1. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, notable author of Latin prose. Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. He became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome. Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, he began a programme of governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. The era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. He is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section.Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
2. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
3. Alps – The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 m, known as the "four-thousanders". The size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. The Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. In World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, German Alps. At present the region has 120 million annual visitors. The English Alps derives from the Latin Alpes. An ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts.Alps – Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in the Alps, view from the Savoy side
4. April – And it is the spring in the northern hemisphere and autumn in the southern hemisphere. The derivation of this name is uncertain. Jacob Grimm suggests the name of a hypothetical god or hero, Aprus. April was the second month of the earliest Roman calendar, before Ianuarius and Februarius were added by King Numa Pompilius about 700 BC. It became the fourth month of the year during the time of the decemvirs about 450 BC, when it also was given 29 days. The 30th day was added during the reform of the calendar undertaken by Julius Caesar in the mid-40s BC, which produced the Julian calendar. The Anglo-Saxons called April ēastre-monaþ. The Venerable Bede says in The Reckoning of Time that this ēastre is the root of the word Easter. He further states that the month was named after a Eostre whose feast was in that month. It is also attested in his work, Vita Karoli Magni. In Finnish April is huhtikuu, meaning slash-and-burn moon, when gymnosperms for beat and burn clearing of farmland were felled. In Slovene, the most established traditional name is mali traven, meaning the month when plants start growing. It was first written in the Škofja Loka manuscript.' Exact dates are uncertain. Feriae Latinae was also held with the date varying.April – April from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry
5. August – August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the fifth month to have the length of 31 days. In the Southern Hemisphere, August is the seasonal equivalent of February in the Northern Hemisphere. In European countries, August is the holiday month for most workers. Certain meteor showers take place in August. A major meteor shower, typically takes place between July 17 - August 24, with the days of the peak varying yearly. The cluster of Messier 30 is best observed around August. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 45 BC giving its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC it was renamed in honor of Augustus. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. August is the month with highest rate in the United States. August's birthstones are the sardonyx. Its flower is the gladiolus or poppy, meaning beauty, strength of character, love, marriage and family. The zodiac signs for the month of August are Leo and Virgo. This list does not necessarily imply general observance. Ferragosto Māras Mother's Day National Acadian Day Virgin of patron of the Canary Islands.August – Depiction of harvesting in the August calendar page of the Queen Mary Psalter (fol. 78v), ca. 1310.
6. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
7. Alemanni – The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine river. In 496, the Alemanni were incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were gradually Christianized during the 7th century. The Pactus Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the 8th century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was mostly nominal. But after an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed installed Frankish dukes. Their name has survived into modern times, as in the French word for its Turkish counterpart, "Almanya". According to Asinius Quadratus their name means "all men". It indicates that they were a conglomeration drawn from Germanic tribes. Other sources say the alemannen derives from alahmannen which means "men of sanctuary" and not "all men" and other very old Urgermanic wisdom. The Greeks called them as such mentioned. This etymology has remained the standard derivation of the term. The German language in several languages is derived from the name of this early Germanic tribal alliance. For details, see Names of Germany. The Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213.Alemanni – Alemannic belt mountings, from a 7th-century grave in the grave field at Weingarten.
8. Aeneas – In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus. His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturlason identifies him with the Norse Æsir Vidarr. Aeneas is the Latin spelling of Greek Αἰνείας. It is a popular etymology for the name, apparently exploited by Homer in the Iliad. Later in the Medieval period there were writers who held that, because the Aeneid was written by a philosopher it is meant to be read philosophically. In the "natural order", the meaning of Aeneas' name combines Greek demas, which becomes ennaios, meaning "in-dweller". However, there is no certainty regarding the origin of his name. In imitation of the Iliad, Virgil borrows epithets of Homer, including; Anchisiades, magnanimum, bonus. Though he borrows many, Virgil gives Aeneas two epithets of his own in the Aeneid: pater and pius. Likewise, Aeneas is called pater when acting in the interest of his men. The story of the birth of Aeneas is told in the "Hymn to Aphrodite," one of the major Homeric Hymns.Aeneas – Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598.
