1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
2. A – A is the first letter and the first vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The upper-case version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed by a horizontal bar. The lower-case version can be written in two forms: single-storey ɑ. The earliest certain ancestor of "A" is the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet, which consisted entirely of consonants. In 1600 B.C.E. the Phoenician letter had a linear form that served as the base for some later forms. Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the Hebrew or Arabic aleph. The Etruscans left the letter unchanged. During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter "A". First was the lapidary style, used when inscribing on stone or other "permanent" mediums. There was also a cursive style used for utilitarian writing, done on more perishable surfaces. Variants also existed that were intermediate between the cursive styles. The known variants include the early semi-uncial, the later semi-uncial. At the end of the Roman Empire, several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms.A – ISO basic Latin alphabet
3. Algeria – Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the largest in Africa. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999. Berbers are generally considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power. Energy exports are the backbone of the economy. The national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria is the founding member of the Maghreb Union. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā ` a truncated form of the older Jazā ` ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.Algeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
4. Andre Agassi – Andre Kirk Agassi is an American retired professional tennis player and former World No. 1, one of the game's most dominant players from the early 1990s to the mid-2000s. As a result, he is credited for helping to revive the popularity of tennis during the 1990s. Agassi also was part of a winning Davis Cup team in 1990, 1995. Agassi returned to World No. 1 in 1999 and enjoyed the most successful run of his career over the next four years. During his 20-plus career, he was known by the nickname "The Punisher". He is the founder of the Andre Agassi Charitable Foundation, which has raised over $60 million for at-risk children in Southern Nevada. In 2001, the Foundation opened the Andre Agassi College Preparatory Academy in Las Vegas, a K-12 public charter school for at-risk children. He has been married to fellow tennis player Steffi Graf since 2001. Andre Agassi was born to Elizabeth "Betty" Agassi. A Olympic boxer for Iran, stated he is from a mixed, mostly Armenian, heritage. He later elaborated that his grandfather was Assyrian who "married an Armenian woman." Betty, is a breast survivor. He has three older siblings – Rita, Philip and Tami. One of his ancestors changed his surname from Agassian to Agassi to avoid persecution.Andre Agassi – Andre Agassi
5. Andorra – Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres above sea level. The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, French are also commonly spoken. Andorra's tourism services an estimated million visitors annually. The euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world according to The Lancet. The origin of the Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses have been formulated. Andosini or Andosins may derive from the Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur. Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning "The pearl". Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland". Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter for fighting against the Moors.Andorra – Sant Joan de Caselles church, dating from the 11th century.
6. Agriculture – Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology. Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts. The agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, oils, spices. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, flax. Raw materials include bamboo. Useful materials are also produced by plants, such as resins, dyes, drugs, perfumes, biofuels and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants. The agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is also observed in certain species of ant, ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, their related services." This definition includes arable agronomy, horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, animal husbandry and forestry.Agriculture – Agriculture
7. Astronaut – An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, tourists. Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. With the suborbital flight of the privately funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut. The criteria for what constitutes human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale Sporting Code for astronautics recognizes only flights that exceed an altitude of 100 kilometers. In the United States, professional, commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 50 miles are awarded astronaut wings. The three astronauts who have not reached low orbit are spaceplane pilots Joe Walker, Mike Melvill, Brian Binnie. As of November 2016, under the U.S. definition 558 people qualify as having reached space, above 50 miles altitude. Of eight X-15 pilots who exceeded 50 miles in altitude, only one exceeded 100 kilometers. Space travelers have spent including over 100 astronaut-days of spacewalks. As of 2016, the man with the longest cumulative time in space is Gennady Padalka, who has spent 879 days in space. Peggy A. Whitson holds the record for the most time in space by 377 days. Dryden preferred "cosmonaut", on the grounds that flights would occur in the cosmos, while the "astro" prefix suggested flight to the stars. Most NASA Space Task Group members preferred "astronaut", which survived as the preferred American term.Astronaut – NASA Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a Manned Maneuvering Unit outside Space Shuttle Challenger on shuttle mission STS-41-B in 1984.
