1. Diana, Princess of Wales – Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Diana was born into a family of British nobility with royal ancestry and was the child and third daughter of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp. She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, in 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. She came to prominence in February 1981 when her engagement to Prince Charles was announced and her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Pauls Cathedral, reached a global television audience of over 750 million people. While married, Diana bore the titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, the marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and she was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She was involved with dozens of charities including Londons Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997, Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk. She was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the Spencer family has been closely allied with the British Royal Family for several generations. Both of Dianas grandmothers had served as ladies-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, on 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Sandringham, with wealthy commoners as godparents. Diana had three siblings, Sarah, Jane, and Charles and her infant brother, John, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an added strain to the Spencers marriage. Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, the Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II. The Royal Family frequently holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, and Diana played with Princes Andrew, Diana was seven years old when her parents divorced. Her mother later had an affair with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969, Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents separation in 1967, but during that years Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp. Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, in 1972, Lord Althorp began a relationship with Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the only daughter of Alexander McCorquodale and Dame Barbara Cartland. They married at Caxton Hall, London in 1976, as an upper-class child at the time, Diana was first educated under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen. She began her education at Silfield Private School in Gayton, Norfolk, and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near DissDiana, Princess of Wales – The Princess of Wales raising money for cancer research in Chicago, Illinois, June 1996
2. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, notably, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, also serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it also benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average. The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick, tall and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforestBritish Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
3. Belfast – Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, the second largest on the island of Ireland, and the heart of the tenth largest Primary Urban Area in the United Kingdom. On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 at the 2011 census and 333,871 after the 2015 council reform, Belfast was granted city status in 1888. Belfast played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, and was an industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s, industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Irelands biggest city at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, and law, additionally, Belfast city centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by two airports, George Best Belfast City Airport in the city, and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age. The Giants Ring, a 5, 000-year-old henge, is located near the city, Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. The ONeill clan had a presence in the area, in the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe ONeill built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn ONeill of the Clannaboy ONeills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, evidence of this period of Belfasts growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries, industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, tobacco, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, and at the end of the 19th century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland. The Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, in 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule, which had divided the city. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned, the accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfast was heavily bombed during World War II, in one raid, in 1941, German bombers killed around one thousand people and left tens of thousands homeless. Apart from London, this was the greatest loss of life in a raid during the Blitz. Belfast has been the capital of Northern Ireland since its establishment in 1921 following the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and it had been the scene of various episodes of sectarian conflict between its Catholic and Protestant populations. These opposing groups in conflict are now often termed republican and loyalist respectively. The most recent example of conflict was known as the Troubles – a civil conflict that raged from around 1969 to 1998Belfast – Top: Skyline of Belfast Middle top left to right, Queen's University Belfast, Albert Memorial Clock, Belfast, The Boat, Titanic Belfast Bottom left to right: Belfast City Hall, view of Belfast with Samson and Goliath.
4. Corcovado – Corcovado, meaning hunchback in Portuguese, is a mountain in central Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 710-metre granite peak is located in the Tijuca Forest, a national park and it is sometimes confused with nearby Sugarloaf Mountain. Corcovado hill lies just west of the city center but is wholly within the city limits and it is known worldwide for the 38-metre statue of Jesus atop its peak, entitled Cristo Redentor or Christ the Redeemer. The railway uses three electrically powered trains, with a capacity of 540 passengers per hour. The rail trip takes approximately 20 minutes and departs every 20 minutes, due to its limited passenger capacity, the wait to board at the entry station can take several hours. The year-round schedule is 8,30 to 18,30, from the train terminus and road, the observation deck at the foot of the statue is reached by 223 steps, or by elevators and escalators. Among the most popular year-round tourist attractions in Rio, the Corcovado railway, access roads, the most popular attraction of Corcovado mountain is the statue and viewing platform at its peak, drawing over 300,000 visitors per year. From the peaks platform the panoramic view includes downtown Rio, Sugarloaf Mountain, the Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Copacabana and Ipanema beaches, Estádio do Maracanã, cloud cover is common in Rio and the view from the platform is often obscured. Sunny days are recommended for optimal viewing, an additional attraction of the mountain is rock climbing. The south face had 54 climbing routes in 1992, the easiest way starts from Park Lage. The Corcovado is also a symbol of the Brazilian culture, the peak of Corcovado is a big granite dome, which describes a generally vertical rocky formation. It is claimed to be the highest such formation in Brazil, the second highest being Pedra Agulha, situated near to the town of Pancas in Espírito SantoCorcovado – Corcovado (Monte Cristo)
5. Coronation Street – Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. In the shows history, the street was built in the early 1900s. The show typically airs five times a week, Monday and Friday 7. 30–8 pm &8. 30–9 pm and Wednesday 7. 30–8 pm, however this varies due to sport or around Christmas. From late 2017 the show will air six times a week, the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warrens initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the stations founder Sidney Bernstein, within six months of the shows first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, and is now a significant part of British culture. The show has one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television. Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCity Manchester and shown in all ITV regions, on 17 September 2010, it became the worlds longest-running TV soap opera in production. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITVs 60th anniversary, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth working class community combined with light-hearted humour, and strong characters. The first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, and some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial. The programme also made use of Northern English language and dialect, affectionate local terms like eh, nowt, and by eck. became widely heard on British television for the first time. Early episodes told the story of student Kenneth Barlow, who had won a place at university, the character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, and the decline of similar communities, in an episode from 1961, Barlow declares, You cant go on just thinking about your own street these days. Were living with people on the side of the world. Theres more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends, Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, and in British and global soap history. At the centre of early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, and her friends, timid Minnie Caldwell. Headstrong Ena often clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals, Elsie resented Enas interference and gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the year in 1962Coronation Street – Ken Barlow in the first episode of Coronation Street, 1960
6. Catherine of Aragon – The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later on 2 April 1502, in 1507, she held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown in England, the first female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married Arthurs younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, for six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with a speech about English courage. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events led to Englands schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters, in 1533 their marriage was consequently declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England and considered herself the Kings rightful wife and queen, despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, English people held Catherine in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning. The controversial book The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, such was Catherines impression on people that even her enemy, Thomas Cromwell, said of her, If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History. She successfully appealed for the lives of the involved in the Evil May Day. Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor and she was a patron of Renaissance humanism, and a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More. Catherine was born at the Archbishops Palace in Alcalá de Henares near Madrid and she was the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Catherine was quite short in stature with red hair, wide blue eyes, a round face. Consequently, she was cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England. Catherine was educated by a tutor, Alessandro Geraldini, who was a clerk in Holy Orders and she studied arithmetic, canon and civil law, classical literature, genealogy and heraldry, history, philosophy, religion, and theology. She had a religious upbringing and developed her Roman Catholic faith that would play a major role in later life. She learned to speak, read and write in Spanish and Latin and she was also taught domestic skills, such as cooking, dancing, drawing, embroidery, good manners, lace-making, music, needlepoint, sewing, spinning, and weaving. The great scholar Erasmus later said that Catherine loved good literature which she had studied with success since childhoodCatherine of Aragon – Portrait by Lucas Hornebolte
7. Diana (mythology) – In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy, Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves were especially sacred to her as were deer, according to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She made up a triad with two other Roman deities, Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife, and Virbius, the woodland god. Diana is a form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to later divus, dius, as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia. It is rooted in Indoeuropean *dyw, meaning sky or daylight, from which also derived the name of Vedic god Dyaus and the Latin deus, dies. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis, Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies, the persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil it falls into a subset of celestial gods. Such gods, while keeping the original features of celestial divinities, the celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, and her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects the world in its sovereignty, supremacy, impassibility. At the same time, however, she is seen as active in ensuring the succession of kings and these functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess. This ever open succession reveals the character and mission of the goddess as a guarantor of kingly status through successive generations. Her function as bestower of authority to rule is also attested in the story related by Livy in which a Sabine man who sacrifices a heifer to Diana wins for his country the seat of the Roman empire. Diana was also worshipped by women who wanted to be pregnant or who, once pregnant and this form of worship is attested in archeological finds of votive statuettes in her sanctuary in the nemus Aricinum as well as in ancient sources, e. g. Ovid. According to Dumezil the forerunner of all gods is an Indian epic hero who was the image of the Vedic god DyausDiana (mythology) – The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography
8. David Beckham – David Robert Joseph Beckham, OBE is an English former professional footballer. He is the first English player to win titles in four countries, England, Spain. He announced his retirement in May 2013 after a 20-year career and he was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2008. A global ambassador for the sport, Beckham is regarded as a British cultural icon, Beckhams professional club career began with Manchester United, where he made his first-team debut in 1992 aged 17. With United, he won the Premier League title six times, the FA Cup twice, and he then played four seasons with Real Madrid, winning the La Liga championship in his final season with the club. In July 2007 Beckham signed a contract with Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy. While a Galaxy player, he spent two spells in Italy with Milan in 2009 and 2010. He was the first British footballer to play 100 UEFA Champions League games, in international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996 at the age of 21. He was captain for six years, earning 58 caps during his tenure and he made 115 career appearances in total, appearing at three FIFA World Cup tournaments, in 1998,2002 and 2006, and two UEFA European Championship tournaments, in 2000 and 2004. Beckham has consistently ranked among the highest earners in football, and in 2013 he was listed as the player in the world. He has been married to Victoria Beckham since 1999 and they have four children and he has been a UNICEF UK ambassador since 2005, and in 2015 he launched 7, The David Beckham UNICEF Fund. In 2014, MLS announced Beckham and a group of investors would own a team in Miami. Beckham was born at Whipps Cross University Hospital in Leytonstone, London and he is the son of Sandra Georgina, a hairdresser, and David Edward Alan Ted Beckham, a kitchen fitter, who married at the London Borough of Hackney in 1969. He has a sister, Lynne Georgina, and a younger sister. He regularly played football in Ridgeway Park, Chingford, as a child, in a 2007 interview, Beckham said that, At school whenever the teachers asked, What do you want to do when youre older. Id say, I want to be a footballer, and theyd say, No, what do you really want to do, for a job. But that was the only thing I ever wanted to do, Beckhams maternal grandfather was Jewish, and Beckham has referred to himself as half Jewish and wrote in his autobiography Ive probably had more contact with Judaism than with any other religion. In his book Both Feet on the Ground, he stated that growing up he attended every week with his parentsDavid Beckham – Beckham at the 2014 Wimbledon Championships
9. ECHELON – The U. S. intelligence community uses many code names. At that time, according to Newsham, the code name ECHELON was NSAs term for the network itself. The software programs were called SILKWORTH and SIRE, a satellite named VORTEX intercepted communications. An image available on the internet of a fragment apparently torn from a job description shows Echelon listed along with other code names. Newsham told a member of the U. S. Congress that the calls of Strom Thurmond. Congressional investigators determined that targeting of U. S. political figures would not occur by accident, in 1996, a detailed description of ECHELON was provided by New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in his 1996 book Secret Power – New Zealands Role in the International Spy Network. Two years later, Hagers book was cited by the European Parliament in a report titled An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control, in March 1999, for the first time in history, the Australian government admitted that news reports about the top secret UKUSA Agreement were true. In 2000, James Woolsey, the former Director of the U. S, Central Intelligence Agency, confirmed that U. S. intelligence uses interception systems and keyword searches to monitor European businesses. Lawmakers in the United States feared that the ECHELON system could be used to monitor U. S. citizens, according to The New York Times, the ECHELON system has been shrouded in such secrecy that its very existence has been difficult to prove. Critics said the ECHELON system emerged from the Cold War as a Big Brother without a cause, the programs capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the European Parliament during 2000 and 2001 with a report published in 2001. In July 2000, the Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System was established by the European parliament to investigate the surveillance network and it was chaired by the Portuguese politician Carlos Coelho, who was in charge of supervising investigations throughout 2000 and 2001. Central Intelligence Agency U. S. Department of Commerce U. S. National Security Agency All meetings were cancelled by the U. S. government, according to a BBC correspondent in May 2001, The US Government still refuses to admit that Echelon even exists. In July 2001, the Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System released its final report, on 5 September 2001, the European Parliament voted to accept the committees report. FROSTING had two sub-programs, TRANSIENT, for intercepting Soviet satellite transmissions, and ECHELON, for intercepting Intelsat satellite transmissions, the EP report concluded that it seemed likely that ECHELON is a method of sorting captured signal traffic, rather than a comprehensive analysis tool. During World War II and through the 1950s, high-frequency radio was used for military and diplomatic communication. The rise of communications satellites in the 1960s presented new possibilities for intercepting international communications. In 1966, the first Intelsat satellite was launched into orbit, from 1970 to 1971, the Government Communications Headquarters of Britain began to operate a secret signal station at Morwenstow, near Bude in Cornwall, England. The station intercepted satellite communications over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, soon afterwards, the U. S. National Security Agency built a second signal station at Yakima, near Seattle, for the interception of satellite communications over the Pacific OceanECHELON – A radome at RAF Menwith Hill, a site with satellite uplink capabilities believed to be used by ECHELON.