9. Agesilaus II – Lame from birth, Agesilaus became ruler unexpectedly in his mid-forties. He was greatly admired by his friend, the historian Xenophon, who wrote a minor work about him titled Agesilaus. Agesilaus was the son of Archidamus II and younger half-brother of Agis II. There is little surviving detail on the youth of Agesilaus. Therefore, Agesilaus was trained in the traditional curriculum of Sparta, the agoge. However, Leotychidas was ultimately set aside as illegitimate and Agesilaus became king around 401 BC, at the age of about forty. Lysander and the young Agesilaus came to maintain an intimate relation, as was common of the period. Their unique relationship would serve an important role during Agesilaus' later campaigns in Asia Minor. Agesilaus is first recorded as king during the suppression of the conspiracy of Cinadon, shortly after 398 BC. Then, in 396 BC, Agesilaus crossed with a force of 6,000 allies to liberate Greek cities from Persian dominion. In these campaigns Agesilaus also benefited from the aid of the Ten Thousand, who marched through miles of Persian territory to reach the Black Sea. After spending the winter organizing a cavalry force, he made a successful incursion into Lydia in the spring of 395 BC. Tithraustes was sent to replace Tissaphernes, who paid with his life for his continued failure. An armistice was concluded between Tithraustes and Agesilaus, who left the southern satrapy and again invaded Phrygia, which he ravaged until the following spring. He then came to an agreement with Pharnabazus and once more turned southward.Agesilaus II – Lelegids
10. Alfonso V of Aragon – He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon. Born at Medina del Campo, he was the son of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque. By hereditary right he was king of Sicily and claimed the island of Sardinia for himself, though it was then in the possession of Genoa. Alfonso was also in possession of much of Corsica by the 1420s. In 1421 the childless Queen Joanna II of Naples adopted and named him as heir to the Kingdom of Naples, Alfonso went to Naples. With Pope Martin V supporting Sforza, Alfonso switched his religious allegiance to the Aragonese antipope Benedict XIII. After an attempt to arrest the queen herself had failed, Joan called on Sforza who defeated the Aragonese militias near Castel Capuano in Naples. Alfonso fled to Castel Nuovo, but the help of a fleet of 22 galleys led by Giovanni da Cardona improved his situation. Sforza and Joanna ransomed Caracciolo and retreated to the fortress of Aversa. Here she repudiated her earlier adoption of Alfonso and, with the backing of Martin V, named Louis III as her heir instead. The Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti, joined the anti-Aragonese coalition. On his way towards Barcelona, Alfonso destroyed Marseille, a possession of Louis III. In late 1423 the Genoese fleet of Filippo Maria Visconti moved in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, rapidly conquering Gaeta, Procida, Castellammare and Sorrento. The city fell in April 1424. Pedro, after a short resistance in Castel Nuovo, fled to Sicily in August.Alfonso V of Aragon – Portrait of Alfonso V of Aragon, by 16th century painter Vicente Juan Masip
11. Ambiorix – Ambiorix was, together with Cativolcus, prince of the Eburones, leader of a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul, where modern Belgium is located. In the nineteenth century Ambiorix became a national hero because of his resistance against Julius Caesar, as written in Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. In 57 BC Julius Caesar conquered parts of Gaul and also Belgica. There were several tribes in the country who fought against each other frequently. The Eburones were ruled by Ambiorix and Catuvolcus. Understandably Caesar ordered that camps be built near the Eburones' villages. Each centurion was ordered to make sure the food supplies were delivered to the Roman soldiers. This created resentment among the Eburones. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta. Because a drought had disrupted his supply, Caesar was forced to winter his legions among the rebellious Belgic tribes. Roman troops led by Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta were wintering among the Eburones when they were attacked by them, led by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Trusting Ambiorix, Sabinus and Cotta's troops left the next morning. A short distance from the Roman troops were ambushed by the Eburones and massacred. Elsewhere, another Roman force under Q.Ambiorix – Statue of Ambiorix in Tongeren, Belgium
12. Apuleius – Apuleius was a Latin-language prose writer. He was a Numidian, from Madauros. He studied Platonism in Athens, was an initiate in several cults or mysteries. The most famous incident in his life was when he was accused of using magic to gain the attentions of a wealthy widow. This is known as the Apologia. His most famous work is the Metamorphoses, otherwise known as The Golden Ass. It is the only Latin novel that has survived in its entirety. It relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, accidentally turned into a donkey. He described himself as "half-Numidian half-Gaetulian." Details regarding his life come mostly from his defense speech and his work Florida, which consists of snippets taken from some of his best speeches. His father was a provincial magistrate who bequeathed at his death the sum of nearly million sesterces to his two sons. Apuleius studied at Athens where he studied Platonist philosophy among other subjects. He also travelled extensively in Asia Minor and Egypt, burning up his inheritance while doing so. Apuleius was an initiate including the Dionysian Mysteries. According to Augustine, sacerdos provinciae Africae.Apuleius – Depiction of Apuleius
