1. Charles, Prince of Wales – Charles, Prince of Wales is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Known alternatively in South West England as Duke of Cornwall and in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay, he is the heir apparent in British history. He is also the oldest person to be next in line to the throne since Sophia of Hanover, Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons, Prince William later to become Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, in 1996, the couple divorced, following well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash in Paris the following year, in 2005, Charles married Camilla Parker Bowles. Charles has sought to raise awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment. As an environmentalist, he has received awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and he has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, Charles created Poundbury, a new town based on his theories. He has authored a number of books, including A Vision of Britain, A Personal View of Architecture in 1989 and he was baptised in the palaces Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mothers accession as Queen Elizabeth II made him her heir apparent. As the monarchs eldest son, he took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince. Charles attended his mothers coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother, as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, Charles then attended two of his fathers former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, England, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland. He reportedly despised the school, which he described as Colditz in kilts. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy and he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C, respectively. Tradition was broken again when Charles proceeded straight from school into universityCharles, Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales in Jersey, July 2012
2. Act of Settlement 1701 – Her mother, Princess Elizabeth Stuart, had been born in Scotland but became famous in history as Elizabeth of Bohemia. The line of Sophia of Hanover was the most junior among the Stuarts, Sophia died on 8 June 1714, before the death of Queen Anne on 1 August 1714, at which time Sophias son duly became King George I and started the Hanoverian dynasty. The act played a key role in the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, England and Scotland had shared a monarch since 1603, but had remained separately governed countries. The Scottish parliament was more reluctant than the English to abandon the House of Stuart, English pressure on Scotland to accept the Act of Settlement was one factor leading to the parliamentary union of the two countries in 1707. Under the Act of Settlement anyone who became a Roman Catholic, or who married one, the act also placed limits on both the role of foreigners in the British government and the power of the monarch with respect to the Parliament of England. Some of those provisions have been altered by subsequent legislation, the original documents are deposited in the Lower Saxon State Archives in Hanover, Germany. During the debate, the House of Lords had attempted to append Sophia and her descendants to the line of succession, mary II died childless in 1694, after which William III did not remarry. In 1700, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, who was the child of Princess Anne to survive infancy. Thus, Anne was left as the last remaining heir to the throne. The Bill of Rights excluded Catholics from the throne, which ruled out James II, however, it also provided for no further succession after Anne. Parliament thus saw the need to settle the succession on Sophia and her descendants, is are or shall be reconciled to or shall hold Communion with the See or Church of Rome or shall profess the Popish Religion or shall marry a Papist. Thus, those who were Roman Catholics, and those who married Roman Catholics, were barred from ascending the throne. Eight additional provisions of the act would only come into effect upon the death of both William and Anne, The monarch shall join in communion with the Church of England and this was intended to ensure the exclusion of a Roman Catholic monarch. If a person not native to England comes to the throne, England will not wage war for any dominions or territories which do not belong to the Crown of England, without the consent of Parliament. This provision has been dormant since Queen Victoria ascended the throne, no monarch may leave the dominions of England, Scotland, or Ireland, without the consent of Parliament. All government matters within the jurisdiction of the Privy Council were to be transacted there and this was because Parliament wanted to know who was deciding policies, as sometimes councillors signatures normally attached to resolutions were absent. This provision was repealed early in Queen Annes reign, as many councillors ceased to offer advice, subsequent nationality laws made naturalised citizens the equal of those native born, and this provision no longer applies. No person who has an office under the monarch, or receives a pension from the Crown, was to be a Member of Parliament and this provision was inserted to avoid unwelcome royal influence over the House of CommonsAct of Settlement 1701 – Facsimile of the Act of Settlement sent to Electress Sophia of Hanover
3. Aston Martin – Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford and their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to HRH the Prince of Wales since 1982, headquarters and the main production site are in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England, on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martins recent cars was named after the 1950s Vulcan Bomber, Aston Martin has diversified to speed boats, and real estate development. Aston Martin had a troubled history after the quarter of the 20th century but has also enjoyed long periods of success. “In the first century we went bankrupt seven times, ” incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe, “The second century is about making sure that is not the case. ”Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they also serviced GWK, Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles. The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini and they acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of World War I, all machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company. After the war found new premises at Abingdon Road, Kensington. Bamford left in 1920 and Aston Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski, in 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Approximately 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations, long chassis and short chassis, Aston Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Aston Martin failed again in 1925 and the closed in 1926. Later that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business and they renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. The only Renwick and Bertelli motor car made, it was known as Buzzbox, between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as Bertelli cars. They included the 1½-litre T-type, International, Le Mans, MKII and its derivative, the Ulster, and the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative. Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertellis brother Enrico, with a number of long-chassis four-seater tourers, dropheads. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers, the LM team cars were very successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans and the Mille MigliaAston Martin – Early Aston Martin marque
4. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, notably, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, also serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it also benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average. The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick, tall and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforestBritish Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
5. Blackadder – Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 period British sitcoms, along with several one-off installments. All television episodes starred Rowan Atkinson as the anti-hero Edmund Blackadder, the first series, The Black Adder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson, while subsequent episodes were written by Curtis and Ben Elton. The shows were produced by John Lloyd, in 2000, the fourth series, Blackadder Goes Forth, ranked at 16 in the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes, a list created by the British Film Institute. Also in the 2004 TV poll to find Britains Best Sitcom, Blackadder was voted the second-best British sitcom of all time, topped by Only Fools and it was also ranked as the 20th-best TV show of all time by Empire magazine. It is implied in each series that the Blackadder character is a descendant of the previous one, as the generations progress, each Blackadder becomes increasingly clever and perceptive, while the familys social status steadily erodes. However, each Blackadder remains a cynical, cowardly opportunist, maintaining and increasing his own status and fortunes, the life of each Blackadder is also entwined with his servant, each from the Baldrick family line. Each generation acts as the dogsbody to his respective Blackadder and they decrease in intelligence as their masters intellect increases. Each Blackadder and Baldrick is also saddled with tolerating the presence of a dim-witted aristocrat, each series was set in a different period of British history, beginning in 1485 and ending in 1917, and comprised six half-hour episodes. The first series, made in 1983, was called The Black Adder and was set in the reign of Richard IV. The second series, Blackadder II, was set during the reign of Elizabeth I, Blackadder the Third was set during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the reign of George III, and Blackadder Goes Forth was set in 1917 in the trenches of the Great War. The Black Adder, the first series of Blackadder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson and it originally aired on BBC1 from 15 June 1983 to 20 July 1983, and was a joint production with the Australian Seven Network. Along with the history, many historical events portrayed in the series were anachronistic. The filming of the series was highly ambitious, with a large cast, the series also featured Shakespearean dialogue, often adapted for comic effect, the end credits featured the words Additional Dialogue by William Shakespeare. Blackadder II is set in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the principal character is Edmund, Lord Blackadder, the great-grandson of the original Black Adder. During the series, he deals with the Queen, her obsequious Lord Chamberlain Lord Melchett —his rival—and the Queens demented former nanny Nursie. Following the BBCs request for improvements, several changes were made, the second series was the first to establish the familiar Blackadder character, cunning, shrewd, and witty, in sharp contrast to the first series bumbling Prince Edmund. To make the show more cost-effective, it was shot with virtually no outdoor scenes and several frequently used indoor sets, such as the Queens throne room. Blackadder the Third is set in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, in the series, Edmund Blackadder Esquire is the butler to the Prince Regent, the Prince of WalesBlackadder – Left to right: (back) Tim McInnerny, Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie, (front) Rowan Atkinson and Tony Robinson in Blackadder Goes Forth
6. BT Group – BT Group plc is a holding company which owns British Telecommunications plc, a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, United Kingdom. It has operations in around 180 countries, BTs origins date back to the founding of the Electric Telegraph Company in 1846 which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, the General Post Office, a government department, the Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. British Telecommunications, trading as British Telecom, was formed in 1980, British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming British Telecommunications plc, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its stake in further share sales in 1991 and 1993. BT has a listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. BT controls a number of large subsidiaries, BT announced in February 2015 that it had agreed to acquire EE for £12.5 billion, and received final regulatory approval from the Competition and Markets Authority on 15 January 2016. The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016, BTs origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial service, the Electric Telegraph Company. As these companies amalgamated and were taken over or collapsed, the companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in 1912. These companies were merged and rebranded as British Telecom, in January 1878 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his recently developed telephone to Queen Victoria at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. John Hudson, with his premises in nearby Shudehill. As the number of installed telephones across the country grew it became sensible to consider constructing telephone exchanges to allow all the telephones in each city to be connected together, the first exchange was opened in London in August 1879, closely followed by the Lancashire Telephonic Exchange in Manchester. From 1878, the service in Britain was provided by private sector companies such as the National Telephone Company. In 1896, the National Telephone Company was taken over by the General Post Office, in 1912 it became the primary supplier of telecommunications services, after the Post Office took over the private sector telephone service in GB, except for a few local authority services. Those services all folded within a few years, the exception being Kingston upon Hull. Converting the Post Office into an industry, as opposed to a governmental department, was first discussed in 1932 by Lord Wolmer. In 1932 the Bridgeman Committee produced a report that was rejected, in 1961, more proposals were ignoredBT Group – The BT Tower, originally the Post Office Tower, constructed between 1961 and 1964
7. Balmoral Castle – Balmoral Castle /bælˈmɒrəl/ is a large estate house in Royal Deeside, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, near the village of Crathie,6.2 miles west of Ballater and 6.8 miles east of Braemar. They remain as the property of the royal family and are not the property of the Crown. Soon after the estate was purchased by the family, the existing house was found to be too small. The architect was William Smith of Aberdeen, although his designs were amended by Prince Albert, the castle is an example of Scots Baronial architecture, and is classified by Historic Scotland as a category A listed building. The new castle was completed in 1856 and the old castle demolished shortly thereafter, the Balmoral Estate has been added to by successive members of the royal family, and now covers an area of approximately 50,000 acres. It is an estate, including grouse moors, forestry, and farmland, as well as managed herds of deer, Highland cattle. King Robert II of Scotland had a lodge in the area. Historical records also indicate that a house at Balmoral was built by Sir William Drummond in 1390, the estate is recorded in 1451 as Bouchmorale, and later was tenanted by Alexander Gordon, second son of the 1st Earl of Huntly. A tower house was built on the estate by the Gordons, in 1662 the estate passed to Charles Farquharson of Inverey, brother of John Farquharson, the Black Colonel. The Farquharsons were Jacobite sympathisers, and James Farquharson of Balmoral was involved in both the 1715 and 1745 rebellions and he was wounded at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746. The Farquharson estates were forfeit, and passed to the Farquharsons of Auchendryne, in 1798, James Duff, 2nd Earl Fife, acquired Balmoral and leased the castle. Sir Robert Gordon, a brother of the 4th Earl of Aberdeen. He made major alterations to the castle at Balmoral, including baronial-style extensions that were designed by John Smith of Aberdeen. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert first visited Scotland in 1842, five years after her accession to the throne, during this first visit they stayed at Edinburgh, and at Taymouth Castle in Perthshire, the home of the Marquess of Breadalbane. They returned in 1844 to stay at Blair Castle and, in 1847, during the latter trip they encountered weather that was extremely rainy, which led Sir James Clark, the queens physician, to recommend Deeside instead, for its more healthy climate. Sir Robert Gordon died in 1847 and his lease on Balmoral reverted to Lord Aberdeen, in February 1848 an arrangement was made—that Prince Albert would acquire the remaining part of the lease on Balmoral, together with its furniture and staff—without having seen the property first. The royal couple arrived for their first visit on 8 September 1848, Victoria found the house small but pretty, and recorded in her diary that, All seemed to breathe freedom and peace, and to make one forget the world and its sad turmoils. The surrounding hilly landscape reminded them of Thuringia, Alberts homeland in Germany, quickly, the house was confirmed to be too small and, in 1848, John and William Smith were commissioned to design new offices, cottages, and other ancillary buildingsBalmoral Castle – Balmoral Castle
8. British Empire – The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the population at the time. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread, during the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, and in the process established large overseas empires. Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England, France, the independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, after the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain, the British Empire expanded to include India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. In Britain, political attitudes favoured free trade and laissez-faire policies, during the 19th Century, Britains population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli launched a period of imperialist expansion in Egypt, South Africa, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century, Germany and the United States had begun to challenge Britains economic lead, subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous strain on the military, financial and manpower resources of Britain, although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after World War I, Britain was no longer the worlds pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britains colonies in Southeast Asia were occupied by Imperial Japan, despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britains most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire, fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships againBritish Empire – A replica of The Matthew, John Cabot 's ship used for his second voyage to the New World.
