1. Acapulco – Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico,380 kilometres south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the colonial period of Mexicos history. It is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States, the city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also Mexicos largest beach and balneario resort city, the city is best known as one of Mexicos oldest and most well-known beach resorts, which came into prominence in the 1950s as a getaway for Hollywood stars and millionaires. Acapulco is still famous and still attracts tourists, although most are now from Mexico itself. The name Acapulco comes from Nahuatl language Aca-pōl-co, and means where the reeds were destroyed or washed away, the de Juárez was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico. The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane, the island and municipality of Capul, in the Philippines, derives its name from Acapulco, Capul was the western end of the trans-Pacific sailing route from Acapulco to what was then a Spanish colony. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, one by Playa Larga and the other on a known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the small villages here to coalesce into larger entities. Later, Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo, then Mayan influence arrived from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and through what is now Oaxaca. This history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have found here, especially at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta. In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here and these people were the antecedents of the Aztecs. In the later 15th century, after four years of military struggle and it was annexed to a tributary province named Tepecuacuilco. However, this was only transitory, as the Aztecs could only establish a military post at the citys outskirts. The city was on territory under control of the Yopes, who continued defending it, there are two stories about how Acapulco bay was discovered by Europeans. The first states that two years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés sent explorers west to find gold, the explorers had subdued this area after 1523, and Captain Saavedra Cerón was authorized by Cortés to found a settlement here. The other states that the bay was discovered on December 13,1526 by a ship named the El Tepache Santiago captained by Santiago Guevara. The first encomendero was established in 1525 at Cacahuatepec, which is part of the modern Acapulco municipality, in 1531, a number of Spaniards, most notably Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, left the Oaxaca coast and founded the village of Villafuerte where the city of Acapulco now standsAcapulco – Acapulco panoramic collage. Top, from left to right: Acapulco Bay from Chapel of Peace, Petroglyphs in Palma Sola, Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Cathedral, Mural by Diego Rivera in Dolores Olmedo House, San Diego Fort, La Quebrada, La Condesa Beach, Acapulco Dorado and Acapulco Diamante.
2. American Quarter Horse – The American Quarter Horse is an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances. Its name came from its ability to other horse breeds in races of a quarter mile or less. The American Quarter Horse is well known both as a horse and for its performance in rodeos, horse shows and as a working ranch horse. The American Quarter Horse is also shown in English disciplines, driving, one of the most famous of these early imports was Janus, a Thoroughbred who was the grandson of the Godolphin Arabian. He was foaled in 1746, and imported to colonial Virginia in 1756, the influence of Thoroughbreds like Janus contributed genes crucial to the development of the colonial Quarter Horse. The breed is referred to as the Famous American Quarter Running Horse. The resulting horse was small, hardy, and quick, and was used as a horse during the week. When matched against a Thoroughbred, local sprinters often won, with some individuals being clocked at up to 55 mph. In the 19th century, pioneers heading West needed a hardy and these horses of the west included herds of feral animals known as Mustangs, as well as horses domesticated by Native Americans, including the Comanche, Shoshoni and Nez Perce tribes. The main duty of the horse in the American West was working cattle. Even after the invention of the automobile, horses were still irreplaceable for handling livestock on the range. Thus, major Texas cattle ranches, such as the King Ranch, the 6666 Ranch, to this day, the Quarter Horse dominates the sport both in speed events and in competition that emphasizes the handling of live cattle. However, sprint races were popular weekend entertainment and racing became a source of economic gain for breeders as well. As a result, more Thoroughbred blood was added back into the developing American Quarter Horse breed, the American Quarter Horse also benefitted from the addition of Arabian, Morgan and even Standardbred bloodlines. In 1940, the American Quarter Horse Association was formed by a group of horsemen, the horse honored with the first registration number, P-1, was Wimpy, a descendant of the King Ranch foundation sire Old Sorrel. Other sires alive at the founding of the AQHA were given the earliest registration numbers Joe Reed P-3, Chief P-5, Oklahoma Star P-6, Cowboy P-12, other significant Thoroughbred sires seen in early AQHA pedigrees include Rocket Bar, Top Deck and Depth Charge. Since the American Quarter Horse formally established itself as a breed, the resulting offspring is registered in the appendix of the American Quarter Horse Associations studbook, hence the nickname. Horses listed in the appendix may be entered in competition, the American Quarter Horse is best known today as a show horse, race horse, reining and cutting horse, rodeo competitor, ranch horse, and all-around family horseAmerican Quarter Horse – A palomino American Quarter Horse shown at halter
3. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California also has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire then claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence. The western portion of Alta California then was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their organization with bands, tribes, villages. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
4. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He also had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian. In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island then ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern EuropeChristopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
5. Chiapas – Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas, is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 122 municipalities and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez, other important population centers in Chiapas include Ocosingo, Tapachula, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Comitán and Arriaga. Chiapas has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south, in general, Chiapas has a humid, tropical climate. In the north, in the area bordering Tabasco, near Teapa, in the past, natural vegetation at this region was lowland, tall perennial rainforest, but this vegetation has been destroyed almost completely to give way to agriculture and ranching. Rainfall decreases moving towards the Pacific Ocean, but it is abundant enough to allow the farming of bananas. Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak and it is also home to one of the largest indigenous populations in the country with twelve federally recognized ethnicities. Much of the history is centered on the subjugation of these peoples with occasional rebellions. The last of these rebellions was the 1994 Zapatista uprising, which succeeded in obtaining new rights for indigenous people, the official name of the state is Chiapas. The name derives from Chiapan or Tepechiapan, the name of an indigenous population, the term, from Nahuatl, may mean sage seed hill or water below the hill. After the Spanish arrived, they established two cities called Chiapas de los Indios and Chiapas de los Españoles, with the name of Provincia de Chiapas for the area around the cities, the first coat of arms of the region dates from 1535 as that of the Ciudad Real. Chiapas painter Javier Vargas Ballinas designed the coat of arms. Hunter gatherers began to occupy the valley of the state around 7000 BCE. The oldest archaeological remains in the seat are located at the Santa Elena Ranch in Ocozocoautla whose finds include tools, in the pre Classic period from 1800 BCE to 300 CE, agricultural villages appeared all over the state although hunter gather groups would persist for long after the era. There is speculation that these were the forefathers of the Olmec, migrating across the Grijalva Valley and onto the plain of the Gulf of Mexico to the north. One of these peoples ancient cities is now the site of Chiapa de Corzo. This is three hundred years before the Mayans developed their calendar, the descendants of Mokaya are the Mixe-Zoque. During the pre Classic era, it is known that most of Chiapas was not Olmec, olmec-influenced sculpture can be found in Chiapas and products from the state including amber, magnetite, and ilmenite were exported to Olmec lands. The Olmecs came to what is now the northwest of the looking for amber with one of the main evidences for this called the Simojovel AxChiapas – Jaguar sculpture from Cintalapa dating between 1000 to 400 BCE on display at the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Chiapas.
6. Chocolate – Chocolate /ˈtʃɒklᵻt, -kəlᵻt/ is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya, with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE, the seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted, the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor, the liquor also may be cooled and processed into its two components, cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate, also called chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils. Milk chocolate is chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, Cocoa solids are a source of flavonoids and alkaloids, such as theobromine, phenethylamine and caffeine. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, and bars of solid chocolate, Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain Western holidays, such as Easter and Valentines Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages such as milk and hot chocolate and in some alcoholic drinks. Although cocoa originated in the Americas, recent years have seen African nations assuming a role in producing cocoa. Since the 2000s, Western Africa produces almost two-thirds of the worlds cocoa, in 2009, the Salvation Army International Development Department stated that child labor and the human trafficking and slavery of child laborers are used in African cocoa cultivation. The word chocolate entered the English language from Spanish in about 1600, how the word came into Spanish is less certain, and there are competing explanations. The word chocolatl does not occur in central Mexican colonial sources, another derivation comes from the Yucatec Mayan word chokol meaning hot, and the Nahuatl atl meaning water. The Nahuatl term, chicolatl, meaning beaten drink, may derive from the word for the frothing stick, the term chocolate chip was first used in 1940. The term chocolatier, for a chocolate maker, is attested from 1888. Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for all of its historyChocolate – Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown color.