13. Autobiography – An autobiography is a written account of the life of a person written by that person. In other words, it is the story that a person wrote about themselves. However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Nonetheless, autobiography as a form goes back to Antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, whereas autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. Closely associated with autobiography is the memoir form. See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. In antiquity such works were typically entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's autobiography is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography with self-praise, followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Calamitatum of Peter Abelard, outstanding as an autobiographical document of its period. The first autobiographical work in Islamic society was written in the late 11th century, by Abdallah ibn Buluggin, last Zirid king of Granada. In the 15th century, Leonor López de Córdoba, a Spanish noblewoman, wrote her Memorias, which may be the first autobiography in Castillian. Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad Bābur,who founded the Mughal dynasty of South Asia kept a journal Bāburnāma, written between 1493 and 1529. These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them.Autobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
14. Aedile – Aedile was an office of the Roman Republic. Based in Rome, the aediles were responsible for regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order. An aedilis curulis was classified as a magister curulis. The plebeian aediles were created in the same year as the Tribunes of the People. Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they guarded the rights of the plebs to their headquarters, the Temple of Ceres. Subsequently, they assumed responsibility as a whole. Their duties at first were simply ministerial. Around 446 BC, they were given the authority to care for the decrees of the senate. When a senatus consultum was passed, it deposited in the public treasury, the Aerarium. They were given this power because the Roman Consuls, who had held this power before, arbitrarily altered the documents. They also maintained the acts of the "plebiscites". Plebiscites, once passed, were also transcribed into a physical document for storage. While their powers grew over time, it is not always easy to distinguish those of the Roman Censors. Occasionally, if a Censor was unable to carry out one of his tasks, an Aedile would perform the task instead.Aedile – Ancient Rome
15. Aurochs – The aurochs, also urus, ure, is an extinct type of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle. The species survived in Europe until the recorded aurochs died in 1627. Other species of wild bovines were also domesticated, namely banteng. The aurochs was variously classified as Bos primigenius, Bos taurus, or, in old sources, Bos urus. The words aurochs, urus, wisent have all been used synonymously in English. However, the extinct aurochs/urus is a completely separate species from the still-extant wisent, also known as European bison. Some 16th-century illustrations of wisents have hybrid features. The word urus was borrowed from Germanic. In German, OHG ūr was compounded with ohso "ox", giving ūrohso, which became early modern Aurochs. The modern form is Auerochse. The word aurochs was borrowed from early modern German, replacing archaic urochs, also from an earlier form of German. The word is invariable in number in English, though sometimes back-formed singular auroch and innovated plural aurochses occur. The use in English of the aurochsen is nonstandard, but mentioned in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. It is directly parallel to recreates by analogy the same distinction as English oxen.Aurochs
16. Ab urbe condita – "Ab urbe condita" is a Latin phrase meaning "from the founding of the City", traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a year-numbering system used by some Roman historians to identify particular Roman years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The dominant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held that year. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use. The traditional date for the founding of Rome of 21 April 753 BC, was initiated by 1st century BC scholar Marcus Terentius Varro. It is still used worldwide. From Emperor Claudius onwards, Varro's calculation superseded contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in 48 AD, 800 years after the founding of the city. Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in 121 AD and 147/148 AD respectively. During 248 AD, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome's first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome's tenth saeculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. In the year 532 AD was equated with the regnal year 248 of Emperor Diocletian. It was later calculated that the year 1 AD corresponds based on Varro's epoch.Ab urbe condita – Antoninianus of Pacatianus, usurper of Roman emperor Philip in 248. It bears the legend ROMAE AETER[NAE] AN[NO] MIL[LESIMO] ET PRIMO, "To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year".
17. Aedui – The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger, in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre. The country of the Aedui is defined by reports of them in ancient writings. The upper Loire formed their western border, separating them from the Bituriges. The Saône formed their eastern border, separating them from the Sequani. Both statements are true, the first in the south, the second to the north. According to Livy, they took part into Italy in the 6th BC. Before Julius Caesar's time, they were honoured with the title of kinsmen of the Roman people. On his arrival in Gaul, Caesar restored their independence. Augustus substituted a new town with Augustodunum. In 21, during the reign of Tiberius, they revolted under Julius Sacrovir, seized Augustodunum, but they were soon put down by Gaius Silius. The oration of Eumenius, in which he pleaded for the restoration of the schools of his native place Augustodunum, shows that the district was neglected. Certain clientes, or small communities, were also dependent upon the Aedui. It is thought that Celtic tribes, such as Remi the Baiocasses, also elected their leaders. List of peoples of Gaul Caesar, Julius.Aedui – Eduens denier, 1st century BCE, 1940mg. Hotel de la Monnaie.