9. Ballarat – Ballarat /ˈbæləræt/ is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Grampians region of Victoria, Australia. The city is approximately 105 kilometres west-north-west of the capital, Melbourne. It is the third largest population for a city in Australia. Ballarat is arguably the most significant Victorian era gold rush boomtown in Australia, just months after Victoria was granted separation from the state of New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. Gold was discovered at Poverty Point on 18 August 1851, within months, migrants from across the world had rushed to the district in search of gold. Unlike many other boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades. The Eureka Rebellion began in Ballarat, and the armed rebellion in Australian history. In response to the event the first male suffrage in Australia was instituted, the gold rush and boom gave birth to many other significant cultural legacies. The rebellions symbol, the Eureka Flag, has become a symbol and is held at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka in Ballarat. It has endured as a regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the 1956 Summer Olympics. It is the capital of the Central Highlands and the largest city in the Goldfields region of Victoria. Ballarat is known for its history, culture and its well-preserved Victorian era heritage, after a narrow popular vote the city merged with the town of Ballarat East in 1921, ending a long standing rivalry. Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Ballarat region was populated by the Wathaurong people, the Boro gundidj tribes territory was based along the Yarrowee River. The Yuille family, Scottish settlers Archibald Buchanan Yuille and his brother William Cross Yuille, arrived in 1837 and squatted a 10, the first houses were built near Woolshed Creek by William Yuille and Anderson, while Yuille erected a hut at Black Swamp in 1838. Outsiders originally knew of the settlement as Yuilles Station and Yuilles Swamp, Archibald Yuille named the area Ballaarat Some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for the area, balla arat. The meaning of word is not certain, however, several translations have been made. In some dialects, balla means bent elbow, which is translated to mean reclining or resting, another claim is that the name derives from Yuilles native Gaelic Baile Ararat, alluding to the resting place of Noahs ark. The present spelling was adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996Ballarat
10. Bentley – Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1998. The joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce follows a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley, Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, ultimately sold both to BMW AG, at the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminum paperweight and thought that aluminum might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons. The first Bentley aluminum pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I, in August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative 4 valves per cylinder engine for the chassis, by December the engine was built and running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentleys first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis and they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. Bertie Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an speed of 74.95 mph after starting in 19th position. The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In ironic reference to his heavyweight boxers stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed Babe, in 1925, he acquired his first Bentley, a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races, just a year later he acquired the Bentley business itself. The Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his finance and investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato initially invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business, a financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £1 each to just 1 shilling, Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business, £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927, £40,000 in 1928, with renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars. The Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Woolf Barnato, Sir Henry Tim Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, sammy Davis, and Dr Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys, favored Bentley cars, many were independently wealthy and often had a military background. They kept the reputation for high performance alive, Bentley was noted for its four consecutive victories at the 24 Hours of Le Mans from 1927 to 1930Bentley – Bentley winged "B" badge bonnet (hood) ornament
11. Coronation Street – Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. In the shows history, the street was built in the early 1900s. The show typically airs five times a week, Monday and Friday 7. 30–8 pm &8. 30–9 pm and Wednesday 7. 30–8 pm, however this varies due to sport or around Christmas. From late 2017 the show will air six times a week, the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warrens initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the stations founder Sidney Bernstein, within six months of the shows first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, and is now a significant part of British culture. The show has one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television. Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCity Manchester and shown in all ITV regions, on 17 September 2010, it became the worlds longest-running TV soap opera in production. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITVs 60th anniversary, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth working class community combined with light-hearted humour, and strong characters. The first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, and some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial. The programme also made use of Northern English language and dialect, affectionate local terms like eh, nowt, and by eck. became widely heard on British television for the first time. Early episodes told the story of student Kenneth Barlow, who had won a place at university, the character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, and the decline of similar communities, in an episode from 1961, Barlow declares, You cant go on just thinking about your own street these days. Were living with people on the side of the world. Theres more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends, Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, and in British and global soap history. At the centre of early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, and her friends, timid Minnie Caldwell. Headstrong Ena often clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals, Elsie resented Enas interference and gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the year in 1962Coronation Street – Ken Barlow in the first episode of Coronation Street, 1960
12. Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting – The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. Queen Elizabeth II, who is the Head of the Commonwealth, attended every CHOGM beginning with Ottawa in 1973 until Perth in 2011, however, she was represented by the Prince of Wales at the 2013 meeting as the 87-year-old monarch was curtailing her overseas travel. The Queen continues to attend CHOGMs held in Europe and was present at the 2015 summit in Malta and is expected to attend the 2018 CHOGM which is to be held in London. The first CHOGM was held in 1971, and there have been 24 held in total and they are held once every two years, although this pattern has twice been interrupted. They are held around the Commonwealth, rotating by invitation amongst its members, in the past, CHOGMs have attempted to orchestrate common policies on certain contentious issues and current events, with a special focus on issues affecting member nations. CHOGMs have discussed the continuation of apartheid rule in South Africa and how to end it, military coups in Pakistan and Fiji, sometimes the member states agree on a common idea or solution, and release a joint statement declaring their opinion. More recently, beginning at the 1997 CHOGM, the meeting has had an official theme, the meetings originated with the leaders of the self-governing colonies of the British Empire. The First Colonial Conference in 1887 was followed by meetings, known as Imperial Conferences from 1907. The development of the independence of the dominions, and the creation of a number of new dominions, as well as the invitation of Southern Rhodesia, changed the nature of the meetings. As the dominion leaders asserted themselves more and more at the meetings, from the ashes of the Second World War, seventeen Commonwealth Prime Ministers Conferences were held between 1944 and 1969. Of these, sixteen were held in London, reflecting then-prevailing views of the Commonwealth as the continuation of the Empire, two supplementary meetings were also held during this period, a Commonwealth Statesmens meeting to discuss peace terms in April 1945, and a Commonwealth Economic Conference in 1952. The 1960s saw an overhaul of the Commonwealth and this decentralisation of power demanded a reformulation of the meetings. Instead of the meetings always being held in London, they would rotate across the membership, subject to countries ability to host the meetings and they were also renamed the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings to reflect the growing diversity of the constitutional structures in the Commonwealth. The core of the CHOGM are the executive sessions, which are the formal gatherings of the heads of government to do business, the rules are very strict, allowing the head of the delegation, his or her spouse, and one other person. The additional member can be of any capacity, but he or she has only occasional, as the scope of the CHOGM has expanded beyond the meetings of the heads of governments themselves, the CHOGMs have become progressively shorter, and their business compacted into less time. The 1971 CHOGM lasted for nine days, and the 1977 and 1991 CHOGMs for seven days each, however, Harares epochal CHOGM was the last to last a week, the 1993 CHOGM lasted for five days, and the contentious 1995 CHOGM for only three-and-a-half. The 2005 and subsequent conferences were held over two-and-a-half days, during the 1980s, CHOGMs were dominated by calls for the Commonwealth to impose sanctions on South Africa to pressure the country to end apartheid. According to one of Margaret Thatchers former aides, Mrs. Thatcher, very privately, a bomb exploded at the Sydney Hilton Hotel, the venue for the February 1978 Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional MeetingCommonwealth Heads of Government Meeting – The heads of government of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.