10. Elvis Costello – Declan Patrick MacManus, better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, and record producer. His critically acclaimed album, My Aim Is True, was released in 1977. Shortly after recording it, he formed the Attractions as his backing band and his second album, This Years Model, was released in 1978, and was ranked number 11 by Rolling Stone on its list of the best albums from 1967–1987. His third album, Armed Forces, was released in 1979 and his first three albums all appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Costello and the Attractions toured and recorded together for the part of a decade. Much of Costellos work since has been as a solo artist, steeped in wordplay, the vocabulary of Costellos lyrics is broad. His music has drawn on many genres, one critic described him as a pop encyclopaedia. He has won awards in his career, including a Grammy Award. In 2003, Costello and the Attractions were inducted into the Rock, in 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Costello number 80 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Costello has co-written several original songs for motion pictures, including God Give Me Strength from Grace of My Heart, for the latter, Costello was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media. Costello was born in 25 August 1954 at St Marys Hospital, London, the son of Lilian Alda and Ross MacManus, Costello lived in Twickenham, attending Archbishop Myers R. C. School, which is now St Marks Catholic Secondary School, in neighbouring Hounslow, with a musically inclined father, Costellos first broadcast recording was with his father in a television commercial for R. Whites Lemonade. His father wrote and sang the song, Costello provided backing vocals, the advertisement won a silver award at the 1974 International Advertising Festival. Costello moved with his Liverpool-born mother to Birkenhead, Cheshire, in 1971, there, he formed his first band, a folk duo called Rusty, with Allan Mayes. After completing secondary school at St. Francis Xaviers College he moved back to London where he formed a band called Flip City. They were active from 1974 through to early 1976, around this time, Costello adopted the stage name D. P. His father had performed under the name Day Costello, and Elvis has said in interviews that he took this name as a tribute to his father and he worked for a short period as a computer operator at the Midland Bank computer centre in Bootle. He continued to write songs and began looking for a recording contractElvis Costello – Costello at the 2012 Riot Fest, Chicago
11. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by the French, British, Spaniards, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony on the islands in 1764, in 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived from Argentina with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont, Britain and Spain almost went to war over the islands, but the British government decided that it should withdraw its presence from many overseas settlements in 1774. Spain, which had a garrison at Puerto Soledad on East Falklands, in 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982, the British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. Recent discoveries of arrowheads in Lafonia as well as the remains of a wooden canoe provide evidence that the Yaghan people of Tierra del Fuego may have made the journey to the islands. It is not known if these are evidence of one-way journeys, however, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society mission station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856, yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of the warrah, Dusicyon australis, has often cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.7 million years ago. This means it is likely that the warrah arrived in the islands long before humans, the islands had no native trees when discovered but there is some ambiguous evidence of past forestation, that may be due to wood being transported by oceanic currents from Patagonia. All modern trees have been introduced by Europeans, an archipelago in the region of the Falkland Islands appeared on Portuguese maps from the early 16th century. Researchers Pepper and Pascoe cite the possibility that an unknown Portuguese expedition may have sighted the islands, maps from this period show islands known as the Sanson islands in a position that could be interpreted as the Falklands. On 9 August 1592 a severe storm battered his ship, and Davis drifted under bare masts, Davis did not provide the latitude of these islands, indicating they were 50 leagues away from the Patagonian coast. However, the latitude given was off by at least 3 degrees, errors in the latitude measured can be attributed to a simple mistake reading a cross staff divided into minutes meaning the latitude measured could be 50°48. The description of bonfires can also be attributed to fires caused by lightning. In 1925, Conor OBrian analysed the voyage of Hawkins and concluded that the land he could have sighted was Steeple Jason IslandHistory of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
12. Giuseppe Verdi – Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a family of moderate means. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini, whose works influenced him. In his early operas Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy and he also participated briefly as an elected politician. He surprised the world by returning, after his success with the opera Aida. The baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo, additionally, it lists Verdi as being born yesterday, but since days were often considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. Verdi himself, following his mother, always celebrated his birthday on 9 October, Verdi had a younger sister, Giuseppa, who died aged 17 in 1833. From the age of four, Verdi was given lessons in Latin and Italian by the village schoolmaster, Baistrocchi. After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents provided him with a spinet. Verdis gift for music was apparent by 1820–21 when he began his association with the local church, serving in the choir, acting as an altar boy for a while. After Baistrocchis death, Verdi, at the age of eight, Carlo Verdi was energetic in furthering his sons education. something which Verdi tended to hide in later life. He picture emerges of youthful precocity eagerly nurtured by a father and of a sustained, sophisticated. Verdi returned to Busseto regularly to play the organ on Sundays, at age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, Latin, the humanities, and rhetoric. By the time he was 12, he began lessons with Ferdinando Provesi, maestro di cappella at San Bartolomeo, director of the music school. This information comes from the Autobiographical Sketch which Verdi dictated to the publisher Giulio Ricordi late in life, in 1879, written, understandably, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing with issues more contentious than those of his childhood. The other director of the Philharmonic Society was Antonio Barezzi, a grocer and distiller. The young Verdi did not immediately become involved with the Philharmonic, by June 1827, he had graduated with honours from the Ginnasio and was able to focus solely on music under Provesi. By 1829–30, Verdi had established himself as a leader of the Philharmonic, none of us could rival him reported the secretary of the organisation, Giuseppe DemaldèGiuseppe Verdi – Giuseppe Verdi Portrait by Giovanni Boldini, 1886
13. Prince Harry – Prince Henry of Wales, KCVO, familiarly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. After an education at schools in the United Kingdom and spending parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, Harry chose a military career, undergoing officer training at RMA Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother, in 2007–2008, he served for 77 days in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out following publication of his presence there by an Australian magazine. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps and he left the army in June 2015. Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014, and remains patron of its Foundation and he also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, and Walking With The Wounded. Harry was born at St Marys Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4,20 pm and he was baptised on 21 December 1984 at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. His godparents are Prince Andrew, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, Carolyn Bartholomew, Bryan Organ, Gerald Ward and Celia, Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age, his first overseas tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985. Harrys parents divorced in 1996, and his mother died following a car accident in Paris the following year, Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, and the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mothers death. Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools and he started at Jane Mynors nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School, and, after passing the exams, was admitted to Eton College. In June 2003, Harry completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels, having decided to drop history of art after AS level and he excelled in sports, particularly polo and rugby union. Passing two A-levels, Harry was eligible to apply for a commission in the British Army. One of Harrys former teachers, Sarah Forsyth, has assessed that Harry was a weak student, both Eton and Harry denied the claims. While a tribunal made no ruling on the claim, it accepted the prince had received help in preparing his A-level expressive project. After school, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia, working on a cattle station and he also travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom. Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, and joined the Alamein Company. Within a year, in April 2006, Harry completed his training and was commissioned as a Cornet in the Blues and Royals. He was given the service number 564673, on 13 April 2008, when he reached two years seniority, Harry was promoted to lieutenantPrince Harry – Prince Harry during the Invictus Games in London, September 2014
14. Irish diaspora – The Irish diaspora refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. This is more than the population of Ireland at its peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool, after 1840, emigration from Ireland became a massive, relentless, and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad, by the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity. As recently as the half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had social and cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, the language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a literary and social medium. Joe McHugh is the Republic of Irelands Minister of State for the Diaspora, the term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. It has been argued the idea of an Irish diaspora, as distinct from the old identification of Irishness with Ireland itself, was influenced by the advent of global mobility and modernity. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed individuals and groups of Irish descent, but many of those individuals were the product of complex ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. Irishness might then rely primarily on identification with an Irish diaspora. The Government of Ireland defines the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland and this includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It also includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission, under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants. This is still a large ratio for any country, however, the usage of Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition. The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation and this contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel, Japan and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens. There are people of Irish descent abroad who reject inclusion in an Irish diaspora and they may see the diasporic label as something used by the Irish government for its own purposes. The Attacotti, who were recruited into the Roman army. Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, in time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, and formed the basis of modern Scotland. The traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a Ghàidhealtachd, Irish monks, and the Celtic church, pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Great Britain, and continental EuropeIrish diaspora – 'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827–1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868
15. John Major – Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. A cabinet minister from 1987, he served Margaret Thatcher in the Treasury, Major was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001. He is currently the oldest living former Prime Minister, following the death of Thatcher on 8 April 2013, at the beginning of his premiership, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Shortly after this, even though a supporter of the ERM. This event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies, Major went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, Major resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague and he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. Major was born in 1943 at St Helier Hospital in Sutton, Surrey and he was christened John Roy Major but only John was recorded on his birth certificate. He used his name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954 he attended Rutlish School, in 1955, with his fathers garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. He also credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the Kings Road shortly afterwards, Major left school at the age of 16 in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. He later gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics, Majors first job was as a clerk in the insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time, Major was almost 19 years old when his father died at the age of 82 on 27 March 1962. His mother died eight and a years later in September 1970 at the age of 65. After Major became Prime Minister it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test and he had in fact passed all of the necessary tests but had been passed over owing to his height. After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963 which is incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair. He later decided to undertake a course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age, encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton MarketJohn Major – Major in October 2014
16. Kylie Minogue – Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE, often known simply as Kylie, is an Australian singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson, since then, Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several nicknames including Princess of Pop. She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association, born and raised in Melbourne, Australia, Minogue has for many years worked and lived in London. She signed to PWL in 1987 and released her first studio album Kylie the next year, in 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records and where she created her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics. Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and her 2001 single Cant Get You Out of My Head became one of the most successful singles during the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her song and was named the catchiest song ever by Yahoo. Her album Fever was a hit in countries, including the United States. In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl, The Greatest Hits Tour, after treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl, The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a triumph. Minogue resumed work as an actress and appeared in the films Moulin Rouge, Jack & Diane, and Holy Motors. In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the series of The Voice UK. Her other ventures include product endorsements, children books and fashion, as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and she was appointed OBE by Charles, Prince of Wales in 2008. She was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture, Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, in December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia and her father is a fifth generation Australian, and has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father, Millie and Denis Jones, just before Kylies birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylies younger brother, Brendan, is a cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is also a singerKylie Minogue – Minogue at an amfAR event, 2015
17. Kangol – Kangol is a British clothing company famous for its headwear. Founded in the 1920s, by Jewish Polish World War I veteran Jacques Spreiregen, Kangol produced hats for workers, golfers, and especially soldiers. In 1938, Spreiregen, who was working in London as an importer, opened a factory at Cleator, Cumbria and they were the major beret suppliers to the armed forces during World War II, including famously Field Marshal Montgomery. During and after the war, Kangol berets were the height of fashion, the company also supplied uniformed organizations such as the Scout Association. The Kangaroo logo was adopted by Kangol in 1983 because Americans were always asking where they could get the Kangaroo hat, no Kangol hat has ever actually been manufactured in Australia. I. G. The brand was popularized even more by the 1991 movie New Jack City, the release of more consciously stylish products in the 1990s such as the furgora Spitfire, was helped by its presence upon the head of Samuel L. Jackson in 1997. Kevin Eubanks, bandleader for The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, in 2009, Eminem wore the Cotton Twill Army Cap Kangol hat on his Beautiful video. Kangol has been owned by Sports Direct since 2006, when acquired the brand from private equity fund August Equity Trust. Licences to manufacture and sell Kangol apparel have been sold to different companies including D2. The global rights to Kangol hats have been held by American hatmakers Bollman Hat Company since 2002 and it was announced in February 2009 that Bollman were reviewing their worldwide operations, putting 33 jobs and the future of the Kangol head office in Cleator in doubt. On 6 April 2009, it was announced that the factory would be converted to a warehouse with the loss of 25 jobs. Only seven employees now remain employed at the original site. However, hats will continue to be made at their sites in Eastern Europe, slick Rick references Kangol in his songs La Di Da Di and Mona Lisa. Boogie Boys 1980s hip hop band, reference Kangol in their song A Fly Girl, the lyrics line reads, Girls look fly in Kangols. Wesley Snipes as Nino Brown and his gang, the Cash Money Brothers, Samuel L. Jackson as Ordell Robbie wore a Kangol back to front in the movie Jackie Brown. Tyler James Williams as Chris is shown wearing a Kangol hat in the show Everybody Hates Chris in two episodes called Everybody Hates DJs and Everybody Hates Gambling, rapper Dana Dane tells a story of how his straw hat turns into a Kangol in his song, Cinderfella Dana Dane. The movie Straight Outta Compton features a scene where Ice Cube gets into a dispute with a New York rapper, Official website Official store Bollman Hats official site Working for Kangol—BBC Cumbria Making a Beret for Bette Davis—BBC CumbriaKangol – General Montgomery, wearing his iconic Kangol beret
