1. Diana, Princess of Wales – Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. She was born as The Honourable Diana Spencer. Diana was the fourth child and third daughter of the Honourable Frances Roche. Diana was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became Lady Diana Spencer. Her wedding to the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981, held at St Paul's Cathedral, reached a global audience of over million people. While married, she bore the titles Princess of Wales, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas. She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. She was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996. Media public mourning were extensive after subsequent televised funeral. Diana was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk. Diana was the fourth of five children of his first wife, Frances.Diana, Princess of Wales – The Princess of Wales raising money for cancer research in Chicago, Illinois, June 1996
2. British Columbia – British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than 4 million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U.S. states of Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the third-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871. The original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Notably, the Tsilhqot ` in Nation has established Aboriginal title as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BC's economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the province's GDP. It is the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Its climate encourages outdoor tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging, farming, mining.British Columbia – Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver.
3. Belfast – On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 after the 2015 council reform. Belfast was granted status in 1888. Belfast was a global industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s. The inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest at the beginning of the 20th century. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Additionally, Belfast centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, later spelled Béal Feirste. The name" mouth of the ford". This area was the hub around which the original settlement developed. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. This interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, however, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster Scots the name of the city is Bilfawst or Bilfaust, although "Belfast" is also used.Belfast – Top: Skyline of Belfast Middle top left to right, Queen's University Belfast, Albert Memorial Clock, Belfast, The Boat, Titanic Belfast Bottom left to right: Belfast City Hall, view of Belfast with Samson and Goliath.
4. Corcovado – Corcovado, meaning "hunchback" in Portuguese, is a mountain in central Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 710-metre peak is located in the Tijuca Forest, a national park. It is sometimes confused with nearby Sugarloaf Mountain. Corcovado hill is wholly within the city limits and visible from great distances. It is known worldwide atop its peak, entitled Cristo Redentor or "Christ the Redeemer". The railway uses three electrically powered trains, with a capacity of 540 passengers per hour. The trip takes approximately 20 minutes and departs every 20 minutes. Due to its limited capacity, the wait to board at the entry station can take several hours. The year-round schedule is 8:30 to 18:30. From the train terminus and road, the deck at the foot of the statue is reached by 223 steps, or by elevators and escalators. Among the most popular year-round tourist attractions in Rio, the Corcovado railway, statue platform are commonly crowded. The most popular attraction of Corcovado mountain is the statue and platform at its peak, drawing over 300,000 visitors per year. The view from the platform is often obscured. Sunny days are recommended for optimal viewing. An additional attraction of the mountain is rock climbing.Corcovado – Corcovado (Monte Cristo)
5. Coronation Street – Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in the early 1900s and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII. From late 2017 the show will air 6 times a week. The programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, is now a significant part of British culture. The show has been one of the most financially lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television and ITV. Coronation Street is shown in all ITV regions, well as internationally. On 17 it became the world's longest-running TV opera in production. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's 60th anniversary. Coronation Street is noted combined with strong characters. Some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned run. Despite the criticism, viewers were immediately drawn into the serial, won over by Coronation Street's'ordinary' characters. Early episodes thus found his working-class something of an embarrassment. The character was one of the few to have experienced life'outside' of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, the decline of similar communities.Coronation Street – Ken Barlow in the first episode of Coronation Street, 1960
6. Catherine of Aragon – Arthur died five months later. In 1507, she held the position of ambassadress for the Aragonese Crown in England, becoming the female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married the recently ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage. He sought setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine considered herself the King's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy. Despite this, she was acknowledged only by Henry. After being banished from court, she died there on 7 January 1536. Her death set off tremendous mourning among the English people. She successfully appealed for the sake of their families. Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor. She was a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More.Catherine of Aragon – Portrait by Lucas Hornebolte
7. Diana (mythology) – She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves were especially sacred to her as were deer. According to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She made up a triad with two other Roman deities: the nymph,; Virbius, the woodland god. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods, referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects indifference towards such secular matters as the fates of states. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess.Diana (mythology) – The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography
8. David Beckham – David Robert Joseph Beckham, OBE is an English former professional footballer. Beckham is the English player to win league titles in four countries: England, France. He announced his retirement in May 2013 after a 20-year career, during which he won 19 major trophies. He was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2008. A global ambassador for the sport, Beckham is regarded as a British cultural icon. Beckham's professional club career began with Manchester United, where he made his first-team debut in 1992 aged 17. With United, he won the Premier League title six times, the FA Cup twice, the UEFA Champions League in 1999. He then played four seasons with Real Madrid, winning the La Liga championship in his final season with the club. In July 2007 Beckham signed a five-year contract with Major League Soccer club LA Galaxy. While a Galaxy player, he spent two loan spells in Italy with Milan in 2009 and 2010. He was the first British footballer to play 100 UEFA Champions League games. In international football, Beckham made his England debut on 1 September 1996 at the age of 21. He was captain for six years, earning 58 caps during his tenure. He has been married to Victoria Beckham since 1999 and they have four children. In February 2014, MLS announced a group of investors would own an team in Miami, which would begin in 2017.David Beckham – Beckham at the 2014 Wimbledon Championships
9. ECHELON – The U.S. community uses many code names. According to Newsham, the code name ECHELON was NSA's term for the computer network itself. Lockheed called it P415. The software programs were called SILKWORTH and SIRE. A satellite named VORTEX intercepted communications. An image available on the internet of a fragment apparently torn from a description shows Echelon listed along with several other code names. It can even track bank accounts. This information is stored in Echelon computers, which can keep millions of records on individuals. However, Echelon doesn't exist. In 1988, the first disclosure of the ECHELON system originated from Margaret Newsham, a Lockheed employee. Newsham told a member of the U.S. Congress that the telephone calls of a Republican U.S. senator, were being collected by the NSA. Congressional investigators was designed into the system from the start." Two years later, Hager's book was cited in a report titled "An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control". For the first time in history, the Australian government admitted that news reports about the top secret UKUSA Agreement were true. In 2000, James Woolsey, the former Director of the U.S.ECHELON – A radome at RAF Menwith Hill, a site with satellite uplink capabilities believed to be used by ECHELON.