18. Arabian Sea – Historically the sea has been known by other names including the Persian Sea. Its maximum depth is 4,652 metres. The Arabian Sea has been crossed by marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai, the Gwadar Port in Pakistan and the Port of Salalah in Oman. Important ports include in India, Kandla Port, Mormugao in Goa. The largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra, Masirah Island, Andrott. The Arabian Sea's area is about 3,862,000 km2. Its maximum depth is 4,652 metres. The biggest river flowing into the Sea is the Indus River. There are also the gulfs on the Indian coast. The countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea are the Maldives. There are large cities on the sea's coast including Mumbai, Surat, Karachi, Gwadar, Pasni, Ormara, Aden, Muscat, Keti Bandar, Salalah, Duqm and Trivandrum. International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arabian Sea as follows: On the West. The Eastern limit of the Gulf of Aden. On the North.Arabian Sea – Arabian Sea from space
19. Assassination – Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is often believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab and Persian targets. The group killed members of the Persian, Abbasid, Seljuq, Christian Crusader élite for political and religious reasons. The word for "murder" in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics. It dates back at least as far as recorded history. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later. The practice was also well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A.D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe.Assassination – The word "assassin" was derived from Hasan-i Sabbah and his Assassin's Order of Nizari Ismailism.
20. Alexandria – Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80 % of Egypt's exports. Alexandria is an important industrial center from Suez. It is also an important destination. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome. It was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. It was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. Its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks, Jews and Syrians. The city was later lost its significance. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands. As early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Canopus and Heracleion. The latter was recently rediscovered under water.Alexandria – Alexandria Ἀλεξάνδρεια
21. Bonn – The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of 311,287. It is with over 11 million inhabitants. Founded in the first BC as a Roman settlement, it is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, it was the capital of residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne. In 1949, the Parliamentary Council adopted the German constitution, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany in Bonn. Though Berlin was symbolically named the de capital, from 1949 to 1990 it was the seat of government and de facto capital of West Germany. From 1990 to 1999, it served as the seat of government of reunited Germany. In recognition of its former status as German capital, Bonn holds the name of Federal City. It currently shares the status of Germany's seat of government with Berlin, with the Chancellor and many government ministries maintaining substantial presences in Bonn. Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom have headquarters in Bonn. The city is also the University of Bonn. It is the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven. It has an oceanic climate. In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, it is in one of Germany's warmest regions. The history of the city dates back to Roman times.Bonn – Beethoven Monument, Villa Hammerschmidt, Old City Hall, Poppelsdorf Palace, panoramic view over Bonn and the Electoral Palace, now seat of the University of Bonn (clockwise from top left).
22. Belgium – Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is bordering Germany. Historically, Belgium, Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries; it once covered a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. The region was called Belgica after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. Until the 17th century the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three communities, that exist next to each other. Its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia. Related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union. Brussels, hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area.Belgium – Charlemagne and Charles V
23. British Isles – Situated in the North Atlantic, the islands have a total area of a combined population of just under million. Two sovereign states are located on the United Kingdom of Northern Ireland. The oldest rocks in the group are million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, part of a separate continental landmass. The topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. The climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude. This led to a landscape, long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC when Great Britain was still a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC. Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-controlled Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43. The first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change—particularly in England.British Isles – Satellite image of the British Isles, excluding Shetland and the Channel Islands (out of frame)
24. Benjamin Disraeli – Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS was a British politician and writer who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Disraeli played a central role in the creation of the Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli made the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire. Disraeli is the only British Prime Minister of Jewish birth. He was born in London. His father left Judaism at his synagogue; young Benjamin became an Anglican at the age of 12. After unsuccessful attempts, he entered the House of Commons in 1837. He clashed in the Commons. He became a major figure in the party. Disraeli also forged a bitter rivalry with Gladstone of the Liberal Party. Upon Derby's retirement in 1868, he became Prime Minister briefly before losing that year's election. Disraeli returned before leading the party to a majority in the 1874 election. Disraeli maintained a close friendship with Queen Victoria, who in 1876 created Earl of Beaconsfield. He arranged for the British to purchase a major interest in the Suez Canal Company. This diplomatic victory over Russia established Disraeli of Europe's leading statesmen.Benjamin Disraeli – Disraeli, photographed by Cornelius Jabez Hughes in 1878
