1. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis – Jacqueline Lee Jackie Kennedy Onassis was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Bouvier was the daughter of Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Bouvier III. In 1951, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature from George Washington University, in 1952, Bouvier met Congressman John F. Kennedy at a dinner party. In November of that year, he was elected as a United States Senator from Massachusetts, and they had four children, two of whom died in infancy. As First Lady, she was known for her highly publicized restoration of the White House and her emphasis on arts, on November 22,1963, she was riding with the President in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, when he was assassinated. She and her children withdrew from view after his funeral. Following her second death in 1975, she had a career as a book editor for the final two decades of her life. She is remembered for her contributions to the arts and preservation of historic architecture, as well as for her style, elegance. She was an icon, and her famous ensemble of pink Chanel suit. She ranks as one of the most popular First Ladies and in 1999 was named on Gallups list of Most Admired Men and Women in 20th-century America. Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28,1929, at Southampton Hospital in Southampton, New York, to Wall Street stockbroker John Vernou Black Jack Bouvier III, Bouviers mother was of Irish descent, and her father had French, Scottish, and English ancestry. Named after her father, Bouvier was baptized at the Church of St. Ignatius Loyola in Manhattan and her younger sister Lee was born in 1933. Bouvier spent her childhood years in Manhattan and at Lasata. She idolized her father, who favored her over her sister. From an early age, Bouvier was an equestrienne and successfully competed in the sport. She also took lessons, was an avid reader, and excelled at learning languages. Bouvier enrolled in the Chapin School in Manhattan in 1935, which she attended for grades 1–6. She was a student but often misbehaved, one of her teachers described her as a darling child, the prettiest little girl, very clever, very artisticJacqueline Kennedy Onassis – Jacqueline Kennedy at the White House in 1961
2. Arnold Schwarzenegger – Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, producer, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician and former professional bodybuilder. He served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011, Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. He is widely considered to be among the greatest bodybuilders of all time as well as bodybuildings biggest icon, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. His breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, in 1984, Schwarzenegger appeared in James Camerons science-fiction thriller film The Terminator, which was a massive critical and box-office success. Schwarzenegger subsequently reprised the Terminator character in the later installments in 1991,2003. He appeared in a number of films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Predator, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop. In 2015, it was announced Schwarzenegger would replace Donald Trump as the host of The Celebrity Apprentice and he was nicknamed the Austrian Oak in his bodybuilding days, Arnie during his acting career, and The Governator during his political career. As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7,2003, Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, to serve the remainder of Daviss term. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his term on January 5,2007. In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his term as governor. Schwarzenegger was born in Thal, Styria, and christened Arnold Alois and his parents were Gustav Schwarzenegger and Aurelia Schwarzenegger. He married Aurelia on October 20,1945, he was 38, according to Schwarzenegger, both of his parents were very strict, Back then in Austria it was a very different world. If we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared, Schwarzenegger grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday. Gustav had a preference for his son, Meinhard, over Arnold. His favoritism was strong and blatant, which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child, Schwarzenegger has said his father had no patience for listening or understanding your problems. He had a relationship with his mother and kept in touch with her until her death. Gustavs background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign, at school, Schwarzenegger was reportedly academically average, but stood out for his cheerful, good-humored, and exuberant characterArnold Schwarzenegger – Schwarzenegger in 2015
3. Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I and it set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Roman Arch of Titus, the Arc de Triomphe has an height of 50 metres, width of 45 m. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m high and 8.44 m wide, three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the archs primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel. Pariss Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, the Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m. The Arc is located on the bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes, the architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. On 15 December 1840, brought back to France from Saint Helena, prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885. The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, the relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy successfully flew his biplane under the Arc, Jean Navarre was the pilot who was tasked to make the flight, but he died on 10 July 1919 when he crashed near Villacoublay while training for the flight. Following its construction, the Arc de Triomphe became the point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans in 1940, and the French and Allies in 1944 and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the Arc de Triomphe in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées, after the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb, both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom. By the early 1960s, the monument had grown very blackened from coal soot and automobile exhaust, and during 1965–1966 it was cleaned through bleaching. In the prolongation of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, a new arch, after the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and the Arc de Triomphe de lÉtoile, the Grande Arche is the third arch built on the same perspective. In 1995, the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria placed a bomb near the Arc de Triomphe which wounded 17 people as part of a campaign of bombings, the astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin, in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture. Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe, Jean-Pierre Cortot, François Rude, Antoine Étex, James Pradier and Philippe Joseph Henri LemaireArc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe from the Champs-Élysées
4. Cuban Missile Crisis – The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. An agreement was reached during a meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962 and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer. The 1962 midterm elections were under way in the United States and these missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic missile facilities. The United States established a blockade to prevent further missiles from reaching Cuba. It announced that they would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba, after a long period of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between U. S. President John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. Secretly, the United States also agreed that it would dismantle all U. S. -built Jupiter MRBMs, when all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 20,1962. The negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union pointed out the necessity of a quick, clear, as a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established. A series of sharply reduced U. S. –Soviet tensions during the following years. The United States had been embarrassed publicly by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, afterward, former President Eisenhower told Kennedy that the failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do. U. S. covert operations against Cuba continued in 1961 with the similarly unsuccessful Operation Mongoose, in addition, Khrushchevs impression of Kennedys weakness was confirmed by the Presidents response during the Berlin Crisis of 1961, particularly to the building of the Berlin Wall. He also told his son Sergei that on Cuba, Kennedy would make a fuss, make more of a fuss, CIA agents or pathfinders from the Special Activities Division were to be infiltrated into Cuba to carry out sabotage and organization, including radio broadcasts. When Kennedy ran for president in 1960, one of his key election issues was a missile gap with the Soviets leading. In fact, the U. S. led the Soviets by a margin that would only increase. In 1961, the Soviets had only four intercontinental ballistic missiles, by October 1962, they may have had a few dozen, with some intelligence estimates as high as 75. The U. S. on the hand, had 170 ICBMs and was quickly building more. It also had eight George Washington– and Ethan Allen–class ballistic missile submarines with the capability to launch 16 Polaris missiles each, the Soviet Union did have medium-range ballistic missiles in quantity, about 700 of them, however, these were very unreliable and inaccurate. The U. S. had an advantage in total number of nuclear warheads at the time. The U. S. also led in missile defensive capabilities, naval and air power, Khrushchev faced a strategic situation where the U. S. was perceived to have a splendid first strike capability that put the Soviet Union at a huge disadvantageCuban Missile Crisis – Soviet R-12 intermediate-range nuclear ballistic missile (NATO designation SS-4) in Moscow
5. Camelot – Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. The stories locate it somewhere in Great Britain and sometimes associate it with real cities, nevertheless, arguments about the location of the real Camelot have occurred since the 15th century and continue to rage today in popular works and for tourism purposes. The castle is mentioned for the first time in Chrétien de Troyes poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, dating to the 1170s, though it does not appear in all the manuscripts. It is mentioned in passing, and is not described, A un jor dune Acenssion / Fu venuz de vers Carlion / Li rois Artus et tenu ot / Cort molt riche a Camaalot / Si riche com au jor estut. Upon a certain Ascension Day King Arthur had come from Caerleon, nothing in Chrétiens poem suggests the level of importance Camelot would have in later romances. For Chrétien, Arthurs chief court was in Caerleon in Wales, Chrétien depicts Arthur, like a typical medieval monarch, holding court at a number of cities and castles. Most Arthurian romances of this produced in English or Welsh did not follow this trend, Camelot was referred to infrequently. However, in the late 15th century, Thomas Malory created the image of Camelot most familiar to English speakers today in his Le Morte dArthur, a work based mostly on the French romances. He firmly identifies Camelot with Winchester, an identification that remained popular over the centuries, though it was rejected by Malorys own editor, William Caxton, who preferred a Welsh location. Renowned Arthurian scholar Ernst Brugger suggested that it was a corruption of the site of Arthurs final battle, roger Sherman Loomis believed it was derived from Cavalon, a place name that he suggested was a corruption of Avalon. He further suggested that Cavalon/Camelot became Arthurs capital due to confusion with Arthurs other traditional court at Carlion, the Lancelot-Grail Cycle and the texts it influenced depict the city of Camelot as standing along a river, downstream from Astolat. It is surrounded by plains and forests, and its magnificent cathedral, there, Arthur and Guinevere are married and there are the tombs of many kings and knights. In a mighty castle stands the Round Table, it is here that Galahad conquers the Siege Perilous, jousts are held in a meadow outside the city. In the Palamedes and other works, the castle is destroyed by King Mark of Cornwall after the loss of Arthur at the Battle of Camlann. It should be noted, too, that there is a Kamaalot featured as the home of Percevals mother in the romance Perlesvaus, the romancers versions of Camelot drew on earlier descriptions of Arthurs fabulous court. From Geoffreys grand description of Caerleon, Camelot gains its impressive architecture, its many churches, Geoffreys description in turn drew on an already established tradition in Welsh oral tradition of the grandeur of Arthurs court. Even at this stage Arthur could not be tied to one location, many other places are listed as a location where Arthur holds court in the later romances, Carlisle and London perhaps being the most prominent. The romancers versions of Camelot draw on traditions of Arthurs fabulous courtCamelot – Gustave Doré ’s illustration of Camelot from “ Enid ”, 1867.