7. Diego de Almagro – Diego de Almagro, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion and later rival of Francisco Pizarro. He participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru and is credited as the first European discoverer of Chile, Almagro lost his left eye battling with coastal natives in the New World. In 1525 he joined the Pizarro brothers and Hernándo de Luque at Panama for the conquest of Peru, Diego de Almagro was born and raised in Almagro, Ciudad Real, Spain with parents Juan de Montenegro and Elvira Gutiérrez. He married twice, with Ana Martínez and Mencia and got two children, son Diego de Almagro II wih Ana Martínez and daughter Isabel with Mencia. Diego de Almagro arrived in the New World on June 30,1514, the expedition had landed in the city of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, Panama, where many other future conquistadors had already arrived, among them Francisco Pizarro. There are not many details of Almagros activities during this period, De Almagro eventually returned and settled in Darien, where he was granted an encomienda. He built a house and made a living from agriculture, De Almagro undertook his first conquest on November 1515, commanding 260 men as he founded Villa del Acla, named after the Indian place. Due to illness he had to leave behind this mission to the licenciate Gaspar de Espinosa, Espinosa decided to undertake a new expedition, which departed in December 1515 with 200 men, including De Almagro and Francisco Pizarro, who for the first time was designated as a captain. During this expedition, which lasted 14 months, De Almagro, Pizarro, also during this time De Almagro established a friendship with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who was in charge of Acla. Current historians do not believe that De Almagro was expected to participate in Balboas expedition, De Almagro took part in the various expeditions that took place in the Gulf of Panama, taking part again in Espinosas parties. Espinosa was supported by using Balboas ships, De Almagro was recorded as a witness on the lists of natives whom Espinosa ordered to be carried. De Almagro remained as a settler in the newly founded city of Panama. For four years he stayed there, working at the management of his properties and he took Ana Martínez, an indigenous woman, as a common-law wife. In this period, his first son, el Mozo, was born to them, by 1524 an association of conquest regarding South America was formalized among Almagro, Pizarro and Luque. By the beginning of August 1524, they had received the permission to discover and conquer lands further south. De Almagro would remain in Panama to recruit men and gather supplies for the led by Pizarro. After several expeditions to South America, Pizarro secured his stay in Peru with the Capitulation on 6 July 1529, during Pizarros continued exploration of Incan territory, he and his men succeeded in defeating the Inca army under Emperor Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca in 1532. De Almagro joined Pizarro soon afterward, bringing men and armsDiego de Almagro – Diego de Almagro
8. Emerald – Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7. 5–8 on the Mohs scale, most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness is classified as generally poor. The word emerald is derived, from Vulgar Latin, esmaralda/esmaraldus, a variant of Latin smaragdus, emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of Connoisseurship, Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat weight. Before the 20th century, jewelers used the water, as in a gem of the finest water. Normally, in the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion, however, in the grading of emeralds, clarity is considered a close second. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue as described below, in the 1960s, the American jewelry industry changed the definition of emerald to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl as emerald. As a result, vanadium emeralds purchased as emeralds in the United States are not recognized as such in the UK, in America, the distinction between traditional emeralds and the new vanadium kind is often reflected in the use of terms such as Colombian Emerald. In gemology, color is divided into three components, hue, saturation, and tone, emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green, with the primary hue necessarily being green. Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds, only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emerald, light-toned gems are known instead by the species name green beryl. The finest emerald are approximately 75% tone on a scale where 0% tone would be colorless, in addition, a fine emerald should be well saturated and have a hue that is bright. Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in emerald, Emerald tends to have numerous inclusions and surface breaking fissures. Unlike diamond, where the standard, i. e. 10× magnification, is used to grade clarity. Thus, if an emerald has no visible inclusions to the eye it is considered flawless, stones that lack surface breaking fissures are extremely rare and therefore almost all emeralds are treated to enhance the apparent clarity. The inclusions and fissures within an emerald are sometime described as jardin, imperfections are unique for each emerald and can be used to identify a particular stone. Eye-clean stones of a vivid primary green hue, with no more than 15% of any hue or combination of a medium-dark tone. The relative non-uniformity motivates the cutting of emeralds in cabochon form, faceted emeralds are most commonly given an oval cut, or the signature emerald cut, a rectangular cut with facets around the top edge. Most emeralds are oiled as part of the process, in order to fill in surface-reaching cracks so that clarity and stability are improved. Cedar oil, having a refractive index, is often used in this widely adopted practiceEmerald – Emerald crystal from Muzo, Colombia
9. Emperor – An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the equivalent, may indicate an emperors wife, mother. Emperors are generally recognized to be of an honour and rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both kings and emperors are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler. Thus a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German speaking states. In Eastern Europe the rulers of the Russian Empire also used translatio imperii to wield authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their title of Emperor was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, in practice the Russian Emperors are often known by their Russian-language title Tsar, which may also used to refer to rulers equivalent to a king. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia, however such empires did not need to be headed by an emperor. Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century, outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era, also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, rules for indicating successors also varied, there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known. Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue, murder and military force could also mingle in for appointing successors, probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Romes third century rule. When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the half of the 1st century BCEmperor – A statue of the dictator Julius Caesar.
10. History of the Falkland Islands – The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by the French, British, Spaniards, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. France established a colony on the islands in 1764, in 1765, a British captain claimed the islands for Britain. In early 1770 a Spanish commander arrived from Argentina with five ships and 1400 soldiers forcing the British to leave Port Egmont, Britain and Spain almost went to war over the islands, but the British government decided that it should withdraw its presence from many overseas settlements in 1774. Spain, which had a garrison at Puerto Soledad on East Falklands, in 1833, the British returned to the Falkland Islands. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982, the British responded with an expeditionary force that forced the Argentines to surrender. While Amerindians from Patagonia could have visited the Falklands, the islands were uninhabited when discovered by Europeans. Recent discoveries of arrowheads in Lafonia as well as the remains of a wooden canoe provide evidence that the Yaghan people of Tierra del Fuego may have made the journey to the islands. It is not known if these are evidence of one-way journeys, however, it is not certain that the discovery predates arrival of Europeans. A Patagonian Missionary Society mission station was founded on Keppel Island in 1856, yahgan Indians were at this station from 1856 to 1898 so this may be the source of the artifacts that have been found. The presence of the warrah, Dusicyon australis, has often cited as evidence of pre-European occupation of the islands.7 million years ago. This means it is likely that the warrah arrived in the islands long before humans, the islands had no native trees when discovered but there is some ambiguous evidence of past forestation, that may be due to wood being transported by oceanic currents from Patagonia. All modern trees have been introduced by Europeans, an archipelago in the region of the Falkland Islands appeared on Portuguese maps from the early 16th century. Researchers Pepper and Pascoe cite the possibility that an unknown Portuguese expedition may have sighted the islands, maps from this period show islands known as the Sanson islands in a position that could be interpreted as the Falklands. On 9 August 1592 a severe storm battered his ship, and Davis drifted under bare masts, Davis did not provide the latitude of these islands, indicating they were 50 leagues away from the Patagonian coast. However, the latitude given was off by at least 3 degrees, errors in the latitude measured can be attributed to a simple mistake reading a cross staff divided into minutes meaning the latitude measured could be 50°48. The description of bonfires can also be attributed to fires caused by lightning. In 1925, Conor OBrian analysed the voyage of Hawkins and concluded that the land he could have sighted was Steeple Jason IslandHistory of the Falkland Islands – Map of the modern Falkland Islands
11. Guam – Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. Located in the western Pacific Ocean, Guam is one of five American territories with a civilian government. The capital city is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo, in 2015,161,785 people resided on Guam. Guamanians are American citizens by birth, Guam has an area of 210 sq mi and a population density of 770/sq mi. It is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia, among its municipalities, Mongmong-Toto-Maite has the highest density at 3, 691/sq mi, whereas Inarajan and Umatac have the lowest density at 119/sq mi. The highest point is Mount Lamlam at 406 meters above sea level, the Chamorros, Guams indigenous people, settled the island approximately 4,000 years ago. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was the first European to visit the island on March 6,1521, Guam was colonized in 1668 with settlers, like Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Catholic missionary. Between the 16th century and the 18th century, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons, during the Spanish–American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21,1898. Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded Guam to the United States on December 10,1898, Guam is among the seventeen Non-Self-Governing Territories of the United Nations. Before World War II, Guam and three other territories – American Samoa, Hawaii, and the Philippines – were the only American jurisdictions in the Pacific Ocean. On December 7,1941, hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was captured by the Japanese, during the occupation, Guamanians were subjected to beheadings, forced labor, rape, and torture. Guam endured hostilities when American forces recaptured the island on July 21,1944, since the 1960s, the economy has been supported by two industries, tourism and the United States Armed Forces. The original inhabitants of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC and they evolved into the Chamorro people. The ancient-Chamorro society had four classes, chamorri, matua, achaot, the matua were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds, whereas the manachang were located in the interior of the island. Matua and manachang rarely communicated with other, and matua often used achaot as intermediaries. There were also makåhna, skilled in healing and medicine, belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao mona still persists as a remnant of pre-European culture. Their society was organized along matrilineal clans, Latte stones are stone pillars that are found only in the Mariana Islands, they are a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society. The latte-stone was used as a foundation on which thatched huts were built, Latte stones consist of a base shaped from limestone called the haligi and with a capstone, or tåsa, made either from a large brain coral or limestone, placed on topGuam – Marines laying fire on a Japanese sniper nest (July 28, 1944).
