1. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. Henry was the French monarch of the House of a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a male-line descendant of "first prince of the blood". Upon distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589, he was called by the Salic law. He initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic, was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. The "Good King Henry" was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri and in Voltaire's Henriade. Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, he was raised by his mother, who had declared the religion of Navarre.Henry IV of France – Henry IV
2. Andorra – Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, French are also commonly spoken. Andorra's tourism services an estimated million visitors annually. The euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world according to The Lancet. The origin of the Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses have been formulated. Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The pearl". Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter for fighting against the Moors.Andorra – Sant Joan de Caselles church, dating from the 11th century.
3. Ahmed I – Ahmed I was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617. He is also well known for his construction of one of the most famous mosques in Turkey. His mother was Handan Sultan. After his grandfather Murad III's death in 1595, his father ascended the throne as Sultan Mehmed III. His father ordered the execution of ninteen of half brothers. Şehzade Mahmud was also executed by his own father on 7 June 1603, just before his own death on 22 December 1603. Mahmud was buried along in a separate mausoleum built by Ahmed in Şehzade Mosque, Istanbul. Ahmed ascended the throne in 1603. When ascended the throne, Safiye Sultan was still alive. He sent his brother Mustafa to live at the old palace at Bayezit along with their grandmother Safiye Sultan. A far lost brother of Ahmed, Yahya, spent his life scheming to become Sultan. Thus he was spared. In the earlier part of his Ahmed I showed decision and vigor, which were belied by his subsequent conduct. The new borders were drawn per exactly the same line as confirmed in the Peace of Amasya of 1555. Upon ascending the throne, Ahmed I appointed Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha as the commander of the eastern army.Ahmed I – Ahmed I
4. Alfonso the Battler – Alfonso I, called the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragon and Navarre from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the second son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. Alfonso the Battler earned his sobriquet in the Reconquista. He died in September 1134 at the Battle of Fraga. During his brother's reign, he participated in the taking of Huesca, which became the largest city in the new capital. He also joined El Cid's expeditions in Valencia. His father gave the lordships of Biel, Luna, Ardenes, Bailo. A series of deaths put Alfonso directly in line for the throne. Isabella and Peter, died in 1103 and 1104 respectively. But Urraca had not learnt chastity in the polygamous household of her father. Wife quarrelled with the brutality of the age and came to open war, even placing Urraca under siege at Astorga in 1112. Alfonso had the support of one section of the nobles who found their account in the confusion. He inserted the title of imperator on the basis that he had three kingdoms under his rule. The king quarrelled with the church, particularly the Cistercians, as violently as with his wife. As he defeated her, so he expelled the monks of Sahagún.Alfonso the Battler – Statue of Alfonso in the Parque Grande José Antonio Labordeta, Zaragoza
5. Assassination – Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is often believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab and Persian targets. The group killed members of the Persian, Abbasid, Seljuq, Christian Crusader élite for political and religious reasons. The word for "murder" in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics. It dates back at least as far as recorded history. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later. The practice was also well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A.D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe.Assassination – The word "assassin" was derived from Hasan-i Sabbah and his Assassin's Order of Nizari Ismailism.
