1. Charles, Prince of Wales – Charles, Prince of Wales, is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Cambridge, he served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, they had two sons: Prince William later to become Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced, following extramarital affairs. Diana died in a crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, he married Camilla Parker Bowles. He has sought to raise world awareness such as climate change. As an environmentalist, Charles has received numerous awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community. Charles has been outspoken on the role of the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, he created an experimental new town based on his theories, in Dorset in 1993. Charles was baptised in the palace's Music Room by the Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mother's accession as Queen Elizabeth II made her heir apparent. He attended his mother's coronation on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother and aunt.Charles, Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales in Jersey, July 2012
2. Act of Settlement 1701 – Her mother, Princess Elizabeth Stuart, had been born in Scotland but became famous in history as Elizabeth of Bohemia. The line of Sophia of Hanover was the most junior among the Stuarts, but consisted of convinced Protestants. The act played a key role in the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain. England and Scotland had shared a monarch since 1603, but had remained separately governed countries. English pressure on Scotland to accept the Act of Settlement was one factor leading to the parliamentary union of the two countries in 1707. Under the Act of Settlement anyone who became a Roman Catholic, or who married one, became disqualified to inherit the throne. Some of those provisions have been altered by subsequent legislation. The original documents are deposited in the Lower Saxon State Archives in Hanover, Germany. Mary II died childless in 1694, after which William III did not remarry. Thus, Anne was left as the last remaining legal heir to the throne. The Bill of Rights excluded Catholics from the throne, which ruled out James II and his descendants. However, it also provided for no further succession after Anne. Parliament thus saw the need to settle the succession on Sophia and her descendants, thereby guarantee the continuity of the Crown in the Protestant line. Thus, those who were Roman Catholics, those who married Roman Catholics, were barred from ascending the throne. This was intended to ensure the exclusion of a Roman Catholic monarch.Act of Settlement 1701 – Facsimile of the Act of Settlement sent to Electress Sophia of Hanover
3. Aston Martin – Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The car is regarded as a cultural icon. In March 2007, a consortium of investors, led by David Richards, purchased 92 % of Aston Martin for # million, with Ford retaining a # 40 million stake. David Richards became chairman of Aston Martin. In December 2012, the private equity fund Investindustrial signed a deal to buy 37.5 % of Aston Martin, investing # 150 million as a capital increase. Aston Martin was founded by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The pair decided to make their own vehicles. The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini. They produced their first car in March 1915. Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford the Royal Army Service Corps. All machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company. After the war, the company was refounded at Abingdon Road, a new car designed to carry the Aston-Martin name. The company was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set speed endurance records at Brooklands.Aston Martin – Early Aston Martin marque
4. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than 4 million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U.S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the third-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871. The original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Notably, the Tsilhqot ` in Nation has established Aboriginal title as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BC's economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the province's GDP. It is the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Its climate encourages outdoor tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, mining.British Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
5. Blackadder – Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 period British sitcoms, along with several one-off installments. All television episodes starred Tony Robinson as Baldrick. The Black Adder, was written by Rowan Atkinson, while subsequent episodes were written by Curtis and Ben Elton. The shows were produced by John Lloyd. In 2000, Blackadder Goes Forth, ranked in the "100 Greatest British Television Programmes", a list created by the British Film Institute. It was also ranked by magazine. As the generations progress, each Blackadder becomes increasingly clever and perceptive, while the family's social status steadily erodes. However, each Blackadder remains a cowardly opportunist, increasing his own status and fortunes, regardless of his surroundings. The life of each Blackadder is also entwined with his servant, each from the Baldrick family line. Each generation acts as the dogsbody to his respective Blackadder. They decrease in intelligence as their masters' intellect increases. Each Blackadder and Baldrick is also saddled with tolerating the presence of a dim-witted aristocrat. Each series was set in a different period of British history, beginning in 1485 and ending in 1917, comprised six half-hour episodes. The first series, made in 1983, was called The Black Adder and was set in the fictional reign of "Richard IV". The second series, Blackadder II, was set during the reign of Elizabeth I.Blackadder – Left to right: (back) Tim McInnerny, Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie, (front) Rowan Atkinson and Tony Robinson in Blackadder Goes Forth
6. BT Group – BT Group plc is a holding company which owns British Telecommunications plc, a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, United Kingdom. It has operations in around 180 countries. BT's origins date back to the founding of the Electric Telegraph Company in 1846 which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, a government department, became the monopoly telecoms supplier in the United Kingdom. The Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. Trading as British Telecom, was formed in 1980, became independent of the Post Office in 1981. British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming British Telecommunications plc, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its remaining stake in 1991 and 1993. BT controls a number of large subsidiaries. The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016. BT's origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial telegraph service, the Electric Telegraph Company, established in 1846. As these companies were taken over or collapsed, the remaining companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in 1912. These companies were rebranded as British Telecom. In January 1878 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his recently developed telephone at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.BT Group – The BT Tower, originally the Post Office Tower, constructed between 1961 and 1964
7. Balmoral Castle – They are not the property of the Crown. Soon after the estate was purchased by the royal family, the current Balmoral Castle was commissioned. The architect was William Smith of Aberdeen, although his designs were amended by Prince Albert. The castle is classified by Historic Scotland as a category A listed building. The new castle was completed in the old castle demolished shortly thereafter. The Balmoral Estate now covers an area of approximately 50,000 acres. It is a working estate, including grouse moors, farmland, as well as managed herds of deer, Highland cattle, ponies. King Robert II of Scotland had a lodge in the area. Historical records also indicate that a house at Balmoral was built by Sir William Drummond in 1390. The estate later was tenanted by Alexander Gordon, second son of the 1st Earl of Huntly. A house was built on the estate by the Gordons. In 1662 the estate passed to Charles Farquharson of brother of John Farquharson, the "Black Colonel". James Farquharson of Balmoral was involved in both the 1715 and 1745 rebellions. He was wounded in 1746. The Farquharson estates were passed to the Farquharsons of Auchendryne.Balmoral Castle – Balmoral Castle
8. British Empire – The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and 18th centuries. At its height, for over a century, was the foremost global power. As a result, its political, legal, cultural legacy is widespread. British attention soon turned towards Asia, the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal imperial power of the 19th century. The British Empire expanded to include India, many other territories throughout the world. Domestically, political attitudes favoured a gradual widening of the voting franchise. During this century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant economic stresses. New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century, the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous strain of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after World War I, Britain was longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in Southeast Asia were occupied by Imperial Japan.British Empire – A replica of The Matthew, John Cabot 's ship used for his second voyage to the New World.