8. Angola – Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. Independence was achieved under communist rule backed by the Soviet Union after the protracted liberation war. Angola descended into an intense civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, especially since the end of the civil war. Angola's economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nation's wealth concentrated in a small sector of the population. Angola's 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, customs, traditions. Culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and Roman Catholicism, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, appearing as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter. The toponym was derived from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Khoi and San hunter-gatherers are the earliest known human inhabitants of the area. They were largely replaced by Bantu peoples during the Bantu migrations, though small numbers remain in parts of southern Angola to the present day.Angola – An image depicting Portuguese encounter with Kongo Royal family
9. Albania – It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. The present territory of Albania was part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe following the Balkan Wars, Albania was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. A socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations from much of the international community. In 1991, the Republic of Albania was established. Albania is a parliamentary republic. Tirana, is its financial and industrial heartland, with a population of about 800,000. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and infrastructure. Albania provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is an upper-middle economy with the service sector dominating the country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, the Union for the Mediterranean. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.Albania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
10. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918. The country was incorporated as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are internationally recognized pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh, found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a semi-presidential republic. The country is a member state for Peace program. It is one of six independent Turkic states, the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan holds membership in 38 international organizations. It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006. Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union. All major political forces in the country are secularist.Azerbaijan – Petroglyphs in Gobustan dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered to be of "outstanding universal value"
11. Austrian German – Austrian German, Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German or Austrian High German, is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria and North Italy. It has the highest sociolinguistic prestige locally, as it is the variation used for other formal situations. At the time, the written standard was Oberdeutsche Schreibsprache, highly influenced by the Alemannic dialects of Austria. Another option was to create a new standard as proposed by the linguist Janez Žiga Popovič. Thus Standard Austrian German has the geographic origin as the Standard German of Germany and Swiss High German. The process of introducing the written standard was led by Joseph von Sonnenfels. As German is a pluricentric language, Austrian German is merely one among several varieties of Standard German. Much like the relationship between American English, the German varieties differ in minor respects but are recognizably equivalent and largely mutually intelligible. Das Österreichische Wörterbuch, prescribes grammatical and spelling rules defining the official language. The 1996 reform is somewhat practiced in Austria. The "sharp s" is used in Austria, as in Germany. It differed in vocabulary and pronunciation; it appears to have been spoken with a slight degree of nasality. This was not a standard in a technical sense, as it was just the social standard of upper-class speech. For many years, Austria had a special form of the language for official government documents. This form is known as "Austrian chancellery language".Austrian German – A street sign in Vienna: Fußgeher ("pedestrian") is normally Fußgänger in Germany. Capital ß was rare in both countries, often replaced by SS when in all caps.
12. Attila – Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and was unable to take Constantinople. He subsequently was unable to take Rome. He died in 453. After Attila's death his close Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed. There is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. The Gothic etymology can be tracked up in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were "not the true names of the Hun lords. Most powerful minister Onegesius, also have hypothetical Germanic etymology. Mikkola connected it with Turkic āt. Gerd Althoff considered it was Turkish at and dil. "The Gothic origin of the Attila is questionable," Snædal writes. "It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin". The article points out that the atta is a migratory term for "father/forefather" common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages.Attila – Portrait by Eugène Delacroix, painted between 1843 and 1847
13. Amsterdam – Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 847,176 within the city proper, 2,431,000 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. Amsterdam's name derives as a dam of the river Amstel. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. Many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 19 -- 20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Seven of the world's 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. The city was previously ranked 3rd in innovation by 2thinknow in the Innovation Cities Index 2009. Famous Amsterdam residents included Anne Frank the diarist, the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. The earliest recorded use of the name "Aemstelredamme" comes from a document dated October 1275.Amsterdam