6. Barcelonnette – Barcelonnette is a commune of France and a subprefecture in the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It is located in the southern French Alps, at the crossroads between Provence, Piedmont and the Dauphiné, is the largest town in the Ubaye Valley. The town's inhabitants are known as Barcelonnettes. It was named by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence. In Valéian, it is called Barcilouna de Prouvença or Barcilounéta. The inhabitants of the town are called Barcelonnettes, or Vilandroises in Valéian. Polybius described the Vesubians as belligerent but nonetheless civilised and mercantile, Julius Caesar praised their bravery. The work History of the Gauls also places the Vesubians in the Ubaye Valley. Following the Roman conquest of Provence, Barcelonnette was included in a small province with modern Embrun as its capital and governed by Albanus Bassalus. This was integrated soon afterwards into Gallia Narbonensis. In 36 AD, Emperor Nero transferred Barcelonnette to the province of the Cottian Alps. The town of Barcelonnette was founded by Count of Provence. According to Charles Rostaing, this act of formal "foundation", according certain privileges to the town, was a means of regenerating the destroyed town of Barcilona. The town was afforded a consulat in 1240. Control of the area in the Middle Ages swung between the Counts of Savoy and of Provence.Barcelonnette – Place Manuel
7. Blue – Blue is the colour between violet and green on the optical spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive blue when observing light with a wavelength between 495 nanometres, between 45 and 49.5 ångströms. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometers. Blue mixed together form violet, blue and yellow together form green. Blue is also a primary colour in the RGB model, used to create all the colours on the screen of a television or computer monitor. The deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. More blue comes to our eyes. An optical effect called Tyndall scattering, similar to Rayleigh scattering, explains blue eyes; there is no blue pigment in blue eyes. Distant objects appear more blue because of another optical effect called atmospheric perspective. Blue has been used since ancient times. It is the most important color in Judaism. In the Middle Ages, blue was used to colour the stained glass windows of cathedrals. Beginning in the 9th century, Chinese artists used cobalt to make fine white porcelain. Blue dyes for clothing were made in Asia and Africa. Synthetic blue dyes and pigments gradually replaced mineral pigments and vegetable dyes.Blue – Sky blue or pale azure, mid-way on the RBG colour wheel between blue and cyan.
8. Basques – The Basques are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common Basque culture and shared ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. The Basques are known as: Euskaldunak in Basque Vasco in Spanish Basque in French and English. Basco in Gascon and Portuguese. The English Basque may be pronounced / bɑːsk / or / bæsk / and derives from the French Basque, derived from Gascon Basco, cognate with Spanish Vasco. These, in turn, come from plural Vascones. Several coins from the 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes. In Basque, the people call the euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal - and - dun; euskaldun literally means a Basque speaker. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen claimed that the euskara comes from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" and the suffix - ara. Thus euskara would literally mean "way of speaking". He records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a mistake. In the 19th century, the nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko. On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories.Basques – 1st row: Sancho III, Elcano, Ignatius Loyola, Francis Xavier, Lope de Aguirre, Fausto Elhuyar 2nd row: Zumalacárregui, D'Abbadie, Gayarre, Sarasate, Pío Baroja, Balenciaga 3rd row: Oteiza, Cenarrusa, Chillida, Ibárruri, Garamendi, Atxaga
9. Bayonne – Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The communes of Bayonne, Biarritz, Anglet have joined into an intercommunal entity called the Agglomération Côte Basque-Adour. In 1023 Bayonne was the capital of Labourd and, in the 12th century, extended to and beyond the Nive. At that time the first bridge was built over the Adour. It was separated from the Viscount of Labourd by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken after the Hundred Years' War. The district of Saint-Esprit developed thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing the Spanish Inquisition. From this community Bayonne gained its reputation for chocolate. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1951 the Lacq field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. It plays the role of economic capital of the Adour basin. Modern industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the harbour. It is mostly business services which today represent the largest source of employment. Bayonne is also a cultural capital, a rich historical past. Its heritage lies in its architecture, traditional events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne.Bayonne – The city hall
10. Charlemagne – Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. Charlemagne laid the foundations for modern France, the Low Countries. He took the Frankish throne in 768 and became King of Italy in 774. From 800, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor—the first recognised emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Recognition from the pontiff granted divine legitimacy in the eyes of his contemporaries. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following the death of his father, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne also campaigned to his east leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred a period of energetic intellectual activity within the Western Church. These were but two of the machinations that led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. He died in 814, having ruled over thirteen years. Charlemagne was laid to rest in what is Germany.Charlemagne – A coin of Charlemagne with the inscription KAROLVS IMP AVG (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
11. Coin collecting – Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the systematic study of currency. Though closely related, the two disciplines are not necessarily the same. A numismatist may not be a coin collector, vice versa. A coin's grade is a main determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party service like PCGS or NGC will grade, authenticate, attribute, encapsulate most U.S. and foreign coins. Over million coins have been certified by the four largest services. People have hoarded coins for their value for as long as coins have been minted. However, the collection of coins for their artistic value was a later development. Evidence from the historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and state treasuries. It also seems probable that individual citizens collected old, commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art. Appreciation began around the fourteenth century. During the Renaissance, it became a fad among some members of especially kings and queens. Poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuit's first and most famous aficionado.Coin collecting – Two 20 kr gold coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union.
