1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country consisting of territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. Overseas France include several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France has a total population of 66.7 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with the capital in the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. France emerged as a major European power with its victory in the Hundred Years' War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europe's dominant political, military power under Louis XIV. In the 19th century Napoleon established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies typically retained close economic and military connections with France.France – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Algeria – Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the largest in Africa. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999. Berbers are generally considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power. Energy exports are the backbone of the economy. The national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria is the founding member of the Maghreb Union. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā ` a truncated form of the older Jazā ` ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.Algeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
3. Andre Agassi – Andre Kirk Agassi is an American retired professional tennis player and former World No. 1, one of the game's most dominant players from the early 1990s to the mid-2000s. As a result, he is credited for helping to revive the popularity of tennis during the 1990s. Agassi also was part of a winning Davis Cup team in 1990, 1995. Agassi returned to World No. 1 in 1999 and enjoyed the most successful run of his career over the next four years. During his 20-plus career, he was known by the nickname "The Punisher". He is the founder of the Andre Agassi Charitable Foundation, which has raised over $60 million for at-risk children in Southern Nevada. In 2001, the Foundation opened the Andre Agassi College Preparatory Academy in Las Vegas, a K-12 public charter school for at-risk children. He has been married to fellow tennis player Steffi Graf since 2001. Andre Agassi was born to Elizabeth "Betty" Agassi. A Olympic boxer for Iran, stated he is from a mixed, mostly Armenian, heritage. He later elaborated that his grandfather was Assyrian who "married an Armenian woman." Betty, is a breast survivor. He has three older siblings – Rita, Philip and Tami. One of his ancestors changed his surname from Agassian to Agassi to avoid persecution.Andre Agassi – Andre Agassi
4. Andorra – Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, French are also commonly spoken. Andorra's tourism services an estimated million visitors annually. The euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world according to The Lancet. The origin of the Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses have been formulated. Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The pearl". Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter for fighting against the Moors.Andorra – Sant Joan de Caselles church, dating from the 11th century.
5. Agriculture – Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology. Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts. The agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, oils, spices. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, flax. Raw materials include bamboo. Useful materials are also produced by plants, such as resins, dyes, drugs, perfumes, biofuels and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants. The agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is also observed in certain species of ant, ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, their related services." This definition includes arable agronomy, horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, animal husbandry and forestry.Agriculture – Agriculture
6. Astronaut – An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, tourists. Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. With the suborbital flight of the privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut. The criteria for what constitutes human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Sporting Code for astronautics recognizes only flights that exceed an altitude of 100 kilometers. In the United States, professional, commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 50 miles are awarded astronaut wings. The three astronauts who have not reached low orbit are spaceplane pilots Joe Walker, Mike Melvill, Brian Binnie. As of November 2016, under the U.S. definition 558 people qualify as having reached space, above 50 miles altitude. Of eight X-15 pilots who exceeded 50 miles in altitude, only one exceeded 100 kilometers. Space travelers have spent including over 100 astronaut-days of spacewalks. As of 2016, the man with the longest cumulative time in space is Gennady Padalka, who has spent 879 days in space. Peggy A. Whitson holds the record for the most time in space by 377 days. Dryden preferred "cosmonaut", on the grounds that flights would occur in the cosmos, while the "astro" prefix suggested flight to the stars. Most NASA Space Task Group members preferred "astronaut", which survived as the preferred American term.Astronaut – NASA Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a Manned Maneuvering Unit outside Space Shuttle Challenger on shuttle mission STS-41-B in 1984.