14. Alfred Nobel – Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, philanthropist. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. After reading a premature obituary which condemned him for profiting from the sales of arms, he bequeathed his fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic nobelium was named after him. His name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and AkzoNobel, which are descendants of mergers with companies Nobel himself established. Born in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel was the third son of Immanuel Nobel, Carolina Andriette Nobel. The couple had eight children. Only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood. Alfred Nobel's interest in technology was inherited in Stockholm. Following various business failures, Nobel's father grew successful there as a manufacturer of machine tools and explosives. He started work on the torpedo. In 1842, the family joined him in the city. For 18 months, from 1841 to 1842, Nobel went to the only school he ever attended in Stockholm. As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin; then, in 1850, went to Paris to further the work. There he met Ascanio Sobrero, who had invented nitroglycerin three years before.Alfred Nobel – Alfred Nobel
15. Anna Kournikova – Anna Sergeyevna Kournikova is a Russian former professional tennis player. Her status made her one of the best known tennis stars worldwide. At the peak of her fame, fans looking for images of Kournikova made her name one of the most common search strings on Google Search. Despite never winning a title, Kournikova reached No. 8 in 2000. She achieved greater success playing doubles, where she was at times the World No. 1 player. With Martina Hingis as her partner, Kournikova won Grand Slam titles in the WTA Championships in 2000. They referred to themselves as the "Spice Girls of Tennis". Kournikova's professional career ended prematurely including a herniated disk. Kournikova plays for the St. Louis Aces of World Team Tennis. She was a new trainer for season 12 of the television show The Biggest Loser, replacing Jillian Michaels, but did not return for season 13. Anna Kournikova was born in Moscow, Russia, on 7 June 1981. As of 2001, he was still a part-time martial arts instructor there. Her mother Alla had been a 400-metre runner. Allan, is a youth golf champion, featured in the 2013 documentary film The Short Game. Sergei Kournikov has said, "We were young and so Anna was from the beginning".Anna Kournikova – Kournikova at Bagram Air Base during a United Service Organization tour, 15 December 2009
16. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 m, known as the "four-thousanders". The size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. The Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. In World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, German Alps. At present the region has 120 million annual visitors. The English Alps derives from the Latin Alpes. An ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts.Alps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
17. Almond – The almond is a species of tree native to the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent and North Africa. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell surrounding the seed. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, then removed to reveal the white embryo. The almond is a deciduous tree, growing 4–10 m in height, with a trunk of up to 30 cm in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year. The leaves are 3 -- 5 inches long, with a 2.5 cm petiole. The flowers are white in pairs and appearing before the leaves in early spring. Almond grows best in Mediterranean climates with mild, wet winters. Almonds begin bearing an economic crop in the third year after planting. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting. The fruit matures in 7 -- 8 months after flowering. The almond fruit measures 3.5–6 cm long.Almond – Almond
18. Economy of Azerbaijan – Azerbaijan has an economy that has completed its post-Soviet transition into a major oil based economy, from one where the state played the major role. Azerbaijan's GDP grew 41.7 % in possibly the highest of any nation worldwide. The real GDP rate for 2011 was expected at 3.7 % but had dropped to 0.1 %. Large oil reserves are a major contributor to the economy. The Azerbaijani manat, was stable in 2000, depreciating 3.8 % against the dollar. The deficit equaled 1.3 % of GDP in 2000. Progress on economic reform has generally lagged behind macroeconomic stabilization. The government has largely completed privatization of small and medium-sized enterprises. In August 2000, the government launched a second-stage program, in which many large state enterprises will be privatized. Since 2001, the economic activity in the country is regulated by the Ministry of Economic Development of Azerbaijan Republic. Oil remains the most prominent product of Azerbaijan's economy with cotton, natural agriculture products contributing to its economic growth over the last five years. More than $ billion was invested into Azerbaijan's oil by major international oil companies in AIOC consortium operated by BP. Oil production with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997 and now is about 500,000 b/d. Old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.Economy of Azerbaijan – Baku
19. Economy of Armenia – The economy of Armenia is ranked 132nd in the world, with a nominal gross domestic product of $10.561 billion per annum. It is also the 129th largest at $25.329 billion per annum. Armenia is the second-most densely populated of the post-Soviet states because of its small size. Agriculture accounted before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with imported fuel, including gas and nuclear fuel from Russia The domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Small amounts of coal, petroleum have not yet been developed. Like former states, Armenia's economy suffers from the legacy of a centrally planned economy and the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. In addition, the effects of the 1988 earthquake, which made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. Although a cease-fire has held since 1994, the conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. Land routes through Azerbaijan and Turkey are closed; routes through Georgia and Iran are reliable. In 1992-93, the GDP had fallen nearly 60% from its 1989 level. The dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first few years after its introduction in 1993. Inflation has been negligible for the past several years.Economy of Armenia – Yerevan