10. Elvis Costello – Declan Patrick MacManus, better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, record producer. His acclaimed debut album, My Aim Is True, was released in 1977. Shortly after recording it, he formed the Attractions as his band. Armed Forces, was released in 1979, features his most successful single "Oliver's Army". His first three albums all appeared on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The Attractions toured and recorded together for the better part of a decade, though differences between them caused a split by 1986. Steeped in wordplay, the vocabulary of Costello's lyrics is broad. His music has drawn on diverse genres; one critic described him as a "pop encyclopaedia", able to "reinvent the past in his own image". He has twice been nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Male Singer. In 2003, the Attractions were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked number 80 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Costello has co-written several original songs including "God Give Me Strength" from Grace of My Heart and "The Scarlet Tide" from Cold Mountain. For the latter, Costello was nominated for Best Song Written for Visual Media. Costello was born in St Mary's Hospital, London, Ross MacManus, a musician and bandleader. He is of Irish descent.Elvis Costello – Costello at the 2012 Riot Fest, Chicago
11. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by British, Spaniards and Argentines at various points. The islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony in 1764. In 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont. In 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. There is no known evidence of pre-Columbian buildings or structures. However, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856. Yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of Dusicyon australis, has often been cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.History of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
12. Giuseppe Verdi – Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. Verdi developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. In his early operas Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy. He also participated briefly as an elected politician. He surprised the musical world by returning, after his success with three late masterpieces: his Requiem, the operas Otello and Falstaff. The baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo and Luigia as "innkeeper" and "spinner" respectively. Verdi himself, following his mother, always celebrated his birthday on 9 October. Verdi had Giuseppa, who died aged 17 in 1833. After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents finally provided him with a spinet. After Baistrocchi's death, Verdi, at the age of eight, became the official paid organist. Verdi returned to Busseto regularly to play the organ on Sundays, covering the distance of several kilometres on foot. At age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, Latin, rhetoric. Written, understandably, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing than those of his childhood. The young Verdi did not immediately become involved with the Philharmonic. By June 1827, he was able to focus solely on music under Provesi.Giuseppe Verdi – Giuseppe Verdi Portrait by Giovanni Boldini, 1886
13. Prince Harry – Prince Henry of Wales, KCVO, familiarly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Harry was completed his training as a leader. In 2007–2008, he served for 77 days in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out following publication of his presence there by an Australian magazine. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–2013 with the Army Air Corps. He left the army in June 2015. Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014, remains patron of its Foundation. He also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, Walking With The Wounded. Harry was born at St Mary's Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4:20 pm. He was baptised on 21 December 1984 at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie. His godparents are Prince Andrew, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, Carolyn Bartholomew, Celia, Lady Vestey. Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his overseas tour was to Italy in 1985. His mother died following a accident in Paris the following year. Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mother's death. Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools. He started at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London.Prince Harry – Prince Harry during the Invictus Games in London, September 2014
14. Irish diaspora – The Irish diaspora refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. This is more than the population of Ireland at its historical peak in the 1840s of million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool; almost 5 million, went to the United States. After 1840, emigration from Ireland became efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad. As recently as the second half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, including innovations in journalism. The language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a social medium. In July 2014, the Irish Government appointed Jimmy Deenihan for the Diaspora. The term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed groups of Irish descent. But many of those individuals were the product of ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. "Irishness" might then rely primarily on individual identification with an Irish diaspora. The Government of Ireland defines the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland. This includes their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law.Irish diaspora – 'Emigrants Leave Ireland', engraving by Henry Doyle (1827–1892), from Mary Frances Cusack's Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868
15. John Major – A minister from 1989, Major served Margaret Thatcher as Foreign Secretary and as Chancellor of the Exchequer during her third ministry. Major was the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001; he is the oldest living former Prime Minister. At the beginning of his premiership, he negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Major was never able to achieve a lead in opinion polls again. He went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, he was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague. Major went on leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. He was christened John Roy Major but only "John" was recorded on his certificate. Major used his middle name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school from 1954 Major attended Rutlish Grammar School in Merton. With his father's garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. Major also credited a chance meeting on the King's Road shortly afterwards. He left school at the age of 16 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. Major later gained three more O-levels in the British Constitution, Mathematics and Economics. Major's first job was as a clerk in the insurance firm Pratt & Sons in 1959.John Major – Major in October 2014
16. Kylie Minogue – Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE, often known simply as Kylie, is an Australian singer, songwriter, dancer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Since then, she has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames including "Princess of Pop" and "Goddess of Pop". She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Raised in Melbourne, Australia, she has for many years lived in London. Minogue released the next year. Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released "Spinning Around". Her 2001 single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles during the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "...the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Her Fever was a hit including the United States. In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, Minogue resumed the tour under the Showgirl: The Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue resumed work as an actress and appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.Kylie Minogue – Minogue at an amfAR event, 2015
17. Kangol – Kangol is a British clothing company famous for its headwear. Founded by Jewish Polish World War I veteran Jacques Spreiregen, Kangol produced hats for workers, golfers, especially soldiers. In 1938, Spreiregen, working as an importer, opened a factory at Cleator, Cumbria, England which he ran with his nephew Joseph Meisner. They were the major beret suppliers to the armed forces including famously Field Marshal Montgomery. During and after the war, Kangol berets were the height of fashion. The company also supplied uniformed organizations such as the Scout Association. The Kangaroo logo was adopted by Kangol in 1983 because Americans were always asking where "they could get the Kangaroo hat...". No Kangol hat has actually been manufactured in Australia. The brand was popularized even more by New Jack City. Bandleader for The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, sported a Kangol beret on an almost nightly basis. In 2009, Eminem wore the Cotton Twill Army Cap Kangol hat on his Beautiful video. Kangol has been owned by Sports Direct since 2006, when they acquired the brand from private fund August Equity Trust. Licences to sell Kangol apparel have been sold to many different companies including D2 and Topshop. The global rights to Kangol hats have been held since 2002. On 6 it was announced that the original factory would be converted to a warehouse with the loss of 25 jobs.Kangol – General Montgomery, wearing his iconic Kangol beret