7. Aruba – It measures 32 kilometres long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms a group referred as the ABC islands. Collectively, the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Dutch Caribbean. Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Sint Maarten. The citizens of these countries all share a single nationality: Dutch. But, for census purposes, is divided into eight regions. Its capital is Oranjestad. Unlike much of the Caribbean region, Aruba has an arid, cactus-strewn landscape. This climate has helped tourism as visitors to the island can reliably expect warm, sunny weather. It is densely populated, with a total of 102,484 inhabitants at the 2010 Census. It lies outside Hurricane Alley. Aruba's first inhabitants are thought to have been Caquetío Amerindians from the Arawak tribe, who migrated there from Venezuela to escape attacks by the Caribs. Fragments of the earliest known Indian settlements date back to 1000 AD. As sea currents made canoe travel to Caribbean islands difficult, Caquetio culture remained more closely associated with that of mainland South America. Europeans first learned of Aruba following the explorations for Spain in the summer of 1499.Aruba – The capital, Oranjestad
8. Angola – Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. Independence was achieved under communist rule backed by the Soviet Union after the protracted liberation war. Angola descended into an intense civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, especially since the end of the civil war. Angola's economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nation's wealth concentrated in a small sector of the population. Angola's 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, customs, traditions. Culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and Roman Catholicism, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, appearing as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter. The toponym was derived from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Khoi and San hunter-gatherers are the earliest known human inhabitants of the area. They were largely replaced by Bantu peoples during the Bantu migrations, though small numbers remain in parts of southern Angola to the present day.Angola – An image depicting Portuguese encounter with Kongo Royal family
9. Albania – It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. The present territory of Albania was part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe following the Balkan Wars, Albania was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. A socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations from much of the international community. In 1991, the Republic of Albania was established. Albania is a parliamentary republic. Tirana, is its financial and industrial heartland, with a population of about 800,000. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and infrastructure. Albania provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is an upper-middle economy with the service sector dominating the country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, the Union for the Mediterranean. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.Albania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
10. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918. The country was incorporated as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are internationally recognized pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh, found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a semi-presidential republic. The country is a member state for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan holds membership in 38 international organizations. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006. Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. All major political forces in the country are secularist.Azerbaijan – Petroglyphs in Gobustan dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value"
11. Aikido – Aikido is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as "the way of unifying life energy" or as "the way of harmonious spirit." Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury. Aikido techniques consist of turning a throw or joint lock that terminates the technique. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu. Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending partly on when they studied with him. Today aikido is found all over the world with broad ranges of emphasis. However, techniques formulated by most have concern for the well-being of the attacker. This has led to many possible interpretations of the word. 合 is mainly used in compounds to mean ` combine, meet', examples being 合同, 合成, 結合, 連合, 統合, 合意. One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique. Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba, referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei. The term'aikido' was coined in the twentieth century. Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but as an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During continuing today, aikido has evolved from the Aiki that Ueshiba studied into a variety of expressions throughout the world.Aikido – A version of the "four-direction throw" (shihōnage) with standing attacker and seated defender.
12. American Revolutionary War – Parliamentary acts which they claimed were illegal. Patriot protests escalated into boycotts, and, on December 16, 1773, they destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. The British government retaliated by closing the port of Boston. It then passed measures designed to punish the rebellious colonies. The Patriots responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a shadow government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies established conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to seize American munitions in April 1775 led to open combat between Crown forces and Patriot militia. Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776. The Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Later, he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the newly formed Continental Army, well as coordinating militia units. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British Crown decisively failed. On July 2, 1776, Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began his counterattack focused on recapturing New York City. Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington was able to capture a Hessian force at Trenton, drive the British out of New Jersey, restoring American confidence.American Revolutionary War – Clockwise from top left: Surrender of Lord Cornwallis after the Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Trenton, The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Guilford Court House
13. Alfred Korzybski – His best known dictum is "The map is not the territory". Korzybski was born in Warsaw, Poland which at that time was part of the Russian Empire. He was part of an Polish family whose members had worked as mathematicians, scientists, engineers for generations. Korzybski was educated in engineering. During the First World War Korzybski served in the Russian Army. After suffering other injuries, he moved to North America in 1916 to coordinate the shipment of artillery to Russia. He also lectured about the conflict promoting the sale of war bonds. After the War, he decided becoming a naturalized citizen in 1940. He married her in January 1919. Their marriage lasted until his death. Manhood of Humanity, was published in 1921. In the book, he explained in detail a new theory of humankind: mankind as a "time-binding" class of life. Korzybski's work culminated in the initiation of a discipline that he named general semantics. This should not be confused with semantics. The basic principles of general semantics, which include time-binding, are described in Sanity, published in 1933.Alfred Korzybski – Alfred Korzybski
14. Alfred Hitchcock – Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE was an English film director and producer, at times referred to as "The Master of Suspense". He pioneered many elements of psychological thriller genres. He became renowned as England's best director. Hitchcock became a US citizen in 1955. With a career spanning more than half a century, Hitchcock fashioned for a recognisable directorial style. His stylistic trademarks include the use of movement that mimics a person's gaze, forcing viewers to engage in a form of voyeurism. In addition, he used innovative forms of film editing. His work often features fugitives on the run alongside "icy blonde" female characters. Hitchcock is often regarded as the greatest British filmmaker. His flair was for narrative, engaging the emotions of the audience like no one else." Prior to 1980, there had long been talk of Hitchcock being knighted to film. Hitchcock later received his knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in the 1980 New Year Honours. In 2002, the MovieMaker named Hitchcock the most influential filmmaker of all time. Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was born at the time part of Essex. He was the youngest of three children of William Hitchcock, a greengrocer and poulterer, Emma Jane Hitchcock.Alfred Hitchcock – Studio publicity photo, circa 1955.
