1. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom – It was centered on the north of present-day Afghanistan. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan from 180 BC established the Indo-Greek Kingdom, to last until around 10 AD. Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria founded the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC and became King Diodotus I of Bactria. The preserved ancient sources are somewhat contradictory, the exact date of Bactrian independence has not been settled. Somewhat simplified, there is a high chronology and a low chronology for Diodotos’ secession. Their cities were Bactra, Darapsa, several others. Among these was Eucratidia, named after its ruler. In 247 BC, the Ptolemaic empire captured the Selucid capital, Antioch. In the resulting power vacuum, the satrap of Parthia proclaimed independence from the Selucids, declaring himself king. A decade later, he was defeated and killed by Arsaces of Parthia, leading to the rise of a Parthian Empire. This cut Bactria off from contact with the Greek world. Overland trade continued at a reduced rate, while sea trade between Greek Egypt and Bactria developed. Euthydemus, a Magnesian Greek according to Polybius and possibly satrap of Sogdiana, overthrew the dynasty of Diodotus I around 230-220 BC and started his own dynasty. And the Iaxartes forms also the boundary between the Sogdians and the nomads. Euthydemus was attacked by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III around 210 BC.Greco-Bactrian Kingdom – Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 180 BC, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south.
2. Afghanistan – Afghanistan /æfˈɡænᵻstæn/, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. Its territory covers 652,000 km2, making the 41st largest country in the world. The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began in the 18th century. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country. It remained peaceful during Zahir Shah's forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of civil wars that continues to this day. The Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul - ` alam. The suffix" - stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan." An important site of many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan.Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
3. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
4. Alexander Balas – Alexander Balas, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 150–146 BC. Alexander defeated his brother Demetrius Soter for the crown in 150 BC. Ruling briefly, he lost the crown during his defeat at the battle of Antioch in Syria dying shortly after. Alexander's claims were recognized by the Roman Senate, others. He married a daughter of the Ptolemaic dynasty. At first unsuccessful, Alexander finally defeated Demetrius Soter in 150 BC. Being now master of the empire, he is said to have abandoned himself to a life of debauchery. Demetrius Soter's son Demetrius II profited by the opportunity to regain the throne. He fled to a Nabataean prince, who murdered him and sent his head to Ptolemy Philometor, mortally wounded in the engagement. List of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Anthony John. "Alexander". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.Alexander Balas – Silver coin of Alexander I "Balas". The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΧΑΝΔΡΟΥ (king Alexander). The date ΓΞΡ is year 163 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 150–149 BC.
5. Andriscus – Andriscus, also often referenced as Pseudo-Philip, was the last King of Macedon. A pretender who claimed to be the son of Perseus of Macedon. In actually, he was a fuller from Adramyttium in Aeolis in western Anatolia. His reign lasted just a year. In 168 BC, the Romans invaded Macedonia and king Perseus in the First Battle of Pydna. In 149 BC, Andriskos, claiming to be Perseus' son, announced his intention to retake Macedonia from the Romans. As his first attempt, Andriskos travelled to Syria to request military help from Demetrius Soter of Syria. Demetrius instead raised a Thracian army. With this army, he defeated the Roman praetor Publius Juventius in 149 BC. Andriskos then declared King Philip VI of Macedonia. In 148 BC, Andriskos made an alliance with Carthage, thus bringing the Roman wrath on him. Andriscus' brief reign over Macedonia was marked by extortion. After this Macedonia was formally reduced to a Roman province. Velleius Paterculus i. 11; Florus ii. 14; Livy, Epit. 49, 50, 52; Diod.Andriscus – Coin of Andriscus. Greek inscription reads BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY (King Philip).
6. Abdur Rahman Khan – Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. Abdur Rahman was grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan. Abdur Rahman Khan re-established the writ of the Afghan government after the disarray that followed the Anglo-Afghan war. Abdur Rahman became known after defeating a number of rebellions by various tribes who were led by his relatives. At first, the new Amir was quietly recognized. But after a few months, Afzal Khan raised an insurrection in the north of the country, where he had been governing when his father died. This began a fierce conflict for power between Dost Mohammad's sons, which lasted for nearly five years. The Musahiban are descendants of Sultan Mohammad Khan Telai. He distinguished himself for energetic daring. A serious revolt followed in southern Afghanistan. After some delay and fighting, he and his uncle, Azam Khan, occupied Kabul in March 1866. When Afzal Khan died at the end of the year, Azam Khan became the new ruler, with Abdur Rahman installed in the northern province. Both sought refuge in Central Asia, whence Abdur Rahman placed himself under Russian protection at Samarkand. Azam died eventually in October 1869. He lived in Tashkent.Abdur Rahman Khan – Abdur Rahman Khan
7. Antigonid dynasty – The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus. Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were: The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of Perseus. List of kings of MacedonAntigonid dynasty – Coin of Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed") (382 BC - 301 BC).