12. Capetian dynasty – The Capetian dynasty /kəˈpiːʃⁱən/, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet. It is among the largest and oldest European royal houses, consisting of Hugh Capet's male-line descendants. They were succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and the Bourbon, which ruled until the French Revolution. The dynasty had a crucial role in the formation of the French state. For a detailed narration on the growth of French royal power, see Crown lands of France. Members of the dynasty were traditionally Catholic. The early Capetians had an alliance with the Church. The Capetian alliance with the papacy suffered a severe blow after the disaster of the Aragonese Crusade. Philip III's son and successor, Philip IV, humiliated a pope and brought the papacy under French control. The later Valois, starting with Francis I, ignored religious differences and allied with the Ottoman Sultan to counter the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry IV was a Protestant at the time of his accession, but realized the necessity of conversion after four years of religious warfare. The Capetians generally enjoyed a harmonious family relationship. When Capetian cadets did aspire for kingship, their ambitions were directed not at the French throne, but at foreign thrones. Through this, the Capetians spread widely over Europe. Along with the House of Habsburg, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.Capetian dynasty – Capetian Armorial
13. Elizabeth I of England – Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Elizabeth was the daughter of Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two and a half years after Elizabeth's birth. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558, Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by 1st Baron Burghley. One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir to continue the Tudor line. She never did, despite numerous courtships. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits, literature of the day. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been.Elizabeth I of England – The "Darnley Portrait" of Elizabeth I (c. 1575)
15. Fontainebleau – Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris. It is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest area in the Île-de-France region; it is the only one to cover a larger area than Paris itself. Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris. Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. It became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise as Bellifontains. The name originates as a medieval composite of two words: Fontaine -- meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person's Germanic Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. Philip the Fair died there in 1314. In thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, spent time at Fontainebleau. On 18 Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, were at Fontainebleau.Fontainebleau – Palace of Fontainebleau
16. Francesco Andreini – Francesco Andreini was an Italian actor mainly of commedia dell'arte plays. He began his career playing the role of the unsophisticated young man. Later he played the role of Capitan Spavento, a Pickwickian character of fatigue Andreini was born at Pistoia. Both their son, Giambattista Andreini, were also distinguished in the arts. Boni, Filippo de'. Seconda Edizione.. Venice; Googlebooks: Presso Andrea Santini e Figlio. P. 8. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Andreini, Francesco". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press.Francesco Andreini – Francesco Andreini, c. 1612
17. Florence – Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with inhabitants, expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area. Florence was finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, monuments. Due to Florence's architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. The language spoken during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII.Florence – A collage of Florence showing the Galleria degli Uffizi (top left), followed by the Palazzo Pitti, a sunset view of the city and the Fountain of Neptune in the Piazza della Signoria
18. Gunpowder Plot – Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives. The plot was revealed in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on 26 October 1605. Most of the conspirators fled from London as they learned of the plot's discovery, trying to enlist support along the way. Including Fawkes, were convicted and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Details of the attempt were allegedly known by the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet. Although he was sentenced to death, doubt has been cast on how much he really knew of the plot. As its existence was revealed through confession, Garnet was prevented from informing the authorities by the absolute confidentiality of the confessional. Although anti-Catholic legislation was introduced soon after the plot's discovery, many loyal Catholics retained high office during King James I's reign. English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the increasingly Protestant Church of England. The penalties for refusal were severe; repeat offenders risked imprisonment and execution. Despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret. Queen Elizabeth, childless, steadfastly refused to name an heir. In the months before Elizabeth's death on 24 March 1603, Cecil prepared the way for James to succeed her. Some exiled Catholics favoured Philip II of Infanta Isabella, as Elizabeth's successor.Gunpowder Plot – A late 17th or early 18th century report of the plot