18. Mohamed Al-Fayed – Mohamed Al-Fayed is an Egyptian business magnate. Fayeds business interests include ownership of Hôtel Ritz Paris and formerly Harrods Department Store, Al-Fayed sold his ownership of Fulham F. C. to Shahid Khan in 2013. Fayed has four siblings, Ali, Salah, Soaad and Safia, Fayeds eldest son, Dodi, from his first marriage to Samira Khashoggi, died in a car crash in Paris with Diana, Princess of Wales and driver Henri Paul on 31 August 1997. Fayed married Finnish socialite and former model Heini Wathén in 1985, with whom he has four children, Jasmine, Karim, Camilla, in 2013, Fayeds wealth was estimated at US$1.4 billion, making him the 1, 031st-richest person in the world in 2013. Born on 27 January 1929 in Bakos, Alexandria, Egypt and he was married for two years, from 1954 to 1956, to Samira Khashoggi. Fayed worked for his wifes brother, Saudi Arabian arms dealer, Fayeds addition of Al- to his name, which implies aristocratic origins, has led to Private Eye nicknaming him the Phoney Pharaoh. According to his biographer Tom Bower, Fayed also claimed to have come from a town named Fayed after his family, Fayed and his brothers founded a shipping company in Egypt before moving its headquarters to Genoa, Italy with additional offices in London. Around 1964 Fayed entered a relationship with Haitian leader François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc Duvalier. He also associated with the geologist George de Mohrenschildt, Fayed terminated his stay in Haiti six months later when a sample of crude oil provided by Haitian associates proved to be low-grade molasses. It was then that Fayed moved to England where he lived in central London, in the mid 1960s, Fayed met the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid al Makhtoum who entrusted Fayed with helping transform Dubai. Fayed introduced British companies like the Costain Group, Bernard Sunley & Sons and he also became a financial adviser to the then Sultan of Brunei Omar Ali Saifuddien III, in 1966. Fayed set up IMS in 1968 in Dubai and he briefly joined the board of the mining conglomerate Lonrho in 1975 but left after a disagreement. In 1979, Fayed bought The Ritz hotel in Paris, France for US$30 million. In 1984, Fayed and his brothers purchased a 30 percent stake in House of Fraser, a group included the famous London store Harrods, from Roland Tiny Rowland. In 1985, he and his brothers bought the remaining 70 percent of House of Fraser for £615m, Rowland claimed the Fayed brothers had lied about their background and wealth and put pressure on the government to investigate them. A Department of Trade and Industry inquiry into the Fayeds was launched, the DTIs subsequent report was critical, but no action was taken against the Fayeds, and while many believed the contents of the report, others felt it was politically motivated. In 1998, Rowland accused Fayed of stealing papers and jewels from his Harrods safe deposit box, Fayed was arrested, but the charges were dropped. Fayed settled the dispute with a payment to his widow, he sued the Metropolitan Police for false arrest in 2002Mohamed Al-Fayed – Fayed in 2011
19. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, and the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an aunt and she moved to Chicago when her mother remarried in 1929, and later took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, Night into Morning, and Donovans Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, who was president of the Screen Actors Guild. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husbands victory in the 1980 presidential election. She was criticized early in his first term, largely due to her decision to replace the White House china and she aimed to restore a Kennedy-esque glamour to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the Just Say No drug awareness campaign and she had a strong influence on her husband, and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Reagan devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, who was diagnosed with Alzheimers disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5,2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of stem cell research. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6,1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women and she was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman who had been born into a once-prosperous family, and his actress wife, radio actress Edith Prescott Luckett. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova, from birth, she was commonly called Nancy. She lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York City, in a house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928, after their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Reagan was raised in Bethesda, Maryland, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, and uncle, Audley Gailbraith. Nancy later described longing for her mother during those years, My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, in 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago. Nancy and her stepfather got along well, she later wrote that he was a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values. He formally adopted her in 1935, and she would refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy DavisNancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
20. Nostradamus – Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinised as Nostradamus, was a French physician and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555, the earliest ancestor who can be identified on the paternal side is Astruge of Carcassonne, who died about 1420. Michels known siblings included Delphine, Jean, Pierre, Hector, Louis, Bertrand, Jean II, at the age of 15 Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year, he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors during an outbreak of the plague, after leaving Avignon, Nostredame, by his own account, traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. In 1529, after years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. The expulsion document, BIU Montpellier, Register S2 folio 87, however, some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him Doctor. After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably still as an apothecary, in 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. There he married a woman of uncertain name, who bore him two children, in 1534 his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their deaths, he continued to travel, passing through France, finally, in 1547, he settled in Salon-de-Provence in the house which exists today, where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde, with whom he had six children—three daughters and three sons. But it seems he could have dabbled in horoscopes, necromancy, scrying, following popular trends, he wrote an almanac for 1550, for the first time Latinising his name from Nostredame to Nostradamus. He was so encouraged by the success that he decided to write one or more annually. Taken together, they are known to have contained at least 6,338 prophecies, as well as at least eleven annual calendars, all of them starting on 1 January and not, as is sometimes supposed, in March. When obliged to attempt this himself on the basis of the tables of the day, he frequently made errors. He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand mainly French quatrains, for technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments, the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh Century have not survived in any extant edition. The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties, received a reaction when they were published. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henry II of France, was one of Nostradamus greatest admirers. After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them. In 1538 he came into conflict with the Church in Agen after an Inquisitor visited the area looking for Anti-Catholic viewsNostradamus – Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar
21. President of Ireland – The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The President holds office for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms, unless a candidate runs unopposed, the President is directly elected by the people. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion, the President acts as a representative of the Irish state. Former President Mary McAleese described the office as the guardian of the constitution, the Presidents official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin, which is located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the current president is His Excellency Michael D Higgins, who was elected on 29 October 2011. His inauguration was held on 11 November 2011, President Higgins is a veteran left-wing politician and human rights campaigner. As a member of the Labour Party, he has served in both houses of the Oireachtas, President Higgins is also a poet and speaks the Irish language fluently. The Constitution of Ireland provides for a system of government. The President is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which also comprises Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, unlike most other parliamentary democracies, the President is not even the nominal chief executive. Rather, executive authority is vested in the Government. The Government is obliged, however, to keep the President generally informed on matters of domestic, most of the functions of the President may be carried out only in accordance with the strict instructions of the Constitution, or the binding advice of the Government. The President does, however, possess certain personal powers that may be exercised at his or her discretion, the main functions are prescribed by the Constitution, Appoints the government The President formally appoints the Taoiseach and other ministers, and accepts their resignations. The Taoiseach is appointed upon the nomination of the Dáil, ministers are dismissed on the advice of the Taoiseach and the Taoiseach must, unless there is a dissolution of the Dáil, resign upon losing the confidence of the house. Appoints the judiciary The President appoints the judges to all Courts of the Republic of Ireland, convenes and dissolves the Dáil This power is exercised on the advice of the Taoiseach, government or Dáil approval is not needed. The President may only refuse a dissolution when a Taoiseach has lost the confidence of the Dáil, signs bills into law The President cannot veto a bill that the Dáil and the Seanad have adopted. However, he/she may refer it to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality, if the Supreme Court upholds the bill, the President must sign it. If, however, it is found to be unconstitutional, the President will decline to give assent, represents the state in foreign affairs This power is exercised only on the advice of the Government. The President accredits ambassadors and receives the letters of credence of foreign diplomats, ministers sign international treaties in the Presidents namePresident of Ireland – Incumbent Michael D. Higgins since 11 November 2011
22. Rajiv Gandhi – Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India, serving from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi, Gandhi was a scion of the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, which had been associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister, Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. He returned to India in 1966 and became a pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968 he married Sonia Gandhi, the couple settled in Delhi to a life with their children Rahul. For much of the 1970s, his mother was prime minister and his brother Sanjay a MP, despite this, after Sanjays death in an aeroplane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira. The following year he won his brothers Parliamentary seat of Amethi, as part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made a general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games. On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by two of her bodyguards, later day, Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister. His leadership was tested over the few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community. That December, an almost nationwide sympathy vote for the Congress party helped it win its largest Lok Sabha majority to date,411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhis period in office was mired in controversies, perhaps the greatest crises were the Bhopal disaster, in mid-1987 the Bofors scandal damaged his corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election. Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991, while campaigning for the elections, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber from the LTTE. His widow Sonia became the president of the Congress party in 1998 and his son Rahul is a Member of Parliament and Vice President of the Congress. In 1991 the Indian government posthumously awarded Gandhi the Bharat Ratna, at the India Leadership Conclave in 2009, the Revolutionary Leader of Modern India award was conferred posthumously on Gandhi. Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Indira, in 1951, Rajiv and Sanjay were admitted to Shiv Niketan school, where the teachers said Rajiv was shy and introverted, and greatly enjoyed painting and drawing. At the age of six, he underwent surgery on his tonsils and he was admitted to the Welham Boys School and Doon School in 1954, where Sanjay joined him two years later. Rajiv was sent to London in 1961 to study A-levels, in 1962, he was offered a place at Trinity College, Cambridge, to study engineering. Rajiv stayed at Cambridge until 1965, but did not finish his degree, Gandhi returned to India in 1966, the year his mother became Prime MinisterRajiv Gandhi – Rajiv Gandhi
23. Viz (comics) – Viz is a popular British comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald. It parodies British comics of the period, notably The Beano and The Dandy. It also sends up tabloid newspapers, with mockeries of articles, occasionally, it satirises current events and politicians, but has no particular political standpoint. Its success in the early 1990s led to the appearance of numerous rivals crudely copying the format Viz pioneered and it once enjoyed being the third most popular magazine in the UK, but ABC-audited sales have since dropped, to an average of 50,750 per issue in 2014. Editor Chris Donald himself cannot remember exactly where the name of the magazine comes from, what had begun as a few pages, photocopied and sold to friends, became a publishing phenomenon. To meet the demand, and to make up for Brownlows diminishing interest in contributing, after a few years of steady sales, mostly in the North East of England, circulation had grown to around 5,000. As the magazines popularity grew, the bedroom became too small, Donald also hired another freelance artist, Simon Thorp, whose work had impressed him. For over a decade, these four would be the nucleus of Viz, in 1985, a deal was signed with Virgin Books to publish the comic nationally every two months. In 1987, the Virgin director responsible for Viz, John Brown, set up his own publishing company, John Brown Publishing, sales exceeded a million by the end of 1989, making Viz for a time one of the biggest-selling magazines in the country. Inevitably, a number of imitations of Viz were launched, but these never matched the original in popularity, and rarely in quality. In June 2001, the comic was acquired as part of a £6.4 million deal by I Feel Good, a company belonging to ex-Loaded editor James Brown, in 2003, it changed hands again when IFG were bought out by Dennis Publishing. Soon after, Simon Donald quit his role as co-editor, in an attempt to develop a career in television. For a complete list, see List of Viz comic strips Many Viz characters have featured in long-running strips, becoming known in their own right. Others are based on stereotypes of British culture, mostly via working class characters, such as Biffa Bacon, Cockney Wanker, in addition to this, the comic also contains plenty of in jokes referring to people and places in and around Newcastle upon Tyne. These very often have extremely surreal or bizarre storylines, and often feature celebrities, the latter type often follows the style of Enid Blyton and other popular childrens adventure stories of the 1950s. The one-off strips often have ludicrously alliterative and/or rhyming titles, for example, Reverend Milos Lino Rhino, Maxs Laxative Saxophone Taxi, some strips are built entirely around absurd puns, such as Noahs Arse and Feet and Two Reg. Most of the stories take place in the town of Fulchester. Fulchester was originally the setting of the British TV programme Crown Court before the name was adopted by the Viz team, billy the Fish plays for Fulchester United F. CViz (comics) – Cover of Issue 199
24. 1964 – January – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is dissolved. Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he seek the Republican nomination for President. In the first meeting between leaders of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches since the 15th century, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople meet in Jerusalem. January 7 – A British firm, the Leyland Motor Corp. announces the sale of 450 buses to the Cuban government, January 8 – In his first State of the Union Address, U. S. President Lyndon Johnson declares a War on Poverty. S. The Beatles is released by Chicagos Vee-Jay Records to get the jump on Capitol Records release of Meet the Beatles, the two record companies fight over Vee-Jays release of this album in court. January 11 – United States Surgeon General Luther Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to ones health, January 12 Zanzibar Revolution, The predominantly Arab government of Zanzibar is overthrown by African nationalist rebels, a United States Navy destroyer evacuates 61 U. S. citizens. Routine U. S. naval patrols of the South China Sea begin, January 13 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, 14-year-old Pamela Mason is murdered. Edward Coolidge is tried and convicted of the crime, but the conviction is set aside by the landmark Fourth Amendment case Coolidge vs, opens in New Yorks St. James Theatre. John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, resigns from NASA, January 17 John Glenn announces that he will seek the Democratic nomination for U. S. Roald Dahls Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is published by Alfred A. Knopf and it will later be published by George Allen & Unwin in the United Kingdom on November 23. January 18 – Plans to build the New York City World Trade Center are announced, January 20 – Meet the Beatles. The first Beatles album from Capitol Records in the United States, is released ten days after Chicagos Vee-Jay Records releases Introducing, the two record companies battle it out in court for months, eventually coming to a conclusion. January 22 – Kenneth Kaunda is inaugurated as the first Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia, January 23 Pope Paul VI institutes the World Day of Prayer for Vocations. During this celebration the Pope reminds the universal Church that still today salvation comes to everyone and it continues to be celebrated every Fourth Sunday of Easter also known as Good Shepherd Sunday. Arthur Millers After the Fall opens Off-Broadway, a semi-autobiographical work, it arouses controversy over his portrayal of late ex-wife Marilyn Monroe. January 27 France and the Peoples Republic of China announce their decision to establish diplomatic relations, Senator Margaret Chase Smith,66, announces her candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination. January 28 – A U. S. Air Force jet training plane that strays into East Germany is shot down by Soviet fighters near Erfurt, January 29–February 9 – The 1964 Winter Olympics are held in Innsbruck, Austria. January 29 The Soviet Union launches 2 scientific satellites, Elektron I and II, Ranger 6 is launched by NASA, on a mission to carry television cameras and crash-land on the Moon1964 – January 8: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson 's War on Poverty
25. 1990s – The 1990s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1990, and ended on December 31,1999. Culturally, the 1990s are characterized by the rise of multiculturalism and alternative media, movements such as grunge, the rave scene and hip hop spread around the world to young people during that decade, aided by then-new technology such as cable television and the World Wide Web. The United States also saw a revival in the use of the death penalty in the 1990s. The dot-com bubble of 1997–2000 brought wealth to some entrepreneurs before its crash between 2000 and 2001, New ethnic conflicts emerged in Africa, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, the former two which led to the Rwandan and Bosnian genocides, respectively. Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Second Congo War starts in 1998 in central Africa and includes 50 different cultures and 7 different nations. The Gulf War – Iraq was left in debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil, as a result, on 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait. The UN immediately condemned the action, and a force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991, and a month later, in the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off much of the world. The Chechen wars break out in the 1990s, The First Chechen War – the conflict was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, during the war Russian forces largely recaptured the separatist region of Chechnya. The campaign largely reversed the outcome of the First Chechen War, the Kargil War – In May 1999, Pakistan sent troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir. A month later the Kargil War with India results in a fiasco for Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The incident leads to a coup in October, in which Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf. This conflict remains the only war fought between two declared nuclear powers, the Kosovo War, War between Albanian separatists and Yugoslav military and Serb paramilitary forces in Kosovo begin in 1996 and escalates in 1998 with increasing reports of atrocities taking place. After weeks of bombing, Yugoslavia submits to NATOs demands and NATO forces occupy Kosovo, the Yugoslav Wars would become notorious for numerous war crimes and human rights violations such as ethnic cleansing and genocide committed by all sides. Ten-Day War – a brief conflict between Slovenian TO and the Yugoslav Peoples Army following Slovenias declaration of independence. Bosnian War – the war involved several ethnically defined factions within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats as well as a smaller Bosniak faction led by Fikret Abdić1990s – The Gulf War.
