1. Elvis Presley – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relativesElvis Presley – Presley in a publicity photograph for the 1957 film Jailhouse Rock
2. Audi – Audi is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide. The modern era of Audi essentially began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of the founder, August Horch. Horch, meaning listen in German, becomes audi in Latin, the four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audis predecessor company, Auto Union. Audis slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning Advancement through Technology, however, since 2007 Audi USA has used the slogan Truth in Engineering. Audi, along with BMW and Mercedes are among the luxury automobile brands in the world. Originally in 1885, automobile company Wanderer was established, later becoming a branch of Audi AG, another company, NSU, which also later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, and later supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimlers four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne, three years later in 1902 he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On May, 10th,1904 he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, after troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH. His former partners sued him for trademark infringement, the German Reichsgericht in Leipzig, eventually determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company. Since August Horch was prohibited from using Horch as a name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends, Paul and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company, during this meeting, Franzs son was quietly studying Latin in a corner of the room. Horch. in German means Hark. or hear, which is Audi in the imperative form of audire – to listen – in Latin. The idea was accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the register of Zwickau registration court. The first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year. Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model and these cars were successful even in sporting eventsAudi – Audi head office in Ingolstadt
3. Andy Warhol – Andy Warhol was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in galleries in the late 1950s. He promoted a collection of known as Warhol superstars, and is credited with coining the widely used expression 15 minutes of fame. In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the rock band The Velvet Underground. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism and he is also notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement. Warhol has been the subject of retrospective exhibitions, books. The Andy Warhol Museum in his city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable, the highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash, his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold. A2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the bellwether of the art market, Warhol was born on August 6,1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was the child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Mikó, located in todays northeastern Slovakia, Warhols father emigrated to the United States in 1914, and his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhols grandparents. Warhols father worked in a coal mine, the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and later at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was Byzantine Catholic and attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church, Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated, Ján was born in Pittsburgh. Pavols son, James Warhola, became a childrens book illustrator. He became a hypochondriac, developing a fear of hospitals and doctors, often bedridden as a child, he became an outcast at school and bonded with his mother. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio, Warhol later described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences. When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident, as a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945Andy Warhol – Warhol in 1975
4. American (word) – The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used. American is derived from America, a term denoting all of the New World. Similar semantic contention exists concerning the use of English words like Spanish, British, Scandinavian, the word can be used as either an adjective or a noun. In adjectival use, it means of or relating to the United States, for example, in its noun form, the word generally means a resident or citizen of the US, or occasionally someone whose ethnic identity is simply American. The noun is used in American English to refer to people not connected to the United States. When used with a qualifier, the adjective American can mean of or relating to the Americas, as in Latin American or Indigenous American. Less frequently, the adjective can take this meaning without a qualifier, as in American Spanish dialects and pronunciation differ by country, or the name of the Organization of American States. A third use of the term specifically to the indigenous peoples of the Americas, for instance, In the 16th century. Compound constructions such as African Americans likewise refer exclusively to people in or from the United States of America, as does the prefix Americo-. French, German, Italian, Japanese, Hebrew, Arabic and they generally have other terms specific to U. S. nationals, such as the German US-Amerikaner, French étatsunien, Japanese beikokujin, Arabic amrīkānī, and Italian statunitense. These specific terms may be less common than the term American, likewise, Germans use of U. S. -amerikanisch and U. S. -Amerikaner observe said cultural distinction, solely denoting U. S. things and people. Note that these are politically correct terms and that in normal parlance, Portuguese has americano, denoting both a person or thing from the Americas and a U. S. national. For referring specifically to a U. S. as well, in Spanish, americano denotes geographic and cultural origin in the New World, as well as a U. S. citizen, the more common term is estadounidense, which derives from Estados Unidos de América. The Spanish term norteamericano is frequently used to things and persons from the United States. Among Spanish-speakers, North America generally doesnt include Central America or the Caribbean, in other languages, however, there is no possibility for confusion. For example, the Chinese word for U. S. national is měiguórén is derived from a word for the United States, měiguó, the name for the American continents is měizhōu, from měi plus zhōu. Thus, a měizhōurén is an American in the continent sense, conversely, in Czech, there is no possibility for disambiguation. Američan and američanka can refer to persons from the United States or from the continents of the Americas, for this reason, the latter meaning is very rarely used, and word američan is used almost exclusively to refer to persons from the United StatesAmerican (word) – Washington's Farewell Address (1796)
5. Amazing Grace – Amazing Grace is a Christian hymn published in 1779, with words written by the English poet and Anglican clergyman John Newton. Newton wrote the words from personal experience and he grew up without any particular religious conviction, but his lifes path was formed by a variety of twists and coincidences that were often put into motion by his recalcitrant insubordination. He was pressed into service in the Royal Navy, and after leaving the service, he became involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In 1748, a violent storm battered his vessel off the coast of County Donegal, Ireland, so severely that he called out to God for mercy and he continued his slave trading career until 1754 or 1755, when he ended his seafaring altogether and began studying Christian theology. Ordained in the Church of England in 1764, Newton became curate of Olney, Buckinghamshire, Amazing Grace was written to illustrate a sermon on New Years Day of 1773. It is unknown if there was any music accompanying the verses and it debuted in print in 1779 in Newton and Cowpers Olney Hymns but settled into relative obscurity in England. In the United States, however, Amazing Grace was used extensively during the Second Great Awakening in the early 19th century. It has been associated more than 20 melodies, but in 1835 it was joined to a tune named New Britain to which it is most frequently sung today. Author Gilbert Chase writes that it is without a doubt the most famous of all the hymns, and Jonathan Aitken. It has had influence in folk music, and has become an emblematic African American spiritual. Its universal message has been a significant factor in its crossover into secular music, Amazing Grace saw a resurgence in popularity in the U. S. during the 1960s and has been recorded thousands of times during and since the 20th century, occasionally appearing on popular music charts. According to the Dictionary of American Hymnology Amazing Grace is John Newtons spiritual autobiography in verse, in 1725, Newton was born in Wapping, a district in London near the Thames. His father was a merchant who was brought up as a Catholic but had Protestant sympathies. She had intended Newton to become a clergyman, but she died of tuberculosis when he was six years old. For the next few years, Newton was raised by his emotionally distant stepmother while his father was at sea, at the age of eleven, he joined his father on a ship as an apprentice, his seagoing career would be marked by headstrong disobedience. As a youth, Newton began a pattern of coming close to death, examining his relationship with God. As a sailor, he denounced his faith after being influenced by a shipmate who discussed Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, after enduring humiliation for deserting, he managed to get himself traded to a slave ship where he began a career in slave trading. Newton often openly mocked the captain by creating obscene poems and songs about him that became so popular the crew began to join inAmazing Grace – The bottom of page 53 of Olney Hymns shows the first stanza of the hymn beginning "Amazing Grace!"
6. Al Capp – He also wrote the comic strips Abbie an Slats and Long Sam. He won the National Cartoonists Societys Reuben Award in 1947 for Cartoonist of the Year, Comic strips dealt with northern urban experiences until the year Capp introduced Lil Abner, the first strip based in the South. M. Thomas Inge says Capp made a personal fortune on the strip and had a profound influence on the way the world viewed the American South. Born in New Haven, Connecticut, of East European Jewish heritage, Capp was the eldest child of Otto Philip, Capps parents were both natives of Latvia whose families had migrated to New Haven in the 1880s. My mother and father had brought to this country from Russia when they were infants. Their fathers had found that the promise of America was true—it was no crime to be a Jew. The Caplins were dirt poor, and Capp later recalled stories of his going out in the night to sift through ash barrels for reusable bits of coal. In August 1919, at the age of nine, Capp was run down by a car and had to have his left leg amputated. He was eventually given a leg, but only learned to use it by adopting a slow way of walking which became increasingly painful as he grew older. The childhood tragedy of losing a leg likely helped shape Capp’s cynical worldview, I was indignant as hell about that leg, he would reveal in a November 1950 interview in Time magazine. The secret of how to live without resentment or embarrassment in a world in which I was different from everyone else and it was the prevailing opinion among his friends that Capps Swiftian satire was, to some degree, a creatively channeled, compensatory response to his disability. Capps father, a businessman and an amateur cartoonist, introduced him to drawing as a form of therapy. He became quite proficient, learning mostly on his own, at about this same time, Capp became a voracious reader. According to Capps brother Elliot, Alfred had finished all of Shakespeare, among his childhood favorites were Dickens, Smollett, Mark Twain, Booth Tarkington, and later, Robert Benchley and S. J. Perelman. Capp spent five years at Bridgeport High School in Bridgeport, Connecticut without receiving a diploma, the cartoonist liked to joke about how he failed geometry for nine straight terms. His formal training came from a series of art schools in the New England area, Capp had already decided to become a cartoonist. I heard that Bud Fisher got $3,000 a week and was constantly marrying French countesses, I decided that was for me. In early 1932, Capp hitchhiked to New York City and he lived in airless rat holes in Greenwich Village and turned out advertising strips at $2 apiece while scouring the city hunting for jobsAl Capp – Self-portrait
7. Blues – Blues is a genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, spirituals, Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. Blue notes, usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are also a part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove, Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the troubles experienced in African-American society. Many elements, such as the format and the use of blue notes. The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community. The first appearance of the blues is often dated to after the ending of slavery and, later and it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century, the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues, World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. In the 1960s and 1970s, a form called blues rock evolved. The term blues may have come from blue devils, meaning melancholy and sadness, the phrase blue devils may also have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal. As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, by the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, in lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood. The lyrics of traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times. Two of the first published songs, Dallas Blues and Saint Louis Blues, were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure. Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times, the lines are often sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melodyBlues – John Lomax (left) shaking hands with musician "Uncle" Rich Brown in Sumterville, Alabama