6. Kennedy family – The Kennedy family is an American family that has been prominent in American politics, public service, and business during the 20th century. Three of the four sons of Joseph, Sr. and Rose Kennedy served as senator, the first Kennedys to reside in the United States were Patrick Kennedy and Bridget Murphy, who sailed from Ireland to East Boston in 1849. Their son Patrick Joseph went into Massachusetts politics and business, P. J. s brother-in-law, Charles M. Hickey, served as mayor of Brockton, Massachusetts in 1913. Under President Franklin D. Josephs wife was Rose Fitzgerald, whose father, John F. Fitzgerald, served as a senator, member of the U. S. House of Representatives. Joseph and Rose had nine children, Joseph Jr. John, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, John served as the President of the United States, while Robert and Ted both became prominent senators. Every Kennedy to hold elective office has served as a Democrat while other members of the family have worked for the Democratic Party or held Cabinet posts under Democratic administrations. Many have attended Harvard University, and the family has contributed greatly to that universitys John F. Kennedy School of Government, Joseph originally hoped for his eldest son, Joseph Jr. to become a politician and ultimately to be elected President. After Joseph Jr. was killed in World War II, Joseph Sr. s hopes transferred to his second son, during his presidency, John appointed Robert as Attorney General. Meanwhile, Ted was elected to the Senate in 1962, the family received intense publicity during Johns term as President, often emphasizing their relative youth, allure, education, and future in politics. The family suffered many tragedies, which contributed to the idea of the Kennedy curse, Kathleen, and John Jr. all died in airplane crashes. Italics denote members who married into the family, only members who held political office are shown below. P. J. Kennedy, Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives 1884–89, member of the Massachusetts Senate, John F. Caroline Kennedy, United States Ambassador to Japan, 2013–17. Bobby Shriver, Member of the Santa Monica, California City Council, 2004–12, maria Shriver, First Lady of California, 2003–11, married Arnold Schwarzenegger, Chairman of the Presidents Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition, 1990–93, and governor of California, 2003–11. Mark Shriver, Member of the Maryland House of Delegates, 1995–2003, Robert F. Kennedy, United States Attorney General 1961–64, United States senator from New York, 1965–68. Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, Lieutenant governor of Maryland, 1995–2003, Joseph P. Kennedy II, Member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts, 1987–99. Joseph P. Kennedy III, Member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts, Jean Kennedy Smith, United States Ambassador to Ireland, 1993–98. Ted Kennedy, United States senator from Massachusetts, 1962–2009, edward M. Kennedy Jr. Member of the Connecticut Senate, 2015–present. Patrick J. Kennedy, Member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives, 1989–93, member of the United States House of Representatives from Rhode Island, the Kennedys, A Family Tree, StKennedy family – Members of the Kennedy family at the birthday of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. in September 1963.
7. Economy of Finland – Finland has a highly industrialised, mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other western economies such as France, Germany, Sweden or the United Kingdom. The largest sector of the economy is services at 72.7 percent, with respect to foreign trade, the key economic sector is manufacturing. The largest industries are electronics, machinery, vehicles and other engineered metal products, forest industry, Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. Forestry, paper factories, and the sector are politically sensitive to rural residents. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP, in a 2004 OECD comparison, high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture, overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Finland has the 4th largest knowledge economy in Europe, behind Sweden, Denmark, Finland is highly integrated in the global economy, and international trade is a third of GDP. The European Union makes 60 percent of the total trade, the largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, Netherlands and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agriculture. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone, Denmark and Sweden have retained their traditional currencies, whereas Iceland and Norway are not members of the EU at all. But as a poor country, it was vulnerable to shocks to the economy such as the great famine of 1867-1868. Until the 1930s, the Finnish economy was agrarian and, as late as in the 1950s. While nationalization committees were set up in France and the United Kingdom, after failed experiments with protectionism, Finland eased restrictions and concluded a free trade agreement with the European Community in 1973, making its markets more competitive. Local education markets expanded and an number of Finns also went abroad to study in the United States or Western Europe. There was a common, but pragmatic-minded, credit and investment cooperation by state and corporations. Savings rate hovered among the worlds highest, at around 8% until the 80s, in the beginning of the 1970s, Finlands GDP per capita reached the level of Japan and the UK. Finlands economic development shared many aspects with export-led Asian countries, the official policy of neutrality enabled Finland to trade both with Western and Comecon markets. Significant bilateral trade was conducted with the Soviet Union, but this did not grow into a dependence, like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its system of economic regulation since late 1980sEconomy of Finland – Helsinki, Finland
8. First Lady of the United States – First Lady of the United States is the informal but accepted title held by the wife of the President of the United States, concurrent with the presidents term of office. Although the first lady’s role has never been codified or officially defined, melania Trump is the current First Lady. While the title was not in use until much later, Martha Washington, the wife of George Washington. During her lifetime she was referred to as Lady Washington. Since the 1790s the role of first lady has changed considerably and it has come to include involvement in political campaigns, management of the White House, championship of social causes, and representation of the president at official and ceremonial occasions. Additionally, over the individual first ladies have held influence in a range of sectors. Historically, should a president be unmarried, or a widower, the use of the title First Lady to describe the spouse or hostess of an executive began in the United States. In the early days of the republic, there was not a generally accepted title for the wife of the president. Indulging in no indolence, she left the pillow at dawn, sometime after 1849, the title began being used in Washington, D. C. social circles. The title first gained recognition in 1877, when newspaper journalist Mary C. Ames referred to Lucy Webb Hayes as the First Lady of the Land while reporting on the inauguration of Rutherford B, the frequent reporting on Lucy Hayes activities helped spread use of the title outside Washington. A popular 1911 comedic play about Dolley Madison by playwright Charles Nirdlinger, titled The First Lady in the Land, by the 1930s, it was in wide use. Use of the later spread from the United States to other nations. The wife of the Vice President of the United States is sometimes referred to as the Second Lady of the United States, the position of the First Lady is not an elected one and carries only ceremonial duties. Nonetheless, first ladies have held a highly visible position in American society, the role of the First Lady has evolved over the centuries. She is, first and foremost, the hostess of the White House and she organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president. Lisa Burns identifies four main themes of the first ladyship, as public woman, as political celebrity, as political activist. Martha Washington created the role and hosted many affairs of state at the national capital and this socializing became known as the Republican Court and provided elite women with an opportunity to play backstage political roleFirst Lady of the United States – Incumbent Michelle Obama
9. Fashion – Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body, or furniture. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses and it is the prevailing styles in behaviour and the newest creations of textile designers. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous, early Western travelers, traveling whether to Persia, Turkey, India, or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in the respective places. The Japanese Shoguns secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years, however, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia, the beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers, the pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and mens fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex. Art historians are able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years. These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, in the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century. Though textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentlemans coat, by 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike, local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant. The Haute house was the established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. Since then, the idea of the designer as a celebrity in his or her own right has become increasingly dominant. The impact of unisex expands more broadly to various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail. Fashion weeks are held in cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. Modern Westerners have a number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests, when people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may startFashion – In Following the Fashion (1794), James Gillray caricatured a figure flattered by the short- bodiced gowns then in fashion, contrasting it with an imitator whose figure is not flattered.
10. Goddess – A goddess is a female deity in polytheistic religions. Goddesses most often have characteristics that are apotheosize in their pure form. However, in some cases goddesses may embody neutral forms personifying both male and female characteristics, or they may even exhibit traits that are associated with the male gender. In some faiths, a female figure holds a central place in religious prayer. For example, Shaktism, the worship of the force that animates the world, is one of the three major sects of Hinduism. Polytheist religions, including Polytheistic reconstructionists, honour multiple goddesses and gods and these deities may be part of a pantheon, or different regions may have tutelary deities. The reconstructionists, like their ancient forebears, honour the deities particular to their country of origin, the noun goddess is a secondary formation, combining the Germanic god with the Latinate -ess suffix. It first appeared in Middle English, from about 1350, the English word follows the linguistic precedent of a number of languages—including Egyptian, Classical Greek, and several Semitic languages—that add a feminine ending to the languages word for god. Joseph Campbell in The Power of Myth, a 1988 interview with Bill Moyers, links the image of the Earth or Mother Goddess to symbols of fertility and reproduction. For example, Campbell states that, There have been systems of religion where the mother is the prime parent, and in Egypt you have the Mother Heavens, the Goddess Nut, who is represented as the whole heavenly sphere. Joseph Campbell, Well that was associated primarily with agriculture and the agricultural societies and it has to do with the earth. The human woman gives birth just as the earth gives birth to the plants. so woman magic, and the personification of the energy that gives birth to forms and nourishes forms is properly female. It is in the world of ancient Mesopotamia, the Egyptian Nile. Campbell also argues that the image of the Virgin Mary was derived from the image of Isis and her child Horus, other Mesopotamian goddesses include Ninhursag, Ninlil, Antu, Gaga Goddesses of the Canaanite religion, Baalat Gebal, Astarte, Anat. Cybele, Her Hittite name was Kubaba, but her name changed to Cybele in Phrygian and Roman culture and her effect can be also seen on Artemis as the Lady of Ephesus. Hebat, Mother Goddess of the Hittite pantheon and wife of the sky god. She was the origin of the Hurrian cult, arinniti, Hittite Goddess of the sun. She became patron of the Hittite Empire and monarchy, leto, A mother Goddess figure in LykiaGoddess – Aphrodite is the Ancient Greek goddess of beauty and love.