25. Battle of Pharsalus – The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. His army significantly outnumbered Caesarian legions. The two armies confronted each other over several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. Pompey wanted knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from exhaustion. Caesar, lacking a fleet to immediately give chase, solidified his control over the western Mediterranean – Spain specifically – before assembling ships to follow Pompey. Caesar, defying convention, chose to cross the Adriatic during the winter, with only half his fleet at a time. This move surprised Bibulus and the first wave of ships managed to run the blockade easily. Now prepared, Bibulus managed to prevent any further ships from crossing, but died soon afterwards. Caesar's only choice was to wait on his remaining army to attempt another crossing. Pompey by now had a international army; however, his troops were mostly raw recruits, while Caesar's troops were hardened veterans. Realizing Caesar's difficulty in keeping his troops supplied, Pompey decided to simply mirror Caesar's forces and let hunger do the fighting for him. Caesar began to despair and used every channel he could think of to pursue peace with Pompey. When this was rebuffed he made an attempt to cross back to Italy to collect his missing troops but was turned back by a storm. Finally, Marc Antony made the crossing, reinforcing Caesar's forces in both men and spirit. Now at full strength Caesar felt confident to take the fight to Pompey.Battle of Pharsalus – Battle of Pharsalus
26. Bede – In 1899, Bede was made a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII; he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works among many others. A minor source of information is the letter by his Cuthbert which relates Bede's death. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery". His connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda. It is an short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name also occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is presumably Bede himself. At the age of seven, he was sent by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and later by Ceolfrith. He does not say whether it was already intended at that point that he would be a monk. Bede probably transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy until others could be trained.Bede – The Venerable Bede Translates John by J. D. Penrose (ca 1902)
27. Battle – A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, commitment. Military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility. German strategist Carl von Clausewitz stated that "the employment of battles... to achieve the object of war" was the essence of strategy. Where the duration of the battle is longer than a week, it is often for reasons of staff operational planning called an operation. Battles can be planned, forced by one force on the other when the latter is unable to withdraw from combat. A battle always has as its purpose the reaching by use of military force. However, a battle may end in a Pyrrhic victory, which ultimately favors the defeated party. If no resolution is reached in a battle, it can result in a stalemate. A conflict in which one side is unwilling to reach a decision by a direct battle using conventional warfare often becomes an insurgency. Until the 19th century the majority of battles were of short duration, many lasting a part of a day. This was mainly due to the difficulty of conducting night operations. The means of prolonging a battle was typically by employment of warfare. Trench warfare had become largely obsolete in conflicts between advanced armies by the start of the Second World War.Battle – The Battle of Poltava between Russia and Sweden, by Denis Martens the Younger
28. Barcelonnette – Barcelonnette is a commune of France and a subprefecture in the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It is located in the southern French Alps, at the crossroads between Provence, Piedmont and the Dauphiné, is the largest town in the Ubaye Valley. The town's inhabitants are known as Barcelonnettes. It was named by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence. In Valéian, it is called Barcilouna de Prouvença or Barcilounéta. The inhabitants of the town are called Barcelonnettes, or Vilandroises in Valéian. Polybius described the Vesubians as belligerent but nonetheless civilised and mercantile, Julius Caesar praised their bravery. The work History of the Gauls also places the Vesubians in the Ubaye Valley. Following the Roman conquest of Provence, Barcelonnette was included in a small province with modern Embrun as its capital and governed by Albanus Bassalus. This was integrated soon afterwards into Gallia Narbonensis. In 36 AD, Emperor Nero transferred Barcelonnette to the province of the Cottian Alps. The town of Barcelonnette was founded by Count of Provence. According to Charles Rostaing, this act of formal "foundation", according certain privileges to the town, was a means of regenerating the destroyed town of Barcilona. The town was afforded a consulat in 1240. Control of the area in the Middle Ages swung between the Counts of Savoy and of Provence.Barcelonnette – Place Manuel
29. Batavi (Germanic tribe) – The name is also applied to several military units employed by the Romans that were originally raised among the Batavi. The tribal name, probably a derivation from batawjō, refers to the region's fertility, today known as the fruitbasket of the Netherlands. Finds of wooden tablets show that at least some were literate. The Batavi, or at least the Batavian island in the Rhine river, were mentioned by Julius Caesar in his commentary Commentarii de Bello Gallico. The island's point is at a split in one arm being the Waal the other the Lower Rhine/Old Rhine. This view, however, is contradicted by the archeological evidence, which shows continuous habitation from at least the third century BC onward. The latter was in use until the Batavian revolt. Finds of horse skeletons in graves suggest a strong equestrian preoccupation. On the south bank of the Waal a Roman administrative center was built, called Oppidum Batavorum. An Oppidum was a fortified warehouse, where a tribe's treasures were stored and guarded. This centre was razed during the Batavian Revolt. Well regarded for their skills -- for horses could cross the Rhine without losing formation, according to Tacitus. Thence the Britons retired at a point near where it empties at flood-tide forms a lake. It is uncertain how they were able to accomplish this feat. The 4th writer on Roman military affairs Vegetius mentions soldiers using reed rafts, drawn by leather leads, to transport equipment across rivers.Batavi (Germanic tribe) – Funerary stela of one of Nero 's Corporis Custodes, the imperial Germanic bodyguard. The bodyguard, Indus, was of the Batavian tribe.