12. History of Guam – Guams history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands. It is believed that Guam was first discovered by seafaring people who migrated from Southeast Asia around 2000 BC and these people evolved into the Chamorro people. They flourished as an advanced, horticultural and hunting society and they were expert seafarers and skilled craftsmen familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery who built unique houses and canoes suited to this region of the world. When Europeans first arrived on Guam, Chamorro society roughly fell into three classes, matao, achaot, and manachang. The matao were located in the villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds while the manachang were located in the interior of the island. Matao and manachang rarely communicated with other, and matao often used achaot as a go-between. There were also makhanas and suruhanus, skilled in healing and medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao Mona still persists as remnant of pre-European society, early European explorers noted the Chamorros fast sailing vessels used for trading with other islands of Micronesia. The latte stones familiar to Guam residents and visitors alike were in fact a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society, the latte stone consists of a head and a base shaped out of limestone. The latte stone was used as a part of the foundation for a magalahi house. Archaeologists using carbon-dating have broken Pre-Contact Guam history into three periods, Pre-Latte Transitional Pre-Latte, and Latte, archaeological evidence also suggests that Chamorro society was on the verge of another transition phase by 1521, as latte stones became bigger. Assuming the stones were used for houses, it can be argued that Chamorro society was becoming more stratified. The theory remains tenuous, however, due to lack of evidence, History credits the village of Umatac as his landing place, but drawings from the navigators diary suggest that Magellan may have landed in Tumon in northern Guam. The expedition had started out in Spain with five ships, by the time they reached the Marianas they were down to three ships and nearly half the crew, due to storms, diseases and the mutiny in one ship which destroyed the expedition. Tired and hungry from their long voyage, the crew prepared to go ashore and restore provisions in Guam. The aboriginals were willing to engage in barter and their love of gain overcame every other consideration As the Chamorros took everything they found on the ship without asking, Magellan and his crew rememberd the island as the Island of Thieves. After firing a few shots from the Trinidads big guns, the natives were frightened off from the ship, Magellan was eventually able to obtain rations and offered iron, a highly prized material, in exchange for fresh fruits, vegetables, and water. Despite Magellans visit, Guam was not officially claimed by Spain until 1565 by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, however, the island was not actually colonized until the 17th century. On June 15,1668, the galleon San Diego arrived at the shore of the island of Guam, jesuit missionaries led by Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores arrived on Guam to introduce Christianity and develop tradeHistory of Guam – Chief Gadao is featured in many legends about Guam before European colonization.
13. History of Guatemala – The Mayan civilization was among those that flourished in the region, with little contact with cultures outside Mesoamerica. The modern history of Guatemala began with the arrival of Spanish settlers in 1511, most of the great Classic-era Maya cities of the Petén Basin region, in the northern lowlands of Guatemala, had been abandoned by the year 1000 AD. The states in the Belize central highlands flourished until the arrival in 1525 of Pedro de Alvarado, called the invader by the Mayan peoples, he began subjugating the Indian states with his forces. The Capitania became independent in 1821, and became a part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823, from 1824 it was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America, until the Republic dissolved in 1841, when Guatemala became fully independent. In the late 20 century, Guatemala experienced a series of authoritarian governments, in the late 19th and early 20th century, Guatemalas potential for agricultural exploitation attracted several foreign companies to it, the most prominent being the United Fruit Company. These companies, supported by the authoritarian rulers, and the United States government through their support for brutal labor regulations. In 1944, the policies of Jorge Ubico led to an uprising which began the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution. The presidencies of Juan José Arévalo and Jacobo Árbenz saw sweeping social and economic reforms, including a significant increase in literacy and this was soon followed by other military governments, and jolted off a civil war between the government and leftist guerrillas that lasted from 1960 to 1996. The war saw human rights violations, including a genocide of the indigenous Mayan population by the United States-backed military, following the end of the war in 1996, Guatemala re-established a representative democracy. It has since struggled to enforce the rule of law and suffers a high rate, as well as continued extrajudicial killings. The earliest human settlements in Guatemala date back to the Paleo-Indian period and were made up of hunters and gatherers, sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in Quiché in the Highlands and Sipacate, Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Though it is unclear when these groups of hunters and gatherers turned to cultivation, pollen samples from Petén, excavations in the Antigua Guatemala Urías and Rucal, have yielded stratified materials from the Early and Middle Preclassic periods. Guatemalas Pre-Columbian era can be divided into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, in Monte Alto near La Democracia, Escuintla, giant stone heads and potbellies have been found, dating back to around 1800 BC. The stone heads have been ascribed to the Pre-Olmec Monte Alto Culture and it has also been argued the only connection between the statues and the later Olmec heads is their size. The Monte Alto Culture may have been the first complex culture of Mesoamerica, El Mirador was by far the most populated city in pre-Columbian America. Both the El Tigre and Monos pyramids encompass a greater than 250,000 cubic meters. There were 26 cities, all connected by sacbeob, which were several long, up to 40 meters wide. These are clearly distinguishable from the air in the most extensive virgin tropical rain forest in Mesoamerica, Hansen believes the Olmec were not the mother culture in MesoamericaHistory of Guatemala – The remains of the Nakbé palace from the mid pre-Classic period, Mirador Basin, Petén, Guatemala.