11. Ich bin ein Berliner – Ich bin ein Berliner is a quotation from a June 26,1963, speech by U. S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. Kennedy aimed to underline the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall to prevent mass emigration to the West. The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a statement of U. S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. The speech is considered one of Kennedys best, both a moment of the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier. It was a morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an enclave deep inside East Germany. Speaking from a platform erected on the steps of Rathaus Schöneberg for an audience of 450,000, Kennedy said, Two thousand years ago, Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is Ich bin ein Berliner. All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, there is a widespread misconception that the phrase is incorrect German and in fact means Im a doughnut. It has even been embellished into an urban legend including equally incorrect claims about the audience laughing at this phrase, germanys capital, Berlin, was deep within the area controlled after World War II by the Soviet Union. Afterward, the controlled by the NATO Allies became an effective exclave of West Germany. From 1952, the border between East and West was closed everywhere but in Berlin, hundreds of thousands of East Germans defected to the West via West Berlin, a labour drain that threatened East Germany with economic collapse. In 1961, the East German government under Walter Ulbricht erected a barrier around West Berlin. The East German authorities argued that it was meant to prevent spies, however, it was universally known as the Berlin Wall and its real purpose was to keep East German citizens from escaping to the West. Over a period of months the wall was rebuilt using concrete, the Wall closed the biggest loophole in the Iron Curtain, and Berlin went from being one of the easiest places to cross from East Europe to West Europe to being one of the most difficult. The West, including the U. S. was accused of failing to respond forcefully to the erection of the Wall, officially, Berlin was under joint occupation by the four allied powers, each with primary responsibility for a certain zone. Kennedys speech marked the first instance where the U. S. acknowledged that East Berlin was part of the Soviet bloc along with the rest of East Germany. Today, I believe, in 1962 the proudest boast is to say, and it is not enough to merely say it, we must live it. But Americans who serve today in West Berlin—your sons and brothers -- are the Americans who are bearing the great burden, such transcriptions are also found in the third draft of the speech, from June 25. The final typed version of the speech does not contain the transcriptions and it became clear quickly that the president did not have a gift for languages and was more likely to embarrass himself if he was to cite in German for any lengthIch bin ein Berliner – Kennedy delivering his speech in Berlin
12. I. M. Pei – Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA, commonly known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese-American architect. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. Since then, he has taken on work as an architectural consultant primarily from his sons architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects and he went on to design Dallas City Hall and the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. He returned to China for the first time in 1975 to design a hotel at Fragrant Hills, and designed Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, a skyscraper in Hong Kong for the Bank of China fifteen years later. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid for the Musée du Louvre in Paris. He later returned to the world of the arts by designing the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in Dallas, the Miho Museum in Japan, the Suzhou Museum in Suzhou, in 1983, he won the Pritzker Prize, sometimes called the Nobel Prize of architecture. Peis ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty, when his family moved from Anhui province to Suzhou, finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. Ieoh Ming Pei was born on April 26,1917 to Tsuyee Pei and Lien Kwun, the family eventually included five children. As a boy, Pei was very close to his mother and she invited him, his brothers, and his sisters to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate and their interactions were respectful but distant. Peis ancestors success meant that the family lived in the echelons of society. The younger Pei, drawn more to music and other forms than to his fathers domain of banking. I have cultivated myself, he said later, at the age of ten, Pei moved with his family to Shanghai after his father was promoted. Pei attended Saint Johns Middle School, run by Protestant missionaries, academic discipline was rigorous, students were allowed only one half-day each month for leisure. Pei enjoyed playing billiards and watching Hollywood movies, especially those of Buster Keaton and he also learned rudimentary English skills by reading the Bible and novels by Charles Dickens. Shanghais many international elements gave it the name Paris of the East, the citys global architectural flavors had a profound influence on Pei, from the Bund waterfront area to the Park Hotel, built in 1934. He was also impressed by the gardens of Suzhou, where he spent the summers with extended family and regularly visited a nearby ancestral shrine. The Shizilin Garden, built in the 14th century by a Buddhist monk, was especially influential and its unusual rock formations, stone bridges, and waterfalls remained etched in Peis memory for decadesI. M. Pei – in Luxembourg, 2006
13. Jack Ruby – Jack Leon Ruby was an American, originally from Chicago, Illinois. Who lived in Dallas, Texas where he owned a nightclub, on November 24,1963, he fatally shot Lee Harvey Oswald while the latter was in police custody after being charged with assassinating U. S. President John F. Kennedy two days earlier. A Dallas jury found him guilty of murdering Oswald, and Ruby was sentenced to death, Rubys conviction was later appealed and he was granted a new trial. However, on January 3,1967, as the date for his new trial was being set, Ruby became ill in his prison cell and died of a pulmonary embolism from lung cancer. Jack Ruby was born Jacob Leon Rubenstein on March 25,1911 in Chicago as the son of Joseph Rubenstein and Fannie Turek Rutkowski, Ruby was the fifth of his parents 10 surviving children and grew up in the Maxwell Street area of Chicago. He had a childhood and adolescence, which was marked by juvenile delinquency. On June 6,1922, at the age of 11, Ruby eventually skipped school enough times that he spent time at the Institute of Juvenile Research. From his early childhood, Ruby was nicknamed Sparky by those who knew him and his sister, Eva Grant, said that he acquired the nickname because he resembled a slow-moving horse named Spark Plug or Sparky in a contemporary comic strip. She stated that he didnt like the nickname and was quick to fight anyone who called him that, other accounts say that the name was directly connected with his quick temper. In the 1940s, Ruby frequented race tracks in Illinois and California and he was drafted in 1943 and served in the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II, working as an aircraft mechanic at U. S. bases until 1946. He had a record and was promoted to Private First Class. Upon discharge, on February 21,1946, Ruby returned to Chicago, in 1947, Ruby moved to Dallas where he and his brothers soon afterward shortened their surnames from Rubenstein to Ruby. The stated reason for this was that the name Rubenstein was too long, Ruby later went on to manage various nightclubs, strip clubs, and dance halls. Among the strippers Ruby befriended was Candy Barr, Ruby developed close ties to many Dallas Police officers who frequented his nightclubs, where he provided them with free liquor, prostitutes and other favors. Trafficante operated major casinos in Cuba and was imprisoned after Fidel Castro came to power. Ruby was never married, nor did he have any children, evidence given to the Warren Commission claimed that Jack Ruby had been involved in the underworld activities of illegal gambling, narcotics, and prostitution. A1956 FBI report stated that their informant Eileen Curry reported that in January of that year, she moved to Dallas with her boyfriend, James Breen, after jumping bond on narcotics charges. Former Dallas County Sheriff Steve Guthrie told the FBI that he believed Ruby operated some prostitution activities, Dallas disc jockey Kenneth Dowe testified that Ruby was known around the station for procuring women for different people who came to townJack Ruby – Ruby around 1960
14. Kennedy Space Center – The John F. Kennedy Space Center is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers. Since December 1968, Kennedy Space Center has been NASAs primary launch center of human spaceflight, Launch operations for the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle programs were carried out from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 and managed by KSC. Located on the east coast of Florida, KSC is adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the management of the two entities work very closely together, share resources, and even own facilities on each others property. Additionally, the center manages launch of robotic and commercial missions, researches food production and In-Situ Resource Utilization for off Earth exploration. Since 2010, the center has worked to become a multi-user spaceport through industry partnerships, there are about 700 facilities grouped across the centers 144,000 acres. There is also a Visitor Complex open to the public on site, the military had been performing launch operations since 1949 at what would become Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In December 1959, the Department of Defense transferred 5,000 personnel, President John F. Kennedys 1961 goal of a manned lunar landing before 1970 required an expansion of launch operations. On July 1,1962, the Launch Operations Directorate was separated from MSFC to become the Launch Operations Center, therefore, the decision was made to build a new LOC site located adjacent to Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island. NASA began land acquisition in 1962, buying title to 131 square miles, the major buildings in KSCs Industrial Area were designed by architect Charles Luckman. Construction began in November 1962, and Kennedy visited the site twice in 1962, on November 29,1963, the facility was given its current name by President Lyndon B. Johnson under Executive Order 11129. Johnsons order joined both the civilian LOC and the military Cape Canaveral station under the designation John F. Kennedy Space Center, spawning some confusion joining the two in the public mind. Located on Merritt Island, Florida, the center is north-northwest of Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic Ocean and it is 34 miles long and roughly six miles wide, covering 219 square miles. KSC is a major central Florida tourist destination and is one hours drive from the Orlando area. The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex offers public tours of the center, Center workers can encounter bald eagles, American alligators, wild boars, eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, the endangered Florida panther and Florida manatees. From 1967 through 1973, there were 13 Saturn V launches, the first of two unmanned flights, Apollo 4 on November 9,1967, was also the first rocket launch from KSC. The Saturn Vs first manned launch on December 21,1968 was Apollo 8s lunar orbiting mission, the next two missions tested the Lunar Module, Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Apollo 11, launched from Pad A on July 16,1969, Apollo 12 followed four months later. From 1970–1972, the Apollo program concluded at KSC with the launches of missions 13 through 17, on May 14,1973, the last Saturn V launch put the Skylab space station in orbit from Pad 39AKennedy Space Center – Aerial view of KSC Headquarters looking south
15. Laura Bush – Laura Lane Welch Bush is the wife of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush, and was the First Lady from 2001 to 2009. Bush graduated from Southern Methodist University in 1968 with a degree in education. After attaining her masters degree in science at the University of Texas at Austin. Bush met her husband, George W. Bush, in 1977. The couple had twin daughters in 1981, Bushs political involvement began during her marriage. She campaigned with her husband during his unsuccessful 1978 run for the United States Congress, as First Lady of Texas, Bush implemented many initiatives focused on health, education, and literacy. She became First Lady after her husband was inaugurated as president on January 20,2001, polled by The Gallup Organization as one of the most popular First Ladies, Bush was involved in national and global concerns during her tenure. She continued to advance her trademark interests of education and literacy by establishing the semi-annual National Book Festival in 2001 and she also advanced womens causes through The Heart Truth and Susan G. Komen for the Cure organizations. She represented the United States during her trips, which tended to focus on HIV/AIDS. Laura Lane Welch was born on November 4,1946 in Midland, Texas, Bush is of English, French, and Swiss ancestry. Her father was a builder and later successful real estate developer. Early on, her parents encouraged her to read, leading to what would become her love of reading and she said, I learned at home from my mother. When I was a girl, my mother would read stories to me. I have loved books and going to the library ever since, in the summer, I liked to spend afternoons reading in the library. I enjoyed the Little House on the Prairie and Little Women books, reading gives you enjoyment throughout your life. Bush has also credited her second grade teacher, Charlene Gnagy, on the night of November 6,1963, Laura Welch ran a stop sign and struck another car, resulting in the death of its driver. The victim was her friend and classmate Michael Dutton Douglas. By some accounts, Douglas had been Bushs boyfriend at one time, Bush and her passenger, both 17, were treated for minor injuriesLaura Bush – Laura Bush
