1. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility. Usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as symbols of power. Many castles were originally built from timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, relying on a central keep. In the late early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led with an emphasis on flanking fire. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to dominate their landscape. As a result, true castles were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, country houses that were indefensible. The castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning "fortified place". The castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is "a fortified residence". Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, domestic. As well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in territory.Castle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
2. Artillery – Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army's total firepower. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. The projectiles fired are typically either "shot" or "shell". "Shell" is a widely used generic term for a projectile, a component of munitions. By association, artillery may also refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines. These are usually operated by one or more of the artillery arms. Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry, cavalry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships. The early 20th Century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft: anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament currently employed, has been since at least the early Industrial Revolution. The majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, World War II were caused by artillery. In 1944, Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was "the God of War".Artillery – French naval piece of the late 19th century
3. Arnulf of Carinthia – After Arnulf's birth, Carloman married, before a daughter of that same Count Ernst, who died after 8 August 879. From later events it may be inferred that the Carantanians, from an early time, treated him as their own Duke. However, Bavaria was less ruled by Arnulf. The division of the realm was confirmed after Carloman's death. This put him at war with Svatopluk of Moravia. Arnulf refused to give up the young Wilhelminers. Arnulf did not make peace until late 885, by which time Moravian ruler was loyal to the emperor. Some scholars see this war as destroying Arnulf's hopes at succeeding the Fat. Arnulf took the leading role in the deposition of Emperor Charles the Fat. With the support of the Frankish nobles, Arnulf called a Diet at Tribur and deposed Charles under threat of military action. Arnulf, having distinguished himself in the war against the Slavs, was then elected king by the nobles of East Francia. The Kingdom of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Italy at this point elected their own kings from the Carolingian family. Like all Germanic rulers, he was heavily involved in ecclesiastical disputes. Arnulf was fighter, not a negotiator. In 890 he was successfully battling Slavs in Pannonia.Arnulf of Carinthia – Arnulf of Carinthia
4. Abatis – The trees are usually tied with wire. Abatis are used alone or in combination with other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as recently as the American Civil War. A classic use of an abatis was during the Seven Years' War. The French troops defeated a massive army of 16,000 British and Colonial troops by fronting their defensive positions with an extremely dense abatis. The British were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties. An important weakness in contrast to barbed wire, is that it can be destroyed by fire. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be quickly formed in forested areas. This can be done by simply cutting down a row of trees so that they fall toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives as to blow the trees down. Abatis are rarely seen nowadays, having been largely replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may supplement when barbed wire is in short supply. A form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an anti-tank obstacle. Though rarely used by modern military units, abatises are still officially maintained in United States Army and Marine Corps training. Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the length of roadway covered be at least 80 yards.Abatis – Abatis improvised by Japanese troops during World War II
5. Abergavenny – Abergavenny is a market town in Monmouthshire, Wales. It is located 6 miles from the English border. Originally the site of Gobannium, it became a walled town within the Welsh marches. The town contains the remains of a medieval stone castle built soon after the Norman conquest of Wales. The town hosted the 2016 National Eisteddfod of Wales. Abergavenny is promoted as a "Gateway to Wales". It provides access to the nearby Black Mountains and the Brecon Beacons National Park. The Marches Way, Usk Valley Walk all pass through the town. The name relates in iron smelting. The name is related to the modern Welsh gof, so is also associated from folklore. The river later became, in Welsh, Gafenni, the town's name became Abergavenny, meaning "mouth of the Gavenny". It was also built to keep the peace among the local British Iron Age tribe, the Silures. Abergavenny grew as a town in early Norman times under the protection of the Lords of Abergavenny. He founded the Benedictine priory, now the Priory Church of St Mary, in the late 11th century. The Priory belonged originally to the Benedictine foundation of St. Vincent Abbaye at Le Mans.Abergavenny – Abergavenny town centre, showing the Market Hall and town hall clock tower
6. Bornholm – Arts and crafts such as glass production and pottery using locally worked clay. Tourism is important during the summer. There is an especially large number on the island. The island is called Klippeøen because of its geology. The weather is quite warm until October. Strategically located in the Baltic Sea, Bornholm has been fought over for centuries. It has usually been ruled by Denmark, but also by Lübeck and Sweden. The ruin at the northwestern tip of the island, is the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, testament to the importance of its location. Bornholm Regional Municipality, established January 2003 by the merger of Bornholm County with 5 municipalities, covers the entire island. Bornholm was one of the three Danish municipalities not belonging to a county -- the others were Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. On 1 the municipality lost its short-lived county status and became part of the Capital Region of Denmark. The island is 14/45 and 15/11 eastern longitude. It typically takes 3 hours for passengers and freight to travel in Sweden. There is a departure strictly reserved for freight of goods between Rønne and Køge. Travel time for the freight ferry route is:?.Bornholm – Bornholm's coastline