9. Ballarat – It is the third most populous urban area in the state, with an estimated population of 99,841. It is the state's most populated inland settlement, settlement in Australia. People from Ballarat are referred to as Ballaratians. Ballarat is seat of local government and administrative centre. The present spelling was officially adopted in 1996. It is one in Australia. Just months after Victoria was granted separation from New South Wales, the Victorian rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. News quickly spread of rich alluvial fields where gold could easily be extracted. Within months, approximately 20,000 migrants had rushed to the district. Unlike many other gold boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for decades. The only armed rebellion in Australian history, the Battle of Eureka Stockade, took place on 3 December 1854. Boom gave birth to many other significant cultural legacies. The rebellion's symbol, the Eureka Flag is held at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka in Ballarat. It has endured as a regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the 1956 Summer Olympics. It is the largest city in the Goldfields region of Victoria -- a significant tourist destination.Ballarat
10. Bentley – Bentley Motors Limited is a British company that designs, develops, manufactures luxury motorcars which are largely hand-built. It is a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG. Now based in Crewe, England, Bentley Motors Limited was founded by W. O. Bentley on 18 January 1919 in North London. Bentley cars are sold via franchised dealers worldwide, as of November 2012, China was the largest market. A small number of Continental Flying Spurs are assembled at the factory in Dresden, Germany. Bodies for the Continental are produced in Zwickau, Germany. Bentley won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 2003. As of 2015, Bentley produce the Continental Flying Spur, Continental GT, the Mulsanne. Rolls-Royce bought Bentley from the receivers in 1931 and subsequently sold it to Vickers plc in 1980 when Rolls-Royce themselves went bankrupt. In 1998, Vickers sold it to Volkswagen AG. The first Bentley aluminum pistons were fitted during World War I. In August 1919, in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative 4 valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921.Bentley – Bentley winged "B" badge bonnet (hood) ornament
11. Coronation Street – Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in the early 1900s and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII. From late 2017 the show will air 6 times a week. The programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, is now a significant part of British culture. The show has been one of the most financially lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television and ITV. Coronation Street is shown in all ITV regions, well as internationally. On 17 it became the world's longest-running TV opera in production. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's 60th anniversary. Coronation Street is noted combined with strong characters. Some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned run. Despite the criticism, viewers were immediately drawn into the serial, won over by Coronation Street's'ordinary' characters. Early episodes thus found his working-class something of an embarrassment. The character was one of the few to have experienced life'outside' of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, the decline of similar communities.Coronation Street – Ken Barlow in the first episode of Coronation Street, 1960
12. Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting – The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. However, she was represented at the 2013 meeting as the 87-year-old monarch was curtailing her overseas travel. There have been 24 held in total: the most recent was held in Valletta, Malta. They are held once every two years, although this pattern has twice been interrupted. They are held around the Commonwealth, rotating amongst its members. In the past, CHOGMs have attempted to orchestrate common policies on current events, with a special focus on issues affecting member nations. Sometimes the member states agree on a common solution, release a joint statement declaring their opinion. More recently, beginning at the 1997 CHOGM, the meeting has had an official ` theme', set by the nation, on which the primary discussions have been focused. The meetings originated with the leaders of the self-governing colonies of the British Empire. The First Colonial Conference in 1887 was followed by periodic meetings, known as Imperial Conferences from 1907, of government leaders of the Empire. As the dominion leaders asserted themselves more at the meetings, it became clear that the time for ` imperial' conferences was over. From the ashes of the Second World War, seventeen Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conferences were held between 1969. The 1960s saw an overhaul of the Commonwealth. This decentralisation of power demanded a reformulation of the meetings. They were also renamed the'Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings' to reflect the growing diversity of the constitutional structures in the Commonwealth.Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting – The heads of government of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.