19. Hercules – Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek divine hero Heracles, the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his numerous far-ranging adventures. The Romans adapted the Greek hero's iconography and myths under the name Hercules. In literature and in popular culture, Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled later writers to pick and choose how to represent him. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the later tradition. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the "Twelve Labours," but the list has variations. One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows: Slay the Nemean Lion. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull.Hercules – Hercules fighting the Nemean lion by Peter Paul Rubens
20. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. Including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois later in the war. The war ended in 1453. Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. Scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide empire was established in the 16th century. Political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution.History of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
21. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, notable author of Latin prose. Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. He became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome. Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, he began a programme of governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. The era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. He is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section.Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
22. Society of Jesus – The Society of Jesus is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in cultural pursuits. Jesuits also promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute". The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council. On October 14, the 36th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus elected Father Arturo Sosa as its thirty-first Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome. The historic curia of St. Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, taking the name Pope Francis. The Jesuits today form the largest religious order of brothers in the Catholic Church. As of 1 Jesuits numbered 16,740: 11,986 clerics regular, 2,733 scholastics, 753 novices.Society of Jesus – Ignatius of Loyola
23. John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, an American historian, pastor, pedagogical writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine to Jacob and Betsey Abbott. Owing to the success of The Mother at Home, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature. He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian ethics, of popular histories, which were credited with cultivating a popular interest in history. Abbott takes a very favourable view towards his subject throughout. Also among his principal works Called Frederick the Great. He also did a forward to a book called Life of Boone about Daniel Boone in 1876. Except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. On August 1835 he married Jane Williams Bourne, daughter of Abner Bourne and Abagail Williams. John Stevens Cabot Abbott died at Connecticut. In 1910, a series of twenty short biographies of historical characters by J. S. C. and Jacob Abbott, was published. Gorham Dummer Abbott, was also an author. Willis Abbott, was a Christian Scientist and an editor of the Christian Science Monitor. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Abbott, John Stevens Cabot". Encyclopædia Britannica.John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott
24. Louis the Pious – Louis the Pious, also called the Fair, the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. Louis was also co-Emperor with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. During his reign in Aquitaine, he was charged with the defence of the empire's southwestern frontier. Louis asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 812. As emperor Louis sought to establish a suitable division of the realm among them. Though his reign ended with order largely restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. He is generally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort. Louis was the third son of Charlemagne by his Hildegard. His grandfather was the Younger. He was sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne wanted his son Louis to grow up in the area where he was to reign. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March. In 797, the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799.Louis the Pious – Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid
25. Louis IX of France – Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. During Louis's childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian crusade which had started 20 years earlier. As an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was defeated at the battle of Taillebourg. His reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy, Maine and Provence. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country and introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure. To enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs. He was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, gambling, interest-bearing loans and prostitution, bought presumed relics of Christ for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle. He also expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, there are consequently many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above.Louis IX of France – Representation of Saint Louis considered to be true to life, early 14th century. Statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France.