20. Foreign relations of Armenia – It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia. US House Resolution 106 later referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The bill has 225 co-sponsors. The bill called for former President George W. Bush to use the word genocide in his annual 24 April speech which he never used. Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno -- Karabakh republic in the very bitter conflict against the Azerbaijani government. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Armenians in Armenia. In April 1991, Soviet forces targeted Armenian populations in Karabakh, known as Operation Ring. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Azerbaijan. Military action was influenced by the Russian military, which manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring sides in order to keep both under control. More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1988 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin. By October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in taking almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire, between the three sides.Foreign relations of Armenia – Armenia
21. Adelaide – Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2014, Adelaide had an estimated population of 1.31 million. The demonym "Adelaidean" is used to the city and its residents. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Light's design set out Adelaide in a layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, entirely surrounded by parklands. Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth -- until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city. It has been noted to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known since the mid-19th century. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many financial institutions. Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors. It was also ranked the most liveable city in Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836. However, extensive documentation by other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture. The event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day.Adelaide – From top to bottom, left to right: Central Adelaide from Mount Lofty, the UniSA Building on North Terrace, St Peter's Cathedral, the beachside suburb of Glenelg, a rotunda in Elder Park, and Victoria Square illuminated in the evening
22. Alternate history – Alternate history or alternative history, sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently. These stories usually contain "what if" scenarios at crucial points in history and present outcomes other than those in the historical record. The stories are conjectural, but are sometimes based on scientific fact. Another term occasionally used for the genre is "allohistory". Cross-time, time-splitting, alternate history themes have become so closely interwoven that it is impossible to discuss them fully apart from one another. This neologism is based on the prefix ου- and the Greek χρόνος, meaning "time." A uchronia means literally " no time." This term apparently also inspired the name of the alternate history book list, uchronia.net. Several genres of fiction have been misidentified as alternate history. Alternate history is related to, but distinct from, counterfactual history. The earliest example of alternate history is found in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita Libri. Livy concluded that the Romans would likely have defeated Alexander. He saves the city from Islamic conquest, even chases the Turks deeper into lands they had previously conquered. In the English language, the first complete alternate history is "P.'s Correspondence," published in 1845. The alternate history in English would seem to be Castello Holford's Aristopia.Alternate history – The world in 1964 in the novel Fatherland where the Germans won World War II.
23. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, cultural life in Greece. In 2015, Athens was ranked the world's 29th richest city by the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. The municipality of Athens had a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the medieval Daphni Monastery. 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. In an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. Different etymologies, commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century.Athens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
24. Antoninus Pius – Antoninus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva -- the Aurelii. He was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. He was born as the only child of consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus. The Aurelii Fulvii were therefore a relatively senatorial family from Gallia Narbonensis whose rise to prominence was supported by the Flavians. The link between their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. His mother was Arria Fadilla. The Arrii Antoninii were an older senatorial family from Italy, very influential during Nerva's reign. Some time between 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They are believed to have enjoyed a happy marriage. Faustina was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Despite rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two daughters. They were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found in Rome. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome.Antoninus Pius – Bust of Antoninus Pius, at Glyptothek, Munich.
25. Abbess – In Christianity, an abbess is the female superior of a community of nuns, often an abbey. She must have been a nun for 10 years. The requirement in the Catholic Church has evolved over time, ranging from 30 to 60. The requirement of 10 years as a nun is only 8 in Catholicism. The office is the choice being by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community. Unlike the abbot, the abbess receives only the ring, a copy of the rule of the order. She does not receive a mitre as part of the ceremony. An abbess serves except in Italy and some adjacent islands. Abbesses are, according to canon law, the equivalents of abbots or bishops. They have full authority in its administration. However, there are significant limitations. They may not administer the sacraments, whose celebration is reserved to bishops, priests, namely, those in Holy Orders. They may not serve except by special rescript. They function as an ordained celebrant or concelebrant of the Mass.. On the other hand, they may not ordinarily read the Gospel during a Mass..Abbess – Xaveria Gasser, abbess of the Elisabeth Sisters Convent in Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria in 1756