13. Charles I of England – Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He became heir apparent on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles thought he could govern according to his own conscience. He failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years' War. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Charles was tried, executed for high treason in January 1649. A republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy was restored in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. He retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life.Charles I of England – Portrait from the studio of Anthony van Dyck, 1636
14. Christopher Alexander – Christopher Wolfgang Alexander is a widely influential architect and design theorist, currently emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley. His theories about the nature of human-centered design have had notable impacts across many fields including urban design, software, sociology and other fields. He has also designed and personally built both as an architect and a general contractor. In the field of software, he is regarded as the father of the pattern movement. The first wiki -- the technology behind Wikipedia -- led directly according to its creator, Ward Cunningham. Alexander's work has also influenced the development of Scrum. He is perhaps best known for a perennial seller some four decades after publication. As a young child he emigrated in fall 1938 with his parents to England when his parents were forced to flee the Nazi regime. Alexander spent much of his childhood in Chichester and Oxford, England, where he began his education in the sciences. Alexander moved to the United States in 1958 to study at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Alexander moved in 1963 to accept an appointment as Professor of Architecture, a position he would hold for almost 40 years. After his retirement, he moved to Arundel, England, where he continued to write, teach and build. He has two daughters, Sophie and Lily, by his former wife Pamela. He attended England. In 1954, Alexander went on to read mathematics.Christopher Alexander – Christopher Alexander
15. Dylan Thomas – He remained so after his premature death at the age of 39 in New York City. By then he had acquired a reputation, which he had encouraged, as a "roistering, doomed poet". Thomas was born in 1914. He left school at 16 and became a journalist for a short time. While living in London, Thomas met Caitlin Macnamara, whom he married in 1937. Their relationship was mutually destructive. In the early part of their marriage, his family lived hand-to-mouth; they settled in the Welsh fishing village of Laugharne. Thomas came to be appreciated during his lifetime, though he found earning a living as a writer difficult. He began augmenting his income with reading tours and radio broadcasts. Thomas first traveled in the 1950s. His readings there brought a level of fame, while his erratic behaviour and drinking worsened. He went on to record to vinyl such works as A Child's Christmas in Wales. During his fourth trip to New York in 1953, Thomas fell into a coma, from which he never recovered. He died on 9 November 1953. His body was returned to Wales where he was interred at the village churchyard in Laugharne on 25 November 1953.Dylan Thomas – Thomas in New York in 1952
16. Foreign relations of Ecuador – This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Ecuador. Ecuador is a member of many of its specialized agencies; it is also a member of the OAS. For example, Ecuador was more active in its relations with the Third World, multilateral organizations, socialist countries. Ecuador is now contributing troops in the UN mission in Haiti. Ecuador has also been an elective member of the UN Security Council. In Antarctica, Ecuador is a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty. The Presidency of Rafael Correa in the 21st century saw a radical change in the country's foreign policy. There were increased ties with the governments of Russia and Iran. Australia and Ecuador both maintain diplomatic Ecuador maintains an embassy in Canberra. Formal relations started on 1980-01-02 and seven later China set up its embassy in Ecuador. In July 1981, Ecuador set up its embassy in China. Sino-Ecuadorian relations have been advancing smoothly. The two sides maintain political contacts and exchanges in trade, economic progress, science, technology, culture and education. In international affairs, the two countries support each other. However, Colombia's actions were condemned across the board with only the US supporting Colombia.Foreign relations of Ecuador – Ecuador
17. EnvironmentalistEnvironmentalist – Sir David Attenborough in May 2003.
18. Edward VI of England – Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. Edward was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Jane Seymour, Edward was England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority. Edward's reign was marked by social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal in exchange for peace. The transformation of the Church into a Protestant body also occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. The architect of these reforms was Archbishop of Canterbury, whose Book of Common Prayer is still used. At age 15, he fell ill. He named Lady Jane Grey, as his heir and excluded his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. He was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex. Edward was the son of King Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with relief.Edward VI of England – Edward VI, by William Scrots, c. 1550
19. Elvis Costello – Declan Patrick MacManus, better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, record producer. His acclaimed debut album, My Aim Is True, was released in 1977. Shortly after recording it, he formed the Attractions as his band. Armed Forces, was released in 1979, features his most successful single "Oliver's Army". His first three albums all appeared on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The Attractions toured and recorded together for the better part of a decade, though differences between them caused a split by 1986. Steeped in wordplay, the vocabulary of Costello's lyrics is broad. His music has drawn on diverse genres; one critic described him as a "pop encyclopaedia", able to "reinvent the past in his own image". He has twice been nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Male Singer. In 2003, the Attractions were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked number 80 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Costello has co-written several original songs including "God Give Me Strength" from Grace of My Heart and "The Scarlet Tide" from Cold Mountain. For the latter, Costello was nominated for Best Song Written for Visual Media. Costello was born in St Mary's Hospital, London, Ross MacManus, a musician and bandleader. He is of Irish descent.Elvis Costello – Costello at the 2012 Riot Fest, Chicago
20. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by British, Spaniards and Argentines at various points. The islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony in 1764. In 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont. In 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. There is no known evidence of pre-Columbian buildings or structures. However, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856. Yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of Dusicyon australis, has often been cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.History of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