15. Amsterdam – Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 847,176 within the city proper, 2,431,000 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. Amsterdam's name derives as a dam of the river Amstel. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. Many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 19 -- 20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Seven of the world's 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. The city was previously ranked 3rd in innovation by 2thinknow in the Innovation Cities Index 2009. Famous Amsterdam residents included Anne Frank the diarist, the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. The earliest recorded use of the name "Aemstelredamme" comes from a document dated October 1275.Amsterdam
16. Audi – Audi is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi oversees worldwide operations from its headquarters in Bavaria, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide. The modern era of Audi essentially began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired from Daimler-Benz. The name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of the founder, August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Advancement through Technology". However, since 2007 Audi USA has used the slogan "Truth in Engineering". Audi, along with BMW and Mercedes are among the best-selling automobile brands in the world. Originally in 1885, company Wanderer was established, later becoming a branch of Audi AG. NSU, which also later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, later supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. Three years later in 1902 he moved to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On May, 1904 he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau.Audi – Audi head office in Ingolstadt
17. Alfred Nobel – Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, philanthropist. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. After reading a premature obituary which condemned him for profiting from the sales of arms, he bequeathed his fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic nobelium was named after him. His name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and AkzoNobel, which are descendants of mergers with companies Nobel himself established. Born in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel was the third son of Immanuel Nobel, Carolina Andriette Nobel. The couple had eight children. Only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood. Alfred Nobel's interest in technology was inherited in Stockholm. Following various business failures, Nobel's father grew successful there as a manufacturer of machine tools and explosives. He started work on the torpedo. In 1842, the family joined him in the city. For 18 months, from 1841 to 1842, Nobel went to the only school he ever attended in Stockholm. As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin; then, in 1850, went to Paris to further the work. There he met Ascanio Sobrero, who had invented nitroglycerin three years before.Alfred Nobel – Alfred Nobel
18. Anna Kournikova – Anna Sergeyevna Kournikova is a Russian former professional tennis player. Her status made her one of the best known tennis stars worldwide. At the peak of her fame, fans looking for images of Kournikova made her name one of the most common search strings on Google Search. Despite never winning a title, Kournikova reached No. 8 in 2000. She achieved greater success playing doubles, where she was at times the World No. 1 player. With Martina Hingis as her partner, Kournikova won Grand Slam titles in the WTA Championships in 2000. They referred to themselves as the "Spice Girls of Tennis". Kournikova's professional career ended prematurely including a herniated disk. Kournikova plays for the St. Louis Aces of World Team Tennis. She was a new trainer for season 12 of the television show The Biggest Loser, replacing Jillian Michaels, but did not return for season 13. Anna Kournikova was born in Moscow, Russia, on 7 June 1981. As of 2001, he was still a part-time martial arts instructor there. Her mother Alla had been a 400-metre runner. Allan, is a youth golf champion, featured in the 2013 documentary film The Short Game. Sergei Kournikov has said, "We were young and so Anna was from the beginning".Anna Kournikova – Kournikova at Bagram Air Base during a United Service Organization tour, 15 December 2009
19. Antigua and Barbuda – Antigua and Barbuda is a twin-island country in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major inhabited islands, a number of smaller islands. The permanent population numbers about largest port and city is St. John's, on Antigua. The country's name was given after discovering the island, in honor of the Virgin of La Antigua in the Seville Cathedral. The country is nicknamed "Land of 365 Beaches" due to the many beaches surrounding the islands. Its governance, culture have all been strongly influenced by the British Empire, of which the country was formerly a part. Barbuda is Spanish for "bearded". The island of Antigua, originally called Wa'ladli by Arawaks, is today called Wadadli by locals. Caribs possibly called Wa'omoni. Christopher Columbus, while sailing by in 1493 may have named it Santa Maria la Antigua, after an icon in the Spanish Seville Cathedral. Antigua was first settled by archaic hunter-gatherer Amerindians called the Siboney or Ciboney. Carbon dating has established the earliest settlements started around 3100 BC. They were succeeded by the ceramic age Arawak-speaking Saladoid people who migrated from the lower Orinoco River. The Arawaks introduced agriculture, raising, among other crops, the famous Antigua black pineapple, corn, sweet potatoes, chiles, guava, cotton. The West Indians made excellent seagoing vessels which they used to sail across the Atlantic and the Caribbean.Antigua and Barbuda – Downtown St. John's on Antigua.