16. Lee Harvey Oswald – Lee Harvey Oswald was an American former U. S. Marine who assassinated President John F. Kennedy on November 22,1963. Shortly after being discharged from the Marine Corps, Oswald defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959 and he lived in the Belarusian city of Minsk until June 1962, at which time he returned to the United States with Marina, his Russian wife, eventually settling in Dallas. Following Kennedys assassination, Oswald was initially arrested for the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, Oswald was later charged with the murder of Kennedy. He denied shooting anybody, saying that he was a patsy, two days later, while being transferred from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby in full view of television cameras broadcasting live. In September 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy by firing three shots from the Texas School Book Depository and this conclusion was supported by previous investigations carried out by the FBI, the Secret Service, and the Dallas Police Department. The assassination has spawned numerous conspiracy theories, Oswald was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on October 18,1939 to Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Sr. and Marguerite Frances Claverie. Robert Oswald died of an attack two months before Lee was born. Lees elder brother Robert, Jr. was also a former Marine, through Marguerites first marriage to Edward John Pic, Jr. Lee and Robert Jr. were the half-brothers of Air Force veteran John Edward Pic. In 1944, Marguerite moved the family from New Orleans to Dallas, Texas, Oswald entered the 1st grade in 1945 and over the next half-dozen years attended several different schools through the 6th grade in the Dallas and Fort Worth areas. Oswald took an IQ test in the 4th grade and scored 103, on achievement tests in, he twice did best in reading, as a child, Oswald was described by several people who knew him as withdrawn and temperamental. In August 1952, when Oswald was 12, his mother took him to New York City where they lived for a time with Oswalds half-brother. Oswald and his mother were asked to leave after an argument in which Oswald allegedly struck his mother. Oswald attended the 7th grade in the Bronx, New York, but was often truant, the reformatory psychiatrist, Dr. Dr. Hartogs detected a personality pattern disturbance with schizoid features and passive-aggressive tendencies and recommended continued treatment. In January 1954, Oswalds mother returned to New Orleans, taking Oswald with her, in New Orleans, Oswald completed the 8th and 9th grades. He entered the 10th grade in 1955 but quit school after one month, after leaving school, Oswald worked for several months as an office clerk and messenger in New Orleans. In July 1956, Oswalds mother moved the family to Fort Worth, Texas, a few weeks later in October, Oswald quit school at age 17 to join the Marines, he never received a high school diploma. By the age of 17, he had resided at 22 different locations, though the young Oswald had trouble spelling and may have had a reading-spelling disability, he read voraciously. By age 15, he claimed to be a Marxist, writing in his diary, I was looking for a key to my environment, I had to dig for my books in the back dusty shelves of librariesLee Harvey Oswald – Photo taken in Minsk, Commission Exhibit 2892
17. Nancy Reagan – Nancy Davis Reagan was an American actress, and the wife of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan. She served as the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an aunt and she moved to Chicago when her mother remarried in 1929, and later took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, Night into Morning, and Donovans Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, who was president of the Screen Actors Guild. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husbands victory in the 1980 presidential election. She was criticized early in his first term, largely due to her decision to replace the White House china and she aimed to restore a Kennedy-esque glamour to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the Just Say No drug awareness campaign and she had a strong influence on her husband, and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Reagan devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, who was diagnosed with Alzheimers disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5,2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of stem cell research. Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6,1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women and she was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman who had been born into a once-prosperous family, and his actress wife, radio actress Edith Prescott Luckett. Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova, from birth, she was commonly called Nancy. She lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York City, in a house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928, after their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Reagan was raised in Bethesda, Maryland, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, and uncle, Audley Gailbraith. Nancy later described longing for her mother during those years, My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, in 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago. Nancy and her stepfather got along well, she later wrote that he was a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values. He formally adopted her in 1935, and she would refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy DavisNancy Reagan – First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983
18. Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty – The impetus for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests, particularly tests of new thermonuclear weapons, and the resulting nuclear fallout. A test ban was also seen as a means of slowing nuclear proliferation, though the PTBT did not halt proliferation or the arms race, its enactment did coincide with a substantial decline in the concentration of radioactive particles in the atmosphere. The PTBT was signed by the governments of the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, the treaty formally went into effect on 10 October 1963. Since then,123 other states have become party to the treaty, ten states have signed but not ratified the treaty. In 1952–53, the US and Soviet Union detonated their first thermonuclear weapons, in 1954, the US Castle Bravo test at Bikini Atoll had a yield of 15 megatons of TNT, more than doubling the expected yield. In the same year, a Soviet test sent radioactive particles over Japan, around the same time, victims of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima visited the US for medical care, which attracted significant public attention. Between 1951 and 1958, the US conducted 166 atmospheric tests, the Soviet Union conducted 82, in 1945, Britain and Canada made an early call for an international discussion on controlling atomic power. At the time, the US had yet to formulate a policy or strategy on nuclear weapons. Taking advantage of this was Vannevar Bush, who had initiated and administered the Manhattan Project, as a first step in this direction, Bush proposed an international agency dedicated to nuclear control. Truman to help construct US nuclear weapons policy, a version of the Acheson-Lilienthal plan was presented to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission as the Baruch Plan in June 1946. The Baruch Plan proposed that an International Atomic Development Authority would control all research on and material, the Soviet Union dismissed the Baruch Plan as a US attempt to secure its nuclear dominance, and called for the US to halt weapons production and release technical information on its program. The Acheson–Lilienthal paper and Baruch Plan would serve as the basis for US policy into the 1950s, between 1947 and 1954, the US and Soviet Union discussed their demands within the United Nations Commission for Conventional Disarmament. A series of events in 1954, including the Castle Bravo test and spread of fallout from a Soviet test over Japan, additionally, by 1954, both US and Soviet Union had assembled large nuclear stockpiles, reducing hopes of complete disarmament. Interest in nuclear control and efforts to stall proliferation of weapons to other states grew as the Soviet Unions nuclear capabilities increased, in the same year, the British Labour Party, then led by Clement Attlee, called on the UN to ban testing of thermonuclear weapons. 1955 marks the beginning of negotiations, as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev first proposed talks on the subject in February 1955. On 10 May 1955, the Soviet Union proposed a test ban before the UN Disarmament Commissions Committee of Five, the May 1955 proposal is now seen evidence of Khrushchevs new approach to foreign policy, as Khrushchev sought to mend relations with the West. The proposal would serve as the basis of the Soviet negotiating position through 1957, Eisenhower had supported nuclear testing after World War II. In 1947, he rejected arguments by Stafford L. Warrens arguments were lent credence in the scientific community, everybody seems to think that were skunks, saber-rattlers and warmongersPartial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
19. 20th century – The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United States20th century – The Earth as seen from Apollo 17. The second half of the 20th century saw humankind's first space exploration.
20. 1929 – This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, the Peruvian Air Force was created. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky, the Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East, the centenary of Western Australia was celebrated. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, in Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent, Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The German airship LZ127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days, on August 1 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Palestinians and Jews over control of the Western Wall. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, in total,133 Jews and 116 Palestinians were killed. The Palestinians had been told that Jews were killing Palestinians, Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six-Day War in 1967. The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews were killed by Palestinians in Safed in similar fashion, elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraq took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I, in September, Great Britain announced it would support Iraqs inclusion in the League of Nations, signaling the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region. Early in 1929 the Afghan leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution, habibullāhs rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years, in India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchouli after issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated, the Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, the Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports were more sensitive to economic problems, in the Pacific, on December 28 – Black Saturday in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa1929 – February 26: Grand Teton National Park.
21. Metropolitan Museum of Art – The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, Indian, and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870. The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, the museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East. From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collectionsMetropolitan Museum of Art – The Metropolitan Museum of Art
22. CBS – CBS is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major facilities and operations in New York City. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the iconic logo. It has also called the Tiffany Network, alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. It can also refer to some of CBSs first demonstrations of color television, the network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations that was purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paleys guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, in 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971, CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which also controls the current Viacom. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated stations throughout the United States. The origins of CBS date back to January 27,1927, Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18,1927, with a presentation by the Howard Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, and fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep, particularly the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, in early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the networks Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, and their partner Jerome Louchenheim. With the record out of the picture, Paley quickly streamlined the corporate name to Columbia Broadcasting System. He believed in the power of advertising since his familys La Palina cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchenheim share of CBS, during Louchenheims brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebes Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the networks flagship station. WABC was quickly upgraded, and the relocated to 860 kHz. The physical plant was relocated also – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, by the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures. The deal came to fruition in September 1929, Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the timeCBS – Paley's management saw a twentyfold increase in gross income in his first decade.
23. Natalie Portman – Natalie Portman is an actress with dual American and Israeli citizenship. Her first role was in the 1994 action thriller Léon, The Professional and she was later cast as Padmé Amidala in the Star Wars prequel trilogy. Born in Jerusalem to an Israeli father and American mother, Portman grew up in the eastern United States from the age of three. She studied dancing and acting in New York, and starred in Star Wars, in 1999, Portman enrolled at Harvard University to study psychology, alongside her work as an actress, she completed a bachelors degree in 2003. During her studies she starred in a second Star Wars film and she played leading roles in the historical dramas Goyas Ghosts and The Other Boleyn Girl, and also appeared in Thor and its 2013 sequel. In 2010, Portman starred in the thriller film Black Swan. Her performance received critical acclaim and she earned her first Academy Award for Best Actress, her second Golden Globe Award, the SAG Award, the BAFTA Award. In 2016, she portrayed First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy in the biographical drama Jackie and she was nominated for an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award and won the BFCA for Best Actress. In May 2008, Portman served as the youngest member of the 61st Annual Cannes Film Festival jury, the same year she directed a segment of the collective film New York, I Love You. Her first feature film as a director, A Tale of Love, Portman was born on June 9,1981 in Jerusalem. Her original given name was Neta-Lee, a Hebrew name and she is the only child of Shelley, an American homemaker who works as Portmans agent, and Avner Hershlag, an Israeli fertility specialist and gynecologist. Her maternal grandparents, Bernice and Arthur Stevens, were from Jewish families who moved to the United States from Austria and Russia, Natalies paternal grandparents, Mania and Zvi Yehuda Hershlag, were Jewish immigrants to Israel. Zvi, born in Poland in 1914, moved to what was then Mandatory Palestine in 1938 and eventually became an economics professor, One of Natalies paternal great-grandmothers was born in Romania and was a spy for British Intelligence during World War II. Portmans parents met at a Jewish student center at Ohio State University and they corresponded after her father returned to Israel and were married when her mother visited a few years later. In 1984, when Portman was three years old, the moved to the United States, where her father received his medical training. Portman, a citizen of the United States and Israel, has said that although she really love the States. Thats where I feel at home, Portman and her family first lived in Washington, D. C. but relocated to Connecticut in 1988 and then moved to Jericho, New York, on Long Island, in 1990. While living in the Washington, D. C. area, Portman attended Charles E. Smith Jewish Day School in Rockville, MarylandNatalie Portman – Portman at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival.