8. Benny Andersson – Göran Bror Benny Andersson is a Swedish musician, composer, member of the Swedish music group ABBA, and co-composer of the musicals Chess, Kristina från Duvemåla, and Mamma Mia. For the 2008 film version of Mamma Mia. he worked also as an executive producer, since 2001, he is active with his own band Benny Anderssons orkester. Göran Bror Benny Andersson was born in Vällingby to 34-year-old civil engineer Gösta Andersson and his sister Eva-Lis Andersson followed in 1948. Anderssons musical background comes from his father and grandfather, they enjoyed playing the accordion, and at six, Benny got his own. Father Gösta and grandfather Efraim taught him Swedish folk music, traditional music, Benny recalls the first records he bought were Du Bist Musik by Italian schlager singer Caterina Valente and Elvis Presleys Jailhouse Rock. He was especially impressed by the flip side Treat Me Nice as this featured a piano and this smörgåsbord of different kinds of music was to influence and follow him through the years. When Andersson was ten he got his own piano, and taught himself to play and he left school aged 15 and began to perform at youth clubs. This is when he met his first girlfriend Christina Grönvall, with whom he had two children, Peter and Heléne, in early 1964, Benny and Christina joined Elverkets Spelmanslag, the name was a punning reference to their electric instruments. The repertoire was mainly instrumentals, one of his numbers was Baby Elephant Walk, in October 1964 he joined the Hep Stars as keyboardist and they made a breakthrough in March 1965 with their hit Cadillac, eventually becoming the most celebrated of the Swedish 1960s pop bands. Andersson consolidated his place as the bands keyboardist and musical driving force as well as a teen idol, Andersson met Björn Ulvaeus in June 1966, and the two started writing songs together, their first being Isnt It Easy To Say, eventually recorded by the Hep Stars. The song finished in second place, during this contest he met vocalist Anni-Frid Lyngstad, and they soon became a couple. Around the same time his songwriting companion Ulvaeus met vocalist Agnetha Fältskog, the personal relationships and Andersson and Ulvaeus songwriting collaboration has led quite naturally to the very close co-operation which the four friends had during the following years. Benny and Björn scored their first hits as songwriters in the spring of 1969, Ljuva sextital, the groups breakthrough came with winning the Eurovision Song Contest for Sweden with Waterloo on 6 April 1974. During the next eight years, Andersson wrote music for and produced eight albums with ABBA. The group achieved great success globally and scored a chain of No.1 hits, after ABBA Andersson continued writing music with Ulvaeus. Their first project was the stage musical Chess, written with Tim Rice, the Chess concept album – with vocals by Elaine Paige, Barbara Dickson, Murray Head and Swedes Tommy Körberg and Björn Skifs – was released in October 1984, selling two million copies worldwide. The Paige/Dickson duet I Know Him So Well became a major UK No.1 hit, Chess was staged in Londons West End Prince Edward Theatre in May 1986 and received mixed to positive reviews, running for about three years. A revised staging on Broadway in April 1988 received poor reviews, in 1985, Andersson produced and released an album with brother and sister Anders and Karin Glenmark, featuring new songs by Andersson/UlvaeusBenny Andersson – Andersson in September 2012
9. Boney M. – Boney M. is a Euro-Caribbean vocal group created by German record producer Frank Farian. The group was formed in 1976 and achieved popularity during the era of the late 1970s. Since the 1980s, various line-ups of the band have performed with different personnel, German singer-songwriter Frank Farian recorded the dance track Baby Do You Wanna Bump in December 1974. Farian sang the repeated line Do you do you wanna bump. in a voice as well as performing the high falsetto chorus. When the record was released as a single, it was credited to Boney M. a pseudonym Farian had created for himself after watching the Australian detective show Boney, I turned on the TV one day and it was the end of a detective series. I just caught the credits and it said Boney, nice name, I thought – Boney, Boney, Boney. Boney M. Boney, Boney, Boney M, after a slow start, the song became a hit in the Netherlands and Belgium. It was then that Farian decided to hire performers to front the group for TV performances, the Katja Wolfe booking agency found model-turned-singer Maizie Williams and her Jamaican singer friend Sheyla Bonnick for him, along with a dancer known only as Mike for the first gigs. Also during 1975, a girl named Nathalie joined but was replaced by Jamaica-born Claudja Barry. Then Bonnick and Mike left, and Maizie Williams brought in Bobby Farrell, singer Marcia Barrett joined the group, which then went through another change in line-up when Claudja Barry left in February 1976 to pursue a solo career as a disco singer. Finally Liz Mitchell, former member of the Les Humphries Singers, the line-up was finalised with Liz Mitchell, Maizie Williams, Marcia Barrett, and Bobby Farrell. Boney M. s first album, Take the Heat off Me, was released in 1976. It contained tracks that Marcia Barrett had already recorded with Farian, including the track and Lovin or Leavin. The albums commercial performance was initially lukewarm, however, the group rigorously toured discos, clubs and even country fairs to earn a reputation for themselves. The groups big break came when, at the end of summer 1976, Boney M. appeared on the live music show on 18 September 1976, after 10 pm and in their daring stage costumes, where they performed the song Daddy Cool. The song quickly went to no.1 in Germany, with the following the success of the single. Another single, Sunny gave the group their second no.1 hit, the groups popularity had also grown throughout Europe, with Daddy Cool reaching no.1 in Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, and Austria. Both singles were also Top 10 hits in the UK, which would one of their biggest marketsBoney M. – Boney M. in 1981
10. Bass guitar – The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, strumming, tapping, thumping, or picking with a plectrum, often known as a pick. The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to a guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length. The four-string bass, by far the most common, is tuned the same as the double bass. The bass guitar is an instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the guitar has pickups and it is plugged into an amplifier and speaker on stage, or into a larger PA system using a DI unit. Since the 1960s, the guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary widely from one style of music to another, many styles of music utilise the bass guitar, including rock, heavy metal, pop, punk rock, country, reggae, gospel, blues, symphonic rock, and jazz. It is often a solo instrument in jazz, jazz fusion, Latin, funk, progressive rock and other rock, the adoption of a guitar form made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments. The addition of frets enabled bassists to play in more easily than on acoustic or electric upright basses. Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period, around 1947, Tutmarcs son, Bud, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948, however, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender, with the help of his employee George Fullerton and his Fender Precision Bass, which began production in October 1951, became a widely copied industry standard. This split pickup, introduced in 1957, appears to have been two mandolin pickups, the pole pieces and leads of the coils were reversed with respect to each other, producing a humbucking effect. Humbucking is a design that electrically cancels the effect of any AC hum, the Fender Bass was a revolutionary new instrument, which could be easily transported, and which was less prone to feedback when amplified than acoustic bass instruments. Monk Montgomery was the first bass player to tour with the Fender bass guitar, roy Johnson, and Shifty Henry with Louis Jordan & His Tympany Five, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957. The bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, following Fenders lead, in 1953, Gibson released the first short scale violin-shaped electric bass with extendable end pin, allowing it to be played upright or horizontally. In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass, the EB-0 was very similar to a Gibson SG in appearanceBass guitar – A Music Man StingRay bass
11. Bing Crosby – Harry Lillis Bing Crosby, Jr. was an American singer and actor. The first multimedia star, from 1931 to 1954 Crosby was a leader in sales, radio ratings. His early career coincided with technical recording innovations such as the microphone and this allowed him to develop a laid-back, intimate singing style that influenced many of the popular male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes, and Dean Martin. Also in 1948, the Music Digest estimated that Crosby recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music, in 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. He is one of only 33 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the categories of motion pictures, radio, Crosby influenced the development of the postwar recording industry. He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. In addition to his work with early tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, Crosby died at the age of 74 on October 14,1977, from a sudden heart attack in Alcobendas, Spain. Crosby was born on May 2,1903 in Tacoma, Washington, in 1906, Crosbys family moved to Spokane, and in 1913, Crosbys father built a house at 508 E. Sharp Avenue. The house now sits on the campus of Crosbys alma mater Gonzaga University and he was the fourth of seven children, brothers Larry, Everett, Ted, and Bob, and two sisters, Catherine and Mary Rose. His parents were Harry Lowe Crosby, Sr. a bookkeeper, Crosbys mother was a second generation Irish-American. In 1910, seven-year-old Harry Crosby Jr. was forever renamed, the Sunday edition of the Spokesman-Review published a feature called The Bingville Bugle. Written by humorist Newton Newkirk, The Bingville Bugle was a parody of a hillbilly newsletter filled with gossipy tidbits, minstrel quips, creative spelling, and mock ads. A neighbor, 15-year-old Valentine Hobart, shared Crosbys enthusiasm for The Bugle, and noting Crosbys laugh, took a liking to him, eventually, the last vowel was dropped and the nickname stuck. Crosby later described Jolsons delivery as electric, Crosby graduated from Gonzaga High School in 1920 and enrolled at Gonzaga University. He attended Gonzaga for three years, but did not earn a bachelors degree, as a freshman, he played on the universitys baseball team. The university granted him a doctorate in 1937. In 1923, Crosby was invited to join a new band composed of school students a few years younger than himself. Al Rinker, Miles Rinker, James Heaton, Claire Pritchard and Robert Pritchard, along with drummer Crosby, formed the Musicaladers, the group performed on Spokane radio station KHQ, but disbanded after two yearsBing Crosby – Bing Crosby, c. 1930s
12. Buddy Holly – Buddy Holly was an American musician and singer-songwriter who was a central figure of mid-1950s rock and roll. Holly was born in Lubbock, Texas, to a family during the Great Depression, he learned to play guitar. His style was influenced by music, country music, and rhythm and blues acts. He made his first appearance on television in 1952. In 1955, after opening for Elvis Presley, Holly decided to pursue a career in music and he opened for Presley three times that year, his bands style shifted from country and western to entirely rock and roll. In October that year, when he opened for Bill Haley & His Comets, Holly was spotted by Nashville scout Eddie Crandall, Hollys recording sessions at Decca were produced by Owen Bradley. Petty became the manager and sent the demo to Brunswick Records, which released it as a single credited to The Crickets. In September 1957, as the band toured, Thatll Be the Day topped the US Best Sellers in Stores chart and its success was followed in October by another major hit, Peggy Sue. The album Chirping Crickets, released in November 1957, reached five on the UK Albums Chart. Holly made his appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in January 1958 and soon after, toured Australia. In early 1959, Holly assembled a new band, consisting of country music star Waylon Jennings, famed session musician Tommy Allsup, and Carl Bunch. After a show in Clear Lake, Iowa, Holly chartered an airplane to travel to his show, in Moorhead. Soon after takeoff, the crashed, killing Holly, Ritchie Valens, The Big Bopper. During his short career, Holly wrote, recorded, and produced his own material and he is often regarded as the artist who defined the traditional rock-and-roll lineup of two guitars, bass, and drums. Holly was an influence on later popular music artists, including The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton. He was among the first artists inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked him number 13 in its list of 100 Greatest Artists. Buddy Holly was born Charles Hardin Holley on September 7,1936, in Lubbock, Texas, at 3,30 pm, he was the child of Lawrence Odell L. O. Holley. His older siblings were Larry, Travis, and Patricia Lou, from early childhood, he was nicknamed BuddyBuddy Holly – Buddy Holly in 1957