18. Mohamed Al-Fayed – Mohamed Abdel Moneim Al-Fayed is an Egyptian business magnate. Fayed's business interests include ownership of formerly Harrods Department Store, Knightsbridge. Al-Fayed sold his ownership of Fulham F.C. to Shahid Khan in 2013. Fayed has four siblings: Ali, Salah, Soaad and Safia. Fayed married Finnish socialite and former model Heini Wathén with whom he has four children: Jasmine, Karim, Camilla, Omar. In 2013, Fayed's wealth was estimated at US$ billion, making him the 1,031st-richest person in the world in 2013. He was married for two years, to Samira Khashoggi. Fayed worked for his wife's brother, businessman, Adnan Khashoggi. Fayed's addition of "Al -" to his name, which implies aristocratic origins, has led to Private Eye nicknaming the "Phoney Pharaoh". According to his biographer Tom Bower, Fayed also claimed to have come from a town named Fayed after his family. His brothers founded a shipping company in Egypt before moving its headquarters to Genoa, Italy with additional offices in London. He also associated with the geologist George de Mohrenschildt. Fayed terminated his stay in Haiti six months later when a sample of "crude oil" provided by Haitian associates proved to be low-grade molasses. It was then that Fayed moved to England where he lived in central London. In the mid 1960s, Fayed met the ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid al Makhtoum who entrusted Fayed with helping transform Dubai.Mohamed Al-Fayed – Fayed in 2011
19. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served from 1981 to 1989. She was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived with an aunt and uncle for some years. She moved to Chicago when her mother later took the name Davis from her stepfather. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, then president of the Screen Actors Guild. They had two children together. She began to work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Reagan became First Lady of the United States following her husband's victory in the 1980 presidential election. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, considered her major initiative as First Lady. She played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California in 1989. Reagan remained active in politics, particularly in support of embryonic stem cell research, until her death in March 2016. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6, 1921, at the time located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova.Nancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
20. Nostradamus – Michel de Nostredame, usually Latinised as Nostradamus, was a French physician and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. The earliest ancestor who can be identified on the paternal side is Astruge of Carcassonne, who died about 1420. Michel's known siblings included Delphine, Jean, Pierre, Hector, Louis, Bertrand, Jean II and Antoine. At the age of 15 Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year, he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors during an outbreak of the plague. After leaving Avignon, Nostredame, by his own account, traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. In 1529, after some years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. The expulsion document, BIU Montpellier, Register S 2 folio 87, still exists in the faculty library. However, some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him "Doctor". After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably still as an apothecary, became famous for creating a "rose pill" that purportedly protected against the plague. In 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen. There he married a woman of uncertain name, who bore him two children. In 1534 his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their deaths, he continued to travel, passing through France and possibly Italy.Nostradamus – Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar
21. President of Ireland – The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The President can be elected for a maximum of two terms. Unless a candidate runs unopposed, the President is directly elected by the people. The President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion. The President acts as a representative of the Irish state. Former President Mary McAleese described the office as'the guardian of the constitution'. The President's official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin, located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The current president is His Excellency Michael D Higgins, elected on 29 October 2011. His inauguration was held on 11 November 2011. President Higgins is a veteran politician human rights campaigner. As a member of the Labour Party, he has served in both houses of the Oireachtas. President Higgins speaks the Irish language fluently. The Constitution of Ireland provides for a parliamentary system of government, under which the role of the head of state is largely a ceremonial one. The President is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which also comprises Seanad Éireann. Unlike most parliamentary democracies, the President is not even the nominal chief executive.President of Ireland – Incumbent Michael D. Higgins since 11 November 2011
22. Rajiv Gandhi – Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India, serving from 1984 to 1989. Gandhi was a scion of the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister. Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. He became a professional pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968 he married Sonia Gandhi; the couple settled to a domestic life with their children Rahul and Priyanka. For much of the 1970s, his mother was his brother Sanjay a MP; despite this, Rajiv Gandhi remained apolitical. After Sanjay's death in an aeroplane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira. The following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. As part of his political grooming, Rajiv was given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games. On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by two of her bodyguards; Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister. His leadership was tested over the few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community, resulting in riots in Delhi. An almost nationwide sympathy vote for the Congress party helped it win its largest-ever Lok Sabha majority -- 411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhi's period in office was mired in controversies; perhaps the greatest crises were the Shah Bano case. In mid-1987 the Bofors scandal resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election.Rajiv Gandhi – Rajiv Gandhi
23. Viz (comics) – Viz is a popular British comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald. It also sends up tabloid newspapers, with mockeries of pages. Occasionally, it has no political standpoint. Editor Chris Donald himself cannot remember exactly where the name of the magazine comes from. What had begun as a few pages, sold to friends, became a phenomenon. To make up for Brownlow's diminishing interest in contributing, artist Graham Dury was hired and worked alongside Chris Donald. After a few years of steady sales, mostly in the North East of England, circulation had grown to around 5,000. As the magazine's popularity grew, the bedroom became too small and production moved to a nearby Jesmond office. Donald also hired another freelance artist, Simon Thorp, whose work had impressed him. For over a decade, these four would be the nucleus of Viz. In 1985, a deal was signed with Virgin Books to publish the comic nationally every two months. In 1987, John Brown, set up John Brown Publishing, to handle Viz. Sales exceeded a million by the end of 1989, making Viz for a time one of the biggest-selling magazines in the country. Inevitably, a number of imitations of Viz were launched, but these never matched the original in popularity, rarely in quality. In 2003, it changed hands again when IFG were bought out by Dennis Publishing.Viz (comics) – Cover of Issue 199
24. 1964 – January – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is dissolved. January 5 U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he will seek the Republican nomination for President. January 8 – In his first State of the Union Address, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson declares a "War on Poverty". January 10 – Introducing... The Beatles is released by Chicago's Vee-Jay Records to get the jump on Capitol Records' release of Meet the Beatles!, scheduled for January 20. The two record companies fight over Vee-Jay's release of this album in court. January 11 – United States Surgeon General Luther Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to one's health. January 12 Zanzibar Revolution: The predominantly Arab government of Zanzibar is overthrown by African nationalist rebels; a United States Navy destroyer evacuates 61 U.S. citizens. Routine U.S. naval patrols of the South China Sea begin. January 13 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, 14-year-old Pamela Mason is murdered. Edward Coolidge is tried and convicted of the crime, but the conviction is set aside by the landmark Fourth Amendment case "Coolidge vs. New Hampshire." January 16 Musical Hello, Dolly! Opens in New York's St. James Theatre.1964 – January 8: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson 's War on Poverty
25. 1990s – The 1990s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1990, ended on December 31, 1999. Culturally, the 1990s are characterized by the rise of alternative media, which continued into the 2000s. The United States also saw a massive revival in the 1990s, which reversed in the early 21st century. The dot-com bubble of 1997–2000 brought wealth to some entrepreneurs before its crash between 2000 and 2001. New ethnic conflicts emerged in the former two which led to the Rwandan and Bosnian genocides, respectively. Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Second Congo War includes 50 different cultures and 7 different nations. It continued until 2003. The Gulf War – Iraq was left in severe debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of driving down prices. As a result, on 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces conquered Kuwait. A coalition force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. A month later, the UN forces drove the Iraqi army from Kuwait in just four days. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off from much of the world. During the war Russian forces largely recaptured the separatist region of Chechnya.1990s – The Gulf War.