8. Islamic conquest of Afghanistan – The Muslim Arabs then began to move towards the lands east in 652 captured the city, Herat. Ethnic Arabs who have settled in Afghanistan, came to form the first community of Afghan Arabs. During the 7th century, Arab armies made their way into the region of Afghanistan with the new religion of Islam. The area had been under the rule of the Buddhist and then Hindu dynasty called the Kabul Shahis since the 5th century. The Hindu Shahi were defeated by Mahmud of Ghazna, who ruled between 998 and 1030. He also expelled the Hindu Shahi from Gandhara. In 870, a local ruler from the Saffarid dynasty of Zaranj, Afghanistan, conquered most of present-day Afghanistan in the name of Islam. In many cases, the people he conquered had reverted to prior forms of worship. From the 8th century to the 9th century, many inhabitants of what is Pakistan were converted to Sunni Islam. It is surmised from the writings of Al Biruni that some Pashtuns living in Pakhtunkhwa had not been completely converted. Al Biruni, writing in Tarikh al Hind, also alludes as Hindus. The most explicit mentioning of the Afghans appears in Al- Baruni’s Tarikh Al-Hind. Here it is said that various tribes of Afghans lived in the west of India. He describes them as Hindus. Various historical sources such as Martin Ewans, E.J.Islamic conquest of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
9. Durrani Empire – The Durrani Empire at its maximum extent encompassed present-day Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, northwestern India, including the Kashmir region. The Afghan army began their conquests by capturing Ghazni and Kabul from the local rulers. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. He then set out westward to take possession of Herat, ruled by Shahrukh Afshar. In short order all the different tribes began joining his cause. His forces invaded India four times, taking control of the Kashmir and the Punjab region. Additionally, among the Durranis' military conquests, the Pashtun also instigated the Vaḍḍā Ghallūghārā when they killed thousands of Sikhs in the Punjab. The Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the modern state of Afghanistan, with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as "Father of the Nation". In 1709 Mir chief of the Ghilji tribe of Kandahar Province, gained independence from the Safavid Persians. From 1722 to 1725, his son Mahmud Hotak briefly declared himself as Shah of Persia. The year 1747 marks the definitive appearance of an political entity independent of both the Persian and Mughal empires. Despite being younger than the other contenders, he had several overriding factors in his favor. Ahmad Shah belonged to a respectable family of political background, especially since his father served as Governor of Herat who died in a battle defending the Afghans. Ahmad Shah also possessed a substantial part of Nadir Shah's treasury, including the Koh-i-Noor diamond, the world's largest. One of Ahmad Shah's military action was the capture Ghazni from the Ghiljis, then wresting Kabul from the local ruler.Durrani Empire – Flag
10. Babrak Karmal – Babrak Karmal was an Afghan politician, installed as president of Afghanistan by the USSR when they invaded in 1979. Karmal was born in Kamari and educated at Kabul University. He eventually became the leader of the Parcham faction. When the PDPA split in 1967, the Parcham-faction established a Parcham PDPA, while their ideological nemesis, the Khalqs, established a Khalqist PDPA. Under Karmal's leadership, the Parchamite PDPA participated to his subsequent regime. While relations were good at the beginning, Daoud began a major purge of leftist influence in the mid-1970s. This in turn led to the reformation of the PDPA in 1977. The PDPA took power in the 1978 Saur Revolution. Karmal was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Council, synonymous with vice head of state, in the communist government. The Parchamite faction found itself soon after taking power. In June 1978, a PDPA Central Committee meeting voted in favor of giving the Khalqist faction exclusive control over PDPA policy. This decision was followed by a failed Parchamite coup, after which Hafizullah Amin, a Khalqist, initiated a purge against the Parchamites. Karmal survived this purge but was exiled to Prague. Karmal remained in exile until December 1979, when the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan to stabilize the country. Karmal was promoted to Chairman of the Revolutionary Council and Chairman of the Council of Ministers on 27 December 1979.Babrak Karmal – History of Afghanistan
11. European influence in Afghanistan – After the decline of the Durrani dynasty in 1823, Dost Mohammad Khan established the Barakzai dynasty after becoming the next Emir of Afghanistan. Among the many problems he faced was repelling Sikh encroachment on the Pashtun areas east of the Khyber Pass. After working assiduously to establish stability in his domains around Kabul, the Shah next chose to confront the warring Sikhs. Ranjit Singh's forces occupied Peshawar, moving into territory ruled directly by Kabul. They failed to fully dislodge the Sikhs from Jamrud. With this letter, Dost Mohammad formally set the stage in Afghanistan. It also involved Britain's repeated attempts to impose a government in Kabul. In addition to this rivalry between Britain and Russia, there were two specific reasons for British concern over Russia's intentions. In 1837 Iran advanced with the support and advice of Russian officers. In return, the British government intimated that it would ask Ranjit Singh to reconcile with the Afghans. When Auckland refused to put the agreement in writing, Dost Mohammad began negotiations with Vitkevich. In practice, the plan replaced Dost Mohammad with a British figurehead whose autonomy would be as limited as that of Indian princes. Auckland's plan in the spring of 1838 was for the Sikhs to place Shuja on the Afghan throne, with British support. By the end of the summer however, the plan had changed; now the British alone would impose the pliant Shuja Shah. The manifesto stated that in order to ensure the welfare of India, the British must have a trustworthy ally on India's western frontier.European influence in Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
12. Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan – Urbanized culture has existed between 3000 and 2000 BC. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron ages have been found inside Afghanistan. In 330 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded the land after defeating Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Much of Afghanistan became part of the Seleucid Empire followed by the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. The south of the Hindu Kush became part of the Maurya Empire. The land was ruled by different kingdoms for the next two millenniums. The Kaffirstan region, in the Hindu Kush, was not converted until the 19th century. Archaeologists have found evidence of human habitation in Afghanistan from as far back as 50,000 BC. Afghanistan seems in prehistory, well as in modern times, to have been connected by culture and trade with the neighbouring regions. Urban civilization, which includes Pakistan, may have begun as early as 3000 to 2000 BC. Archaeological finds indicate the possible beginnings of the Bronze Age, which would ultimately spread throughout the ancient world from Afghanistan. It is also believed that the region had early trade contacts with Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley Civilisation was a civilisation extending from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. Apart from Shortughai is Mundigak another notable site.Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
13. Greece – Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe. Greece's population is approximately million as of 2015. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, Africa. Greece consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands. The Aegean Sea lies to the south. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. The establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church in the first century transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greece's historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world. Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is one of the most visited the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.Greece – Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos, Crete.
