1. Acapulco – Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history. It is a port of call for cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States. The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also balneario resort city. Acapulco still attracts many tourists, although most are now from Mexico itself. The name "Acapulco" comes from Nahuatl language means "where the reeds were destroyed or washed away". The "de Juárez" was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, the other on a hill known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the spread-out villages here to coalesce into larger entities and build ceremonial centers. Later, Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo. Then Mayan influence arrived through what is now Oaxaca. This history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have been found especially at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta and Tambuco. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here. These people were the antecedents of the Aztecs.Acapulco – Acapulco panoramic collage. Top, from left to right: Acapulco Bay from Chapel of Peace, Petroglyphs in Palma Sola, Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Cathedral, Mural by Diego Rivera in Dolores Olmedo House, San Diego Fort, La Quebrada, La Condesa Beach, Acapulco Dorado and Acapulco Diamante.
2. American Quarter Horse – The American Quarter Horse is an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances. The American Quarter Horse is well known both as a race horse and for its performance in rodeos, horse shows and as a working ranch horse. The American Quarter Horse is also shown in English disciplines, driving, many other equestrian activities. One of the most famous of these early imports was Janus, a Thoroughbred, the grandson of the Godolphin Arabian. He was foaled in 1746, imported to colonial Virginia in 1756. The influence of Thoroughbreds like Janus contributed genes crucial to the development of the colonial "Quarter Horse". The breed is sometimes referred to as the "Famous American Quarter Running Horse". The resulting horse was small, hardy, quick, was used as a work horse during the week and a race horse on the weekends. When matched against a Thoroughbred, local sprinters often won. With some individuals being clocked at up to 55 mph. In the 19th century, pioneers heading West needed a hardy, willing horse. The main duty of the ranch horse in the American West was working cattle. Even after the invention of the automobile, horses were still irreplaceable for handling livestock on the range. To this day, the Quarter Horse dominates the sport both in speed events and in competition that emphasizes the handling of live cattle. However, sprint races were also popular weekend entertainment and racing became a source of economic gain for breeders as well.American Quarter Horse – A palomino American Quarter Horse shown at halter
3. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The capital is Sacramento. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, largest after New York City. The state also has the nation's most populous county, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. A major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. The Spanish Empire then claimed it in their New Spain colony. The western portion of Alta California then was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. If it were a country, California would be the 35th most populous. Fifty-eight percent of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the state's economy, California's industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land rich in gold. They were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. This conventional wisdom that maps were drawn to reflect this way, lasted as late as the 1700's. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
4. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of trade routes and colonies. These voyages had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion. Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish, it is Cristóbal Colón. He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.Christopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
5. Cannibalism – Cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a cannibal. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. Cannibalism was practiced in New Guinea and in parts of the Solomon Islands, flesh markets existed in some parts of Melanesia. Fiji was once known as the "Cannibal Isles". Cannibalism has been well documented from Fiji to the Congo to Māori New Zealand. Neanderthals may have been eaten by modern humans. Cannibalism has recently been both practiced and fiercely condemned in several wars, especially in Liberia and Congo. It is still practiced in Papua New Guinea as of 2012 in war in various Melanesian tribes. Cannibalism has been occasionally practiced by people suffering including in modern times. Also, some mentally ill people actually do so, such as Albert Fish. There is resistance to formally labeling cannibalism as a mental disorder. Cannibalism derives from Caníbales, the Spanish name for the Caribs, a West Indies tribe that formerly practiced cannibalism, from Spanish canibal or caribal, "a savage". It is also called anthropophagy. In some societies, especially tribal societies, cannibalism is a cultural norm.Cannibalism – Cannibalism, Brazil. Engraving by Theodor de Bry to illustrate Hans Staden 's account of his captivity in 1557.
6. Chiapas – Its city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, Tapachula, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Arriaga. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south. In general, Chiapas has a humid, tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, rainfall can average more than 3,000 mm per year. It is still abundant enough to allow many other tropical crops near Tapachula. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak, Chinkultic. It is also home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the state’s history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions. The last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people. The official name of the state is Chiapas. The name derives from Chiapan or Tepechiapan, the name of an indigenous population. The term, from Nahuatl, may mean "hill" or "water below the hill". The first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the modern coat of arms.Chiapas – Jaguar sculpture from Cintalapa dating between 1000 to 400 BCE on display at the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Chiapas.