7. Battle – A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, commitment. Military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility. German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that "the employment of battles... to achieve the object of war" was the essence of strategy. Where the duration of the battle is longer than a week, it is often for reasons of staff operational planning called an operation. Battles can be planned, forced by one force on the other when the latter is unable to withdraw from combat. A battle always has as its purpose the reaching by use of military force. However, a battle may end in a Pyrrhic victory, which ultimately favors the defeated party. If no resolution is reached in a battle, it can result in a stalemate. A conflict in which one side is unwilling to reach a decision by a direct battle using conventional warfare often becomes an insurgency. Until the 19th century the majority of battles were of short duration, many lasting a part of a day. This was mainly due to the difficulty of conducting night operations. The means of prolonging a battle was typically by employment of warfare. Trench warfare had become largely obsolete in conflicts between advanced armies by the start of the Second World War.Battle – The Battle of Poltava between Russia and Sweden, by Denis Martens the Younger
8. Broch – A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland. Brochs belong to the classification "complex roundhouse" devised by Scottish archaeologists in the 1980s. Their origin is a matter of some controversy. Although most stand alone in the landscape, some examples exist of brochs surrounded by clusters of smaller dwellings. The broch is derived from Lowland Scots ` brough', meaning fort. In the mid-19th century Scottish antiquaries called brochs ` burgs', with the same meaning. Place names in Scandinavian Scotland such as Burgawater and Burgan show that Old Norse borg is the older word used for these structures in the north. Brochs are often referred to as'duns' in the west. Antiquaries began to use the spelling'broch' in the 1870s. A precise definition for the word has proved elusive. Brochs are the most spectacular of a complex class of roundhouse buildings found throughout Atlantic Scotland. Researcher Euan MacKie has proposed a much smaller total for Scotland of 104. The origin of brochs is a subject of continuing research. A few may be earlier, notably the one proposed for Old Scatness Broch in Shetland, where a bone dating to 390 -- 200 BC has been reported. There are also a great many examples in the west of Scotland and the Hebrides.Broch – Dun Carloway broch, Lewis, Scotland
9. Citadel – A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a fortress, fortified center. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the system. A citadel is also a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defense before the keep itself. Some of the oldest known structures which have served as citadels were built by harappan, where the citadel represented a centralised authority. The main citadel in Indus Valley was almost 12 meters tall. The purpose of these structures, however, remains debated. Though the structures found in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive against enemy attacks. Rather, they may have been built to divert flood waters. Nearly every Greek city-state had one -- the Acrocorinth famed as a particularly strong fortress. One such incident played an important part against the Seleucid Empire. A city where the citadel held out against an invading army was not considered conquered. In the Philippines The Ivatan people of the northern islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They elevated areas.These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose.Citadel – In this seventeenth-century plan of the fortified city of Casale Monferrato the citadel is the large star-shaped structure on the left.
10. Catalonia – Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, Tarragona. Largest city is Barcelona, the core of the seventh-most populous urban area in the European Union. Catalonia comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, with the remainder Rosselló. The official languages are the Aranese dialect of Occitan. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal the Count of Barcelona, were later called Catalonia. In the later Middle Ages Catalan literature flourished. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the Royal army in its territory, becoming a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, at a high economic costs for Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century Catalonia experienced industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained some political and cultural autonomy and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain.Catalonia – A Roman aqueduct in Tarragona.
11. Cannon – A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellants to launch a projectile, which may or may not be explosive. The cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed. First invented in China, cannon were among the earliest forms of artillery, over time replaced siege engines -- among other forms of ageing weaponry -- on the battlefield. The first cannon in Europe were by the mid-13th century. It was during the Middle Ages, that cannon became standardized, more effective in both the anti-infantry and siege roles. After the Middle Ages most large cannon were abandoned in favour of greater numbers of more maneuverable pieces. Cannon also transformed naval warfare in the modern period, as European navies took advantage of their firepower. In World War I, the majority of combat fatalities were caused by artillery; they were also used widely in World War II. Cannon was widely known as the earliest form of a artillery, before early firearms were invented. The word has been used to refer to 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom. Cannon in general have the form of a truncated cone with an internal cylindrical bore for holding a projectile. The thickest, closed part of the cone is located near the explosive charge. As any explosive charge will dissipate in all directions equally, the thickest portion of the cannon is useful for directing this force.Cannon
12. Catapult – Although the catapult has been used since ancient times, it has proven to be one of the most effective mechanisms during warfare. In modern times the term can apply to devices ranging to a mechanism for launching aircraft from a ship. The word ` catapult' comes from the Latin ` catapulta', which in turn comes from the Greek Greek: καταπέλτης, itself from, "downwards" + πάλλω, "to toss, to hurl". Catapults were invented by the ancient Greeks. The crossbow in Greece are closely intertwined. Primitive catapults were essentially "the product of relatively straightforward attempts to increase the penetrating power of missiles by strengthening the bow which propelled them". The historian Diodorus Siculus, described the invention of a mechanical arrow-firing catapult by a Greek force in 399 BC. The weapon was soon after employed against a key Carthaginian stronghold in Sicily. Diodorus is assumed to have drawn his description from the highly rated history of a contemporary of the events then. The "belly-bow", along with a watercolor drawing, is found in Heron's technical treatise Belopoeica. Zopyrus has been plausibly equated with a Pythagorean of that name who seems to have flourished in the 5th century BC. He probably designed his bow-machines between 421 BC and 401 BC. The bows of these machines already featured a winched could apparently throw two missiles at once. Philo of Byzantium provides probably the most detailed account on the establishment of a theory of belopoietics circa 200 BC. This kind of innovation is indicative of the increasing rate at which physics were being assimilated into military enterprises.Catapult – Ancient mechanical artillery: Catapults (standing), the chain drive of Polybolos (bottom center), Gastraphetes (on wall)