21. Fred Hoyle – He spent most of his working life at the Institute of Astronomy at Cambridge and served as its director for six years. Hoyle was a writer of fiction, co-authored twelve books with his son, Geoffrey Hoyle. He was born in Gilstead, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Ben Hoyle, worked in the wool trade in Bradford. Mabel Pickard, had studied music at the Royal College of Music in London. He was educated at read mathematics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Hoyle was also put in charge of countermeasures against the radar guided guns found on the Graf Spee. Britain's project employed more personnel than the Manhattan project, was probably the inspiration for the large British project in The Black Cloud. The three had many and deep discussions on cosmology. The work paid for a couple of trips to North America, where he took full advantage to visit astronomers. Hoyle had an intuition at the time "I will make a name for myself if this works out." Eventually his prescient and ground paper came out. Hoyle was bothered by the paucity of stellar carbon production in existing models. In 1945, he returned to Cambridge University, starting as a lecturer at St John's College, Cambridge. In 1958, he was appointed at Cambridge University.Fred Hoyle – Sir Fred Hoyle
22. God Save the Queen – "God Save the Queen" is the national and/or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, the British Crown Dependencies. The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant, but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. It is also the royal anthem of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia, Canada, Barbados and Tuvalu. In the United States, the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country,'Tis of Thee". The melody is also used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein, Oben am jungen Rhein. Beyond its first verse, consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions. Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and, even today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung. Sometimes two verses are sung, on rare occasions, three. Nineteenth-century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, "Remember O Thou Man" was the source of the tune. The first published version of what is almost the present tune appeared in 1744 in Thesaurus Musicus. Scholes' analysis includes mention of "untenable" and "doubtful" claims, as well as "an American misattribution". The surgical knife, purpose-built for the occasion is on display in the Musée d'histoire de la médecine. Lully set words by Marie de Brinon to music, Créquy claims the tune was later plagiarised by Handel. Translated in Latin under the name Domine, Salvum Fac Regem, it became the French anthem until 1792.God Save the Queen – The phrase "God Save the King" in use as a rallying cry to the support of the monarch and the nation's forces
23. Governor-General of Australia – The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The governor-general is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia. Of the Queen of Australia, so is treated as a head of state. The governor-general is supported by a staff headed to the Governor-General. A governor-general is generally expected to serve for five years subject to a possible short extension. Since 28 the governor-general has been General Sir Peter Cosgrove. Until 1965 almost all governors-general were British aristocrats; they included six barons, three viscounts, two earls, one prince. Since then, all but one of the governors-general have been Australian-born. The previous incumbent Dame Quentin Bryce, has been a woman. The selection of a governor-general is a responsibility for the Prime Minister of Australia, who may consult privately with the monarch. The candidate is approached privately to confirm whether they are willing to accept the appointment. The prime minister then recommends the nomination to the monarch. Scullin was equally insistent that the monarch must act on the prime minister's direct advice. Both of these appointments had been agreed to despite British government objections. Despite these precedents, George V asked him to consider Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood.Governor-General of Australia – The letters patent issued by Queen Victoria in 1900 creating the office of governor-general
24. Gordon Brown – He previously served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Blair Government from 1997 to 2007. Brown was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and later for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. He entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East. After Labour's victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, becoming the longest-serving holder of that office in modern history. In 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. Labour's attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he officially resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband. Later, Brown played a prominent role in the campaign surrounding the Scottish independence referendum of 2014, galvanising support behind maintaining the union. Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock, Renfrewshire, Scotland. His father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. He died in December 1998, aged 84. His mother, Jessie Elizabeth Brown, known as Bunty, died on 19 September 2004, aged 86. She was the daughter of John Souter, a timber merchant. The family moved to Kirkcaldy – then the largest town in Fife, across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh – when Gordon was three.Gordon Brown – Brown as Prime Minister, c. 2009
25. Global warming controversy – No scientific body of international standing disagrees with this view, though a few organizations with members in extractive industries hold non-committal positions. Global warming remains an issue of widespread political debate, often split along party political lines, especially in the United States. The sources of funding for those involved with science -- both supporting and opposing mainstream scientific positions -- have been questioned by both sides. There are debates about the best policy responses to the science, their urgency. Legal cases regarding global warming, measures to reduce it have reached American courts. The fossil fuels lobby has been identified overtly or covertly supporting efforts to undermine or discredit the scientific consensus on global warming. In the United States, the mass media devoted little coverage to global warming until the drought of 1988, James E. Hansen's testimony to the Senate, which explicitly attributed "the abnormally hot weather plaguing our nation" to global warming. At the same environmental organizations and the political opposition were demanding "solutions that contrasted with the government's". "medicine can't wait. If a doctor sees a child with a fever, he can't wait for tests. He has to act on what is there." European countries took action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before 1990. West Germany started to take action after the Green Party took seats in the 1980s. All countries of the European Union ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.Global warming controversy – Antarctic Skin (the roughly top millimeter of land, sea, snow, or ice) Temperature Trends between 1981 and 2007, based on thermal infrared observations made by a series of NOAA satellite sensors; note that they do not necessarily reflect air temperature trends.