26. 1984 – January 1 Brunei becomes a fully independent state. Bell System in the United States is broken up. January 5 – President Ronald Reagan nominates Elizabeth Dole as U.S. Secretary of Transportation. January 7 – Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The Vatican restore full diplomatic relations. The Victoria Agreement is signed - institutionalisation of Indian Ocean Commission. January 18 – The Mitsui Miike coal mine explosion at Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan, kills 83. February 1 – Medicare comes into effect in Australia. STS-41-B: Space Shuttle Challenger is launched on the 10th Space Shuttle mission. February 7 – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk. February 8–19 – The 1984 Winter Olympics are held in Sarajevo, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. February 13 – Konstantin Chernenko succeeds the late Yuri Andropov as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. February 23 – TED founded. February 26 – The United States Marine Corps pulls out of Beirut, Lebanon. February 29 – Canadian prime minister, Pierre Trudeau, announces his retirement.1984 – Diretas Já demonstration held in São Paulo.
27. 2000s (decade) – The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000 and ended on December 31, 2009. The growth of the Internet contributed during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world. In the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted as for decades such as the'80s, the'90s, etc.. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the"' 00s". Some people read "2000s" as "two-thousands", thus simply refer to the decade as the "Two-Thousands", the "Twenty-ohs". Some read it as the "00s", while others referred as the "Zeros". On January 2000, the BBC listed the noughties, as a potential moniker for the new decade. This has become a common name for the decade in the UK and Australia, well as other Anglospheric countries. Others have advocated the term "the aughts", a term widely used for its first decade. The American Dialect Society holds a annual poll for word of the year and related subcategories. For 2009, the winner in the "least likely to succeed" category was "Any name of the decade 2000–2009, such as: Noughties, Aughties, Oughties, etc." The option "aught-seven", for whatever reason, has never caught on idiomatically. When the "20 -" is retained, two options are "twenty-oh-seven". During the 2000s decade, it was more common to hear the first pattern than the second. The War on War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001.2000s (decade) – The World Trade Center in New York City as seen on September 11, 2001. Flight 175 has just flown into the South Tower.
28. 1997 – January 17 – A Delta II rocket carrying a military GPS payload explodes, shortly after liftoff from Cape Canaveral. January 18 – In northwest Rwanda, Hutu militia members kill 6 Spanish aid workers, 3 soldiers, seriously wound another. January 19 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years, joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city. January 20 – Bill Clinton is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. January 22 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State, after confirmation by the United States Senate. January 23 – Mir Aimal Kasi is sentenced to death for a 1993 assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters that killed 2 and wounded 3. January 27 – It is revealed that French museums had nearly 2,000 pieces of art, stolen by Nazis. February 4 On their way to Lebanon, 2 troop-transport helicopters collide, killing 73. After at first contesting the results, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections. British Home Secretary Michael Howard informs Moors Murderer Myra Hindley that she will never be released from prison. Mr. Howard has made the decision in agreement with a recommendation made by his predecessor David Waddington in 1990. The so-called "Big Three" banks in Switzerland announce the creation of a $71 million fund to aid Holocaust survivors and their families. Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter Reynolds investment banks announce a $ billion merger. February 10 The United States Army suspends Gene C. McKinney, Sergeant Major of the Army, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct.1997 – The funeral cortege of Diana, Princess of Wales, en route to Westminster Abbey from Kensington Palace.
29. 1996 – January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the world's smallest and lightest mobile phone to date. January 4 – Hosni Mubarak, the president of Egypt, appoints a new government in response to accusations of corruption in the parliamentary elections in late 1995. January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone. January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital Kinshasa, killing 300. January 9–January 20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya. January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan. January 13 – Italy's prime minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government. January 14 -- Jorge Sampaio is elected president of Portugal. January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February. Leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil. An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people. January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.1996 – Yasser Arafat
30. 1961 – The such year will be 6009. January 3 United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces that the United States has severed diplomatic and consular relations with Cuba. Cuba–United States relations are later restored in 2015. At the National Reactor Testing Station near Idaho Falls, atomic SL-1 explodes, killing three military technicians. It remains the deadliest disaster to occur in the country. January 5 Italian sculptor Alfredo Fioravanti marches into the U.S. Consulate in Rome, confesses that he was part of the team that forged the Etruscan terracotta warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Cemal Gürsel forms the new government of Turkey. January 7 -- Following a four-day conference in five African chiefs of state announce plans for a NATO-type African organization to ensure common defense. The Charter of Casablanca involves the Casablanca Group: Morocco, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Mali. January 8 – In France, a referendum supports Charles de Gaulle's policies on independence for Algeria. January 9 – British authorities announce that they have discovered a large Soviet spy ring in London. President Dwight Eisenhower gives his final State of the Union Address to Congress. In a Farewell Address he warns of the increasing power of a "military -- industrial complex." Patrice Lumumba of Republic of Congo is assassinated.1961 – Jan. 20: John F. Kennedy inaugurated as President of the U.S.
31. 1992 – 1992 was designated as: International Space Year by the United Nations. The Atari 2600 is finally discontinued 15 years after its introduction in September 1977. Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt replaces Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru as United Nations Secretary-General. George H. W. Bush becomes the first U.S. President to address the Australian Parliament. January 2 – President of Russia Boris Yeltsin ends price controls, resulting in prices of some goods and services becoming 3 to 5 times more expensive. This in effect ends the economy in Russia. January 6 – The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is proclaimed by the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh. January 7 – The Yugoslav Air Force downs a helicopter, killing 5 military observers from the European Community. January 11 Singer Paul Simon is the major artist to tour South Africa after the end of the cultural boycott. Shanda Sharer is tortured and burned by 4 teenage girls. January 12 – The second round of Algeria's general elections is cancelled when the first round is favorable to the Islamic Salvation Front. January 13 – Japan apologizes for forcing Korean women into sexual slavery during World War II. January 15 – The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia begins to break up. Slovenia and Croatia gain independence and international recognition in some Western countries. January 18 -- In Nairobi, Kenya, more than 100,000 attend protests demanding an end by the Kenya African National Union.1992 – Maja Keuc
32. Norfolk – Norfolk /ˈnɔːrfək/ is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the west and north-west, Suffolk to the south. Its eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash.. The town is Norwich. Per cent of the county's population live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford. The Broads is a network of lakes on the county's east coast, extending south into Suffolk. The area is a not a National Park although is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled with camps along the higher land in the west where flints could be quarried. The Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD. Again in 60 AD led by Boudica. The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. Farming took place widely. Forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. Norfolk, several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which later merged with Mercia and then Wessex. The influence of the English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in" - ton"," - ham".Norfolk – Wells-next-the-Sea.