14. History of Afghanistan – The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan with several sites being known. His Macedonian army arrived to what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after conquering Persia during the Battle of Gaugamela. Afghanistan has been a important location throughout history. The land served to India impinging on the ancient Silk Road, which carried trade from the Mediterranean to China". The archaeological manifestation of the Indo-Iranians before their split into separate language groups is generally seen to the north of present-day Afghanistan. The Iranian languages were developed by one branch of these people; the Pashto language spoken today in Aghanistan is one of the Iranian languages. Its pre-Islamic period of Zoroastrian, Macedonian, Buddhist and Hindu past has long vanished. Turkic empire-builders such as the Ghaznavids and Timurids made the region now called Afghanistan of major importance. Mirwais Hotak founded the last Afghan Empire in the early 18th century CE. A cave called Kara Kamar contained Upper Paleolithic blades Carbon-14 dated at 34,000 years old. Farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. Archaeologists have found evidence of human habitation in Afghanistan as 50,000 BC. Urbanization may have begun early as 3000 BCE. Zoroastrianism predominated in the area; even the modern Afghan solar calendar shows the influence of Zoroastrianism in the names of the months. Other religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism flourished later, leaving a major mark in the region.History of Afghanistan – History of Afghanistan
15. Herat – It is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. Herat serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River. Herat is linked with Kandahar and Mazar-e-Sharif via the ring road. Herat is further linked to the city of Mashhad through the border town of Islam Qala. It was traditionally known for its wine. The city has a number including the Herat Citadel and the Mosallah Complex. During the Middle Ages it became one of the important cities of Khorasan, as it was known as the Pearl of Khorasan. Herat has been governed by Afghan rulers since the early 18th century. In 1717, the city was invaded by the Hotaki forces until they were expelled in 1736. After Ahmad Shah Durrani's rise to power in 1747, it became part of Afghanistan. Certain parts of the city have been spared from it. It lies on the ancient trade routes of the Middle East, Central and South Asia. The roads from other parts of Afghanistan are still strategically important. As the gateway to Iran, Herat collects high amount of customs revenue for Afghanistan. The city has an international airport.Herat
16. Jalalabad – Jalalabad /dʒəˈlæləˌbæd/, formerly called Adina Pur as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located near the Laghman valley, Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province. It is linked by approximately 155 kilometres of highway to the west. Major industries include papermaking, well as agricultural products including oranges, rice and sugarcane. Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centres with neighbouring Pakistan. The city of Jalalabad has a population of 356,274. It has a total land area of 12,796 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 39,586. The Jalalabad territory fell to the Maurya Empire, led by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryas were planning to capture more areas of Central Asia until they faced local Greco-Bactrian forces. Having consolidated power in the northwest, Chandragupta pushed east towards the Nanda Empire. Afghanistan's significant tangible intangible Buddhist heritage is recorded through wide-ranging archeological finds, including religious and artistic remnants. Buddhist doctrines are reported to have reached as far even during the life of the Buddha as recorded by Husang Tsang. Originally these two were merchants of the kingdom of Balhika, as the name Bhalluka or Bhallika probably suggests the association of one with that country. They had happened to be at Bodhgaya when the Buddha had just attained enlightenment.Jalalabad
17. Kabul – Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,034 which includes all the ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made the fifth fastest-growing city in the world. It has been ruled by the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Ghurids. Later it was controlled until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire with help from the Afsharid dynasty. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan the city was relatively safe. Kabul, also spelled Cabul. The Rigveda praises it as a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled before falling to the Achaemenids. The region was later given to the Indian Maurya Empire. Indo-Scythians lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later. Some historians ascribe the Sanskrit name of Kamboja. It is mentioned in some classical writings. It remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD. The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians from the Tarim Basin.Kabul
18. Karachi – Karachi is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan and 5th largest metropolitan city in the world. Karachi is the capital of Sindh province. Ranked as a beta city, the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre. Karachi is also Pakistan's most city. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000. Immediately following independence of Pakistan, the city's population increased dramatically from India. The city experienced economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia. Karachi is now Pakistan's premier financial centre. The city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $ billion as of 2014. Karachi generates approximately 20 % of Pakistan's GDP. Approximately 30 % of industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachi's ports handle approximately 95 % of Pakistan's foreign trade. Approximately 90% of the multinational corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Up to 70% of Karachi's workforce is employed in the informal economy, typically not included in GDP calculations. Karachi is one of socially liberal cities. It is also the ethnically, religiously diverse city in Pakistan.Karachi – Clockwise from top: Karachi Skyline, KPT HQ, PRC Towers & PNSC, Karachi Market, Manora Lighthouse, Nagan Interchange and MA Jinnah Tomb.