26. 1984 – January 1 Brunei becomes a fully independent state. Bell System in the United States is broken up, January 5 – President Ronald Reagan nominates Elizabeth Dole as U. S. Secretary of Transportation. January 7 – Brunei becomes the member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. January 10 The United States and the Vatican restore full diplomatic relations, the Victoria Agreement is signed–institutionalising the Indian Ocean Commission. January 18 – The Mitsui Miike coal mine explosion at Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan, January 22 – The national release of the iconic 1984 advertisement January 24 – Apple Computer places the Macintosh personal computer on sale in the United States. February 1 – Medicare comes into effect in Australia, february 3 Dr. John Buster and the research team at Harbor–UCLA Medical Center announce historys first embryo transfer from one woman to another, resulting in a live birth. STS-41-B, Space Shuttle Challenger is launched on the 10th Space Shuttle mission, february 7 – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk. February 8–19 – The 1984 Winter Olympics are held in Sarajevo, february 13 – Konstantin Chernenko succeeds the late Yuri Andropov as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. February 26 – The United States Marine Corps pulls out of Beirut, february 29 – Canadian prime minister, Pierre Trudeau, announces his retirement. March 5 – Iran accuses Iraq of using weapons, the United Nations condemns their use on March 30. March 6 – A year-long strike action begins in the British coal industry, March 14 – Sinn Féins Gerry Adams and three others are seriously injured in a gun attack by the Ulster Volunteer Force. March 16 – The United States Central Intelligence Agency station chief in Beirut, William Francis Buckley, is kidnapped by the Islamic Jihad Organization and later dies in captivity. March 22 – Teachers at the McMartin Preschool in Manhattan Beach, California are charged with Satanic ritual abuse of the school children, March 23 – General Rahimuddin Khan becomes the first man in Pakistans history to rule over two of its provinces, after becoming interim Governor of Sindh. March 25 Pope John Paul II consecrates the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, in Fátima, the Institute of the Incarnate Word is founded under Fr. April 1 – Death of Marvin Gaye, Marvin Gaye is shot to death by his father, april 2 – Indian Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma is launched into space, aboard the Soyuz T-11. April 4 – U. S. President Ronald Reagan calls for a ban on chemical weapons. April 9 – The 56th Academy Awards, hosted by Johnny Carson, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, terms of Endearment wins Best Picture and 4 other Academy Awards. April 12 – Palestinian gunmen take Israeli bus number 300 hostage, Israeli special forces storm the bus, freeing the hostages1984 – Diretas Já demonstration held in São Paulo.
27. 2000s (decade) – The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,2000, and ended on December 31,2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, in the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the 80s, the 90s, etc. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the 2000s or the 00s, some people read 2000s as two-thousands, and thus simply refer to the decade as the Two-Thousands, the Twenty Hundreds, or the Twenty-ohs. Some read it as the 00s, while others referred to it as the Zeros, on January 1,2000, the BBC listed the noughties, as a potential moniker for the new decade. This has become a name for the decade in the UK and Australia. Others have advocated the term the aughts, a widely used at the beginning of the 20th century for its first decade. The American Dialect Society holds an annual poll for word of the year. For 2009, the winner in the least likely to succeed category was Any name of the decade 2000–2009, such as, Noughties, Aughties, Oughties, etc. When the 20- is dropped, the years within the decade are usually referred to as starting with an oh. The option aught-seven, for reason, has never caught on idiomatically. When the 20- is retained, two options are available in speech, both of which have idiomatic currency, two thousand seven in American English or twenty-oh-seven, during the 2000s decade, it was more common to hear the first pattern than the second. The War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, and the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Husseins rule as Iraqi President, Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade. These acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, the European Union expanded its sanctions amid Irans failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions. Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah, then with Israel and Hamas, cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property came in 2005. The resulting political fallout was severely damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States, the campaigns were launched by the United States, with support from NATO and other allies, following the September 11,2001 attacks that were carried out by al-Qaeda2000s (decade) – The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.
28. 1997 – January 17 – A Delta II rocket carrying a military GPS payload explodes, shortly after liftoff from Cape Canaveral. January 18 – In northwest Rwanda, Hutu militia members kill 6 Spanish aid workers,3 soldiers, january 19 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. January 20 – Bill Clinton is sworn in for a term as President of the United States. January 22 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, january 23 – Mir Aimal Kasi is sentenced to death for a 1993 assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters that killed 2 and wounded 3. January 27 – It is revealed that French museums had nearly 2,000 pieces of art that had been stolen by Nazis, february 4 On their way to Lebanon,2 Israeli troop-transport helicopters collide, killing 73. After at first contesting the results, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections, British Home Secretary Michael Howard informs Moors Murderer Myra Hindley that she will never be released from prison. Mr. Howard has made the decision in agreement with a made by his predecessor David Waddington in 1990. February 5 The so-called Big Three banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors, morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Reynolds investment banks announce a $10 billion merger. February 10 The United States Army suspends Gene C, mcKinney, Sergeant Major of the Army, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct. Sandline affair, Australian newspapers publish stories that the government of Papua New Guinea has brought mercenaries onto Bougainville Island, february 13 STS-82, Tune-up and repair work on the Hubble Space Telescope is started by astronauts from the Space Shuttle Discovery. The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 7,000 for the first time, february 22 – In Roslin, Scotland, scientists announce that an adult sheep named Dolly had been successfully cloned, and was born in July 1996. February 23 – A small fire occurs on the Russian space station Mir, february 27 – Divorce becomes legal in the Republic of Ireland. February 28 – North Hollywood shootout, Two robbers wearing kevlar body armor armed with AK-47s containing armor-piercing bullets injure 17 police officers, the incident sparks debate on the appropriate firepower for United States patrol officers to have available in similar situations in the future. March 4 – U. S. President Bill Clinton bans federal funding for any research on human cloning, march 6 Pablo Picassos Tête de Femme is stolen from a London gallery. In Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers overrun a military base and kill more than 200, march 13 Indias Missionaries of Charity chooses Sister Nirmala to succeed Mother Teresa as its leader. The National Peoples Congress of the Peoples Republic of China creates a new Chongqing Municipality, the Phoenix Lights, a series of UFOs, are seen over Phoenix, Arizona. March 16 – Sandline affair, On Bougainville Island, soldiers of commander Jerry Singirok arrest Tim Spicer and his mercenaries of the Sandline International. March 18 – The tail of a Russian An-24 charter plane breaks off while en route to Turkey, causing the plane to crash, killing all 50 on board, and resulting in the grounding of all An-24s1997 – The funeral cortege of Diana, Princess of Wales, en route to Westminster Abbey from Kensington Palace.
29. 1996 – January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the worlds smallest and lightest mobile phone to date. January 4 – Hosni Mubarak, the president of Egypt, appoints a new government in response to accusations of corruption in the elections in late 1995. January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, january 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches of snowfall, New York Citys public schools close for the first time in 18 years, january 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital Kinshasa, killing 300. January 9–January 20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya, january 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan. January 13 – Italys prime minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him, New talks are initiated by president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government. January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected president of Portugal, january 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to power following elections scheduled for February. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of heating oil. An Indonesian ferry sinks off the tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people. January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority, january 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapon test. January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems, january 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, january 26 – Whitewater scandal, U. S. First Lady Hillary Clinton testifies before a grand jury, january 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup. January 29 President Jacques Chirac announces an end to French nuclear testing. Fire destroys La Fenice, Venices opera house, january 30 – Irish National Liberation Army leader Gino Gallagher is killed in an internal feud. January 30–February 5 – Sarah Balabagan is caned in the United Arab Emirates, january 31 Colombo Central Bank bombing, an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 and injuring 1,400. An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 and injures over 400 when 10 short tons of dynamite in an explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate1996 – Yasser Arafat
30. 1961 – The next such year will be 6009. January 3 United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces that the United States has severed diplomatic, cuba–United States relations are later restored in 2015. At the National Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls, atomic reactor SL-1 explodes and it remains the deadliest air disaster to occur in the country. Erwin Schrödinger died January 41961 January 5 Italian sculptor Alfredo Fioravanti marches into the U. S, consulate in Rome, and confesses that he was part of the team that forged the Etruscan terracotta warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Cemal Gürsel forms the new government of Turkey, January 7 – Following a four-day conference in Casablanca, five African chiefs of state announce plans for a NATO-type African organization to ensure common defense. The Charter of Casablanca involves the Casablanca Group, Morocco, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Guinea, January 8 – In France, a referendum supports Charles de Gaulles policies on independence for Algeria. January 9 – British authorities announce that they have discovered a large Soviet spy ring in London, January 17 President Dwight Eisenhower gives his final State of the Union Address to Congress. In a Farewell Address the same day, he warns of the power of a military–industrial complex. Patrice Lumumba of Republic of Congo is assassinated, January 20 – John F. Kennedy is sworn in as President of the United States. January 24 – A B-52 Stratofortress, with two bombs, crashes near Goldsboro, North Carolina. President John F. Kennedy delivers the first live news conference. In it, he announces that the Soviet Union has freed the two surviving crewmen of a USAF RB-47 reconnaissance plane shot down by Soviet flyers over the Barents Sea July 1,1960, One Hundred and One Dalmatians is released in cinemas. Acting to halt leftist excesses, a composed of two army officers and four civilians takes over El Salvador, ousting another junta that had ruled for three months. Jânio Quadros is elected president of Brazil and he later resigns on August 25. January 26 – President John F. Kennedy appoints Janet G. Travell to be his physician, January 28 – Supercar, the first family sci-fi TV series filmed in Supermarionation debuts on ATV. January 30 – President John F. Kennedy delivers his first State of the Union Address. January 31 – Ham the Chimp, a 37-pound male, is rocketed into space aboard Mercury-Redstone 2, in a test of the Project Mercury capsule, February 1 – The United States tests its first Minuteman I intercontinental ballistic missile. February 3 – China buys grain from Canada for $60 million, February 4 – The Portuguese Colonial War begins in Angola1961 – Jan. 20: John F. Kennedy inaugurated as President of the U.S.