26. Harold Holt – Harold Edward Holt, CH, was an Australian politician and the 17th Prime Minister of Australia from 1966 to 1967. Holt won a scholarship to study law at the University of Melbourne. He went as a solicitor, during which time he joined the United Australia Party. In 1935, aged just 27, Holt was elected for Fawkner. As Minister for Immigration, he was responsible for the relaxation of the White Australia policy. Holt controversially expanded Australia's involvement with the slogan "All the way with LBJ". Born in Stanmore, New South Wales on 5 August 1908, he was the elder son of Thomas and Olive. His brother Cliff, spent their early life in Sydney, attending three different schools. In 1918, Thomas Holt went to work with the Hugh D. McIntosh, manager of the Tivoli theatre circuit. Holt became the Tivoli-J C Williamson representative in London and New York. Meanwhile, Holt enrolled his sons at Wesley College in Melbourne. In 1924, he did not attend her funeral. A formative event was his performance at his school's annual Speech Night in December 1926. He never forgot the loneliness he felt that night. He began his law degree in 1927.Harold Holt – The Right Honourable Harold Holt CH
27. Harry Secombe – Sir Harry Donald Secombe, CBE was a Welsh comedian and singer. He played Neddie Seagoon, a central character in the BBC radio comedy series The Goon Show. In his later years, was a presenter of television shows incorporating devotional songs. He was born in a grocer. From the age of 11 he attended Dynevor School, a state secondary school in central Swansea. His family were regular churchgoers, belonging to the congregation of St Thomas Church. His elder brother, Fred Secombe, was the author of several books about his experiences as an Anglican priest and rector. After leaving school in 1937, Secombe became a pay clerk at Baldwin's store. With war looming, he decided in 1938 that he would join the Territorial Army. Very short sighted, he got a friend to tell him the sight test, then learnt it by heart. He served as a Lance Bombardier in No.132 Field Regiment of the Royal Artillery. He would refer to the unit in which he served during World War II in the North African Campaign, Sicily, Italy, as "The Five-Mile Snipers". While in North Africa Secombe met Spike Milligan for the first time. In Sicily he joined a concert party and developed his own comedy routines to entertain the troops. Secombe made his first broadcast on a show aimed at the services.Harry Secombe – Sir Harry Secombe CBE
28. History of Zimbabwe – Economic instability led several members of Military of Zimbabwe the military to try to overthrow the government in a d'état in 2007. Prior to its recognised independence as Zimbabwe in 1980, the nation had been known by several names: Rhodesia, Zimbabwe Rhodesia. More substantial in numbers in Zimbabwe were the makers of the Ziwa and Gokomere ceramic wares, of the fourth century A.D. Their Iron Age ceramic tradition belonged to the highlands facies of the eastern stream, which moved inland to Malawi and Zimbabwe. Imports of beads have been found at Gokomere and Ziwa sites, possibly in return for gold exported to the coast. A later phase of the Gokomere culture was the Zhizo in southern Zimbabwe. Zhizo communities settled in the tenth century. Their capital there was Schroda. Many fragments of ceramic figurines have been recovered from there, also fertility dolls. The inhabitants produced other ivory goods. Imported beads are evidence of trade, probably of ivory and skins, with traders on the Indian Ocean coast. Pottery belonging to a western stream of Bantu expansion has been found at sites in northeastern Zimbabwe, dated from the seventh century. The terms western streams represent the expansion of the Bantu speaking peoples in terms of their culture. Another question is the branches of the Bantu languages which they spoke. The Ziwa/Gokomere and Zhizo traditions were superseded from the tenth century.History of Zimbabwe – Southern Rhodesia stamp: princesses Elizabeth and Margaret on the 1947 royal tour of South Africa
29. Henry VIII of England – Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding Henry VII. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Domestically, Henry is known to the English Constitution ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, thus initiating the English Reformation, he greatly expanded royal power. People such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. Besides ruling with considerable power, he was also an composer. This led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with the pope. His health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, harsh, insecure king. He was succeeded by Edward VI. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; and Mary – survived infancy. He was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, to the palace. At the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.Henry VIII of England – King Henry VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
30. Prince Harry – Prince Henry of Wales, KCVO, familiarly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Harry was completed his training as a leader. In 2007–2008, he served for 77 days in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out following publication of his presence there by an Australian magazine. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps. He left the army in June 2015. Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014, remains patron of its Foundation. He also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, Walking With The Wounded. Harry was born at St Mary's Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4:20 pm. He was baptised on 21 December 1984 at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. His godparents are Prince Andrew, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, Carolyn Bartholomew, Celia, Lady Vestey. Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his overseas tour was to Italy in 1985. His mother died following a accident in Paris the following year. Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mother's death. Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools. He started at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London.Prince Harry – Prince Harry during the Invictus Games in London, September 2014
31. I. M. Pei – Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA, commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese-American architect. In 1948, he was recruited by New York real magnate William Zeckendorf. He retired in 1990. Since then, Pei has taken on work primarily from his sons' architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects. Pei went on to design the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. In the early 1980s, he was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid in Paris. In 1983, Pei won the Pritzker Prize, sometimes called the Nobel Prize of architecture. Pei's ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty, when his family moved to Suzhou. Finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. The family moved to Hong Kong one year later. The family eventually included five children. As a boy, he was very close to a devout Buddhist, recognized for her skills as a flautist. She invited him, his sisters to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate. Their interactions were respectful but distant.I. M. Pei – in Luxembourg, 2006