26. Abensberg – It is situated on a tributary of the Danube. The town lies around eight kilometres from the river's source. The town is divided into the municipalities of Abensberg, Arnhofen, Holzharlanden, Hörlbach, Offenstetten, Pullach and Sandharland. Traces of over 20,000 individuals were found on this site. The earliest written reference to the town, under the name of Habensperch, came in around 1138. Gebhard was from the Babonen clan. The wall was built by Count Ulrich III of Abensberg. Some of eight turrets are still preserved to this day. In the Middle Ages, the people of Abensberg enjoyed a level of autonomy above their lord. They elected a council, although only a small number of rich families were eligible for election. In around 1390, the Carmelite Monastery of Our Lady of Abensberg was founded by his wife, Agnes. Although Abensberg was an autonomous city, it remained dependent on the powerful Dukes of Bavaria. Niclas had unchivalrously taken Christopher captive as he bathed before a tournament in Munich. Although Christopher renounced his claim for revenge, he lay in Freising. When the latter arrived, he was killed by Seitz von Frauenberg.Abensberg – Maderturm
27. Abbey – An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess. It provides a place of Christian monks and nuns. Religious life in an abbey may be monastic. An abbey may be open to visitors. The layout of associated buildings of an abbey often follows a set plan determined by the founding religious order. Some abbeys accommodation to people who are seeking spiritual retreat. There are famous abbeys across Europe. Monastic communities date back to pre-Christian times. The earliest known Christian monasteries were groups of huts built near the residence of other holy person. Disciples imitate their way of life. In the earliest times of Christian monasticism, ascetics would live near a village church. They would subsist whilst donating any excess produce to the poor. However, increasing religious fervor about or persecution of them would drive them further away from their community and further into solitude. For instance, the huts of anchorites have been found in the deserts of Egypt. In 312 AD, Anthony the Great retired to the Thebaid region of Egypt to escape the persecution of the Emperor Maximian.Abbey – Sénanque Abbey, Provence
28. Ambrose – He was prefect of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose has been accused of fostering persecutions of Arians, Jews, pagans. Ambrose is the patron saint of Milan. He is notable for his influence on St. Augustine. Ambrose was raised in Trier, Belgic Gaul. His mother was a woman of piety. Satyrus and Marcellina, are also venerated as saints. His father honeyed tongue. For this reason, beehives often appear in the saint's symbology. After the early death of his father, Ambrose followed his father's career. He was educated in Rome, studying literature, rhetoric. Ambrose was the Governor of Aemilia-Liguria in northern Italy until 374 when he became the Bishop of Milan. Ambrose never married. In the 4th century there was a deep conflict in the diocese of Milan between the Nicene Church and Arians. In 374 the bishop of Milan, the Arians challenged the succession.Ambrose – Early mosaic of Ambrose that might be an actual portrait.
29. Army – An army or ground force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, armed service of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the force via means of aviation corps. Within a military force, the word army may also mean a field army. They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as war or natural disasters. In several countries, the army is officially called the Land Army to differentiate it from an force called the Air Army, notably France. In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a force in common usage. By convention, military is understood in contrast to regular armies which grew slowly from personal bodyguards or elite militia. Regular in this case refers to standardized doctrines, organizations, etc.. Regular military can also refer versus reserve or part-time personnel. Other distinctions may separate statutory forces, from facto "non-statutory" forces such as some guerrilla and revolutionary armies. Armies may also be fencible. India has had some of the earliest armies in the world. During the Indus Valley Civilization however, there was just a small force as they didn't fear invasion at the time. After the Aryan invasion, city-states started forming armies to protect their cities.Army – A bronze crossbow trigger mechanism and butt plate that were mass-produced in the Warring States period (475-221 BCE)
30. Alabaster – Alabaster is a mineral or rock, soft and often used for carving, as well as being processed for plaster powder. However there are two different types, with broadly similar properties: gypsum and calcite, two distinct varieties of minerals. Both are usually light-coloured, soft stones that have been used mainly for carving decorative artifacts. Geologists define alabaster strictly as a compact and fine-grained variety of gypsum. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium. In general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is probably calcite, but may be either. Both are easy to work and slightly water-soluble. They have been used for making a variety of indoor artworks and carvings, as they will not survive long outdoors. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, while gypsum alabaster remains nearly unaffected when thus treated. The Greek words were used to identify a vase made of alabaster. This name may be derived further from the Egyptian a-labaste, which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast. She was represented as a lioness and frequently depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels. The softness of alabaster enables it to be carved readily into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough, whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre.Alabaster – Three Maries, alabaster sculpture by Master of the Rimini Crucifixion (c. 1430), National Museum, Warsaw.