20. Azincourt – Azincourt is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is best known as the site of the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. It has no etymological connection in French with Agincourt, Meurthe-et-Moselle, derived from another male name * Ingin -. According to M. Forrest, the French knights were so encumbered by their armour that they were exhausted even before the start of the battle. In 1513, Henry VIII stopped at Azincourt. He was notably accompanied by John Nevill. The battle, as was the tradition, was named after a nearby castle called Azincourt. The castle has since the settlement now known as Azincourt adopted the name in the seventeenth century. The original museum in the village featured model knights made out of Action Man figures. The building is shaped like a longbow similar to those used at the battle by archers under King Henry. No festival will be held with a number of events planned for 2015 on the 600th anniversary of the original battle.Azincourt – Site of the battle of Agincourt
21. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 m, known as the "four-thousanders". The size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. The Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. In World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, German Alps. At present the region has 120 million annual visitors. The English Alps derives from the Latin Alpes. An ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts.Alps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
22. Achill Island – Achill Island in County Mayo is the largest island off the coast of Ireland, is situated off the west coast. It has a population of 2,700. Its area is 148 km2. Achill is attached to the mainland between the villages of Gob an Choire and Poll Raithní. A bridge was first completed here in 1887, subsequently replaced with the current bridge, completed in 2008. Other centres of population include the villages of Keel, Dooagh, Dumha Éige, Dún Ibhir, Dugort. Two secondary schools are on the mainland at Poll Raithní. Early human settlements are believed to have been established around 3000 BC. A paddle dating from this period was found at the crannóg near Dookinella. The island is 87 % bog. The parish of Achill also includes the Curraun peninsula. Most natives of Achill refer to this area as being "in Achill". There are between 500-600 Irish speakers in Achill parish. In the summer of 1996, the RNLI decided to station a lifeboat at Kildownet. It is believed that at the end of the Neolithic Period, Achill had a population of 500–1,000 people.Achill Island – View of the Island using NASA 's technology overhead
23. Aarhus – Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. The urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the municipal population is 330,639. Aarhus is the central city in the East Jutland metropolitan area, which had a total population of million in 2016. Growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades and bombardments during the Swedish Wars. In the 19th century it avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest by the 20th century. Today Aarhus is in Jutland. The city ranks as number 234 among world cities. It is also a top 100 city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling and an important trade hub in Kattegat. Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and leisure from a wide area in Region Midtjylland. Aarhus is notable for its musical history. In the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the scene diversified into rock and other genres. In the 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmark's rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags.Aarhus – From top and left to right: Aarhus skyline, Aarhus City Hall, Isbjerget, Park Allé
24. Alexis Carrel – Alexis Carrel was a French surgeon and biologist, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912 for pioneering vascular suturing techniques. He invented the first pump with Charles A. Lindbergh opening the way to organ transplantation. Like many intellectuals of his time, he promoted eugenics. He faced media attacks with the Nazis. He was a pioneer in thoracic surgery. After the notoriety surrounding the event, Carrel could not obtain a appointment because of the pervasive anticlericalism in the French university system at the time. In 1903 he soon relocated to Chicago, Illinois to work for Hull Laboratory. In 1906 he joined the newly formed Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in New York where he spent the rest of his career. There he did significant work with pathologist Montrose Thomas Burrows. Lindbergh initially sought out Carrel to see if his sister-in-law's heart, damaged by rheumatic fever, could be repaired. When Lindbergh saw the crudeness of Carrel's machinery, he offered to build new equipment for the scientist. Eventually they built the first perfusion pump, an invention instrumental to the development of open heart surgery. Lindbergh said he would preserve and promote Carrel's ideals after his death. In his later life he returned to his Catholic roots. In 1939 he met on a recommendation.Alexis Carrel – Alexis Carrel