13. Crannog – A crannog is typically a partially or entirely artificial island, usually built in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters of Scotland and Ireland. However, in areas such as the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, timber was unavailable from the Neolithic era onwards. As a result, completely stone crannogs supporting drystone architecture are common there. Crannogs typically appear as small, circular islets, often 10 to 30 metres in diameter, covered in dense vegetation due to their inaccessibility to grazing livestock. There is some confusion on what the island itself. The additional meanings of ` crannog' can be variously related as "structure/piece of wood; wooden pin; crow's nest; pulpit; driver's box on a vessel/box/chest" for crannóg. The Gaelic form is crannag and has the additional meanings of "pulpit" and "churn". Crannogs are widespread in Ireland, with an estimated 1,200 examples, while Scotland has 347 sites officially listed as such. Previously unknown crannogs in Scotland and Ireland are still being found as underwater surveys continue to investigate loch beds for completely submerged examples. The largest concentrations of crannogs in Ireland are found in the Drumlin Belt of the Midlands, Northwest. In Scotland, crannogs favour ` Atlantic distribution', with high concentrations in Argyll and Dumfries and Galloway. They are recognised under varying terms besides "crannog". One lone Welsh example at Llangorse Lake exists, likely a product of Irish influence across the Irish Sea. Crannogs took based on what was available in the immediate landscape. The classic image of a prehistoric crannog stems by C.M..Crannog – Reconstructed crannog near Kenmore, Perth and Kinross, on Loch Tay, Scotland
14. Cartography – Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to: Set select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of editing. Traits may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization. Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of design. Modern cartography constitutes many practical foundations of geographic information systems. A painting, which may depict the ancient Anatolian city of Çatalhöyük, has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE.Cartography – A medieval depiction of the Ecumene (1482, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver), constructed after the coordinates in Ptolemy's Geography and using his second map projection. The translation into Latin and dissemination of Geography in Europe, in the beginning of the 15th century, marked the rebirth of scientific cartography, after more than a millennium of stagnation.
15. Camelot – Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. The stories locate though more usually its precise location is not revealed. Nothing in Chrétien's poem suggests the level of Camelot would have in later romances. For Chrétien, Arthur's chief court was in Caerleon in Wales; this was the king's primary base of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae and subsequent literature. Chrétien depicts Arthur, like holding court at a number of cities and castles. The name's derivation is uncertain. Renowned Arthurian scholar Ernst Brugger suggested that it was a corruption of the site of the Battle of Camlann, in Welsh tradition. Roger Sherman Loomis believed it was derived from a place name that he suggested was a corruption of Avalon. He further suggested that Cavalon/Camelot became Arthur's capital due to confusion at Carlion. The texts it influenced depict the city of Camelot as standing along a river, downstream from Astolat. Its magnificent cathedral, St. Stephen's, is the religious centre for Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. There, there are the tombs of many kings and knights. Jousts are held in a meadow outside the city. In other works, the castle is eventually destroyed by King Mark of Cornwall after the loss of Arthur at the Battle of Camlann. It should be noted, too, that there is a Kamaalot featured in the romance Perlesvaus.Camelot – Gustave Doré ’s illustration of Camelot from “ Enid ”, 1867.
16. Don Quixote – Don Quixote, fully titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses literary techniques as intertextuality. Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse and Wilhelm Meister. As a result, he is easily given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper dubs him a knight to be rid of him, sends him on his way. Don Quixote then encounters traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea. He attacks them, only to be returned by a neighboring peasant. A large part of this section consists of the priest deciding which books deserve to be burned and which to be saved. This gives occasion for many comments on books Cervantes liked and disliked. For example, Cervantes' own pastoral novel La Galatea is saved, while the rather unbelievable romance Felixmarte de Hyrcania is burned. After a short period of feigning health, Don Quixote requests his neighbor, Sancho Panza, to be his squire, promising him a petty governorship. Sancho, both greedy and unintelligent, agrees to the offer and sneaks away with Don Quixote in the early dawn. It is here that their famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixote's attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants. The two next encounter a group of friars accompanying a lady in a carriage.Don Quixote – Title page of first edition (1605)
17. England – England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated to the south. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain mostly comprises low plains, especially in southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the south west. The capital is London, the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.England – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
18. Feudalism – Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. There is no commonly accepted modern definition of feudalism, at least among scholars. The feudalism has also been applied -- often pejoratively -- to non-Western societies where attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to prevail. The term "féodal" was translated into legal treatises such as "feodal government". In the 18th century, Adam Smith, seeking to describe economic systems, effectively coined the forms "feudal government" and "feudal system" in his book Wealth of Nations. In the 19th century the adjective "feudal" evolved into a noun: "feudalism". The term "feudal" or "feodal" is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum. The etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin and others suggesting an Arabic origin. Initially in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one-hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. The most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch. Bloch said it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which *fehu means "cattle" and -ôd means "goods", implying "a moveable object of value."Feudalism – Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste, c. 14th century(?)