24. J. Robert Oppenheimer – Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. After the war, Oppenheimer became chairman of the influential General Advisory Committee of the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission and he used that position to lobby for international control of nuclear power to avert nuclear proliferation and a nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. Nine years later, President John F. Kennedy awarded him with the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation. As a teacher and promoter of science, he is remembered as a father of the American school of theoretical physics that gained world prominence in the 1930s. After World War II, he director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Julius came to America with no money, no baccalaureate studies and he got a job in a textile company and within a decade was an executive with the company. The Oppenheimers were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews, in 1912 the family moved to an apartment on the 11th floor of 155 Riverside Drive, near West 88th Street, Manhattan, an area known for luxurious mansions and townhouses. Their art collection included works by Pablo Picasso and Édouard Vuillard, Robert had a younger brother, Frank, who also became a physicist. Oppenheimer was initially educated at Alcuin Preparatory School, and in 1911 he entered the Ethical Culture Society School and this had been founded by Felix Adler to promote a form of ethical training based on the Ethical Culture movement, whose motto was Deed before Creed. His father had been a member of the Society for many years, Oppenheimer was a versatile scholar, interested in English and French literature, and particularly in mineralogy. He completed the third and fourth grades in one year, during his final year, he became interested in chemistry. He entered Harvard College a year late, at age 18, Oppenheimer majored in chemistry, but Harvard required science students to also study history, literature, and philosophy or mathematics. He compensated for his start by taking six courses each term and was admitted to the undergraduate honor society Phi Beta Kappa. He was attracted to physics by a course on thermodynamics that was taught by Percy Bridgman. He graduated summa cum laude in three years, in 1924 Oppenheimer was informed that he had been accepted into Christs College, Cambridge. He wrote to Ernest Rutherford requesting permission to work at the Cavendish Laboratory, Bridgman provided Oppenheimer with a recommendation, which conceded that Oppenheimers clumsiness in the laboratory made it apparent his forte was not experimental but rather theoretical physics. Rutherford was unimpressed, but Oppenheimer went to Cambridge in the hope of landing another offer and he was ultimately accepted by J. J. Thomson on condition that he complete a basic laboratory course. He developed a relationship with his tutor, Patrick BlackettJ. Robert Oppenheimer – J. Robert Oppenheimer, c. 1944
25. JFK (film) – JFK is a 1991 American conspiracy-thriller film directed by Oliver Stone. It examines the events leading to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the film was adapted by Stone and Zachary Sklar from the books On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison and Crossfire, The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs. Stone described this account as a counter-myth to the Warren Commissions fictional myth, the film became embroiled in controversy. After a slow start at the box office, the film picked up momentum. JFK was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won two for Best Cinematography and Best Film Editing. It was the most successful of three films Stone made about American presidents, followed by Nixon with Anthony Hopkins in the title role and W. with Josh Brolin as George W. Bush. The film opens with footage, including the farewell address in 1961 of outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This is followed by a summary of John F. Kennedys years as president, emphasizing the events that, in Stones thesis and this builds to a reconstruction of the assassination on November 22,1963. New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison subsequently learns about potential links to the assassination in New Orleans, Kennedys suspected assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is killed by Jack Ruby, and Garrison closes the investigation. The investigation is reopened in 1966 after Garrison reads the Warren Report, Garrison and his staff interrogate several witnesses to the Kennedy assassination, and others involved with Oswald, Ruby, and Ferrie. One such witness is Willie OKeefe, a male prostitute serving five years in prison for soliciting, as well as briefly meeting Oswald, OKeefe was romantically involved with a man called Clay Bertrand. Garrisons staff also test the single bullet theory by aiming an empty rifle from the window through which Oswald was alleged to have shot Kennedy and they conclude that Oswald was too poor a marksman to make the shots, indicating someone else, or multiple marksmen, were involved. In 1968, Garrison meets a figure in Washington D. C. who identifies himself as X. X explains that the President was killed because he wanted to pull the United States out of the Vietnam War, X encourages Garrison to keep digging and prosecute New Orleans-based international businessman Clay Shaw for his alleged involvement. Upon interrogating Shaw, the businessman denies any knowledge of meeting Ferrie, OKeefe or Oswald, some of Garrisons staff begin to doubt his motives and disagree with his methods, and leave the investigation. Garrisons marriage is strained when his wife Liz complains that he is spending time on the case than with his own family. After a sinister phone call is made to their daughter, Liz accuses Garrison of being selfish, in addition, the media launches attacks on television and in newspapers attacking Garrisons character and criticizing the way his office is spending taxpayers money. Some key witnesses become scared and refuse to testify while others, before his death, Ferrie tells Garrison that he believes people are after him, and reveals there was a conspiracy around Kennedys deathJFK (film) – Theatrical release poster
26. United States presidential election, 1960 – The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8,1960. The Republican Party nominated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, while the Democratic Party nominated John F. Kennedy, the incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. This was the first presidential election in which voters in Alaska and Hawaii were able to participate, Kennedy received 112,827 more votes than Nixon nationwide and although Nixon won the popular vote contest in more individual states, Kennedy won a 303 to 219 Electoral College victory. The 1960 presidential election was the closest election since 1916, which can be explained by a number of factors. Kennedy benefited from the recession of 1957–58, which hurt the standing of the incumbent Republican Party. Furthermore, the new votes that Kennedy, the first Roman Catholic president, Kennedys campaigning skills decisively outmatched Nixons. In the end, Nixons emphasis on his experience carried little weight, Kennedy used his large, well-funded campaign organization to win the nomination, secure endorsements, and, with the aid of the last of the big-city bosses, get out the vote in the big cities. Kennedy relied on running mate Lyndon B. Johnson to hold the South, following the election, Nixon unsuccessfully ran for governor of California in 1962, before making a successful campaign for the presidency in 1968, winning re-election by a landslide in 1972. He was later the first United States President to resign, following the Watergate Scandal and this election also features the last time the state of Ohio was on the losing end of the presidential election. From 1964 onward, the candidate who won Ohio won the election nationwide, several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as favorite son candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington, Stevenson, and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries, realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him seriously, Kennedy stated frankly, Im not running for vice-president, Im running for president. The next step was the primaries, Kennedys Roman Catholic religion was an issue. Kennedy first challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey in the Wisconsin primary, Kennedys attractive sisters, brothers, and wife Jacqueline combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he felt like an independent merchant competing against a chain store. The first televised debate of 1960 was held in West Virginia, humphreys campaign was low on funds and could not compete for advertising and other get-out-the-vote drives with Kennedys well-financed and well-organized campaign. In the end, Kennedy defeated Humphrey with over 60% of the vote, West Virginia showed that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a heavily Protestant state. Although Kennedy had only competed in nine primaries, Kennedys rivals, Johnson and Symington. Following the primaries, Kennedy traveled around the nation speaking to state delegations, as the Democratic Convention opened, Kennedy was far in the lead, but was still seen as being just short of the delegate total he needed to win. The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in Los Angeles, California, in the week before the convention opened, Kennedy received two new challengers when Lyndon BUnited States presidential election, 1960 – All 537 electoral votes of the Electoral College 269 electoral votes needed to win
27. John Perry Barlow – John Perry Barlow is an American poet and essayist, a retired Wyoming cattle rancher, and a cyberlibertarian political activist who has been associated with both the Democratic and Republican parties. He is also a former lyricist for the Grateful Dead and a member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. He is Fellow Emeritus at Harvard Universitys Berkman Center for Internet and Society and he has been identified by Time magazine as one of the School of Rock,10 Supersmart Musicians. John Perry Barlow was born in Sublette County, Wyoming, to parents Norman Barlow, a Republican state legislator, and his wife, Miriam. He grew up on the 22, 000-acre Bar Cross Ranch near Pinedale, Wyoming that was founded by his uncle in 1907. At age 15, he became a student at the Fountain Valley School in Colorado, Barlow met Bob Weir there, who would later join the music group the Grateful Dead. Weir and Barlow maintained contact throughout the years, as a frequent visitor to Timothy Learys facility in Millbrook, New York, Barlow introduced the musical group to Leary in 1967. In 1969, Barlow graduated with honors in comparative religion from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. While on his way to California to reunite with the Grateful Dead in 1971, he stopped at his familys ranch, not intending to stay. He ended up changing his plans and began practicing animal husbandry in Cora, Wyoming, at the Bar Cross Land and Livestock Company for almost two decades before selling the business in 1988. In the meantime, Barlow was still able to play an role in the Grateful Dead while recruiting many unconventional part-time ranch hands from the mainstream as well as the counterculture. John Byrne Cooke is currently producing a film that documents this era, the seeds of the Barlow–Weir collaboration were sown at a Grateful Dead show at the Capitol Theater in Port Chester, New York, in February 1971. Until then, Weir had mostly worked with resident Dead lyricist Robert Hunter, Hunter preferred that those who sang his songs stick to his canonical lyrics rather than improvising additions or rearranging words. A feud erupted backstage over a couplet in Sugar Magnolia from the bands most recent release, culminating in a disgruntled Hunter summoning Barlow and telling him take —hes yours. In the fall of 1971, with a deal for an album in hand. Barlow also collaborated with Grateful Dead keyboardists Brent Mydland and Vince Welnick, in 1986, Barlow joined The WELL online community, then known for a strong Deadhead presence. He served on the board of directors for several years. In 1990, Barlow founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation along with fellow digital-rights activists John Gilmore, as a founder of EFF, Barlow helped publicize the Secret Service raid on Steve Jackson GamesJohn Perry Barlow – Barlow at his California home in December 2010