7. Chocolate – Chocolate /ˈtʃɒkᵊlᵻt/ is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored with vanilla. It is used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. The seeds of the tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, roasted. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to pure chocolate in rough form. Because the mass is usually liquefied before being molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa butter. Baking chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, sugar. Chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. No cocoa solids. Cocoa solids are a source such as theobromine, phenethylamine and caffeine. Chocolate also contains anandamide.Chocolate – Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown color.
8. Diego de Almagro – Diego de Almagro, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion and later rival of Francisco Pizarro. He is credited as the first European discoverer of Chile. Almagro lost his left eye battling with coastal natives in the New World. In 1525 he joined the Pizarro brothers and Hernándo de Luque for the conquest of Peru. Diego de Almagro was raised in Almagro, Ciudad Real, Spain with parents Juan de Montenegro and Elvira Gutiérrez. He got two children; son Diego de Almagro II wih Ana Martínez and daughter Isabel with Mencia. De Almagro eventually settled in Darien, where he was granted an encomienda. He made a living from agriculture. De Almagro undertook his first conquest on November commanding 260 men as he founded Villa del Acla, named after the Indian place. Due to illness he had to leave to the licenciate Gaspar de Espinosa. During this expedition, which lasted 14 months, De Almagro, Hernando de Luque became close friends. Also during this time De Almagro established a friendship with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, in charge of Acla. Current historians do not believe that De Almagro was probably returned to Darien. De Almagro took part in the various expeditions that took place in the Gulf of Panama, taking part again in Espinosa's parties. Espinosa was supported by using Balboa's ships.Diego de Almagro – Diego de Almagro
9. Emerald – Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness is classified as generally poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate. The word "emerald" is derived, from Vulgar Latin: a variant of Latin smaragdus, which originated in Ancient Greek: σμάραγδος. Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters -- the four Cs of Connoisseurship: weight. Normally, in the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion. However, in the grading of emeralds, clarity is considered a close second. Both are necessary conditions. In the 1960s, the American industry changed the definition of "emerald" to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl as emerald. As a result, vanadium emeralds purchased as emeralds in the United States are not recognized as such in the UK and Europe. In America, the distinction between the new vanadium kind is often reflected in the use of terms such as "Colombian Emerald". In gemology, color is divided into three components: hue, tone. Emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green with the primary hue necessarily being green. Blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds.Emerald – Emerald crystal from Muzo, Colombia
10. Emperor – An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. The female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated as "Emperor". Emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Some empires, such as the Russian Empire, derived their office from the authority of the Roman Emperors. The title was a conscious attempt by monarchs to link themselves as part of state ideology. Pre-Roman titles as "Great King" or "King of Kings", used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. However such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified by the mid-18th century. The title was first used as an honorific for a military leader in ancient Rome, meaning general. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below.Emperor – A statue of the dictator Julius Caesar.
11. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by British, Spaniards and Argentines at various points. The islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony in 1764. In 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont. In 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. There is no known evidence of pre-Columbian buildings or structures. However, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856. Yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of Dusicyon australis, has often been cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.History of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
12. Guam – Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. Located in the western Pacific Ocean, Guam is one of five American territories with an civilian government. The most populous city is Dededo. In 2015, 161,785 people resided on Guam. Guamanians are American citizens by birth. Guam has a population density of 297/km ². It is the largest island in Micronesia. Among its municipalities, Mongmong-Toto-Maite has the highest density at 1,425/km², whereas Inarajan and Umatac have the lowest density at 47/km². The highest point is Mount Lamlam at 406 meters above level. Guam's indigenous people, settled the island approximately 4,000 years ago. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to visit the island on March 1521. Guam was colonized in 1668 like Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Catholic missionary. Between the 1700s, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons. During the Spanish -- American War, the United States captured Guam on June 1898. Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded Guam on December 10, 1898.Guam – Marines laying fire on a Japanese sniper nest (July 28, 1944).