31. Apollo program – Five Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. Apollo ran from 1961 with the first manned flight in 1968. After the first landing, sufficient hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration. Budget cuts forced the cancellation of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a "lifeboat" for these functions. Apollo set several human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low orbit. The program returned soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moon's composition and geological history. The program funded construction of its Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center. Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration as a follow-up to Project Mercury. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a space station, eventual manned lunar landings. In July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program at a series of Space Task Group conferences.Apollo program – Buzz Aldrin (pictured) walked on the Moon with Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, July 20–21, 1969
32. Alemanni – The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river. In 496, the Alemanni were incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were gradually Christianized during the 7th century. The Pactus Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the 8th century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was mostly nominal. But after an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed installed Frankish dukes. Their name has survived into modern times, as in the French word for its Turkish counterpart, "Almanya". According to Asinius Quadratus their name means "all men". It indicates that they were a conglomeration drawn from Germanic tribes. Other sources say the alemannen derives from alahmannen which means "men of sanctuary" and not "all men" and other very old Urgermanic wisdom. The Greeks called them as such mentioned. This etymology has remained the standard derivation of the term. The German language in several languages is derived from the name of this early Germanic tribal alliance. For details, see Names of Germany. The Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213.Alemanni – Alemannic belt mountings, from a 7th-century grave in the grave field at Weingarten.
33. Albert the Bear – Albert the Bear was the first Margrave of Brandenburg from 1157 to his death and was briefly Duke of Saxony between 1138 and 1142. Albert was the only son of Otto, Eilika, daughter of Magnus Billung, Duke of Saxony. Albert's entanglements in Saxony stemmed from his desire to expand his inherited estates there. Once he was firmly established in the Northern March, Albert's covetous eye lay also on the thinly populated lands to the east. When peace was made in 1142, Albert renounced the Saxon duchy and received the counties of Weimar and Orlamünde. In 1158 a feud with Henry's son, Duke of Saxony, was interrupted by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1162 Albert accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to Italy, where he distinguished himself at the storming of Milan. He was buried at Ballenstedt. He is also called by later writers "the Handsome."Albert the Bear – Monument commemorating Albert at Spandau Citadel, Berlin, by Walter Schott
34. Albert, Duke of Prussia – He was the European ruler to establish Lutheranism, thus Protestantism, as the official religion of his lands. He proved instrumental in the political spread of Protestantism in its early stage, ruling the Prussian lands for nearly six decades. That arrangement was confirmed by the Treaty of Kraków in 1525. He pledged a personal oath in return was invested with the duchy for his heirs. Albert's rule in Prussia was fairly prosperous. Albert established schools in every town and founded Königsberg University in 1544. He promoted culture and arts, patronising the works of Erasmus Reinhold and Caspar Hennenberger. During the final years of his rule, he was forced causing rebellion. The intrigues of the court favourites Johann Funck and Paul Skalić also led to political disputes. He spent his final years died on 20 March 1568. His son, Albert Frederick, succeeded him as Duke of Prussia. Albert's dissolution of the Teutonic State caused the founding of the Duchy of Prussia, paving the way for the rise of the House of Hohenzollern. He is therefore often seen as the father of the Prussian nation, even as indirectly responsible for the unification of Germany. He was born as the third son of Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. His mother was his wife Elisabeth of Austria.Albert, Duke of Prussia – Albert of Prussia, painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder, dated 1528
35. Acropolis – An acropolis is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. An example in Ireland is the Rock of Cashel. Acropolis is also the term used by archaeologists and historians for the urban Castro culture settlements located in Northwestern Iberian hilltops. Because of its classical Hellenistic style, the ruins of Mission San Juan Capistrano's Great Stone Church in California, United States has been called the "American Acropolis". Other parts of the world developed other names for the high citadel or alcázar, which often reinforced a naturally strong site. In Central Italy, many small rural communes still cluster at the base of a fortified habitation known as La Rocca of the commune.Acropolis – View of the Acropolis of Pergamon in the background, as seen from Via Tecta at the entrance to the Asclepeion.
36. Aeneas – In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus. His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturlason identifies him with the Norse Æsir Vidarr. Aeneas is the Latin spelling of Greek Αἰνείας. It is a popular etymology for the name, apparently exploited by Homer in the Iliad. Later in the Medieval period there were writers who held that, because the Aeneid was written by a philosopher it is meant to be read philosophically. In the "natural order", the meaning of Aeneas' name combines Greek demas, which becomes ennaios, meaning "in-dweller". However, there is no certainty regarding the origin of his name. In imitation of the Iliad, Virgil borrows epithets of Homer, including; Anchisiades, magnanimum, bonus. Though he borrows many, Virgil gives Aeneas two epithets of his own in the Aeneid: pater and pius. Likewise, Aeneas is called pater when acting in the interest of his men. The story of the birth of Aeneas is told in the "Hymn to Aphrodite," one of the major Homeric Hymns.Aeneas – Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598.