31. 1992 – 1992 was designated as, International Space Year by the United Nations. January 1 The Atari 2600 is finally discontinued 15 years after its introduction in September 1977, boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt replaces Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru as United Nations Secretary-General. George H. W. Bush becomes the first U. S. President to address the Australian Parliament, January 2 – President of Russia Boris Yeltsin ends price controls, resulting in prices of some goods and services becoming 3 to 5 times more expensive. This in effect ends the command economy in Russia, January 6 – The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is proclaimed by the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh. January 7 – The Yugoslav Air Force downs a helicopter, killing 5 military observers from the European Community. January 8 – George H. W. Bush is televised falling violently ill at a dinner in Japan, vomiting into the lap of Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa. January 9 – Bosnian Serbs declare their own republic within Bosnia and Herzegovina, in protest of the decision by Bosniaks, January 11 Singer Paul Simon is the first major artist to tour South Africa after the end of the cultural boycott. Shanda Sharer is tortured and burned to death in Madison, Indiana by 4 teenage girls, Albanian referendum for territorial and political autonomy in FYR Macedonia. January 12 – The second round of Algerias general elections is cancelled when the first round is favorable to the Islamic Salvation Front, January 13 – Japan apologizes for forcing Korean women into sexual slavery during World War II. January 15 – The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia begins to break up, Slovenia and Croatia gain independence and international recognition in some Western countries. January 16 – El Salvador officials and rebel leaders sign the Chapultepec Peace Accords in Mexico City ending the 12-year Salvadoran Civil War that claimed at least 75,000 lives. January 18 – In Nairobi, Kenya, more than 100,000 attend protests demanding an end to one-party rule by the Kenya African National Union, January 19 The Bulgarian presidential election is won by Zhelyu Zhelev, leader of the Union of Democratic Forces. Paramount Leader of China Deng Xiaoping speaks in Shenzhen during his southern tour, January 20 – Cuba executes Eduardo Diaz Betancourt, who was found guilty of sabotage and terrorism. January 21 – Faced with decreased military spending, United Technologies Corporation announces it will eliminate 13,900 jobs by 1993, January 22 Rebel forces occupy Zaires national radio station in Kinshasa and broadcast a demand for the governments resignation. STS-42, Dr. Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian woman in space, January 24 In El Salvador, an army colonel and a lieutenant of the Atlacatl Battalion are each sentenced to 30 years in prison for the 1989 murder of six Jesuit priests and their housekeepers. China and Israel establish diplomatic relations, January 26 Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia will stop targeting cities of the United States and her allies with nuclear weapons. In return George H. W. Bush announces that the United States and her allies will stop targeting Russia, in Mauritania, security forces open fire on opponents of President of Mauritania Maaouya Ould SidAhmed Taya, killing at least 5 people. January 27 Macys files for bankruptcy, Nagorno-Karabakh War, in the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, fighting between Armenians and Azeris leaves at least 60 people dead1992 – Maja Keuc
32. Norfolk – Norfolk /ˈnɔːrfək/ is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the west and north-west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, of the countys population, 40% live in four major built up areas, Norwich, Great Yarmouth, Kings Lynn and Thetford. The Broads is a network of rivers and lakes in the east of the county, the area is not a National Park although it is marketed as such. It has similar status to a park, and is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in times, with camps along the higher land in the west. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD, the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD47, and again in 60 led by Boudica. The crushing of the second opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county, situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, and forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. Norfolk, Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in -ton and -ham. Endings such as -by and -thorpe are also common, indicating Danish place names, in the 9th century the region came under attack. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, and settlements grew in these areas. Migration into East Anglia must have high, by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable agriculture, the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which dramatically reduced the population in 1349. During the English Civil War Norfolk was largely Parliamentarian, the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich which was an addition to the railway network. In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation, during the Second World War agriculture rapidly intensified, and it has remained very intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolks low-lying land and easily eroded cliffs, many of which are chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to the sea, the low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is currently managed by the Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea floodingNorfolk – Wells-next-the-Sea.
33. Grace Kelly – Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III, in April 1956. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in the film Mogambo, which won her a Golden Globe Award, subsequently, she had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Kelly retired from acting at the age of 26 to marry Rainier and they had three children, Caroline, Albert II, and Stéphanie. Kelly retained her American roots, maintaining dual U. S. and she died on September 14,1982, a day after suffering a stroke while driving her car, which caused a crash. Kelly was born on November 12,1929, at Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to an affluent and influential family. Her father, Irish-American John B. Kelly Sr. had won three Olympic gold medals for sculling and owned a successful brickwork contracting company that was well-known on the East Coast. A registered Democrat, he was nominated to be mayor of Philadelphia for the 1935 election, in later years, he served on the Fairmount Park Commission and, during World War II, was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness. Kellys mother was Philadelphia native Margaret Katherine Majer, the daughter of German immigrants, Margaret had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania and had been the first woman to coach womens athletics at the institution. She was noted for her beauty and modeled for a time in her youth, after marrying John B. Kelly in 1924, Margaret focused on being a housewife until all her children were of school age, following which she began actively participating in various civic organizations. Kelly had two siblings, Margaret and John Jr. and a younger sister, Elizabeth. The children were raised in the Roman Catholic faith, while attending Ravenhill Academy, a prestigious Catholic girls school, Kelly modeled fashions at local social events with her mother and sisters. In 1942, at the age of 12, she played the lead in Dont Feed the Animals, before graduating in May 1947 from Stevens School, a socially prominent private institution on Walnut Lane in the Northwest Philadelphia neighborhood of Germantown, she acted and danced. Her graduation yearbook listed her favorite actress as Ingrid Bergman and her favorite actor as Joseph Cotten, written in the Stevens Prophecy section was, Miss Grace P. Kelly – a famous star of stage and screen. Owing to her low mathematics scores, Kelly was rejected by Bennington College in July 1947, despite her parents initial disapproval, Kelly decided to pursue her dreams of being an actress. John was particularly displeased with her decision, he viewed acting as a cut above streetwalker. To start her career, she auditioned for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, although the school had already met its semester quota, she obtained an interview with the admission officer, Emile Diestel, and was admitted through the influence of George. She began her first term the following October, while at school, she lived in Manhattans Barbizon Hotel for Women, a prestigious establishment which barred men from entering after 10 pm, and she worked as a model to support her studies. Kelly worked diligently and practiced her speech by using a tape recorder and her early acting pursuits led her to the stage, most notably a Broadway debut in Strindbergs The Father alongside Raymond MasseyGrace Kelly – Kelly in 1956
34. White wedding – A white wedding is a traditional formal or semi-formal wedding originating in Britain. The term originates from the colour of the wedding dress. The tradition of a wedding dress is commonly credited to Queen Victorias choice to wear a white court dress at her wedding to Prince Albert in 1840. Debutantes had long been required to wear white dresses for their first presentation at court. European and American brides had been wearing a plethora of colours, including blue, yellow, as accounts of Victorias wedding spread across the Atlantic and throughout Europe, elites followed her lead. After Queen Victorias and Prince Alberts wedding, the color white resembled wealth, worldwide, the color white has been associated with weddings and other significant life or spiritual events for millennia. In ancient Greece, white was the color of bridal joy, and brides not only wore white dresses and white flowers, in ancient Japan, white was also the color of purity and innocence. In Africa, the white is associated with deities and worship. In the Christian tradition, white clothes were worn at the time of baptism to represent spiritual purity, because of the limitations of laundering techniques before the later part of the 20th century, white dresses provided an opportunity for conspicuous consumption. Etiquette books then began to turn the practice into a tradition, the story put out about the wedding veil was that decorous brides were naturally too timid to show their faces in public until they were married. By the end of the 19th century the white dress was the garment of choice for brides on both sides of the Atlantic. However, middle-class British and American brides did not adopt the trend fully until after World War II, with increased prosperity in the 20th century, the tradition also grew to include the practice of wearing the dress only once. As historian Vicky Howard writes, f a bride wore white in the century, it was acceptable. Even Queen Victoria had her famous lace wedding dress re-styled for later use, the portrayal of weddings in Hollywood movies, particularly immediately after World War II, helped crystallize and homogenize the white wedding into a normative form. This wedding is considered the most influential white wedding of the 20th century. The traditional white wedding wasnt necessarily defined by the color of the dress only, the first edition of Brides Magazine was published in 1934 as a newspaper advertising insert called So Youre Going to Get Married. In a column titled To the Bride, and its rival Modern Bride began publishing in 1949, today a whole industry surrounds the provision of such weddings. They may also add optional features, such as a guest book or commemorative wedding leaflets and it is common to have a celebration after the wedding ceremony, normally featuring a large white wedding cakeWhite wedding – A bride from the late 19th century wearing a black or dark coloured wedding dress
35. Warwick Davis – Davis also starred as a fictionalised version of himself in the sitcom Lifes Too Short, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. Davis was born in Epsom, Surrey, the son of Susan J. and Ashley Davis and he was educated at Chinthurst School and later the City of London Freemens School. Davis was born with Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, a rare form of dwarfism. When Davis was 11, his grandmother heard a radio advert calling for people who were 4 feet tall or shorter to be in Return of the Jedi, to Davis, who was a fan of the Star Wars films, it was a dream come true. During the filming of Return of the Jedi, Mark Hamill bought Davis every Star Wars figure he did not have, Davis based his Ewok movements on his dog, who would tilt his head from side to side whenever he saw something strange. The unreleased film was a look at his decision to become an actor and act in the film. Davis reprised his role as Wicket in the ABC made-for-TV films Caravan of Courage, An Ewok Adventure and Ewoks, The Battle for Endor. In 1987, Davis was called to Elstree Studios in London to meet with Ron Howard and George Lucas to discuss a new project called Willow. Willow was his first opportunity to act with his face visible and he co-starred with Val Kilmer in the film, which received a Royal Premiere before the Prince and Princess of Wales. In 1993, he played the villainous Irish goblin in Leprechaun, Davis played the role of Professor Filius Flitwick in the Harry Potter films. Davis played a white-moustached Flitwick in the first two films, and then an unnamed chorus conductor for the third instalment of the series. In the fourth film, Flitwick is younger looking, with short, brown hair, in addition to playing Flitwick, Davis played the role of the goblin Griphook in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, despite the role being played previously by fellow dwarf actor Verne Troyer. In 2004, Davis played the character Plates in the indie film Skinned Deep, in 2006, Davis appeared, alongside fellow Harry Potter star Daniel Radcliffe, in an episode of BBCs comedy series Extras as a satirical version of himself. Davis starred in the version of The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. In December 2006, Davis starred in the pantomime Snow White and the Seven Dwarves at the Opera House, Manchester, and again in 2007–08 at the New Wimbledon Theatre. Davis appeared in The Chronicles of Narnia, Prince Caspian, in which he played Nikabrik the Dwarf and he also appeared as a contestant on the 2007 series of Children in Need reality show Celebrity Scissorhands. Davis starred as a version of himself in Lifes Too Short, written by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. In December 2012, Davis returned to New Wimbledon Theatre to reprise his role in Snow White, in 2014, Davis hosted a factual series for ITV called Weekend Escapes with Warwick DavisWarwick Davis – Davis in 2007
36. St Columb Major – St Columb Major is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. An electoral ward simply named St Columb exists with a population at the 2011 census of 5,050, twice a year the town plays host to hurling, a medieval game once common throughout Cornwall but now only played in St Columb and St Ives. It is played on Shrove Tuesday and then again on the Saturday eleven days later, monuments that date from this period include, Castle an Dinas, an Iron Age hillfort. The Nine Maidens stone row, the largest row of standing stones in Cornwall, the Devils Quoit in the hamlet of Quoit and it was a large stone with four deeply impressed horseshoe marks. Legend has it that the marks were made by the horse upon which Arthur rode when he resided at Castle An Dinas, There are four Cornish crosses in the parish, two are in the churchyard, one is at the hamlet of Black Cross and another at Black Rock. In 1333 Edward III granted a market in St Columb Major to Sir John Arundell and this was as a reward for supplying troops to fight the Scottish at the Battle of Halidon Hill near Berwick-on-Tweed. The link between the Cornish language and Catholicism was also exhibited in the activities of John Kennall, at St Columb, where he was still holding Mass as late as 1590. In 1645 during the English Civil War, Sir Thomas Fairfaxs troops were advancing from Bodmin towards Truro, on 7 March the army held a rendezvous, and halted one night, four miles beyond Bodmin. In the year 1676, the greatest part of the church of St Columb was blown up with gunpowder by three youths of the town, Royal visits were made to St Columb in 1909,1977 and 1983. On 9 June 1909 the town was visited by the Prince of Wales and his wife, the visit was to open the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Show. The Prince gave 2 silver cups, one for the best bull, in August 1977 The Queen and Prince Philip visited the town during their Silver Jubilee tour of Cornwall. On 27 May 1983, The town was visited by the Prince, the visit was to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the signing of the town charter by Edward III. A plaque commemorates this visit outside the former Conservative club in Union Square, in 1992 Australian stuntman Matt Coulter aka The Kangaroo Kid set the record for the longest jump with a crash on a quad bike at Retallack Adventure Park, St Columb Major. St Columb is situated in mid-Cornwall, about 5 miles inland from the north coast, the parish covers an area of 12,884 acres or 20.1 square miles. Its highest point, at 709 ft, is Castle an Dinas, much of the land in the parish is used for farming, with small areas of woodland. The Vale of Lanherne, the valley of the River Menalhyl is famed for its beauty and occupies the area to the west of the town, connecting St Columb, St Columb occupies a plateau at about 300 ft elevation. The north part of the town descends into the Vale of Lanherne and it was originally a linear settlement built on the main road running north-east to south-west, but modern estates have since been built, extending the town to the south and east. To the south there is an industrial estate, There are also Halloon, Lanhizey, Rosedinnick, Tregamere, Trekenning, Trevarron, Trevolgas and TrugoSt Columb Major – The crest of St. Columb with town motto