33. Grace Kelly – Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III in April 1956. In October 1953, she gained stardom in the film Mogambo. It won a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination in 1954. She had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl, for which her deglamorized performance earned an Academy Award for Best Actress. Kelly began her duties as Princess of Monaco. They had three children: Caroline, Stéphanie. She retained her American roots, maintaining dual U.S. and Monégasque citizenship. She died on September 1982, a day after suffering a stroke while driving her car, causing a crash. Kelly was born on November 12, 1929, to an affluent and influential family. A registered Democrat, he lost by the closest margin in the city's history. In later years, during World War II was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness. Kelly's mother was Philadelphia native Margaret Katherine Majer; the daughter of German immigrants. Margaret had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania, where she had been the first female at the institution. She was modeled for a time in her youth. Kelly had a younger sister named Elizabeth.Grace Kelly – Kelly in 1956
34. White wedding – A white wedding is a traditional formal or semi-formal wedding originating in Britain. American brides had been wearing a plethora of colours, including blue, yellow, practical colours like black, brown, or gray. As accounts of Victoria's spread across the Atlantic and throughout Europe, elites followed her lead. The color white has been associated with weddings and other significant life or spiritual events for millennia. In ancient Japan, white was also the color of innocence. In Africa, the color white is associated with deities and worship. In the Christian tradition, white clothes were worn at the time of baptism to represent spiritual purity and the washing away of sins. Because of the limitations of laundering techniques before the later part of the 20th century, white dresses provided an opportunity for conspicuous consumption. The story put out about the veil was that decorous brides were naturally too timid to show their faces in public until they were married. By the end of the 19th century the white dress was the garment of choice for elite brides on both sides of the Atlantic. However, middle-class American brides did not adopt the trend fully until after World War II. With increased prosperity in the 20th century, the tradition also grew to include the practice of wearing the dress once. As historian Vicky Howard writes, "f a bride wore white in the nineteenth century, it was likely that she wore her gown again". Even Queen Victoria had her famous lace wedding re-styled for later use. The portrayal of weddings in Hollywood movies, immediately after World War II, helped crystallize and homogenize the white wedding into a normative form.White wedding – A bride from the late 19th century wearing a black or dark coloured wedding dress
35. Warwick Davis – Warwick Ashley Davis is an English actor, television presenter, writer, director, producer and comedian. He also starred in the Life's Too Short, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. He was born to his wife. Davis also has a younger sister. He was educated at Chinthurst School and later the City of London Freemen's School. Davis was born with Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, an extremely rare form of dwarfism. To Davis, a fan of the Star Wars films, it was a dream come true. On the set of Return of the Jedi, Mark Hamill himself bought Davis every single Star Wars figure he did not have. Davis based his Ewok movements on his dog, who would tilt his head from side to side whenever he saw something strange. The unreleased film was a fictional look at his decision to act into Wicket the Ewok. He reprised his role in Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. Willow was his first opportunity to act with his face visible. He co-starred with Val Kilmer in the film, which received a Royal Premiere before the Prince and Princess of Wales. In 1993, Davis played the Irish goblin alongside Jennifer Aniston. Davis played the role of Professor Filius Flitwick in the Harry Potter films.Warwick Davis – Davis in 2007
36. St Columb Major – St Columb Major is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. An electoral ward simply named St Columb exists with a population at the 2011 census of 5,050. The town plays host to "hurling", a medieval game once common throughout Cornwall but now only played in St Columb and St Ives. It is played then again on the Saturday eleven days later. It was a large stone with four deeply impressed horseshoe marks. In 1333 Edward III granted a market to Sir John Arundell. This was for supplying troops to fight the Scottish at the Battle of Halidon Hill near Berwick-on-Tweed. In the year 1676, the greatest part of the church of St Columb was blown up by three youths of the town. Royal visits were made to St Columb in 1909, 1983. On June 1909 the town was visited by the Prince of Wales and his wife, the Princess of Wales. The visit was to open the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Show. The Prince gave one for the best bull and another for the best horse. In August 1977 The Queen and Prince Philip visited the town during their Silver Jubilee tour of Cornwall. On May 1983: The town was visited by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The visit was to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the signing of the charter by Edward III.St Columb Major – The crest of St. Columb with town motto
37. Crewe Heritage Centre – Crewe Heritage Centre, is a railway museum, located in Crewe, England. The site is open to the public every weekend between Easter and end of September. The Main Exhibition Hall features famous junction railway station. Brake Van rides are available to the public during special events. Built by British Rail the 1980s, this Class 370 Advanced Passenger Train is the only surviving APT set. Numbered 003 / 006, it is open at all times, with an occasional cafe run from the original buffet car. The APT-P museum can be found with photographs on display from the APT project. The set was tilted in 2013. Crewe Station A: Open for display purposes, this box was moved onto the site after closure in 1985. Located between the West Coast Main Line and Crewe - Chester line, its location is perfect for viewing passing mainline trains. Demonstrations of how the box was used often are linked to a simulator. Exeter West: Used to control the split at Exeter between the Great Western Railway and the Southern Railway. With 131 levers, it was a Special Class A box, with only the best signalmen authorised to operate it. Both miniature railways operate on most weekends. The standard gauge railway uses either the ] 03 073, D1842, or ex-Direct Rail Services British Rail Class 47 47 712.Crewe Heritage Centre – APT No.370 003/006 at Crewe heritage Centre
38. Cherwell (newspaper) – Cherwell is an independent newspaper, largely published for students of Oxford University. First published in 1920, it has had an online edition since 1996. Named after the local river, Cherwell is published by OSPL, who also publish the Bang! The freshers' magazine Keep Off the Grass. The current editors are Marianna Spring. Edinger recalls the early newspaper having a radical voice: "We were feeling for a new Oxford …. We were Pro-Feminist. We often did." It was entirely financed, staffed, owned by students. Early editions combine this seriousness with parochialism. The first editorial gives the newspaper's purpose as being "to exclude all outside interference from our University. Oxford for the Oxonians". Throughout the 1920s Cherwell had a policy of not editing literary contributions. Undergraduate contributors included Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene, John Betjeman, L. P. Hartley, W. H. Auden. The newspaper's focus broadened over the coming decades until January 1953, when the owners of the paper decided to turn it into a newspaper.Cherwell (newspaper) – Typical Cherwell front page