28. Eunice Kennedy Shriver – Dame Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver, DSG was a member of the Kennedy family, she was the sister of President John F. Kennedy and senators Robert F. Kennedy and Ted Kennedy. Her husband, Sargent Shriver, was the United States Ambassador to France during the Lyndon Johnson presidency, in 1962, she founded Camp Shriver, which started on her Maryland farm known as Timberlawn, and evolved into the Special Olympics in 1968. Eunice Mary Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, she was the fifth of nine children of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and she was educated at the Convent of The Sacred Heart, Roehampton, London and at Manhattanville College in Upper Manhattan. After graduating from Stanford University with a Bachelor of Science degree in sociology in 1943 and she eventually moved to the U. S. Justice Department as executive secretary for a project dealing with juvenile delinquency. In 1969, Shriver moved to France and pursued her interest in intellectual disability there, Shriver actively campaigned for her elder brother, John, during his successful 1960 U. S. presidential election. Although Shriver was a Democrat, she was a supporter of the pro-life movement. In 1990, Shriver wrote a letter to The New York Times denouncing the misuse of a quotation by President Kennedy used out of context by a pro-choice group. During Bill Clintons 1992 Democratic U. S. presidential campaign, casey of Pennsylvania, and Bishop Austin Vaughan of New York – who signed a letter to The New York Times protesting the Democratic Partys pro-choice plank in its platform. Shriver was a supporter of several organizations, Feminists for Life of America. Anthony List, and Democrats for Life of America, a lifelong Democrat, she supported her Republican son-in-law Arnold Schwarzeneggers successful 2003 Governor of California election. On January 28,2008, Shriver was present at American University in Washington, D. C. when her brother, senator Edward M. Kennedy, announced his endorsement of Barack Obamas 2008 Democratic U. S. presidential campaign. She has also helped to establish numerous other university programs, government initiatives, health-care facilities, in 1982, Shriver founded the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Center for Community of Caring at University of Utah, Salt Lake City. The Community is a grades K-12, whole school, comprehensive character education program with a focus on disabilities, adopted by almost 1,200 schools nationwide and in Canada. She was awarded the nations highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 1984 by U. S. President Ronald Reagan, in 1990 Shriver was awarded the Eagle Award from the United States Sports Academy. The Eagle Award is the Academys highest international honor and was awarded to Shriver for her significant contributions to international sport, in 1992, Shriver received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. For her work in nationalizing the Special Olympics, Shriver received the Civitan International World Citizenship Award and her advocacy on this issue has also earned her other awards and recognitions, including honorary degrees from numerous universities. She is the second American and only woman to appear on a US coin while still living and her portrait is on the obverse of the 1995 commemorative silver dollar honoring the Special Olympics. On the reverse is the quotation, As we hope for the best in them, in addition to the Teddy recognition, she was selected in 2006 as part of the NCAA Centennial celebration as one of the 100 most-influential individuals in its first century, she was listed ninthEunice Kennedy Shriver – Dame Eunice Kennedy Shriver DSG
29. Leonard Bernstein – Leonard Bernstein was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the US to receive worldwide acclaim, according to music critic Donal Henahan, he was one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history. Bernstein was the first conductor to give a series of lectures on classical music, starting in 1954. He was a skilled pianist, often conducting piano concertos from the keyboard, as a composer he wrote in many styles encompassing symphonic and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre music, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces for the piano. Many of his works are performed around the world, although none has matched the tremendous popular. He was born Louis Bernstein in Lawrence, Massachusetts, the son of Ukrainian-Jewish parents Jennie and Samuel Joseph Bernstein and he was not related to film composer Elmer Bernstein, but the two men were friends, and even shared a certain physical similarity. Within the world of music, they were distinguished from each other by the use of the nicknames Bernstein West. His family spent their summers at their home in Sharon. His grandmother insisted that his first name be Louis, but his parents called him Leonard. He officially changed his name to Leonard when he was fifteen, to his friends and many others he was simply known as Lenny. His father, Sam Bernstein, was a businessman and owner of a hair product store in downtown Lawrence, it is no longer standing on the corners of Amesbury, Sam initially opposed young Leonards interest in music. Despite this, the elder Bernstein took him to concerts in his teenage years. As a child, Bernstein attended the Garrison Grammar School and Boston Latin School, as a child he was very close to his younger sister Shirley, and would often play entire operas or Beethoven symphonies with her at the piano. He had a variety of teachers in his youth, including Helen Coates. After graduation from Boston Latin School in 1935, Bernstein attended Harvard University, one of his friends at Harvard was philosopher Donald Davidson, with whom he played piano four hands. Bernstein wrote and conducted the score for the production Davidson mounted of Aristophanes play The Birds in the original Greek. Bernstein reused some of this music in the ballet Fancy Free, during his time at Harvard he was briefly an accompanist for the Harvard Glee Club. Bernstein also mounted a student production of The Cradle Will Rock, Blitzstein, who heard about the production, subsequently became a friend and influence on BernsteinLeonard Bernstein – Leonard Bernstein
30. John B. Anderson – John Bayard Anderson is a former United States Congressman and Presidential candidate from Illinois. Representative from the 16th Congressional District of Illinois for ten terms, Anderson was a Republican but ran as an independent candidate in the 1980 presidential election. He has been a political leader, including serving 12 years as chair of the board of FairVote. Anderson was born in Rockford, Illinois, where he grew up and his father was a Swedish immigrant, as were his maternal grandparents. In his youth, he worked in his familys grocery store and he graduated as the valedictorian of his class at Rockford Central High School. He graduated from the University of Illinois in 1939, and started law school, but his education was interrupted by World War II. He enlisted in the Army in 1943, and served as a sergeant in the U. S. Field Artillery in France and Germany until the end of the war. After the war, Anderson returned to complete his education, eventually earning a Juris Doctor from the University of Illinois College of Law in 1946 and he was admitted to the Illinois bar the same year, and practiced law in Rockford. Soon after, Anderson moved east to attend Harvard Law School, while at Harvard, he served on the faculty of Northeastern University School of Law in Boston. In another brief return to Rockford, Anderson practiced at the law firm Large, thereafter, Anderson joined the Foreign Service. From 1952 to 1955, he served in Berlin as the Economic Reporting Officer in the Eastern Affairs Division, at the end of his tour, he left the foreign service and once again returned to the practice of law in Rockford. Soon after his return, Anderson was approached about running for public office, after serving for one term, he was ready to leave that office when the local congressman, 28-year incumbent Leo E. Allen, announced his retirement. Anderson joined the Republican primary for Allens 16th District seat—the real contest in this then-solidly Republican district—with four other contenders and he won first the primary in April and then the general election in November. He served in the United States House of Representatives for ten terms, initially, Anderson was among the most conservative members of the Republican caucus. Three times in his terms as a Congressman, Anderson introduced a constitutional amendment to attempt to recognize the law. The bills died quietly, but came back to haunt Anderson in his presidential candidacy, as he continued to serve, the atmosphere of the 1960s weighed on Anderson and he began to re-think some of his beliefs. By the late 1960s, Andersons positions on social issues shifted to the left, at the same time, he was held in high esteem by his colleagues in the House. In 1964, he won appointment to a seat on the powerful Rules Committee, in 1969, he became Chairman of the House Republican Conference, the number three position in the House Republican hierarchy in what was the minority partyJohn B. Anderson – 1980 photo
31. The Flintstones – The Flintstones is an American animated sitcom produced by Hanna-Barbera for ABC. The series takes place in a romanticized Stone Age setting, depicts the lives of the characters, their next-door neighbors and best friends. It was originally broadcast from September 30,1960, to April 1,1966 in a time schedule. The continuing popularity of The Flintstones rested heavily on its juxtaposition of modern concerns in the Stone Age setting. The Flintstones was the most financially successful network animated franchise for three decades, until The Simpsons debuted decades later, in 2013, TV Guide ranked The Flintstones the second Greatest TV Cartoon of All Time. The show is set in the Stone Age town of Bedrock, in this fantasy version of the past, dinosaurs and other long-extinct animals co-exist with cavemen, saber-toothed cats, and woolly mammoths. For example, the cars are made out of stone, wood, and animal skins, animation historian Christopher P. Lehman considers that the series draws its humor in part from creative uses of anachronisms. The main one is the placing of a modern, 20th-century society in prehistory and this society takes inspiration from the suburban sprawl developed in the first two decades of the postwar period. This society has modern home appliances, but they work by employing animals and they have automobiles, but they hardly resemble the cars of the 20th century. These cars are wooden structures and burn no fuel. They are powered by people who run while inside them, finally, the stone houses of this society are cookie-cutter homes positioned into typical neighborhoods. As a running gag, often the prehistoric analog to a modern machine uses an animal, for example, when a character takes photographs with an instant camera, inside the camera box, a bird carves the picture on a stone tablet with its beak. The animal powering such technology would frequently break the wall, look directly into the camera at the audience. The Stone Age setting allowed for gags and word plays involving rocks, for example, San Antonio becomes Sand-and-Stony-o, the country to the south of Bedrocks land is called Mexirock. Travel to Hollyrock, a parody of Hollywood, usually involves an airplane flight — the plane, in case, is often shown as a giant pterosaur. Sun Valley becomes Stone Valley and is run by Conrad Hailstone, once, while visiting one of Bedrocks houses of Haute Couture with Wilma, Betty even commented on the new Jackie Kennerock look. In some cases, the celebrity featured also provided the voice, Samantha and Darrin from Bewitched were voiced by Elizabeth Montgomery, examples from the above list include Ann-Margret, Curtis, Darren, and the Beau Brummels. Other celebrities, such as Ed Sulleystone and Alvin Brickrock, were rendered by impersonators, ace reporter Daisy Kilgranite was a friend of WilmaThe Flintstones – Title card featuring Fred Flintstone