13. Charles I of England – Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish, and Scottish thrones on the death of his brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead, after his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent and he supported high church ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years War. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War, after his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors demands for a constitutional monarchy, re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwells New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy was restored to Charless son, Charles II, in 1660, the second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, in mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. His speech development was slow, and he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereigns second son, Thomas Murray, a Presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages, mathematics, in 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Eventually, Charles apparently conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets and he became an adept horseman and marksman, and took up fencing. Even so, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid, Charles, who turned 12 two weeks later, became heir apparentCharles I of England – Portrait from the studio of Anthony van Dyck, 1636
14. Christopher Alexander – Christopher Wolfgang Alexander is a widely influential architect and design theorist, and currently emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley. His theories about the nature of human-centered design have affected fields beyond architecture, including design, software, sociology. Alexander has designed and personally built over 100 buildings, both as an architect and a general contractor, in software, Alexander is regarded as the father of the pattern language movement. The first wiki—the technology behind Wikipedia—led directly from Alexanders work, according to its creator, Alexanders work has also influenced the development of agile software development and Scrum. However, Alexander is controversial among some mainstream architects and critics, in part because his work is harshly critical of much of contemporary architectural theory. Alexander is perhaps best known for his 1977 book A Pattern Language, reasoning that users are more sensitive to their needs than any architect could be, he produced and validated a pattern language to empower anyone to design and build at any scale. As a young child Alexander emigrated in fall 1938 with his parents from Austria to England and he spent much of his childhood in Chichester and Oxford, England, where he began his education in the sciences. He moved from England to the United States in 1958 to study at Harvard University and he moved to Berkeley, California in 1963 to accept an appointment as Professor of Architecture, a position he would hold for almost 40 years. In 2002, after his retirement, Alexander moved to Arundel, England, Alexander is married to Margaret Moore Alexander, and he has two daughters, Sophie and Lily, by his former wife Pamela. In 1954, he was awarded the top open scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge University in chemistry and physics and he earned a Bachelors degree in Architecture and a Masters degree in Mathematics. He took his doctorate at Harvard, and was elected fellow at Harvard, during the same period he worked at MIT in transportation theory and computer science, and worked at Harvard in cognition and cognitive studies. The Timeless Way of Building described the perfection of use to which buildings could aspire, There is one way of building. It is a years old, and the same today as it has ever been. The great traditional buildings of the past, the villages and tents and it is not possible to make great buildings, or great towns, beautiful places, places where you feel yourself, places where you feel alive, except by following this way. And, as you see, this way will lead anyone who looks for it to buildings which are themselves as ancient in their form, as the trees and hills. A Pattern Language, Towns, Buildings, Construction described a practical system in a form that a theoretical mathematician or computer scientist might call a generative grammar. The work originated from an observation that many cities are attractive. The authors said that this occurs because they were built to local regulations that required specific features, the book provides rules and pictures, and leaves decisions to be taken from the precise environment of the projectChristopher Alexander – Christopher Alexander
15. Dylan Thomas – He became widely popular in his lifetime and remained so after his premature death at the age of 39 in New York City. By then he had acquired a reputation, which he had encouraged, as a roistering, drunken, Thomas was born in Swansea, Wales, in 1914. An undistinguished pupil, he left school at 16 and became a journalist for a short time. Many of his works appeared in print while he was still a teenager, however, while living in London, Thomas met Caitlin Macnamara, whom he married in 1937. Their relationship was defined by alcoholism and was mutually destructive, in the early part of their marriage, Thomas and his family lived hand-to-mouth, they settled in the Welsh fishing village of Laugharne. Thomas came to be appreciated as a poet during his lifetime. He began augmenting his income with reading tours and radio broadcasts and his radio recordings for the BBC during the late 1940s brought him to the publics attention, and he was frequently used by the BBC as a populist voice of the literary scene. Thomas first travelled to the United States in the 1950s and his readings there brought him a level of fame, while his erratic behaviour and drinking worsened. His time in America cemented his legend, however, and he went on to record to vinyl such works as A Childs Christmas in Wales. During his fourth trip to New York in 1953, Thomas became gravely ill and fell into a coma and he died on 9 November 1953. His body was returned to Wales where he was interred at the churchyard in Laugharne on 25 November 1953. Though Thomas wrote exclusively in the English language, he has acknowledged as one of the most important Welsh poets of the 20th century. He is noted for his original, rhythmic and ingenious use of words and his position as one of the great modern poets has been much discussed, and he remains popular with the public. Dylan Thomas was born on 27 October 1914 in Swansea, the son of Florence Hannah, a seamstress, and David John Thomas, a teacher. His father had an honours degree in English from University College, Aberystwyth. Thomas had one sibling, Nancy Marles, who was eight years his senior, the children spoke only English, though their parents were bilingual in English and Welsh, and David Thomas gave Welsh lessons at home. Thomass father chose the name Dylan, which could be translated as son of the sea, after Dylan ail Don and his middle name, Marlais, was given in honour of his great-uncle, William Thomas, a Unitarian minister and poet whose bardic name was Gwilym Marles. Dylan, pronounced ˈ in Welsh, caused his mother to worry he might be teased as the dull one, when he broadcast on Welsh BBC, early in his career, he was introduced using this pronunciationDylan Thomas – Thomas in New York in 1952
16. Foreign relations of Ecuador – This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Ecuador. Ecuador is a member of the UN and a member of many of its specialized agencies. Ecuadors foreign policy goals under the Borja government in the late 1980s were more diversified than those of the Febres Cordero administration, for example, Ecuador was more active in its relations with the Third World, multilateral organizations, Western Europe, and socialist countries. Ecuador has offered aid to many countries and a supporter of the United Nations and is now contributing troops in the UN mission in Haiti. Ecuador has also been a member of the UN Security Council. In Antarctica, Ecuador has maintained a research station for scientific study in the British-claimed territory and is a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty. The Presidency of Rafael Correa in the early 21st century saw a change in the countrys foreign policy. Traditional ties with the United States grew more acrimonious and there were increased ties with the governments of Russia, australia and Ecuador both maintain diplomatic relations and Ecuador maintains an embassy in Canberra. Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 20,1997, formal relations started on 1980-01-02 and seven months later China set up its embassy in Ecuador. In July 1981, Ecuador set up its embassy in China, sino-Ecuadorian relations have been advancing smoothly. The two sides maintain high-level political contacts and exchanges in trade, economic progress, science, technology, culture, in international affairs, the two countries understand and support each other. In the same period China established an $80 million line of credit for Ecuador with the EximBank to help Ecuador build a road to the re-sited Quito airport. March 2,2008. However, Colombias actions were condemned across the board by all South American nations, for example, Brazils foreign minister, Celso Amorim, condemned the Colombian incursion into Ecuador. Furthermore, he suggested that Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez recently gave the leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia $300 million. The presidents of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador March 7,2008 signed a declaration to end a crisis sparked when Colombian troops killed a leader and 21 others inside Ecuadoran territory. In the defence sector, Ecuador became the first country to sign a contract for purchasing the Indian made Dhruv helicopters of which one will be for use by its President, Ecuador has maintained trade relations with Iran. In December 2008, Iran’s Supreme National Security Council Secretary Saeed Jalili visited Ecuador, alongside president Rafael Correa he called for greater South-South co-operation, a term denoting greater exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between the global South. Iranian president Ahmadinejad also attended the inauguration of President Correa in January 2007, relations with Malaysia covers on political, commercial, cultural and social activitiesForeign relations of Ecuador – Ecuador
17. Edward VI of England – Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was Englands first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority, the Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland. Edwards reign was marked by problems and social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland as well as Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace, the transformation of the Church into a recognisably Protestant body also occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church of England and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony. The architect of these reforms was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill. When his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a Devise for the Succession, Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir and excluded his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. This decision was disputed following Edwards death, and Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen, during her reign, Mary reversed Edwards Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mothers room inside Hampton Court Palace and he was the son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes. The Queen, however, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that Divine Providence. Hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness, Edward was a healthy baby who suckled strongly from the outset. His father was delighted with him, in May 1538, Henry was observed dallying with him in his arms, and so holding him in a window to the sight and great comfort of the people. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported Edwards rapid growth and vigour, the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a quartan fever. Edward was initially placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, lady mistress of the princes household and she was succeeded by Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy. Until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it later in his Chronicle, the formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, and later Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymours wife, Anne StanhopeEdward VI of England – Edward VI, by William Scrots, c. 1550
18. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma – During the Second World War, he was Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command. He was the last Viceroy of India and the first Governor-General of independent India, from 1954 until 1959 he was First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, during this period Mountbatten also served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year. He was the youngest child and the son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse. His maternal grandparents were Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and his paternal grandparents were Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julia, Princess of Battenberg. His siblings were Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, Queen Louise of Sweden, young Mountbattens nickname among family and friends was Dickie, although Richard was not among his given names. This was because his great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, had suggested the nickname of Nicky, but to avoid confusion with the many Nickys of the Russian Imperial Family, Nicky was changed to Dickie. Mountbatten was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life, he was sent to Lockers Park School in Hertfordshire and on to the Royal Naval College. His second son acquired the courtesy title Lord Louis Mountbatten and was known as Lord Louis until he was created a peer in 1946 and he paid a brief visit of ten days to the Western Front, in July 1918. He was appointed officer of the small warship HMS P.31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on 15 January 1919. HMS P.31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4 April 1919, Mountbatten attended Christs College, Cambridge for two terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature in a programme that was specially designed for ex-servicemen. He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales and he was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920. HMS Renown returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920, early in 1921 Royal Navy personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before and he transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March 1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and Japan. Edward and Mountbatten formed a friendship during the trip. Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes Axe and he was posted to the battleship HMS Revenge in the Mediterranean Fleet in January 1923. Promoted lieutenant-commander on 15 April 1928, he returned to the Signals School in July 1929 as Senior Wireless Instructor. He was appointed Fleet Wireless Officer to the Mediterranean Fleet in August 1931, in 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the destroyer HMS DaringLouis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma – Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable The Earl Mountbatten of Burma KG GCB OM GCSI GCIE GCVO DSO PC FRS
19. Elvis Costello – Declan Patrick MacManus, better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, and record producer. His critically acclaimed album, My Aim Is True, was released in 1977. Shortly after recording it, he formed the Attractions as his backing band and his second album, This Years Model, was released in 1978, and was ranked number 11 by Rolling Stone on its list of the best albums from 1967–1987. His third album, Armed Forces, was released in 1979 and his first three albums all appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Costello and the Attractions toured and recorded together for the part of a decade. Much of Costellos work since has been as a solo artist, steeped in wordplay, the vocabulary of Costellos lyrics is broad. His music has drawn on many genres, one critic described him as a pop encyclopaedia. He has won awards in his career, including a Grammy Award. In 2003, Costello and the Attractions were inducted into the Rock, in 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Costello number 80 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Costello has co-written several original songs for motion pictures, including God Give Me Strength from Grace of My Heart, for the latter, Costello was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media. Costello was born in 25 August 1954 at St Marys Hospital, London, the son of Lilian Alda and Ross MacManus, Costello lived in Twickenham, attending Archbishop Myers R. C. School, which is now St Marks Catholic Secondary School, in neighbouring Hounslow, with a musically inclined father, Costellos first broadcast recording was with his father in a television commercial for R. Whites Lemonade. His father wrote and sang the song, Costello provided backing vocals, the advertisement won a silver award at the 1974 International Advertising Festival. Costello moved with his Liverpool-born mother to Birkenhead, Cheshire, in 1971, there, he formed his first band, a folk duo called Rusty, with Allan Mayes. After completing secondary school at St. Francis Xaviers College he moved back to London where he formed a band called Flip City. They were active from 1974 through to early 1976, around this time, Costello adopted the stage name D. P. His father had performed under the name Day Costello, and Elvis has said in interviews that he took this name as a tribute to his father and he worked for a short period as a computer operator at the Midland Bank computer centre in Bootle. He continued to write songs and began looking for a recording contractElvis Costello – Costello at the 2012 Riot Fest, Chicago
20. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by the French, British, Spaniards, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony on the islands in 1764, in 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived from Argentina with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont, Britain and Spain almost went to war over the islands, but the British government decided that it should withdraw its presence from many overseas settlements in 1774. Spain, which had a garrison at Puerto Soledad on East Falklands, in 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982, the British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. Recent discoveries of arrowheads in Lafonia as well as the remains of a wooden canoe provide evidence that the Yaghan people of Tierra del Fuego may have made the journey to the islands. It is not known if these are evidence of one-way journeys, however, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society mission station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856, yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of the warrah, Dusicyon australis, has often cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.7 million years ago. This means it is likely that the warrah arrived in the islands long before humans, the islands had no native trees when discovered but there is some ambiguous evidence of past forestation, that may be due to wood being transported by oceanic currents from Patagonia. All modern trees have been introduced by Europeans, an archipelago in the region of the Falkland Islands appeared on Portuguese maps from the early 16th century. Researchers Pepper and Pascoe cite the possibility that an unknown Portuguese expedition may have sighted the islands, maps from this period show islands known as the Sanson islands in a position that could be interpreted as the Falklands. On 9 August 1592 a severe storm battered his ship, and Davis drifted under bare masts, Davis did not provide the latitude of these islands, indicating they were 50 leagues away from the Patagonian coast. However, the latitude given was off by at least 3 degrees, errors in the latitude measured can be attributed to a simple mistake reading a cross staff divided into minutes meaning the latitude measured could be 50°48. The description of bonfires can also be attributed to fires caused by lightning. In 1925, Conor OBrian analysed the voyage of Hawkins and concluded that the land he could have sighted was Steeple Jason IslandHistory of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
21. Fred Hoyle – He spent most of his working life at the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge and served as its director for six years. He was a writer of fiction, and co-authored twelve books with his son. Hoyle was born near Bingley in Gilstead, West Riding of Yorkshire and his father, Ben Hoyle, worked in the wool trade in Bradford. His mother, Mabel Pickard, had studied music at the Royal College of Music in London, Hoyle was educated at Bingley Grammar School and read mathematics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In late 1940, Hoyle left Cambridge to go to Portsmouth to work for the Admiralty on radar research and he was also put in charge of countermeasures against the radar guided guns found on the Graf Spee. Britains radar project employed more personnel than the Manhattan project, and was probably the inspiration for the large British project in The Black Cloud, two key colleagues in this war work were Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold, and the three had many and deep discussions on cosmology. The radar work paid for a couple of trips to North America and he had an intuition at the time I will make a name for myself if this works out. Eventually his prescient and ground breaking paper came out and he also formed a group at Cambridge exploring Stellar nucleosynthesis in ordinary stars and was bothered by the paucity of stellar carbon production in existing models. He noticed that one of the existing processes would be made a billion times more if the carbon-12 nucleus had a resonance at 7.7 MeV. After the war, in 1945, Hoyle returned to Cambridge University, Hoyles Cambridge years, 1945–1973, saw him rise to the top of world astrophysics theory, on the basis of a startling originality of ideas covering a very wide range of topics. In 1958, Hoyle was appointed to the illustrious Plumian Professor of Astronomy, in 1971 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject Astronomical Instruments and their Construction, after his leaving Cambridge, Hoyle wrote many popular science and science fiction books, as well as presenting lectures around the world. Part of the motivation for this was simply to provide a means of support, Hoyle was still a member of the joint policy committee, during the planning stage for the 150-inch Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales. He became chairman of the Anglo-Australian Telescope board in 1973, and presided at its inauguration in 1974 by Charles, on 24 November 1997, while hiking across moorlands in west Yorkshire, near his childhood home in Gilstead, Hoyle fell down into a steep ravine called Shipley Glen. Roughly twelve hours later, Hoyle was found by a search dog and he was hospitalized for two months with pneumonia, kidney problems as a result of hypothermia, and a smashed shoulder, while he ever afterwards suffered from memory and mental agility problems. In 2001, he suffered a series of strokes and died in Bournemouth on 20 August, Fred Hoyle authored the first two research papers ever published on the synthesis of the chemical elements heavier than helium by nuclear reactions in stars. This idea would later be called the e Process, Hoyles second foundational nucleosynthesis publication showed that the elements between carbon and iron cannot be synthesized by such equilibrium processes. Hoyle attributed those elements to specific nuclear fusion reactions between abundant constituents in concentric shells of evolved massive, pre-supernova stars and this startlingly modern picture is the accepted paradigm today for the supernova nucleosynthesis of these primary elementsFred Hoyle – Sir Fred Hoyle
22. God Save the Queen – God Save the Queen is the national and/or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies. The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant and it is also the royal anthem of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia, Canada, Barbados and Tuvalu. In countries not previously part of the British Empire, the tune of God Save the Queen has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, in the United States, the melody is used for the patriotic song My Country, Tis of Thee. The melody is used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein. Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, God Save the Queen/King has many historic, since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and, even today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung, sometimes two verses are sung, and on rare occasions, three. The sovereign and her or his consort are saluted with the entire anthem, the first six bars also form all or part of the Vice Regal Salute in some Commonwealth realms outside the UK, as well as the salute given to governors of British overseas territories. He also points to several pieces by Henry Purcell, one of which includes the notes of the modern tune. Nineteenth-century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, the first published version of what is almost the present tune appeared in 1744 in Thesaurus Musicus. The 1744 version of the song was popularised in Scotland and England the following year and this manuscript has the tune depart from that which is used today at several points, one as early as the first bar, but is otherwise clearly a strong relative of the contemporary anthem. It was recorded as being sung in London theatres in 1745, with, for example, Scholes analysis includes mention of untenable and doubtful claims, as well as an American misattribution. The surgical knife that was purpose-built for the occasion is on display in the Musée dhistoire de la médecine, lully set words by Marie de Brinon to music, and Créquy claims the tune was later plagiarised by Handel. Translated in Latin under the name Domine, Salvum Fac Regem, after the Battle of Culloden, the Hanover dynasty supposedly then adopted this melody as the British anthem. James Oswald, He is an author of the Thesaurus Musicus, so may have played a part in the history of the song. Dr Henry Carey, Scholes refutes this attribution, first on the grounds that Carey himself never made such a claim, second, when the claim was made by Careys son, it was accompanied by a request for a pension from the British Government on that score. Third, the younger Carey claimed that his father had written parts of it in 1745, Scholes recommends the attribution traditional or traditional, earliest known version by John Bull. The English Hymnal gives no attribution, stating merely 17th or 18th cent, God Save the Queen is the national anthem of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Like many aspects of British constitutional life, its official status derives from custom and use, in general only one or two verses are sung, but on rare occasions threeGod Save the Queen – The phrase "God Save the King" in use as a rallying cry to the support of the monarch and the nation's forces
23. Governor-General of Australia – The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Governor-General is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia, when travelling abroad, the Governor-General is seen as the representative of Australia, and of the Queen of Australia, so is treated as a head of state. The Governor-General is supported by a staff headed by the Official Secretary to the Governor-General, a Governor-General is not appointed for a specific term, but is generally expected to serve for five years subject to a possible short extension. Since 28 March 2014, the Governor-General has been General Sir Peter Cosgrove, from Federation in 1901 until 1965,11 out of the 15 Governors-General were British aristocrats, they included four barons, three viscounts, three earls, and one prince. Since then, all but one of the Governors-General have been Australian-born, as of 2017, only one Governor-General, Dame Quentin Bryce, was a woman. The selection of a Governor-General is a responsibility for the Prime Minister of Australia, the candidate is approached privately to confirm whether they are willing to accept the appointment. The prime minister advises the monarch to appoint his nominee. This has been the procedure since November 1930, when James Scullins proposed appointment of Sir Isaac Isaacs was fiercely opposed by the British government, Scullin was equally insistent that the monarch must act on the relevant prime ministers direct advice. Both of these appointments had been agreed to despite British government objections, despite these precedents, George V remained reluctant to accept Scullins recommendation of Isaacs and asked him to consider Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood. However, Scullin stood firm, and, on 29 November, the King agreed to Isaacss appointment and this right to not only advise the monarch directly, but also to expect that advice to be accepted, was soon taken up by all the other Dominion prime ministers. This, among other things, led to the Statute of Westminster 1931, having agreed to the appointment, the monarch then permits it to be publicly announced in advance, usually several months before the end of the current Governor-Generals term. During these months, the person is referred to as the Governor-General-designate, the actual appointment is made by the monarch. Governors-General have during their tenure the style His/Her Excellency the Honourable, since May 2013, the style used by a former Governor-General is the Honourable, it was at the same time retrospectively granted for life to all previous holders of the office. From the creation of the Order of Australia in 1975, the Governor-General was, ex officio, Chancellor and Principal Companion of the Order, and therefore became entitled to the post-nominal AC. In 1986 the Letters Patent were amended again, and Governors-General appointed from that time were again, ex officio, until 1989, all Governors-General were members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus held the additional style the Right Honourable for life. The same individuals were also usually either peers, knights, or both, in 1989, Bill Hayden, a republican, declined appointment to the British Privy Council and any imperial honours. Dame Quentin Bryce was the first Governor-General to have had no title or pre-nominal style. Until 2015, the honour continued after the retirement from office of the Governor-General, formerly, the Governor-General automatically became a knight or dame upon being sworn inGovernor-General of Australia – The letters patent issued by Queen Victoria in 1900 creating the office of governor-general
24. Gordon Brown – James Gordon Brown is a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010. He previously served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Blair Government from 1997 to 2007, Brown was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and later for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Brown spent his career working as both a lecturer at a further education college and a television journalist. He entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East and he joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, and was later promoted to become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labours victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, in 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a government with the Liberal Democrats. On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he would stand down as leader of the Labour Party, Labours attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he officially resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, and as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband, later, Brown played a prominent role in the campaign surrounding the Scottish independence referendum of 2014, galvanising support behind maintaining the union. Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock, Renfrewshire and his father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. He died in December 1998, aged 84 and his mother, Jessie Elizabeth Brown, known as Bunty, died on 19 September 2004, aged 86. She was the daughter of John Souter, a timber merchant, the family moved to Kirkcaldy – then the largest town in Fife, across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh – when Gordon was three. Brown was brought up there with his elder brother John and younger brother Andrew Brown in a manse, in common with many other notable Scots, he is therefore often referred to as a son of the manse. At age sixteen he wrote that he loathed and resented this ludicrous experiment on young lives and he was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the same early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he received a kick to the head and this left him blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. Later at Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his eye was saved. In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Brown was involved in a relationship with Margarita. Margarita said about it, It was a solid and romantic storyGordon Brown – Brown as Prime Minister, c. 2009
25. Global warming controversy – No scientific body of national or international standing disagrees with this view, though a few organizations with members in extractive industries hold non-committal positions. Global warming remains an issue of political debate, often split along party political lines. The sources of funding for those involved with climate science—both supporting and opposing mainstream scientific positions—have been questioned by both sides, There are debates about the best policy responses to the science, their cost-effectiveness and their urgency. Legal cases regarding global warming, its effects, and measures to reduce it have reached American courts, the fossil fuels lobby has been identified as overtly or covertly supporting efforts to undermine or discredit the scientific consensus on global warming. The British press also changed its coverage at the end of 1988, at the same time environmental organizations and the political opposition were demanding solutions that contrasted with the governments. In May 2013 Charles, Prince of Wales took a strong stance criticising both climate change deniers and corporate lobbyists by likening the Earth to a dying patient, a scientific hypothesis is tested to absolute destruction, but medicine cant wait. If a doctor sees a child with a fever, he cant wait for tests and he has to act on what is there. Many European countries took action to reduce gas emissions before 1990. West Germany started to take action after the Green Party took seats in Parliament in the 1980s, all countries of the European Union ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Substantial activity by NGOs took place as well and it took many years for this particular issue to attract any type of attention. In Europe, the notion of human influence on climate gained wide acceptance more rapidly than in the United States, 87% of Europeans considered climate change to be a very serious or serious problem, while ten per cent did not consider it a serious problem. In 2007, the BBC announced the cancellation of a television special Planet Relief. The editor of BBCs Newsnight current affairs show said, It is absolutely not the BBCs job to save the planet, I think there are a lot of people who think that, but it must be stopped. The fact that half of the American population believe that global warming is caused by human activity could be seen as a victory for these deniers. A compendium of poll results on public perceptions about global warming is below, however, the public is out of step with the scientific community, with 41% believing that climate change is being caused by both human activity and natural processes. 46% believe human activity is the main cause, only a small minority reject anthropogenic climate change, while almost half are very concerned. However, there remains a large proportion who are not fully persuaded, There is still a strong appetite among the public for more information, and 63% say they need this to come to a firm view on the issue and what it means for them. The public continue to externalize climate change to other people, places and times, however, the issue features less prominently nationally and locally, indeed only 9% believe climate change will have a significant impact upon them personallyGlobal warming controversy – Antarctic Skin (the roughly top millimeter of land, sea, snow, or ice) Temperature Trends between 1981 and 2007, based on thermal infrared observations made by a series of NOAA satellite sensors; note that they do not necessarily reflect air temperature trends.
