of Isaac Komnenos and the grandson of the emperor Alexios I. Andronikos Komnenos was born around 1118. Andronikos was handsome and eloquent, active, courageous, a great general and an able politician, but also licentious. His early years were spent alternately in military service. In 1141 Andronikos remained in their hands for a year. Here the charms of Eudoxia, attracted him and she became his mistress. In 1152, accompanied by Eudoxia, Andronikos set out for an important command in Cilicia. Failing upon Mopsuestia, Andronikos returned but was again appointed to the command of a province. About 1153, he was thrown in prison. After repeated unsuccessful attempts, Andronikos escaped in 1165. Including captivity in Vlach territory, Andronikos reached Kiev, where his cousin Yaroslav Osmomysl of Galicia held court. He received the province of Cilicia. Still under the displeasure of the Emperor, he fled to the court of Raymond, Prince of Antioch. While residing here Andronikos seduced the beautiful daughter of the Prince, Philippa, sister of the Empress Maria.Andronikos I Komnenos – Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos
40. Apuleius – Apuleius was a Latin-language prose writer. He was a Numidian, from Madauros. He studied Platonism in Athens, was an initiate in several cults or mysteries. The most famous incident in his life was when he was accused of using magic to gain the attentions of a wealthy widow. This is known as the Apologia. His most famous work is the Metamorphoses, otherwise known as The Golden Ass. It is the only Latin novel that has survived in its entirety. It relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, accidentally turned into a donkey. He described himself as "half-Numidian half-Gaetulian." Details regarding his life come mostly from his defense speech and his work Florida, which consists of snippets taken from some of his best speeches. His father was a provincial magistrate who bequeathed at his death the sum of nearly million sesterces to his two sons. Apuleius studied at Athens where he studied Platonist philosophy among other subjects. He also travelled extensively in Asia Minor and Egypt, burning up his inheritance while doing so. Apuleius was an initiate including the Dionysian Mysteries. According to Augustine, sacerdos provinciae Africae.Apuleius – Depiction of Apuleius
41. Archimedes – Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding statics, including an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed despite orders that he should not be harmed. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. The date of birth is based by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years. In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his father's name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to the ruler of Syracuse. This work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure. It is unknown, for instance, whether he ever had children. During his youth, Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries. He referred as his friend while two of his works have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes. According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. He declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem.Archimedes – Archimedes Thoughtful by Fetti (1620)
42. Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric was King of Jerusalem from 1163, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. He was the second son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem, succeeded his older brother Baldwin III. During his reign, Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, the two states launched an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt. Meanwhile, the Muslim territories surrounding Jerusalem began to be united under Nur ad-Din and later Saladin. He was the father of three future rulers of Jerusalem, Sibylla, Baldwin IV, Isabella I. Now scholars recognize that the two names were not the same and no longer add the number for either king. Confusion between the two names was common even among contemporaries. Melisende did not step down when Baldwin came of age two years later, by 1150 the two were becoming increasingly hostile towards each other. In 1152 Baldwin had himself crowned sole king, civil war broke out, with Melisende retaining Jerusalem while Baldwin held territory further north. Melisende was defeated in this struggle and Baldwin ruled alone thereafter. In 1153 Baldwin captured the Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, then added to Amalric's fief of Jaffa. Amalric married Agnes of Courtenay in 1157. Agnes, daughter of Joscelin II of Edessa, had lived in Jerusalem since the western regions of the former crusader County of Edessa were lost in 1150. Agnes bore Amalric three children: Sibylla, the future Baldwin IV, Alix, who died in childhood. Nevertheless, consanguinity was enough for the opposition.Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric
43. Aimery of Cyprus – Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus from 1196 to 1205. Aimery was also King of Jerusalem by virtue of being the husband of Isabella I of Jerusalem, from 1197 to 1205. Aimery was the younger son of Hugh VIII of a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in 1168, Aimery went to the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. His marriage to Eschiva of Ibelin strengthened his position in the kingdom. Guy of Lusignan, married Sibylla, the sister of and heir to Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Baldwin made Aimery Constable of Jerusalem around 1180. Henry of Champagne, arrested him for a short period. After his release, Aimery retired to Jaffa, the fief of Geoffrey of Lusignan, who had left the Holy Land. After Guy died in May 1194, his vassals in Cyprus elected Aimery as their lord. Aimery accepted the suzerainty of Henry VI. With the emperor's authorization, he was crowned King of Cyprus in September 1197. Aimery soon married Henry of Isabella I of Jerusalem. His wife were crowned king and queen of Jerusalem in January 1198. Aimery signed a truce with the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, which secured the Christian possession of the coastline from Acre to Antioch.Aimery of Cyprus – Godfrey *
44. Anthemius of Tralles – Anthemius of Tralles was a Greek from Tralles who worked as a geometer and architect in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. With Isidore of Miletus, he designed the Hagia Sophia for Justinian I. Anthemius was one of the five sons of Stephanus of Tralles, a physician. His brothers were Metrodorus. In addition to his familiarity with steam, some dubious authorities credited Anthemius with a knowledge of other explosive compound. Anthemius was a capable mathematician. This work was later known to Arab mathematicians such as Alhazen. Eutocius's commentary on Apollonius's Conics was dedicated to Anthemius. As an architect, Anthemius is best known for his work designing the Hagia Sophia. He is also said to have repaired the flood defenses at Daras. Other Anthemiuses "Anthemius", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. II, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, p. 103. "Anthemius", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. II, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911, p. 93. Boyer, Carl Benjamin, A History of Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-54397-7. Editions of Anthemius's "On Burning-Glasses": Dupuy, L. Περί παραδόξων μηχανημάτων. Histoire de l'Academie des Instrumentistes, XLII.Anthemius of Tralles – The Hagia Sophia in cross section.