19. Ghana – Ghana, officially the unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. The word Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language. The territory of present-day Ghana has been inhabited with the first permanent state dating back to the 11th century. Numerous empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. In 1957, it became the first African nation to declare independence from European colonisation. Ghana has a population of approximately 27 million, spanning a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. Five percent of the population practices 71.2 % adhere to Christianity and 17.6 % are Muslim. Ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles. Ghana is a democratic country led by a president, both head of the government. Ghana's economy is one of the strongest and most diversified following a quarter century of relative stability and good governance. Democratic political system has made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The name "Ghana" was a possible source of the name "Guinea" used to refer off Ghana. The minister responsible for shepherding through the legislation Charles Arden-Clarke Lord Listowel explained that the name was chosen "in accordance with local wishes".Ghana – 1925 map of pre–existing Ghana
20. Timeline of the history of Gibraltar – Evidence of hominid inhabitation of the Rock dates back to the Neanderthals. A Neanderthal skull was discovered in Forbes' Quarry in 1848, prior to the "original" discovery in the Neander Valley. In 1926, the skull of a Neanderthal child was found in Devil's Tower. Modern humans apparently visited the Gibraltar area after the Neanderthal occupancy. While the rest of Europe was cooling, the area around Gibraltar back then resembled a European Serengeti. Evidence at the cave shows the Neanderthals of Gibraltar likely used it as a shelter "for 100,000 years." Cro-Magnon man took around 24,000 BCE. The Phoenicians are known to have named the Rock "Calpe". The Carthaginians also visited. However, neither group appears to have settled permanently. Plato refers as one of the Pillars of Hercules along with Jebel Musa or Monte Hacho on the other side of the Strait. No permanent settlement was established. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar was occupied by later the Goths kingdoms. The Vandals did not remain for long although the Visigoths remained from 414 to 711. 711 30 April – The Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta.Timeline of the history of Gibraltar – The Gibraltar 1 skull, discovered in 1848 in Forbes' Quarry, was only the second Neanderthal skull and the first adult Neanderthal skull ever found
21. World of A Song of Ice and Fire – The fictional world in which the A Song of Ice and Fire novels by George R. R. Martin take place is divided into several continents. Most of the story takes place on the continent Westeros, or the Seven Kingdoms. It actually consists of a largely unmapped area to the north, old magic. The vast continent of Essos lies to the east of Westeros, across the Narrow Sea. The closest foreign nations to Westeros are the Free Cities, a collection of independent city-states along the western edge of this eastern continent. To the south of Essos lie the continents of Sothoryos and Ulthos, which in the narrative are largely unexplored. Religion, though, has a significant role in the life of people with the characters practising many different religions. The story takes place primarily on a continent called Westeros, roughly the size of South America. Westeros is at the mercy of erratic seasons of unpredictable duration that last for many years. Martin here drew inspiration from European history: in particular the Hundred Years' War, the Wars of the Roses. The first inhabitants of the continent were the Children of the Forest: a nature-worshipping anthropoid species who carved the faces of their gods in weirwood trees. During that time, the First Men adopted the Children's gods, that later became known in Westeros as the Old gods. Some time later, the Andals established the Faith of the Seven, steel. Only the North remained unconquered and the Children disappeared from Andal lands. Over time seven kingdoms were forged across Westeros: The North, The Iron Islands, The Vale, The Westerlands, Dorne.World of A Song of Ice and Fire – A map of the Westeros continent
22. Gothic fiction – Its origin is attributed with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled "A Gothic Story." Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the Victorian era, is Bram Stoker's Dracula. The Gothic refers to the - medieval buildings, emulating Gothic architecture, in which many of these stories take place. This extreme form of romanticism was very popular in England and Germany. The Gothic novel also led to new novel types such as the German Schauerroman and the French Georgia. The novel usually regarded as the "Gothic novel" is Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto, first published in 1764. Walpole published the first edition disguised from Italy discovered and republished by a fictitious translator. When Walpole admitted in the second edition, its originally favourable reception by literary reviewers changed into rejection. A romance with superstitious elements, moreover void of didactical intention, was considered a setback and not acceptable. Walpole's forgery, together with the blend of fiction, contravened the principles of the Enlightenment and associated the Gothic novel with fake documentation. The question now arose whether supernatural events that were not as evidently absurd as Walpole's would not lead the simpler minds to believe them possible. Ann Radcliffe developed the technique of the explained supernatural in which every seemingly supernatural intrusion is eventually traced back to natural causes. Her success attracted many imitators. Among other elements, Ann Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of a literary device that would come to be defined as the Byronic hero. Radcliffe's novels, of Udolpho were best-sellers.Gothic fiction – Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus (1818) has come to define Gothic fiction in the Romantic period. Frontispiece to 1831 edition shown.
23. Gate – A gate or gateway is a point of entry to a space, enclosed by walls. They may be merely decorative. Other terms for gate include port. A gate may have a latch to keep it for security. Larger gates can be used for a whole building, such as the actual doors that block entry through the gatehouse. Many gate doors are opened by an automated gate operator.Gate – A monumental gate of the Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia.