32. John Major – A minister from 1989, Major served Margaret Thatcher as Foreign Secretary and as Chancellor of the Exchequer during her third ministry. Major was the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001; he is the oldest living former Prime Minister. At the beginning of his premiership, he negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Major was never able to achieve a lead in opinion polls again. He went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, he was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague. Major went on leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. He was christened John Roy Major but only "John" was recorded on his certificate. Major used his middle name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school from 1954 Major attended Rutlish Grammar School in Merton. With his father's garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. Major also credited a chance meeting on the King's Road shortly afterwards. He left school at the age of 16 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. Major later gained three more O-levels in the British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics. Major's first job was as a clerk in the insurance firm Pratt & Sons in 1959.John Major – Major in October 2014
33. Kylie Minogue – Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE, often known simply as Kylie, is an Australian singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Since then, she has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames including "Princess of Pop" and "Goddess of Pop". She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Raised in Melbourne, Australia, she has for many years lived in London. Minogue released the next year. Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released "Spinning Around". Her 2001 single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles during the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "...the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Her Fever was a hit including the United States. In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, Minogue resumed the tour under the Showgirl: The Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue resumed work as an actress and appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.Kylie Minogue – Minogue at an amfAR event, 2015
34. Land Rover – The Land Rover was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951. The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport and Range Rover Evoque. Land Rovers are currently assembled with research and development taking place at the Gaydon and Whitley engineering centres. Land Rover sold 194,000 vehicles worldwide in 2009. The carmaker said around 1,000 that construction would start in 2014. The prototype, later nicknamed Centre Steer, was built on a Jeep chassis and axles. Early vehicles like the Series I were designed to be field-serviced. Land Rover as a company has existed since 1978. In 1994 Rover Group plc was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group. In 2006 Ford purchased the Rover brand for around # 6 million. In 2008, Ford Motor Company sold Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Included in the deal were the rights to three British brands: Jaguar's own Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover. This sale also included the dormant Rover brand.Land Rover – Series I
35. Mary Rose – The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. While leading the attack on the galleys of a French fleet, she sank in the Solent, the straits north of the Isle of Wight. The wreck of the Mary Rose was rediscovered in 1971. It was raised in 1982 in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology. The surviving section of the ship and thousands of recovered artefacts are of immeasurable value as a Tudor-era capsule. The finds include weapons, sailing equipment, a wide array of objects used by the crew. Many of the artefacts have provided insights into topics ranging from naval warfare to the history of musical instruments. Since the mid-1980s, while undergoing conservation, the remains of the hull have been at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard. An extensive collection of well-preserved artefacts is on display at the nearby Mary Rose Museum, built to display its artefacts. She was armed with new types of heavy guns that could fire through the recently invented gun-ports. Several theories have sought to explain the demise of the Mary Rose, based on historical records, modern experiments. The precise cause of her sinking is still unclear, because of a lack of conclusive physical evidence. By the 15th century, England was a relatively insignificant state on the periphery of Europe. The naval policies of Henry V were not continued by his successors, from 1422 to 1509 only six ships were built for the crown. Despite this, Henry VII managed to maintain a small but powerful core of a navy.Mary Rose – The remnants of the Mary Rose undergoing conservation in Portsmouth
36. Mohamed Al-Fayed – Mohamed Abdel Moneim Al-Fayed is an Egyptian business magnate. Fayed's business interests include ownership of formerly Harrods Department Store, Knightsbridge. Al-Fayed sold his ownership of Fulham F.C. to Shahid Khan in 2013. Fayed has four siblings: Ali, Salah, Soaad and Safia. Fayed married Finnish socialite and former model Heini Wathén with whom he has four children: Jasmine, Karim, Camilla, Omar. In 2013, Fayed's wealth was estimated at US$ billion, making him the 1,031st-richest person in the world in 2013. He was married for two years, to Samira Khashoggi. Fayed worked for his wife's brother, businessman, Adnan Khashoggi. Fayed's addition of "Al -" to his name, which implies aristocratic origins, has led to Private Eye nicknaming the "Phoney Pharaoh". According to his biographer Tom Bower, Fayed also claimed to have come from a town named Fayed after his family. His brothers founded a shipping company in Egypt before moving its headquarters to Genoa, Italy with additional offices in London. He also associated with the geologist George de Mohrenschildt. Fayed terminated his stay in Haiti six months later when a sample of "crude oil" provided by Haitian associates proved to be low-grade molasses. It was then that Fayed moved to England where he lived in central London. In the mid 1960s, Fayed met the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid al Makhtoum who entrusted Fayed with helping transform Dubai.Mohamed Al-Fayed – Fayed in 2011