26. Harold Holt – Harold Edward Holt, CH, was an Australian politician and the 17th Prime Minister of Australia from 1966 to 1967. He was born in Stanmore, New South Wales and won a scholarship to law at the University of Melbourne. Holt went into business as a solicitor, during which time he joined the United Australia Party, in 1935, aged just 27, he was elected for Fawkner. As Minister for Immigration, Holt was responsible for the relaxation of the White Australia policy and he controversially expanded Australias involvement in the Vietnam War, with the slogan All the way with LBJ. Born in Stanmore, New South Wales on 5 August 1908, Holt was the son of Thomas. He and his brother Cliff, spent their life in Sydney. In 1918, Thomas Holt divorced Olive and went to work with the Hugh D. McIntosh and he became the Tivoli-J C Williamson representative in London and New York. Meanwhile, he enrolled his sons as boarders at Wesley College in Melbourne, in 1924, when Holt was sixteen, his mother died and he did not attend her funeral. A formative event was his performance at his schools annual Speech Night in December 1926. None of his family were present, and he never forgot the loneliness he felt that night, Holt won a scholarship to Queens College at the University of Melbourne and began his law degree in 1927. He excelled in areas of university life – he won College Blues for cricket and Australian rules football, as well as the College Oratory. A member of the Melbourne Inter-University Debating team and the United Australia Organisation A Grade debating team, Holt graduated with a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1930. His father, based in London at the time, wanted him to further his studies in Britain, instead, in 1933, Holt went into sole practice as a solicitor. He later entered into a partnership, which became the firm of Holt, Graham & Newman, while at university, Holt had met Zara Kate Dickins. In 1934 they were contemplating marriage, but, after a quarrel, Zara travelled overseas, meeting Captain James Fell, a British Army officer stationed in India, whom she married in March 1935. Her first son Nicholas was born in 1937, followed by twin boys Sam and Andrew, author Tom Frame has suggested that Holt was the father of the twins. Zara and Fell subsequently divorced, and she married Holt in 1946, although they remained married until Holts death in 1967, Zara later commented that Holt had had a number of extramarital affairs. Meanwhile, Thomas Holt married Lola Thring, the daughter of his business partner F. W. Thring, while developing his legal practice, Holt was drawn to politics and joined the Prahran branch of the United Australia Party in 1933Harold Holt – The Right Honourable Harold Holt CH
27. Harry Secombe – Sir Harry Donald Secombe, CBE was a Welsh comedian and singer. He played Neddie Seagoon, a character in the BBC radio comedy series The Goon Show. He also appeared in musicals and films and, in his years, was a presenter of television shows incorporating hymns. Secombe was born in St Thomas, Swansea, the third of four children of Nellie Jane Gladys, a shop manageress, and Frederick Ernest Secombe, from the age of 11 he attended Dynevor School, a state grammar school in central Swansea. His family were regular churchgoers, belonging to the congregation of St Thomas Church, a member of the choir, Secombe would – from the age of 12 – perform a sketch entitled The Welsh Courtship at church socials, acting as feed to his sister Carol. His elder brother, Fred Secombe, was the author of books about his experiences as an Anglican priest. After leaving school in 1937, Secombe became a pay clerk at Baldwins store, with war looming, he decided in 1938 that he would join the Territorial Army. Very short sighted, he got a friend to him the sight test. He served as a Lance Bombardier in No.132 Field Regiment of the Royal Artillery and he would refer to the unit in which he served during World War II in the North African Campaign, Sicily, and Italy, as The Five-Mile Snipers. While in North Africa Secombe met Spike Milligan for the first time, in Sicily he joined a concert party and developed his own comedy routines to entertain the troops. When Secombe visited the Falkland Islands to entertain the troops after the 1982 Falklands War and he made his first radio broadcast in May 1944 on a variety show aimed at the services. Following the end of fighting in the war but prior to demobilisation Secombe joined a pool of entertainers in Naples, Secombe joined the cast of the Windmill Theatre in 1946, using a routine he had developed in Italy about how people shaved. Secombe always claimed that his ability to sing could always be counted on to him when he bombed. Both Milligan and Sellers credited him with keeping the act on the bill when club owners had wanted to sack them, Secombe met Michael Bentine at the Windmill Theatre, and was introduced to Peter Sellers by his agent Jimmy Grafton. Together with Spike Milligan, the four wrote a radio script. Produced by Peter Ross, this would soon become The Goon Show, Secombe mainly played Neddie Seagoon, around whom the shows absurd plots developed. In 1955, whilst appearing on The Goon Show, Secombe was approached by the BBC to step in at short notice to take the lead in the radio comedy Hancocks Half Hour. The star of the show, Tony Hancock, had decided to take a break abroad the day before the live airing of the second seasonHarry Secombe – Sir Harry Secombe CBE
28. History of Zimbabwe – Economic instability led several members of Military of Zimbabwe the military to try to overthrow the government in a coup détat in 2007. Prior to its independence as Zimbabwe in 1980, the nation had been known by several names, Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia. These Bantu speakers were the makers of early Iron Age pottery belonging to the Silver Leaves or Matola tradition, more substantial in numbers in Zimbabwe were the makers of the Ziwa and Gokomere ceramic wares, of the fourth century A. D. Their early Iron Age ceramic tradition belonged to the highlands facies of the eastern stream, imports of beads have been found at Gokomere and Ziwa sites, possibly in return for gold exported to the coast. A later phase of the Gokomere culture was the Zhizo in southern Zimbabwe, Zhizo communities settled in the Shashe-Limpopo area in the tenth century. Many fragments of figurines have been recovered from there, figures of animals and birds. The inhabitants produced ivory bracelets and other ivory goods, imported beads found there and at other Zhizo sites, are evidence of trade, probably of ivory and skins, with traders on the Indian Ocean coast. Pottery belonging to a stream of Bantu expansion has been found at sites in northeastern Zimbabwe. The terms eastern and western streams represent the expansion of the Bantu speaking peoples in terms of their culture, another question is the branches of the Bantu languages which they spoke. Their language, whatever it was, was superseded by the ancestral Shona languages, the Ziwa/Gokomere and Zhizo traditions were superseded by Leopards Kopje and Gumanye wares of the Kalundu tradition from the tenth century. After the Shona speaking people moved into the present day Zimbabwe many different dialects developed over time in the different parts of the country and it is believed that Kalanga speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Kalanga states, the Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory and copper for cloth and glass, from about 1250 until 1450, Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This Kalanga state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwes stone architecture, from circa 1450–1760, Zimbabwe gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. This Kalanga state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today and it is known by many names including the Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwenemutapa was known for its gold trade routes with Arabs and the Portuguese. However, Portuguese settlers destroyed the trade and began a series of wars left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century. As a direct response to Portuguese aggression in the interior, a new Kalanga state emerged called the Rozwi Empire, relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi removed the Portuguese from the Zimbabwe plateau by force of arms. Around 1821, the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled from King Shaka and created his own clan, the Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaal, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the MfecaneHistory of Zimbabwe – Southern Rhodesia stamp: princesses Elizabeth and Margaret on the 1947 royal tour of South Africa
29. Henry VIII of England – Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII, Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and he achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich and his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated, and accomplished king, and he has been described as one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne. He was an author and composer, as he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI, born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henrys six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, Margaret, and Mary – survived infancy and he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York, in May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. Henry was given an education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king, as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, Arthurs death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public, as a result, the young Henry would later ascend the throne untrained in the exacting art of kingshipHenry VIII of England – King Henry VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
30. Prince Harry – Prince Henry of Wales, KCVO, familiarly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. After an education at schools in the United Kingdom and spending parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, Harry chose a military career, undergoing officer training at RMA Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother, in 2007–2008, he served for 77 days in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out following publication of his presence there by an Australian magazine. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps and he left the army in June 2015. Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014, and remains patron of its Foundation and he also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, and Walking With The Wounded. Harry was born at St Marys Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4,20 pm and he was baptised on 21 December 1984 at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. His godparents are Prince Andrew, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, Carolyn Bartholomew, Bryan Organ, Gerald Ward and Celia, Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age, his first overseas tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985. Harrys parents divorced in 1996, and his mother died following a car accident in Paris the following year, Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, and the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mothers death. Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools and he started at Jane Mynors nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School, and, after passing the exams, was admitted to Eton College. In June 2003, Harry completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels, having decided to drop history of art after AS level and he excelled in sports, particularly polo and rugby union. Passing two A-levels, Harry was eligible to apply for a commission in the British Army. One of Harrys former teachers, Sarah Forsyth, has assessed that Harry was a weak student, both Eton and Harry denied the claims. While a tribunal made no ruling on the claim, it accepted the prince had received help in preparing his A-level expressive project. After school, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia, working on a cattle station and he also travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom. Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, and joined the Alamein Company. Within a year, in April 2006, Harry completed his training and was commissioned as a Cornet in the Blues and Royals. He was given the service number 564673, on 13 April 2008, when he reached two years seniority, Harry was promoted to lieutenantPrince Harry – Prince Harry during the Invictus Games in London, September 2014
31. I. M. Pei – Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA, commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese-American architect. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. Since then, he has taken on work as an architectural consultant primarily from his sons architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects and he went on to design Dallas City Hall and the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. He returned to China for the first time in 1975 to design a hotel at Fragrant Hills, and designed Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, a skyscraper in Hong Kong for the Bank of China fifteen years later. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid for the Musée du Louvre in Paris. He later returned to the world of the arts by designing the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in Dallas, the Miho Museum in Japan, the Suzhou Museum in Suzhou, in 1983, he won the Pritzker Prize, sometimes called the Nobel Prize of architecture. Peis ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty, when his family moved from Anhui province to Suzhou, finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. Ieoh Ming Pei was born on April 26,1917 to Tsuyee Pei and Lien Kwun, the family eventually included five children. As a boy, Pei was very close to his mother and she invited him, his brothers, and his sisters to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate and their interactions were respectful but distant. Peis ancestors success meant that the family lived in the echelons of society. The younger Pei, drawn more to music and other forms than to his fathers domain of banking. I have cultivated myself, he said later, at the age of ten, Pei moved with his family to Shanghai after his father was promoted. Pei attended Saint Johns Middle School, run by Protestant missionaries, academic discipline was rigorous, students were allowed only one half-day each month for leisure. Pei enjoyed playing billiards and watching Hollywood movies, especially those of Buster Keaton and he also learned rudimentary English skills by reading the Bible and novels by Charles Dickens. Shanghais many international elements gave it the name Paris of the East, the citys global architectural flavors had a profound influence on Pei, from the Bund waterfront area to the Park Hotel, built in 1934. He was also impressed by the gardens of Suzhou, where he spent the summers with extended family and regularly visited a nearby ancestral shrine. The Shizilin Garden, built in the 14th century by a Buddhist monk, was especially influential and its unusual rock formations, stone bridges, and waterfalls remained etched in Peis memory for decadesI. M. Pei – in Luxembourg, 2006