14. History of Europe – The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. Some of the civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires, during the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe grew in strength, and repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD476 traditionally marks the end of the period and the start of the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples became more powerful in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own. Of all of the Germanic peoples, the Franks would rise to a position of hegemony over Western Europe, the British Isles were the site of several large-scale migrations. The Viking Age, a period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, the Normans, a Viking people who settled in Northern France, had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to Southern Italy and Sicily. The Rus people founded Kievan Rus, which evolved into Russia, after 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back under Christian rule. The Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa, the Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the rise, led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads who established a decentralized empire which, at its height, extended from China in the east to the Black and Baltic Seas in Europe. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe, the epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period, in Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years War. Russia continued to expand southward and eastward into former Mongol lands, in the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire overran Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, which historians mark as the end of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century in Florence and later spreading through Europe, the rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge had an enormous liberating effect on intellectuals. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation under German Martin Luther questioned Papal authority, henry VIII seized control of the English Church and its lands. The European religious wars between German and Spanish rulers, the Reconquista ended Muslim rule in Iberia. By the 1490s a series of oceanic explorations marked the Age of Discovery, establishing links with Africa, the AmericasHistory of Europe – Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
15. History of Haiti – It was inhabited by the Taíno, an Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio, or Kiskeya. Columbus promptly claimed the island for the Spanish Crown, naming it La Isla Española, successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean. Around AD600, the Taíno Indians, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island and they were organized into cacicazgos, each led by a cacique. The Taíno people called the island Quisqueya and Ayiti, at the time of Columbuss arrival in 1492, the islands territory consisted of five chiefdoms, Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey. Two of these chiefdoms, Marien and Jaragua, were on the territory of present-day Haiti, guacanagarix, who ruled Marien from his capital El Guarico near present-day Cap-Haïtien, met Columbus and gave him permission to construct La Navidad. Jaragua was the largest caique on the island and ruled by Bohechío and his sister Anacaona, who ruled from its capital Yaguana near present-day Léogâne, christopher Columbus established the settlement, La Navidad, near the modern town of Cap-Haïtien. It was built from the timbers of his ship, Santa María. When he returned in 1493 on his voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed. Columbus continued east and founded a new settlement at La Isabela on the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic in 1493. The capital of the colony was moved to Santo Domingo in 1496, the Spanish returned to western Hispaniola in 1502, establishing a settlement at Yaguana, near modern-day Léogâne. A second settlement was established on the north coast in 1504 called Puerto Real near modern Fort-Liberté – which in 1578 was relocated to a nearby site and renamed Bayaha. Following the arrival of Europeans, La Hispaniolas indigenous population suffered greatly to near extinction, a commonly accepted hypothesis attributes the high mortality of this colony in part to Old World diseases to which the natives had no immunity. A small number of Taínos were able to survive and set up villages elsewhere, Spanish interest in Hispaniola began to wane in the 1520s, as more lucrative gold and silver deposits were found in Mexico and South America. Thereafter, the population of Spanish Hispaniola grew at a slow pace, the Dutch responded by sourcing new salt supplies from Spanish America where colonists were more than happy to trade. So large numbers of Dutch traders/pirates joined their English and French brethren trading on the coasts of Hispaniola. Five of the existing thirteen settlements on the island were brutally razed by Spanish troops including the two settlements on the territory of present-day Haiti, La Yaguana, and Bayaja. Although the Spanish destroyed the settlements in 1629,1635,1638 and 1654. In 1655, the newly established English administration on Jamaica sponsored the re-occupation of Tortuga under Elias Watts as governor, in 1660, the English made the mistake of replacing Watts as governor by a Frenchman Jeremie Deschamps, on condition he defended English interestsHistory of Haiti – Christopher Columbus landing on the island of Hispaniola in 1492.
16. Honduras – Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a republic in Central America. It has at times referred to as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras. Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, the Spanish introduced Roman Catholicism and the now predominant Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with the indigenous culture. Honduras has the worlds highest murder rate, Honduras spans about 112,492 km2 and has a population exceeding 8 million. Its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone, as reflected in the areas demographics and culture. Honduras is known for its natural resources, including minerals, coffee, tropical fruit, and sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles industry. Honduras literally means depths in Spanish, the name could either refer to the bay of Trujillo as an anchorage, fondura in the Leonese dialect of Spanish, or to Columbuss alleged quote that Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras. It was not until the end of the 16th century that Honduras was used for the whole province, prior to 1580, Honduras only referred to the eastern part of the province, and Higueras referred to the western part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica. In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area, in the west, the Maya civilization flourished for hundreds of years. The dominant state within Hondurass borders was in Copán, Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Chorti, remains of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. On 30 July 1502 Columbus sent his brother Bartholomew to explore the islands and Bartholomew encountered a Mayan trading vessel from Yucatán, carrying well-dressed Maya and a rich cargo. Bartholomews men stole whatever cargo they wanted and kidnapped the elderly captain to serve as an interpreter in what was the first recorded encounter between the Spanish and the Maya. In March 1524, Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to enter Honduras as a conquistador, followed by Hernán Cortés, bringing forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest was done in the two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, and then by those loyal of Francisco Montejo. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied heavily on armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans, resistance to conquest was led in particular by Lempira, and many regions in the north never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spains vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala, Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitalsHonduras – A Maya stela, an emblematic symbol of the Honduran Mayan civilization at Copan.
17. History of Honduras – Honduras was already occupied by many indigenous peoples when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. The western-central part of Honduras was inhabited by the Lencas, the north coast by the Tol, the area east and west of Trujillo by the Pech. These autonomous groups maintained commercial relationships with other and with other populations as distant as Panama. Archaeologists have demonstrated that Honduras has a multi-ethnic prehistory, an important part of that prehistory was the Mayan presence around the city of Copán in western Honduras near the Guatemalan border. Copán was a major Maya city that began to flourish around 150 A. D. and it has left behind many carved inscriptions and stelae. The ancient kingdom, named Xukpi, existed from the 5th century to the early 9th century, the Mayan civilization began a marked decline in population in the 9th century, but there is evidence of people still living in and around the city until at least 1200. By the time the Spanish came to Honduras, the once great city-state of Copán was overrun by the jungle, the non-Maya Lencas were then dominant in western Honduras. Honduras was first sighted by Europeans when Christopher Columbus arrived at the Bay Islands on 30 July 1502 on his fourth voyage, on 14 August 1502 Columbus landed on the mainland near modern Trujillo. Columbus named the country Honduras for the waters off its coast. In January 1524, Hernán Cortés directed captain Cristóbal de Olid to establish a colony for him in Honduras, Olid sailed with a force of several ships and over 400 soldiers and colonists. He sailed first to Cuba, to pick up supplies Cortés had arranged for him, Olid sailed from Cuba to the coast of Honduras, and came ashore east of Puerto Caballos at Triunfo de la Cruz where he settled and declared himself governor. Hernán Cortés however in 1524 got word of Olids insurrection and sent his cousin, Francisco de las Casas, along with ships to Honduras, to remove Olid. Las Casas, however, lost most of his fleet in a series of storms along the coast of Belize and his ships limped into the bay at Triunfo, where Olid had established his headquarters. When Las Casas arrived at Olids headquarters, a part of Olids army was inland. Nevertheless, Olid decided to launch an attack with two caravels, Las Casas returned fire and sent boarding parties to capture Olids ships. Under the circumstances, Olid proposed a truce to which Las Casas agreed, during the night, a fierce storm destroyed his fleet and about a third of his men were lost. The remainder were taken prisoner after two days of exposure and no food, after being forced to swear loyalty to Olid, they were released. However, Las Casas was kept prisoner, and soon joined by González, the Spanish record two different stories about what happened nextHistory of Honduras – The Rosalila Temple in the Copan Ruinas Museum.
18. Santo Domingo – Santo Domingo, officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population. In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, the city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional, itself bordered on three sides by Santo Domingo Province. Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, cathedral, castle, monastery, the citys Colonial Zone was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo, from 1936 to 1961, after the Dominican Republics dictator, Rafael Trujillo, following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation. Santo Domingo is the cultural, financial, political, commercial and industrial center of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo also serves as the chief seaport of the country. The citys harbor at the mouth of the Ozama River accommodates the largest vessels, temperatures are high year round, with a cool breeze around winter time. At the time, the territory consisted of five chiefdoms, Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua. These were ruled respectively by caciques Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, in 1495 it was renamed Santo Domingo, in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the Gateway to the Caribbean, in June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River. The original layout of the city and a portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy, in 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos, rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws. In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city and held it for ransom, an expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, in 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of Frances dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. From 1795 to 1822 the city changed several times along with the colony it headed. The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation after the Criollo bourgeois within the country, led by José Núñez de Cáceres, the nation was unified with Haiti just two months laterSanto Domingo – Santo Domingo (2011).