13. History of Guam – Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands. It is believed that Guam was first discovered by seafaring people who migrated around 2000 BC. These people evolved into the Chamorro people. They flourished as an horticultural and hunting society. When Europeans first arrived on Guam, Chamorro society roughly fell into three classes: matao, mana ` chang. Matao often used achaot as a go-between. There were also "shirhana", skilled in healing and medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao Mona still persists as remnant of pre-European society. Early European explorers noted the Chamorros' fast sailing vessels used with other islands of Micronesia. The "latte stones" familiar to Guam visitors alike were in fact a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society. The latte stone consists of a base shaped out of limestone. The latte stone was used as a part of the raised foundation for a magalahi house, although they may have also been used for canoe sheds. Archaeologists using carbon-dating have broken Guam history into three periods: "Pre-Latte" "Transitional Pre-Latte", "Latte". Archaeological evidence also suggests that Chamorro society was by 1521 as latte stones became bigger. The expedition had started out with five ships.History of Guam – Chief Gadao is featured in many legends about Guam before European colonization.
14. History of Guatemala – The Mayan civilization was among those that flourished in the region, with little contact with cultures outside Mesoamerica. The modern history of Guatemala began in 1511. Most in the northern lowlands of Guatemala, had been abandoned by the year 1000 AD. The states in the central highlands flourished until the arrival in 1525 of Pedro de Alvarado, the Spanish Conquistador. Called "the invader" by the Mayan peoples, he began subjugating the Indian states with his forces. The Capitania became a part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823. From 1824 it was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America, until the Republic dissolved in 1841, when Guatemala became fully independent. In the late 19th century, Guatemala experienced a series of authoritarian gov. These com supported by the country's authoritarian rulers and the United States government through their support for brutal labor regulations and massive concessions to wealthy landowners. In 1944, the policies of Jorge Ubico led to a popular uprising which began the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution. This was soon sparked off a civil war between the government and leftist guerrillas that lasted from 1960 to 1996. The war saw human violations, including a genocide of the indigenous Mayan population by the United States-backed military. Following the end of the war in 1996, Guatemala re-established a representative democracy. The earliest human settlements in Guatemala were made up of hunters and gatherers. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Highlands and Sipacate, Escuintla on the central Pacific coast.History of Guatemala – The remains of the Nakbé palace from the mid pre-Classic period, Mirador Basin, Petén, Guatemala.
15. History of Europe – The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. The British Isles were the site of large-scale migrations. A period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Rus' people founded Kievan Rus', which evolved into Russia. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule. The Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become economic powers. A related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. An associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period.History of Europe – Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
16. History of Haiti – It was inhabited by an Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio, or Kiskeya. Columbus promptly claimed the island for the Spanish Crown, naming La Isla Española, later Latinized to Hispaniola. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean. Around AD 600, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island, displacing the previous inhabitants. They were organized into cacicazgos, each led by a cacique. The Taíno people called Quisqueya and Ayiti. At the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Higüey. Two of Marien and Jaragua, were on the territory of present-day Haiti. Guacanagarix, who ruled Marien from his capital El Guarico near present-day Cap-Haïtien, gave him permission to construct La Navidad. Christopher Columbus established La Navidad, near the modern town of Cap-Haïtien. It was built during his first voyage in December 1492. When he returned on his second voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed and all 39 settlers killed. Columbus founded a new settlement at La Isabela on the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic in 1493. The Spanish returned in 1502 establishing a settlement at Yaguana, near modern-day Léogâne. Following the arrival of Europeans, La Hispaniola's indigenous population suffered near extinction, in the Americas.History of Haiti – Christopher Columbus landing on the island of Hispaniola in 1492.
17. Honduras – Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a republic in Central America. It has at times been referred to as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became modern-day Belize. Honduras was home to important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, before the Spanish invaded in the sixteenth century. The Spanish introduced the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras has the world's highest murder rate. Honduras has a population exceeding 8 million. Its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone, as reflected in culture. Honduras literally means "depths" in Spanish. It was not until the end of the 16th century that Honduras was used for the whole province. Prior to 1580, Higueras referred to the western part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the political dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica. In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area. In the west, the Maya civilization flourished for hundreds of years. The dominant state within Honduras's borders was in Copán. Copán fell during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century.Honduras – A Maya stela, an emblematic symbol of the Honduran Mayan civilization at Copan.