30. Boii – Caesar settled the remnants of that group in Gorgobina, from where they sent two thousand at the battle of Alesia six years later. The eastern Boii on the Danube were incorporated into the Roman Empire in 8 AD. From all the different names of the Celtic people in literature and inscriptions it is possible to abstract a continental Celtic segment, boio -. There are two major derivations of this segment, both presupposing that it belongs to the family of Indo-European languages: from ` warrior.' The Boii would thus be either "the herding people" or "the warrior people." The "cow" derivation depends most immediately on the Old legal term for "outsider:" ambue, from Proto-Celtic * ambouios, "not a cattle owner." Boii would be from the o-grade of *bhei-, *bhoi-. Such a connection is possible if the original form of Boii belonged long before the time of the historic Boii. If, the case, then the Celtic tribe of central Europe must have been a final population of a linguistically diversifying ancestor tribe. Indo-European reconstructions can be made using *gʷou- "cow" as a basis, such as *gʷowjeh³s. Contemporary derived words include Boiorix and Boiodurum in Germany. According to the ancient authors, the Boii arrived by crossing the Alps. It remains therefore unclear where exactly the European origins of the Boii lay, if somewhere in Gaul, Southern Germany or in Bohemia. Polybius "cast covetous eyes on their beautiful country." Strabo confirms that the Boii were one of the largest tribes of the Celts.Boii – Depiction of a soldier wearing a plumed pot helmet, Hallstatt culture Bronze belt plaque from Vače, Slovenia, ca. 400 BC
31. Bastarnae – The Peucini, denoted a branch of the Bastarnae by Greco-Roman writers, occupied the north of the Danube delta. The ethno-linguistic affiliation of the Bastarnae was probably Germanic, supported by modern archeology. However, some literary sources imply Celtic or Scytho-Sarmatian influences. The most likely scenario is that they were originally a group of East Germanic tribes, originally resident in the lower Vistula valley. In 200 BC, these tribes then migrated, possibly accompanied by some Celtic elements, southeastwards into the North Pontic region. Some elements appear to have become assimilated, by the surrounding Sarmatians by the 3rd century. Although largely sedentary, some elements may have adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle. It has not, far, been possible to identify archaeological sites which can be conclusively attributed to the Bastarnae. The archaeological horizons most often associated by scholars with the Bastarnae are the Zarubintsy and Poienesti-Lukashevka cultures. Later, they appear to have maintained friendly relations during the first two centuries AD. This changed from c. 180, when the Bastarnae are recorded as participants in an invasion of Roman territory, once again in alliance with Sarmatian and Dacian elements. Large numbers of Bastarnae were resettled in the late 3rd century. The origin of the tribal name is uncertain. It is not even clear whether it was an endonym.Bastarnae – Attempt to reconstruct Bastarnae costumes, in display at the Archaeological Museum of Kraków. Such clothing and weapons were commonplace among barbarian peoples on the empire's borders
32. Boudica – Boudica was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. Boudica's husband Prasutagus left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman emperor in his will. However, the kingdom was annexed. Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to the 20-year-old commercial settlement, the rebels' next target. The Romans, having concluded that they lacked sufficient numbers to defend the settlement, abandoned Londinium. Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, others to fight Legio IX Hispana, burned and destroyed Londinium and Verulamium. An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. Suetonius, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street. Suetonius' eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then died of illness. Tacitus and Cassius Dio, differ. Interest in these events led to Boudica's fame in the Victorian era. Boudica has remained an cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. In 2002, she was number 35 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. Boudica has been known by several versions of her name.Boudica – Queen Boudica in John Opie 's painting "Boadicea Haranguing the Britons"
33. Barry Goldwater – Goldwater also had a substantial impact on the movement. He fought through the conservative coalition against the New Deal coalition. Goldwater mobilized a conservative constituency to win the hard-fought Republican primaries. Though raised an Episcopalian, Goldwater was the first candidate with ethnically Jewish heritage to be nominated by a major American party. Goldwater's conservative campaign platform ultimately failed to gain the support of the electorate and he lost the 1964 presidential election to incumbent Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, bringing down many conservative Republican office-holders as well. Jeff Fishel says, "The conservative faction of the party was on the defensive as a result of the magnitude of the election losses." He was born in what was then the Arizona Territory, the son of Baron M. Goldwater and his wife, Hattie Josephine Williams. His father's family had founded a leading upscale department store in Phoenix. Goldwater's paternal grandfather, a Polish Jew, was born in 1821 in Poland, whence he emigrated to London following the Revolutions of 1848. Soon after arriving in London, Goldwater anglicized his name to "Goldwater". Michel married a member of a Jewish English family, in the Great Synagogue of London. His mother, Episcopalian, came from a New England family that included the theologian, Roger Williams of Rhode Island. The family store made the Goldwaters comfortably wealthy. He took over the family business after Baron's death in 1930.Barry Goldwater – Barry Goldwater