39. John Lobb Bootmaker – John Lobb Bootmaker is a company that manufactures and retails a luxury brand of shoes and boots mainly for men, but also for women. Leather goods such as wallets and belts are also available. Founded by John Lobb, John Lobb Bootmaker has been since 1902 in Paris. Hermès have developed the John Lobb ready-to-wear shoes around the world. The two companies continue to maintain their bespoke shoe-making tradition with the Lobb family workshop in London and the Hermès owned workshop in Paris. Following the success of the London base, John Lobb opened a shop in Paris in 1902. The production of each pair of John Lobb ready-to-wear shoes is so time-consuming that only about 100 pairs of shoes are finished per day. The family-owned Lobb still handmakes one pair at a time. Until the 1980s, John Lobb operated only custom-made activity in London and in Paris. From 1982 onwards, the ready-to-wear activity has complemented the made to measure, distribution has extended. Hermès' John Lobb shoes are available in both ready-to-wear and made-to-measure. Its motto is "The Bare Maximum for a Man". Hermès' John Lobb also has boutiques including the United States, Russia, Switzerland, Japan, South Korea, several European countries. A pair of bespoke leather shoes costs over £2400. The average price is approximately £2700 if ordering from the St James's Street shop.John Lobb Bootmaker – Royal warrants of John Lobb, bespoke shoe and bootmaker, London
40. Knickerbockers (clothing) – Knickerbockers or knickers are a form of men's or boys' baggy-kneed trousers particularly popular in the early 20th century United States. Golfers' plus twos and plus fours are breeches of this type. Before World War II, skiers often wore knickerbockers too, usually ankle-length. Until after World War I, in English-speaking countries, boys customarily wore short pants in summer and knickerbockers in winter. At the onset of puberty, they graduated to long trousers. In that era, the transition to "long pants" was a major rite of passage. While they have become less baggy, they are still worn ending shortly below the knee. In recent years, the NFL has equipped its officials with long trousers rather than knickers in cold weather. In fact, Washington Irving had a real friend named Herman Knickerbocker, whose name he borrowed. Herman Knickerbocker, in turn, was of the upstate Knickerbocker clan, which descended from Harmen Jansen van Wijhe Knickerbocker. Jansen van Wijhe signed a document with a variant of it in 1682. "Knickerbocker" became a byword for a New York patrician, comparable to a "Boston Brahmin". The Knickerbocker name stayed with the team even after it moved its base of operations in 1846. As can best be determined, the final decision to call the "Knickerbockers" was made by the club's founder, Ned Irish. The team is now generally referred to as the Knicks.Knickerbockers (clothing) – Knickerbockers
41. July 1961 – The following events occurred in July 1961. The Dowry Prohibition Act went in India prohibiting the solicitation or payment of money from one family to another as consideration for a marriage. A theme park on Grand Island near Buffalo, New York, opened as "Fantasy Island". Ana Griselda Vegas of Caracas was crowned Miss Venezuela 1961. 19, married Andrew Stewart in New York City. Although the two divorced in 1989, she kept her married name as Martha Stewart as she built her fortune. Mary, told reporters initially that the renowned author had accidentally died while cleaning a double barrelled shotgun. 1961: Voters went to the polls to elect 178 members to serve for a three-year term in the Chamber of Deputies. The ruling PRI party won a majority of the seats. 81, returned to the Philippines for the first time since the end of World War II, received a tumultuous welcome. Major General Park Chung Hee became chief of the military junta that had taken over in May. Chang's job of Prime Minister of South Korea was assigned to Lt. Gen. Song Yo Chan. As a result of the lobbying of Dr. Harold Griffith, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital of Montreal opened the intensive care unit in Canada. Malcolm Arnold conducted the first performance of his Symphony No. 5 at the Cheltenham Music Festival. Invoking the Taft-Hartley Act, an U.S. federal court ordered a temporary halt to the 19-day-old, maritime strike that had held up freight shipping.July 1961 – July 2, 1961: Author Ernest Hemingway commits suicide
42. Star Island (novel) – Star Island is a 2010 novel by Carl Hiaasen, released on Tuesday, July 27, 2010. The novel takes its name from Star Island in Florida, where part of the story takes place. The "stunt double" for habitually intoxicated and drug-addicted pop star "Cherry Pye", is mistakenly kidnapped by an obsessed paparazzo. The novel also features the re-appearance of ex-Florida governor Clinton "Skink" Tyree. Paparazzo "Bang" Abbott is lying on a tip that pop star "Cherry Pye" has overdosed again. Cherry's mother/manager), Janet Bunterman, tells Ann to take a few days off, while Cherry is packed off, yet again, to "dietary camp". Infuriated at having been fooled by a body double, he becomes even more obsessed with getting photos of Cherry under sordid circumstances. Feeling absurdly pleased by his transparent flattery, Cherry takes him along when she charters a private jet to Florida. Aboard the plane, Abbott is astonished when she decides to have an onboard quickie with him. His astonishment turns to outrage when Cherry strands him at the airport, taking his camera bag and BlackBerry with her. When she wakes up, the man, "Skink" has rescued her. With Ann temporarily out of contact, Cherry's entourage fly to Florida to track Cherry down. Over Janet's protests, Maury Lykes, assigns a man nicknamed "Chemo" to replace Cherry's recently fired bodyguard. When Ann reports back, Janet tells her to have the design copied as Cherry. Lying in wait outside her hotel, Abbott kidnaps her at gunpoint, only to realize that the woman he has snatched is Ann.Star Island (novel) – First edition
43. Cadency labels of the British royal family – Bordures of various tinctures continued to be used into the 15th century. In the ordinary system of differences a label of three points is the distinction of the eldest son during the lifetime of his father. In the oldest rolls of arms the labels are all of five points; but labels of three points were at an early period used interchangeably. Labels are the cadency marks used in certain royal families. In the British family, all labels are argent. Further descendants of princes bear labels of five points charged. All such differences should be borne on the arms, supporters. Since 1340 this label has always been white, overlaid with small figures, or charges, such as red crosses of St George. Other charges used: a symbol of hope, or of naval service, as borne by several Dukes of York. The Crown of England borne by the abdicated king the Duke of Windsor, as unusual as the occurrence itself. Roses: the Tudor Rose has been used as an English royal badge since 1485. The blue fleur-de-lis appears in England of the Stuarts. The thistle is an ancient badge of Scotland. The shell was traditionally a token of pilgrimage on the Way of St James. The shell in the labels of The Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry alludes to their mother's Spencer arms.Cadency labels of the British royal family
44. Her Royal Highness..? – Her Royal Highness..? was a comedy/drama play by Royce Ryton and Ray Cooney, who also directed. The deliberately cheeky publicity'strap-line' read "Come and see Her Royal Highness at The Palace". It starred Marc Sinden, Eva Lohman, Rona Anderson, Timothy Carlton, Morar Kennedy, Gwen Nelson, Tony Steedman. The plot of the comedy/drama purports to tell the ` true' story of Diana Spencer to Prince Charles. The young bride-to-be loses her nerve and flees to a secret hideout.Her Royal Highness..? – Prince Charles, pictured, was the main subject of this play.