37. Agrippina the Elder – Vipsania Agrippina, most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder, was a distinguished and prominent Roman woman of the first century CE. Agrippina was the wife of the general and statesman Germanicus and a relative to the first Roman Emperors. Agrippina was born to the Elder. Agrippina’s mother Julia was the only natural child born to Augustus from his second marriage to noblewoman Scribonia. Her father’s marriage to Julia was his third marriage. From Agrippa’s previous two marriages, Agrippina had at least two half-sisters: Vipsania Agrippina and Vipsania Marcella Agrippina. Vipsania Agrippina later married senator and consul Gaius Asinius Gallus Saloninus after Tiberius was forced to divorce her and marry Julia the Elder. Less well known is Agrippa’s oldest daughter - Vipsania Marcella. She was the first wife Publius Quinctilius Varus. No son is attested, but a daughter is possibly the mother of Dec. Haterius Agrippa. Agrippina was born in Athens, as in the year of her birth Agrippa was in that city completing official duties on behalf of Augustus. Her mother and her siblings had traveled with Agrippa. Later Agrippina’s family returned to Rome. In 12 BCE, Agrippina’s father died. Augustus had forced his first stepson Tiberius to end his happy first marriage to Vipsania Agrippina to marry Julia the Elder.Agrippina the Elder – Agrippina the Elder
38. Agrippina the Younger – Agrippina the Younger has been described by modern scholars as violent, domineering. Many ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning Emperor Claudius, though accounts vary. Agrippina was the first daughter and fourth living child of Agrippina the Elder and Germanicus. She had Julia Livilla. Agrippina's two elder brothers and her mother were victims of the intrigues of the Praetorian Prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus. She was the namesake of her mother. Maternally, Agrippina descended directly from Augustus. Germanicus, Agrippina's father, was a very popular general and politician. His mother was Antonia Minor and his father was the general Nero Claudius Drusus. He was Antonia Minor's first child. Germanicus had two younger siblings; a sister, named Livilla, a brother, the future Emperor Claudius. Claudius was Agrippina's paternal uncle and third husband. In the year 9, Augustus ordered and forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus, who happened to be Tiberius's nephew, as his son and heir. Germanicus was a favorite of his great-uncle Augustus, who hoped that Germanicus would succeed his uncle Tiberius, Augustus's own adopted son and heir. This in turn meant that Tiberius was also Agrippina's adoptive grandfather in addition to her paternal great-uncle.Agrippina the Younger – Agrippina, mother of Nero, National Museum, Warsaw
39. Alaric I – Alaric I was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son of chieftain Rothestes. Alaric is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire. Alaric began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas and later joined the Roman army. In 394 he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus. Despite sacrificing around 10,000 of his men, Alaric received little recognition from the Emperor. Disappointed, he left the army and was elected reiks of the Visigoths in 395, marched toward Constantinople until he was diverted by Roman forces. He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus and destroyed Corinth, Megara, Argos, Sparta. As a response, the Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius appointed Alaric magister militum in Illyricum. He was defeated on April 6, 402. During Radagaisus' Italian invasion in 406, Alaric remained idle in Illyria. In 408, Western Emperor Flavius Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho and his family, amid rumours that the general had made a deal with Alaric. Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of foederati Goths serving in the Roman military. Subsequently, around 30,000 Gothic soldiers defected to Alaric, joined his march on Rome to avenge their murdered families. Moving swiftly along Roman roads, Alaric sacked the cities of Aquileia and Cremona and ravaged the lands along the Adriatic Sea. The Visigothic leader thereupon laid siege to Rome in 408.Alaric I – Illustration from the 1920s depicting Alaric parading through Athens after conquering the city in 395
40. Alaric II – He established his capital in Aquitaine. His dominions included not only the majority of Hispania but also the greater part of an as-yet undivided Gallia Narbonensis. One example is Isidore of Seville's account of Alaric's reign: consisting of a single paragraph, it is primarily about Alaric's death in that battle. According to Gregory of Tours' account, Alaric was intimidated into surrendering Syagrius to Clovis; Gregory then adds that "the Goths are a timorous race." Once his control over Syagrius' former kingdom was secure, Clovis had him beheaded. Despite Frankish advances in the years that followed, Alaric was not afraid to take the military initiative when it presented itself. By 502 Clovis and Alaric met for face-to-face talks, which led to a peace treaty. In 506, the Visigoths captured the city of Dertosa in the Ebro valley. There they had him executed. After a few years, however, Clovis violated the treaty negotiated in 502. Despite the diplomatic intervention of Theodoric, father-in-law of Alaric, Clovis led his followers into Visigothic territory. Nor was it the loss of the royal treasury at Toulouse, which Gregory of Tours writes Clovis took into his possession. As Peter Heather notes, the Visigothic kingdom was thrown into disarray "in battle." Alaric's heirs were his eldest son, his younger son, the legitimate Amalaric, still a child. With Amalaric's death in 531, the Visigothic kingdom entered an extended period of unrest which lasted until Leovigild assumed the throne in 568.Alaric II – Reverse of a coin issued by Alaric II, gold 1.47 g. Note that the coin-portrait is actually of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I