26. Louis XIV of France – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
27. Mary II of England – Mary II was joint monarch of England, Scotland, Ireland with her husband and first cousin, William of Orange, from 1689 until her death. William became sole ruler upon her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of "William and Mary". Mary wielded less power than William when he was in England, ceding most of her authority to him, though he heavily relied on her. She did, however, act alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, effective ruler. She was baptised into the Anglican faith in the Chapel Royal at St James's, was named after her ancestor, Mary, Queen of Scots. Her godparents included her father's cousin, Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Although her mother bore eight children, all except Mary and her younger sister Anne died very young, King Charles II had no legitimate children. Consequently, for most of her childhood, Mary was second in line to the throne after her father. Mary's education, from private tutors, was largely restricted to religious instruction. From about the age of nine until her marriage, Mary wrote passionate letters to an older girl, Frances Apsley, the daughter of courtier Sir Allen Apsley. In time, Frances became uncomfortable with the correspondence, replied more formally. At the age of fifteen, Mary became betrothed to her cousin, the Protestant Stadtholder of Holland, William of Orange. William was the son of the King's late sister, Mary, Princess Royal, thus fourth in the line of succession after James, Mary, Anne. When James told Mary that she was to marry her cousin, "she wept all that afternoon and all the following day".Mary II of England – Portrait by Godfrey Kneller, 1690
28. Michelangelo – Considered to be the greatest artist during his lifetime, he has since also been described as one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of Michelangelo's works of painting, sculpture, architecture rank among the most famous in existence. He sculpted two of his best-known works, David, before the age of thirty. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library. At the age of 74, he succeeded the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan so that the western end was finished to his design, as was the dome, after his death. Michelangelo was unique as the Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive. In his lifetime he was often called Il Divino. One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, a sense of awe-inspiring grandeur. Michelangelo was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese near Arezzo, Tuscany. At the time of Michelangelo's birth, his father was the Judicial administrator of local administrator of Chiusi. Michelangelo's mother was Neri del Miniato di Siena. The Buonarrotis claimed to descend from the Countess Mathilde of Canossa; this claim Michelangelo himself believed it. Several months after Michelangelo's birth, the family returned to Florence, where he was raised. Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling hammer, with which I make my figures."Michelangelo – Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra
29. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
30. Pope Clement VIII – Not to be confused with Antipope Clement VIII. Pope Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was February 1592 to his death in 1605. Born into Florentine family, Clement initially came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest in 1585. In 1592 Clement took the name of Clement. Clement also successfully adjudicated on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 Clement presided over a jubilee which saw a large number of pilgrimages to Rome. Clement may have been the first pope to drink coffee. His remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore. Clement rose to Pope in a further 12 years. Clement was an effective, if sometimes ruthless, administrator. Clement was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio in 1585 by Pope Gregory XIII. Pope Sixtus V named him major penitentiary in 1588 sent him as legate in Poland. Clement placed himself under the direction of the reformer Philip Neri, who for thirty years was his confessor. Cardinal Aldobrandini's election on 30 January 1592, was received in European affairs. Clement took the non-politicised name Clement VIII.Pope Clement VIII – Pope Clement VIII
31. Pope Gregory XIV – Pope Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato or Sfondrati, was Pope from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591. Niccolò Sfondrati was born in the highest stratum of Milanese society. His mother, of the house of Visconti, died in childbirth. A senator of the ancient comune of Milan, was created Cardinal-Priest by Pope Paul III in 1544. In his youth he was known for stringent piety. Pope Gregory XIII made him on 12 December 1583. When cardinal he celebrated the Requiem Mass for Borromeo on 7 November 1584. Sfondrati was a great admirer of Philip Neri, an Italian priest who died in 1595 and was canonised in 1622. On the next day he was elected Pope Gregory XIV he said to the cardinals: "God forgive you! What have you done?" Gregory XIV's brief pontificate was marked by vigorous intervention in favour of the Catholic party in the French Wars of Religion. Gregory XIV dispatched his nephew Ercole Sfondrati to France at its head. He also sent a monthly subsidy of 15,000 scudi to Paris to reinforce the Catholic League. Gregory XIV created five cardinals, among whom was his Secretary of State. The biographers mention that Pope Gregory XIV had a nervous tendency to laughter, which even manifested itself at his coronation.Pope Gregory XIV – Pope Gregory XIV