19. Kandahar – Kandahar or Qandahar is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 491,500 as of 2012. Formerly called Alexandria Arachosia, the city is named after Alexander the Great, who founded it in 329 BC around a small ancient Arachosian town. Kandahar is the capital of Kandahar Province, located at an altitude of 1,010 m above sea level. The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city. The city of Kandahar has a population of 557,118. It has a total land area of 27,337 hectares. The total number of dwellings in Kandahar is 61,902. Kandahar has been their traditional seat of power for more than 200 years. It is a major trading center for sheep, wool, cotton, silk, felt, tobacco. The area is believed to be the birthplace of indica. The region around Kandahar is one of the oldest known human settlements. Many empires have long fought over the city due to its strategic location along the trade routes of southern, western Asia. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, founder of the last Afghan empire, made it the capital of modern Afghanistan. Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as three nights journey from Ghazni.Kandahar
20. Mohammad Najibullah – Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai, commonly known as Najibullah or Dr. Najib, was the President of Afghanistan from 1987 until 1992, when the mujahideen took over Kabul. He had previously held different careers under the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan and was a graduate of Kabul University. Najibullah returned following the Soviet invasion which placed Babrak Karmal as head of state, party and government. During Karmal's rule, Najibullah became head of the KHAD, the Afghan equivalent to the Soviet KGB. He was a member of the Parcham faction led by Karmal. During Najibullah's tenure as KHAD head, it became one of the most brutally efficient governmental organs. Because of this, Najibullah gained the attention of several leading Soviet officials, such as Boris Ponomarev. In 1981, Najibullah was appointed to the PDPA Politburo. In 1985 Najibullah stepped down as minister to focus on PDPA politics; he had been appointed to the PDPA Secretariat. The Soviet leader, was able to get Karmal to step down as PDPA General Secretary in 1986, replace him with Najibullah. For a number of months Najibullah was locked in a power struggle against Karmal, who still retained his post of Chairman of the Revolutionary Council. Najibullah accused Karmal of trying to wreck his policy of National Reconciliation. Throughout his tenure, he tried to build support for his government. This change, coupled with others, did not win Najibullah any significant support. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Najibullah was left without foreign aid.Mohammad Najibullah – Mohammad Najibullah
21. Mazar-i-Sharif – Mazar-i-Sharif or Mazar-e-Sharif is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of 693,000. Mazar-e Sharif, along with Herat, Jalalabad in the east and Kandahar in the south, makes Afghanistan an important strategic location in Asia. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Muslim and Hellenistic archeological sites. In 2006, the discovery of new Hellenistic remains was announced. Mazar-i-Sharif is the Regional Hub located in the northern region in close proximity to Uzbekistan and Tajikstan. The Mazari Sharif Airport in the city has been heavily used during the 1980s Soviet war and the latest 2001-present war. However, most Muslims believe that the grave of Ali is at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq. According to tradition, the city of Mazari Sharif owes its existence to a dream. The famous Jalal al-Din Rumi was born in this area but like many historical figures his exact location of birth cannot be confirmed. His father Baha' Walad was descended from the first caliph Abu Bakr and was influenced by the ideas of Ahmad Ghazali, brother of the famous philosopher. Baha' Walad's sermons were published and still exist as Divine Sciences. Rumi completed six books of mystical poetry and tales called Masnavi before he died in 1273. Although later rebuilt, Mazar stood in the shadow of its neighbor Balkh. Thus the ruler of North Central Afghanistan decided to shift the capital of the city of Mazar-e-Sharif. The Mazar-i-Sharif means "the noble shrine".Mazar-i-Sharif
22. Mehrgarh – The earliest settlement in the corner of the 495-acre site, was a small farming village, inhabited from circa 6500 BCE. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, about 32,000 artifacts have been collected. Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance, "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into eight periods. The Mehrgarh Period I was Neolithic and aceramic, without the use of pottery. The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using animals such as sheep, cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, sandstone have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far lapis lazuli found as far away as present-day Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in the South Asia. Periods I, II and III are contemporaneous with another site called Kili Gul Mohammed.Mehrgarh – Map of Pakistan showing Mehrgarh in relation to the cities of Quetta, Kalat, and Sibi and the Kachi Plain of Balochistan.