19. Etymology of California – California is a place name used by three North American states, in the United States by the state of California, and in Mexico by the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. Collectively, these three constitute the region formerly referred to as The Californias. The name California is shared by other places in other parts of the world whose names derive from the original. Several other origins have suggested for the word California, including Spanish, Latin, South Asian. After Mexicos independence from Spain, the territory became the Alta California province. In even earlier times, the boundaries of the Sea of Cortez, the Sea of Cortez is also known as the Gulf of California. This popular Spanish novel was printed in editions with the earliest surviving edition published about 1510. The Island was ruled by Queen Calafia, when the Spanish started exploring the Pacific coast they applied this name on their maps to what is now called the Baja California Peninsula, which they originally thought was an island. Once the name was on the maps it stuck, eran de bellos y robustos cuerpos, fogoso valor y gran fuerza. Su isla era la más fuerte de todo el mundo, con sus escarpados farallones y sus pétreas costas. Sus armas eran todas de oro y del mismo metal eran los arneses de las bestias salvajes que ellas acostumbraban domar para montarlas and they had beautiful and robust bodies, and were brave and very strong. Their island was the strongest of the World, with its cliffs and their weapons were golden and so were the harnesses of the wild beasts that they were accustomed to taming so that they could be ridden, because there was no other metal in the island than gold. –Las Sergas de Esplandián, by García Ordóñez de Montalvo, for many years, the de Montalvo novel languished in obscurity, with no connection known between it and the name of California. In 1864, a portion of the original was translated by Edward Everett Hale for The Antiquarian Society, Hale supposed that in inventing the names, de Montalvo held in his mind the Spanish word calif, the term for a leader of an Islamic community. Hales joint derivation of Calafia and California was accepted by many, then questioned by a few scholars who sought further proof, george Davidson wrote in 1910 that Hales theory was the best yet presented, but offered his own addition. In 1917, Ruth Putnam printed an account of the work performed up to that time. She wrote that both Calafia and California most likely came from the Arabic word khalifa which means steward or leader, the same word in Spanish was califa, easily made into California to stand for land of the caliph خلیف, or Calafia to stand for female caliph خلیفه. Putnam discussed Davidsons 1910 theory based on the Greek word kalli but discounted it as exceedingly unlikely, Putnam also wrote that The Song of Roland held a passing mention of a place called Califerne, perhaps named thus because it was the caliphs domain, a place of infidel rebellionEtymology of California – This 1562 map Americae Sive Quartae Orbis Partis Nova Et Exactissima Descriptio by Diego Gutiérrez was the first map to print the toponym California.
20. Hacienda Cocoyoc – The Hacienda de Cocoyoc, now known as the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, is a private hacienda resort located in the state of Morelos, México. In the 17th and 18th centuries it became one of the most important haciendas in the nation and has declared a Historical Monument by the INAH. Located in the municipality of Yautepec, in the state of Morelos, San Jose Cocoyoc is now a former estate, the known history of San Jose Cocoyoc goes back to the times of the Nahua tribes and xochimilcas tlahuicas, occupied the valleys and Huaxtepec Cuauhnáhuac. According to Peter Gerhard, tlahuicas occupied the part of the region. The xochimilcas were located in the center and in the eastern part, yauhtpec formed states, Yacapixtlan, Tepuztlán, Ocuituco and Huaxtepec, the latter being the head of the other dependent. The tlahuicas and xochimilcas formed an agricultural society and they cultivated the fertile valley lands, raised turkeys and dogs escuintles and were engaged in hunting, fishing and gathering. The main food crops that were planted were corn, beans, various vegetables, fruits and grains, such as chili, pumpkin, squash, tomato, in hot areas the main crop was cotton. His social and political organization was similar to that of peoples of the Central Highlands. They were grouped in local states, which in turn depended on the political and administrative centers, the Mexica domination over the region began in the late 14th century, when Acamapichtli able to submit to the lordship of Cuauhnáhuac. Apparently Mexica lords felt the imperative to achieve mastery of this region to meet their expectations of having the cotton they needed to make their clothing, to be denied recourse to war, achieving Cuauhnáhuac subject Mr. and marry his daughter. From this union was born llhuicamina Moctezuma, who later in his capacity as Mexican emperor. When completing the conquest of Tenochtitlan in 1521, Cortes immediately showed a preference for the territory of the current state of Morelos. He founded the city of Cuernavaca, in the Indian village of Cuauhnáhuac, soon discover that the land of this valley offered the best conditions for growing sugar cane and to the establishment of mills or mills, which required the existing streams abundant in this area. With respect to San Jose Cocoyoc, the sources placed the formation of the mill, in this sense that mention is made in these years was granted a perpetual census Isabel Ruiz and Francisco Bernal, for middle ground in Guajoyuca cavalry. At death Izaguirre, the estate would be inherited by his widow and it will be in the 18th century that San Jose Cocoyoc achieved a remarkable growth and development, becoming one of the most successful sugar companies in the region. Should be noted that between the years of 1711 and 1714, Cocoyoc will record a major expansion with the annexation of the neighboring ranch Pantitlán, throughout the colonial period, the activity of the sugar estates was subject to instability affecting its operation. First pIace, in the late 16th century the Crown banned all exports of sugar from New Spain, similarly, in 1714, banned the production of brandy, a product that was an important part of the economy of Wits. In 1785, the estate was acquired by the enabler of mine, Antonio Velasco de la Torre, while in 1801 it was inherited by his son, Antonio Velasco de la Torre, with whom he began a period of expansionHacienda Cocoyoc – The aqueduct
21. History of medicine – The history of medicine, as practiced by trained professionals, shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. Early medical traditions include those of Babylon, China, Egypt, Greece, Rest of Africa, the Greeks introduced the concepts of medical diagnosis, prognosis, and advanced medical ethics. The Hippocratic Oath, still taken by doctors up to today, was written in Greece in the 5th century BCE, in the medieval age, surgical practices inherited from the ancient masters were improved and then systematized in Rogeriuss The Practice of Surgery. Universities began systematic training of physicians around the years 1220 in Italy, during the Renaissance, understanding of anatomy improved, and the microscope was invented. The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases, military doctors advanced the methods of trauma treatment and surgery. Public health measures were developed especially in the 19th century as the growth of cities required systematic sanitary measures. Advanced research centers opened in the early 20th century, often connected with major hospitals, the mid-20th century was characterized by new biological treatments, such as antibiotics. These advancements, along with developments in chemistry, genetics, Medicine was heavily professionalized in the 20th century, and new careers opened to women as nurses and as physicians. The 21st century is characterized by highly advanced research involving numerous fields of science, although there is no record to establish when plants were first used for medicinal purposes, the use of plants as healing agents, as well as clays and soils is ancient. Over time through emulation of the behavior of fauna a medicinal knowledge base developed and passed between generations, as tribal culture specialized specific castes, shamans and apothecaries fulfilled the role of healer. The first known dentistry dates to about 7,000 B. C. E. in Baluchistan, the first known trepanning operation was carried out about 5,000 B. C. E. in Ensisheim, France. The earliest known surgery, an amputation was carried out about 4,900 B. C. E. in Buthiers-Bulancourt, Ancient Egypt developed a large, varied and fruitful medical tradition. Herodotus described the Egyptians as the healthiest of all men, next to the Libyans, because of the dry climate, according to him, the practice of medicine is so specialized among them that each physician is a healer of one disease and no more. Although Egyptian medicine, to an extent, dealt with the supernatural, it eventually developed a practical use in the fields of anatomy, public health. Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus may date to a time as early as 3000 BC, the Edwin Smith Papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written c.1600 BC. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus treats womens complaints, including problems with conception, thirty four cases detailing diagnosis and treatment survive, some of them fragmentarily. Dating to 1800 BCE, it is the oldest surviving text of any kindHistory of medicine – The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of early medical works from ancient Greece that is strongly associated with the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
22. Inca Empire – The Inca Empire, also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru, the Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572, from 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the son of the sun, the Inca Empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old world. In the words of one scholar, The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles, the Incan economy has been described as feudal, slave, socialist. The economy functioned largely without money and without markets, instead, exchange of goods and services was based on reciprocity between individuals and among individuals, groups, and Inca rulers. Taxes consisted of an obligation of a person to the Empire. The Inca rulers reciprocated by granting access to land and goods and providing food, the Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, the four suyu. The four suyu were, Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu, Qullasuyu and Kuntisuyu, the name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu, the term Inka means ruler or lord in Quechua and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family. The Incas were a small percentage of the total population of the empire, probably numbering only 15,000 to 40,000. The Spanish adopted the term as a term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca referred to the nation that they encountered, the Inca people were a pastoral tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Incan oral history tells a story of three caves. The center cave at Tampu Tuqu was named Qhapaq Tuqu, the other caves were Maras Tuqu and Sutiq Tuqu. Four brothers and four sisters stepped out of the middle cave and they were, Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Awqa and Ayar Uchu, and Mama Ocllo, Mama Raua, Mama Huaco and Mama Qura. Out of the side caves came the people who were to be the ancestors of all the Inca clans, Ayar Manco carried a magic staff made of the finest gold. Where this staff landed, the people would live and they traveled for a long timeInca Empire – Inca Empire