32. Cape Canaveral – Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the states Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island and it was discovered by the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1513. It is part of a known as the Space Coast. Since many U. S. spacecraft have been launched both the station and the Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island, the two are sometimes conflated with each other. In homage to its heritage, the Florida Public Service Commission allocated area code 321 to the Cape Canaveral area. Other features of the include the Cape Canaveral lighthouse and Port Canaveral. The city of Cape Canaveral lies just south of the Port Canaveral District, mosquito Lagoon, the Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are also features of this area. Humans have occupied the area for at least 12,000 years, during the middle Archaic period, from 5000 BC to 2000 BC, the Mount Taylor period culture region covered northeast Florida, including the area around Cape Canaveral. Late in the Archaic period, from 2000 BC to 500 BC, the Mount Taylor culture was succeeded by the Orange culture, the Orange culture was followed by the St. Johns culture, from 500 BC until after European contact. The area around the Indian River was in the Indian River variant of the St. Johns culture, the Surruque were allied with the Ais, but it is not clear whether the Surruque spoke a Timucua language, or a language related to the Ais language. In the early 16th century Cape Canaveral was noted on maps and it was named by Spanish explorers in the first half of the 16th century as Cabo Cañareal. The name Canaveral is the third oldest surviving European place name in the US, the first application of the name, according to the Smithsonian Institution, was from the 1521–1525 explorations of Spanish explorer Francisco Gordillo. A point of land jutting out into an area of the Atlantic Ocean with swift currents, an early alternative name was Cape of Currents. By at least 1564, the name appeared on maps, english privateer John Hawkins and his journalist John Sparke gave an account of their landing at Cape Canaveral in the 16th century. A Presbyterian missionary was wrecked here and lived among the Indians, other histories tell of French survivors from Jean Ribaults colony at Fort Caroline, whose ship the Trinité wrecked on the shores of Cape Canaveral in 1565, and built a fort from its timbers. In December 1571 Pedro Menéndez was wrecked off the Coast of Cape Canaveral, from 1605 to 1606, the Spanish Governor of Florida Pedro de Ibarra sent Alvaro Mexia on a diplomatic mission to the Ais Indian nation. The mission was a success, diplomatic ties were made and an agreement for the Ais to receive ransoms for all the sailors they returned. The first Cape Canaveral Lighthouse was built and completed in January 1848 to warn ships of the shoals off the coastCape Canaveral – Cape Canaveral from space. August 7, 1991
33. Quantum Leap – Quantum Leap is an American science-fiction television series that originally aired on NBC for five seasons, from March 1989 through May 1993. Dean Stockwell co-stars as Admiral Al Calavicci, Sams womanizing, cigar-smoking companion and best friend, the series features a mix of humor, drama, romance, social commentary, and science fiction, and was named one of TV Guides Top Cult Shows Ever. Quantum Leap follows the narrative of Dr, when Sam gains consciousness, he finds himself suffering from partial amnesia, and is more surprised to find that his appearance to others, including what he sees in the mirror, is not his own face. He finds that Al has come to his aid as a hologram that only Sam can see and hear, as it is tuned to his brainwaves. Al, working with the artificial intelligence Ziggy, determines that Sam must alter an event in the current period he is in so as to re-engage the Quantum Leap process. Al helps Sam overcome some facets of his Swiss-cheese memory and provides information on history as it originally happened and he also updates Sam on future events and relates possible outcome probabilities using a handheld communication device in contact with Ziggy. The device is often temperamental and must be struck a few times as it emits electronic beeping and whirring sounds before the information is revealed. With Al and Ziggys help, Sam is able to change history and then leaps out. An episode typically ends as a showing the first few moments of Sams next leap. When Sam leaps, his body is present in the past. In one case, after leaping into a Vietnam veteran who has lost both legs, Sam is still able to walk normally, but appears to others as if he is floating, Sams body and mind may become jumbled with those into whom he has leaped. Kennedy, despite knowing that it is the thing to do. In most of Sams leaps, the changes he makes are small on the scale, such as saving the life of a person who might otherwise have died. Selected episodes, however, demonstrate more dramatic effects of his time travels. In one episode, Sams actions ultimately lead to Als death prior to the project, and Sam finds himself suddenly aided by a new hologram, Edward St. John V, and must work to prevent Als death. Henry Heimlich the idea for his namesake maneuver by saving him from choking, two notable episodes place Sam directly at the center of significant historical events, one being the leap into Oswald. In Goodbye Norma Jean, Sam appears as Marilyn Monroes bodyguard, other episodes explore the past of the main characters, such as Sam saving his brother from being killed in the Vietnam War, and saving Als marriage to Beth. In the final episode, Mirror Image, Sam leaps through spacetime as himself, arriving at the time of his birthQuantum Leap – Quantum Leap
34. Maria Callas – Maria Callas, Commendatore OMRI, was a Greek-American soprano, and one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century. Many critics praised her bel canto technique, wide-ranging voice and dramatic interpretations and her musical and dramatic talents led to her being hailed as La Divina. Born in New York City and raised by a mother, she received her musical education in Greece. Forced to deal with the exigencies of wartime poverty and with myopia that left her nearly blind onstage, she endured struggles and scandal over the course of her career. She turned herself from a woman into a svelte and glamorous one after a mid-career weight loss, which might have contributed to her vocal decline. The press exulted in publicizing Callass temperamental behavior, her rivalry with Renata Tebaldi. Callass father had shortened the surname Kalogeropoulos first to Kalos and subsequently to Callas in order to make it more manageable, If you marry this man, I will never be able to help you. Evangelia had ignored his warning, but soon realized that her father was right, the situation was aggravated by Georges philandering and was improved neither by the birth of a daughter, named Yakinthi, in 1917 nor the birth of a son, named Vassilis, in 1920. Vassiliss death from meningitis in the summer of 1922 dealt another blow to the marriage, the family left for New York in July 1923, moving first into an apartment in Astoria, Queens. Evangelia was convinced that her child would be a boy. Maria was christened three years later at the Archdiocesan Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in 1926, when Maria was 4, George Callas opened his own pharmacy, settling the family in Manhattan on 192nd Street in Washington Heights where Callas grew up. Around the age of three, Marias musical talent began to manifest itself, and after Evangelia discovered that her youngest daughter also had a voice, Callas later recalled, I was made to sing when I was only five, and I hated it. George was unhappy with his wife favoring their elder daughter, as well as the put upon young Mary to sing. The marriage continued to deteriorate and in 1937 Evangelia decided to return to Athens with her two daughters, I was the ugly duckling, fat and clumsy and unpopular. It is a thing to make a child feel ugly. Ill never forgive her for taking my childhood away, during all the years I should have been playing and growing up, I was singing or making money. Everything I did for them was good and everything they did to me was mostly bad. In 1957, she told Norman Ross, Children should have a wonderful childhood, I have not had it – I wish I hadMaria Callas – Maria Callas as Violetta in La traviata, 1958
35. Jessica Lange – Jessica Phyllis Lange is an American actress who has received worldwide acclaim for her work in film, theater, and television. In 2016, Lange became the twenty-second thespian in history to achieve the Triple Crown of Acting, Lange was discovered by producer Dino De Laurentiis while modeling part-time for the Wilhelmina modelling agency. She made her film debut in his 1976 remake of the 1933 action-adventure classic King Kong, for which she won her first Golden Globe Award. In 2010, she won her first Primetime Emmy Award for her portrayal of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis famed aunt, Big Edie, in addition to acting, Lange is a photographer with three published works. She has also been a parent and currently holds a Goodwill Ambassador position for UNICEF, specializing in HIV/AIDS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Lange was born in Cloquet, Minnesota, on April 20,1949 and her father, Albert John Lange, was a teacher and traveling salesman, and her mother, Dorothy Florence, was a housewife. She has two sisters, Ann and Jane, and a younger brother, George. Her paternal ancestry originates in Germany and the Netherlands, while her maternal ancestry originates in Finland, due to the nature of her fathers professions, her early home life was chaotic. Her family moved over a dozen times to various towns and cities in Minnesota before settling back down in her hometown, in 1967, she received an art scholarship to study art and photography at the University of Minnesota, where she met and began dating Spanish photographer Paco Grande. After the two married in 1971, Lange left college to pursue a bohemian lifestyle, opting to travel throughout the United States. The couple then moved to Paris, where they drifted apart, while in Paris, Lange studied mime theatre under the supervision of Étienne Decroux, and joined the Opéra-Comique as a dancer. While sharing an apartment with Jerry Hall and Grace Jones, she was discovered by fashion illustrator Antonio Lopez, in 1973, she returned to the States and began work in New York City as a waitress at the Lions Head Tavern in Greenwich Village. While modelling, Lange was discovered by Hollywood producer Dino De Laurentiis, who was looking to cast his next leading lady, Lange made her professional film debut in 1976s King Kong, beating out actresses Meryl Streep and Goldie Hawn for the role of damsel in distress. However, renowned film critic Pauline Kael praised her, noting, Lange went on to win the 1976 Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year. She would remain a favorite of Kaels, who would comment, She has a facial structure that the camera yearns for. A year later, she was contacted by director Bob Rafelson regarding a project on which he was working with Jack Nicholson, after his meeting with Lange, he wrote her name down on a piece of paper, placed it in an envelope, and sealed it. After several meetings and auditions with other actresses, the choice was between Lange and Meryl Streep. In the end, Rafelson offered Lange the lead role opposite Nicholson in his remake of the film noirJessica Lange – Lange at the 66th Primetime Emmy Awards
36. Warren Commission – Its 888-page final report was presented to President Johnson on September 24,1964 and made public three days later. It concluded that President Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald and it also concluded that Jack Ruby also acted alone when he killed Oswald two days later. The Commissions findings have proven controversial and have been challenged and supported by later studies. The Commission took its unofficial name—the Warren Commission—from its chairman, Chief Justice Earl Warren, one of their chief reservations was that a commission would ultimately create more controversy than consensus. Nicholas Katzenbach has been credited with providing advice after the assassination of John F. Kennedy that led to the creation of the Warren Commission, on November 28 he sent a memo to Johnsons White House aide Bill Moyers recommending the formation of a Presidential Commission to investigate the assassination. To combat speculation of a conspiracy, Katzenbach said that the results of the FBIs investigation should be made public and he wrote, in part, The public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin, that he did not have confederates who are still at large. Four days after Katzenbachs memo, Johnson appointed some of the nations most prominent figures, including the Chief Justice of the United States, to the Commission. The Warren Commission met formally for the first time on December 5,1963 on the floor of the National Archives Building in Washington. The Commission conducted its business primarily in closed sessions, but these were not secret sessions, two misconceptions about the Warren Commission hearing need to be clarified. hearings were closed to the public unless the witness appearing before the Commission requested an open hearing. No witness except one. requested an open hearing, second, although the hearings were conducted in private, they were not secret. In a secret hearing, the witness is instructed not to disclose his testimony to any party. He then asked, Now why, if JFK had been assassinated and the country, the obvious answer is that it knew its work could not survive any critical examination. Committee Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States Richard Russell, Jr. U. S. Senator, John Sherman Cooper, the specific findings prompted the Secret Service to make numerous modifications to its security procedures. All of the records were then transferred on November 23 to the National Archives. ”The 75-year rule no longer exists, supplanted by the Freedom of Information Act of 1966. By 1992,98 percent of the Warren Commission records had released to the public. The remaining Kennedy assassination related documents are scheduled to be released to the public by October 26,2017, the CIA was also covering up evidence that the CIA may have been in communication with Oswald before 1963, according to the CIA findings. Also withheld were earlier CIA plots, involving CIA links with the Mafia, to assassinate Cuban president Fidel Castro, in 1992, the Assassination Records Review Board was created by the JFK Records Act to collect and preserve the documents relating to the assassination. It pointed out in its report, Doubts about the Warren Commissions findings were not restricted to ordinary AmericansWarren Commission – Final report cover