32. John Major – Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. A cabinet minister from 1987, he served Margaret Thatcher in the Treasury, Major was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001. He is currently the oldest living former Prime Minister, following the death of Thatcher on 8 April 2013, at the beginning of his premiership, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Shortly after this, even though a supporter of the ERM. This event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies, Major went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, Major resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague and he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. Major was born in 1943 at St Helier Hospital in Sutton, Surrey and he was christened John Roy Major but only John was recorded on his birth certificate. He used his name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954 he attended Rutlish School, in 1955, with his fathers garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. He also credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the Kings Road shortly afterwards, Major left school at the age of 16 in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. He later gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics, Majors first job was as a clerk in the insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time, Major was almost 19 years old when his father died at the age of 82 on 27 March 1962. His mother died eight and a years later in September 1970 at the age of 65. After Major became Prime Minister it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test and he had in fact passed all of the necessary tests but had been passed over owing to his height. After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963 which is incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair. He later decided to undertake a course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age, encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton MarketJohn Major – Major in October 2014
33. Kylie Minogue – Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE, often known simply as Kylie, is an Australian singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson, since then, Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several nicknames including Princess of Pop. She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association, born and raised in Melbourne, Australia, Minogue has for many years worked and lived in London. She signed to PWL in 1987 and released her first studio album Kylie the next year, in 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records and where she created her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics. Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and her 2001 single Cant Get You Out of My Head became one of the most successful singles during the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her song and was named the catchiest song ever by Yahoo. Her album Fever was a hit in countries, including the United States. In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl, The Greatest Hits Tour, after treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl, The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a triumph. Minogue resumed work as an actress and appeared in the films Moulin Rouge, Jack & Diane, and Holy Motors. In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the series of The Voice UK. Her other ventures include product endorsements, children books and fashion, as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and she was appointed OBE by Charles, Prince of Wales in 2008. She was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture, Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, in December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia and her father is a fifth generation Australian, and has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father, Millie and Denis Jones, just before Kylies birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylies younger brother, Brendan, is a cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is also a singerKylie Minogue – Minogue at an amfAR event, 2015
34. Land Rover – Land Rover is a car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by Indias Tata Motors since 2008. The Land Rover is regarded as a British icon, and was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951, the Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed into a brand encompassing a range of models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport. Land Rovers are currently assembled in the companys Halewood and Solihull plants, with research and development taking place at the Gaydon, Land Rover sold 194,000 vehicles worldwide in 2009. The carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there, the design may have been influenced by the Jeep and the prototype, later nicknamed Centre Steer, was built on a Jeep chassis and axles. Early vehicles like the Series I were field-tested at Long Bennington, Land Rover as a company has existed since 1978. In 1994 Rover Group plc was acquired by BMW, in 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW and Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group. In 2006 Ford purchased the Rover brand from BMW for around £6 million, in 2008, Ford Motor Company sold Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Included in the deal were the rights to three other British brands, Jaguars own Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover and this sale also included the dormant Rover brand. As of August 2012, most Land Rovers in production are powered by Ford engines, under the terms of the acquisition, Tata has the right to buy engines from Ford until 2019. In 2011, Tata confirmed plans that it is investing $559 million to build an assembly plant in the British West Midlands. However, it was stated that the plant will produce four-cylinder engines. The eight-cylinder engines used in Land Rovers were not mentioned,1997, Land Rover introduces the Special Edition Discovery XD with AA yellow paint, subdued wheels, SD type roof racks, and a few other off-road upgrades directly from the factory. Produced only for the North American market, the Special Vehicles Division of Land Rover created only 250 of these bright yellow SUVs, introduction of second generation of Freelander. 26 March 2008, Ford agreed to sell their Jaguar Land Rover operations to Tata Motors,2 June 2008, Tata Motors finalised their purchase of Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford. The Freelander is also assembled in kit form at Land Rovers facility in Pune. Defender models are assembled under licence in several locations worldwide, including Spain, Iran, Brazil, in May 2010, Tata Motors announced that it plans to build Land Rover and Jaguar models in Mainland China as the company seeks to cut costs and expand sales. In late 2012, the automaker announced a joint venture for Jaguars and Land Rovers to be built in China, the agreement is with Chery, Chinas sixth largest auto manufacturer, and calls for a new Chinese factory in Changshu to build vehicles starting in 2014Land Rover – Series I
35. Mary Rose – The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. After serving for 33 years in wars against France, Scotland. While leading the attack on the galleys of a French invasion fleet, she sank in the Solent, the wreck of the Mary Rose was rediscovered in 1971. It was raised in 1982 by the Mary Rose Trust, in one of the most complex, the surviving section of the ship and thousands of recovered artefacts are of immeasurable value as a Tudor-era time capsule. The finds include weapons, sailing equipment, naval supplies and an array of objects used by the crew. Many of the artefacts are unique to the Mary Rose and have provided insights into topics ranging from naval warfare to the history of musical instruments, since the mid-1980s, while undergoing conservation, the remains of the hull have been on display at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard. An extensive collection of well-preserved artefacts is on display at the nearby Mary Rose Museum, built to display the reconstructed ship and its artefacts. The Mary Rose was one of the largest ships in the English navy through more than three decades of intermittent war and was one of the earliest examples of a sailing warship. She was armed with new types of guns that could fire through the recently invented gun-ports. After being substantially rebuilt in 1536, she was one of the earliest ships that could fire a broadside. Several theories have sought to explain the demise of the Mary Rose, based on records, knowledge of 16th-century shipbuilding. The precise cause of her sinking is unclear, because of conflicting testimonies. In the late 15th century, England was a relatively insignificant state on the periphery of Europe. The great victories against France in the Hundred Years War were in the past, the War of the Roses—the civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster—had ended with Henry VIIs establishment of the House of Tudor, the new ruling dynasty of England. The ambitious naval policies of Henry V were not continued by his successors, the marriage alliance between Anne of Brittany and Charles VIII of France in 1491, and his successor Louis XII in 1499, left England with a weakened strategic position on its southern flank. Despite this, Henry VII managed to maintain a long period of peace. At the onset of the modern period, the great European powers were France. All three became involved in the War of the League of Cambrai in 1508, the conflict was initially aimed at the Republic of Venice but eventually turned against FranceMary Rose – The remnants of the Mary Rose undergoing conservation in Portsmouth
36. Mohamed Al-Fayed – Mohamed Al-Fayed is an Egyptian business magnate. Fayeds business interests include ownership of Hôtel Ritz Paris and formerly Harrods Department Store, Al-Fayed sold his ownership of Fulham F. C. to Shahid Khan in 2013. Fayed has four siblings, Ali, Salah, Soaad and Safia, Fayeds eldest son, Dodi, from his first marriage to Samira Khashoggi, died in a car crash in Paris with Diana, Princess of Wales and driver Henri Paul on 31 August 1997. Fayed married Finnish socialite and former model Heini Wathén in 1985, with whom he has four children, Jasmine, Karim, Camilla, in 2013, Fayeds wealth was estimated at US$1.4 billion, making him the 1, 031st-richest person in the world in 2013. Born on 27 January 1929 in Bakos, Alexandria, Egypt and he was married for two years, from 1954 to 1956, to Samira Khashoggi. Fayed worked for his wifes brother, Saudi Arabian arms dealer, Fayeds addition of Al- to his name, which implies aristocratic origins, has led to Private Eye nicknaming him the Phoney Pharaoh. According to his biographer Tom Bower, Fayed also claimed to have come from a town named Fayed after his family, Fayed and his brothers founded a shipping company in Egypt before moving its headquarters to Genoa, Italy with additional offices in London. Around 1964 Fayed entered a relationship with Haitian leader François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc Duvalier. He also associated with the geologist George de Mohrenschildt, Fayed terminated his stay in Haiti six months later when a sample of crude oil provided by Haitian associates proved to be low-grade molasses. It was then that Fayed moved to England where he lived in central London, in the mid 1960s, Fayed met the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid al Makhtoum who entrusted Fayed with helping transform Dubai. Fayed introduced British companies like the Costain Group, Bernard Sunley & Sons and he also became a financial adviser to the then Sultan of Brunei Omar Ali Saifuddien III, in 1966. Fayed set up IMS in 1968 in Dubai and he briefly joined the board of the mining conglomerate Lonrho in 1975 but left after a disagreement. In 1979, Fayed bought The Ritz hotel in Paris, France for US$30 million. In 1984, Fayed and his brothers purchased a 30 percent stake in House of Fraser, a group included the famous London store Harrods, from Roland Tiny Rowland. In 1985, he and his brothers bought the remaining 70 percent of House of Fraser for £615m, Rowland claimed the Fayed brothers had lied about their background and wealth and put pressure on the government to investigate them. A Department of Trade and Industry inquiry into the Fayeds was launched, the DTIs subsequent report was critical, but no action was taken against the Fayeds, and while many believed the contents of the report, others felt it was politically motivated. In 1998, Rowland accused Fayed of stealing papers and jewels from his Harrods safe deposit box, Fayed was arrested, but the charges were dropped. Fayed settled the dispute with a payment to his widow, he sued the Metropolitan Police for false arrest in 2002Mohamed Al-Fayed – Fayed in 2011