25. Antisemitism – Antisemitism is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. The root Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. Although the term did not come until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. The origin of "antisemitic" terminologies is found to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: "The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his'anti-Semitic prejudices'." Avner Falk similarly writes: ` The German antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile. Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan's false ideas to "Aryan races"'. He coined the phrase "the Jews are our misfortune" which would later be widely used by Nazis. In German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both "Jewry" and "jewishness". In the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga, apparently named to follow the "Anti-Kanzler-Liga". The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, "In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks as a designation which recently came into use. On 19 the editor says, ` This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old."'Antisemitism – Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition
26. Economy of Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan has an economy that has completed its post-Soviet transition into a major oil based economy, from one where the state played the major role. Azerbaijan's GDP grew 41.7 % in possibly the highest of any nation worldwide. The real GDP rate for 2011 was expected at 3.7 % but had dropped to 0.1 %. Large oil reserves are a major contributor to the economy. The Azerbaijani manat, was stable in 2000, depreciating 3.8 % against the dollar. The deficit equaled 1.3 % of GDP in 2000. Progress on economic reform has generally lagged behind macroeconomic stabilization. The government has largely completed privatization of small and medium-sized enterprises. In August 2000, the government launched a second-stage program, in which many large state enterprises will be privatized. Since 2001, the economic activity in the country is regulated by the Ministry of Economic Development of Azerbaijan Republic. Oil remains the most prominent product of Azerbaijan's economy with cotton, natural agriculture products contributing to its economic growth over the last five years. More than $ billion was invested into Azerbaijan's oil by major international oil companies in AIOC consortium operated by BP. Oil production with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997 and now is about 500,000 b/d. Old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.Economy of Azerbaijan – Baku
27. Azerbaijani Armed Forces – The Azerbaijani Armed Forces were re-established according to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Armed Forces from 9 October 1991. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic had originally formed its armed forces from 26 June 1918. However these were dissolved after Azerbaijan was absorbed from 28 April 1920. After the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 -- 92 the armed forces were reformed based on equipment left on Azeri soil. The armed forces have three branches: the Azerbaijani Navy. IISS also suggests that the budget in 2009 was $1.5 billion. The Ministry of Defence Industry of Azerbaijan supervises the design, manufacturing, maintenance of military equipment. In the future, Azerbaijan hopes to start building tanks, armored vehicles, military helicopters. The incumbent Minister of Defence of Azerbaijan is Colonel General Zakir Hasanov, who succeeded Safar Abiyev. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan has been trying to further develop its armed forces into a professional, well trained, mobile military. Azerbaijan has been undergoing extensive capacity expanding programs, with the military budget increasing from around $300 million in 2005 to $2.46 billion in 2009. There are also 19,500 personnel in the National Guard, Internal Troops. In addition, there are 300,000 former service personnel who have had military service in the last 15 years. The force has about 106 aircraft and 35 helicopters. Azerbaijan has acceded as a non-nuclear weapons state.Azerbaijani Armed Forces – Samad bey Mehmandarov, the Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
28. Foreign relations of Armenia – It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia. US House Resolution 106 later referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The bill has 225 co-sponsors. The bill called for former President George W. Bush to use the word genocide in his annual 24 April speech which he never used. Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno -- Karabakh republic in the very bitter conflict against the Azerbaijani government. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Armenians in Armenia. In April 1991, Soviet forces targeted Armenian populations in Karabakh, known as Operation Ring. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Azerbaijan. Military action was influenced by the Russian military, which manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring sides in order to keep both under control. More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1988 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin. By October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in taking almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire, between the three sides.Foreign relations of Armenia – Armenia
29. Augustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel, was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both experimentally. His Fresnel equations on waves and reflectivity also form the basis for many applications in computer graphics today — for instance, the rendering of water. Fresnel was the son of an architect, born at Broglie. He still could not read when he was eight years old. At thirteen he entered the École Centrale at sixteen and a half the École Polytechnique, where he acquitted himself with distinction. From there he went to the École Ponts et Chaussées. He received only scant public recognition in the cause of optical science. Some of his papers were not printed by the Académie des Sciences after his death. But as he wrote to Young in 1824: in himself "that sensibility, or that vanity, which people call love of glory" had been blunted. Fresnel has been described as a man with deep faith in God. As a form of consolation, he took religion especially during his illness. He died of tuberculosis at Ville-d'Avray, near Paris. His is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. The writer Prosper Mérimée was his first cousin.Augustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel
30. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, cultural life in Greece. In 2015, Athens was ranked the world's 29th richest city by the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. The municipality of Athens had a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the medieval Daphni Monastery. 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. In an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. Different etymologies, commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century.Athens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
31. Anguilla – Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean. The island's capital is The Valley. The total land area of the territory is 35 square miles, with a population of approximately 13,500. Anguilla has become a popular haven, having profit or other forms of direct taxation on either individuals or corporations. In April 2011, faced with a mounting deficit, it introduced a 3% "Interim Stabilisation Levy", Anguilla's first form of income tax. For similar reasons, it was formerly known as Snake or Snake Island. Anguilla was first settled by Indigenous Amerindian peoples who migrated from South America. The earliest Native American artefacts found on Anguilla have been dated to around 1300 BC; remains of settlements date from AD 600. The Arawak name for the island seems to have been Malliouhana. Traditional accounts state that Anguilla was first colonised by English settlers from Saint Kitts beginning in 1650. The French temporarily took over the island in 1666 but returned it to English control under the terms of the Treaty of Breda the next year. It is likely that some of these early Europeans brought enslaved Africans with them. Historians confirm that African slaves lived in the region in the early 17th century. For example, Africans from Senegal lived in St. Christopher in 1626. By 1672 a slave depot existed on the island of Nevis, serving the Leeward Islands.Anguilla – Wallblake House
32. American (word) – The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, political context in which it is used. American is derived from a term originally denoting all of the New World. Semantic contention exists concerning the use of English words like "Spanish", "British", "Scandinavian", etc.. The word can be used as either a noun. In adjectival use, it means "of or relating to the United States"; for example, "Elvis Presley was an American singer" or "the man prefers American English". In its form, the word generally means a resident or citizen of the US, or occasionally someone whose ethnic identity is simply "American". The noun is rarely used in American English to refer to people not connected to the United States. When used with a grammatical qualifier, the adjective American can mean "relating to the Americas", as in Latin American or Indigenous American. "Hyphenated Americans" such as "African-Americans" likewise refers exclusively in or from the United States of America, as does the prefix "Americo -". Russian speakers may use cognates of American to refer to inhabitants of the Americas or to U.S. nationals. They generally have other terms specific to U.S. nationals, such as the German US-Amerikaner, French étatsunien, Japanese beikokujin, Italian statunitense. These specific terms may be less common than the term American. Likewise, German's use of U.S.-Amerikaner observe said cultural distinction, solely denoting U.S. things and people. Portuguese has americano, denoting both a U.S. national. In other languages, however, there is no possibility for confusion.American (word) – Washington's Farewell Address (1796)
33. Ada (programming language) – Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages. It has built-in support for design-by-contract, extremely strong typing, explicit concurrency, offering tasks, synchronous message passing, non-determinism. Ada improves maintainability by using the compiler to find errors in favor of runtime errors. Ada is an international standard; the current version is defined by ISO/IEC 8652:2012. Ada was named after Ada Lovelace, credited with being the first computer programmer. Ada was originally targeted at embedded and real-time systems. The Ada 95 revision, designed by S. Tucker Taft of Intermetrics between 1995, improved support for systems, numerical, object-oriented programming. Features of Ada include: strong typing, modularity mechanisms, run-time checking, generics. Ada 95 added support for object-oriented programming, including dynamic dispatch. The syntax of Ada minimizes choices of ways to perform basic operations, prefers English keywords to symbols. Ada uses the arithmetical operators" +"," -"," and" /", but avoids using other symbols. Code blocks are delimited by words such as "end", where the "end" is followed by the identifier of the block it closes. In the case of conditional blocks this avoids a dangling else that could pair with the wrong nested if-expression in other languages like C or Java. Ada is designed for development of very large software systems. Ada packages can be compiled separately.Ada (programming language) – Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace.
34. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
35. Antarctic Treaty System – For the purposes of the system, Antarctica is defined as all of 60 ° S latitude. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters have been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, since September 2004. The main treaty was officially entered into force on June 1961. The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58. These countries had established over 50 Antarctic stations for the IGY. The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific cooperation, achieved "on the ice". It prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific. A sixth annex on liability arising from environmental emergencies was adopted in 2005, but is yet to enter into force. The Antarctic Treaty System's yearly Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings are the international forum for the administration and management of the region. As of 2015, there are 53 states party to the treaty, 29 of which, including all 12 original signatories to the treaty, have consultative status. Consultative members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory. The 46 non-claimant nations either do not recognize the claims of others, or have not stated their positions. Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon. * Claims overlap.Antarctic Treaty System – A satellite composite image of Antarctica.
36. Abalone – Abalone is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae. Abalone are marine snails. Their taxonomy puts them in the Haliotidae which contains only one genus, Haliotis, which once contained six subgenera. These subgenera have become alternate representations of Haliotis. The number of species recognized worldwide ranges between 130 with over 230 species-level taxa described. The most comprehensive treatment of the family considers 56 species valid, with 18 additional subspecies. The shells of abalones are characterized by several open respiratory pores in a row near the shell's outer edge. The flesh of abalones is consumed raw or cooked by a variety of cultures. The shell of abalones is convex, rounded to oval shape, may be very flattened. The shell of the majority of species is ear-shaped, presenting two to three whorls. The last whorl, known as the whorl, is auriform, meaning that the shell resembles an ear, giving rise to the common name "ear shell". Haliotis asinina has a somewhat different shape, as it is more distended. The shell of Haliotis cracherodii cracherodii is also unusual as it has an ovate form, is imperforate, has prickly ribs. A mantle cleft in the shell impresses a groove in which are the row of holes characteristic of the genus. These holes are respiratory apertures for releasing sperm and eggs into the water column.Abalone
37. Abbess – In Christianity, an abbess is the female superior of a community of nuns, often an abbey. She must have been a nun for 10 years. The requirement in the Catholic Church has evolved over time, ranging from 30 to 60. The requirement of 10 years as a nun is only 8 in Catholicism. The office is the choice being by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community. Unlike the abbot, the abbess receives only the ring, a copy of the rule of the order. She does not receive a mitre as part of the ceremony. An abbess serves except in Italy and some adjacent islands. Abbesses are, according to canon law, the equivalents of abbots or bishops. They have full authority in its administration. However, there are significant limitations. They may not administer the sacraments, whose celebration is reserved to bishops, priests, namely, those in Holy Orders. They may not serve except by special rescript. They function as an ordained celebrant or concelebrant of the Mass.. On the other hand, they may not ordinarily read the Gospel during a Mass..Abbess – Xaveria Gasser, abbess of the Elisabeth Sisters Convent in Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria in 1756
38. Abbey – An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess. It provides a place of Christian monks and nuns. Religious life in an abbey may be monastic. An abbey may be open to visitors. The layout of associated buildings of an abbey often follows a set plan determined by the founding religious order. Some abbeys accommodation to people who are seeking spiritual retreat. There are famous abbeys across Europe. Monastic communities date back to pre-Christian times. The earliest known Christian monasteries were groups of huts built near the residence of other holy person. Disciples imitate their way of life. In the earliest times of Christian monasticism, ascetics would live near a village church. They would subsist whilst donating any excess produce to the poor. However, increasing religious fervor about or persecution of them would drive them further away from their community and further into solitude. For instance, the huts of anchorites have been found in the deserts of Egypt. In 312 AD, Anthony the Great retired to the Thebaid region of Egypt to escape the persecution of the Emperor Maximian.Abbey – Sénanque Abbey, Provence