37. Michael Bentine – Michael Bentine, CBE was an English comedian, comic actor and founding member of the Goons. He was a Peruvian Briton. In 1971, Bentine received the Order of Merit of Peru following his fund-raising work for the 1970 Great Peruvian earthquake. Bentine grew up in Folkestone, Kent. He was educated at Eton College. He spoke fluent Spanish and French. In World War II, he volunteered for all services when the war was initially rejected because of his father's nationality. He started his acting career in a touring company in Cardiff playing a juvenile lead in Sweet Lavender. He went on to join Robert Atkin's Shakespearean company in London, until he was called up for service in the RAF. Unknown to him, an RAF notice had been following him for a month as his company toured. Once in the RAF he went through flying training. They refilled the bottle to the other man as well. By mistake they loaded a pure culture of typhoid. Bentine was in a coma for six weeks. When he regained consciousness his eyesight was ruined, leaving him myopic for the rest of his life.Michael Bentine – Michael Bentine
38. Marrakesh – Marrakesh, also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco. It is the fourth largest city in the country, after Casablanca, Fes and Tangier. It is the capital city of the mid-southwestern region of Marrakesh-Safi. Marrakesh is possibly the most important of Morocco's four former imperial cities. In the 12th century, the Almoravids built many madrasas and mosques in Marrakesh that bear Andalusian influences. In the 16th century, Marrakesh again became the capital of the kingdom. Beginning in the 17th century, the city became popular among Sufi pilgrims for Morocco's seven patron saints, who are entombed here. In 2009, Marrakesh mayor Fatima Zahra Mansouri became the second woman to be elected mayor in Morocco. It serves as a major economic centre and tourist destination. Despite the economic recession, real development in Marrakesh has grown dramatically in the 21st century. French celebrities own property in the city. Marrakesh has the largest traditional market in Morocco, with some 18 souks selling wares ranging from traditional Berber carpets to modern consumer electronics. Crafts employ a significant percentage of the population, who primarily sell their products to tourists. Marrakesh is served by the Marrakesh station, which connects the city to Casablanca and northern Morocco. Marrakesh has several universities and schools, including Cadi Ayyad University.Marrakesh – Marrakesh ⵎⵕⵕⴰⴽⵛ Meṛṛakec مراكش Marrakech
39. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served from 1981 to 1989. She was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived with an aunt and uncle for some years. She moved to Chicago when her mother later took the name Davis from her stepfather. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, then president of the Screen Actors Guild. They had two children together. She began to work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Reagan became First Lady of the United States following her husband's victory in the 1980 presidential election. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, considered her major initiative as First Lady. She played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California in 1989. Reagan remained active in politics, particularly in support of embryonic stem cell research, until her death in March 2016. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6, 1921, at the time located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova.Nancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
40. Diana, Princess of Wales – Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. She was born as The Honourable Diana Spencer. Diana was the fourth child and third daughter of the Honourable Frances Roche. Diana was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became Lady Diana Spencer. Her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Paul's Cathedral, reached a global audience of over million people. While married, she bore the titles Princess of Wales, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas. She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media public mourning were extensive after subsequent televised funeral. Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk. Diana was the fourth of five children of his first wife, Frances.Diana, Princess of Wales – The Princess of Wales raising money for cancer research in Chicago, Illinois, June 1996
41. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. Prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the "Head of Her Majesty's Government" the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers. Under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. The Prime Minister also acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad.Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – Incumbent David Cameron since 11 May 2010
42. Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden – Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland, is the eldest child and heir apparent of King Carl XVI Gustaf. If she ascends to the throne as expected, she will be Sweden's fourth queen regnant and the first since 1720. She is a member of the Royal House of Bernadotte. Born as a Princess of Sweden, she was designated Crown Princess in 1979 ahead of her younger brother. Her given names honour various relatives. She was christened at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977. Her godparents are Crown Prince Harald of Norway, her aunt Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld. The Crown Princess was confirmed on the island of Öland. From 1998 to 2000, Victoria resided in the United States, where she studied various subjects at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. In May 1999, she was an intern at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, D.C. Victoria completed a study program at the Government Offices in 2001. In 2006, she enrolled for Foreign Affairs' Diplomat Program running to June 2007. In June 2009, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Uppsala University. She speaks Swedish, English, French and German. Victoria was made heir apparent on 1 January 1980 to the Act of Succession of 1810.Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden – Crown Princess Victoria, 8 June 2013.
43. Privy Council of the United Kingdom – Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises former members of the House of Lords. The Council also holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council, mostly used to regulate certain public institutions. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been largely replaced by the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. The Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. The body originally concerned itself with advising the sovereign on justice. Later, different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court. The courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom. Nevertheless, the Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns often used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation. The legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a primarily administrative body.Privy Council of the United Kingdom – Queen Victoria convened her first Privy Council on the day of her accession in 1837.