23. History of Pakistan – The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern Pakistan. Before achieving independence in 1947, the territory of modern Pakistan was a part of the Indian Empire. Prior to that it was ruled by local kings and numerous imperial powers. In the 19th century, the land was incorporated into British India. On 29 philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal called for an autonomous new state in "northwestern India for Indian Muslims". The League rose through the late 1930s. Eventually, a successful movement led by Jinnah resulted on 14 August 1947. The legislative elections in 1954 saw the Awami League coming to its leader Huseyn Suhrawardy becoming country's first Bengali Prime minister. Promulgation of Constitution in 1956 led to Pakistan declaring Islamic republic with the adoption of parliamentary democratic system of government. The constitution transformed the Governor-General of Pakistan into President of Pakistan. President Mirza was ousted by Ayub Khan; his presidency saw an era of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. Pakistan's defeat in the war ultimately led to the birth of Bangladesh. Pakistan's British-imposed colonial but secular policies were replaced by the Islamic Shariah legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. Over the next decade, she alternated power as the country's political and economic situation deteriorated. Military tensions in the Kargil conflict with India were followed by yet another d'état in 1999 in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers.History of Pakistan
24. Geography of Pakistan – Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes where the two tectonic plates collide. Pakistan is bordered by India to the east, Iran to the southwest while China borders the country in the northeast. Its western borders include the Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass that have served as traditional migration routes between South Asia. Pakistan definitely borders Afghanistan at 2,430 km, which runs from the Hindu Kush and the Pamir Mountains. Its proposal was named after the former secretary of British India Sir Henry Mortimer Durand. When Pakistan became independent in 1947 however, the legitimacy of the demarcation was disputed by Afghans and the Pakhtun or Pashtun tribes. Afghanistan favoured the establishment of another separatist state to be called Pakhtunistan. The Durand Line remained disputed until 1994 when it was finally accepted. A narrow strip of Gorno-Badakhshan territory called the Wakhan Corridor extends between Pakistan and Tajikistan. From the eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor starts the Sino-Pak border between the People's Republic of China and Pakistan spanning about 510 km. It ends near the Karakoram Pass. It is understood that if the dispute over Kashmir is resolved, the border would need to be discussed again. Modern Iran has a province named Sistan va Baluchistan that has Baluchis in an ethnic majority. The Northern Areas has five of the world's seventeen highest peaks along with highest range of mountains the Karakoram and Himalayas. It also has extensive glaciers that it has sometimes been called the "Third Pole".Geography of Pakistan – International and provincial boundaries of Pakistan
25. Demographics of Pakistan – Pakistan's estimated population in 2015 is over 191.71 million, making it the world's sixth-most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Nigeria. During 1950–2011, Pakistan's urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the total population increased by over fourfold. In the past, the country's population had a relatively high rate, changed by moderate birth rates. In 2014, the population rate stands at 1.49 %. Social changes have led to rapid urbanization and the emergence of megacities. During 1990 -- 2003, Pakistan sustained its historical lead as the urbanized nation in South Asia with city dwellers making up 36 % of its population. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis now reside in towns of 5,000 people or more. Pakistan hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world as well as a young population. The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is the most populous city in Pakistan. Pakistan's yearly population from 1950 to 2014, with estimation since last census. The following statistics are for July 2007. They exclude data for the final status of which has not yet been determined. They are based on the results of the Pakistan Demographic Survey. According to the 2009 Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme, 60.3 % of Pakistanis live on a day.Demographics of Pakistan – Mostly those born before 1947
26. Politics of Pakistan – The Politics in Pakistan takes place within the framework under which the country is established by the Constitution. Classified itself in South Asia, Pakistan is an Islamic and federal parliamentary republic with Islam being its state religion. The Prime Minister of Pakistan solely leads the executive government, independent of the parliament. A bicameral parliament, composed of two chambers– the Senate and the National Assembly. The Judicature branch forms alongside the high courts and other inferior courts. The judiciary's function is to interpret the Constitution and federal regulations. The President of Pakistan is a ceremonial figurehead who represents the unity of the nation-state; the presidency is a vital part of the Parliament. Since 1947, the military establishment have played an influential role in country's politics. Elections are held every five-consecutive years. The new governments are formed through direct elections followed by the electoral college. The president in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president generally has important residual powers. Despite this most recent power-stripping, the President remains the ex chair of the National Security Council, as per the National Security Act 2004. The prime minister is appointed through a vote.Politics of Pakistan – National Assembly of Pakistan
27. Economy of Pakistan – Pakistan has a population of over million, giving it a nominal GDP per capita of $1,429, which ranks 140th in the world. However, Pakistan's undocumented economy is estimated to be 36% of its overall economy, not taken into consideration when calculating per capita income. However, after decades of war and social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in basic services such as electric power generation had developed. The economy is semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River. Primary export commodities include textiles, leather goods, sports goods, carpets/rugs. The economy has suffered from internal political disputes, a fast-growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment. Pakistan is currently undergoing a process of economic liberalization, including privatization of all government corporations, aimed to decrease budget deficit. In 2014, foreign currency reserves crossed $ billion which has led to stable outlook on the long-term rating by Standard & Poor's. In 2016, BMI Research report named Pakistan as one of the ten emerging economies on of its manufacturing hub. According to the World Bank, poverty in Pakistan fell in 2002 to 29.5 % in 2014. Pakistan's fiscal position continues to improve as the deficit has fallen from 6.4 % in 2013 to 4.3 % in 2016. The country's improving Macroeconomic position has led to Moody's upgrading Pakistan's outlook to "stable". Pakistan was a predominantly agricultural country when it gained independence in 1947. Pakistan's economic growth rate in the first five decades has been higher than the growth rate of the world economy during the same period. Average real GDP growth rates were 6.8 % in the 1960s, 4.8 % in the 1970s, 6.5 % in the 1980s.Economy of Pakistan – A view of I. I. Chundrigar Road, the financial district of Karachi in Pakistan