41. Albertus Magnus – Albertus Magnus, O.P. also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Dominican friar and Catholic bishop. Scholars such as Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages. The Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church. It seems likely that Albert was born sometime given well-attested evidence that he was aged over 80 on his death in 1280. More than one source says that Albert was 87 on his death, which has led 1193 to be commonly given as the date of Albert's birth. This might simply be a family name. Most probably his family was of ministerial class; his familiar connection with Bollstädt noble family was a 15th-century misinterpretation, now completely disproved. Albert was probably educated principally at the University of Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings. A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. In 1223 he studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. During his first tenure as lecturer at Cologne, Albert wrote his Summa bono after discussion with Philip the Chancellor concerning the transcendental properties of being. In 1245, Albert became master of theology under Gueric of Saint-Quentin, the first German Dominican to achieve this distinction. During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus. Albert was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate. In 1254 Albert fulfilled the duties of the office with great care and efficiency.Albertus Magnus – Saint Albertus Magnus, a fresco by Tommaso da Modena (1352), Church of San Nicolò, Treviso, Italy
42. Alessandro Algardi – Algardi was born in Bologna, where at a young age, he was apprenticed in the studio of Agostino Carracci. However, his aptitude for sculpture led him to work for an artist of modest talents. By the age of twenty, he was also employed by local jewelers for figurative designs. Propelled by the Borghese and Barberini patronage, his studio garnered most of the major Roman sculptural commissions. For nearly a decade, Algardi struggled for recognition. In Rome he was aided by friends that included his fellow Bolognese, Domenichino. His early Roman commissions included some marble portrait busts, while he supported himself with small works like crucifixes. In the 1630s he worked in the Mellini Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo. The monument was started in 1640, mostly completed by 1644. Algardi's tomb is much less dynamic. The allegorical figures of Magnanimity and Liberality have an ethereal dignity. Some have identified the helmeted figure of Magnanimity with iconic images of Wisdom. Liberality rendered more elegant. The tomb lacks the polychromatic excitement that detracts from the elegiac mood of Urban VIII's tomb. In 1635–38, Pietro Boncompagni commissioned from Algardi a colossal statue of Philip Neri with kneeling angels for Santa Maria in Vallicella, completed in 1640.Alessandro Algardi – Tomb of Leo XI
43. Algiers – Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. The two quays form a triangle. The rue la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid -- Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.Algiers – Clockwise: Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, Martyrs Memorial, Notre Dame d'Afrique, Ketchaoua Mosque, Casbah, the Grand Post Office and the Ministry of Finance of Algeria
44. Alessandro Allori – Alessandro di Cristofano di Lorenzo del Bronzino Allori was an Italian portrait painter of the late Mannerist Florentine school. Subsequent generations in the city would be strongly influenced by the tide of Baroque styles pre-eminent in other parts of Italy. Freedberg derides Allori as derivative, claiming he illustrates "the ideal of Maniera by which art are generated out of pre-existing art." The polish of figures has an marble-like form as if he aimed for cold statuary. While by 1600 the Baroque elsewhere was beginning to give life to painted figures, Florence was painting two-dimensional statues. Furthermore, with the exception of the Counter-Maniera artists, it dared not stray from high themes or stray into high emotion. Among his collaborators was his main pupil was Giovanni Bizzelli. Cristoforo del Altissimo, Cesare Dandini, Aurelio Lomi, John Mosnier, Alessandro Pieroni, Monanni also were his pupils. Allori was one of the artists, working under Vasari, included in the decoration of the Studiola of Francesco I. He was the father of the painter Cristofano Allori. The work is possibly a portrait of niece of Eleonora di Toledo, measures 12 cm x 16 cm. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Allori, Alessandro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Alessandro Allori – Portrait of Grand Duchess Bianca Capello de Medici, by Allori, Dallas Museum of Art