45. Playhouse Presents – Playhouse Presents is a series of self-contained TV plays, made by British broadcaster Sky Arts. The series started airing on 12 April 2012, on Sky Arts 1. Each episode stars a different cast. The second series began airing in April 2013. A third season began airing May 2014. Nixon's The One. The series will broadcast in 2013. The four-part adaptation of A Young Doctor's Notebook starring Jon Hamm and Daniel Radcliffe was also broadcast under the Playhouse Presents banner in December 2012. It became the most successful series in the history of a second series was commissioned, airing late 2013. Sky Arts announced two films, Nightshift, for the Playhouse Presents strand in late 2013. While it initially appeared that these would be broadcast as one-offs, they ended up being aired as part of the third season. A Christmas special titled "Marked", starring Kiefer Sutherland, Kevin McNally, was broadcast in December 2014. Playhouse Presents premiered on 4 January 2015 on BBC First. Playhouse Presents at the Internet Movie DatabasePlayhouse Presents – Season two title card
46. Christian Seidel – Christian Seidel is a German writer and film producer. "The woman inside of me", published by Random House, has been sold in many countries all over the world. In this book he describes his two experiment, to live as a woman. The book has been filmed by Iranian director Dariush Rafiy. Seidel is teaching about gender roles in seminars. His book "Winning without fighting" published by Random House Publishing Group in 2011, is an autobiographical book, about his personal rediscovery of the values of life. A path which took him through the training of martial arts Tae Kwondo in Korea. Subsequently in accordance to these values, he chose to leave a successful career as an international media manager. It was published by Michael O'Mara in 1992, consequently causing a major scandal in the Royal Family. He later executive produced all other episodes of this engaging project, directed by Werner Herzog, The Quay Brothers and Hal Hartley. Christian Seidel then began to write about airports for pilot magazines, despite knowing nothing about flying. As a journalist, he published the first interview with Indian Guru Osho in newspapers worldwide. This work led him into the world of public relations, where he built a career during the 80's and 90's. International success followed, because of his unique style of writing. This concept became fair spectacle of 1987.Christian Seidel – Portrait Christian Seidel
47. Westminster Abbey – It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. Between 1556 the abbey had the status of a cathedral. The building itself is the original church. Construction of the present church began on the orders of King Henry III. Since 1066, when William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held there. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. Two were of reigning monarchs, although, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years. This seems to be quoted to justify the gifts of salmon from Thames fishermen that the abbey received in later years. In the present era, the Fishmonger's Company still gives every year. The proven origins are that in the early 970s, Saint Dunstan, assisted by King Edgar, installed a community of Benedictine monks here. Between 1052 King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peter's Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The building was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066. Nine years later his wife Edith was buried alongside him. Harold II, was probably crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror later the same year.Westminster Abbey – Western façade
48. Jean-Michel Jarre – Jean-Michel Jarre is a French composer, performer, record producer. He was trained on the piano. From an early age Jarre was introduced to a variety including those of street performers, jazz musicians, the artist Pierre Soulages. His first success was the 1976 album Oxygène. Recorded in a makeshift studio at his home, the album sold an estimated million copies. His 1979 concert served as a blueprint for his future performances around the world. As of 2004 he had sold an estimated million albums. Jean-Michel Jarre was born in Lyon August 1948 to France Pejot, a French Resistance member and concentration camp survivor, composer Maurice Jarre. His father moved to America, leaving him with his mother. Jarre did not see his father again until reaching the age of 18. Jarre's grandfather was an oboe player, inventor, designing an early audio mixer used at Radio Lyon. Jarre also gave his first record player. He struggled with classical piano studies, although he worked on his scales. These early jazz experiences suggested to him that music may be "descriptive, without lyrics". Jarre was also influenced by the work of French artist Pierre Soulages, whose exhibition at the Musée d'Art Moderne la Ville de Paris he attended.Jean-Michel Jarre – Jarre in Milan, 2008
49. George Michael – It has sold more than million records worldwide. Faith, has on its own sold more than 20 million copies worldwide. It has garnered seven number one singles in the US. In 2008, Billboard magazine ranked the 40th most successful artist on the Billboard Hot 100 Top All Time Artists list. In 2004, the Radio Academy named the most played artist on British radio during the period 1984 -- 2004. A Different Story, released in 2005, covered his career and personal life. In 2006, George Michael announced his first tour in the worldwide 25 Live tour, spanning three individual tours over the course of three years. It was born in London. Kyriacos Panayiotou, a Greek Cypriot restaurateur, moved to England in the 1950s and changed his name to Jack Panos. Lesley Angold, was an English dancer. It spent the majority of his childhood in the home his parents bought soon after his birth, where he attended Kingsbury High School. While in his early teens, the family moved to Radlett, Hertfordshire. There, Michael attended Bushey Meads School in the neighbouring town of Bushey, where he befriended his future Wham! partner Andrew Ridgeley. The two had the same ambition of being musicians. It would busk on the London Underground, performing songs such as"' 39" by Queen.George Michael – George Michael performing during his 25 Live tour in 2008.
50. Prince of Wales – Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king. The Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales. The Prince of Wales honours. The wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the Princess of Wales. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. He has also represented the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was generally known as King of the Britons. In the 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru. The literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown. The first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh after earlier using rex Waliae. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself around 1244 the first Welsh prince to do so.Prince of Wales – Incumbent HRH The Prince Charles since 26 July 1958
51. British royal family – The British royal family comprises the monarch of the United Kingdom and her close relations. In Canada, the family is known as the Canadian family. They often perform social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. She did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. Burke's Peerage, 1973. Cannon, John Ashton. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy. Oxford University Press, 1988. Churchill, Randolph S. They Serve the Queen: A New and Authoritative Account of the Royal Household. Hutchinson, 1953. Fraser, Antonia. The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England. Revised & updated edition.British royal family – The Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the annual Trooping the Colour in 2013.