23. History of Jamaica – The island of Jamaica was colonized by the Taino tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1494. The Spanish enslaved the Tainos, who were so ravaged by their conflict with the Europeans, the Spanish also transported hundreds of enslaved West Africans to the island. In 1655, the English invaded Jamaica, defeating the Spanish colonists, enslaved Africans seized the moment of political turmoil and fled to the islands interior, forming independent communities. Meanwhile, on the coast, the English built the settlement of Port Royal, in the eighteenth century, sugarcane replaced piracy as English Jamaicas main source of income. The sugar industry was labour-intensive and the English brought hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans to Jamaica, enslaved Jamaicans mounted over a dozen major uprisings during the eighteenth century, including Tackys revolt in 1760. There were also periodic skirmishes between the British and the Maroons, culminating in the First Maroon War of the 1730s, the first inhabitants of Jamaica probably came from islands to the east in two waves of migration. About 1000 CE the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived, little is known of them, however, beyond the red pottery they left. Alligator in Manchester Parish and Little River in St. Ann Parish are among the earliest known sites of this Ostionoid people and they were followed about 800 CE by the Arawakan-speaking Taíno, who eventually settled throughout the island. Their economy, based on fishing and the cultivation of corn and cassava, the Taíno brought from South America a system of raising yuca known as conuco. To add nutrients to the soil, the Taíno burned local bushes and trees and heaped the ash into large mounds, most Taíno lived in large circular buildings, constructed with wooden poles, woven straw, and palm leaves. The Taino spoke an Arawakan language and did not have writing, some of the words used by them, such as barbacoa, hamaca, kanoa, tabaco, yuca, batata, and juracán, have been incorporated into Spanish and English. Christopher Columbus is believed to be the first European to reach Jamaica and he landed on the island on May 5,1494, during his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus returned to Jamaica during his voyage to the Americas. He had been sailing around the Caribbean nearly a year when a storm beached his ships in St. Anns Bay, Jamaica, for a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on the island, finally departing in June 1504. The Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a base for food. In 1509 Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent European settlement, a decade later, Friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote Spanish authorities about Esquivels conduct during the Higüey massacre of 1503. In 1534 the capital was moved to Villa de la Vega and this settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica, from its founding in 1534 until 1872, after which the capital was moved to Kingston. The Spanish enslaved many of the Taino, some escaped, but most died from European diseases, the Spaniards also introduced the first African slavesHistory of Jamaica – Cassava (yuca) roots, the Taínos' main crop
24. John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, an American historian, pastor, and pedagogical writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine to Jacob and Betsey Abbott. He was a brother of Jacob Abbott, and was associated with him in the management of Abbotts Institute, New York City, dr. Owing to the success of a little work, The Mother at Home, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature. He was a writer of books on Christian ethics, and of popular histories. He is best known as the author of the widely popular History of Napoleon Bonaparte, in which the various elements, Abbott takes a very favourable view towards his subject throughout. Also among his works are, History of the Civil War in America. He also did a forward to a book called Life of Boone by W. M. Bogart, in general, except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. On August 17,1835 he married Jane Williams Bourne, daughter of Abner Bourne, Abbott was given guardianship of Shige Nagai, a Japanese girl sent to the United States to be educated. John Stevens Cabot Abbott died at Fair Haven, Connecticut, in 1910, a series of twenty short biographies of historical characters by J. S. C. and Jacob Abbott, was published. Their brother, Gorham Dummer Abbott, was also an author, Abbotts grandson, Willis Abbott, was a Christian Scientist and an editor of the Christian Science Monitor. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Abbott. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Cousin. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, london, J. M. Dent & SonsJohn Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott
25. La Malinche – She was one of 20 women slaves given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519. Later, she became a mistress to Cortés and gave birth to his first son, Martín, the historical figure of Marina has been intermixed with Aztec legends. In Mexico today, La Malinche remains iconically potent and she is understood in various and often conflicting aspects as the embodiment of treachery, the quintessential victim, or simply as symbolic mother of the new Mexican people. The term malinchista refers to a disloyal countryperson, especially in Mexico, La Malinche was born sometime between 1496 and 1501, in the region between the Aztec-ruled Valley of Mexico and the Maya states of the Yucatán Peninsula. She was named Malinalli after the Goddess of Grass, and later Tenepal meaning one who speaks with liveliness, in her youth, her father Cacique of Paynala died, and her mother remarried another Cacique and bore a son. Now a stepchild, the girl was given to people from Xicalango. Bernal Díaz del Castillo claims Malinallis family faked her death by telling the townspeople that a deceased child of a slave was Malinalli. The Xicalango gave the child to the Tobascans, Malinalli was introduced to the Spanish in April 1519, when she was among 20 slave women given by the Chontal Maya of Potonchán after the Spaniards defeated them in battle. At this time, she was probably in her teens or early 20s. Bernal Díaz del Castillo remarked on her beauty and graciousness, she was the one of the slaves whose name he remembered. Cortés singled her out as a gift for Alonso Hernandez Puertocarrero, according to Díaz, she spoke to emissaries from Moctezuma in their native tongue Nahuatl and pointed to Cortés as the chief Spaniard to speak for them. Cortés had located a Spanish priest, Gerónimo de Aguilar, who had spent several years in captivity among the Maya peoples in Yucatán following a shipwreck, thus, he had learned some Mayan, but he did not speak Nahuatl. Cortés used Marina for translating between the Nahuatl language and the Chontal Maya language, then Aguilar could interpret from Mayan to Spanish until Marina learned Spanish and could be the sole interpreter. She accompanied Cortés so closely that Aztec codices always show her picture drawn alongside of Cortés, the natives of Tlaxcala, who formed an alliance with Cortés against Moctezuma, called both Marina and Cortés by the same name, Malintzin. According to surviving records, Marina learned of a plan by natives of Cholula to cooperate with the Aztecs to destroy the small Spanish army and she alerted Cortés to the danger and even pretended to be cooperating with her native informants while Cortés foiled their plot to trap his men. Cortés turned the tables on them and slaughtered many Cholulans, in this manner, she is often considered as a traitor by many and her name is not revered among many locals. Historians such as Prescott generally lost track of Marina after her journey to Central America, some contemporary scholars have estimated that she died less than a decade after the conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlan at some point in 1529. Historian Sir Hugh Thomas in his book Conquest reports the date of her death as 1551, deduced from letters he discovered in Spain alluding to her as alive in 1550La Malinche – Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan, November 8, 1519. Facsimile (c. 1890) of Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
26. Mexico City – Mexico City, or City of Mexico, is the capital and most populous city of Mexico. As an alpha global city, Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas and it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres. The city consists of sixteen municipalities, the 2009 estimated population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres. The Greater Mexico City has a domestic product of US$411 billion in 2011. The city was responsible for generating 15. 8% of Mexicos Gross Domestic Product, as a stand-alone country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America—five times as large as Costa Ricas and about the same size as Perus. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Amerindians, the other being Quito. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, Mexico City served as the political, administrative and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the district was created in 1824. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them, in recent years, the local government has passed a wave of liberal policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. On January 29,2016, it ceased to be called the Federal District and is now in transition to become the countrys 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. According to legend, the Mexicas principal god, Huitzilopochtli indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco, when the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the native peoples. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him, the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died, the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521, for three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island, the Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order and he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crownMexico City – From above Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Anillo Periférico, World Trade Center Mexico City, Angel of Independence, Chapultepec Castle, St. Regis Hotel Tower and Torre Mayor, Skyline of Paseo de la Reforma and Palacio de Bellas Artes.