13. Bill Haley – William John Clifton Bill Haley was an American rock and roll musician. He has sold over 25 million records worldwide, Bill Haley was born July 6,1925 in Highland Park, Michigan, as William John Clifton Haley. In 1929, the four-year-old Haley underwent an inner-ear mastoid operation which accidentally severed an optic nerve, leaving him blind in his left eye for the rest of his life. As a result of the effects of the Great Depression on the Detroit area, his father moved the family to Boothwyn, near Chester, Pennsylvania, Haley told the story that when he made a simulated guitar out of cardboard, his parents bought him a real one. Very soon after this he formed a group of enthusiastic youngsters. The sleeve notes continue, When Bill Haley was fifteen he left home with his guitar and very little else and set out on the road to fame. The next few years, continuing this story in a manner, were hard and poverty-stricken. Eventually he got a job with a group known as the Down Homers while they were in Hartford. Soon after this he decided, as all people must decide at some time or another, to be his own boss again –. These notes fail to account for his band, known as the Four Aces of Western Swing. During the 1940s Haley was considered one of the top cowboy yodelers in America as Silver Yodeling Bill Haley. The sleeve notes conclude, For six years Bill Haley was a director of Radio Station WPWA in Chester, Pennsylvania. It was then known as Bill Haleys Saddlemen, indicating their definite leaning toward the tough Western style and they continued playing in clubs as well as over the radio around Philadelphia, and in 1951 made their first recordings on Ed Wilsons Keystone Records in Philadelphia. On June 14,1951 the Saddlemen recorded a cover of Rocket 88.15 on Billboard, soon after, the bands name was revised to Bill Haley & His Comets. In 1953, a song called Rock Around the Clock was recorded by Haley, initially, it was relatively successful, peaking at no.23 on the Billboard pop singles chart and staying on the charts for a few weeks. A month later it re-entered at number 1 and he retained elements of the original, but sped it up with some country music aspects into the song and changed up the lyrics. Haley and his band were important in launching the music known as Rock, when Rock Around the Clock appeared as the theme song of the 1955 film Blackboard Jungle starring Glenn Ford, it soared to the top of the American Billboard chart for eight weeks. The single is used as a convenient line of demarcation between the rock era and the music industry that preceded itBill Haley – Bill Haley
14. Blind Lemon Jefferson – Lemon Henry Blind Lemon Jefferson was an American blues and gospel singer, songwriter, and musician. He was one of the most popular singers of the 1920s and has been called the Father of the Texas Blues. Jeffersons performances were distinctive because of his voice and the originality of his guitar playing. His recordings sold well, but he was not an influence on younger blues singers of his generation. Later blues and rock and roll musicians, however, did attempt to both his songs and his musical style. Jefferson was born blind, near Coutchman, Texas and he was the youngest of seven children born to Alex and Clarissa Jefferson, who were sharecroppers. Disputes regarding the date of his birth derive from contradictory census records, by 1900, the family was farming southeast of Streetman, Texas, and his birth date is indicated as September 1893 in the 1900 census. The 1910 census, taken in May, before his birthday, further confirms his year of birth as 1893 and indicated that the family was farming northwest of Wortham, near his birthplace. In his 1917 draft registration, Jefferson gave his date as October 26,1894, further stating that he then lived in Dallas, Texas. In the 1920 census, he is recorded as having returned to Freestone County and was living with his half-brother, Kit Banks, Jefferson began playing the guitar in his early teens and soon after he began performing at picnics and parties. He became a musician, playing in East Texas towns in front of barbershops. Jefferson was one of the earliest and most prominent figures in the blues movement developing in the Deep Ellum section of Dallas. It is likely that he moved to Deep Ellum on a permanent basis by 1917. Jefferson taught Walker the basics of playing guitar in exchange for Walkers occasional services as a guide. By the early 1920s, Jefferson was earning money for his musical performances to support a wife and, possibly. However, firm evidence of his marriage and children is unavailable, the first self-accompanied solo performer of a self-composed blues song was Lee Morse, whose Mail Man Blues was recorded on October 7,1924. Jeffersons music is uninhibited and represented the sounds of everyday life, from a honky-tonk to a country picnic, to street corner blues. Jefferson did what few had ever done before him – he became a solo guitaristBlind Lemon Jefferson – Only known photograph of Jefferson, ca. 1926.
15. Bruce Campbell – Bruce Lorne Campbell is an American actor, producer, writer, comedian and director. One of his best-known roles is portraying Ash Williams in Sam Raimis Evil Dead franchise and he has starred in many low-budget cult films such as Crimewave, Maniac Cop, Sundown, The Vampire in Retreat, and Bubba Ho-Tep. In television, Campbell had lead roles in The Adventures of Brisco County and he can also be seen as the role of the father in The Escort. Campbell was born in Royal Oak, Michigan, the son of Joanne Louise, a homemaker, and Charles Newton Campbell and he has an older brother, Don, and an older half-brother, Michael Rendine. Campbells first wife was Cristine Deveau, whom he married in 1983 and they had two children, Rebecca and Andy, before their divorce in 1989. Campbell currently lives in Jacksonville, Oregon, with his wife, costume designer Ida Gearon. Campbell is also a minister and has officiated weddings for couples. Campbell began acting as a teenager and soon began making short Super 8 movies with friends, after meeting Sam Raimi in Wylie E. Groves High School, the two became very good friends and started making movies together. Campbell would go on to attend Western Michigan University while he continued to work on his acting career, Campbell and Raimi collaborated on a 30-minute Super 8 version of the first Evil Dead film, titled Within the Woods, which was initially used to attract investors. A few years later, Campbell and Raimi got together with family and friends, Campbell starred and worked behind the camera, receiving a co-executive producer credit. Raimi wrote, directed and edited, while fellow Michigander Rob Tapert was producer, following an endorsement by horror writer Stephen King, the film slowly began to receive distribution. Four years following its release, it became the number one movie in the UK. It then received distribution in the U. S. spawning two sequels, Evil Dead II and Army of Darkness, Campbells role as Ashley J. Ash Williams has since become iconic. The last two films in the series are considered classics and are credited with spawning the horror comedy genre. He was also drawn in the Marvel Zombie comics as his character and he is featured in five comics, all in the series Marvel Zombies vs. Army of Darkness. In the comics he fights alongside the Marvel heroes against the heroes and he has appeared in many of Raimis films outside of the Evil Dead series, notably having cameos in the directors Spider-Man film series. Campbell also joined the cast in Raimis Darkman and The Quick, Campbell often takes on quirky roles, such as Elvis Presley in the film Bubba Ho-Tep. Along with Bubba Ho-Tep, he played a role in starred in Maniac Cop and Maniac Cop 2Bruce Campbell – Bruce Campbell at the 2014 Phoenix Comicon
16. Bill Bixby – Wilfred Bailey Everett Bill Bixby III was an American film and television actor, director, and frequent game-show panelist. His career spanned more than three decades, including appearances on stage, in films, and on television series, david Banner on the CBS science-fiction drama series The Incredible Hulk. An only child, Bixby was born a fourth-generation Californian of English descent, in San Francisco and his father, Wilfred Everett Bixby II, was a store clerk and his mother, Jane Bixby, was a senior manager at I. Magnin & Co. In 1942, When Bixby was eight years old, his father enlisted in the Navy during World War II, while in the seventh grade, Bixby attended Grace Cathedral and sang in the churchs choir. In one notable incident, he shot the bishop using a slingshot during one service and was kicked out of the choir, in 1946, his mother encouraged him to take ballroom dance lessons and from there he started dancing all around the city. While dancing, he attended Lowell High School, where he perfected his oratory, though he received average grades, he also competed in high-school speech tournaments regionally. Bixby and Meriwether later worked together on an episode of Barnaby Jones, later, he attended the University of California, Berkeley, his parents alma mater. Just four credits short of earning a degree, Bixby dropped out of college and was drafted into the Marines and he then moved to Hollywood, California, where he had a string of odd jobs that included bellhop and lifeguard. He organized shows at a resort in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, in 1959, he was hired to work as a model and to do commercial work for General Motors and Chrysler. In 1961, Bixby was in the musical The Boy Friend at the Detroit Civic Theater, returning to Hollywood to make his television debut on an episode of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. He became a highly regarded character actor and guest-starred in many 1960s TV series, including Ben Casey, The Twilight Zone, The Andy Griffith Show, Dr. Kildare, Straightaway and he also joined the cast of The Joey Bishop Show in 1962. In 1963, he played a sailor with a Napoleon tattoo in the movie Irma La Douce, Bixby took the role of young reporter Tim OHara in the 1963 CBS sitcom, My Favorite Martian, in which he co-starred with Ray Walston. By 1966, though, high production costs forced the series to come to an end after 107 episodes. After the cancellation of Martian, Bixby starred in five movies, Ride Beyond Vengeance, Doctor, Youve Got to Be Kidding. and two of Elvis Presleys movies, Clambake, and Speedway. He turned down the role as Marlo Thomass boyfriend in the successful That Girl, though he later guest-starred on the show, in 1969, Bixby starred in his second high-profile television role, as Tom Corbett in The Courtship of Eddies Father, a comedy-drama on ABC. The series concerned a widowed father raising a son, managing a major syndicated magazine. This series was in the vein of other 1960s and 1970s sitcoms that dealt with widowerhood, such as The Andy Griffith Show, eddie was played by novice actor Brandon Cruz. The pair developed a rapport that translated to an off-camera friendshipBill Bixby – Bixby as The Magician, 1973
17. Brisbane Lions – The Brisbane Lions is a professional Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League. The club is based in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, the club was formed in 1996 from the merger of the Fitzroy Lions and the Brisbane Bears. The Lions are one of the most successful AFL clubs of the 21st century, having appeared in four consecutive AFL Grand Finals from 2001 to 2004, the club is based at The Gabba. The team is captained by Dayne Beams and coached by Chris Fagan, the Brisbane Lions were officially launched on 1 November 1996, joining the national competition in 1997. In their first year as a club the Lions made the finals. The following year, however, they finished in last position, as the Brisbane Lions, the club won its first AFL premiership in the 2001 AFL Grand Final, defeating Essendon 15.18 to 12.10. Lions utility player Shaun Hart won the Norm Smith Medal as best on ground in the Grand Final. In 2002, the Lions won back-to-back premierships when they again defeated Collingwood 9.12 to 10.15 in the 2002 AFL Grand Final in cold and wet conditions at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Early in the contest the Lions lost both ruckman Beau McDonald and utility player Martin Pike to injury and had to complete the match with a limited bench, however, they sealed their place in history as an AFL dynasty by thrashing the Magpies in cool but sunny conditions. At one stage in the quarter the Lions led by almost 80 points before relaxing when the match was well and truly won. The final score of 20.14 to 12.12 saw the club only the fourth in VFL/AFL history to win three consecutive premierships and the first since the creation of the AFL. Simon Black claimed the Norm Smith Medal with a dominant 39 possession match, the 2004 season saw Brisbane remain in the top portion of the ladder for most of the season. Port Adelaide had finished on top of the ladder and hosted the preliminary final in Adelaide. Despite this setback, Brisbane beat Geelong and reached the AFL Grand Final for the fourth consecutive year and their opponents, Port Adelaide, playing in their first ever grand final, were too good on the day and recorded a 40-point win. The Lions began the 2006 season optimistically, but injuries plagued the club. The Brisbane Lions finished runner up in the 2007 NAB Cup and that year, the Lions failed to make the finals for a third successive year in 2007. The Lions began the 2008 NAB Cup shakily, losing to Essendon by 27 points, the team struggled for the season and missed out on the finals with a 10–12 record, losing 3 games despite having at least 5 more scoring shots in each of those games. Coach Leigh Matthews resigned at the end of the season after 10 seasons and 3 premierships with the club, the Lions made a good start in the 2009 NAB Cup under new senior coach Michael Voss by registering a 9-point win over St KildaBrisbane Lions – Brisbane Lions logo from 2001 to 2009