18. History of Honduras – Honduras was already occupied by many indigenous peoples when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. These autonomous groups maintained commercial relationships as distant as Panama and Mexico. Archaeologists have demonstrated that Honduras has a multi-ethnic prehistory. An important part of that prehistory was the Mayan presence around the city of Copán in western Honduras near the Guatemalan border. Copán was a Maya city that began to flourish around 150 A.D. but reached its height in the Late Classic. It has left behind stelae. The ancient kingdom, named Xukpi, had antecedents going back to at least the 2nd century. The non-Maya Lencas were then dominant in western Honduras. Honduras was first sighted by Europeans when Christopher Columbus arrived at the Bay Islands July 1502 on his fourth voyage. On 14 August 1502 Columbus landed on the mainland near modern Trujillo. Columbus named the country Honduras off its coast. In January 1524, Hernán Cortés directed captain Cristóbal de Olid to establish a colony for him in Honduras. Olid sailed over 400 soldiers and colonists. Las Casas, however, lost most of his fleet in a series of storms along the coast of Belize and Honduras. His ships limped at Triunfo where Olid had established his headquarters.History of Honduras – The Rosalila Temple in the Copan Ruinas Museum.
19. Santo Domingo – In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, rising to 2,908,607 when its metropolitan area was included. The city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional, itself bordered by Santo Domingo Province. Santo Domingo is the site of cathedral, castle, monastery, fortress in the New World. The city's Colonial Zone was declared by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo, from 1936 to 1961, after Rafael Trujillo, named the capital after himself. Following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation. Santo Domingo is the cultural, financial, political, industrial center of the Dominican Republic, with the country's most important industries being located within the city. Santo Domingo also serves as the chief seaport of the country. The port handles both heavy passenger and freight traffic. Temperatures are high round, with a cool breeze around winter time. At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Higüey. These were ruled respectively by Cayacoa. Dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus named it La Nueva Isabela, after an earlier settlement in the north named after the Queen of Spain Isabella I. In 1495 it was renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor of Saint Dominic.Santo Domingo – Santo Domingo (2011).
20. Etymology of California – Collectively, these three areas constitute the region formerly referred as The Californias. The name California is shared in other parts of the world whose names derive from the original. Other origins have been suggested for the word "California", including Spanish, Latin, South Asian, Aboriginal American origins. All of these are disputed. After Mexico's independence from Spain, the upper territory became the Alta California province. The Sea of Cortez is also known as the Gulf of California. This Spanish novel was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about 1510. The Island was ruled by Queen Calafia. Once the name was on the maps it stuck. Eran de bellos y robustos cuerpos, valor y gran fuerza. Su era la más fuerte de todo el mundo, con sus escarpados farallones y sus pétreas costas. They had robust bodies, were brave and very strong. Their island was the strongest of the World, with rocky shores. –Las Sergas de Esplandián, by García Ordóñez de Montalvo. Published in Seville in 1510.Etymology of California – This 1562 map Americae Sive Quartae Orbis Partis Nova Et Exactissima Descriptio by Diego Gutiérrez was the first map to print the toponym California.
21. Hacienda Cocoyoc – The Hacienda de Cocoyoc, now known as the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, is a private hacienda resort located in the state of Morelos, México. The known history of San Jose Cocoyoc goes back to the times of the Nahua tribes and xochimilcas tlahuicas, occupied the valleys and Huaxtepec Cuauhnáhuac. According to Peter Gerhard, tlahuicas occupied the western part of its most important political center was Cuauhnáhuac. The xochimilcas were located in the eastern part. Yauhtpec formed Yacapixtlan, Tepuztlán, Ocuituco and Huaxtepec, the latter being the head of the other dependent. The xochimilcas formed an agricultural society. They cultivated the fertile valley lands, were engaged in hunting, fishing and gathering. The main food crops that were planted were corn, beans, fruits and grains, such as chili, pumpkin, squash, tomato, cocoa. In hot areas the main crop was cotton. His political organization was similar to that of other peoples of the Central Highlands. They were grouped in local states, which in turn depended on Huaxtepec Cuauhnáhuac. The Mexica domination over the region began in the 14th century, when Acamapichtli able to submit to the lordship of Cuauhnáhuac. To marry his daughter. When completing the conquest of Tenochtitlan in 1521, Cortes immediately showed a decided preference for the territory of the current state of Morelos. He established his residence in this city.Hacienda Cocoyoc – The aqueduct
22. History of medicine – This article deals with medicine as practiced by trained professionals from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt and India. The Greeks went even further, introducing the concepts of advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath, still taken by doctors up to today, was written in the 5th BCE. In the medieval age, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were then systematized in The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around the years 1220 in Italy. During the Renaissance, understanding of anatomy improved, the microscope was invented. The theory of disease in the 19th century led for many infectious diseases. Military doctors advanced the methods of surgery. Public health measures were developed especially as the rapid growth of cities required sanitary measures. Advanced research centers opened in the early 20th century, often connected with major hospitals. The mid-20th century was characterized by new biological treatments, such as antibiotics. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry, technology led to modern medicine. New careers opened as physicians. The 21st century is characterized by highly advanced research involving numerous fields of science.History of medicine – The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of early medical works from ancient Greece that is strongly associated with the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