34. Battle of Actium – Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over its dominions. Some years later was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in later times. The battle also marked the start of about three centuries of Roman naval supremacy over the whole Mediterranean and even wider. The alliance between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus, commonly known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term in 38 BC. This occurred when the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the facto stepfather to Caesarion. Such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal. Both Octavian and Antony had fought in the civil war that followed the assassination of Caesar. Antony and Cleopatra formally elevated Caesarion, then 13, in 34 BC giving him the vague but alarming title of "King of the Kings". Being a son of Caesar, such an entitlement was felt to Roman republican traditions. According to a widespread belief, Antony had once offered a diadem to Caesar. It was also said that Antony intended to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria. As the Second Triumvirate formally expired on the last day of 33 BC, Antony wrote to the Senate that he did not wish to be reappointed.Battle of Actium – A baroque painting of the battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro, 1672. The Maritime Museum of Greenwich, Director's office, UK
35. Classics – Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. This covers the ancient Mediterranean world, Rome. It encompasses the study of literature, philosophy, history, archaeology. Since the 20th century, however, the popularity of the discipline has declined. From the 20th century, however, the traditional domination of the classics as part of elite education in the West has been eroded. The word Classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th AD, the word had acquired a second meaning, referring to pupils at a school. In the Middle Ages, classics and education were tightly intertwined; according to Jan Ziolkowski, there is no era in history in which the link was tighter. Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation. The works of even Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the works valued in the Middle Ages. Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period.Classics – Bust of Homer, the ancient Greek epic poet
36. Calendar – A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, years. A date is the designation of a specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record of such a system. Periods in a calendar are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the moon. Latin calendarium "account book, register". The Latin term was adopted in Old French as calendier and from there by the 13th century. Nevertheless, the Roman calendar contained 10-month solar year. The recorded calendars date to the Bronze Age, dependent on the development of writing in the Ancient Near East, the Egyptian and Sumerian calendars. A larger number of calendar systems of the Ancient Near East becomes accessible in the Iron Age, based on the Babylonian calendar. This includes the calendar of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar well as the Hebrew calendar. Calendars in antiquity were lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the lunar years. The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 45 BC. This created a dissociation of the month from the lunation. The Islamic calendar is based on the prohibition of intercalation in Islamic tradition dated to a sermon held on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10.Calendar – Sun and Moon, Schedel's Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
37. Cornwall – Cornwall is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom. Cornwall covers an area of 3,563 km2. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. This area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to then Bronze Age peoples, later by Brythons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales and Brittany. Few Roman remains have been found. In the mid-19th century, however, the copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally, agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led in the 20th century; however, Cornwall's economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries. Extensive stretches of Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Cornwall is recognised as one of the Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. On April 2014 it was announced that Cornish people will be granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The Cornwall derives from the combination of two separate terms from different languages. The Corn- part comes from the hypothesised original tribal name of the Celtic people who had lived here since the Iron Age, the Cornovii.Cornwall – "Cornweallas" shown on an early 19th-century map of "Saxon England" (and Wales) based on the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
38. Codex – A codex is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials, with hand-written contents. The book is usually bound by stacking the pages and using a cover thicker than the sheets. Some codices are continuously folded like a concertina. The alternative to paged format for a long document is the continuous scroll. Examples of folded codices include the Maya codices. Excluding folded books. The Romans developed the form from wooden writing tablets. The codex offered a form that lasted for centuries. The spread of the codex is often associated with the rise of Christianity, which adopted the format with the Bible early on. In fact, any combination of scrolls with papyrus and parchment is technically feasible and common in the historical record. The codex began to replace the scroll almost soon as it was invented. By the fifth century, the codex outnumbered the scroll by ten to one based on surviving examples. By the sixth century, the scroll had almost vanished as a medium for literature. Even modern paperbacks are codices, but publishers and scholars reserve the term for manuscript books produced from Late antiquity until the Middle Ages. The scholarly study of these manuscripts from the point of view of the bookbinding craft is called codicology.Codex – The Codex Gigas, 13th century, Bohemia.