18. Bo Diddley – His use of African rhythms and a signature beat, a simple five-accent hambone rhythm, is a cornerstone of hip hop, rock, and pop. He is also recognized for his innovations, including his distinctive rectangular guitar. Born in McComb, Mississippi, as Ellas Otha Bates, he was adopted and raised by his mothers cousin, Gussie McDaniel, in 1934, the McDaniel family moved to the South Side of Chicago, where he dropped the Otha and became Ellas McDaniel. He performed until he was 18, however, he was more interested in the pulsating, rhythmic music he heard at a local Pentecostal church and took up the guitar. Green became a near-constant member of McDaniels backing band, the two often trading joking insults with each other during live shows, during the summers of 1943 and 1944, he played at the Maxwell Street market in a band with Earl Hooker. By 1951 he was playing on the street with backing from Roosevelt Jackson on washtub bass and Jody Williams, Williams later played lead guitar on Who Do You Love. In 1951 he landed a spot at the 708 Club, on Chicagos South Side, with a repertoire influenced by Louis Jordan, John Lee Hooker. In late 1954, he teamed up with harmonica player Billy Boy Arnold, drummer Clifton James and bass player Roosevelt Jackson and recorded demos of Im a Man and Bo Diddley. They re-recorded the songs at Chess Studios, with an ensemble comprising Otis Spann, Lester Davenport, Frank Kirkland. The record was released in March 1955, and the A-side, Bo Diddley, the origin of the stage name Bo Diddley is unclear. McDaniel claimed that his peers gave him the name, which he suspected was an insult and he also said that the name first belonged to a singer his adoptive mother knew. Harmonicist Billy Boy Arnold said that it was a local name, which Leonard Chess adopted as McDaniels stage name. McDaniel also stated that it was his nickname as a Golden Gloves boxer, a diddley bow is a homemade single-string instrument played mainly by farm workers in the South. It probably has influences from the West African coast, in the American slang term bo diddly, bo is an intensifier and diddly is a truncation of diddly squat, which means absolutely nothing. On November 20,1955, Bo Diddley appeared on the television program The Ed Sullivan Show. When someone on the shows staff overheard him casually singing Sixteen Tons in the dressing room, seeing Bo Diddley on the cue card, he thought he was to perform both his self-titled hit single and Sixteen Tons. Sullivan was furious and banned Bo Diddley from his show, reputedly saying that he wouldnt last six months, Chess Records included Bo Diddleys Sixteen Tons on the 1960 album Bo Diddley Is a Gunslinger. Bo Diddleys hit singles continued in the 1950s and 1960s, Pretty Thing, Say Man and he also released numerous albums, including Bo Diddley Is a Gunslinger and Have Guitar, Will TravelBo Diddley – Bo Diddley
19. Country music – Country music is a genre of United States popular music that originated in the southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from the genre of United States, such as folk music. Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Bristol, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. S. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music, based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum, historians have also noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage. The first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville, during the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall. Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genresCountry music – Jimmie Rodgers
20. Celebrity – Celebrity status is often associated with wealth, while fame often provides opportunities to make money. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are commonly associated with celebrity status, People may also become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Throughout recorded history there are accounts of people who attracted the trappings of celebrity which would be recognized today, athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, and received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome similarly lauded actors and notorious gladiators, and Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime, in the 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder. He was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him, the cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th Century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation. The establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame, for example, London, newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity. The movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th Century, yet, celebrity wasnt always tied to actors in films, especially when cinema was starting out as a medium. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star, unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not primarily actors, for example, presenters, talk show hosts and news readers. In the sixties and early seventies the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing. In most cases the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, cultures and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, which is French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television, movie, a person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another. S. Whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States, regions within a country, or cultural communities can also have their own celebrity systems, especially in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, newscasters, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities and these informal rankings indicate a placing within a hierarchy. However, due to differing levels of celebrity in different regions, a Brazilian actor might be a B-list action film actor in the U. S. but an A-list star in Portugal. Some elements are associated with fame, such as appearing on the cover of Time, being spoofed in Mad, having a wax statue in Madame Tussauds, certain people are known even to people unfamiliar with the area in which they excelled. If one has to name a famous boxer, they are likely to name Muhammad Ali or Mike Tyson. The same phenomenon is true for fictional characters, superman, Spider-Man, The Hulk, Wonder Woman and Batman represent super heroes to a far wider audience than that of the comics and graphic novels in which they appear. Disney have themeparks around the world rely on the fame of its creations headed by Mickey MouseCelebrity – Association footballer David Beckham is famous, not just for his sporting achievements but his fashion, product endorsements and his marriage to pop star Victoria Beckham.
21. Cleveland Browns – The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference North division. The Browns play their games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea. The Browns official colors are brown, orange and white and they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets and are the only team named after a specific person, original coach Paul Brown. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B, McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference. The Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the four active seasons. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers, from 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl in that period. In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore, Maryland. The Browns intellectual property, including name, logos, training facility, and history, were kept in trust. A new team would be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation, the Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success and they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, and no playoff wins. The franchise has also noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks. To date, the Browns overall win-loss record since 1999 is 88–200, the Browns origins date to 1944, when taxicab magnate Arthur B. Mickey McBride secured the rights to a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. S, early in 1945, McBride named 36-year-old Ohio State Buckeyes coach Paul Brown as the teams head coach and general manager and gave him a share in its profits. The move surprised and upset Buckeye fans, who had hoped he would resume his successful run at the school after the war, the name of the team was at first left up to Paul Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns. The franchise and the Cleveland Plain Dealer then held a naming contest to publicize the team, in June 1945, a committee selected Panthers as the new teams name, named after a failed American Football League franchise in Cleveland which only lasted a single season in 1926. It is unclear whether Panthers was the highest vote-getter, or if it was second-highest behind Browns, however, the owner of the failed AFL Panthers franchise, General C. X. Zimmerman, indicated that he owned the name Cleveland Panthers, at this point, Paul Brown bowed to popular sentiment and agreed to the Browns nameCleveland Browns – Paul Brown, the first head coach and namesake of the Browns, who won four AAFC and three NFL championships as coach of the Browns, is a Pro Football Hall of Fame member, and is widely regarded as one of football's greatest coaches of all time.
22. Coca-Cola – Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company. The drinks name refers to two of its ingredients, which were kola nuts and coca leaves. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a secret, although a variety of reported recipes. The Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, which is sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar, the bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores, restaurants and vending machines throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants, the Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name. Based on Interbrands best global brand study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the third most valuable brand. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, confederate Colonel John Pemberton, who was wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at Pembertons Eagle Drug and Chemical House and he may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French coca wine. It is also worth noting that a Spanish drink called Kola Coca was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, the patent for this Spanish drink was bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nerve tonic, in 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca. The first sales were at Jacobs Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, indigestion, nerve disorders, headaches, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market, a co-partnership had been formed on January 14,1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen, J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Not codified by any signed document, a statement given by Asa Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pembertons company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name Coca-Cola belonged to his son, Charley, Charleys exclusive control over the Coca Cola name became a continual thorn in Asa Candlers side. Candlers oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University, in this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically statesCoca-Cola – a Coca-Cola bottle
23. Chet Atkins – Chester Burton Chet Atkins known as Mr. He was primarily known as a guitarist and he also played the mandolin, fiddle, banjo, and ukulele. Atkins signature picking style was inspired by Merle Travis, other major guitar influences were Django Reinhardt, George Barnes, Les Paul, and, later, Jerry Reed. His distinctive picking style and musicianship brought him admirers inside and outside the country scene, among many honors, Atkins received 14 Grammy Awards and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. He also received nine Country Music Association awards for Instrumentalist of the Year and he was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, and the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum. Atkins was born on June 20,1924, in Luttrell, Tennessee and his parents divorced when he was six, after which he was raised by his mother. He was the youngest of three boys and a girl and he started out on the ukulele, later moving on to the fiddle, but traded his brother Lowell an old pistol and some chores for a guitar when he was nine. He stated in his 1974 autobiography, We were so poor, forced to relocate to Fortson, Georgia, outside of Columbus, to live with his father because of a critical asthma condition, Atkins was a sensitive youth who made music his obsession. Because of his illness, he was forced to sleep in a chair to breathe comfortably. On those nights, he played his guitar until he fell asleep holding it, while living in Fortson, he attended the historic Mountain Hill School. He returned in the 1990s to play a series of charity concerts to save the school from demolition, Atkins became an accomplished guitarist while he was in high school. He used the restroom in the school to practice, because it gave better acoustics and his first guitar had a nail for a nut and was so bowed that only the first few frets could be used. He later purchased an electric guitar and amp, but he had to travel many miles to find an electrical outlet. Later in life, he gave himself the honorary degree CGP. In 2011, his daughter Merle Atkins Russell bestowed the CGP degree on his longtime sideman Paul Yandell and she then declared no more CGPs would be allowed by the Atkins estate. His half-brother Jim was a successful guitarist who worked with the Les Paul Trio in New York, Atkins did not have a strong style of his own until 1939, when he heard Merle Travis picking over WLW radio. This early influence dramatically shaped his unique playing style, whereas Traviss right hand used his index finger for the melody and thumb for bass notes, Atkins expanded his right-hand style to include picking with his first three fingers, with the thumb on bass. Chet Atkins was a ham radio general class licensee, formerly using the call sign WA4CZD, he obtained the vanity call sign W4CGP in 1998 to include the CGP designationChet Atkins – Chet Atkins