28. Transport in Pakistan – Transportation in Pakistan is extensive and varied and serving a population of over 191 million people. Construction of new airports, railway lines have led to an employment boost in the country. Much of Pakistan's rail railway was built before 1947, mainly during the British Raj. In recent years, national highways have been built, with the addition of motorways which have accelerated trade and logistics within the country. Seaports have been built in the last 30 years with the addition of foreign and domestic funding. In urban areas there are several means of transport available, catering to a wide range of budgets. Monorail The government of Pakistan has planned to build a monorail system in Islamabad. However, the Punjab Government decided to restart development on the Lahore Metro as a $ billion project with Chinese assistance. The Orange Line, which will be 27.1-kilometre long, is under construction. Bus rapid transit Without segregated lanes TransLahore: It is a BRT system in Lahore. Lahore Transport Company was established in 1984 to improve bus services. LTC got all the transport responsibilities of traveling in Lahore in December 2001. A BRTS fleet of 650 Buses was introduced. It was named as TransLahore. However, the BRTS had to share roads with regular traffic with no right of way privileges.Transport in Pakistan – Due to increasing environmental issues with older rickshaws, the government has heavily invested in greener, more fuel-efficient rickshaws
29. Pakistan Armed Forces – The Pakistan Armed Forces are the military forces of Pakistan. They are the sixth largest in the world in the largest among Muslim countries. The armed forces comprise three main inter -- services branches: the Strategic Plans Division forces. All of the branches work together under the Joint Staff HQ. Since the 1963 Sino-Pakistan Agreement, the military has had military relations with China, working jointly to develop the JF-17, the K-8, other weapons systems. As of 2013 China is the second largest foreign supplier of military equipment to Pakistan. Both nations also cooperate on development of nuclear and technology programs. Their armies have a schedule for organizing military exercises. The military also maintains military relations with the United States, which gave Pakistan major non-NATO ally status in 2004. Pakistan gets the bulk of its military equipment from local domestic suppliers, the United States. The armed forces were formed in 1947 when Pakistan became independent from the British Empire. Border clashes with Afghanistan led to the creation of paramilitary forces to secure border areas. The armed forces have a large pool of as such, conscription is not, has never been needed. Supplementary legislation allows conscription to be activated should it be required in a state of war. The Pakistan Armed Forces are highly respected in civil society.Pakistan Armed Forces – The roots of the Pakistan military trace back to the British Indian Army, which included many personnel from present day Pakistan. Pictured are troops of the Khyber Rifles, striking a pose, circa 1895.
30. Foreign relations of Pakistan – The Foreign Minister of Pakistan is the official charged with state-to-state diplomacy, although the Prime minister maintains an ultimate authority over foreign policy. During most of 1947 -- 1991, the USSR support was given to India; especially over which it has fought three wars. During the 1960s, Pakistan's relations with neighbouring Afghanistan have also been extremely difficult due to the latter's contest over the Durand Line. While Pakistan's had "on-off relations" with the United States, Pakistan assisted President Nixon reapproach with other East Asian countries. In 1949 after gaining independence from the United Kingdom Pakistan still had close ties with the country. In 1955, Pakistan joined the SEATO alliances in 1956. Also, in n 1956 Pakistan became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. In 1971, Pakistan withdrew itself in a vision of exercising the independent foreign policy. Pakistan rejoined the Commonwealth in 1989. In 2004, Pakistan became a non-NATO ally of the United States. Since 1947, Pakistan's relations have been difficult with India over the geopolitical issues. In fact, India and Pakistan have fought three conventional wars throughout the 20th century over the issue of Kashmir. The continuing dispute over the status of Kashmir makes friendly relations difficult. In the 1960s, the problems over the Durand Line escalated with Afghanistan which led to open hostilities in the 1970s. Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations.Foreign relations of Pakistan – The flag of Pakistan
31. Ptolemaic dynasty – Their rule lasted from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared later known as Sōter "Saviour". The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens regnant, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the most famous was Cleopatra, with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Arsinoe IV, in opposition to Cleopatra Ptolemy Keraunos - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter.Ptolemaic dynasty – Ptolemy I Soter.
32. Seleucid Empire – Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, what is now Kuwait, Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Their attempts to defeat their old enemy Ptolemaic Egypt were frustrated by Roman demands. Alexander's generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system; this led to the demise of Perdiccas. Ptolemy's revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the year used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, received in return five hundred elephants. Following his and Lysimachus' victory over Antigonus Monophthalmus at the decisive Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, Seleucus took control over eastern Anatolia and northern Syria. In the latter area, he founded a new capital at Antioch on the Orontes, a city he named after his father. An alternative capital was established at Seleucia on the Tigris, north of Babylon. Nevertheless, even before Seleucus' death, it was difficult to assert control over the vast eastern domains of the Seleucids.Seleucid Empire – Tetradrachm of Seleucus I, the horned horse, the elephant and the anchor were all used as symbols of the Seleucid monarchy.