27. Marshall Islands – The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the island group of Micronesia. The countrys population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the south-east, about 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro, which contains the capital. Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BC, Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, with Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed, the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as jolet jen Anij. The European powers recognized Spanish sovereignty over the islands in 1874 and they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Later, Spain sold the islands to the German Empire in 1884, in World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1919 the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate. In World War II, the United States conquered the islands in the Gilbert, along with other Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands were then consolidated into the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands governed by the US. Self-government was achieved in 1979, and full sovereignty in 1986, Marshall Islands has been a United Nations member state since 1991. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency, the majority of the citizens of the Marshall Islands are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China, Philippines, and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, which is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, and English, micronesians settled the Marshall Islands in the 2nd millennium BC, but there are no historical or oral records of that period. Over time, the Marshall Island people learned to navigate over long distances by canoe using traditional stick charts. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar was the first European to see the islands in 1526, commanding the ship Santa Maria de la Victoria, on August 21, he sighted an island at 14°N that he named San Bartolome. On September 21,1529, Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón commanded the Spanish ship Florida and he stood off a group of islands from which local inhabitants hurled stones at his ship. These islands, which he named Los Pintados, may have been Ujelang, on October 1, he found another group of islands where he went ashore for eight days, exchanged gifts with the local inhabitants and took on water. These islands, which he named Los Jardines, may have been Enewetak or Bikini AtollMarshall Islands – Marshall Islanders sailing in traditional costume, circa 1899-1900.
28. History of Mexico – The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century and this era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, from 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule. It was built on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, during the colonial era, Mexicos long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking, Catholic, after a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, legal racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s that was dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office. The Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, the Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The US was engaged in its own Civil War, so did not attempt to block the foreign intervention, abraham Lincoln consistently supported the Mexican liberals. At the end of the war in the US and the triumph of the Union forces. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867, with the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period often called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death from an attack, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeed him. He was overthrown by liberal military man Porfirio Diaz, who after consolidating power ushered in a period of stability, the half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended. The Porfiriate is the era when army hero Porfirio Díaz held power as president of Mexico almost continuously from 1876-1911 and he promoted order and progress that saw the modernization of the economy and the flow of foreign investment to the country. The period is called the Porfiriato, which ended with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Under Díaz, Mexicos industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, stable, increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, railways, mining, industry, foreign trade, and national financesHistory of Mexico – El Tajín
29. History of Morocco – The history of Morocco spans several millennia, succeeding the prehistoric cultures of Jebel Irhoud and Taforalt. Archaeological evidence has shown that the area was inhabited by hominids at least 400,000 years ago, in the 5th century BC, the city-state of Carthage extended its hegemony over the coastal areas. They remained there until the late 3rd century BC, while the hinterland was ruled by indigenous monarchs, indigenous Berber monarchs ruled the territory from the 3rd century BC until 40 AD, when it was annexed to the Roman Empire. In the mid-5th century AD, it was overrun by Vandals, the region was conquered by the Muslims in the early 8th century AD, but broke away from the Umayyad Caliphate after the Berber Revolt of 740. Half a century later, the Moroccan state was established by the Idrisid dynasty, under the Almoravid and the Almohad dynasties, Morocco dominated the Maghreb and Muslim Spain. The Saadi dynasty ruled the country from 1549 to 1659, followed by the Alaouites from 1667 onwards, in 1912, after the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, dividing Morocco into French and Spanish protectorates. In 1956, after 44 years of French rule, Morocco regained independence from France, archaeological excavations have demonstrated the presence of people in Morocco that were ancestral to Homo sapiens, as well as the presence of early human species. The fossilized bones of a 400, 000-year-old early human ancestor were discovered in Salé in 1971, the bones of several very early Homo sapiens were discovered at Jebel Irhoud in 1991, that were found to be at least 160,000 years old. In 2007, small perforated seashell beads were discovered in Taforalt that are 82,000 years old, in Mesolithic times, between 20,000 and 5000 years ago, the geography of Morocco resembled a savanna more than the present arid landscape. During the Neolithic period, which followed the Mesolithic, the savanna was occupied by hunters and herders, the culture of these Neolithic hunters and herders flourished until the region began to desiccate after 5000 BC as a result of climatic changes. The coastal regions of present-day Morocco in the early Neolithic shared in the Cardium Pottery culture that was common to the entire Mediterranean region, archaeological excavations have suggested that the domestication of cattle and the cultivation of crops both occurred in the region during that period. In the Chalcolithic period, or the age, the Beaker culture reached the north coast of Morocco. The arrival of Phoenicians on the Moroccan coast heralded many centuries of rule by foreign powers in the north of Morocco, major early settlements of the Phoenicians included those at Chellah, Lixus and Mogador. Mogador is known to have been a Phoenician colony by the early 6th century BC, by the 5th century BC, the state of Carthage had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa. Carthage developed commercial relations with the Berber tribes of the interior, Mauretania was an independent tribal Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa, corresponding to northern modern-day Morocco from about the 3rd century BC. The earliest known king of Mauretania was Bocchus I, who ruled from 110 BC to 81 BC, some of its earliest recorded history relates to Phoenician and Carthaginian settlements such as Lixus and Chellah. The Berber kings ruled inland territories overshadowing the coastal outposts of Carthage and Rome, often as satellites and it became a client of the Roman empire in 33 BC, then a full province after Emperor Caligula had the last king, Ptolemy of Mauretania, executed. Hence, Roman administration never extended outside the area of the northern coastal plainHistory of Morocco – Phoenician plate with red slip, 7th century BCE, excavated on Mogador Island, Essaouira. Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum.
30. Moctezuma II – During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its greatest size. Through warfare, Moctezuma expanded the territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and he changed the previous meritocratic system of social hierarchy and widened the divide between pipiltin and macehualtin by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces. The portrayal of Moctezuma in history has mostly been colored by his role as ruler of a defeated nation, the biases of some historical sources make it difficult to understand his actions during the Spanish invasion. Moctezuma had many wives and concubines but only two women were his Queens – Tlapalizquixochtzin and Teotlalco and he was also a King Consort of Ecatepec because Tlapalizquixochtzin was Queen of that city. His many children included Princess Isabel Moctezuma — and sons Chimalpopoca, the Nahuatl pronunciation of his name is. It is a compound of a noun meaning lord and a meaning to frown in anger. The Aztecs did not use numbers, they were given retroactively by historians to more easily distinguish him from the first Moctezuma. The Aztec chronicles called him Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma, the descriptions of the life of Moctezuma are full of contradictions, and thus nothing is known for certain about his personality and rule. He did not wear his hair long but just over his ears and his face was rather long and cheerful, he had fine eyes, and in his appearance and manner could express geniality or, when necessary, a serious composure. He was very neat and clean, and took a bath every afternoon and he had many women as his mistresses, the daughters of chieftains, but two legitimate wives who were Caciques in their own right, and only some of his servants knew of it. He was quite free from sodomy, the clothes he wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later. He had a guard of two hundred chieftains lodged in rooms beside his own, only some of whom were permitted to speak to him. It was stated that he had reigned for seventeen years, and was the best king they ever had in Mexico, I have spoken of the sorrow we all felt when we saw that Montezuma was dead. We even blamed the Mercederian friar for not having persuaded him to become a Christian, Moctezuma in particular is depicted unfavorably as a weak-willed, superstitious, and indulgent ruler. Historian James Lockhart suggests that the people needed to have a scapegoat for the Aztec defeat, unlike Bernal Díaz, who was recording his memories many years after the fact, Cortés wrote his Cartas de relación to justify his actions to the Spanish Crown. His prose is characterized by descriptions and explanations, along with frequent personal addresses to the King. They came in two columns, pressed very close to the walls of the street, which is wide and beautiful. Mutezuma came down the middle of street with two chiefs, one on his right hand and the other on his leftMoctezuma II – Moctezuma II in the Codex Mendoza
31. North America – North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islandsNorth America – Map of North America, from 1621.