37. Crewe Heritage Centre – Crewe Heritage Centre, is a railway museum, located in Crewe, England. Established in 1987 and renamed in 1992 as Crewe Railway Age by the registered charity. The museum is located in the old London, Midland and Scottish Railway yard, the site is operated by supporters of the Crewe Heritage Centre, and is open to the public every weekend between Easter and end of September. The Main Exhibition Hall features many artefacts and exhibits associated with Crewe from its locomotive and carriage construction, brake Van rides are available to the public during special events. Built by British Rail the 1970s and 1980s, this Class 370 Advanced Passenger Train is the only surviving APT set, numbered 370 003/006, it is open at all times, with an occasional cafe run from the original buffet car. The APT-P museum can be found one of the carriages. The set was tilted for the first time in preservation in 2013, Crewe Station A, Open for display purposes, this box was moved onto the site after closure in 1985. Crewe North Junction, Built in 1939 and designed to withstand the Luftwaffe bombs of World War II, located between the West Coast Main Line and Crewe - Chester line, its location is perfect for viewing passing mainline trains. Demonstrations of how the box was used often take place, and are linked to a simulator. In 1987, the building was extended to more room for the Heritage Centre, including a cafe and small shop. Exeter West, Used to control the split at Exeter between the Great Western Railway and the Southern Railway, with 131 levers, it was a Special Class A signal box, with only the best signalmen authorised to operate it. Both mainline and miniature railways operate on most weekends, the standard gauge railway uses either the British Rail Class 0303073, D1842, or ex-Direct Rail Services British Rail Class 4747712. A cylinder and Caprotti valve gear from the locomotive, Duke of Gloucester, there may also be occasional visiting locomotives. The Center has its own Depot Code, CQ, but only 47712 and 87035 are classed as being locomotives of this Depot, list of museums in Cheshire Crewe Railroad Museum in Crewe, Virginia, USA Mitchell, Vic, Smith, KeithCrewe Heritage Centre – APT No.370 003/006 at Crewe heritage Centre
38. Cherwell (newspaper) – Cherwell is an independent student newspaper, largely published for students of Oxford University. First published in 1920, it has had an online edition since 1996, named after the local river, Cherwell is published by OSPL, who also publish the sister publication Isis, the Bang. Science magazine, the Industry fashion magazine, and the freshers magazine Keep Off the Grass, one of the oldest student publications in the UK, it is editorially independent and has been the launching pad for many well known journalistic and business careers. The current editors are Daniel Curtis and Tony Diver, edinger recalls the early newspaper having a radical voice, We were feeling for a new Oxford …. We were anti-convention, anti-Pre War values, Pro-Feminist and we did not mind shocking and we often did. The publication was independent of the University of Oxford and it was financed, staffed. Early editions combine this seriousness with whimsy and parochialism, the first editorial gives the newspapers purpose as being to exclude all outside influence and interference from our University. Throughout the 1920s Cherwell had a literary focus, and a policy of not editing literary contributions. Undergraduate contributors included Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene, John Betjeman, L. P. Hartley, Cecil Day-Lewis, the newspapers focus broadened over the coming decades until January 1953, when the owners of the paper decided to turn it into a university newspaper. In 1946 Cherwell was briefly banned by the university for distributing a survey on the sex lives of undergraduates, in 1970 then-editor Peter Stothard published a current Oxford theatre poster featuring a naked female, possibly a first for a British newspaper. Under his editorship Cherwell also published a photo of Gully Wells. In 1973 the paper became a cause celebre in the papers when the Cherwell published a photo of General Editor David Soskin with a topless model. This resulted in a fine by the proctors for David Soskin. Meakin then moved over to become Editor of Isis the following term, in 1981, Hugh Grant is described as New Colleges answer to Brooke Shields, and his unsuccessful attempts to infiltrate a ball with his date are reported. The Editor for the following Hilary Term 1965 was Martin Linton, lintons News Editor on Cherwell, Sarah Boyd-Carpenter, is better known today as Baroness Hogg. In the mid-1970s Cherwell survived one of its periodic financial crises, Cherwell is published by Oxford Student Publications Ltd, a student-run publishing company. Cherwell staff are Oxford students who run the paper while studying for their degrees, editors and deputy editors are elected termly by the Board of Directors, also largely made up of former editors and business staff. All positions may be held jointly, more commonly in the junior positions, section editors hold their own section meetings, at which any student may participateCherwell (newspaper) – Typical Cherwell front page
39. Knickerbockers (clothing) – Knickerbockers or knickers are a form of mens or boys baggy-kneed trousers particularly popular in the early 20th century United States. Golfers plus twos and plus fours are breeches of this type, before World War II, skiers often wore knickerbockers too, usually ankle-length. Until after World War I, in many English-speaking countries, boys wore short pants in summer. At the onset of puberty, they graduated to long trousers, in that era, the transition to long pants was a major rite of passage. See, for example, the classic song Blues in the Night by Johnny Mercer, My mammy done told me, when I was in knee-pants, my mammy done told me, son. Baseball players wear a form of knickerbockers, although the pants have become less baggy in recent decades. The white trousers worn by American football officials are knickerbockers, and while they have become less baggy, in recent years, the NFL has equipped its officials with long trousers rather than knickers in cold weather. In fact, Washington Irving had a friend named Herman Knickerbocker. Herman Knickerbocker, in turn, was of the upstate Knickerbocker clan, Jansen van Wijhe invented the name upon arriving in New Amsterdam and signed a document with a variant of it in 1682. Knickerbocker became a byword for a New York patrician, comparable to a Boston Brahmin, the Knickerbocker name stayed with the team even after it moved its base of operations to Elysian Fields at Hoboken, N. J. in 1846. The baseball link may have prompted Casey Stengel to joyously exclaim, when he was named pilot of the newborn New York Mets in 1961. Hence also the locally-brewed Knickerbocker Beer brewed by Jacob Ruppert, the first sponsors of the TV show Tonight, the Knickerbocker name was an integral part of the New York scene when the Basketball Association of America granted a charter franchise to the city in the summer of 1946. As can best be determined, the decision to call the team the Knickerbockers was made by the clubs founder. The team is now referred to as the Knicks. Knickerbockers have been popular in other sporting endeavors, particularly golf, rock climbing, invariably referred to as knickers in the US, where the British definition of that term is unknown, they lived on as a just-past-the-knee variant of racing tights reserved for colder-weather riding. Knickers are still worn as part of the uniform in fencing. Knickerbockers are often worn in baseball as pants, a custom that has been practiced even since long pants became widely used in the U. S, the traditional knickerbockers of old were more like pants that had been folded back with long socks. However, by 1984 the style had waned as more top-heavy styles with snug pants rendered the style obsolete, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth nations, the term knickers is used for womens undergarmentsKnickerbockers (clothing) – Knickerbockers
40. July 1961 – The following events occurred in July 1961. At the request of the Emir of Kuwait,7,000 British troops and 1,200 Saudi troops arrived to protect the nation against a possible invasion by Iraq. The Dowry Prohibition Act went into effect in India, prohibiting the solicitation or payment of money from one family to another as consideration for a marriage, fantasy Island, a theme park on Grand Island near Buffalo, New York opened. Ana Griselda Vegas of Caracas was crowned Miss Venezuela 1961, Martha Helen Kostyra,19, married Andrew Stewart in New York City. Although the two divorced in 1989, she kept her name as Martha Stewart as she built her fortune. In elections for the Chamber of Deputies, voters went to the polls to elect 178 members to serve for three-year terms, the ruling PRI party won a majority of the seats. His wife, Mary, told reporters initially that the author had accidentally died while cleaning a double barrelled shotgun. General Douglas MacArthur,81, returned to the Philippines for the first time since the end of World War II, and received a tumultuous welcome. MacArthur, who had led the liberation of the islands from the Japanese, had been given honorary citizenship, Major General Park Chung Hee forced the resignation of Korean leader Chang Do-Young and became chief of the military junta that had taken over in May. Changs job of Prime Minister of South Korea was assigned to Lt. Gen. Song Yo Chan, as a result of the lobbying of Dr. Harold Griffith, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal opened the first intensive care unit in Canada. The Stage première of the opera Krapp, ou, La dernière bande by Marcel Mihalovici with libretto by Samuel Beckett, malcolm Arnold conducted the first performance of his Symphony No.5 at the Cheltenham Music Festival. Invoking the Taft-Hartley Act, an U. S. federal court ordered a halt to the 19-day-old. The rupture of the coolant system caused the water pressure in the aft reactor to drop to zero. Eight crew members died within three weeks of the accident, and others were treated for deadly doses of radiation. La notte by Michelangelo Antonioni won the Golden Bear Award for Best Film at the 11th Berlin International Film Festival, born, Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, Egyptian-American terrorist involved in the 2002 Los Angeles Airport shooting Andrew Zimmern, American television host, in New York City. The first Israeli rocket, Shavit 2, was launched, at 4,41 am, the missile, ostensibly for meteorological research rather than for carrying warheads, was sent up from a secret installation on the Mediterranean. Bizerte crisis, Tunisia announced that it was claiming the French military base located at Bizerte, five days later, North Korea signed a similar treaty with the Peoples Republic of China. Scott LaFaro,25, American jazz bassist who was 1/3rd of the Bill Evans Trio, in an accident near AvonJuly 1961 – July 2, 1961: Author Ernest Hemingway commits suicide
41. Star Island (novel) – Star Island is a 2010 novel by Carl Hiaasen, released on Tuesday, July 27,2010. The novel takes its name from Star Island in Miami Beach, Florida, Ann DeLusia, the stunt double for habitually intoxicated and drug-addicted pop star Cherry Pye, is mistakenly kidnapped by an obsessed paparazzo. Now, the stars entourage must find a way to rescue Ann, the novel also features the re-appearance of Hiaasens recurring character, ex-Florida governor Clinton Skink Tyree. Paparazzo Bang Abbott is lying in wait outside a posh South Beach hotel, however, when the paramedics bring a woman down to the ambulance, he sees that she is a body double. Meanwhile, the real Cherry is being driven to the nearest hospital in a limousine by her entourage. The body double is Ann DeLusia, an actress hired by Cherrys family to make public appearances when Cherry is too inebriated to do so. Cherrys mother/manager, Janet Bunterman, tells Ann to take a few days off, while Cherry is packed off, yet again, infuriated at having been fooled by a body double, Abbott becomes even more obsessed with getting photos of Cherry under sordid circumstances. In Los Angeles, Cherry jumps over the wall of the center and hitches a ride to the airport from a nearby motorist. Pleased by his transparent flattery, Cherry takes him along when she charters a private jet to Florida, aboard the plane, Abbott is astonished when she decides to have an onboard quickie with him. His astonishment turns to outrage when Cherry drives away in a limousine and strands him at the airport, taking his camera bag and BlackBerry with her. Ann decides to spend her few days off touring the Florida Keys, but while driving through Key Largo, she swerves to avoid a man scooping a roadkill off the highway, when she wakes up, the man, Skink has rescued her. With apologies, Skink brings her along on a mission to kidnap. Afterwards, Skink has a friend give her a ride to the nearest hospital, over Janets protests, Cherrys record promoter, Maury Lykes, assigns a man nicknamed Chemo to replace Cherrys recently fired bodyguard. As revenge for her theft of his cameras and smartphone, Bang Abbott kidnaps Cherry outside her hotel at gunpoint and he demands, in exchange for Anns safe return, that Cherry be made available to him for a private photo shoot. Ann is furious to hear that the Buntermans have not even reported her missing and she hurriedly uses her cell phone to call the only number she has, Skinks. When the Buntermans refuse to agree to Abbotts demand, he dresses Ann up in costume and shoots pictures of her with a discarded syringe and his threat to release those pictures to the media is taken much more seriously by the Buntermans than his threat against Anns life. The photo shoot and hostage exchange takes place on Star Island, Cherry is duped into thinking that she is posing for the cover of Vanity Fair, while Ann confronts her employers over their indifference to her safety. At that moment, Skink tracks her down, and Ann prefers to leave with him rather than the Buntermans, after the photo shoot, Chemo confiscates the digital memory cards from Abbotts camerasStar Island (novel) – First edition
42. Cadency labels of the British royal family – Heraldic labels are used to differentiate the personal coats of arms of members of the royal family of the United Kingdom from that of the monarch and from each other. This was especially important in the case of arms of sovereignty, therefore, in the English royal family, cadency marks were used from the time of Henry III, typically a label or bordure alluding to the arms of the bearers mother or wife. Bordures of various tinctures continued to be used into the 15th century, in the ordinary system of differences a label of three points is the distinction of the eldest son during the lifetime of his father. In the oldest rolls of arms the labels are all of five points, besides being used as mere temporary marks of cadency, labels are also employed as permanent distinctions, borne by every member of some particular branches of certain families. Labels are the principal cadency marks used in royal families. In the British royal family, all labels are argent, the sons and daughters of the sovereign all bear labels of three points argent, that of the Prince of Wales is plain, but all others are charged. Further descendants of princes bear labels of five points charged, all such differences should be borne on the arms, crest, and supporters. The system of a mark for difference for each member of the family goes back to the time of Henry III, whose successor, as a prince. Since 1340 this label has almost always white, and overlaid with small figures, or charges. This red cross represents England and its patron saint, and was first borne by Richard of Bordeaux before the death of his father Edward, other charges used, A blue anchor, a symbol of hope, or of naval service, as borne by several Dukes of York. The Crown of England borne by the king the Duke of Windsor. Roses, the Tudor Rose has been used as an English royal badge since 1485, red hearts may allude to the arms of Lüneburg or – for the descendants of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark – to the coat of arms of Denmark. The blue fleur-de-lis appears amongst the Royal Badges in England of the Stuarts, the thistle is an ancient badge of Scotland. The escallop shell was traditionally a token of pilgrimage on the Way of St James, the shell in the labels of The Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry alludes to their mothers Spencer arms. The bee is a charge in the label of Princess Beatrice of York. The trefoil is a badge of Ireland, associated with St Patrick, Royal Supporters of England Royal Standards of EnglandCadency labels of the British royal family
43. Her Royal Highness..? – Her Royal Highness. was a comedy/drama play by Royce Ryton and Ray Cooney, who also directed. The deliberately cheeky publicity strap-line read Come and see Her Royal Highness at The Palace and it starred Marc Sinden, Eva Lohman, Rona Anderson, Timothy Carlton, Morar Kennedy, Gwen Nelson, David Cunningham and Tony Steedman. The production photographs were taken by Lord Patrick Lichfield, who had taken the photographs of the real Royal Wedding in July of the same year, the plot of the comedy/drama purports to tell the ‘true’ story of Diana Spencer during the week before her wedding to Prince Charles. The young bride-to-be loses her nerve and flees to a secret hideout, however, with all that is at stake, the wedding to Prince Charles must go ahead – a ‘double’ for Diana has to be found and schooled within the week. According to the plays rights-holder, Owing to subsequent events in the life of the real DianaHer Royal Highness..? – Prince Charles, pictured, was the main subject of this play.