44. Potsdamer Platz – Since German reunification, Potsdamer Platz has been the site of major redevelopment projects. Potsdamer Platz began as a trading post where several country roads converged just outside Berlin's old customs wall. Altogether up to 15,000 Huguenots made new homes in Berlin. Two other things resulted from this huge influx. Several new districts were founded around the city's perimeter, just outside the old fortifications. All the new suburbs were absorbed into Berlin around 1709-10. In this expansion, a new north-south axis emerged: Wilhelmstraße. In 1735-7, after Friedrichstadt's expansion was complete, a customs or wall, 4.2 m high, was erected around Berlin's new perimeter. Consisting of a wooden palisade at first, it was later replaced with a wall, pierced by 14 gates, where roads entered the city. Here taxes were levied on goods passing through, chiefly meat and flour. In 1660 the Elector Frederick William made it his route of choice to Potsdam, the location of his palace, which had recently been renovated. Starting in 1754 a daily stagecoach ran between Berlin and Potsdam, although the road was in poor shape. But in 1740 Frederick II had become King. In 1791-3 this section was made into Prussia's all-weather road. It was around this gate that Potsdamer Platz was to develop.Potsdamer Platz – Major buildings at Potsdamer Platz from the air in 2004.
45. President of Ireland – The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The President can be elected for a maximum of two terms. Unless a candidate runs unopposed, the President is directly elected by the people. The President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion. The President acts as a representative of the Irish state. Former President Mary McAleese described the office as'the guardian of the constitution'. The President's official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin, located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The current president is His Excellency Michael D Higgins, elected on 29 October 2011. His inauguration was held on 11 November 2011. President Higgins is a veteran politician human rights campaigner. As a member of the Labour Party, he has served in both houses of the Oireachtas. President Higgins speaks the Irish language fluently. The Constitution of Ireland provides for a parliamentary system of government, under which the role of the head of state is largely a ceremonial one. The President is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which also comprises Seanad Éireann. Unlike most parliamentary democracies, the President is not even the nominal chief executive.President of Ireland – Incumbent Michael D. Higgins since 11 November 2011
46. Ronald Reagan – Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor, the 40th President of the United States, from 1981 to 1989. Before his presidency, Reagan was the 33rd Governor of California, after a career as a Hollywood leader. After moving in 1937, Reagan starred in a major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild, the labor union for actors, where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Having been a lifelong Democrat, his views changed. He became a conservative and in 1962 switched to the Republican Party. In Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", in support of Barry Goldwater's floundering presidential campaign, earned national attention as a conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California in 1966. Entering the presidency in 1981, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. In his first term Reagan fought public labor. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Contra affair. During his famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate, President Reagan challenged Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!". He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents failed to do so. Reagan had one older brother, Neil, who became an advertising executive.Ronald Reagan – Ronald Reagan
47. Russell Crowe – Russell Ira Crowe is an actor, film producer and musician from New Zealand. Although a New Zealand citizen, he has lived most of his life in Australia and identifies himself as an Australian. Crowe is also the co-owner of the South Sydney Rabbitohs, an Australian National Rugby League team. Crowe's maternal grandfather, Stan Wemyss, was a cinematographer, named an MBE for filming footage of World War II. Crowe's paternal grandfather, John Doubleday Crowe, was from Wrexham, Wales, while one of Crowe's maternal great-grandmothers was Māori. Crowe also has English, German, Irish, Italian, Norwegian, Scottish, Swedish, Welsh ancestry. He is a cousin of former New Zealand cricket captains Martin Crowe and Jeff Crowe, nephew of Dave Crowe. Russell has built a cricket field named for his uncle. When Crowe was four years old, his family moved to Sydney, Australia, where his parents pursued a career in set catering. Crowe also appeared briefly in the serial The Young Doctors. Crowe was educated at Sydney Boys High School. He then continued his secondary education at Mount Roskill Grammar School, which he left at the age 16 to pursue his ambition of becoming an actor. He released several New Zealand singles including "I Just Want To Be Like Marlon Brando", "Pier 13", "Shattered Glass", none of which charted. He managed an Auckland music venue called "The Venue" in 1984. Crowe returned to Australia at age 21, intending to apply to the National Institute of Dramatic Art.Russell Crowe – Crowe at the Sydney premiere of Man of Steel, June 2013
48. Robert Menzies – Menzies is Australia's prime minister, serving over 18 years in total. He became one of Melbourne's leading lawyers. Following Lyons' death, he was elected leader of the United Australia Party and sworn in as prime minister. On his return to Australia in August 1941, he consequently resigned as prime minister. Menzies subsequently was elected its inaugural leader in August 1945. At the 1949 federal election, he returned as prime minister. After 1955, his government also received support from the Labor Party. He won seven consecutive elections during his second term, eventually retiring as prime minister in January 1966. Robert Gordon Menzies was born in Jeparit, a town in the Wimmera region of northwestern Victoria, on 20 December 1894. Menzies was the fourth of six children, with three brothers. John Sampson, was a Cornish miner from Penzance who also came to seek his fortune on the goldfields, in Ballarat. Gordon, was given to him in honour and memory of Charles George Gordon, a British general killed in Khartoum in 1885. Menzies's formal education began at Humffray Street State School in Ballarat, then later at private school in Ballarat. Menzies studied law at the University of Melbourne, graduating in 1916. When World War I began, he was 19 years old and held a commission in the university's unit.Robert Menzies – The Right Honourable Sir Robert Menzies KT, AK, CH, FAA, FRS, QC