37. Michael Bentine – Michael Bentine, CBE was an English comedian, comic actor and founding member of the Goons. In 1971, Bentine received the Order of Merit of Peru following his work for the 1970 Great Peruvian earthquake. Bentine was born in Watford, Hertfordshire, to a Peruvian father, Adam Bentin, and a British mother, Florence Dawkins and he was educated at Eton College. He spoke fluent Spanish and French and his father was an early aeronautical engineer for the Sopwith Aviation Company during and after World War I and invented a tensometer for setting the tension on aircraft rigging wires. In World War II, he volunteered for all services when the war broke out and he started his acting career in 1940, in a touring company in Cardiff playing a juvenile lead in Sweet Lavender. He went on to join Robert Atkins Shakespearean company in Regents Park, London and he was appearing in a Shakespearean play in doublet and hose in the open-air theatre in Londons Hyde Park when two RAF MPs marched on stage and arrested him for desertion. Unknown to him, an RAF conscription notice had been following him for a month as his company toured, once in the RAF he went through flying training. He was the man going through a medical line receiving inoculations for typhoid with the other flight candidates in his class when the vaccine ran out. They refilled the bottle to inoculate him and the man as well. By mistake they loaded a pure culture of typhoid, the other man died immediately, and Bentine was in a coma for six weeks. When he regained consciousness his eyesight was ruined, leaving him myopic for the rest of his life and his immediate superior was the Colditz escapee Airey Neave. At the end of the war, he took part in the liberation of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp and he said about this experience, Millions of words have been written about these horror camps, many of them by inmates of those unbelievable places. I’ve tried, without success, to describe it from my own point of view, to me Belsen was the ultimate blasphemy. After the war he decided to become a comedian and worked in the Windmill Theatre where he met Harry Secombe and he specialised in off-the-wall humour, often involving cartoons and other types of animation. Peter Sellers told him this was the inspiration for the prosthetic arm routine in Dr Strangelove. This act led to his engagement by Val Parnell to appear in the Starlight Roof revues starring Vic Oliver, also on the bill were Fred Emney and a young Julie Andrews. He co-founded The Goon Show radio show with Spike Milligan, Peter Sellers and Harry Secombe and he also appeared in the Goon Show film Down Among the Z Men. In 1951 Bentine was invited to the United States to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, on his return he parted amicably from his partners and continued touring in variety, remaining close to Secombe and Sellers for the rest of his lifeMichael Bentine – Michael Bentine
38. Marrakesh – Marrakesh, also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca, Fes and it is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Marrakesh is possibly the most important of Moroccos four former imperial cities, the region has been inhabited by Berber farmers since Neolithic times, but the actual city was founded in 1062 by Abu Bakr ibn Umar, chieftain and cousin of Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas and mosques in Marrakesh that bear Andalusian influences. The red walls of the city, built by Ali ibn Yusuf in 1122–1123, Marrakesh grew rapidly and established itself as a cultural, religious, and trading centre for the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa, Jemaa el-Fnaa is the busiest square in Africa. After a period of decline, the city was surpassed by Fes, beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Moroccos seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 2009, Marrakesh mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the woman to be elected mayor in Morocco. Like many Moroccan cities, Marrakesh comprises an old fortified city packed with vendors and their stalls, bordered by modern neighborhoods, today it is one of the busiest cities in Africa and serves as a major economic centre and tourist destination. Tourism is strongly advocated by the reigning Moroccan monarch, Mohammed VI, despite the economic recession, real estate and hotel development in Marrakesh has grown dramatically in the 21st century. Marrakesh is particularly popular with the French, and numerous French celebrities own property in the city, Marrakesh has the largest traditional market in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is one of North Africa’s largest centres of wildlife trade, much of this trade can be found in the medina and adjacent squares. Tortoises are particularly popular for sale as pets but Barbary macaques and snakes can also be seen, Marrakesh is served by Ménara International Airport and the Marrakesh railway station, which connects the city to Casablanca and northern Morocco. Marrakesh has several universities and schools, including Cadi Ayyad University, a number of Moroccan football clubs are located here, including Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech. The Marrakesh Street Circuit hosts the World Touring Car Championship, Auto GP, the exact meaning of the name is debated. The probable origin of the name Marrakesh is from the Berber words amur akush, the word mur is used now in Berber mostly in the feminine form tamurt. The common English spelling is Marrakesh, although Marrakech is also widely used, the name is spelled Mṛṛakc in the Berber Latin alphabet, Marraquexe in Portuguese, Marraquech in Spanish, and Mer-reksh in Moroccan Arabic. From medieval times until around the beginning of the 20th century, the name for Morocco is still Marrakesh to this day in Persian and Urdu as well as many other South Asian languagesMarrakesh – Marrakesh ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ Meṛṛakec مراكش Marrakech
39. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, and the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an aunt and she moved to Chicago when her mother remarried in 1929, and later took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, Night into Morning, and Donovans Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, who was president of the Screen Actors Guild. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husbands victory in the 1980 presidential election. She was criticized early in his first term, largely due to her decision to replace the White House china and she aimed to restore a Kennedy-esque glamour to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the Just Say No drug awareness campaign and she had a strong influence on her husband, and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Reagan devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, who was diagnosed with Alzheimers disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5,2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of stem cell research. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6,1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women and she was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman who had been born into a once-prosperous family, and his actress wife, radio actress Edith Prescott Luckett. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova, from birth, she was commonly called Nancy. She lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York City, in a house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928, after their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Reagan was raised in Bethesda, Maryland, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, and uncle, Audley Gailbraith. Nancy later described longing for her mother during those years, My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, in 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago. Nancy and her stepfather got along well, she later wrote that he was a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values. He formally adopted her in 1935, and she would refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy DavisNancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
40. Diana, Princess of Wales – Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana was born into a family of British nobility with royal ancestry and was the child and third daughter of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp. She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, in 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. She came to prominence in February 1981 when her engagement to Prince Charles was announced and her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Pauls Cathedral, reached a global television audience of over 750 million people. While married, Diana bore the titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, the marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and she was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She was involved with dozens of charities including Londons Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997, Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk. She was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the Spencer family has been closely allied with the British Royal Family for several generations. Both of Dianas grandmothers had served as ladies-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, on 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Sandringham, with wealthy commoners as godparents. Diana had three siblings, Sarah, Jane, and Charles and her infant brother, John, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an added strain to the Spencers marriage. Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, the Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II. The Royal Family frequently holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, and Diana played with Princes Andrew, Diana was seven years old when her parents divorced. Her mother later had an affair with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969, Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents separation in 1967, but during that years Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp. Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, in 1972, Lord Althorp began a relationship with Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the only daughter of Alexander McCorquodale and Dame Barbara Cartland. They married at Caxton Hall, London in 1976, as an upper-class child at the time, Diana was first educated under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen. She began her education at Silfield Private School in Gayton, Norfolk, and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near DissDiana, Princess of Wales – The Princess of Wales raising money for cancer research in Chicago, Illinois, June 1996
41. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party, the office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The position of Prime Minister was not created, it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective, the origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of political parties, the introduction of mass communication. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged, prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Ministers authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the Head of Her Majestys Government the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet, in addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers, under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. The Prime Minister also acts as the face and voice of Her Majestys Government. The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, in 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs, In this country we live. Our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the assent of the King, Lords. They rest on usage, custom, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, the relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign, Parliament and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Ministers executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still vested in the SovereignPrime Minister of the United Kingdom – Incumbent David Cameron since 11 May 2010
42. Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden – Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland, is the eldest child and heir apparent of King Carl XVI Gustaf. If she ascends to the throne as expected, she will be Swedens fourth queen regnant and the first since 1720. Victoria was born on 14 July 1977 at 21,45 CET at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, Stockholm County, Sweden and she is a member of the Royal House of Bernadotte. Born as a Princess of Sweden, she was designated Crown Princess in 1979 ahead of her younger brother and her place as first in the line of succession formally went into effect on 1 January 1980 with the parliamentary change to the Act of Succession that introduced absolute primogeniture. Her given names honour various relatives and she was christened at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977. Her godparents were Crown Prince Harald of Norway, her uncle, Ralf Sommerlath, Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands. The Crown Princess was confirmed in the summer of 1992 at Räpplinge church on the island of Öland. Victoria studied for a year at the Université Catholique de lOuest at Angers in France, from 1998 to 2000, Victoria resided in the United States, where she studied various subjects at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. In May 1999, she was an intern at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, Victoria completed a study program at the Government Offices in 2001. In 2003, Victorias education continued with visits to Swedish businesses, in 2006, Victoria enrolled in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs Diplomat Program, running from September 2006 to June 2007. The program is a program for young future diplomats and gives an insight to the ministrys work, Swedish foreign and security policies. In June 2009, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Uppsala University and she speaks Swedish, English, French and German. She was made Crown Princess and heir apparent on 1 January 1980 by the 1979 change to the Act of Succession of 1810 and this constitutional reform meant that the throne would be inherited by the monarchs eldest child without regard to gender. King Carl XVI Gustaf objected to the reform after it occurred because he favoured tradition, when she became heir, she also was made titular Duchess of Västergötland, one of the historical provinces of Sweden. Prior to this change, the heir apparent to the throne was her younger brother. He is now fourth in line to the throne, behind the Crown Princesss daughter and she is one of only three female heirs apparent in the world – the other two being her goddaughter Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, and Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Victorias declaration of majority took place in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 14 July 1995, as of the day she turned 18, she became eligible to act as Head of State when the King is not in country. Victoria made her first public speech on this occasion, located on the dais in the background was the same silver throne on which her father was seated at his enthronement, in actual use from 1650 and up until this ceremonyVictoria, Crown Princess of Sweden – Crown Princess Victoria, 8 June 2013.