24. Hamburg – Hamburg, officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union. It is the second smallest German state by area. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Hamburg is a transport hub, being the 2nd largest port in Europe, is an affluent city in Europe. It has become a industrial centre, with facilities belonging to Airbus, Blohm + Voss and Aurubis. Publishers such as Spiegel-Verlag are pillars of the important media industry in Hamburg. Hamburg is the seat of Berenberg Bank. The city is a notable destination for both overseas visitors; it ranked 16th in the world for livability in 2015. The ensemble Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in July 2015. It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. Scharhörn and Nigehörn, in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of Hamburg.Hamburg – 1st row: View of the Binnenalster; 2nd row: Große Freiheit, Speicherstadt, River Elbe; 3rd row: Alsterfleet; 4th row: Port of Hamburg, Dockland office building
25. Hampshire – Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The town of Hampshire is Winchester, the former capital city of England. The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000. Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, Royal Air Force. It is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, West Sussex to the east. The southern boundary is the coastline of the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight. At its greatest size in 1890, Hampshire was the fifth largest county in England. It measures about 86 kilometres east -- west and 76 kilometres north -- south. Hampshire's tourist attractions include two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. Two of Europe's largest ports, Portsmouth and Southampton, lie on its coast. The county is famed as home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, well as the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun, roughly meaning "village-town", so scīr became known as Hamtunscīr. It is from this spelling that the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives. Until 1959 the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has also been known as Southamptonshire.Hampshire – Southampton from Netley Hospital
26. John, King of England – John, also known as John Lackland, was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. The youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion between 1173 and 1174, however, John became Henry's favourite child. He was given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young; by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade. John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, rebuilding continental alliances. John's judicial reforms had a lasting impact on the common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led in 1209, a dispute finally settled by the king in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines. Although the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke afterwards with the barons aided by Louis of France. It soon descended into a stalemate. John was born on 24 December 1166. Henry had expanded his empire by conquering Brittany.John, King of England – Tomb effigy of King John, Worcester Cathedral
27. Knight – Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. The female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. Furthermore, Geoffroi de Charny's "Book of Chivalry" expounded in every area of a knight's life. This novel explored the ideals of their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes' world. The titles remained in many nations. Some orders such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend; others have disappeared into obscurity. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, related terms. The knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht. This meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase kneht, which also meant knight; but this meaning was in decline by about 1200. The Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship: the word referred to any servant.Knight – David I of Scotland knighting a squire
28. Kenilworth Castle – Kenilworth Castle is located in the town of the same name in Warwickshire, England. Kenilworth has also played an historical role. The castle was built over several centuries. Founded in the 1120s around a Norman great tower, the castle was significantly enlarged by King John at the beginning of the 13th century. The resulting fortifications proved able to withstand assaults by land and water in 1266. John of Gaunt spent lavishly in the 14th century, turning the medieval castle into a palace fortress designed in the latest perpendicular style. Kenilworth was partly destroyed in 1649 to prevent it being used as a military stronghold. Ruined, only two of its buildings remain habitable today. English Heritage has managed the castle since 1984. The castle is open to the public. The castle is built entirely from local new red sandstone. To the south-east of the main castle lie the Brays, a corruption of the French word braie, meaning an external fortification with palisades. The area now forms part of the park for the castle. Beyond the Brays are the ruins of the Gallery Tower, a second gatehouse remodelled in the 15th century. The Gallery Tower originally guarded the 152-metre narrow walled-causeway that still runs from the Brays to the main castle.Kenilworth Castle – Kenilworth Castle, viewed from the Tiltyard
29. Knaresborough Castle – Knaresborough Castle is a ruined fortress overlooking the River Nidd in the town of Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England. The castle was first built on a cliff above the River Nidd. There is documentary evidence dating from 1130 referring to works carried out at the castle by Henry I. In the 1170s Hugh de Moreville and his followers took refuge there after assassinating Thomas Becket. In 1205 King John took control of Knareborough Castle. He spent # 1,290 on improvements to the castle. John of Gaunt acquired the castle in 1372, adding it to the vast holdings of the Duchy of Lancaster. Indeed, many centre buildings are built of ` castle stone'. There is a charge for entry to the interior remains. The grounds are putting green open during summer. It is also used with bands playing most afternoons through the summer. It plays host to frequent events, such as FEVA. The property is administered by Harrogate Borough Council. A pair, visible today, formed the main gate. The keep served as a residence for the lord of the castle throughout the castle's history.Knaresborough Castle – The ruins of the keep of Knaresborough Castle.
30. Land mine – A mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both. The name originates from the ancient practice of military mining, where tunnels were dug under enemy fortifications or troop formations. Nowadays, in common parlance, land mines generally refer to devices specifically manufactured as anti-vehicle weapons. The use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons. They can remain many years after a conflict has ended, harming the economy and civilians. To date, 162 nations have signed the treaty. To act as area-denial weapons. As of 2013, the only governments that still laid land mines were Syria in its civil war. Land mines continue to injure at least 4,300 people every year, even decades after the ends of the conflicts for which they were placed. The invention of this detonated "enormous bomb" was credited to one Lou Qianxia of the 13th century. The wad of the mine was made of hard wood, carrying three different fuses to the touch hole. Boiling oil is next left there for some time before being removed. The fuse is compressed into it to form an explosive mine. A trench five feet in depth is dug. The fuse is connected to a device which ignites them when disturbed.Land mine – Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