24. Doris Day – Doris Day is a retired American actress and singer, and continuing animal welfare activist. After she began her career as a big band singer in 1939, her popularity increased with her first hit recording Sentimental Journey, in 1948, Day was given a key part in the film Romance on the High Seas, despite not having any acting experience. Its director, Michael Curtiz, gave her the part since she looked like the All-American Girl and it led to a 20-year career in film, including a string of musicals and romantic comedies beginning in the 1950s. She starred with leading men such as Clark Gable in Teachers Pet, Rock Hudson in Pillow Talk and Send Me No Flowers, Cary Grant in That Touch of Mink and she was usually one of the top 10 singers between 1951 and 1966. As an actress, she became the biggest female star in the early 1960s. In 2011 – well into her late 80s – she released her 29th studio album, My Heart, among her awards, Day has received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and a Legend Award from the Society of Singers. She has been Oscar nominated six times, and in 1989 was given the Cecil B, deMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures. In 2004, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom followed in 2011 by the Los Angeles Film Critics Associations Career Achievement Award. Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff was born on April 3,1922, in Cincinnati, Ohio, the daughter of Alma Sophia, a housewife, and William Joseph Kappelhoff, All of her grandparents were German immigrants. The youngest of three siblings, she had two brothers, Richard and Paul, several years older. Due to her fathers alleged infidelity, her parents separated and she developed an early interest in dance, and in the mid-1930s formed a dance duo with Jerry Doherty that performed locally in Cincinnati. A car accident on October 13,1937, injured her legs, while recovering, Day started to sing along with the radio and discovered a talent she did not know she had. But the one radio voice I listened to above others belonged to Ella Fitzgerald. There was a quality to her voice that fascinated me, and Id sing along with her, trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, observing her daughter rekindled Almas interest in show business, and she decided to give Doris singing lessons. She engaged a teacher, Grace Raine, after three lessons, Raine told Alma that young Doris had tremendous potential, which led Alma to give her daughter three lessons a week for the price of one. Years later, Day said that Raine had the biggest effect on her singing style, during her radio performances, Day first caught the attention of Barney Rapp, who was looking for a girl vocalist and asked if Day would like to audition for the job. According to Rapp, he had auditioned about 200 singers when Day got the job, while working for Rapp in 1939, she adopted the stage surname Day, at Rapps suggestion. Rapp felt that Kappelhoff was too long for marquees, and he admired her rendition of the song Day After Day, after working with Rapp, Day worked with bandleaders Jimmy James, Bob Crosby, and Les BrownDoris Day – Publicity photo, 1957
25. Depeche Mode – Depeche Mode /dᵻˌpɛʃˈmoʊd/ are an English electronic band that formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex. The group consists of founders Dave Gahan, Martin Gore, Depeche Mode released their debut album Speak & Spell in 1981, bringing the band onto the British new wave scene. Original band member Vince Clarke, left the band after the release of the album, leaving the band as a trio to record A Broken Frame, released the following year. Gore took over the songwriting duties and, later in 1982, Alan Wilder officially joined the band to fill Clarkes spot. Depeche Mode have been a trio again since 1995, when Wilder left, the bands last albums of the 1980s, Black Celebration and Music for the Masses, established them as a dominant force on the mainstream electronic music scene. A highlight of this era was the concert at the Pasadena Rose Bowl. In the new decade, Depeche Mode released Violator, a mainstream success, now a trio once again, the band released Ultra in 1997, recorded at the height of Gahans near-fatal drug abuse, Gores alcoholism and seizures, and Fletchers depression. Depeche Mode have had 50 songs in the UK Singles Chart and thirteen top 10 albums in the UK chart, Q included the band in the list of the 50 Bands That Changed the World. Depeche Mode also rank number 98 on VH1s 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, Depeche Modes origins date to 1977, when schoolmates Vince Clarke and Andy Fletcher formed a Cure-influenced band called No Romance In China, with Clarke on vocals and guitar and Fletcher on bass. Fletcher would later recall, Why am I in the band and it was accidental right from the beginning. I was actually forced to be in the band, I played the guitar and I had a bass, it was a question of them roping me in. In 1979, Clarke played guitar in an Ultravox rip-off band, in 1978–79, Martin Gore played guitar in an acoustic duo, Norman and the Worms, with school friend Phil Burdett on vocals. In 1979, Marlow, Gore and friend Paul Redmond formed a band called the French Look, with Marlow on vocals/keyboards, Gore on guitar and Redmond on keyboards. In March 1980, Clarke, Gore and Fletcher formed a band called Composition of Sound, with Clarke on vocals/guitar, Gore on keyboards and Fletcher on bass. Soon after the formation of Composition of Sound, Clarke heard Wirral band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, along with OMD, other early influences included the Human League, Daniel Miller and Fad Gadget. Clarke and Fletcher switched to synthesisers, working odd jobs in order to buy or borrow the instruments from friends. Dave Gahan joined the band in 1980 after Clarke heard him perform at a scout hut jam session, singing a rendition of David Bowies Heroes. When explaining the choice for the new name taken from a French fashion magazine, Dépêche mode, Gore said, I like the sound of thatDepeche Mode – Depeche Mode in concert, 2006. Additional musicians Peter Gordeno (far left) and Christian Eigner (centre-left), with original members Dave Gahan (centre), Martin Gore (centre-right) and Andy Fletcher (far right).
26. Dolly Parton – After achieving success as a songwriter for others, Dolly Parton made her album debut in 1967, with her album Hello, Im Dolly. However, in the new millennium, Parton achieved commercial success again and has released albums on independent labels since 2000, including albums on her own label, Parton is the most honored female country performer of all time. Achieving 25 RIAA certified Gold, Platinum, and Multi-Platinum awards, she has had 25 songs reach No.1 on the Billboard country music charts, a record for a female artist. She has 41 career top 10 country albums, a record for any artist, all-inclusive sales of singles, albums, hits collections, and digital downloads during her career have topped 100 million worldwide. Parton has received 46 Grammy nominations, in 1999, Parton was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. She has composed over 3,000 songs, notably I Will Always Love You, Jolene, Coat of Many Colors and she is also one of the few to have received at least one nomination from the Academy Awards, Grammy Awards, Tony Awards, and Emmy Awards. As an actress, she starred in such as 9 to 5, The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, Rhinestone. Parton was born in Sevier County, Tennessee, the fourth of 12 children of Robert Lee Parton, a farmer and construction worker, Partons middle name comes from her maternal great-great grandmother, Rebecca Whitted. She has described her family as being dirt poor, Partons father paid the doctor who helped deliver her with a bag of oatmeal. She outlined her familys poverty in her early songs Coat of Many Colors and they lived in a rustic, one-room cabin in Locust Ridge, just north of the Greenbrier Valley of the Great Smoky Mountains, a predominantly Pentecostal area. Music played an important role in her early life and she was brought up in the Church of God, the church her grandfather, Jake Robert Owens pastored. Her earliest public performances were in the church, beginning at age six, at seven, she started playing a homemade guitar. When she was eight years old, her uncle bought her first real guitar, Parton began performing as a child, singing on local radio and television programs in the East Tennessee area. By ten, she was appearing on The Cas Walker Show on both WIVK Radio and WBIR-TV in Knoxville, Tennessee, the day after she graduated from high school in 1964, she moved to Nashville. Her songs were recorded by other artists during this period, including Kitty Wells. She signed with Monument Records in 1965, at 19, where she was pitched as a bubblegum pop singer. She released a string of singles, but the one that charted, Happy, Happy Birthday Baby. Although she expressed a desire to record country material, Monument resisted, after her composition, Put It Off Until Tomorrow, as recorded by Bill Phillips, went to number six on the country chart in 1966, the label relented and allowed her to record countryDolly Parton – Parton accepting an Applause award for Dollywood, November 2010
27. David Bowie – David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer, songwriter and actor. He was a figure in music for over five decades, regarded by critics and musicians as an innovator. His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, his music, during his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million worldwide, made him one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded nine platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, in the US, he received five platinum and seven gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child, eventually studying art, music and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. Space Oddity became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969, after a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single Starman and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, in 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth and released Station to Station. Heroes and Lodger followed, each reached the UK top five. He then reached his peak in 1983 with Lets Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with styles, including industrial. He stopped concert touring after 2004, and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006, in 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with the release of The Next Day. He remained musically active until he died of cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. David Robert Jones was born on 8 January 1947, in Brixton, south London and his mother, Margaret Mary Peggy, was born in Kent, and had Irish ancestry, she worked as a waitress. His father, Haywood Stenton John Jones, from Yorkshire, was an officer for the childrens charity Barnardos. The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, near the border of the south London areas of Brixton, Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to the suburb of Bromley and his voice was considered adequate by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. Upon listening to Little Richards song Tutti Frutti, Bowie would later say, presleys impact on him was likewise emphatic, I saw a cousin of mine dance to. Hound Dog and I had never seen her get up and be moved so much by anything and it really impressed me, the power of the musicDavid Bowie – Bowie during the Heathen Tour in 2002
28. Dennis Hopper – Dennis Lee Hopper was an American actor, filmmaker, photographer and artist. He attended the Actors Studio, made his first television appearance in 1954, in the next ten years he made a name in television, and by the end of the 1960s had appeared in several films. Hopper also began a prolific and acclaimed photography career in the 1960s, Hopper made his directorial film debut with Easy Rider, which he and co-star Peter Fonda wrote with Terry Southern. The film earned Hopper a Cannes Film Festival Award for Best First Work, Film critic Matthew Hays notes that, no other persona better signifies the lost idealism of the 1960s than that of Dennis Hopper. Hopper was unable to capitalize on his Easy Rider success for several years, in 1970 he filmed The Last Movie, cowritten by Stewart Stern and photographed by Laszlo Kovacs in Peru, and completed production in 1971. On viewing the first release print, fresh from the lab, in his room at Universal, MCA founder Jules Stein rose from his chair and said. He worked on small projects until he found new fame for his role as the American photojournalist in Apocalypse Now. He went on to helm his second directorial work Out of the Blue, for which he was honored at Cannes. His third directorial outing came about through Colors, followed by an Emmy-nominated lead performance in Paris Trout, Hopper found even greater fame for portraying the villains of the films Super Mario Bros. Hoppers later work included a role in the short-lived television series Crash. Hopper has an additional credit in the completed, but unreleased Orson Welles drama The Other Side of the Wind. Hopper was born Dennis Lee Hopper on May 17,1936, in Dodge City, Kansas, Hopper had two brothers, Marvin and David. After World War II, the moved to Kansas City, Missouri. At the age of 13, Hopper and his moved to San Diego. Hopper was voted most likely to succeed at Helix High School and it was there that he developed an interest in acting, studying at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego, and the Actors Studio in New York City. Hopper struck up a friendship with actor Vincent Price, whose passion for art influenced Hoppers interest in art and he was especially fond of the plays of William Shakespeare. Hopper was reported to have a role in Johnny Guitar in 1954. Hopper made his debut on film in two roles with James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause and GiantDennis Hopper – Hopper at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival
29. Dubbing (filmmaking) – The process usually takes place on a dub stage. After sound editors edit and prepare all necessary tracks, the mixer or mixers proceed to balance all of the elements. In the past, dubbing was practiced primarily in musicals when the actor had a singing voice. Today, dubbing enables the screening of material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production. Films, videos, and sometimes video games are dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. In foreign distribution, dubbing is common in theatrically released films, television films, television series, cartoons, the insertion of voice actor performances for animation, such as computer-generated imagery or animated cartoons, is often referred to as ADR although it generally does not replace existing dialogue. In conventional film production, a sound mixer records dialogue during filming. During post-production, a sound editor, or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film. ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which place in a specialized sound studio. The actor, usually the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound, over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the lines while watching the scene, the most suitable take becomes the final version. The ADR process does not always take place in a post-production studio, the process may be recorded on location, with mobile equipment. Sometimes, a different actor than the actor on set is used during ADR. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader portrayed by David Prowse, in post-production and it provides a more precise guide for the actors, directors, and technicians, and can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The rythmo band is projected in the studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture, Studio time is used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text, picture, and audio cues, actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone. With ADR, actors can average 10–12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of 35-50 lines per hour, However, the preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in a production line. VideoDubber, a startup company from Israel, developed an automated dubbing SaaS platform that enables automated dubbing of video content to over 40 languages using digitized voices. It was the first to dub a full TV channel using this technology for a Spanish cable provider in July 2015, Media Movers, Inc. a dubbing company, has developed a piece of proprietary software that can automatically sync ADR/dubbed tracks with pre-defined algorithms. TM Systems received Emmy awards in 2002 and 2007 for their dubbing and subtitling software, Dubbing is often used to localize a foreign movieDubbing (filmmaking) – Dubbing studio
30. Don McLean – Donald Don McLean III is an American singer-songwriter best known for the 1971 album American Pie, containing the songs American Pie and Vincent. McLeans grandfather and father were also named Donald McLean, the Buccis, the family of McLeans mother, Elizabeth, came from Abruzzo in central Italy. They left Italy and settled in Port Chester, New York and he has another extended family in Los Angeles and Boston. Though some of his musical influences included Frank Sinatra and Buddy Holly, as a teenager, McLean became interested in folk music. Childhood asthma meant that McLean missed long periods of school, particularly music lessons, by age 16 he had bought his first guitar and began making contacts in the music business, becoming friends with folk singers Erik Darling and Fred Hellerman, both members of the Weavers. Hellerman said, He called me one day and said, Id like to come and visit you and we became good friends - he has the most remarkable music memory of anyone Ive ever known. When McLean was 15, his father died, fulfilling his fathers request, McLean graduated from Iona Preparatory School in 1963, and briefly attended Villanova University, dropping out after four months. After leaving Villanova, McLean became associated with famed folk music agent Harold Leventhal for several months before teaming up with personal manager Herb Gart for 18 years and he attended night school at Iona College and received a bachelors degree in business administration in 1968. Later that year, with the help of a grant from the New York State Council on the Arts, McLean began reaching an audience, with visits to towns up. He learned the art of performing from his friend and mentor Pete Seeger, McLean accompanied Seeger on his Clearwater boat trip up the Hudson River in 1969 to raise awareness about environmental pollution in the river. During this time McLean wrote songs that would appear on his first album, McLean co-edited the book Songs and Sketches of the First Clearwater Crew with sketches by Thomas B. Allen for which Pete Seeger wrote the foreword. Seeger and McLean sang Shenandoah on the 1974 Clearwater album, McLean recorded Tapestry in 1969 in Berkeley, California, during the student riots. After being rejected 72 times by labels, the album was released by Mediarts, McLeans major break came when Mediarts was taken over by United Artists Records, thus securing the promotion of a major label for his second album, American Pie. The album spawned two No.1 hits in the song and Vincent. American Pies success made McLean an international star and piqued interest in his first album, which charted more than two years after its initial release. McLeans magnum opus, American Pie, is a sprawling, impressionistic ballad inspired partly by the deaths of Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, the song popularized the expression The Day the Music Died in reference to this event. The song was recorded on May 26,1971, and a month later received its first radio airplay on New Yorks WNEW-FM and WPLJ-FM to mark the closing of Fillmore East, the famous New York concert hall. American Pie reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 from January 15-February 5,1972, the single also topped the Billboard Easy Listening surveyDon McLean – Don McLean at the Royal Albert Hall in 2012
31. Dolores Fuller – Dolores Agnes Fuller was an American actress and songwriter best known as the one-time girlfriend of the low-budget film director Ed Wood. She played the girlfriend in Glen or Glenda, co-starred in Woods Jail Bait. Later, Elvis Presley recorded a number of her songs written for his films and her first screen appearance was at the age of 10, when she appeared briefly in Frank Capra’s It Happened One Night. According to Fuller, the lead in Bride of the Monster was written for her. In August 1954, Fuller was cast in Woods The Vampires Tomb, Frank Yaconelli was named as her co-star and comic killer. She ended up making an appearance in Bride of the Monster, Fuller hosted a benefit for Lugosi which preceded the showing of Bride of the Atom on May 11,1955. A cocktail party was held at the Gardens Restaurant at 4311 Magnolia Avenue in Burbank, vampira attended and was escorted by Paul Marco. A single screening of the film was presented at the Hollywood Paramount and she became his girlfriend shortly thereafter and began acting in his films. Fuller had already had experience on television in Queen for a Day. As Fuller remembered, she was the one putting bread on the table, another quote from her, I had a size four and a half foot, so I modeled the slippers in an artists short smock. I completely messed up my job, I was what they called a no show and she also appeared on an episode of Its a Great Life as the blonde in the mink coat. Fuller went into a partnership with composer Ben Weisman and co-wrote one song, Rock-A-Hula Baby. It was a beginning that eventually led to Elvis Presley recording a dozen of her songs, including I Got Lucky, Fuller also had her music recorded by Nat King Cole, Peggy Lee, and other leading talents of the time. Grey quotes Fuller as saying of the period before her success, I loved him in a way, but I couldnt handle the transvestism. Its hard for me to deviate, I wanted a man that was all man. After we broke up, he would stand outside my home in Burbank, what good would I have done if I had married him. She has also quoted as saying that His dressing up didn’t bother me — we all have our little queer habits. Fullers autobiography, A Fuller Life, Hollywood, Ed Wood and Me, co-authored by Winnipeg writer Stone Wallace and her husband Philip Chamberlin, was published in 2008Dolores Fuller – Fuller in Jail Bait (1954)
32. The Evil Dead – The film focuses on five college students vacationing in an isolated cabin in a remote wooded area. After they find an audiotape that releases a legion of demons and spirits, members of the group suffer from demonic possession, leading to increasingly gory mayhem. Raimi and the cast produced the short film Within the Woods as a prototype to build the interest of potential investors, which secured Raimi US$90,000 to produce The Evil Dead. The film was shot on location in a cabin located in Morristown, Tennessee, in a difficult filming process that proved extremely uncomfortable for the majority of the cast. The low-budget horror film attracted the interest of producer Irvin Shapiro, Horror author Stephen King gave a rave review of the film, which helped convince New Line Cinema to serve as its distributor. Though a meager commercial success in the United States, the film made its budget back through worldwide distribution, the Evil Dead launched the careers of Campbell and Raimi, who would collaborate on several films together throughout the years, including Raimis Spider-Man trilogy. The film has spawned a franchise, beginning with two sequels written and directed by Raimi, Evil Dead II and Army of Darkness, as well as video games, comic books. The films protagonist Ash Williams is regarded as a cult icon, the fourth film, serving as a reboot, a remake, and a sequel, was titled Evil Dead and was released in 2013. Raimi co-produced the film alongside Campbell and the producer, Robert Tapert. As with the films, the follow-up television series Ash vs Evil Dead was created and produced by Sam and Ivan Raimi. They soon run into trouble, with Scotty nearly colliding with a truck and that night, while Cheryl is sketching an old clock, when she notices it stopping. She fears a faint, demonic voice outside her window say Join Us, after she shrugs it off, her hand becomes possessed, causing her to draw a picture that looks like a book with a deformed, evil face. Unsure of what happened and what to do, she not to mention the incident to the others. When Scotty plays it, the archeologists voice recites a series of incantations, resurrecting a mysterious, Cheryl becomes increasingly hysterical and locks herself in her room. Later, she hears voices and goes outside to investigate. Meanwhile, Ash gives Linda a silver necklace, which she absolutely loves, Cheryl is then attacked and raped by demonically possessed trees, but manages to escape. Unable to convince the others of what happened, she asks Ash to take her into town for the night, however, Ash soon discovers that the bridge has been destroyed. Back at the cabin, Ash listens to more of the tape, Cheryl succumbs to the entity and attacks the others, stabbing Linda in the ankle with a pencil before Scotty is able to force her into the cellarThe Evil Dead – Original theatrical release poster
33. Erfurt – Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. It lies in the part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of the Gera river. It is located 100 km south-west of Leipzig,300 km south-west of Berlin,400 km north of Munich and 250 km north-east of Frankfurt, together with neighbouring cities Weimar and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with approximately 400,000 inhabitants. Erfurts old town is one of the most intact medieval cities in Germany, tourist attractions include the Krämerbrücke, the ensemble of Erfurt Cathedral and Severikirche and Petersburg Citadel, one of the largest and best preserved town fortresses in Europe. The citys economy is based on agriculture, horticulture and microelectronics and its central location has led to it becoming a logistics hub for Germany and central Europe. Erfurt hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany as well as the public television children’s channel KiKa, the city is situated on the Via Regia, a medieval trade and pilgrims road network. Modern day Erfurt is also a hub for ICE high speed trains, Erfurt was first mentioned in 742, as Saint Boniface founded the diocese. Although the town did not belong to any of the Thuringian states politically and it was part of the Electorate of Mainz during the Holy Roman Empire, and later became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1802. From 1949 until 1990 Erfurt was part of the German Democratic Republic, notable institutions in Erfurt are the Federal Labour Court of Germany, the University of Erfurt and the Fachhochschule Erfurt. The university was founded in 1379, making it the first university to be established in area which constitutes modern day Germany. It closed in 1816 and was re-established in 1994, with the modern campus on what was a former teachers training college. Martin Luther was the most famous student of the institution, studying there from 1501, Erfurt is an old Germanic settlement. The earliest evidence of settlement dates from the prehistoric era, archaeological finds from the north of Erfurt revealed human traces from the paleolithic period. The Melchendorf dig in the city part showed a settlement from the neolithic period. The Thuringii inhabited the Erfurt area ca.480 and gave their name to Thuringia ca, all three dioceses were confirmed by Zachary the next year, though in 755 Erfurt was brought into the diocese of Mainz. That the place was already is borne out by archeological evidence. Throughout the Middle Ages, Erfurt was an important trading town because of its location, together with the other five Thuringian woad towns of Gotha, Tennstedt, Arnstadt and Langensalza it was the centre of the German woad trade, which made those cities very wealthy. During the 10th and 11th centuries both the Emperor and the Electorate of Mainz held some privileges in Erfurt, the German kings had an important monastery on Petersberg hill and the Archbishops of Mainz collected taxes from the peopleErfurt
34. Ed Sullivan – He is principally remembered as the creator and host of the television variety program The Toast of the Town, later popularly—and, eventually, officially—renamed The Ed Sullivan Show. Broadcast for 23 years from 1948 to 1971, it set a record as the variety show in US broadcast history. It was, by almost any measure, the last great TV show and its one of our fondest, dearest pop culture memories. Sullivan was a pioneer at many levels during televisions infancy. As TV critic David Bianculli wrote, Before MTV, Sullivan presented rock acts, before Bravo, he presented jazz and classical music and theater. Before the Comedy Channel, even there was the Tonight Show. Before there were 500 channels, before there was cable, Ed Sullivan was where the choice was, from the start, he was indeed the Toast of the Town. In 1996, Sullivan was ranked number 50 on TV Guides 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time. Sullivan was born in Harlem, New York City, the son of Elizabeth F. and Peter Arthur Sullivan, a customs house employee, the entire family loved music, and someone was always playing the piano or singing. A phonograph was a possession, the family loved playing all types of records on it. Sullivan was an athlete in high school, earning 12 athletic letters at Port Chester High School. He played halfback in football, he was a guard in basketball, with the baseball team, Ed was catcher and team captain, and he led the team to several championships. Baseball made an impression on him that would affect his career as well as the culture of America, Sullivan noted that in high school sports integration was taken for granted, When we went up into Connecticut, we ran into clubs that had Negro players. In those days this was accepted as commonplace, and so and it was just as simple as that. His first job was for the The Port Chester Daily Item—for which he had written sports news while in high school, in 1919 he joined The Hartford Post. The newspaper folded in his first week there, but he landed another job on The New York Evening Mail as a sports reporter, finally, in 1927, Mr. Sullivan joined The Evening Graphic as first sports writer and then sports editor. In 1929, when Walter Winchell moved to The Daily Mirror and his theatre column was later carried in the New York Daily News. His column, Little Old New York, concentrated on Broadway shows and gossip, as Winchells had, Sullivan continued writing for The News throughout his broadcasting career, and his popularity long outlived WinchellsEd Sullivan – Sullivan in 1955