43. Privy Council of the United Kingdom – Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are present or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, the Council also holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council, mostly used to regulate certain public institutions. The Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, otherwise, the Privy Councils powers have now been largely replaced by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Counsellors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland, the key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a court or curia regis. The body originally concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation, administration, later, different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court. The courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, nevertheless, the Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, powerful sovereigns often used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. During Henry VIIIs reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation, the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIIIs death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became an administrative body. The Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, by the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, and Privy Council had been abolished. The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws, the forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons, the body was headed by Oliver Cromwell, de facto military dictator of the nation. In 1653, however, Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the Council was reduced to thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell even greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs, the Council became known as the Protectors Privy Council, its members were appointed by the Lord Protector, subject to Parliaments approval. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protectors Council was abolished, Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I even more power transferred to this committee and it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign and it is closely related to the word private, and derives from the French word privéPrivy Council of the United Kingdom – Queen Victoria convened her first Privy Council on the day of her accession in 1837.
44. Potsdamer Platz – It is named after the city of Potsdam, some 25 km to the south west, and marks the point where the old road from Potsdam passed through the city wall of Berlin at the Potsdam Gate. Since German reunification, Potsdamer Platz has been the site of redevelopment projects. Potsdamer Platz began as a trading post where several roads converged just outside Berlins old customs wall. A key motivation behind the Edict was so the Elector could encourage the repopulation, restabilising and economic recovery of his kingdom. Altogether up to 15,000 Huguenots made new homes in the Brandenburg region, some 6,000 of these in its capital, two other things resulted from this huge influx. Several new districts were founded around the perimeter, just outside the old fortifications. The largest of these was Friedrichstadt, just south west of the core of Berlin, begun in 1688 and named after new Elector Frederick William III. Its street layout followed the Baroque-style grid pattern much favoured at the time, all the new suburbs were absorbed into Berlin around 1709-10. In 1721-3 a south-westwards expansion of Friedrichstadt was planned under the orders of King Frederick William I, in this expansion, a new north-south axis emerged, Wilhelmstraße. In 1735-7, after Friedrichstadt’s expansion was complete, a customs or excise wall,17 km long and 4.2 m high, was erected around Berlin’s new perimeter. Consisting of a palisade at first, it was later replaced with a brick and stone wall, pierced by 14 gates. Here taxes were levied on goods passing through, chiefly meat, the most prestigious gate was the Brandenburg Gate, for the important road from Brandenburg, but 1 km to the south was the entry point of another road that gained even greater significance. Petersburg via Aachen, Berlin and Königsberg, in 1660 the Elector Frederick William made it his route of choice to Potsdam, the location of his palace, which had recently been renovated. Starting in 1754 a daily stagecoach ran between Berlin and Potsdam, although the road was in poor shape, but in 1740 Frederick II had become King. After numerous other improvements, in 1791-3 this section was made into Prussias first all-weather road and it was around this gate that Potsdamer Platz was to develop. As a physical entity, Potsdamer Platz began as a few country roads, according to one old guide book, it was never a proper platz, but a five-cornered traffic knot on that old trading route across Europe. The Potsdam Gate itself was redesignated the Leipziger Tor around the same time, the history of Leipziger Platz has been inextricably linked with that of its neighbour almost since its creation. Yet their respective stories have in many ways very differentPotsdamer Platz – Major buildings at Potsdamer Platz from the air in 2004.
45. President of Ireland – The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The President holds office for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms, unless a candidate runs unopposed, the President is directly elected by the people. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion, the President acts as a representative of the Irish state. Former President Mary McAleese described the office as the guardian of the constitution, the Presidents official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin, which is located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the current president is His Excellency Michael D Higgins, who was elected on 29 October 2011. His inauguration was held on 11 November 2011, President Higgins is a veteran left-wing politician and human rights campaigner. As a member of the Labour Party, he has served in both houses of the Oireachtas, President Higgins is also a poet and speaks the Irish language fluently. The Constitution of Ireland provides for a system of government. The President is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which also comprises Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, unlike most other parliamentary democracies, the President is not even the nominal chief executive. Rather, executive authority is vested in the Government. The Government is obliged, however, to keep the President generally informed on matters of domestic, most of the functions of the President may be carried out only in accordance with the strict instructions of the Constitution, or the binding advice of the Government. The President does, however, possess certain personal powers that may be exercised at his or her discretion, the main functions are prescribed by the Constitution, Appoints the government The President formally appoints the Taoiseach and other ministers, and accepts their resignations. The Taoiseach is appointed upon the nomination of the Dáil, ministers are dismissed on the advice of the Taoiseach and the Taoiseach must, unless there is a dissolution of the Dáil, resign upon losing the confidence of the house. Appoints the judiciary The President appoints the judges to all Courts of the Republic of Ireland, convenes and dissolves the Dáil This power is exercised on the advice of the Taoiseach, government or Dáil approval is not needed. The President may only refuse a dissolution when a Taoiseach has lost the confidence of the Dáil, signs bills into law The President cannot veto a bill that the Dáil and the Seanad have adopted. However, he/she may refer it to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality, if the Supreme Court upholds the bill, the President must sign it. If, however, it is found to be unconstitutional, the President will decline to give assent, represents the state in foreign affairs This power is exercised only on the advice of the Government. The President accredits ambassadors and receives the letters of credence of foreign diplomats, ministers sign international treaties in the Presidents namePresident of Ireland – Incumbent Michael D. Higgins since 11 November 2011
46. Ronald Reagan – Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor who was the 40th President of the United States, from 1981 to 1989. Before his presidency, he was the 33rd Governor of California, from 1967 to 1975, after a career as a Hollywood actor and union leader. Raised in a family in small towns of northern Illinois, Reagan graduated from Eureka College in 1932. After moving to Hollywood in 1937, he became an actor, Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild, the labor union for actors, where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a speaker at General Electric factories. Having been a lifelong Democrat, his views changed and he became a conservative and in 1962 switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagans speech, A Time for Choosing, in support of Barry Goldwaters foundering presidential campaign, Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California in 1966. Entering the presidency in 1981, Reagan implemented sweeping new political, in his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. During his re-election bid, Reagan campaigned on the notion that it was Morning in America, foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, and the Iran–Contra affair. Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an empire, and during his famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate. Jack, a salesman and storyteller, was the grandson of Irish Catholic immigrants from County Tipperary, Reagan had one older brother, John Neil Reagan, who became an advertising executive. As a boy, Reagans father nicknamed his son Dutch, due to his fat little Dutchman-like appearance and Dutchboy haircut, Reagans family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth, Galesburg, and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C, Pitney Variety Store until finally settling in Dixon. After his election as president, residing in the upstairs White House private quarters, for the time, Reagan was unusual in his opposition to racial discrimination, and recalled a time in Dixon when the local inn would not allow black people to stay there. Reagan brought them back to his house, where his mother invited them to stay the night and have breakfast the next morning, after the closure of the Pitney Store in late 1920 and the familys move to Dixon, the midwestern small universe had a lasting impression on Reagan. Reagan attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting, sports and his first job was as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park in 1927. Over a six-year period, Reagan reportedly performed 77 rescues as a lifeguard and he attended Eureka College, a Disciples-oriented liberal arts school, where he became a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, a cheerleader, and studied economics and sociology. While involved, the Miller Center of Public Affairs described him as an indifferent student and he majored in economics and sociology, and graduated with a C gradeRonald Reagan – Ronald Reagan
47. Robert Menzies – Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, PC, QC, FAA, FRS, was the Prime Minister of Australia from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He is Australias longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total, Menzies studied law at the University of Melbourne and became one of Melbournes leading lawyers. He was Deputy Premier of Victoria from 1932 to 1934, and then transferred to federal parliament, subsequently becoming Attorney-General, in April 1939, following Lyons death, Menzies was elected leader of the United Australia Party and sworn in as prime minister. He authorised Australias entry into World War II in September 1939, on his return to Australia in August 1941, Menzies found that he had lost the support of his party and consequently resigned as prime minister. He subsequently helped to create the new Liberal Party, and was elected its leader in August 1945. At the 1949 federal election, Menzies led the Liberal–Country coalition to victory, after 1955, his government also received support from the Democratic Labor Party, a breakaway group from the Labor Party. Menzies won seven consecutive elections during his term, eventually retiring as prime minister in January 1966. Robert Gordon Menzies was born to James Menzies and Kate in Jeparit and he was the fourth of six children, with one sister and three brothers. His maternal grandfather, John Sampson, was a Cornish miner from Penzance who also came to seek his fortune on the goldfields and his father was elected to the Victorian State Parliament for the seat of Lowan in 1911 and moved with the family to Melbourne after selling the farm. His middle name, Gordon, was given to him in honour and memory of Charles George Gordon, Menziess formal education began at Humffray Street State School in Bakery Hill, Ballarat, then later at private school in Ballarat. He attended Wesley College in Melbourne and studied law at the University of Melbourne, when World War I began, Menzies was 19 years old and held a commission in the universitys militia unit. He resigned his commission at the very time others of his age and it was later stated that, since the family had made enough of a sacrifice to the war with the enlistment of two of three eligible brothers, Menzies should stay to finish his studies. Menzies himself never explained the reason why he chose not to enlist and it should be noted that the two brothers, James and Frank, who did enlist did not do so until 1915 after the landings at Anzac which belies the alleged reason. Subsequently, he was prominent in undergraduate activities and won prizes and declared himself to be a patriotic supporter of the war. In 1916 he became the editor of the Melbourne University Magazine, establishing a reputation as an unusually bright and articulate member of the undergraduate community. After graduating from the University of Melbourne in 1916 with First Class Honours in Law, Menzies was admitted to the Victorian Bar and to the High Court of Australia in 1918. Establishing his own practice in Melbourne, Menzies specialised chiefly in Constitutional law which he had read with the leading Victorian jurist and future High Court judge, Sir Owen Dixon. In 1920 Menzies served as an advocate for the Amalgamated Society of Engineers which eventually took its appeal to the High Court of Australia, the case became a landmark authority for the positive reinterpretation of Commonwealth powers over those of the StatesRobert Menzies – The Right Honourable Sir Robert Menzies KT, AK, CH, FAA, FRS, QC