37. Lucy Hayes – Lucy Ware Webb Hayes was a First Lady of the United States and the wife of President Rutherford B. Lucy Hayes was the first First Lady to have a college degree and she was also a more egalitarian hostess than previous First Ladies. An advocate for African-Americans both before and after the Civil War, Lucy invited the first African-American professional musician to appear at the White House and she was a Past Grand of Lincoln Rebekah Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, together with her husband, President Rutherford Hayes. Lucy Webb Hayes was born on August 28,1831 in Chillicothe and her parents were Dr. James Webb and Maria Cook. She had two brothers who both became medical doctors. In 1833, Lucys father went to his familys home in Lexington, there was a cholera epidemic happening at the time and James cared for the sick. Soon James became infected with cholera himself and died, friends of Lucys mother advised the family to sell the slaves rather than free them. Maria responded that she would take in washing to earn money before she would sell a slave, marias father, Isaac Cook, was a temperance advocate and he encouraged young Lucy to sign a pledge to abstain from alcohol. In 1844, the Webb family moved to Delaware, Ohio, lucy’s brothers enrolled at Ohio Wesleyan University and although women were not allowed to study at Wesleyan, Lucy was permitted to enroll in the college prep program at the university. A term report signed by the vice-president of Ohio Wesleyan in 1845 noted that her conduct was unexceptionable, several months later Lucy transferred to Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College and she graduated from there in 1850. Lucy was unusually well educated for a lady of her day. While in college, Lucy wrote essays on social and religious issues, One essay was entitled Is Traveling on the Sabbath Consistent with Christian Principles. At her commencement, she read an essay, The Influence of Christianity on National Prosperity. Lucy first met Rutherford B. Hayes at Ohio Wesleyan University, at the time, Lucy was fourteen years old and Rutherford was twenty-three. Rutherfords mother was hopeful that the two would find a connection, but at this point Rutherford considered Lucy not quite old enough to fall in love with, in 1850, Rutherfords older sister Fanny Platt encouraged him to visit with Lucy again. That summer Lucy and Rutherford were members of the wedding party. Rutherford was so taken with Lucy that he gave her the prize that he had found in the wedding cake, in 1851, Rutherford wrote in his diary, I guess I am a great deal in love with L…. Her low sweet voice…her soft rich eyes. Rutherford also praised her intelligence and character, She sees at a glance what others study upon and she is a genuine woman, right from instinct and impulse rather than judgment and reflectionLucy Hayes – Lucy Hayes
38. Larry Flynt – Larry Claxton Flynt, Jr. is an American publisher and the president of Larry Flynt Publications. LFP mainly produces sexually graphic videos and magazines, most notably Hustler, Flynt has fought several prominent legal battles involving the First Amendment, and has unsuccessfully run for public office. He is paralyzed from the waist down due to injuries sustained in a 1978 murder attempt by Joseph Paul Franklin, in 2003, Arena magazine listed him at No.1 on the 50 Powerful People in Porn list. He had two siblings, sister Judy and brother Jimmy Ray Flynt. His father served in the United States Army in the European Theatre of World War II, due to his fathers absence, Flynt was raised solely by his mother and maternal grandmother for the first three years of his life. Flynt was raised in poverty, and claimed Magoffin County was the poorest county in the nation during the Great Depression, in 1951, Flynts sister, Judy, died due to leukemia at age four. The death provoked his parents one year later, Flynt was raised by his mother in Hamlet, Indiana. Two years later, Flynt returned to live in Magoffin County with his father because he disliked his mothers new boyfriend, Flynt attended Salyersville High School in the ninth grade. However, he ran away home and, despite being only 15 years old. It was around this time that he developed a passion for the game of poker, after being honorably discharged, Flynt returned to his mother in Indiana and found employment at the Inland Manufacturing Company, an affiliate of General Motors. However, there was a slowdown and he was laid off after only three months. He then returned to his father in Kentucky, for a brief period, he became a bootlegger but stopped when he learned that county deputies were searching for him. After living on his savings for two months, he enlisted in the United States Navy in July 1960 and he became a radar operator on USS Enterprise. He was the operator on duty when the ship was assigned to recover John Glenns space capsule and he was honorably discharged in July 1964. In early 1965, Flynt took $1,800 from his savings and bought his mothers Dayton, Ohio bar and he refitted it and was soon making $1,000 a week, he used the profits to buy two other bars. He worked as many as 20 hours a day, taking amphetamines to stay awake and he frequently had to break up fistfights between drunken customers. Flynt decided to open a new, higher-class bar, which would also be the first in the area to feature nude hostess dancers, he named it the Hustler Club. From 1968 onward, with the help of his brother Jimmy and later his girlfriend Althea Leasure, he opened Hustler Clubs in Akron, Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, soon each club grossed between $260,000 and $520,000 a yearLarry Flynt – Larry Flynt attending the " Free Speech Coalition Awards Annual Bash Event" – Los Angeles, CA on November 14, 2009
39. Newport, Rhode Island – Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. The City of Newport is located approximately 37 miles southeast of Providence,21 miles south of Fall River and it is known as a New England summer resort and famous for its mansions. It was a major 18th-century port city and also contains a number of surviving buildings from the colonial era of the United States. The city is the county seat of Newport County and it was known for being the city of some of the Summer White Houses during the administrations of Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy. The population was 24,027 as of 2013 and its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, and Henry Bull. They left Portsmouth, Rhode Island after a fallout with Anne Hutchinson. As part of the agreement, Coddington and his followers took control of the side of the island. They were soon joined by Nicholas Easton, who had recently expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for holding heretical beliefs. The settlement grew to be the largest of the four settlements of Rhode Island. Many of the first colonists in Newport became Baptists, and the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed in 1640 under the leadership of John Clarke, peace did not last long in Newport, as many did not like Coddingtons autocratic style. As a result, a counter-faction was formed by 1650, led by Nicholas Easton, Newport became the most important port in colonial Rhode Island, and a public school was established in 1640. In 1658, a group of Jews were allowed to settle in Newport who were fleeing the Inquisition in Spain, the Newport congregation is now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel and is the second-oldest Jewish congregation in the United States. It meets in Touro Synagogue, the oldest standing synagogue in the United States, in 1663, the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations received its Royal Charter, and Benedict Arnold was elected its first Governor at Newport. The commercial activity which raised Newport to its fame as a port was begun by a second wave of Portuguese Jews who settled there about the middle of the 18th century. They brought with them experience and connections, capital. Most prominent among those were Jacob Rodrigues Rivera who arrived in 1745, Rivera introduced into America the manufacture of sperm oil, which became one of the leading industries and made Newport rich. Newports inhabitants who were engaged in whaling developed 17 manufactories of oil and candles, Aaron Lopez fled to Newport from Lisbon in 1752 and is credited with making Newport an important center of trade. To him in a degree than to any one else was due the rapid commercial development which made Newport for a quarter of a century afterward the most formidable rival of New YorkNewport, Rhode Island – Newport, Rhode Island aerial view
40. Palm Beach County, Florida – Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida, directly north of Broward County. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,320,134, the largest city and county seat is West Palm Beach. Named after one of its oldest settlements, Palm Beach, the county was established in 1909, the countys modern-day boundaries were established in 1963. Palm Beach County is one of the three counties in South Florida and is part of the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. In 1928, the Okeechobee hurricane struck West Palm Beach and caused thousands of deaths, since then, a number of other tropical cyclones have impacted the area. More recently, the county acquired national attention during the 2000 presidential election, as of 2004, Palm Beach County is Floridas wealthiest county, with a per capita personal income of $44,518. It leads the state in agricultural productivity, agriculture is Palm Beach Countys 2nd largest industry, approximately 10,200 years ago, Native Americans began migrating into Florida. The tribes settling in modern-day Palm Beach County included the Ais, Calusas, Jaegas, Mayaimis, an estimated 20,000 Native Americans lived in South Florida when the Spanish arrived. Their population diminished significantly by the 18th century, due to warfare, enslavement, and diseases from Europe. In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, who led a European expedition to Florida earlier that year, became the first non-Native American to reach Palm Beach County, after landing in the modern day Jupiter area. Runaway African slaves started coming to what was then Spanish Florida in the late 17th century, during the Seminole Wars, these African-American slaves fought with the Seminoles against White settlers and bounty hunters. Portions of the Second Seminole War occurred in Palm Beach County, the oldest surviving structure, the Jupiter Lighthouse, was built in 1860, after receiving authorization to the land from President Franklin Pierce in 1854. During the American Civil War, Florida was a member of the Confederate States of America, to aid the cause of their state, Augustus O. Lang and James Paine removed the lighting mechanism, dimming the lighthouse and assisting their blockade runners. Lang was also the first white settler in Palm Beach County and he built a palmetto shack along the eastern shore of Lake Worth in 1863 after abandoning the cause of the Confederacy. After the Civil War ended, the Jupiter Lighthouse was re-lit in 1866, thirteen years later, a National Weather Service office was established at the lighthouse complex. However, the office was moved to Miami after that citys population began to rapidly grow, in October 1873, a hurricane caused a shipwreck between Biscayne Bay and the New River. The crew survived, but nearly died due to starvation because of the desolation of the area. An Act of Congress on June 20,1874, resulted in the establishment of five houses of Houses of Refuge along the east coast of Florida from the Fort Pierce Inlet southward to Biscayne BayPalm Beach County, Florida – Palm Beach County