23. Inca Empire – The military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose sometime in the 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. Its official language was Quechua. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun." The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "the four suyu". The four suyu were: Chinchaysuyu, Kuntisuyu. The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu. The Inka was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Spanish adopted the term as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered and subsequently conquered. The Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Oral history tells an story of three caves. The center cave at Tampu T'uqu was named Qhapaq T'uqu.Inca Empire – Inca Empire
24. History of Jamaica – The island of Jamaica was colonized by the Taino tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1494. The Spanish also transported hundreds of enslaved West Africans to the island. In 1655, the English invaded Jamaica, defeating the Spanish colonists. Enslaved Africans fled to the island's interior, forming independent communities. Meanwhile, on the coast, the English built the settlement of Port Royal, which became a base of operations for privateers, including Captain Henry Morgan. In the eighteenth century, sugarcane replaced piracy as English Jamaica's main source of income. Enslaved Jamaicans mounted over a dozen major uprisings including Tacky's revolt in 1760. The first inhabitants of Jamaica probably came to the east in two waves of migration. About 600 CE the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived; little is known of them, however, beyond the red pottery they left. They were followed about 800 CE by the Arawakan-speaking Taíno, who eventually settled throughout the island. Their economy, based on the cultivation of corn and cassava, sustained as many as 60,000 people in villages led by caciques. The Taíno brought from South America a system of raising yuca known as "conuco." Palm leaves. The Taino did not have writing. Some of the words used such as barbacoa, hamaca, kanoa, tabaco, yuca, batata, juracán, have been incorporated into Spanish and English.History of Jamaica – Cassava (yuca) roots, the Taínos' main crop
25. John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, an American historian, pastor, pedagogical writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine to Jacob and Betsey Abbott. Owing to the success of The Mother at Home, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature. He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian ethics, of popular histories, which were credited with cultivating a popular interest in history. Abbott takes a very favourable view towards his subject throughout. Also among his principal works Called Frederick the Great. He also did a forward to a book called Life of Boone about Daniel Boone in 1876. Except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. On August 1835 he married Jane Williams Bourne, daughter of Abner Bourne and Abagail Williams. John Stevens Cabot Abbott died at Connecticut. In 1910, a series of twenty short biographies of historical characters by J. S. C. and Jacob Abbott, was published. Gorham Dummer Abbott, was also an author. Willis Abbott, was a Christian Scientist and an editor of the Christian Science Monitor. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Abbott, John Stevens Cabot". Encyclopædia Britannica.John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott
26. La Malinche – She was one of 20 slaves given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519. Later, she gave birth to his first son, Martín, considered one of the first Mestizos. The historical figure of Marina has been intermixed with Aztec legends. In Mexico La Malinche remains iconically potent. The malinchista refers to a disloyal countryperson, especially in Mexico. La Malinche was born sometime in the region between the Aztec-ruled Valley of Mexico and the Maya states of the Yucatán Peninsula. She was named Malinalli after the Goddess of Grass, later Tenepal meaning "one who speaks with liveliness." In her youth, her mother remarried another Cacique and bore a son. Now a stepchild, the girl was given from Xicalango. Bernal Díaz del Castillo claims Malinalli's family faked her death by telling the townspeople that a recently deceased child of a slave was Malinalli. The Xicalango gave the child to the Tobascans. At this time, she was probably in early 20s. Bernal Díaz del Castillo graciousness; she was the only one of the slaves whose name he remembered. Cortés singled her out as a gift for perhaps the most well-born member of the expedition. According to Díaz, she pointed to Cortés as the chief Spaniard to speak for them.La Malinche – Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan, November 8, 1519. Facsimile (c. 1890) of Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
27. Mexico City – Mexico City, officially City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an "alpha" global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas. It is located at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities. The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The city was responsible for generating the metropolitan area accounted for about 22 % of total national GDP. Mexico's capital is both one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, as of 1585 it was officially known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City served as the political, financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. No run-Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325. Between 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of the Pacific Ocean. Cortés put Moctezuma under arrest, hoping to rule through him.Mexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
28. Marshall Islands – Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro, which contains the capital. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands with inter-island navigation made using traditional stick charts. Islands in the archipelago were first explored with Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed. The islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were historically known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". The European powers recognized Spanish sovereignty over the islands in 1874. They had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Later, Spain sold the islands to the German Empire in 1884, they became part of German New Guinea in 1885. In World War II, the United States conquered the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands were then consolidated into the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands governed by the US. Self-government was achieved in 1979, full sovereignty in 1986, under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a United Nations member state since 1991.Marshall Islands – Marshall Islanders sailing in traditional costume, circa 1899-1900.