35. Elvis Costello – Declan Patrick MacManus, better known by his stage name Elvis Costello, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, and record producer. His critically acclaimed album, My Aim Is True, was released in 1977. Shortly after recording it, he formed the Attractions as his backing band and his second album, This Years Model, was released in 1978, and was ranked number 11 by Rolling Stone on its list of the best albums from 1967–1987. His third album, Armed Forces, was released in 1979 and his first three albums all appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Costello and the Attractions toured and recorded together for the part of a decade. Much of Costellos work since has been as a solo artist, steeped in wordplay, the vocabulary of Costellos lyrics is broad. His music has drawn on many genres, one critic described him as a pop encyclopaedia. He has won awards in his career, including a Grammy Award. In 2003, Costello and the Attractions were inducted into the Rock, in 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Costello number 80 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Costello has co-written several original songs for motion pictures, including God Give Me Strength from Grace of My Heart, for the latter, Costello was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media. Costello was born in 25 August 1954 at St Marys Hospital, London, the son of Lilian Alda and Ross MacManus, Costello lived in Twickenham, attending Archbishop Myers R. C. School, which is now St Marks Catholic Secondary School, in neighbouring Hounslow, with a musically inclined father, Costellos first broadcast recording was with his father in a television commercial for R. Whites Lemonade. His father wrote and sang the song, Costello provided backing vocals, the advertisement won a silver award at the 1974 International Advertising Festival. Costello moved with his Liverpool-born mother to Birkenhead, Cheshire, in 1971, there, he formed his first band, a folk duo called Rusty, with Allan Mayes. After completing secondary school at St. Francis Xaviers College he moved back to London where he formed a band called Flip City. They were active from 1974 through to early 1976, around this time, Costello adopted the stage name D. P. His father had performed under the name Day Costello, and Elvis has said in interviews that he took this name as a tribute to his father and he worked for a short period as a computer operator at the Midland Bank computer centre in Bootle. He continued to write songs and began looking for a recording contractElvis Costello – Costello at the 2012 Riot Fest, Chicago
36. Frankfurt – The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.8 million and is Germanys second-largest metropolitan region after Rhine-Ruhr. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurts CBD. Frankfurt is culturally and ethnically diverse, with half of the population. A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates, Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, culture, education, tourism and traffic. Its the site of many global and European headquarters, Frankfurt Airport is among the worlds busiest. Automotive, technology and research, services, consulting, media, Frankfurts DE-CIX is the worlds largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the worlds largest trade fairs, major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the worlds largest motor show, the Music Fair, and the Frankfurt Book Fair, the worlds largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA. Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europes largest English Theatre and many museums, Frankfurts skyline is shaped by some of Europes tallest skyscrapers. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon. Its the seat of German sport unions for Olympics, football, Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the worlds largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. Frankfurt is considered a city as listed by the GaWC groups 2012 inventory. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011, among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013. Its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, rail, Frankfurt Airport is one of the worlds busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germanys flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most heavily used interchange in the EU, in 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual Quality of Living survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germanys most expensive city, Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline. It is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, the other well known and obvious nickname is BankfurtFrankfurt – Collage of Frankfurt, clockwise from top of left to right: Facade of the Römer and Frankfurt Cathedral, statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt Historical Museum, view of Frankfurt skyline and Main River
37. Frank Sinatra – Francis Albert Sinatra was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the music artists of all time. Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra began his career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943 and he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatras professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas and his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice n Easy. Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own label, Reprise Records. It was followed by 1968s collaboration with Duke Ellington, using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until a short time before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor. After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm and he appeared in various musicals such as On the Town, Guys and Dolls, High Society, and Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he associated with playing detectives. Sinatra would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B, on television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. While Sinatra never formally learned how to read music, he had a natural, intuitive understanding of it, a perfectionist, renowned for his impeccable dress sense and cleanliness, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname Ol Blue Eyes, Sinatra led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. He went on to marry Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976, Sinatra had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him the greatest singer of the 20th century, Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12,1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey. He was the child of Italian immigrants Antonino Martino Marty SinatraFrank Sinatra – Sinatra in 1957
38. Garth Brooks – Troyal Garth Brooks is an American country singer and songwriter. His integration of rock and roll elements into the genre has earned him immense popularity in the United States. Brooks has had success in the country single and album charts, with multi-platinum recordings and record-breaking live performances. He is also one of the worlds best-selling artists of all time, since 1989, Brooks has released 21 records in all, which include,12 studio albums,1 live album,3 compilation albums,3 Christmas albums and 4 box sets, along with 77 singles. He won several awards in his career, including 2 Grammy Awards,17 American Music Awards, troubled by conflicts between career and family, Brooks retired from recording and performing from 2001 until 2009. During this time, he sold millions of albums through a distribution deal with Walmart. In 2005, Brooks started a comeback, giving select performances. In 2009, he began Garth at Wynn, a periodic weekend residency show at Las Vegas Encore Theatre from December 2009 to January 2014, following the conclusion of the residency, Brooks announced his signing with Sony Music Nashville in July 2014. In September 2014, he began his tour, The Garth Brooks World Tour, with wife. His most recent album, Gunslinger, was released in November 2016, Brooks was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame on October 21,2012. Troyal Garth Brooks was born on February 7,1962, in Tulsa and this was the second marriage for each of his parents, giving Brooks four older half-siblings. The couple had two children together, Kelly and Garth, at their home in Yukon, Oklahoma, the family hosted weekly talent nights. All of the children were required to participate, either by singing or doing skits, Brooks learned to play both the guitar and banjo. As a child, Brooks often sang in casual family settings, in high school, he played football and baseball and ran track and field. He received a scholarship to Oklahoma State University in Stillwater. Brooks graduated in 1984 with a degree in advertising and his roommate, Ty England, later played guitar in his road band until going solo in 1995. In 1985, Brooks began his music career, singing and playing guitar in Oklahoma clubs and bars. Through his elder siblings, Brooks was exposed to a range of musicGarth Brooks – Brooks at the We Are One concert in 2009
39. George Harrison – George Harrison, MBE was an English guitarist, singer, songwriter, and music and film producer who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles. Although most of the Beatles songs were written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney and his songs for the group included Taxman, Within You Without You, While My Guitar Gently Weeps, Here Comes the Sun and Something, the last of which became the Beatles second-most covered song. Harrisons earliest musical influences included George Formby and Django Reinhardt, Carl Perkins, Chet Atkins and Chuck Berry were subsequent influences. By 1965 he had begun to lead the Beatles into folk rock through his interest in the Byrds and Bob Dylan, having initiated the bands embracing of Transcendental Meditation in 1967, he subsequently developed an association with the Hare Krishna movement. He also organised the 1971 Concert for Bangladesh with Indian musician Ravi Shankar, in his role as a music and film producer, Harrison produced acts signed to the Beatles Apple record label before founding Dark Horse Records in 1974 and co-founding HandMade Films in 1978. Harrison released several best-selling singles and albums as a solo performer, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. He is a two-time Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee – as a member of the Beatles in 1988, Harrisons first marriage, to model Pattie Boyd in 1966, ended in divorce in 1977. The following year he married Olivia Harrison, with whom he had one son, Harrison died in 2001, aged 58, from lung cancer. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered in the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India and he left an estate of almost £100 million. Born in Liverpool, United Kingdom, on 25 February 1943, Harrison was the youngest of four children of Harold Hargreaves Harrison and he had one sister, Louise, and two brothers, Harry and Peter. His mother was an assistant from a Catholic family with Irish roots. His future wife, the model Pattie Boyd, described Harrisons parents as quite short, an enthusiastic music fan, she was known among friends for her loud singing voice, which at times startled visitors by rattling the Harrisons windows. While pregnant with George, she listened to the weekly broadcast Radio India. Harrisons biographer Joshua Greene wrote, Every Sunday she tuned in to mystical sounds evoked by sitars and tablas, hoping that the music would bring peace. Harrison was born and lived the first six years of his life at 12 Arnold Grove, Wavertree, Liverpool, the home had an outdoor toilet and its only heat came from a single coal fire. In 1949 the family were offered a house and moved to 25 Upton Green. In 1948, at the age of five, Harrison enrolled at Dovedale Primary School and he passed the eleven-plus exam and attended Liverpool Institute High School for Boys from 1954 to 1959. Though the institute did offer a course, Harrison was disappointed with the absence of guitarsGeorge Harrison – Harrison at the White House in 1974