31. Limburg an der Lahn – Limburg an der Lahn is the district seat of Limburg-Weilburg in Hesse, Germany. Limburg lies in western Hessen between the Taunus and the Westerwald on the river Lahn. Within the basin, the Lahn's rather narrow lower valley broadens out noticeably, making Limburg's mean elevation only m above level. Limburg forms, together with the town of Diez, a middle centre but partially functions as an upper centre to western Middle Hesse. Limburg's residential neighbourhoods reach beyond the town limits; the neighbouring centres of Elz and Diez run seamlessly together. The nearest major cities are Wetzlar and Gießen to the north east, Wiesbaden and Frankfurt to the south and Koblenz to the west. The town consists of eight formerly autonomous Ortsteile or villages, listed here by population. Its landmark is a former house, remodelled by the Limburg Free Evangelical community. Limburg’s biggest outlying centre is Lindenholzhausen; the second biggest is Linter. The derivation of the name “Limburg” is not quite clear and may well hearken back to a castle built here. In 910 the town was first mentioned as Lintpurc. Linda is the Gaulish word for water. However, the monastery was built after the castle and founded around the time of the first written mention of the name. About 800, the first castle buildings arose on the Limburg crags. This was probably designed for the protection of a ford over the river Lahn.Limburg an der Lahn – Cathedral with the old Lahn bridge
32. Livonia – Caupo of Turaida, died in 1217. During the Livonian Crusade the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, known from 1237, colonized ancient Livonia. The Livonia came to designate a much broader territory: Terra Mariana on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea, in the present-day Latvia and Estonia. Livonia was inhabited by various Finnic peoples, ruled from the 12th century by an upper class of Baltic Germans. Around 1160, Hanseatic traders from Lübeck established a post on the site of the future city of Riga, which Albrecht von Buxthoeven founded in 1201. He became the first Prince-Bishop of Livonia. Bishop Albert of Riga founded the military order of the Sword in 1202; Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks". Alternative names of the order include the Christ Knights, The Militia of Christ of Livonia. From its foundation, the undisciplined Order tended to ignore its supposed vassalage to the bishops. The Brotherhood had its headquarters at Fellin in present-day Estonia, where the walls of the Master's castle still stand. Other strongholds included Wenden, Segewold and Ascheraden. The bailiff of Weißenstein belonged to the five-member entourage of the Order's Master. In the Battle of Saule in 1236 the Lithuanians and Semigallians decimated the Order. They continued, however, to function as an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, headed by their own Master.Livonia – Livonia in Europe, 1190 AD
33. Lindisfarne – The Holy Island of Lindisfarne is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England. It is also known just as Holy Island. It constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland. Holy Island has a recorded history from the 6th century AD. It was an important centre of Celtic Christianity under Saints Aidan of Lindisfarne, Cuthbert, Eadfrith of Lindisfarne and Eadberht of Lindisfarne. After the Viking invasions and the Norman conquest of England, a priory was reestablished. A small castle was built on the island in 1550. The island of Lindisfarne appears under the Old Welsh name Medcaut in the 9th century Historia Brittonum. Both the Parker Chronicle and Peterborough Chronicle annals of AD 793 record the Old English name, Lindisfarena. The soubriquet Holy Island was by the 11th century when it appears as Insula Sacra. The reference was to saints Aidan and Cuthbert. The name Lindisfarne has an uncertain origin. Lindis, may refer in modern Lincolnshire referring to either regular visitors or settlers. Alternatively the name may be Celtic in origin, with the element Lindis- meaning "stream or pool". It is not known if this is a reference to the nearby River Low or a small lake on the island.Lindisfarne – Lindisfarne Castle
34. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
35. Medieval warfare – Medieval warfare is the European warfare of the Middle Ages. In terms of fortification, the Middle Ages saw the emergence of the castle in Europe, which then spread to Western Asia. Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus wrote De re militari possibly in the 4th century. Described by historian Walter Goffart as "the bible of warfare throughout the Middle Ages", De re militari was widely distributed through the Latin West. According to Vegetius, infantry was the most important element of an army because it could be deployed on any terrain. As archaeologist Robert Liddiard explains, "Pitched battles, particularly in the twelfth centuries, were rare." In Europe, breakdowns in centralized power led to the rise of a number of groups that turned as a source of income. Most notably the Vikings raided significantly. The castle served as a protected place for the local elites. Fortifications were a very important part of warfare because they provided safety to the lord, his servants. They provided refuge from armies too large to face in open battle. The ability of the heavy cavalry to dominate a battle on an open field was useless against fortifications. Building siege engines could seldom be effectively done without preparations before the campaign. Many sieges could take months, if not years, to demoralize the defenders sufficiently. Siege techniques also included mining in which tunnels were dug under a section of the wall and then rapidly collapsed to destabilize the wall's foundation.Medieval warfare – Battle of Crécy (1346) between the English and French in the Hundred Years' War.
36. Medieval fortification – During this millennium, fortifications in turn were modified to suit new tactics, weapons and siege techniques. Towers of medieval castles were usually made of sometimes wood. Often toward the later part of the era they included battlements and arrow loops. In northern Europe, early in the period, walls were likely to have been proofed against small forces. Especially where stone was readily available for building, the wood will have been replaced to a higher or lower standard of security. This would have been the pattern of events in the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw in England. In many cases, the wall would have had an external pomoerium. This was a strip of clear ground immediately adjacent the wall. The word is from the late medieval, derived from the Latin post murum, "behind the wall." An external pomoerium, stripped of building, gave defenders a clear view of what was happening outside and an unobstructed field of shot. An internal pomoerium gave ready access to the rear of the wall to facilitate movement of the garrison to a point of need. By the end of the sixteenth century, the word had developed further into pomery. They were sometimes retained for use against thieves and other threats of a lower order. These belong mainly to the post-medieval periods. However, a few, such as those of Carcassonne and Dubrovnik, have been restored to an impressively complete state.Medieval fortification – Beaumaris Castle in Wales was built in the late 13th century and is an example of concentric castles which developed in the medieval period.