39. Allosaurus – Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period. The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard". It is derived from the Greek ἄλλος / σαῦρος / sauros. As one of the first theropod dinosaurs, it has long attracted attention outside of paleontological circles. Indeed, it has been a top feature in several documentaries about prehistoric life. Allosaurus was a bipedal predator. Its skull equipped with dozens of sharp, serrated teeth. It averaged 8.5 m in length, though fragmentary remains suggest it could have reached over 12 m. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, its three-fingered forelimbs were small, the body was balanced by a long and heavily muscled tail. It is classified as a type of carnosaurian theropod dinosaur. The genus includes an uncertain number of valid species, the best known of, A. fragilis. The bulk of Allosaurus remains have come with material also known from Portugal and possibly Tanzania. Potential prey included ornithopods, sauropods. It may have attacked large prey by ambush, using its upper jaw like a hatchet. Allosaurus was a large theropod, having a massive skull on a short neck, a long tail and reduced forelimbs.Allosaurus
40. Army – An army or ground force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, armed service of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the force via means of aviation corps. Within a military force, the word army may also mean a field army. They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as war or natural disasters. In several countries, the army is officially called the Land Army to differentiate it from an force called the Air Army, notably France. In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a force in common usage. By convention, military is understood in contrast to regular armies which grew slowly from personal bodyguards or elite militia. Regular in this case refers to standardized doctrines, organizations, etc.. Regular military can also refer versus reserve or part-time personnel. Other distinctions may separate statutory forces, from facto "non-statutory" forces such as some guerrilla and revolutionary armies. Armies may also be fencible. India has had some of the earliest armies in the world. During the Indus Valley Civilization however, there was just a small force as they didn't fear invasion at the time. After the Aryan invasion, city-states started forming armies to protect their cities.Army – A bronze crossbow trigger mechanism and butt plate that were mass-produced in the Warring States period (475-221 BCE)
41. Apollo program – Five Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. Apollo ran from 1961 with the first manned flight in 1968. After the first landing, sufficient hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration. Budget cuts forced the cancellation of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a "lifeboat" for these functions. Apollo set several human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low orbit. The program returned soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moon's composition and geological history. The program funded construction of its Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center. Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration as a follow-up to Project Mercury. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a space station, eventual manned lunar landings. In July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program at a series of Space Task Group conferences.Apollo program – Buzz Aldrin (pictured) walked on the Moon with Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, July 20–21, 1969
42. Agnes of Merania – Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania was a Queen of France, She is called Marie by some of the French chroniclers. Agnes Maria was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania, Count of Andechs, a castle and territory near Ammersee, Bavaria. Her mother was Agnes of Rochlitz. In June 1196 Agnes married Philip II of France, who had repudiated his second wife Ingeborg of Denmark in 1193. Agnes was buried in the Convent near Nantes. Agnes and Philip had two children: Count of Boulogne and Mary, were legitimized at the request of the King. Little is known of the personality of Agnes, beyond the remarkable influence which she seems to have exercised over Philip. She has been made by La straniera. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: ed.. "Agnes of Meran". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 378. Endnotes: See The notes of Robert Davidsohn in Philipp II.Agnes of Merania – Agnes of Merania
43. Alaric II – He established his capital in Aquitaine. His dominions included not only the majority of Hispania but also the greater part of an as-yet undivided Gallia Narbonensis. One example is Isidore of Seville's account of Alaric's reign: consisting of a single paragraph, it is primarily about Alaric's death in that battle. According to Gregory of Tours' account, Alaric was intimidated into surrendering Syagrius to Clovis; Gregory then adds that "the Goths are a timorous race." Once his control over Syagrius' former kingdom was secure, Clovis had him beheaded. Despite Frankish advances in the years that followed, Alaric was not afraid to take the military initiative when it presented itself. By 502 Clovis and Alaric met for face-to-face talks, which led to a peace treaty. In 506, the Visigoths captured the city of Dertosa in the Ebro valley. There they had him executed. After a few years, however, Clovis violated the treaty negotiated in 502. Despite the diplomatic intervention of Theodoric, father-in-law of Alaric, Clovis led his followers into Visigothic territory. Nor was it the loss of the royal treasury at Toulouse, which Gregory of Tours writes Clovis took into his possession. As Peter Heather notes, the Visigothic kingdom was thrown into disarray "in battle." Alaric's heirs were his eldest son, his younger son, the legitimate Amalaric, still a child. With Amalaric's death in 531, the Visigothic kingdom entered an extended period of unrest which lasted until Leovigild assumed the throne in 568.Alaric II – Reverse of a coin issued by Alaric II, gold 1.47 g. Note that the coin-portrait is actually of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I