32. Pope Urban VIII – Pope Urban VIII, reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. However, the massive debts incurred during his pontificate greatly weakened his successors, who were unable to maintain the papacy's longstanding military influence in Europe. Urban was also involved during his reign. Urban is the most recent pope to date to take the pontifical name of Urban upon being elected as pope. Urban was born Maffeo Barberini in April 1568 to Antonio Barberini, Camilla Barbadoro. At the age of 16 Urban became his uncle's heir. Urban received a doctorate of law from the University of Pisa in 1589. At the death of his uncle, Urban inherited his riches, with which he bought a palace in Rome which he made into a luxurious Renaissance residence. Upon Pope Urban VIII's election, the Venetian envoy, wrote the following description of him: The new Pontiff is 56 years old. His Holiness is dark, with regular features and black hair turning grey. Urban is exceptionally elegant and; has a graceful and aristocratic bearing and exquisite taste. He is an excellent speaker and debater, writes verses and patronises poets and men of letters. Urban VIII's papacy was an eventful one even by the standards of the day. Urban elevated his brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and then his nephews Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini to Cardinal. Urban also bestowed upon their brother, Taddeo Barberini, the titles Prince of Palestrina, Gonfalonier of the Church, Commander of Sant ` Angelo.Pope Urban VIII – A portrait of Pope Urban VIII by Pietro da Cortona (1627)
33. Pope Innocent IX – Pope Innocent IX, born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, was Pope from 29 October to 30 December 1591. Prior to his short papacy, he had been chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV. Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, whose family came from Crodo, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was born in Bologna on 20 July 1519. He was the son of Antonio Facchinetti and Francesca Cini. He was also made the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura in 1559 and held that post for a year. In 1560, Facchinetti was named in 1562 was present at the Council of Trent. He was the first bishop to actually reside in the diocese in three decades. He occupied that post until he was made a cardinal. Pope Gregory XIV made him the Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura in 1591. Even before Pope Gregory XIV died, Spanish and anti-Spanish factions were electioneering for the next pope. Philip II of Spain's high-handed interference at the previous conclave was not forgotten: he had barred all but seven cardinals. It took three ballots to elect him as pope. The cardinal protdeacon Andreas von Austria crowned Innocent IX as pontiff on 3 November 1591. He elevated two cardinals to the cardinalate in the only papal consistory of his cardinalate on 18 December 1591. Death, however, did not permit the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes.Pope Innocent IX – Pope Innocent IX
34. Philip II of France – Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. From 1190 onward, Philip became the French monarch to style himself king of France. Philip was given "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France remarkably. The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. He allowed his knights to help carry it out. Philip transformed France into the most powerful country in Europe. He helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He brought financial stability to his country. Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165. He spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philip's recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered. However, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. From the time of his coronation, all real power was transferred to Philip, as his father slowly descended into senility. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180. While the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII.Philip II of France – Seal of Philip II
35. Sword – A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting. The precise definition of the term varies under consideration. A sword consists of a long blade attached to a hilt. The blade can be curved. Many swords are designed for both slashing. Historically, the sword developed in the Age, evolving from the dagger; the earliest specimens date to about 1600 BC. The later Iron Age sword remained short and without a crossguard. The sword continues the Old English, sweord. The use of a sword is known as swordsmanship or as fencing. In the Early Modern period, western design diverged into roughly two forms, the thrusting swords and the sabers. The thrusting swords such as the rapier and eventually the smallsword were designed to inflict deep stab wounds. Similar blades such as the cutlass were built more heavily and were more typically used in warfare. Most sabers also had double edged blades, making them capable of piercing soldier after soldier in a cavalry charge. Sabers continued to see use until the early 20th century. Non-European weapons called "sword" include single-edged weapons such as the Middle Eastern scimitar, the related Japanese katana.Sword – Swiss longsword, 15th- or 16th-century
36. Thirty Years' War – The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history. It was the deadliest European religious war, resulting in eight million casualties. In the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European than they are today. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor, Rudolf II. His policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic. They ousted the Habsburgs and elected Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as their monarch. Frederick took the offer without the support of the union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor. The Empire soon crushed this perceived rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, but the Protestant world condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony finally gave its support to the union and decided to fight back. Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories.Thirty Years' War – Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1632
37. Voltaire – He was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, historical and scientific works. Voltaire wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. Voltaire was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, Voltaire frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, the French institutions of his day. Sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Voltaire, pretending to work as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father found out, Voltaire sent Voltaire to law, this time in Caen, Normandy. Nevertheless, Voltaire continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. At The Hague, he fell with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From on, he had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government. These activities were to result to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his own daughter, led in the Bastille.Voltaire – Portrait by Nicolas de Largillière