33. Sindh – Sindh /sɪnd/ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people, it is also locally known as the Mehran. It was formerly known until 1956. Sindh is second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's climate is noted for mild winters. The provincial capital of Sindh is financial hub, Karachi. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy with Karachi being its capital that hosts the headquarters of multinational banks. Sindh contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports -- Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port. The remainder of Sindh produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country. Sindh is also the centre of Pakistan's pharmaceutical industry. Sindh is known for its distinct culture, strongly influenced by Sufism. Several Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh also has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents.Sindh – The Priest King from Mohenjo-daro, more than 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi
34. List of Seleucid rulers – Seleucus served as an officer of Alexander the Great, commanding the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army: the "Shield-bearers", later known as the "Silvershields". In 323 BCE the Partition of Triparadisus assigned Seleucus as satrap of Babylon in 321 BCE. Seleucus' later conquests included Persia and Media. He formed an alliance with the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya. Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the battle of Corupedium in 281 BCE. Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinated Seleucus later in the same year. Seleucus' eldest son Antiochus I succeeded him as ruler of the Seleucid territories. List of kings of Persia Glanville Downey. History of Antioch. Princeton University Press. Pp. 735–736. ISBN 978-1-4008-7773-7. Mehrdad Kia. The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.List of Seleucid rulers – Seleucus I Nicator
35. Tajikistan – It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, China to the east. Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. As a result of the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan became an independent nation in 1991. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik. Many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a economy, highly dependent on remittances, cotton production. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. Tajikistan sometimes appeared in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан".Tajikistan – The Samanid ruler Mansur I (961 – 976).
36. History of Tajikistan – Tajikistan harkens to the Samanid Empire. The Tajik people came in the 1860s. The Basmachi revolt was quelled in the early 1920s during the Russian Civil War. In 1924 Tajikistan became an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Tajik ASSR, within Uzbekistan. It has since experienced three changes in the Tajik civil war. A agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997. Tajikistan was part of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex in candidate for Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Iranian culture. Tajikistan was part of Scythia in Classical Antiquity. Most of modern Tajikistan had formed parts of ancient Kamboja and Parama Kamboja kingdoms, which find references in the Indian epics like the Mahabharata. Linguistic evidence, combined with ancient inscriptional evidence has led many eminent Indologists to conclude that ancient Kambojas originally belonged to Central Asia. Achariya Yāska's Nirukta attests that verb Śavati in the sense "to go" was used by only the Kambojas. Thus, the ancient Kamboja, probably included the Badakshan, northern territories including Yagnobi province in the doab of the Oxus and Jaxartes. Sogdiana, Bactria, Merv and Khorezm were the four principal divisions of Ancient Central Asia inhabited by the ancestors of the present-day Tajikistani Tajiks. Tajiks are now found only in historic Bactria and Sogdiana. Merv is inhabited by Uzbeks and Kazakhs.History of Tajikistan – Sculpture of the woman of the pre-Islamic period (Tajikistan).
37. Uzbekistan – Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. It is a presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital city. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991. Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, others. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, human organizations define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights". Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly including cotton, gold, natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic "import substitution". Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres. It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area and the 2nd largest by population. Uzbekistan longitudes 74 ° E. It stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south.Uzbekistan – Comparison of the Aral Sea between 1989 and 2014.
38. Uzbeks – The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They are also found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia and China. Diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan. The origin of the Uzbek remains disputed. One view holds that it is eponymously named after Oghuz Khagan, also known as Oghuz Beg, became the Uzbek. Another states that the name means itself, from Oʻz and the Turkic title Bek/Bey/Beg. Before, 5th century, what is today's Uzbekistan was part of Sogdia, mainly inhabited by an Indo-Iranian people. It was later part of Sasanian Empire. From 5th to 6th century, what is today's Uzbekistan was part of the Hephthalite Empire. From 6th to 8th century, what is today's Uzbekistan was under the rule of Göktürk Khanate. But Chinese influence ended with the An Lushan rebellion. Kara-Khanid ruler Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan was the Turkic ruler to convert Islam, most people of Central Asia soon followed. In the 12th century, Transoxania was conquered by a sinicized Khitan dynasty, they brought to Central Asia the Chinese system of government. In the 13th century, Kara-Khanid Khanate was destroyed by a vassal of the Qara Khitai. The language-shift from Middle Iranian to Turkic and New Persian was predominantly the result of an elite process.Uzbeks – Genetic origins of Uzbeks from various parts of Uzbekistan. East Asian (e.g. Mongol) ancestry is prominent in the west, Central Asian prominent in the centre, and a roughly even mix of East, Central Asian, Mideast and European in the eastern projections.