37. Masonry – The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, cob. Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a bricklayer. Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, buildings. Concrete block are the most common types of masonry in used in industry and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in construction. They generally are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with steel reinforcement offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures. The use of material such as stones can increase the thermal mass of a building and can protect the building from fire. Masonry is non-combustible product. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from tornadoes. Extreme weather, under certain circumstances, can cause degradation of masonry due to expansion and forces associated with freeze-thaw cycles. Masonry must be built upon a strong foundation, such as reinforced concrete, to avoid settling and cracking. Other than masonry construction does not lend itself well to mechanization, requires more skilled labor than stick-framing. Masonry has a low tolerance to oscillation as compared to other materials such as reinforced concrete, plastics, wood, or metals.Masonry – A mason laying mortar on top of a finished course of blocks, prior to placing the next course.
38. Mecca – Mecca or Makkah is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia, the capital of its Makkah Region. The city is located at a height of 277 m above sea level. Mecca is home by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. During this expansion, Mecca has lost archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. More than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. The Saudi government is not universally known or used worldwide. The full name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is also loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca". The early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. Its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. The Bakkah is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call meaning "mother of all settlements." Another name of Mecca is Tihamah.Mecca – Mecca seen from Jabal al-Nour
39. Oda Nobunaga – Oda Nobunaga was a powerful daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period. Nobunaga was regarded as one of three unifiers of Japan along with his retainers Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga was widely known as eliminating anyone who stood in his way. He met his demise when his retainer Akechi Mitsuhide rebelled at Honnō-ji. Oda Nobunaga was the first for whom this goal seemed attainable. Nobunaga had gained control over most of Honshu during the 1582 Honnō-ji incident, a coup attempt executed by Nobunaga's vassal, Akechi Mitsuhide. It is not certain whether Nobunaga was killed in else committed seppuku. Oda Nobunaga was given the childhood name of Kippōshi. He was the second son of a deputy shugo with land holdings in Owari Province. He is said to have been born in Nagoya Castle, although this is subject to debate. Through his childhood and teenage years, he was well known for his bizarre behavior and received the name of Owari no Ōutsuke. He was known to run around without any regard to his own rank in society. With the introduction of firearms into Japan, however, he became known for his fondness of tanegashima firearms. In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly. Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously during his funeral, throwing ceremonial incense at the altar.Oda Nobunaga – Oda Nobunaga in a 16th-century portrait by Kanō Motohide
40. Palace – The word itself is derived for Palatine Hill, the hill which housed the Imperial residences in Rome. In many parts of Europe, the term is also applied to private mansions of the aristocracy. Historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. His descendants, especially Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over until it took up the hill top. The Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, writing c. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. In modern times, the term has been applied to large structures that housed combined ruler, court and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.Palace – Schwerin Palace in Germany, historical ducal residence of Mecklenburg since 1348.
41. Posada, Sardinia – Posada, also previously known as Feronia or Pausata, is a comune in the Province of Nuoro in the Italian region Sardinia. The city sits on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. As of 31 it had a population of 2,394 and an area of 33.52 square kilometres. Posada borders the following municipalities: Budoni, Siniscola and Torpè. During the Roman period, the town's importance declined with the foundation of nearby Portus Luguidonis. In the Middle Ages, Posada was main town of an historical district called Baronia Alta, on the Tyrrhenian coast of the island. Tourism in Posada is the economic activity. Official regional website in Italian Official regional website in English Webzine about Sardinia Tourist information for Sardinia Photo from PosadaPosada, Sardinia – Posada
42. History of Romania – This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the history of Romania; details are presented in separate articles. 34,950 year old human remains with a possible Neaderthalian trait were discovered in present-day Romania when the Peștera cu Oase was uncovered in 2002. The remains are especially interesting because they present a mixture of Neanderthal morphological features. The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the western region of the earliest European civilization, known as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. Evidence from other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage. The earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the Getae, comes from Herodotus, in his Histories book IV. The Dacian kingdom reached its peak between 44 BC during the reign of Burebista. Herein he writes that the tribal confederation of the Getae were defeated during his campaign against the Scythians. The Dacians, widely accepted as part of the Getae described earlier by the Greeks, were a branch of Thracians that inhabited Dacia. The Dacian Kingdom reached its maximum expansion during between 82 BCE - 44 BCE. Under his leadership Dacia became a powerful state which threatened the regional interests of the Romans. Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. A few months later, Burebista shared the same fate, assassinated by his own noblemen. Another theory suggests that he was killed by Caesar's friends. His powerful state did not become unified again until 95 AD, under the reign of the Dacian king Decebalus.History of Romania – The thinkers of Hamangia, Neolithic Hamangia culture (c. 5250 – 4550 BC)
43. Siege – A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. This derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Siege warfare is a form of low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that refuses to surrender. Failing a military outcome, sieges can often be decided by starvation, disease, which can afflict either the attacker or defender. This form of siege, though, can take many months or even years, depending upon the size of the stores of food the fortified position holds. Siege machinery was also a tradition of the Greco-Roman world. During the early modern period, siege warfare dominated the conduct of war in Europe. Leonardo da Vinci gained as much of his renown as from his artwork. Medieval campaigns were generally designed around a succession of sieges. In the Napoleonic era, increasing use of ever more powerful cannon reduced the value of fortifications. In the 20th century, the significance of the classical siege declined. With the advent of mobile warfare, a fortified stronghold is no longer as decisive as it once was. Modern sieges are more commonly the result of smaller hostage, extreme resisting arrest situations.Siege – Picture of the siege of Rancagua during the Chilean War of Independence