52. Charles II of England – Charles II was king of England, Scotland, Ireland. Charles I, was executed at Whitehall January 1649 at the climax of the English Civil War. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On his 30th birthday, he was received to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The foreign issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the secret treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed "Popish Plot" sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir was a Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses.Charles II of England – Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 1660–1665
53. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother – Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was the last Empress consort of India. She came to prominence in 1923 when she married Albert, Duke of the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. Their daughters embodied traditional ideas of family and public service. She became known as the "Smiling Duchess" because of her consistent public expression. In 1936, her husband unexpectedly became King when Edward VIII, abdicated in order to marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson. Elizabeth became Queen. She accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours before the start of World War II. During the war, her seemingly indomitable spirit provided moral support to the British public. In recognition of her role as an asset to British interests, Adolf Hitler described her as "the most dangerous woman in Europe". After the war, she was widowed at the age of 51. Her elder daughter, aged 25, became the new Queen. In her later years, she was a consistently popular member of the family, even when other members were suffering from low levels of public approval. Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, his wife, Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck. Possible locations include Forbes House in Ham, London, the home of her maternal grandmother, Louisa Scott.Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother – Portrait by Richard Stone, 1986
54. Wallis Simpson – Wallis, Duchess of Windsor was an American socialite. Her third husband, Prince Edward, formerly King Edward VIII, abdicated his throne to marry her. She and her widowed mother were partly supported by their wealthier relatives. Her first marriage, to U.S. naval officer Win Spencer, was eventually ended in divorce. During her second marriage, to Ernest Simpson, she allegedly became the mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales. Two years later, after Edward's accession as king, Wallis divorced her second husband in order to marry Edward. She was instead styled as "Her Grace", a style normally reserved only for non-royal duchesses. Before, after World War II, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor were suspected by many in government and society of being Nazi sympathisers. In 1937, they met Adolf Hitler. In 1940, the couple moved to the islands until he relinquished the office in 1945. In the 1960s, the Duke and Duchess shuttled between Europe and the United States living a life of leisure as society celebrities. After the Duke's death in 1972, the Duchess was rarely seen in public. She remains a controversial figure in British history. Her mother was a daughter of insurance salesman William Montague. Her father died of tuberculosis on 15 November 1896.Wallis Simpson – Wallis Simpson in 1936
55. Monarchy of the United Kingdom – The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The monarch's title is "King" or "Queen". Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on 6 February 1952. Her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The Act of Settlement 1701, still in force, excluded those who marry Catholics, to the English throne. The British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, effectively bringing the empire to an end. Elizabeth II, adopted the Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State. Oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. The monarch appears on postage stamps, banknotes.Monarchy of the United Kingdom – Queen of the United Kingdom
56. Mary of Teck – Mary of Teck was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, of Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known after her birth month. She became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became King. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Princess of Wales. She supported Albert, who succeeded to the throne as George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned. Princess Victoria Mary of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at London. Her father was Prince Francis, Duke of the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the third child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel. She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Archbishop of Canterbury. Before she became Queen, she was known to her family, friends and the public after her birth month. May's upbringing was "merry but fairly strict". They played with the children of the Prince of Wales, who were similar in age.Mary of Teck – Queen Mary of the United Kingdom, formal portrait
57. Caroline of Brunswick – Caroline was the Princess of Wales from 1795 to 1820. Her mother, Princess Augusta, was the sister of George III. Nine months later Caroline had a child, Princess Charlotte of Wales. Shortly after Charlotte's birth, George and Caroline separated. By 1806, rumours that Caroline had an illegitimate child led to an investigation into her private life. Caroline's access to her daughter was restricted. In 1814, she moved to Italy, where she employed Bartolomeo Pergami as a servant. It was widely assumed that they were lovers. He was set up a second investigation to collect evidence of her adultery. In 1820, George became king of Hanover. George hated her, insisted on a divorce, which she refused. A legal divorce was difficult to obtain. She returned to Britain to assert her position as queen. Caroline was wildly popular with the British populace, who despised the new king for his immoral behaviour. In July 1821, she was barred from the coronation on the orders of her husband.Caroline of Brunswick – Portrait c. 1820 by James Lonsdale, "Principal Painter in Ordinary to the Queen". Her wedding ring is displayed prominently to emphasise fidelity to marriage vows.
58. Alexandra of Denmark – Alexandra of Denmark was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India as the wife of King-Emperor Edward VII. At the age of sixteen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, the heir apparent of Queen Victoria. Her public duties were restricted to uncontroversial involvement in charitable work. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became king-emperor as Edward VII, as queen-empress. Alexandra held the status in 1910. Alexandra greatly supported her son during World War I, in which Britain and its allies fought Germany. Her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Although she was of royal blood, her family lived a comparatively normal life. Occasionally, Hans Christian Andersen was invited to tell the children stories before bedtime. In King Christian VIII of Denmark died and his only son, Frederick ascended the throne. Frederick was childless, was assumed to be infertile. The succession rules of each territory differed. In Holstein, the Salic law prevented inheritance through the female line, whereas no such restrictions applied in Denmark. Holstein, being predominantly German, called in the aid of Prussia. In 1852, the great powers called a conference in London to discuss the Danish succession.Alexandra of Denmark – Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1881
59. Anne Neville – Anne Neville was an English queen, the daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. She became Princess of Wales as the wife of King Richard III. Her Warwick betrothed her as a girl to Edward, Prince of Wales, the son of Henry VI. The marriage was to continue the civil war between the two houses of Lancaster and York. Anne Neville became queen when Richard III ascended the throne in June 1483, following the declaration that Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville were illegitimate. Anne Neville predeceased her husband by five months, dying in March 1485. Her only child was Edward of Middleham, who predeceased her. Anne Neville was born at Warwick Castle, Anne de Beauchamp. Her father was one of the most important supporter of the House of York. Cecily Neville, was the wife of Richard, Duke of York, who claimed the crown for the House of York. Richard especially attended his knighthood training at Middleham until late 1468. It is possible that even at this early stage, a match between the young dukes was being considered. , with Warwick's help, his eldest son became King Edward IV in March 1461. In 1469, the earl met resistance from Parliament. They were married in Angers Cathedral, probably on 13 December 1470, to make the Princess of Wales.Anne Neville – Anne Neville