39. Catullus – Not to be confused with Romans named "Catulus", see Catulus. His surviving works are still read widely, continue to influence poetry and other forms of art. Catullus' poems were widely appreciated by other poets. He greatly influenced poets such as Ovid, Horace, Virgil. After his rediscovery in the late Middle Ages, Catullus again found admirers. His explicit writing style has shocked many readers. Indeed, Catullus' work was never canonical in schools, although his body of work is still frequently read from secondary school to graduate programs across the world. Gaius Valerius Catullus was born to a leading equestrian family of Verona, in Cisalpine Gaul. The social prominence of the Catullus family allowed the father of Gaius Valerius to entertain Julius Caesar when he was the Promagistrate of both Gallic provinces. Catullus was raised primarily by his mother, Blandus, who exposed him to poetry and the works of Sappho and Callimachus at a young age. Catullus appears to have spent most of his young adult years in Rome. He appears to have been acquainted with the poet Marcus Furius Bibaculus. A number of prominent contemporaries appear in his poetry, including Cicero, Caesar and Pompey. In his poems Catullus describes several stages of their relationship: initial euphoria, doubts, separation, his wrenching feelings of loss. Clodia had several other partners; “From the poems one can adduce no fewer than five lovers in addition to Catullus: Egnatius, Gellius, Quintius, Rufus, Lesbius.”Catullus – Modern bust of Catullus on the Piazza Carducci, Sirmione.
40. Celebrity – Celebrity status is often associated with wealth, while fame often provides opportunities to make money. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are commonly associated with celebrity status; while political leaders often become celebrities. People may also become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Throughout recorded history there are accounts of people who attracted the trappings of celebrity which would be recognized today. Julius Caesar appeared in his own lifetime. In the 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder. He was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years. The establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: in the 19th Centuries. Newspapers started including certain events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity. Yet, celebrity wasn't always tied to actors in films, especially when cinema was starting out as a medium. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not primarily actors; for example, news readers. Regions with a significant population may have their independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking music celebrities. A person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another. Regions within cultural communities can also have culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales.Celebrity – Association footballer David Beckham is famous, not just for his sporting achievements but his fashion, product endorsements and his marriage to pop star Victoria Beckham.
41. Cicero – Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul, constitutionalist. Cicero is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. He created a Latin philosophical vocabulary distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher. Though he was an accomplished successful lawyer, he believed his political career was his most important achievement. Following Julius Caesar's death, he became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed in the Roman Forum. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, classical Roman culture. He was born in 106 BC in a hill town 100 kilometers southeast of Rome. His father possessed good connections in Rome. However, being a semi-invalid, Cicero studied extensively to compensate. Cicero's brother Quintus wrote in a letter that she was a thrifty housewife. Personal surname, comes from the Latin for chickpea, cicer. Plutarch explains that the name was originally given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea. However, it is more likely that Cicero's ancestors prospered through the sale of chickpeas. Romans often chose personal surnames: the famous family names of Fabius, Lentulus, Piso come from the Latin names of beans, lentils, peas.Cicero – A first century AD bust of Cicero in the Capitoline Museums, Rome
42. Cursus honorum – The cursus honorum was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office. These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius held consulships in a row between 100 BC. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement. The reforms of Lucius Cornelius Sulla required a ten-year period between holding another term in the same office. A more prestigious position was that of a military tribune. Tribunes could also be appointed by the consuls or by military commanders in the field as necessary. The following steps of the cursus honorum were achieved by direct election every year. The first official post was that of quaestor. Candidates had to be at least 30 years old. However, men of rank could subtract two years from other minimum age requirements.Cursus honorum – Ancient Rome
43. Claudius – He was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, Claudius was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. Claudius was born in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. His survival led to his being declared Emperor after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family. Despite his lack of experience, he proved to be an efficient administrator. Claudius was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, Claudius issued up to twenty edicts a day. Claudius was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 AD, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor. He was born on August 10 BC at Lugdunum. Claudius had two older siblings, Livilla.Claudius – Bust of Claudius at the Naples National Archaeological Museum
44. Roman censor – The censor was an officer in ancient Rome, responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances. The censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words "censor" and "censorship". The census was first instituted by sixth king of Rome. After the founding of the Republic, the consuls had responsibility for the census until 443 BC. It would not be uncommon for the patrician consulars of the early republic to intersperse public office with agricultural labour. In Cicero’s words: in agris erant tum senatores, id est senes: ‘In those days senators—, seniors—would live on their farms’. This practice was obsolete by the second century. The magistracy continued to be controlled until 351 BC, when Gaius Marcius Rutilus was appointed the first plebeian censor. Twelve years later, in 339 BC, one of the Publilian laws required that one censor had to be a plebeian. Despite this, no plebeian censor performed the purification of the people until 280 BC. For the first time, both censors were plebeians. The reason for having two censors was that the two consuls had previously taken the census together. If one of the censors died during his term of office, another was chosen to replace him, as with consuls. This happened once in 393 BC. However, the Romans thereafter regarded such replacement as "an offense against religion".Roman censor – Ancient Rome