29. History of Mexico – The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. This era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became Mexico City, and remains the most populous city in Mexico. It became the capital of New Spain. During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking, largely Western culture. After a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. Racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas. Slavery was eliminated in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office. The Liberal Reform began by Mexican liberals ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854. The Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The US was engaged in its Civil War, so did not attempt to block the foreign intervention.History of Mexico – El Tajín
30. History of Morocco – The history of Morocco spans several millennia, succeeding the prehistoric cultures of Jebel Irhoud and Taforalt. Archaeological evidence has shown that the area was inhabited by hominids at least 400,000 years ago. In the 5th BC, the city-state of Carthage extended its hegemony over the coastal areas. They remained there until the 3rd century BC, while the hinterland was ruled by indigenous monarchs. Indigenous Berber monarchs ruled the territory until 40 AD when it was annexed to the Roman Empire. In the mid-5th AD, it was overrun by Vandals, before being recovered by the Byzantine Empire in the 6th century. The region broke away from the Umayyad Caliphate after the Berber Revolt of 740. Half a century later, the Moroccan state was established by the Idrisid dynasty. Under the Almohad dynasties, Morocco dominated the Maghreb and Muslim Spain. The Saadi dynasty ruled the country followed by the Alaouites from 1667 onwards, who have since been the ruling dynasty of Morocco. After the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, dividing Morocco into French and Spanish protectorates. After 44 years of French rule, Morocco regained independence from France, shortly afterward regained most of the territories under Spanish control. Archaeological excavations have demonstrated the presence of people in Morocco that were ancestral to Homo sapiens, well as the presence of early human species. The fossilized bones of a 400,000-year-old human ancestor were discovered in Salé in 1971. The bones of several early Homo sapiens were discovered at Jebel Irhoud in 1991, that were found to be at least 160,000 years old.History of Morocco – Phoenician plate with red slip, 7th century BCE, excavated on Mogador Island, Essaouira. Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum.
31. Moctezuma II – During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its greatest size. Moctezuma widened the divide between pipiltin and macehualtin by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces. The biases of some historical sources make it difficult to understand his actions during the Spanish invasion. He only two women were his Queens -- Tlapalizquixochtzin and Teotlalco. Moctezuma was also a King Consort of Ecatepec because Tlapalizquixochtzin was Queen of that city. His many children included Princess Isabel Moctezuma -- and Chimalpopoca and Tlaltecatzin. The Nahuatl pronunciation of his name is. The Aztec chronicles called Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma. Xocoyotzin means "young one". Thus nothing is known for certain about his personality and rule. He had a short black beard, well-shaped and thin. His face was rather cheerful, Moctezuma had fine eyes, in his appearance and manner could express geniality or, when necessary, a serious composure. Moctezuma took a bath every afternoon. Moctezuma was quite free from sodomy. He wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later.Moctezuma II – Moctezuma II in the Codex Mendoza
32. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 4.8 % of its total surface. North America is the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, Europe. North America was reached by its first human populations via crossing the Bering land bridge. The Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions. The Americas are usually accepted as having been named by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam. For Waldseemüller, no one should object after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa".North America – Map of North America, from 1621.