44. Playhouse Presents – Playhouse Presents is a series of self-contained TV plays, made by British broadcaster Sky Arts. The series started airing on 12 April 2012, on Sky Arts 1, each episode is written by a different writer and stars a different cast. The second series airing in April 2013. A third season began airing 1 May 2014, Sky Arts have announced that they are ordering a five-part spin-off of the third play, Nixon’s The One. They say the full cast, including Harry Shearer as Nixon and Henry Goodman as Kissinger, will return for the series run, the series will broadcast in 2013. The four-part adaptation of A Young Doctors Notebook starring Jon Hamm and it became the most successful series in the history of Sky Arts and a second series was commissioned, airing late 2013. Sky Arts announced two films, Foxtrot and Nightshift, for the Playhouse Presents strand in late 2013, while it initially appeared that these would be broadcast as one-offs, they ended up being aired as part of the third season. A Christmas special titled Marked, starring Kiefer Sutherland, Stephen Fry, Playhouse Presents premiered on 4 January 2015 on BBC First. Playhouse Presents at the Internet Movie DatabasePlayhouse Presents – Season two title card
45. Christian Seidel – Christian Seidel is a German writer and film producer. His bestseller “The woman inside of me, published by Random House, has sold in many countries all over the world. In this book he describes his two year experiment, to live as a woman, the book has been filmed by Iranian director Dariush Rafiy. Seidel is teaching about gender roles in seminars and his book Winning without fighting published by Random House Publishing Group in 2011, is an autobiographical book, about his personal rediscovery of the values of life. A path which took him on a journey through the training of martial arts Tae Kwondo in Korea, subsequently in accordance to these principles and values, he chose to leave a successful career as an international media manager. As a film producer he became known after his production of the feature film The Biographer – The Biographer – The Secret Life of Princess Di, a film noir-style feature film about Princess Diana. It was based on the biography of Diana by Andrew Morton, published by Michael O’Mara in 1992, together with British director Nicolas Roeg Seidel produced the English art house film project The Sound of Claudia Schiffer for BBC2, starring Claudia Schiffer, music by Adrian Utley. He later executive produced all episodes of this engaging art project, directed by Werner Herzog, The Quay Brothers. Christian Seidel then began to write about airports for pilot magazines, as a journalist, he published the first interview with Indian Guru Osho in magazines and newspapers worldwide. This work led him into the world of relations, where he built a career as a public relations agent during the 80’s and 90’s. International success followed, because of his style of concept writing. This concept became the basis for financial backing of Andre Heller’s Luna Luna fun fair spectacle of 1987, an extravagant 6 million marks luna park, which attracted internationally known artists, Andy Warhol, Keith Haring, Salvador Dalí and David Hockney, amongst many to participate. It was the most expensive public project of the time. He then started to manage content for television stations. One of his best known deals, was the distribution of a private video. Seidel was the consultant of choice for various celebrities, Claudia Schiffer, Margaux Hemingway, Seidel also created the TV For Nature project, which was the first international television campaign for the environment, with 36 television stations participating. He continued to pursue his passion, writing and the study of Asian philosophies. Seidel went to the Korean grandmaster Ko Eui-Min to learn the martial arts technique Tae Kwon Do, together with scientists in Munich, he developed his awareness technique “Gaping” a project for the more valuable use of time for managers and busy peopleChristian Seidel – Portrait Christian Seidel
46. Westminster Abbey – It is one of the United Kingdoms most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral, since 1560, however, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England Royal Peculiar—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the abbey church. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have held in Westminster Abbey. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100, two were of reigning monarchs, although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years. The first reports of the abbey are based on a tradition claiming that a young fisherman called Aldrich on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter near the site. This seems to be quoted to justify the gifts of salmon from Thames fishermen that the abbey received in later years, in the present was, the Fishmongers Company still gives a salmon every year. The proven origins are that in the 960s or early 970s, Saint Dunstan, assisted by King Edgar, between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peters Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style, the building was completed around 1090 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edwards death on 5 January 1066. A week later, he was buried in the church, and, nine years later and his successor, Harold II, was probably crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror later the same year. The only extant depiction of Edwards abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry, construction of the present church was begun in 1245 by Henry III who selected the site for his burial. The abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the abbot often was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. The abbey built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the sanctuary, the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. The Confessors shrine subsequently played a part in his canonisation. The work continued between 1245 and 1517 and was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III also commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar, Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503. Much of the came from Caen, in France, the Isle of PortlandWestminster Abbey – Western façade
47. Jean-Michel Jarre – Jean-Michel Jarre is a French composer, performer, and record producer. He is a pioneer in the electronic, ambient, and new-age genres, and known as an organiser of outdoor spectacles of his music featuring lights, laser displays, Jarre was raised in Lyon by his mother and grandparents, and trained on the piano. From an early age, he was introduced to a variety of art forms, including those of street performers, jazz musicians, and the artist Pierre Soulages. He played guitar in a band, but his style was perhaps most heavily influenced by Pierre Schaeffer. His first mainstream success was the 1976 album Oxygène, recorded in a makeshift studio at his home, the album sold an estimated 12 million copies. More albums were to follow, but his 1979 concert served as a blueprint for his performances around the world. Several of his albums have been released to coincide with large-scale outdoor events, as of 2004, Jarre had sold an estimated 80 million albums. He was the first Western musician officially invited to perform in the Peoples Republic of China, Jean-Michel Jarre was born in Lyon on 24 August 1948, to France Pejot, a French Resistance member and concentration camp survivor, and composer Maurice Jarre. When Jarre was five, his parents split up and his moved to America. He did not see his father again until reaching the age of 18, for the first eight years of his life, Jarre spent six months each year at his maternal grandparents flat on the Cours de Verdun, in the Perrache district of Lyon. Jarres grandfather was a player, engineer and inventor, designing an early audio mixer used at Radio Lyon. He also gave Jean-Michel his first record player, from his vantage point high above the pavement, the young French boy was able to watch street performers at work, an experience he later cited as proving influential on his art. Jarre struggled with classical studies, although he later changed teachers. A more general interest in musical instruments was sparked by his discovery at the Saint-Ouen flea market and these early jazz experiences suggested to him that music may be descriptive, without lyrics. He was also influenced by the work of French artist Pierre Soulages, Soulages paintings used multiple textured layers, and Jarre realised that for the first time in music, you could act as a painter with frequencies and sounds. I also saw the last concert by the great Arabic singer Om Khalsoum and she is the goddess, the Maria Callas of the Orient. Then I heard Georgia on My Mind by Ray Charles, and I realised that music can talk to your tummy, I was so impressed by the organic sensuality coming from Ray Charless music – there was no intellectual process and it was great. As a young man Jarre earned money by selling his paintings, exhibiting some of his works at the Lyon Gallery – LŒil écoute, and by playing in a band called Mystère IVJean-Michel Jarre – Jarre in Milan, 2008
48. George Michael – Georgios Kyriacos Panayiotou, known professionally as George Michael, was an English singer, songwriter, record producer, and philanthropist who rose to fame as a member of the music duo Wham. He was best known for his work in the 1980s and 1990s, including hit singles such as Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go and Last Christmas, and albums such as Faith and Listen Without Prejudice Vol.1. Up to the time of his death, Michael sold more than 115 million records worldwide and his breakthrough duo Wham. sold 28 million records between 1982 and 1986, and his debut solo album Faith sold more than 20 million copies worldwide. Michael achieved seven number one singles in the UK and eight number one songs on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US, including Careless Whisper and Praying for Time. He ranks among the best-selling British acts of all time, Michael, who came out as gay in 1998, was an active LGBT rights campaigner and HIV/AIDS charity fundraiser. In 2004, the Radio Academy named Michael the most played artist on British radio during the period 1984–2004, the documentary A Different Story covered his career and personal life. Michaels first tour in 15 years, the worldwide 25 Live tour, in the early hours of 25 December 2016, Michael, aged 53, was found dead in bed at his Oxfordshire home. A coroners report attributed his death to natural causes, Michael was born in East Finchley on 25 June 1963. His father, Kyriacos Jack Panayiotou, a Greek Cypriot restaurateur, had emigrated to Britain in the 1950s, Michaels mother, Lesley Angold, was an English dancer, and his maternal grandmother was Jewish. Michael spent most of his childhood in Kingsbury, London, in the home his parents soon after his birth. His older sisters are Yioda and Melanie, while he was in his early teens, the family moved to Radlett. There, Michael attended Bushey Meads School in Bushey, where he befriended his future Wham. partner Andrew Ridgeley, the two had the same career ambition of being musicians. Michael busked on the London Underground, performing such as 39 by Queen. His involvement in the business began with his working as a DJ, playing at clubs and local schools around Bushey, Stanmore. This was followed by the formation of a ska band called The Executive, with Ridgeley, Ridgeleys brother Paul, Andrew Leaver. Michael formed the duo Wham. with Andrew Ridgeley in 1981, the bands first album Fantastic reached No.1 in the UK in 1983 and produced a series of top 10 singles including Young Guns, Wham Rap. and Club Tropicana. Their second album, Make It Big, reached No.1 on the charts in the US, Michael sang on the original Band Aid recording of Do They Know Its Christmas. And donated the profits from Last Christmas/Everything She Wants to charity and he also contributed background vocals to David Cassidys 1985 hit The Last Kiss, as well as Elton Johns 1985 successes Nikita and Wrap Her UpGeorge Michael – George Michael performing during his 25 Live tour in 2008.
49. Prince of Wales – Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards, the term replaced the use of the word king. Since the 13th century, the title is granted to the apparent to the English or British monarch. The title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales, the Prince of Wales usually has other titles and honours. The wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales, Prince Charless first wife, Diana, used that title but his second wife, Camilla, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom, no formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales. He has also represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state, for most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any time was generally known as King of the Britons. In the 12th and 13th centuries, this evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, and in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru, the literal translation of Tywysog is leader. Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown, the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. In 1240, the title was inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn. Instead he styled himself as Prince of Wales around 1244, the first Welsh prince to do so, in 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, and used the style as early as 1258. In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, three Welshmen, however, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283. The first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the house of Gwynedd and his revolt was suppressed, however, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, and the prince was imprisoned in London. It is Owain Glyndŵr, however, whom many Welsh people regard as being the last native Prince, on 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, and held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not EnglishPrince of Wales – Incumbent HRH The Prince Charles since 26 July 1958
50. British royal family – The British royal family comprises the monarch of the United Kingdom and her close relations. There is no legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family. Different terms may be applied to the same or similar group of relatives of the monarch in his or her role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, for example, in Canada, the family is known as the Canadian royal family. Some members of the family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the family are funded from a parliamentary annuity. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family belong, either by birth or by marriage. In 2014, the family were regarded as British cultural icons. Today, they often perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom, in the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation. Wives of the said enjoy their husbands precedence, and husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well and she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy and they Serve the Queen, A New and Authoritative Account of the Royal Household. The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England, symbol and Privilege, The Ritual Context of British Royalty. Britains Royal Families, The Complete Genealogy, Royal Family is a celebrated and reverential BBC documentary made by Richard Cawston to accompany the investiture of the current Prince of Wales. The documentary is frequently responsible for the greater press intrusion into the royal familys private life since its first broadcast. Official website of the royal family Official YouTube Channel House of Windsor Family Tree, archived from the original on 2010-12-02British royal family – The Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the annual Trooping the Colour in 2013.