39. 2nd century BC – The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, although depending on the region being studied, other terms may be more suitable. It also considered to be the end of the Axial Age. In the context of the Eastern Mediterranean, it is also referred to as the Hellenistic period. In East Asia, China reached a high point under the Han Dynasty. The Han Empire extended its boundaries from Korea in the east to Vietnam in the South to the borders of modern-day Kazakhstan in the west. 198 BC: Battle of Panium: Antiochus III of the Seleucid empire defeats Ptolemy V of Egypt and takes control of Coele Syria and Judea. 197 BC: Flamininus defeats Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. 196 BC: Antiochus III conquers western Asia Minor and Thrace, with severe impact on relations with Rome. 196 BC: Empress Lü's execution of Han Xin leads to the Ying Bu rebellion. 195 BC: The War against Nabis marks the end of Spartan power in Greece. 195 BC: Emperor Gaozu of Han dies and is succeeded by his son Hui. True power falls to Empress Lü. 194 BC: Wiman establishes Wiman Joseon in Korea. 192 BC: Antiochus III invades Greece, beginning the Roman-Syrian War. 192 BC: The Yue Kingdom of Eastern Ou established in Zhejiang with Chinese support.2nd century BC – Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century BC.
40. 3rd century BC – The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of historical period. This balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was then destroyed by the Romans in the first and Punic wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean. In India, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire. The Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula. The Xiongnu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. Ptolemy finally brings the rebellious region of Cyrene under his control. He places the region under the rule of his stepson Magas. After failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy. Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia. 273 BC – 232 BC: Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire. 265 BC: Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.3rd century BC – Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century BC.
41. Greeks – They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus. The Greek genocide and exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. The Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of pre-modern ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal people". Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth. The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked in the 8th century BC. The works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period. The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC.Greeks – Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.
42. Han dynasty – The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Eastern Han or Later Han. The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. This policy endured in AD 1911. The Han dynasty saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty. The coinage issued by the central mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty. The period saw a number of institutional innovations. Emperor Wu of Han launched military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion.Han dynasty – History of China
43. Bactria – Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia. The English name Bactria is derived from the Ancient Greek: Βακτριανή, a Hellenized version of the Bactrian endonym Bakhlo. Analogous names include the Pashto and Persian: translit. Bākhtar, Uzbek: Балх, Tajik: Бохтар, Chinese: 大夏; pinyin: Dàxià, Sanskrit: बाह्लीक, translit. Bāhlika. Bactria was located between the Amu Darya river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. This region played a major role in Central Asian history. At certain times the political limits of Bactria stretched far beyond the geographic frame of the Bactrian plain. The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2200–1700 BC, located in present-day eastern Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya, an area covering ancient Bactria. Its sites were named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. According to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-Iranian tribes who moved south-west around 2500 -- 2000 BC. Later, it became the province of the Persian Empire in Central Asia. He killed. Alexander conquered Sogdiana.Bactria – Ancient cities of Bactria
44. Umayyad Caliphate – The Umayyad Caliphate, also spelled Omayyad, was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world. At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims. Muhammad had stated explicitly during his lifetime that abrahamic religious groups, should be allowed to practice their own religion, provided that they paid the jizya taxation. Muawiya's wife Maysum was also a Christian. The relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time. Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. This policy also boosted Muawiya's popularity and solidified Syria as his power base. During the Second Civil War, leadership of the Umayyad clan shifted from the Sufyanid branch of the family to the Marwanid branch. Muhammad descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, while the Umayyads descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, whose son was Umayya. The two families are therefore considered to be different clans of the same tribe. However Muslim Shia historians suspect that Umayya was an adopted son of Abd Shams so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was later discarded from the noble family.Umayyad Caliphate – Umayyad Caliphate in 750
45. Democratic Republic of Afghanistan – The PDPA came through a coup known as the Saur Revolution, which ousted the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. Daoud was succeeded on 30 April 1978. Soon after taking power the Parchamites led by Babrak Karmal. The Parcham faction was purged from the party. The most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the Soviet Union. After the Khalq -- struggle, a power struggle within the Khalq faction began between Taraki and Amin. Taraki was killed on his orders. His rule proved unpopular in the Soviet Union. On 27 December Amin was assassinated by Soviet military forces. Karmal became the leader of Afghanistan in his place. The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the Soviet effort in Afghanistan. The war resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties, well as millions of refugees who fled into Pakistan and Iran. In 1986 he was succeeded as PDPA General Secretary by Mohammad Najibullah. Najibullah pursued a policy of National Reconciliation with the opposition, democratic elections were held in 1988. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the government faced increasing resistance.Democratic Republic of Afghanistan – Amin ruled Afghanistan for 104 days
46. Samarkand – Samarkand, alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia. Prospering at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia. By the time of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy. The city was taken by Alexander the Great in 329 BC, when it was known by its Greek name of Marakanda. The city was ruled under Genghis Khan conquered Samarkand in 1220. Samarkand is Uzbekistan's second largest city. The city is noted for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur and is the site of his mausoleum. The Bibi-Khanym Mosque remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, painting on wood. In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures. The name probably originates in the Sogdian words asmara, kand, "fort", "town". A group of Mesolithic era archeological sites were discovered at Sazag'on-1, Zamichatosh, Okhalik. The Syob and Darg'om canals, supplying the city and its suburbs with water, appeared around the 7th to 5th centuries BC.Samarkand – Triumph by Vasily Vereshchagin, depicting the Sher-Dor Madrasah in the Registan.