32. Northwest Passage – For centuries explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible trade route. Until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year, Arctic sea ice decline has rendered the waterways more navigable. If, as has been claimed, parts of the end of the Passage are barely 15 metres deep. Fully loaded, Nordic Orion was too large to sail through the Panama Canal, between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century, colonial powers from Europe dispatched explorers in an attempt to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America. The Northwest Passage represented a new route to the trading nations of Asia. England called the northern route the Northwest Passage. The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America, when it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned to the possibility of a passage through northern waters. There was a lack of knowledge about conditions, for instance. Explorers thought that a water route close to the North Pole must exist. The belief that a route lay to the far north persisted for several centuries, many ended in disaster, including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850, in 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first successfully completed a passage from Greenland to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, several fortified ships have made the journey, from east to west, the direction of most early exploration attempts, expeditions entered the passage from the Atlantic Ocean via the Davis Strait and through Baffin Bay. Five to seven routes have taken through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, via the McClure Strait, Dease Strait, and the Prince of Wales Strait. From there ships passed through waterways through the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, on August 21,2007, the Northwest Passage became open to ships without the need of an icebreaker. According to Nalan Koc of the Norwegian Polar Institute, this was the first time the Passage has been clear since they began keeping records in 1972, the Northwest Passage opened again on August 25,2008. Thawing ocean or melting ice simultaneously opened up the Northwest Passage, awaited by shipping companies, this historic event will cut thousands of miles off their routes. We are going to see more and more as the years go by. Due to Arctic shrinkage, the Beluga group of Bremen, Germany, however, Canadas Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that ships entering the North-West passage should first report to his governmentNorthwest Passage – Northwest Passage routes
33. Native Americans in the United States – In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes, bands, and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast AsiansNative Americans in the United States – Pushmataha
34. History of Nicaragua – Nicaragua is the least densely populated nation in Central America, with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors. It is located midway between Mexico and Colombia, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. Nicaragua ranges from the Caribbean Sea on the nations east coast, Nicaragua also possesses a series of islands and cays located in the Caribbean Sea. Nicaragua is well known for its landscape and its tourist attractions. In 2013, Nicaragua was ranked as the top 3 of The 46 places to go in 2013, in 2015, The Boston Globe considered the country Top 3 of the Where to go in 2015 list. After that, Lonely Planet s experts trekked the world to find the best countries, cities, and region to visit in 2016, the people migrated from Central Mexico after 500 CE. Most of Nicaraguas Caribbean lowlands area was inhabited by tribes that migrated north from what is now Colombia, the various dialects and languages in this area are related to Chibcha, spoken by groups in northern Colombia. Eastern Nicaraguas population consisted of extended families or tribes, food was obtained by hunting, fishing, and slash-and-burn agriculture. Crops like cassava and pineapples were the staple foods, each one of these diverse groups occupied much of Nicaragua territory, with independent chieftains who ruled according to each groups laws and customs. Their weapons consisted of swords, lances, and arrows made out of wood, monarchy was the form of government of most tribes, the supreme ruler was the chief, or cacique, who, surrounded by his princes, formed the nobility. Laws and regulations were disseminated by royal messengers who visited each township, occupying the territory between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Coast, the Niquirano were governed by chief Nicarao, or Nicaragua, a rich ruler who lived in Nicaraocali, now the city of Rivas. The Chorotegano lived in the central region and these two groups had intimate contact with the Spanish conquerors, paving the way for the racial mix of native and European stock now known as mestizos. The Chontal occupied the mountain region. This group was smaller than the two, and it is not known when they first settled in Nicaragua. In the east where the Europeans did not settle most indigenous groups survived, the English introduced guns and ammunition to one of the local peoples, the Bawihka, who lived in northeast Nicaragua. This Afro-indigenous group became known to the Europeans as Miskito, Nicaragua was first discovered by Europeans when Christopher Columbus arrived from Honduras and explored the eastern coast on his fourth voyage in 1502. In 1522, the first Spaniards entered the region of what would become known as Nicaragua, gil González Dávila with a small force reached its western portion after a trek through Costa Rica. He proceeded to explore the western valleys and was impressed with the Indian civilization he found thereHistory of Nicaragua – Map of Central America (1860s), pictured is Nicaragua along with the Guanacaste Province which then belonged to Nicaragua but was incorporated with present-day Costa Rica in 1825.
35. New Mexico – New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, Mexico, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico. New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the stateNew Mexico – Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
36. Palau – Palau, officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 250 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia, the most populous island is Koror. The capital Ngerulmud is located on the island of Babeldaob. Palau shares maritime boundaries with Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Federated States of Micronesia, the country was originally settled approximately 3,000 years ago by migrants from the Philippines and sustained a Negrito population until around 900 years ago. The islands were first explored by Europeans in the 16th century, the Imperial Japanese Navy conquered Palau during World War I, and the islands were later made a part of the Japanese-ruled South Pacific Mandate by the League of Nations. During World War II, skirmishes, including the major Battle of Peleliu, were fought between American and Japanese troops as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, Palau was made a part of the United States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947. Having voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia in 1979, politically, Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense, funding, and access to social services. Legislative power is concentrated in the bicameral Palau National Congress, Palaus economy is based mainly on tourism, subsistence agriculture and fishing, with a significant portion of gross national product derived from foreign aid. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency, the islands culture mixes Micronesian, Melanesian, Asian, and Western elements. Ethnic Palauans, the majority of the population, are of mixed Micronesian, Melanesian, a smaller proportion of the population is descended from Japanese and Filipino settlers. The countrys two official languages are Palauan and English, with Japanese, Sonsorolese, and Tobian recognised as regional languages. The name for the islands in the Palauan language, Belau, likely derives from either the Palauan word for village, beluu, or from aibebelau, the name Palau entered the English language from the Spanish Los Palaos, via the German Palau. An archaic name for the islands in English was the Pelew Islands and it should not be confused with Pulau, which is a Malay word meaning island. Palau was originally settled between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, most likely from the Austronesia or Indonesia, the islands sustained a population of short-statured Negrito or Pygmy people until the 12th century, when they were replaced. The modern population, judging by its language, may have come from the Sunda Islands, however, the Spanish presence only began to express with evangelization, began at the end of 17th century, and its dominance began to take shape in the 18th century. The conscious discovery of Palau came a century later in 1697 and they were interviewed by the Czech missionary Paul Klein on 28 December 1696. Klein was able to draw the first map of Palau based on the Palauans representation of their home islands that made with an arrangement of 87 pebbles on the beachPalau – Map of 1888 showing the Spanish East Indies, being part of it Palau Islands (map without Philippines)
37. History of Palau – Palau was initially settled over 3,000 years ago. This map and a letter sent to Europe by Klein in June 1697 had a vast impact on the surge of interest in Palau and it resulted in the first and failed the Jesuit attempts to travel to the islands from the Philippines in 1700,1708 and 1709. Subsequent attempts to save Du Beron and Cortyl learned that they were killed, after further attempts, Palau islands were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1885. British traders became prominent visitors in the 18th century, followed by expanding Spanish influence in the 19th century, following its defeat in the Spanish–American War, Spain sold Palau and most of the rest of the Caroline Islands to Germany in 1899. The islands passed formally to the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Four of the Trust Territory districts formed a single federated Micronesian state in 1979, but the districts of Palau and the Marshall Islands declined to participate. After eight referendums and an amendment to the Palauan constitution, the Compact was ratified in 1993 and went into effect on October 1,1994, legislation making Palau an offshore financial center was passed by the Senate in 1998. In 2001, Palau passed its first bank regulation and anti-money laundering laws. Carbon dating of cave burials show a population, presumably the result of insular dwarfism, from at least 3,000. The Palauan language is an outlier among the Austronesian languages, however, there are some indications that it may derive from the Sunda Islands. For thousands of years, Palauans have had a well established matrilineal society, traditionally land, money, and titles passed through the female line. Only High Ranking Women hand picked the High Chiefs, clan lands continue to be passed through titled women and first daughters but there is also a modern patrilineal sentiment introduced by imperial Japan. The Japanese government attempted to confiscate and redistribute tribal land into personal ownership during World War II, legal entanglements continue amongst the various clans. There still is a debate whether the islands were or were not seen by some of the early European discoverers in the 16th century, historians take note of the early navigational routes of European explorers in the Pacific. There is disagreement as to whether Spaniard Ruy López de Villalobos, no conclusive evidence exists, but some believe he could have seen the tip of a southernmost island in the group. Nevertheless, the true and conscious discovery of Palau came a century later in December 1696 and they were intervied by the Czech missionary Paul Klein on 28 December 1696. Klein was not only able to draw the first map of Palau based on a drawing and a set of pebbles on the beach but also to send an important letter in June 1697 to Europe. This map and the letter caused a vast interest in the new islands and resulted in the first, Spain later started to dominate the islandsHistory of Palau – View of part of the town of Pelew, and the place of Council, 1788