33. Northwest Passage – For centuries explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible route. Until 2009, the Arctic ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year. Arctic sea decline has rendered the waterways more navigable. Fully loaded, Nordic Orion was too large to sail through the Panama Canal. The Northwest Passage represented a new route to the established trading nations of Asia. England called the "Northwest Passage". The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. When it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned through northern waters. There was a lack of scientific knowledge about conditions; for instance, some people believed that seawater was incapable of freezing. Explorers thought that an open water close to the North Pole must exist. The belief that a route lay to the far north led to numerous expeditions into the Arctic. Many ended including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850. In 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first successfully completed a passage to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, fortified ships have made the journey.Northwest Passage – Northwest Passage routes
34. Native Americans in the United States – In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the country's modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of numerous distinct tribes, bands, ethnic groups, many of these groups survive intact today as partially sovereign nations. At the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than the Europeans were familiar with. The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations. During the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands, warfare between the groups, rising tensions. This resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West, miner migrants came into increasing conflict with Western tribes. These were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes and established reservations for them in many western states. In 1924, Native Americans who were not already U.S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights.Native Americans in the United States – Pushmataha
35. History of Nicaragua – Nicaragua is the least densely populated nation in Central America, with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors. It is located about midway between Mexico and Colombia, bordered by Honduras to the south. The Pacific Ocean bordering the west. Nicaragua also possesses a series of cays located in the Caribbean Sea. Nicaragua is well known for its tourist attractions. In 2013, Nicaragua was ranked as the top 3 of "The 46 places to go in 2013". In 2015, The Boston Globe considered the country Top 3 of the "Where to go in 2015" list. The people migrated after 500 CE. Most of Nicaragua's Caribbean lowlands area was inhabited by tribes that migrated north from what is now Colombia. The various languages in this area are related to Chibcha, spoken by groups in northern Colombia. Eastern Nicaragua's population consisted of extended tribes. Food was obtained by hunting, fishing, agriculture. Crops like cassava and pineapples were the staple foods. Each one of these diverse groups occupied much of Nicaragua territory, with independent chieftains who ruled according to each group's customs. Their weapons consisted of swords, arrows made out of wood.History of Nicaragua – Map of Central America (1860s), pictured is Nicaragua along with the Guanacaste Province which then belonged to Nicaragua but was incorporated with present-day Costa Rica in 1825.
36. New Mexico – New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States. Inhabited before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U.S. territory and eventually a U.S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. The American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, Apache peoples. The culture of the state are expressed in the state flag. Its gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes. Formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was Federal Republic of Mexico for 1821 through 1848. New Mexico and Mexico developed with relatively independent histories. The state's total area is 121,412 square miles.New Mexico – Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
37. Palau – Palau, officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country with a population of 17,948 on 465 km2, located in the western Pacific Ocean. It contains approximately 250 islands, which form the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia. The most populous of these is Koror. The Ngerulmud is located on the nearby island of Babeldaob, in Melekeok State. Palau shares maritime boundaries with Indonesia, the Federated States of Micronesia. The country sustained a Negrito population until around 900 years ago. The islands were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1574. Along with other Pacific Islands, Palau was made a part of the Pacific Islands in 1947. Politically, Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense, access to social services. Legislative power is concentrated in the bicameral Palau National Congress. Palau's economy is based mainly with a significant portion of gross national product derived from foreign aid. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. The islands' culture mixes Japanese, Micronesian and Melanesian elements. The majority of citizens are of mixed Micronesian, Melanesian, Austronesian descent, with significant groups descended from Filipino settlers. The country's two official languages are Palauan and English, with Japanese, Sonsorolese, Tobian recognised as regional languages.Palau – Map of 1888 showing the Spanish East Indies, being part of it Palau Islands (map without Philippines)
38. History of Palau – Palau was initially settled over 3,000 years ago. A letter sent to Europe by Klein in June 1697 had a vast impact on the surge of interest in Palau. It failed the Jesuit attempts to travel to the islands from the Philippines in 1700, 1708 and 1709. Subsequent attempts to save Du Beron and Cortyl learned that they were eaten by the locals. After further attempts, Palau islands were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1885. British traders became prominent visitors followed by expanding Spanish influence in the 19th century. Following its defeat in the Spanish -- American War, Spain sold Palau and most of the rest of the Caroline Islands in 1899. The islands passed formally to the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The districts of Palau and the Marshall Islands declined to participate. Legislation making Palau an "offshore" financial center was passed in 1998. In 2001, Palau passed its first bank anti-money laundering laws. The Palauan language is an outlier among the Austronesian languages, so does not shed much light on the origins of the modern population. However, there are some indications that it may derive from the Sunda Islands. For thousands of years, Palauans have had a well established matrilineal society, believed to have descended from Javanese precedents. Traditionally land, titles passed through the female line.History of Palau – View of part of the town of Pelew, and the place of Council, 1788