51. Charles II of England – Charles II was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, Charles IIs father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim, after 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charless English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England, Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of his reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the treaty of Dover. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oatess revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charless brother, the crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed, Charless wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James, Charles II was born in St Jamess Palace on 29 May 1630. His parents were Charles I and Henrietta Maria, Charles was their second son and child. Their first son was born about a year before Charles but died within a day, England, Scotland and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian and Roman Catholic. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, at or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary, by spring 1646, his father was losing the war, and Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646, at The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly marriedCharles II of England – Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 1660–1665
52. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother – Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was the last Empress consort of India, born into a family of British nobility, she came to prominence in 1923 when she married Albert, Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. The couple and their daughters embodied traditional ideas of family and public service and she undertook a variety of public engagements and became known as the Smiling Duchess because of her consistent public expression. In 1936, her husband became king when his brother, Edward VIII. She accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours to France and North America before the start of World War II, during the war, her seemingly indomitable spirit provided moral support to the British public. In recognition of her role as an asset to British interests, after the war, her husbands health deteriorated and she was widowed at the age of 51. Her elder daughter, aged 25, became the new queen, on the death of Queen Mary in 1953, Elizabeth became the most senior member of the British royal family after the sovereign, and was viewed as the family matriarch. In her later years, she was a popular member of the family. She continued a public life until just a few months before her death at the age of 101, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter. Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the youngest daughter and the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, other possible locations include Forbes House in Ham, London, the home of her maternal grandmother, Louisa Scott. Her birth was registered at Hitchin, Hertfordshire, near the Strathmores English country house, St Pauls Walden Bury, which was also given as her birthplace in the census the following year. She was christened there on 23 September 1900, in the parish church, All Saints. She spent much of her childhood at St Pauls Walden and at Glamis Castle and she was educated at home by a governess until the age of eight, and was fond of field sports, ponies and dogs. When she started school in London, she astonished her teachers by precociously beginning an essay with two Greek words from Xenophons Anabasis and her best subjects were literature and scripture. After returning to education under a German Jewish governess, Käthe Kübler. On her fourteenth birthday, Britain declared war on Germany, four of her brothers served in the army. Her elder brother, Fergus, an officer in the Black Watch Regiment, was killed in action at the Battle of Loos in 1915, another brother, Michael, was reported missing in action on 28 April 1917. Three weeks later, the family discovered he had captured after being woundedQueen Elizabeth The Queen Mother – Portrait by Richard Stone, 1986
53. Wallis Simpson – Wallis, Duchess of Windsor was an American socialite. Her third husband, Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, Walliss father died shortly after her birth, and she and her widowed mother were partly supported by their wealthier relatives. Her first marriage, to U. S. naval officer Win Spencer, was punctuated by periods of separation, in 1934, during her second marriage, to Ernest Simpson, she allegedly became the mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales. Two years later, after Edwards accession as king, Wallis divorced her husband in order to marry Edward. She was instead styled as Her Grace, a style reserved for non-royal dukes and duchesses. Before, during, and after World War II, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor were suspected by many in government, in 1937, they visited Germany and met Adolf Hitler. In 1940, the Duke was appointed governor of the Bahamas, in the 1950s and 1960s, the Duke and Duchess shuttled between Europe and the United States living a life of leisure as society celebrities. After the Dukes death in 1972, the Duchess lived in seclusion and was seen in public. Her private life has been a source of speculation. An only child, Bessie Wallis Warfield was born in Square Cottage at Monterey Inn and her mother was Alice Montague, a daughter of insurance salesman William Montague. Wallis was named in honour of her father and her mothers sister, Bessie. Her father died of tuberculosis on 15 November 1896, initially, they lived with him at the four-story row house,34 East Preston Street, that he shared with his mother. In 1908, Walliss mother married her husband, John Freeman Rasin. There she became a friend of heiress Renée du Pont, a daughter of Senator T. Coleman du Pont of the du Pont family, a fellow pupil at one of Walliss schools recalled, She was bright, brighter than all of us. She made up her mind to go to the head of the class, Wallis was always immaculately dressed and pushed herself hard to do well. In April 1916, Wallis met Earl Winfield Spencer, Jr. a U. S. Navy aviator, at Pensacola, Florida and it was at this time that Wallis witnessed two airplane crashes about two weeks apart, resulting in a lifelong fear of flying. The couple married on 8 November 1916 at Christ Episcopal Church in Baltimore, Win, as her husband was known, was a heavy drinker. He drank even before flying and once crashed into the sea, in 1920, Edward, the Prince of Wales, visited San Diego, but he and Wallis did not meetWallis Simpson – Wallis Simpson in 1936
54. Monarchy of the United Kingdom – The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, coins, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative, judicial and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition. Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War IIMonarchy of the United Kingdom – Queen of the United Kingdom
55. Mary of Teck – Mary of Teck was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, who was of German extraction, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known as May, after her birth month, the following year, she became engaged to Albert Victors next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became king. Before her husbands accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall and she supported her second son, Albert, who succeeded to the throne as George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the year, during the reign of her granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II. Princess Victoria Mary of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at Kensington Palace and her father was Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge. She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Charles Thomas Longley, before she became queen, she was known to her family, friends and the public by the diminutive name of May, after her birth month. Mays upbringing was merry but fairly strict and she was the eldest of four children, the only girl, and learned to exercise her native discretion, firmness, and tact by resolving her three younger brothers petty boyhood squabbles. They played with their cousins, the children of the Prince of Wales, may was educated at home by her mother and governess. Although her mother was a grandchild of King George III, May was only a member of the British Royal Family. Her father, the Duke of Teck, had no inheritance or wealth, however, the Duchess of Teck was granted a parliamentary annuity of £5,000 and received about £4,000 a year from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge. Despite this, the family was deeply in debt and lived abroad from 1883, the Tecks travelled throughout Europe, visiting their various relations. They stayed in Florence, Italy, for a time, where May enjoyed visiting the art galleries, churches, in 1885, the Tecks returned to London, and took up residence at White Lodge, in Richmond Park. May was close to her mother, and acted as an secretary, helping to organise parties. She was also close to her aunt, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, during the First World War, the Crown Princess of Sweden helped pass letters from May to her aunt, who lived in enemy territory in Germany until her death in 1916. In December 1891, May was engaged to her second cousin once removed, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. The choice of May as bride for the Duke owed much to Queen Victorias fondness for her, as well as to her strong character, however, Albert Victor died six weeks later, in a recurrence of the worldwide 1889–90 influenza pandemicMary of Teck – Queen Mary of the United Kingdom, formal portrait
56. Caroline of Brunswick – Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, best known as Caroline of Brunswick, was Queen of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821. She was the Princess of Wales from 1795 to 1820 and her father was the ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in Germany, and her mother, Princess Augusta, was the sister of George III. George and Caroline married the year, and nine months later Caroline had a child. Shortly after Charlottes birth, George and Caroline separated, by 1806, rumours that Caroline had taken lovers and had an illegitimate child led to an investigation into her private life. The dignitaries who led the investigation concluded there was no foundation to the rumours. In 1814, Caroline moved to Italy, where she employed Bartolomeo Pergami as a servant, Pergami soon became Carolines closest companion, and it was widely assumed that they were lovers. In 1817, Caroline was devastated when her daughter Charlotte died in childbirth, she heard the news from a passing courier as George had refused to write and he was determined to divorce Caroline, and set up a second investigation to collect evidence of her adultery. In 1820, George became king of the United Kingdom and Hanover, George hated her, vowed she would never be the queen, and insisted on a divorce, which she refused. A legal divorce was possible but difficult to obtain, Caroline returned to Britain to assert her position as queen. She was wildly popular with the British populace, who sympathized with her, in July 1821, Caroline was barred from the coronation on the orders of her husband. She fell ill in London and died three weeks later, her funeral procession passed through London on its way to her native Brunswick, Caroline was born as Princess of Brunswick, with the courtesy title of Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on 17 May 1768 at Braunschweig in Germany. She was the daughter of Charles William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Caroline was brought up in a difficult family situation. She was educated by governesses, but the subject in which she was given a high education was music. From 1783 until 1791 Countess Eleonore von Münster was her governess, and won her affection, Caroline could understand English and French, but her father admitted that she was lacking in education. John Stanley, later Lord Stanley of Alderley, saw her in 1781, in 1784, she was described as a beauty, and two years later, Mirabeau described her as most amiable, lively, playful, witty and handsome. Caroline was brought up with a degree of seclusion from contact with the opposite sex even for her own time. She was reportedly constantly supervised by her governess and elder ladies, restricted to her room when the family was entertaining guests and she was normally refused permission to attend balls and court functions, and when allowed, she was forbidden to dance. Abbé Baron commented during the winter of 1789–90, She is supervised with the greatest severity, I doubt if the torches of hymen will illuminate for herCaroline of Brunswick – Portrait c. 1820 by James Lonsdale, "Principal Painter in Ordinary to the Queen". Her wedding ring is displayed prominently to emphasise fidelity to marriage vows.
57. Alexandra of Denmark – Alexandra of Denmark was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor Edward VII. At the age of sixteen, she was chosen as the wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. They married eighteen months later in 1863, the year her father became king of Denmark as Christian IX. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has held that title. Largely excluded from wielding any political power, she attempted to sway the opinion of British ministers and her husbands family to favour Greek. Her public duties were restricted to uncontroversial involvement in charitable work, on the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became king-emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as queen-empress. She held the status until Edwards death in 1910 and she greatly distrusted her nephew, German Emperor Wilhelm II, and supported her son during World War I, in which Britain and its allies fought Germany. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, although she was of royal blood, her family lived a comparatively normal life. They did not possess great wealth, her fathers income from a commission was about £800 per year and their house was a rent-free grace. Occasionally, Hans Christian Andersen was invited to call and tell the stories before bedtime. In 1848, King Christian VIII of Denmark died and his only son, Frederick was childless, had been through two unsuccessful marriages, and was assumed to be infertile. A succession crisis arose as Frederick ruled in both Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein, and the rules of each territory differed. In Holstein, the Salic law prevented inheritance through the female line, Holstein, being predominantly German, proclaimed independence and called in the aid of Prussia. In 1852, the great powers called a conference in London to discuss the Danish succession, Prince Christian was given the title Prince of Denmark and his family moved into a new official residence, Bernstorff Palace. Alexandra shared a draughty attic bedroom with her sister, Dagmar, made her own clothes, Alexandra and Dagmar were given swimming lessons by the Swedish pioneer of womens swimming, Nancy Edberg. At Bernstorff, Alexandra grew into a woman, she was taught English by the English chaplain at Copenhagen and was confirmed in Christiansborg Palace. She was devout throughout her life, and followed High Church practice, Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert, were already concerned with finding a bride for their son and heir, Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales. They enlisted the aid of their daughter, Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, Alexandra was not their first choice, since the Danes were at loggerheads with the Prussians over the Schleswig-Holstein Question and most of the British royal familys relations were GermanAlexandra of Denmark – Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1881
58. Anne Neville – Anne Neville was an English queen, the daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. She became Princess of Wales as the wife of Edward of Westminster, as a member of the powerful House of Neville, she played a critical part in the Wars of the Roses fought between the House of York and House of Lancaster for the English crown. Her father Warwick betrothed her as a girl to Edward, Prince of Wales, the marriage was to seal an alliance to the House of Lancaster and continue the civil war between the two houses of Lancaster and York. After the death of Edward, the Dowager Princess of Wales married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV and of George, Duke of Clarence, the husband of Anne Nevilles older sister Isabel. Anne Neville became queen when Richard III ascended the throne in June 1483, Anne Neville predeceased her husband by five months, dying in March 1485. Her only child was Edward of Middleham, who predeceased her, Anne Neville was born at Warwick Castle, the younger daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, and Anne de Beauchamp. Her father was one of the most powerful noblemen in England and her grandfathers sister, Cecily Neville, was the wife of Richard, Duke of York, who claimed the crown for the House of York. Richard especially attended his knighthood training at Middleham since mid-1461 until at least the spring of 1465 and it is possible that even at this early stage, a match between the Earls daughters and the young dukes was being considered. The Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 but, with Warwicks help, the Earl of Warwick had been at odds with Edward IV for some time, resenting the rise in the kings favour of the new queens family, the Woodvilles. In 1469, the tried to put his son-in-law George on the throne. After a second rebellion against King Edward failed in early 1470, he was forced to flee to France, with King Henry VI imprisoned in the Tower of London, the de facto Lancastrian leader was his consort, Margaret of Anjou, who was suspicious of Warwicks motives. To quell these suspicions, Anne Neville was formally betrothed to the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, Edward of Westminster and they were married in Angers Cathedral, probably on 13 December 1470, to make Anne Neville the Princess of Wales. Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne in October 1470, however Edward IV returned to the country in March 1471 and quickly captured London and the person of Henry VI. The mentally troubled Henry VI was taken by Edward IV as a prisoner to the Battle of Barnet, Edward IV then incarcerated Henry VI in the Tower of London. As Constable of England, he probably delivered King Edwards order to kill Henry to the Constable of the Tower, Margaret of Anjou had returned to England with Anne Neville and Prince Edward in April, bringing additional troops. At the Battle of Tewkesbury, Edward IV crushed this last Lancastrian army, Prince Edward was killed in or shortly after the battle, and Anne Neville was taken prisoner. She was taken first to Coventry and then to the house of her brother-in-law the Duke of Clarence in London, while her mother Anne Beauchamp, Warwicks wife, sought sanctuary in Beaulieu Abbey. When the crisis settled down and the Countess wished to be restored to her estates, Edward IV refused her safe conduct to plead her case, she wrote to Queen Elizabeth and several others to no availAnne Neville – Anne Neville