40. Gram Parsons – Ingram Cecil Connor III, known professionally as Gram Parsons, was an American singer, songwriter, guitarist, and pianist. Parsons is best known for his work within the music genre, he also popularized what he called Cosmic American Music, a hybrid of country, rhythm and blues, soul, folk. Besides recording as a solo artist, he played with the International Submarine Band, The Byrds and his relatively short career is described by AllMusic as enormously influential for country and rock, blending the two genres to the point that they became indistinguishable from each other. Parsons was born in Winter Haven, Florida, and developed an interest in music while attending Harvard University. He founded the International Submarine Band in 1966 and, after months of delay. Parsons joined The Byrds in early 1968, and played a role in the making of the seminal Sweetheart of the Rodeo album. After leaving the group in late 1968, Parsons and fellow Byrd Chris Hillman formed The Flying Burrito Brothers in 1969, releasing their debut, The Gilded Palace of Sin, the same year. The album was received but failed commercially, after a sloppy cross-country tour. Parsons was fired from the band before its release in early 1970 and he soon signed with A&M Records, but after several unproductive sessions he canceled his intended solo debut in early 1971. Parsons moved to France, where he lived for a period at Villa Nellcôte with his friend Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones. Returning to America, Parsons befriended Emmylou Harris through his friend and she assisted him on vocals for his first solo record, GP, released in 1973. Although it received enthusiastic reviews, the failed to chart. His next album met with a reception, and peaked at number 195 on Billboard. Several years of alcoholism and drug abuse severely deteriorated his health, since his death, Parsons has been recognized as an artist credited with helping to found both country rock and alt-country. His posthumous honors include the Americana Music Association Presidents Award for 2003, Ingram Cecil Connor III was born on November 5,1946, in Winter Haven, Florida, to Ingram Cecil and Avis Connor. The Connors normally resided at their residence in Waycross, Georgia. She was the daughter of citrus fruit magnate John A. Snively, Parsons father was a famous World War II flying ace, decorated with the Air Medal, who was present at the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. Biographer David Meyer characterized Parsons parents as loving, writing in Twenty Thousand Roads that they are remembered as affectionate parents, however, he also notes that unhappiness was eating away at the Connor family, Avis suffered from depression, and both parents were alcoholicsGram Parsons – Gram Parsons
41. Hee Haw – Hee Haw was an American television variety show featuring country music and humor with fictional rural Kornfield Kounty as a backdrop. It aired on CBS from 1969–1971 followed by a 21-year run in local syndication, the show was inspired by Rowan & Martins Laugh-In, the major difference being that Hee Haw was far less topical, and was centered on country music and rural culture. Hee Haws appeal, however, was not limited to a rural audience and it was successful in all of the major markets, including New York, Los Angeles, Boston, and Chicago. Other niche programs such as The Lawrence Welk Show and Soul Train also rose to prominence in syndication during the era. Like Laugh-In, the show minimized production costs by taping all of the sketches for a season in batches, setting up for the Cornfield one day. At the height of its popularity, a seasons worth of shows would be taped in two separate week-long sessions, then individual shows were assembled from edited sections. Only musical performances were taped with an audience, a laugh track was added to all other segments. The series was taped for CBS at its network affiliate WLAC-TV in downtown Nashville, the show was produced by Yongestreet Productions through the mid-1980s, it was later produced by Gaylord Entertainment, which distributed the show in syndication. The shows name was coined by show business talent manager and producer Bernie Brillstein, much of Hee Haws origin was Canadian. The series creators, comedy writers Frank Peppiatt and John Aylesworth, were from Canada, from 1969 until the late 1980s, Hee Haw was produced by Yongestreet Productions, named after Yonge Street, a major thoroughfare in Toronto. Gordie Tapp and Don Harron, both writer/performers on the show, were also Canadian, Hee Haw premiered on CBS as a summer 1969 replacement for The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. Though the show had respectable ratings, it was dropped in July 1971 by CBS as part of the so-called Rural Purge, silvermans view won out, and CBS canceled the rural shows in summer 1971. Undaunted, the put together a syndication deal for the show. After Owens left, Clark was assisted each week by a music celebrity co-host. Like Hee Haw, Lawrence Welk was picked up for syndication in the fall of 1971, in the fall of 1991, in an attempt to win back viewers and attract a younger audience, the shows format and setting underwent a dramatic overhaul. The changes included a new title, more pop-oriented country music, the first of the new shows aired in January 1992. Despite the attempt to keep the fresh, the changes alienated many of its longtime viewers while failing to gain the hoped-for younger viewers. During the summer of 1992, a decision was made to end first-run production, under the new format, Clark hosted a mixture of classic clips and new footageHee Haw – Hee Haw
42. Hillbilly – Hillbilly is a term for people who dwell in rural, mountainous areas in the United States, primarily in Appalachia and the Ozarks. Due to its strongly stereotypical connotations, the term can be offensive to those Americans of Appalachian or Ozark heritage, scholars argue this duality is reflective of the split ethnic identities in white America. The Appalachian Mountains were settled in the 18th century by settlers primarily from the Province of Ulster in Ireland, the settlers from Ulster were mainly Protestants who migrated to Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century from Scotland and Northern England. Many further migrated to the American colonies beginning in the 1730s, scholars argue that the term hillbilly originated from Scottish dialect. The term hill-folk referred to people that preferred isolation from the greater society and it is suggested that hill-folk and billie were combined when the Cameronians fled to the Highlands. Others have suggested the term originated in 17th century Ireland, during the Williamite War, some scholars disagree with this theory. … In America hillbilly was first attested only in 1898, which suggests a later, the term hillbilly spread in the years following the American Civil War. At this time, the country was developing both technologically and socially, but the Appalachian region was falling behind, before the war, Appalachia was not distinctively different from other rural areas of the country. Post-war, although the frontier pushed farther west, the region maintained frontier characteristics, Appalachians themselves were perceived as backward, quick to violence and inbred in their isolation. Fueled by news stories of mountain feuds such as that in the 1880s between the Hatfields and McCoys, the hillbilly stereotype developed in the late 19th to early 20th century. The classic hillbilly stereotype reached its current characterization during the years of the Great Depression when many left their homes to find work in other areas of the country. This movement North became known as the Hillbilly Highway, the movement brought these previously isolated communities into mainstream United States culture. Poor white mountaineers became central characters in newspapers, pamphlets and eventually, authors at this time were inspired by historical figures such as Davy Crockett and Daniel Boone. The mountaineer image transferred over to the 20th century where the hillbilly stereotype emerged, pop culture has perpetuated the hillbilly stereotype. The misrepresentation of Appalachian people in the media has led to great cultural distortion of Appalachian beliefs, practices, scholarly works suggest that the media has exploited both the Appalachian region and people by classifying them as hillbillies. These generalizations do not match the cultural experiences of Appalachians, Appalachians, like many other groups, do not subscribe to a single identity. One of the associated with stereotyping is that it is profitable. When hillbilly became a widely used term, entrepreneurs saw a window for potential revenue and they recycled the image and brought it to life through various forms of mediaHillbilly – The Hatfield clan in 1897.
43. Jello Biafra – Jello Biafra is the former lead singer and songwriter for the San Francisco punk rock band Dead Kennedys. He is currently both a musician and spoken word artist, after he left the Dead Kennedys, he took over the influential independent record label Alternative Tentacles, which he had co-founded in 1979 with Dead Kennedys bandmate East Bay Ray. Although now focused primarily on spoken word, he has continued as a musician in numerous collaborations, politically, Biafra is a member of the Green Party of the United States and actively supports various political causes. He ran for the partys Presidential nomination in 2000, finishing a distant second to Ralph Nader and he is a staunch believer in a free society, and utilizes shock value and advocates direct action and pranksterism in the name of political causes. Biafra is known to use absurdist media tactics, in the leftist tradition of the Yippies, to issues of civil rights. Eric Boucher was born in Boulder, Colorado, the son of Virginia, a librarian, and Stanley Wayne Boucher and he also had a sister, Julie J. Boucher, the Associate Director of the Library Research Service at the Colorado State Library. As a child, Eric Boucher developed an interest in politics that was encouraged by his parents. An avid news watcher, one of his earliest memories was of the John F. Kennedy assassination, Biafra says he has been a fan of rock music since first hearing it in 1965, when his parents accidentally tuned in to a rock radio station. Boucher was informed by his school guidance counselor that he should be spending his high school years preparing to become a dental hygienist. He began his career in music in January 1977 as a roadie for the rock band The Ravers. The Healers became infamous locally for their mainly improvised lyrics and avant garde music, in the autumn of that year, he began attending the University of California, Santa Cruz. In June 1978, he responded to an advertisement placed in a store by guitarist East Bay Ray, stating Guitarist wants to form punk band, and together they formed the Dead Kennedys. He began performing with the band under the stage name Occupant, but soon began to use his current stage name, a combination of the brand name Jell-O and the short-lived African state Biafra. Biafra wrote the lyrics, most of which were political in nature and displayed a sardonic, sometimes absurdist. In the tradition of UK anarcho-punk bands like Crass, the Dead Kennedys were one of the first US punk bands to write politically themed songs, the lyrics Biafra wrote helped popularize the use of humorous lyrics in hardcore. Biafra cites Joey Ramone as the inspiration for his use of humor in his songs, noting in particular songs by The Ramones such as Beat on the Brat, Biafra sang his riffs and melodies into a tape recorder, which he brought to the bands rehearsal and/or recording sessions. This later became a problem when the members of the Dead Kennedys sued Biafra over royalties. Biafras first popular song was the first single by the Dead Kennedys, the song, which spoofed California governor Jerry Brown, was the first of many political songs by the group and BiafraJello Biafra – Biafra performing with the Guantanamo School of Medicine in 2011
44. Jim Jarmusch – James Robert Jim Jarmusch is an American film director, screenwriter, actor, producer, editor, and composer. Stranger Than Paradise was added to the National Film Registry in December 2002, as a musician, Jarmusch has composed music for his films and released two albums with Jozef van Wissem. Jarmusch was born in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, the middle of three children of middle-class suburbanites. F, the first adult film he recalls seeing was the 1958 cult classic Thunder Road, the violence and darkness of which left an impression on the seven-year-old Jarmusch. Another B-movie influence from his childhood was Ghoulardi, an eccentric Cleveland television show which featured horror films, despite his enthusiasm for film, Jarmusch was an avid reader in his youth and had a greater interest in literature, which was encouraged by his grandmother. At one point, he took an apprenticeship with a commercial photographer and he later remarked, Growing up in Ohio was just planning to get out. After graduating from school in 1971, Jarmusch moved to Chicago. At Columbia, he studied English and American literature under professors including New York School avant garde poets Kenneth Koch, at Columbia, he began to write short semi-narrative abstract pieces and edited the undergraduate literary journal The Columbia Review. During his final year at Columbia, Jarmusch moved to Paris for what was initially a summer semester on an exchange program, there, he worked as a delivery driver for an art gallery, and spent most of his time at the Cinémathèque Française. Thats where I saw things I had only read about and heard about – films by many of the good Japanese directors, like Imamura, Ozu, Mizoguchi. When I came back from Paris, I was still writing, Jarmusch graduated from Columbia University in 1975. Broke and working as a musician in New York City after returning from Paris in 1976, despite his lack of experience in filmmaking, his submission of a collection of photographs and an essay about film secured his acceptance into the program. He studied there for four years, meeting fellow students and future collaborators Sara Driver, Tom DiCillo, Howard Brookner, during the late 1970s in New York City, Jarmusch and his contemporaries were part of an alternative culture scene centered on the CBGB music club. In his final year at New York University, Jarmusch worked as an assistant to the film noir director Nicholas Ray. On Jarmuschs return with the script, Ray reacted favourably to his students dissent. Jarmusch was the only person Ray brought to work – as his personal assistant – on Lightning Over Water, Ray died in 1979 after a long fight with cancer. The university, unimpressed with Jarmuschs use of his funding as well as the project itself, Jarmuschs final year university project was completed in 1980 as Permanent Vacation, his first feature film. It had its premiere at the International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg and won the Josef von Sternberg Award and it was made on a shoestring budget of around $12,000 in misdirected scholarship funds and shot by cinematographer Tom DiCillo on 16 mm film. The 75 minute quasi-autobiographical feature follows an adolescent drifter as he wanders around downtown Manhattan, the film was not released theatrically, and did not attract the sort of adulation from critics that greeted his later workJim Jarmusch – Jim Jarmusch