44. Somalia – Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around million. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the southern regions. The official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic, both of which belong to the Afroasiatic family. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an commercial centre. It is among the most probable locations of the ancient Land of Punt. During the Middle Ages, several Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Geledi Sultanate. The Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. Italian occupation lasted until 1941, yielding to military administration. British Somaliland would remain a protectorate, while Italian Somaliland in 1949 became a United Nations Trusteeship under the Trust Territory of Somaliland. In 1960, the two regions united to form the Somali Republic under a civilian government.Somalia – Neolithic rock art at the Laas Geel complex depicting a long-horned cow
45. Savoy – It is a cultural region in southeast France. Savoy comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps between Lake Geneva in the Dauphiné in the south. The historical land of Savoy emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy to 14th centuries. The historical territory is shared between the modern countries of France, Italy, Switzerland. Installed by King of Burgundy, officially in 1003, the House of Savoy became the longest surviving royal house in Europe. Savoy ruled then the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 to 1860. The territory of Savoy was annexed to France in 1792 before being returned to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1815. The House of Savoy, retained its Italian lands of Piedmont and Liguria and became the ruling dynasty of Italy. In modern France, it is part of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. Following its annexation to France in 1860, the territory of Savoy was divided administratively into two separate departments, Haute-Savoie. The traditional capital remains Chambéry, on the rivers Leysse and Albane, hosting the castle of the House of the Savoyard senate. The capital of the Duchy remained until 1563 when it was moved to Turin. The region was occupied by a Celtic people that in 121 BC were subdued by the Roman Empire. The Savoy stems from the Late Latin Sapaudia, referring to a fir forest. Savoy is first recorded in Ammianus Marcellinus, to describe the southern part of Maxima Sequanorum.Savoy – Alpine landscape of Les Saisies, as seen from Mont Bisanne.
46. The Wizard of Id – The Wizard of Id is a daily newspaper comic strip created by American cartoonists Brant Parker and Johnny Hart. Beginning in 1964, the strip follows the antics of a large cast of characters in a shabby medieval kingdom called "Id". From time to time, the king refers to his subjects as "Idiots". In 1997, Brant Parker passed his duties on to his son, Jeff Parker, who had already been involved with creating Id for a decade. In 2002, the strip appeared in some 1,000 newspapers all over the world, syndicated by Creators Syndicate. Hart's grandson Mason Mastroianni took over artist's duties on the strip after Hart's death in 2007. The new byline, "B.C. by Mastroianni and Hart," appeared for the first time in another of their strips on January 3, 2010. On December 14, 2015, Jeff Parker also passed his duties on to Mastroianni. In the early 1960s, Johnny Hart, having already created the successful B.C. began collaborating on a comic strip. Having already drawn cartoons about the Stone Age, Hart advanced through time to the Middle Ages, taking the idea from a deck of playing cards. The Wizard of Id was first co-written by Parker and Hart. The Wizard of Id deals with the goings-on of the rundown and oppressed mythical kingdom of Id. It concentrates on the court of a dwarfish monarch known only as "the King". The strip's humor occasionally satirizes modern American culture, deliberate anachronisms are rampant. Technology changes to suit whatever a gag requires; a battle with spears and arrows might be followed by a peasant using an ATM.The Wizard of Id – Cover of The Wizard of Id: The Dailies & Sundays, 1971 (collection).
47. Universe of The Legend of Zelda – A medieval inspired fantasy land, serves as the main setting of the series. Hyrule was formed by three goddesses Din, Farore, Nayru. Once the goddesses had completed their tasks, they left behind three golden triangles. In these, they put their power to govern all things; this relic became known as the Triforce. The realm itself was eventually named after the Hylia. Hylian is a constructed language that first appears in A Link to the Past, where it is identified as "the ancient language of the Hylians". In A Link to the Past, its written form is composed of symbols that have to be translated by Link to progress in the game. The first two are used for transcribing Japanese, while the last is used to transcribe English. In Oracle of Seasons, in Four Swords Adventures, Force Gems are used rather than Rupees. Rupees are also absent in The Adventure of Link, which has no in-game currency system. The original The Legend of Zelda only has flashing Rupees, worth five. In the original, they were called "Rupies"; this was later changed. Subsequent games introduced more sizes for Rupees, each denoting a specific value. Generally, green Rupees have the least value, while huge silver Rupees have the most. Phantom Hourglass introduced black Rupees called "Rupoor" that would steal a certain quantity of Rupees depending on their size.Universe of The Legend of Zelda – The Bridge of Eldin, as seen in Super Smash Bros. Brawl.
48. Tower of London – It was founded as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The castle was used until 1952 although, not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard the Lionheart, Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the 13th century remains despite later activity on the site. The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. Controlling it has been important to controlling the country. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a trusted position in the medieval period. In the 15th century the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. This use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower". Executions were more commonly held on the notorious Tower Hill with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out to other locations leaving many buildings empty. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage.Tower of London – The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water-gate called "Traitors' Gate"
49. Ukraine – Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. Two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near another during World War II. Following independence, Ukraine declared a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited military partnership with NATO in 1994. In the 2000s, a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych was against Ukraine joining NATO. These events formed the background by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. Both are still ongoing as of December 2016. On 1 Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union. It remains one of the world's largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, judicial branches.Ukraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC