1. Lake Como – Lake Como is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. It has an area of 146 square kilometres, making it the third-largest lake in Italy, after Lake Garda, at over 400 metres deep, it is one of the deepest lakes in Europe, and the bottom of the lake is more than 200 metres below sea level. Lake Como has been a retreat for aristocrats and wealthy people since Roman times. It has many villas and palaces, the lakes name in Latin is Larius, Italianised as Lario, but this name is rarely used, it is usually called Lago di Como. In guidebooks the lake may be referred to as Lake Como, Lake of Como. Its name comes from the city of Como, known to the Romans as Comum, while the town of Como is referred to as Como, the lake is never referred to solely by this name. This is not true of another lake in Italy, Lake Garda, the lake is shaped much like an inverted letter Y. The northern branch begins at the town of Colico, while the towns of Como, the small towns of Bellagio, Menaggio and Lierna are situated at the intersection of the three branches of the lake, a triangular boat service operates between them. The Lierna area is an historical charming site of the lake with a white beach, Lake Como is fed primarily by the Adda River, which enters the lake near Colico and flows out at Lecco. This geological conformation makes the branch a dead end, and so Como. The mountainous pre-alpine territory between the two arms of the lake is known as the Larian Triangle, or Triangolo lariano. The source of the river Lambro is here, at the centre of the triangle, the town of Canzo is the seat of the Comunità montana del Triangolo lariano, an association of the 31 municipalities that represent the 71,000 inhabitants of the area. Lake Como weather is humid subtropical, in the winter, the lake helps to maintain a higher temperature in the surrounding region. Average daily temperatures range from about 3.7 °C in January to 23.4 °C in July, water temperatures can reach an average of 24 °C during the month of July. Snowfall is erratic and primarily affects the higher elevations, rainfall is heaviest in May and lowest during the winter months. As a tourist destination, Lake Como is popular for its landscapes, wildlife and it is a venue for sailing, windsurfing, and kitesurfing. In 1818 Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote to Thomas Love Peacock, This lake exceeds anything I ever beheld in beauty and it is long and narrow, and has the appearance of a mighty river winding among the mountains and the forests. In the area surrounding Lake Como there are farms which produce goods such as honey, olive oil, cheese, milk, eggsLake Como – Panoramic view of Lake Como with Grigna Mountains and Bellagio
2. Alboin – Alboin was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their migrations by settling in Italy, the period of Alboins reign as king in Pannonia following the death of his father, Audoin, was one of confrontation and conflict between the Lombards and their main neighbors, the Gepids. The Gepids initially gained the hand, but in 567, thanks to his alliance with the Avars, Alboin inflicted a decisive defeat on his enemies. After gathering a large coalition of peoples, Alboin crossed the Julian Alps in 568 and he rapidly took control of most of Venetia and Liguria. In 569, unopposed, he took northern Italys main city, pavia offered stiff resistance however, and was taken only after a siege lasting three years. During that time Alboin turned his attention to Tuscany, but signs of factionalism among his supporters, Alboin was assassinated on June 28,572, in a coup détat instigated by the Byzantines. It was organized by the foster brother, Helmichis, with the support of Alboins wife, Rosamund. The coup failed in the face of opposition from a majority of the Lombards, for many centuries following his death Alboins heroism and his success in battle were celebrated in Saxon and Bavarian epic poetry. Wachos death in about 540 brought his son Walthari to the throne, seven years later Walthari died, giving Audoin the opportunity to crown himself and overthrow the reigning Lethings. Alboin was probably born in the 530s in Pannonia, the son of Audoin and his wife and she may have been the niece of King Theodoric and betrothed to Audoin through the mediation of Emperor Justinian. Like his father, Alboin was raised a pagan, although Audoin had at one point attempted to gain Byzantine support against his neighbours by professing himself a Christian, Alboin took as his first wife the Christian Chlothsind, daughter of the Frankish King Chlothar. The new Frankish alliance was important because of the Franks known hostility to the Byzantine empire, Alboin first distinguished himself on the battlefield in a clash with the Gepids. For this initiation, he went to the court of Thurisind, Walter Goffart believes it is probable that in this narrative Paul was making use of an oral tradition, and is sceptical that it can be dismissed as merely a typical topos of an epic poem. Alboin came to the throne after the death of his father, as was customary among the Lombards, Alboin took the crown after an election by the tribes freemen, who traditionally selected the king from the dead sovereigns clan. Shortly afterwards, in 565, a new war erupted with the Gepids, now led by Cunimund, the tale is treated with scepticism by Walter Goffart, who observes that it conflicts with the Origo Gentis Langobardorum, where she was captured only after the death of her father. The Gepids obtained the support of the Emperor in exchange for a promise to him the region of Sirmium. The Lombards played on the hostility between the Avars and the Byzantines, claiming that the latter were allied with the Gepids. Moreover, Justin II was moving away from the policy of JustinianAlboin – Woodcut vignette of Alboin in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
3. Celts – The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic, religious and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities. By the 6th century, however, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, Ireland, today, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and also uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient regionCelts – Celtic stele from Galicia, 2nd century AD: “APANA·AMBO / LLI· F(ilia)·CELTICA / SUPERTAM(arica) · / (j) MIOBRI· / AN(norum)· XXV·H(ic)·S(ita)·E(st)· / APANUS·FR(ater)· F(aciendum)·C(uravit)”
4. Hydrofoil – A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water. They are similar in appearance and purpose to aerofoils used by aeroplanes, boats that use hydrofoil technology are also simply termed hydrofoils. As a hydrofoil craft gains speed, the lift the boats hull out of the water, decreasing drag. The hydrofoil usually consists of a wing like structure mounted on struts below the hull, as a hydrofoil equipped watercraft increases in speed, the hydrofoil elements below the hull develop enough lift to raise the hull out of the water, which greatly reduces hull drag. This provides an increase in speed and fuel efficiency. Wider adoption of hydrofoils is prevented by the complexity of building and maintaining them. Hydrofoils are generally more expensive than conventional watercraft. However, the design is simple enough that there are many human-powered hydrofoil designs, amateur experimentation and development of the concept is popular. Since air and water are governed by similar fluid equations—albeit with different levels of viscosity, density, the foil shape moves smoothly through the water, deflecting the flow downward, which, following the Euler equations, exerts an upward force on the foil. This turning of the water creates higher pressure on the bottom of the foil and this pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoullis principle, so the resulting flowfield about the foil has a higher average velocity on one side than the other. When used as an element on a hydrofoil boat, this upward force lifts the body of the vessel, decreasing drag. The lifting force eventually balances with the weight of the craft, reaching a point where the no longer lifts out of the water. Hydrofoils of this type are known as surface-piercing since portions of the V-shape hydrofoils rise above the surface when foilborne. Some modern hydrofoils use fully submerged inverted T-shape foils, fully submerged hydrofoils are less subject to the effects of wave action, and, therefore, more stable at sea and more comfortable for crew and passengers. This type of configuration, however, is not self-stabilizing, the angle of attack on the hydrofoils must be adjusted continuously to changing conditions, a control process performed by sensors, a computer, and active surfaces. Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini began work on hydrofoils in 1898 and used a ladder foil system, Forlanini obtained patents in Britain and the United States for his ideas and designs. Between 1899 and 1901, British boat designer John Thornycroft worked on a series of models with a stepped hull, in 1909 his company built the full scale 22-foot long boat, Miranda III. Driven by a 60 hp engine, it rode on a bowfoil, the subsequent Miranda IV was credited with a speed of 35 knHydrofoil – The U.S. Navy's XCH-4, with hydrofoils clearly lifting the hull out of the water
5. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
6. Transport in Italy – Italy has well developed and private transportation options. Italian rail network is extensive, especially in the north, generally eclipsing the need for a such as bus or air. Italy has 2,507 people and 12.46 km2 per kilometer of rail track, Italys road network is also widespread, with a total length of about 487,700 km. It comprises both a motorway network, mostly toll roads, and national and local roads. Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a number of harbors for the transportation of both goods and passengers. Italy has been a seafaring peninsula dating back to the days of the Etruscans, Transport networks in Italy are fully integrated into the Trans-European Transport Networks. The Italian railway system has a length of 19,394 km, the active lines are 16,723 km. The network is growing with the construction of the new high-speed rail network. The narrow gauge tracks are,112 km of 1,000 mm gauge,1,211 km of 950 mm gauge A major part of the Italian rail network is managed and operated by Ferrovie dello Stato, a state owned company. Other regional agencies, mostly owned by entities such as regional governments. The Italian railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €8.1 billion in 2009, travellers who often make use of the railway during their stay in Italy might use Rail Passes, such as the European Inter-Rail or Italys national and regional passes. These rail passes allow travellers the freedom to use regional trains during the validity period, regional passes, such as Io viaggio ovunque Lombardia, offer one-day, multiple-day and monthly period of validity. There are also passes for adults, who travel as a group. Foreign travellers should purchase these passes in advance, so that the passes could be delivered by post prior to the trip, when using the rail passes, the date of travel needs to be filled in before boarding the trains. In 1967, the Bologna-Florence high-speed line, with speeds up to 230 km/h, opened to passenger traffic, subsequently, high-speed rail tracks connect Milan to Bologna, Florence to Rome and Rome to Naples. The Bologna-Florence high-speed line was upgraded to 300 km/h and the current journey time is 35 minutes, a new high-speed line linking Milan and Turin, operating at 300 km/h, opened to passenger traffic in 2009, reducing the journey time from 2 hours to 1 hour. The high-speed line between Naples and Salerno are still under construction, construction of the Milan-Venice high-speed line has begun in 2013. The operator of high-speed trains is Trenitalia, since 2012, a new and Italys first private train operator, NTV Italo, run high-speed services in competition with TrenitaliaTransport in Italy – A Frecciarossa high-speed train
7. Milan – Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions, academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums, theatres and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually. Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, however, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, indeed, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD. Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this periodMilan – Milan Cathedral, La Scala opera house and Porta Nuova business district
8. Lombardy – Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Milan, Lombardys capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy, the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, Langobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz, equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, Lombardy referred during the early Middle Ages to the entire territory of Italy ruled by the Lombards, a Germanic tribe who conquered much of the Italian peninsula beginning in the 6th century. During the late Middle Ages, the term shifted meaning and was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy, with a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region, mountains, hills and plains – the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands, from west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, then Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, alder, sycamore, poplar, willow, in the area of the foothills lakes, however, grow olive trees, cypresses and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, azaleas, acacias. Numerous species of flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers. The highlands are characterized by the vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow, on the slopes beech trees grow at the lowest limits. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone, Lombardy has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas. In addition, there is a seasonal temperature variation. A peculiarity of the climate is the thick fog that covers the plains between October and February. In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an Oceanic climate, numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, in the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continentalLombardy – Mount Adamello
9. Caroline of Brunswick – Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, best known as Caroline of Brunswick, was Queen of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821. She was the Princess of Wales from 1795 to 1820 and her father was the ruler of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in Germany, and her mother, Princess Augusta, was the sister of George III. George and Caroline married the year, and nine months later Caroline had a child. Shortly after Charlottes birth, George and Caroline separated, by 1806, rumours that Caroline had taken lovers and had an illegitimate child led to an investigation into her private life. The dignitaries who led the investigation concluded there was no foundation to the rumours. In 1814, Caroline moved to Italy, where she employed Bartolomeo Pergami as a servant, Pergami soon became Carolines closest companion, and it was widely assumed that they were lovers. In 1817, Caroline was devastated when her daughter Charlotte died in childbirth, she heard the news from a passing courier as George had refused to write and he was determined to divorce Caroline, and set up a second investigation to collect evidence of her adultery. In 1820, George became king of the United Kingdom and Hanover, George hated her, vowed she would never be the queen, and insisted on a divorce, which she refused. A legal divorce was possible but difficult to obtain, Caroline returned to Britain to assert her position as queen. She was wildly popular with the British populace, who sympathized with her, in July 1821, Caroline was barred from the coronation on the orders of her husband. She fell ill in London and died three weeks later, her funeral procession passed through London on its way to her native Brunswick, Caroline was born as Princess of Brunswick, with the courtesy title of Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on 17 May 1768 at Braunschweig in Germany. She was the daughter of Charles William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Caroline was brought up in a difficult family situation. She was educated by governesses, but the subject in which she was given a high education was music. From 1783 until 1791 Countess Eleonore von Münster was her governess, and won her affection, Caroline could understand English and French, but her father admitted that she was lacking in education. John Stanley, later Lord Stanley of Alderley, saw her in 1781, in 1784, she was described as a beauty, and two years later, Mirabeau described her as most amiable, lively, playful, witty and handsome. Caroline was brought up with a degree of seclusion from contact with the opposite sex even for her own time. She was reportedly constantly supervised by her governess and elder ladies, restricted to her room when the family was entertaining guests and she was normally refused permission to attend balls and court functions, and when allowed, she was forbidden to dance. Abbé Baron commented during the winter of 1789–90, She is supervised with the greatest severity, I doubt if the torches of hymen will illuminate for herCaroline of Brunswick – Portrait c. 1820 by James Lonsdale, "Principal Painter in Ordinary to the Queen". Her wedding ring is displayed prominently to emphasise fidelity to marriage vows.
10. Pliny the Younger – Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo, better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Plinys uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him, both Pliny the Elder and the Younger were witnesses to the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, in which the former died. Pliny the Younger wrote hundreds of letters, of which 247 still survive and are of historical value. Some are addressed to reigning emperors or to such as the historian Tacitus. Pliny served as a magistrate under Trajan, and his letters to Trajan provide one of the few surviving records of the relationship between the imperial office and provincial governors. Pliny rose through a series of civil and military offices, the cursus honorum and he was a friend of the historian Tacitus and might have employed the biographer Suetonius on his staff. Pliny also came into contact with other men of the period, including the philosophers Artemidorus and Euphrates the Stoic. Pliny the Younger was born in Novum Comum around 61 AD, the son of Lucius Caecilius Cilo, born there, and his wife Plinia Marcella, a sister of Pliny the Elder. He was the grandson of Senator and landowner Gaius Caecilius, revered his uncle, Pliny the Elder, Cilo died at an early age, when Pliny was still young. As a result, the boy lived with his mother. His guardian and preceptor in charge of his education was Lucius Verginius Rufus, after being first tutored at home, Pliny went to Rome for further education. There he was taught rhetoric by Quintilian, a teacher and author. It was at time that Pliny became closer to his uncle Pliny the Elder. When Pliny the Younger was 17 or 18, his uncle Pliny the Elder died attempting to rescue victims of the Vesuvius eruption, in the same document the younger Pliny was adopted by his uncle. As a result, Pliny the Younger changed his name from Gaius Caecilius Cilo to Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, there is some evidence that Pliny had a sibling. The trustees are apparently named in the inscription, L. Caecilius Valens and P. Caecilius Secundus, sons of Lucius, the word contubernalis describing Lutulla is the military term meaning tent-mate, which can only mean that she was living with Lucius, not as his wife. The first man mentioned, L. Caecilius Valens, is probably the older son, Pliny the Younger confirms that he was a trustee for the largess of my ancestors. It seems unknown to Pliny the Elder, so Valens mother was not his sister PliniaPliny the Younger – Statue of Pliny the Younger on the façade of Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore in Como.
11. The Luzhin Defence – The Luzhin Defence is a 2000 film directed by Marleen Gorris, starring John Turturro and Emily Watson. The film centres on a mentally tormented chess grandmaster and the woman he meets while competing at a world-class tournament in Italy. The screenplay was based on the novel The Defense by Vladimir Nabokov, Emily Watson received best actress nominations at the British Independent Film Awards and the London Film Critics Circle Awards. Its the early 1920s and Aleksandr Ivanovich Sascha Luzhin, a gifted but tormented chess player, prior to the tournament he meets Natalia Katkov and he falls in love with her almost immediately. She in turn finds his manner to be appealing and they begin to see each other in spite of her mothers disapproval. Competing alongside Luzhin in the championship is Dottore Salvatore Turati, who is approached by Leo Valentinov, a Russian, Valentinov tells the Italian that Luzhin cannot handle pressure and he intimates he will make sure that his former prodigy will be unsettled off-table giving Turati a winning chance. The competition starts badly for Luzhin who is unsettled by the presence of his former friend and he struggles through the early rounds but he soon begins to win again as his relationship with Katkov becomes closer and intimate. She then informs her parents that she is going to marry him, meanwhile, Luzhin goes on to reach the final and face Turati. But in the finals the Russian Émigré loses out to the time clock, however, outside the venue, he is whisked away by an accomplice of Valentinov who abandons him in the countryside. His former teacher knows that this will completely unhinge him because of the memory of his parents abandonment many years ago, Luzhin wanders aimlessly until he collapses and is found by a group of Blackshirts. Luzhin is taken to the suffering from complete mental exhaustion. The doctor informs Katkov that he will die if he keeps playing chess as he is addicted to the game, nevertheless, even while recuperating Valentinov comes around with a chess board encouraging Luzhin to finish the match with the Italian, Turati. Natalia defends her beloved but urges him to break off with the game and he and Natalia then agree to marry at the earliest opportunity. However, on the morning of the wedding, Luzhin is put into a car with Valentinov, in terror, Luzhin leaps from the car. Dazed, cut and mentally confused, he back to the hotel where he tries to dig up the rest of the glass chess pieces he buried on the grounds years ago. Luzhin, who is in his wedding suit, sits in his room as Natalia. But before they can get in, the chess grandmaster throws himself out of his bedroom window. The tragic death is witnessed by Valentinov who has just arrived by car, the film then concludes in the competition hall where Natalia completes the competition using her fiancés notesThe Luzhin Defence – The Luzhin Defence
12. Lepontine Alps – The Lepontine Alps are a mountain range in the north-western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Simplon rail tunnel the Gotthard rail and Gotthard road tunnels and the San Bernardino road tunnel are important transport arteries. The eastern portion of the Lepontine Alps, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splügen Pass, is named the Adula Alps. The designation Lepontine Alps, derived from the Latin name of the Val Leventina, has long been somewhat vaguely applied to the Alpine ranges that enclose it, the most important of these valleys is the Val Leventina, or the Upper valley of the Ticino. This has been known from a remote antiquity because it leads to the Pass of St Gotthard, the Lepontine Alps are drained by the rivers Rhône in the west, Reuss in the north, Rhine in the east and Ticino and Toce in the southLepontine Alps – Monte Leone
13. Como – Como is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Como. With 215,320 overnight guests, in 2013 Como was the fourth most visited city in Lombardy after Milan, Bergamo, the hills surrounding the current location of Como have been inhabited, since at least the Bronze Age, by a Celtic tribe known as the Orobii. Remains of settlements are still present on the wood covered hills to the South West of town, around the 1st century BC, the territory became subject to the Romans. The newly founded town was named Novum Comum and had the status of municipium, in 774, the town surrendered to invading Franks led by Charlemagne, and became a center of commercial exchange. In 1127, Como lost a war with the nearby town of Milan. A few decades later, with the help of Frederick Barbarossa, Frederick promoted the construction of several defensive towers around the city limits, of which only one, the Baradello, remains. Subsequently, the history of Como followed that of the Ducato di Milano, through the French invasion and the Spanish domination, until 1714, Napoleon descended into Lombardy in 1796 and ruled it until 1815, when the Austrian rule was resumed after the Congress of Vienna. Finally in 1859, with the arrival of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the town was freed from the Austrians, as a curiosity, the Rockefeller fountain that today stands in the Bronx Zoo in New York City was once in the main square by the lakeside. It was bought by William Rockefeller in 1902 for 3,500 lire, nearby major cities are Varese, Lecco and Lugano. Wind is quite rare, only sudden bursts of foehn or thunderstorms manage to sweep the air clean, pollution levels rise significantly in winter when cold air clings to the soil. Rain is more frequent during spring, summer is subject to thunderstorms and, occasionally, Como Cathedral, construction began in 1396 on the site of the previous Romanesque church of Santa Maria Maggiore. The façade was built in 1457, with the rose window. The construction was finished in 1740, the interior is on the Latin cross plan, with Gothic nave and two aisles divided by piers, while the transept wing and the relative apses are from the Renaissance age. It includes a carved 16th century choir and tapestries on cartoons by Giuseppe Arcimboldi, the dome is a rococo structure by Filippo Juvarra. Other artworks include 16th–17th century tapestries and 16th century paintings by Bernardino Luini, San Fedele, a Romanesque church erected around 1120 over a pre-existing central plan edifice. The original bell tower was rebuilt in modern times, the main feature is the famous Door of St. Fedele, carved with medieval decorations. SantAgostino, built by the Cistercians in the early 14th century, the interior and adjoining cloister have 15th–17th century frescoes, but most of the decoration is BaroqueComo – View from Lake Como. The tower which tops the hill on the right is the Castello Baradello.
14. Artur Schnabel – Artur Schnabel was an Austrian classical pianist, who also composed and taught. Schnabel was known for his seriousness as a musician, avoiding pure technical bravura. His performances of compositions have often been hailed as models of interpretative penetration. His best-known recording is of the complete Beethoven piano sonatas, recorded between 1932 and 1935, it is the first recording made of the complete cycle of 32 sonatas. Schonberg to refer to Schnabel as the man who invented Beethoven, born in Lipnik near Bielitz, Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Schnabel was the youngest of three children born to Isidor Schnabel, a textile merchant, and his wife, Ernestine Taube. He had two sisters, Clara and Frieda, Schnabels parents moved to Vienna in 1884, when he was two. He began learning the piano at the age of four, when he took a spontaneous interest in his eldest sister Claras piano lessons, at the age of six he began piano lessons under Professor Hans Schmitt of the Vienna Conservatorium. Schnabel remained under Leschetizkys tutelage for seven years, between 1891 and 1897 and his co-students of Leschetizky during that period included Ossip Gabrilowitsch, Mark Hambourg and Ignaz Friedman. Initially, for his first year under Leschetizky, he was given rigorous preparatory technical tuition from Anna Yesipova, from age ten, he participated in all Leschetizkys classes. Following a failed approach to Anton Bruckner, Schnabel studied music theory. Mandyczewski was an assistant to Johannes Brahms, and through him Schnabel was introduced to Brahms circle and was often in the composers presence. The young Schnabel once heard Brahms play in a performance of his first piano quartet, for all the notes, said Schnabel. Schnabel made his concert debut in 1897, at the Bösendorfer-Saal in Vienna. Later that same year, he gave a series of concerts in Budapest, Prague, Schnabel moved to Berlin in 1898, making his debut there with a concert at the Bechstein-Saal. Following World War I, Schnabel also toured widely, visiting the United States, Russia, in chamber music, he founded the Schnabel Trio with the violinist Alfred Wittenberg and the cellist Anton Hekking, they played together between 1902 and 1904. In 1905, he formed a second Schnabel Trio with Carl Flesch, in 1914, with the outbreak of the First World War, Gérardy left the trio as he could no longer remain in Germany. He was replaced by Hugo Becker and this became the third Schnabel Trio, later, Schnabel also played in a quartet with violinist Bronisław Huberman, composer/violist Paul Hindemith and the cellist Gregor Piatigorsky. Schnabel also played with a number of famous musicians including the violinist Joseph SzigetiArtur Schnabel – Artur Schnabel, about 1906
15. Main chain of the Alps – The main chain of the Alps, also called the Alpine divide is the central line of mountains that forms the water divide of the range. The Alps are generally divided into Western Alps and Eastern Alps, the Western Alps are higher, but their central chain is shorter and much curved, they are located in France, Italy and Switzerland. The Eastern Alps belong to Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, the highest peak of the Western Alps is Mont Blanc, in the Eastern Alps Piz Bernina,4,049 meters. the west. From here the divide extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette, once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks, before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass. The divide then briefly north to the Col de la Soigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc. A number of high peaks line the divide before it attains Mont Dolent and it is in the portion of the watershed between the Grande St Bernard Pass and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part. On the other hand the chain between the Grande St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 3,000 metres, the Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain. From there to the St. Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits rising on it, but all the loftiest peaks rise on it, Scopi, Piz Medel, the Rheinwaldhorn, the Pizzo Tambo and Piz Timun. From the Maloja Pass the main watershed dips to the south-east for a short distance, the break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vinschgau, of the upper Adige is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps. The little Reschen Lake, which forms the source of the Adige is only 4 metres below the Reschen Pass. The Brenner is almost the lowest of all the great Carriage-road passes across the main chain, for some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillertal Alps, which attains 3,510 metres in the Hochfeiler. The water divide further runs eastwards through the Northern Limestone Alps, ending at Vienna Gate, the slopes of the Leopoldsberg high above the Danube water gap. The main chain has more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges, the longest of these are both 9¼ miles, the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner Glacier at Zermatt. But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps are both in the Ötztal Alps, and so close to the main watershed. Alps Geography of the Alps This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, HughMain chain of the Alps – Main chain of the Alps
16. George Clooney – George Timothy Clooney is an American actor, filmmaker, and activist. He has received three Golden Globe Awards for his work as an actor and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana and the other for co-producing Argo, in 1999, he took the lead role in Three Kings, a well-received war satire set during the Gulf War. In 2001, Clooneys fame widened with the release of his biggest commercial success, the heist comedy remake Oceans Eleven, in 2013, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing the political thriller Argo. He is the person who has been nominated for Academy Awards in six different categories. In 2009, Clooney was included in Times annual Time 100 as one of the Most Influential People in the World and he is also noted for his political activism, and has served as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace since January 31,2008. He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Clooney was born in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother, Nina Bruce, was a beauty queen and city councilwoman and his father, Nick Clooney, is a former anchorman and game show host who hosted AMC for five years in the late 1990s. Clooney has Irish, German, and English ancestry and his maternal great-great-great-great-grandmother, Mary Ann Sparrow, was the half-sister of Nancy Lincoln, mother of President Abraham Lincoln. Clooney has a sister named Adelia. His aunt was the cabaret singer and actress Rosemary Clooney. Through Rosemary, his cousins include actors Miguel Ferrer, Rafael Ferrer, and Gabriel Ferrer, Clooney was raised a strict Roman Catholic, but said in 2006 that he does not know if he believes in Heaven, or even God. He has said, Yes, we were Catholic, big time, whole family and he began his education at the Blessed Sacrament School in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky. He attended St. Michaels School in Columbus, Ohio, then Western Row Elementary School in Mason, Ohio, from 1968 to 1974, and St. Susanna School in Mason, the Clooneys moved back to Kentucky when George was midway through the seventh grade. In middle school, Clooney developed Bells palsy, a condition that partially paralyzes the face, the malady went away within a year. In an interview with Larry King, he stated that yes and it takes about nine months to go away. It was the first year of school, which was a bad time for having half your face paralyzed. After his parents moved to Augusta, Kentucky, Clooney attended Augusta High School and he has stated that he earned all As and a B in school, and was an enthusiastic baseball and basketball player. He tried out to professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1977George Clooney – Clooney at a ceremony for John Wells in January 2012
17. Tourism in Italy – With 48.6 million tourists a year, Italy is the fifth most visited country in international tourism arrivals. People mainly visit Italy for its art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches, its mountains. Italy also contains more World Heritage Sites than any country in the world. Tourism is one of Italys fastest growing and most profitable industrial sectors, traders and merchants came to Italy from several different parts of the world. Pilgrims, for centuries and still today, would come to the city, the trade empires of Venice, Pisa and Genoa meant that several traders, businessmen and merchants from all over the world would also regularly come to Italy. In the 16th and early 17th century, with the height of the Renaissance, several came to Italy to study Italian architecture. Real tourism only affected in Italy in the half of the 17th century. This was a period in which European aristocrats, many of whom were British, visited parts of Europe, Italy, Greece and this was in order to study ancient architecture and the local culture. The Grand Tour was in essence triggered by the book Voyage to Italy, by Roman Catholic priest Richard Lassels, due to the Grand Tour, tourism became even more prevalent - making Italy one of the most desired destinations for millions of people. Once inside what would be modern-day Italy, these tourists would begin by visiting Turin for a short while. On the way there, Milan was also a stop, yet a trip to the city was not considered essential. If a person came via boat, then they would remain a few days in Genoa, yet, the main destination in Northern Italy was Venice, which was considered a vital stop, as well as cities around it such as Verona, Vicenza and Padua. Tourists rarely, yet occasionally, got to Trieste, as the Tour went on, Tuscan cities were also very important itinerary stops. Florence was an attraction, and other Tuscan towns, such as Siena, Pisa, Lucca. The most prominent stop in Central Italy, however, was Rome, later, they would go down to the Bay of Naples, and after their discovery in 1756, Pompeii and Herculaneum were popular too. Sicily was considered a significant part of the trail, and several, such as Goethe, throughout the 17th to 18th centuries, the Grand Tour was mainly reserved for academics or the elite. Nevertheless, circa 1840, rail transport was introduced and the Grand Tour started to fall out of vogue, hence. The 1840s saw the period in which the Victorian middle classes toured the country, several Americans were also able to visit Italy, and many more tourists came to the peninsulaTourism in Italy – The Amalfi Coast seen from Ravello in Campania. This is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Italy.
18. Gwen Stefani – Gwen Renée Stefani is an American singer, songwriter, and fashion designer. During the bands hiatus, Stefani embarked on a pop career in 2004 by releasing her debut studio album Love. Inspired by pop music from the 1980s, the album was met both critical and commercial success. It spawned three successful singles, What You Waiting For. Rich Girl, and Hollaback Girl, the reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 while also becoming the first US download to sell one million copies. In 2006 Stefani released her studio album The Sweet Escape. The album produced two singles, Wind It Up and the albums title track The Sweet Escape. Her third solo album This Is What the Truth Feels Like was released in March 2016, Stefani has won three Grammy Awards. As a solo artist she has received accolades, including an American Music Award, Brit Award, World Music Award. In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L. A. M. B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line, drawing inspiration from Japanese culture, Stefani performs and makes public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She was married to British musician Gavin Rossdale from 2002 to 2015, Billboard magazine ranked Stefani the 54th most successful artist and 37th most successful Hot 100 artist of the 2000–09 decade. VH1 ranked her 13th on their 100 Greatest Women in Music list in 2012, including her work with No Doubt, Stefani has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide. Stefani was born on October 3,1969, in Fullerton, California and she was named after a stewardess in the 1968 novel Airport, and her middle name, Renée, comes from The Four Tops 1968 cover of The Left Bankes 1966 song Walk Away Renée. Her father, Dennis Stefani, is Italian American and worked as a Yamaha marketing executive and her mother, Patti, worked as an accountant before becoming a housewife. Gwens parents were fans of music and exposed her to music by artists like Bob Dylan. She has two siblings, Jill and Todd, and an older brother named Eric. Eric was the keyboardist for No Doubt before leaving the band to pursue a career in animation on The Simpsons. Her brother Eric introduced Gwen to 2 Tone music by Madness and The Selecter and, in 1986, he invited her to provide vocals for No Doubt, finally, in 1991, the band was signed to Interscope RecordsGwen Stefani – Stefani at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival
19. Adolphe Thiers – Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers was a French statesman and historian. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic and he was ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra during his term as president. Thiers was a key figure in the July Revolution of 1830, which overthrew the Bourbon monarchy, and the French Revolution of 1848, which established the Second French Republic. He served as a minister in 1836,1840 and 1848, dedicated the Arc de Triomphe. He was first a supporter, then an opponent of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. When Napoleon III seized power, Thiers was arrested and briefly expelled from France and he then returned and became an opponent of the government. Following the defeat of France in the Franco-German War, which Thiers opposed, he was elected executive of the new French government. When the Paris Commune seized power in March 1871, Thiers gave the orders to the army for its suppression, at the age of seventy-four, he was named President of the Republic by the French National Assembly in August 1871. His chief accomplishment as president was to achieve the departure of German soldiers from most of French territory two years ahead of schedule. Opposed by the monarchists in the French assembly and the wing of the Republicans, he resigned on 24 May 1873. He was also a literary figure, the author of a very successful ten-volume history of the French Revolution. In 1834 he was elected the second-youngest member ever of the Académie Française, Adolphe Thiers was born on 15 April 1797, during the rule of the Directorate. His father was a businessman and occasional government official under Napoleon and his father abandoned Adolphe and his mother shortly after he was born. His mother had little money, but Thiers was able to receive an education thanks to financial aid from an aunt. He won admission to a lycée of Marseille through a competitive examination, while studying at the faculty of law he began his lifelong friendship with François Mignet. They both were admitted to the bar in 1818, and Thiers made a living as a lawyer for three years. He showed a strong interest in literature, and won a prize of five hundred francs for an essay on the marquis de Vauvenargues. Nonetheless, he was unhappy with his life in Aix and he wrote to his friend Teulon, I am without fortune, without status, and without any hope of having either hereAdolphe Thiers – Adolphe Thiers
20. Emma Albani – Dame Emma Albani, DBE was a leading opera soprano of the 19th century and early 20th century, and the first Canadian singer to become an international star. Her repertoire focused on the operas of Mozart, Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini and she performed across Europe and North America. Albani was born Marie-Louise-Emma-Cécile Lajeunesse in Chambly, Quebec, to the professional musician Joseph Lajeunesse and his wife, Mélina Mignault. Her date of birth is given as 1 November 1847, but other authors have placed her birth in 1848 or 1850. She began her studies with her mother, and at age five her father took over her musical lessons. Her father was a proficient musician who was skilled with the violin, harp, piano and he kept her on a strong practice regimen, with as much as four hours a day of lessons on the harp and piano. The family moved to Plattsburgh, New York, in 1852, in 1856 after the death of her mother, she continued her education in a Montreal convent-school, run by the Dames du Sacré-Coeur where her father had obtained the position of Music Master. This afforded her an education than she might otherwise receive. On 24 August 1860 she and Adelina Patti were soloists in the premiere of Charles Wugk Sabatiers Cantata in Montreal which was performed in honour of the visit of the Prince of Wales. However, she was unable to finance a musical education in Quebec, where singing and acting were considered unsavoury careers for a woman. There she became a singer, an organist and teacher of singing. In 1868, she travelled to Paris, where she studied with Gilbert Duprez at the Conservatoire de Paris and she spent six months in Paris, training with Duprez. She then travelled to Italy, where she studied Italian opera singing with Francesco Lamperti, under the guidance of her elocution instructor, Signor Delorenzi, she changed her name to the simpler Emma Albani, which sounded more European. She made her debut at Messina using the surname Albani and her funds began to run low, and although her training was not yet complete she began to look for work to help support her schooling. She found a position in Messina, and her debut was on 30 March 1870, in Messina. Her debut performance was well received. They had painted it red, and the little bird rose. She returned to Milan after her contract in Messina had expired, additional work offers began to pour inEmma Albani – Dame Emma Albani
21. Rockefeller Foundation – The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. Its stated mission is promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world, as of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2008 assets were tallied at $3.1 billion from $4.6 billion in 2007, on January 5,2017, the Board of Trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, and first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation. He assumed the position March 1, succeeding Dr. Judith Rodin who served as president for twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005, a former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. It was in that year he gave the first $100,000 to fund the University of Chicago, over the next two decades, $35 million dollars were gifted to the institution by Rockefeller. It was also in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women, Rockefellers would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. On May 14,1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a charter for the foundation - two years after the Carnegie Corporation - with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a part of Seniors fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes. On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade entirely on the sciences, public health and medical education. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US and its early field research on hookworm, malaria, and yellow fever provided the basic techniques to control these diseases and established the pattern of modern public health services. In 1913 it also began a 20-year support program of the Bureau of Social Hygiene, whose mission was research and education on birth control, maternal health and sex education. Also in 1914, the set up a new Department of Industrial Relations. The foundation henceforth confined itself to funding responsible organizations involved in this and other controversial fields, during its first few years of work, the LSRM awarded funds primarily to social workers, with its funding decisions guided primarily by John D. Rockefeller Jr. In January 1929, LSRM funds were folded into the Rockefeller Foundation, John D. Rockefeller Jr. became the foundation chairman in 1917Rockefeller Foundation – Original Rockefeller logo, no longer in use
22. List of rivers of Switzerland – Adriatic Sea, via the Po and the Adige. Rivers that flow into other rivers are sorted by the proximity of their points of confluence to the sea, some rivers do not flow through Switzerland themselves, but they are mentioned for having Swiss tributaries. They are given in italics.3 km -1,693 km2 Albula -36 km -950 km2 Gelgia - km - km2 Landwasser 30.5 km Vorderrhein -67List of rivers of Switzerland – Saane/Sarine at Fribourg
23. Bergamo – Bergamo is a city in Lombardy, Italy, about 40 km northeast of Milan and 30 km from the lakes Como and Iseo. The foothills of the Bergamo Alps begin immediately north of the town, Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo. With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy, the metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is part of the broader Milan metropolitan area. As of 2015, Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan, Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing c.10,000 inhabitants at its peak, an important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important Lombard duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia, Trento, after the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. An important Lombardic hoard dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the British Museum. From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, the local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Colleoni and Suardi, respectively. Feuding between the two initially caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c, from 1264, Bergamo was intermittently under the rule of Milan. In 1331, it gave itself to John of Bohemia, after a short conquest by the Malatesta in 1407, in 1428 it fell under the control of the Venetian Republic, remaining part of it until 1797. Between 1797 and 1815, Bergamo and its territory were included in the political entities born in North Italy during the French, notably, the Venetians fortified the higher portion of the town. In 1815, it was assigned to the Austrian Empire, giuseppe Garibaldi freed it in 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, when Bergamo became part of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 20th century Bergamo became one of Italys most industrialized cities and it is also one of the few Italian cities that did not suffer major destruction during World War II. Bergamo experiences a subtropical climate characteristic of Northern Italy. While most of Italy is characterized by dry summers with little to no precipitation, Bergamo has the reverse trend, the two parts of the town are connected by funicular/cable car, roads, and foot-paths. Parking spaces are limited in the upper city. The upper city, surrounded by Venetian walls built in the 16th century, Città Alta is an extremely expensive place to live in, with properties being sold for five to twelve thousand euro per square meterBergamo – Top: City skyline at sunrise. Second row. Left: Palazzo della Ragione and Bergamo Cathedral. Right: Cappella Colleoni. Third row. Left: asymptote architecture. Middle: Contarini Fountain in Piazza Vecchia. Right: Biblioteca Angelo Mai. Fourth row. Left: Bergamo–Albino light rail station. Right: Passeggiata in the central district.
24. Lake Garda – Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy. It is a holiday location and is located in northern Italy. Glaciers formed this region at the end of the last Ice Age. The lake and its shoreline are divided between the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trentino, the name Garda, which the lake has been seen referred to in documents dating to the eighth century, comes from the town of the same name. It is the evolution of the Germanic word warda, meaning place of guard or place of observation, the northern part of the lake is narrower, surrounded by mountains, the majority of which belong to the Gruppo del Baldo. The shape is typical of a valley, probably having been formed under the action of a Paleolithic glacier. Nearby to the south is Isola San Biagio, also known as the Isola dei Conigli, both are offshore of San Felice del Benaco, on the lakes western side. The three other islands are Isola dellOlivo, Isola di Sogno, and Isola di Trimelone. The main tributary is the Sarca River, others include the Ponale River, if the water level of the Adige river is too high, excess water is diverted to the lake through the Mori-Torbole tunnel. The particularly mild climate favours the growth of some Mediterranean plants, citrus trees can also be found, which are extremely rare at this latitude. This greatly favoured the development of tourism since the end of the world war. In ancient times, poets like Catullus wrote about Lacus Benacus with its mild climate vivified by the winds, the bottleneck formed by the lake basin affects the timing of the winds, many of which happen on a regular daily basis. The winds are all named, most in regional Italian dialect so a single wind may have different names, salmo carpio, also known as the carpione is a rare salmonid fish endemic to Lake Garda. It has been introduced to a number of lakes in Italy and elsewhere. The population in Lake Garda has been declining, and is considered critically endangered. The main threats are due to overfishing, pollution and possibly competition from introduced species such as Coregonus, adult lake trout outside the mating season are silvery with very few black spots on the body and almost none on the head. During the mating season males develop some a dark mottled body coloration, Garda lake trout reach a length of up to 50 centimeters. They live primarily in depths of 100 to 200 metres and they feed on zooplankton and bottom-dwelling crustaceans in summerLake Garda – Nago–Torbole and the northern part of the lake
25. Lecco – Lecco is a city of 48,131 inhabitants in Lombardy, northern Italy,50 kilometres north of Milan, the capital of the province of Lecco. It lies at the end of the branch of Lake Como. The Bergamo Alps rise to the north and east, cut through by the Valsassina of which Lecco marks the southern end, the lake narrows to form the river Adda, so bridges were built to improve road communications with Como and Milan. There are four crossing the river Adda in Lecco, the Azzone Visconti Bridge, the Kennedy Bridge and the Alessandro Manzoni Bridge. Its economy used to be based on industry, but now it is mainly tertiary, Lecco was also Alpine Town of the Year 2013. Archaeological finds demonstrate the presence of Celtic settlement in the area before the arrival of the Romans, the latter built a castrum here and made it an important road hub. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Lombards captured the town in the 6th century, they were followed by the Franks, emperor Otto I spent a long time in Lecco, crushing the 964 AD revolt against the Holy Roman Empire led by Leccos Count Attone. Later it became a possession of the Milanese monastery of St. Ambrose, conrad II also stayed in Lecco, in the attempt to free it from the church, but as the result of the ensuing wars the city was subjected by Milan. It subsequently followed the history of the Duchy of Milan and of Lombardy, in the early 16th century it was briefly ruled by the condottiere Gian Giacomo Medici. The main sports facility of the city is the Rigamonti-Ceppi Stadium and it was built in 1922 in honor of the football player Mario Rigamonti and the ex president of the team Mario Ceppi. It can contain almost 5000 people, Lecco is the finish of the Giro di Lombardia cycling classic which includes the famous Madonna del Ghisallo hill. Alessandro Manzoni, poet and novelist, author of I promessi sposi, antonio Ghislanzoni, journalist, poet, and novelist, he wrote many librettos for Verdi, including La forza del destino and Aida. Roberto Castelli, Senator, former Minister of Justice during the government of Silvio Berlusconi 2001–2006, roberto Formigoni, a Catholic conservative politician, President of Lombardy since 1995. Antonio Rossi, a canoeist and five-time Olympic medalist in kayak flatwater canoeing, sandro Salsano, a businessman and philanthropist, chairman and president of Salsano Group. Alessandro Manzoni set the events in the first half of The Betrothed in Lecco and we voyaged by steamer down the Lago di Lecco, through wild mountain scenery, and by hamlets and villas, and disembarked at the town of Lecco. They said it was two hours, by carriage to the ancient city of Bergamo, and that we would arrive there in season for the railway train. We got an open barouche and a wild, boisterous driver and we had a fast team and a perfectly smooth road. There were towering cliffs on our left, and the pretty Lago di Lecco on our right, in total, ethnic groups in Lecco represent 97 countriesLecco – Piazza XX Settembre, in the centre of the town, and the San Martino mountain.
26. Bellagio, Lombardy – Bellagio is a comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region of Lombardy. It is located on Lake Como, also known by its Latin-derived name, the arms of the lake form an inverted Y. The triangular land mass at the base of the inverted Y is the Larian Triangle, the Como arm of the lake lies to its south west, the Lecco arm of the lake to its south east. At the northern point of the triangle sits Bellagio, looking across to the arm of the lake and, behind it. It has always been famous for its location, Bellagio is situated upon the cape of the land mass that divides Lake Como in two. The city centre occupies the tip of the promontory, while other districts are scattered along the lake shores, from the ancient glacial blanket only the highest tops emerged, one of them Mount St. Primo, which obliged the glaciers to divide into two arms. Nowadays, a luxuriance of trees and flowers is favoured by a mild, the historic centre of Bellagio shelters 350m southwest of the promontory of the Larian Triangle, between the Villa Serbelloni on the hill and the Como arm of the lake. At the far tip of the promontory are a park and a marina, parallel to the shore are three streets, Mazzini, Centrale and Garibaldi in ascending order. Cutting across them to form a grid are seven medieval stone stairs running uphill. The Basilica of San Giacomo and a tower, sole relic of medieval defences. In 225 BC, the territory of the Gallo-Insubres was occupied by the Romans, the Romans, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeated the Gallo-Insubres in a fierce battle near Camerlata, occupying Como and the shores of the lake. Insubre hopes of independence were raised by an alliance with Hannibal during the Second Punic War, Bellagio became both a Roman garrison and a point of passage and wintering for the Roman armies on their way through to the province of Raetia and the Splügen pass. Troops wintered at the foot of the present Villa Serbelloni, sheltered from north winds, such variant Latin names as Belacius and Bislacus suggest Bellagio was originally Bi-lacus. Between 81 and 77 BC Cornelius Scipio brought 3,000 Latin colonists to Lake Como, from 59 BC Julius Caesar, as pro-consul, brought up another 5000 colonists, most importantly 500 Greeks from Sicily. Their names are borne by their descendants. Bellagio became a mixture of races which became more and more complex in the following centuries, also it increased its strategic importance because, as well as a place for wintering, it sheltered warships especially at Loppia, where the natural creek made it easy to repair them. Around Loppia there formed one of the first suburbs of Bellagio, the Romans introduced many Mediterranean crops, including the olive and laurel, from the name of the latter derives the Latin name of Lake Como. In the early decades of the Empire, two great figures brought fame to the lake and Bellagio, Virgil and Pliny the Younger, Virgil, the Latin poet, visited Bellagio and remembered the lake in the second book of the Georgics, verse 155Bellagio, Lombardy – A view over Bellagio looking along the Como arm of the lake.
27. Submerged floating tunnel – A submerged floating tunnel, also called a suspended tunnel or Archimedes bridge, is a tunnel that floats in water, supported by its buoyancy. The tube is placed underwater, deep enough to water traffic and weather. Cables either anchored to the Earth or to pontoons at the surface prevent it from floating to the surface or submerging, another possibility is to build the sections unsealed, and after welding them together, pump the water out. The ballast used is calculated so that the structure has approximate hydrostatic equilibrium and this, of course, means that a submerged floating tunnel must be anchored to the ground or to the water surface to keep it in place. Submerged floating tubes allow construction of a tunnel in extremely deep water and they would be able to deal with seismic disturbances and weather events easily, and their structural performance is independent of length. On the other hand, they may be vulnerable in regards to anchors or submarine traffic, likely applications include fjords, deep, narrow sea channels, and deep lakes. A submerged floating tunnel has never built, but several proposals have been presented by different entities. p. A. This project also linked with FEHRL through the Forever Open Road programme, if the project were to proceed it estimated to cost $25 billion and be completed by 2035. The consortium has started to build a 100m demonstration tunnel in Qiandao Lake in China eastern province of Zhejiang, inside it, two layers of one-way motorways will run though in the middle, with two railway tracks flanking them. The Qiandao Lake prototype will serve to help plan for the project of a 3, 300-meter submerged floating tunnel in the Jintang Strait, in the Zhoushan archipelago, also situated in Zhejiang. According to Elio Matacena, the President of Ponte Archimede di International, namely, the cables, which are very expensive, would be very long. He also notes that the tunnel is capable of supporting more weight than a traditional bridge, Matacena points out that environmental studies show that the tunnel would have a very low impact on aquatic life. Indonesia has also expressed interest in the technology, for the infrastructure that would connect Sumatra to Java Island two options were explored, a conventional bridge or an undersea tunnel. The budget was said to be around 15 billion US dollars for a tunnel in the Sunda Strait, in the long term it would link up Java. The project was to construction in 2005 and be ready to use by 2018. However, the option was later favored. In 2007, Indonesian experts, led by Ir, as an archipelagic country, consisting of more than 13 thousand islands, Indonesia could benefit from such tunnels. Conventional transportation between islands is mainly by ferry, submerged floating tunnels could thus be an alternative means to connect adjacent islands, in addition to normal bridgesSubmerged floating tunnel – Two types of submerged floating tunnels
28. Alpina Comune – The Alpina Comune is a heterogeneous population of domestic goats widely distributed in the Alps of northern Italy, particularly in the regions of Lombardy and Piemonte. It is highly variable in size, in morphological characteristics such as the type, colour and pattern of its coat and the shape and carriage of its ears, and in type of use. It does not display any of the uniformity characteristic of a breed, other than a consistent hardiness and it is however officially recognised and protected as one. The name Alpina Comune, common, is used in Piemonte, in Lombardy it may be called Alpina Locale, local, or simply Nostrana. Management is extensive, the animals are kept on medium or high pasture in the summer months. At the end of 2013 the registered population was reported as 497, almost all of which were in Val dAosta. Figures for the size of the population vary widely. It was estimated at 22,000 in 1973, and in 2001 at 55,000. Another estimate in 2002 reached the figure, with 40,000 in Piemonte and 15,000 in Lombardy. The Alpina Comune is raised both for meat and for milk, the milk yield is approximately 400–600 kg per lactation of 180–270 days. The milk is used to make cheeses, either pure caprino or mixed-milk, including Toma, Raschera, Bra, kids are usually slaughtered at a weight of 10-13 kg, the meat of adult animals is used to make salumi such the violino, a goats-meat prosciutto. The products vary from place to place depending on the traditions of the areaAlpina Comune – Alpina Comune
29. Lugano – Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy. It has a population of 71,500, and an urban agglomeration over 145,000, the 9th largest Swiss city, it is the largest in Ticino and largest with an Italian speaking majority outside Italy. The city lies on Lake Lugano, surrounded by the mountains of the Lugano Prealps, the toponym is first recorded in 804, in the form Luanasco, in 874 as Luano, and from 1189 as Lugano. German-language variants of the name were Lowens, Lauis, Lauwis, the etymology of the name is uncertain, suggestions include derivation from lucus grove, from a vulgar Latin lakvannus lake-dweller and from the god Lugus. The blazon of the coat of arms is Gules, a cross throughout argent. The coat of arms dates from around 1200, the four letters on the coat of arms are an abbreviation of the name Lugano. The shores of Lake Lugano have been inhabited since the Stone Age, within the modern city limits a number of ground stones or quern-stones have been found. In the area surrounding Lugano, items from the Copper Age, there are Etruscan monuments at Davesco-Soragno, Pregassona, and Viganello. Graves with jewelry and household items have been found in Aldesago, Davesco, Pazzallo, the region around Lake Lugano was settled by the Romans by the 1st century BC. There was an important Roman city north of Lugano at Bioggio, there are fewer traces of the Romans in Lugano, but several inscriptions, graves and coins indicate that some Romans lived in what would become Lugano. Other documents, dating from 804 and 844 refer to Lake Lugano as Laco Luanasco, during the fighting between Guelphs and Ghibellines and the new disputes between Como and Milan, during the 14th and 15th centuries, Lugano was the scene of clashes between opposing forces. After a long rule by the Rusca family, Lugano was freed from the domination of Como, at the same time the link between town and the valley strengthened. By 1405–06 documents attest to a vallis comunitas Lugani et, which was a body that was independent of Como. The new community included the parishes of Lugano, Agno, Riva San Vitale, in 1416 the Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti conquered the region of Lugano and the Rusca valley and made it a fief. A year later, Luganos freedoms were first documented in a series of statutes modeled on those of Como, the town was able to secure complete independence. Between 1433 and 1438 the Duke of Milan, Aloisio Sanseverino sat as a feudal lord over Lugano and he compensated the Rusca family with the ownership of Locarno. Under the reign of his heirs in the following decades rebellions and riots broke out and it was the object of continuous disputes between the Dukes of Como and Milan until it became a Swiss dominion in 1513. Swiss control lasted until 1798 when Napoleon conquered the Old Swiss Confederation, in 1746, the Agnelli brothers opened the first printing press and bookshop in LuganoLugano – Lugano
30. Lake Lugano – Lake Lugano is a glacial lake which is situated on the border between southern Switzerland and northern Italy. The lake, named after the city of Lugano, is situated between Lake Como and Lago Maggiore, the lake appears in documents in 804 under the name Laco Luanasco. Well-known mountains and tourist destinations on the shores of the lake are Monte Brè to the east, Monte San Salvatore west of Lugano, the World Heritage Site Monte San Giorgio is situated south of the lake. The first certain testimony of a body governing the shores of the lake is from 818. Occupying an area of importance, the lake was then part of the feudal dominion of the County of Sperio. Circa 1000, it came under the control of the Bishop of Como, the region was the site of the war between Como and Milan over control of Alpine traffic from 1218 to 1227. The lake definitively ceased to belong to a sovereign political entity following the establishment of the transalpine bailiwicks of the Swiss cantons at the beginning of the 16th century. The Italian-Swiss border was fixed in 1752 by the Treaty of Varese, in 1848, the Melide causeway was built on a moraine between Melide and Bissone, in order to carry a road across the lake and provide a direct connection between Lugano and Chiasso. Today the causeway carries the Gotthard railway and the A2 motorway. The lake is 48.7 km2 in size, 63% of which is in Switzerland and 37% in Italy, has a width of roughly 1 km. The culminating point of the drainage basin is the Pizzo di Gino summit in the Lugano Prealps. Bathing in the lake is allowed at any of the 50 or so bathing establishments located along the Swiss shores, the Melide causeway separates the northern and southern basins, although a bridge in the causeway permits water flow and navigation. The lake retention time is an average of 8.2 years, places on the lake in Switzerland and in Italy include, The lake is navigable, and used by a considerable number of private vessels. Fishery in the lake is regulated by a 1986 agreement between Switzerland and Italy, the current agreement on navigation dates from 1992. Pollution has long been a problem in Lake Lugano, in the 1960s and 1970s it was officially forbidden to bathe in the lake. The Federal Office for the Environments last published report on Lake Lugano dates from 1995, according to Legambiente, the only reason swimming was not banned on the Italian Lakes was because the state of Lombardy changed the law. They state that pollution levels in the lakes do not conform to European rulings and their 2010 measurements found samples taken at Ponte Tresa, Ostene and Port Ceresio to be heavily polluted. The lake is full of fish, apart from a few protected areas, such as the mouth of the River Cuccio in Porlezza, fishing is allowed anywhere, although according to various regulationsLake Lugano – Lake Lugano Lago di Lugano
31. Moto Guzzi – Moto Guzzi is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer and the oldest European manufacturer in continuous motorcycle production. Since 2004, Moto Guzzi has been a unico azionista, an owned subsidiary. SpA, Europes largest motorcycle manufacturer and the fourth largest motorcycle manufacturer by unit sales. Moto Guzzi was conceived by two pilots and their mechanic serving in the Corpo Aeronautico Militare during World War I, Carlo Guzzi, Giovanni Ravelli. Assigned to the same Miraglia Squadron based outside Venice, the three became close, despite coming from different socio-economic backgrounds, the trio envisioned creating a motorcycle company after the war. Guzzi would engineer the motor bikes, Parodi would finance the venture, Guzzi and Parodi formed Moto Guzzi in 1921. Ravelli, ironically, had died just days after the end in an aircraft crash and is commemorated by the eagles wings that form the Moto Guzzi logo. Although with the condition that the sum, under no circumstances, likewise, I reserve the right to supervise your progress before giving my agreement to this project. The company was based in Genoa, Italy, with its headquarters in Mandello. The very earliest motorcycles bore the name G. P. though the marque quickly changed to Moto Guzzi, as the only actual shareholders, the Parodis wanted to shield their shipping fortunes by avoiding confusion of name G. P. with Giorgio Parodis initials. Carlo Guzzi initially received royalties for each motorcycle produced, holding no ownership in the company that bore his name, in 1946 Moto Guzzi formally incorporated as Moto Guzzi S. p. A. with Giorgio Parodi as chairman. Carlo Guzzis first engine design was a single that dominated the first 45 years of the companys history in various configurations. Through 1934, each bore the signature of the mechanic who built it. As originally envisioned, the company used racing to promote the brand, in the 1935 Isle of Man TT, Moto Guzzi factory rider Stanley Woods performed an impressive double victory with wins in the Lightweight TT as well as the Senior TT. Also unusual was the adoption of only one hairspring to close the exhaust valve and these were the highest performance engines Moto Guzzi sold to the general public. By contrast, the company supplied the official racing team and private racers with higher performance racing machines with varying overhead cam, multi-valve configurations, in the 1950s, Moto Guzzi, along with the Italian factories of Gilera and Mondial, led the world of Grand Prix motorcycle racing. With durable and lightweight 250 cc and 350 cc bikes designed by Giulio Carcano, the factory won five consecutive 350 cc world championships between 1953 and 1957. In realizing that low weight alone might not continue to win races for the company, despite the bikes having led many races and frequently posted the fastest lap time, it often failed to complete races because of mechanical problemsMoto Guzzi – Moto Guzzi
32. John Soane – Sir John Soane RA was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. The son of a bricklayer, he rose to the top of his profession, becoming professor of architecture at the Royal Academy and he received a knighthood in 1831. His best-known work was the Bank of England, a building which had an effect on commercial architecture. He also designed Dulwich Picture Gallery, which, with its galleries, was a major influence on the planning of subsequent art galleries. The museum is described in the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture as one of the most complex, intricate, Soane was born in Goring-on-Thames on 10 September 1753. He was the surviving son of John Soan and his wife Martha. The e was added to the surname by the architect in 1784 on his marriage and his father was a builder or bricklayer, and died when Soane was fourteen in April 1768. He was educated in nearby Reading in a school run by William Baker. After his fathers death Soanes family moved to nearby Chertsey to live with Soanes brother William,12 years his elder, William Soane introduced his brother to James Peacock, a surveyor who worked with George Dance the Younger. Soane began his training as an architect age 15 under George Dance the Younger and joining the architect at his home and office in the City of London at the corner of Moorfields and Chiswell Street. Dance was a member of the Royal Academy and doubtless encouraged Soane to join the schools there on 25 October 1771 as they were free. There he would have attended the lectures delivered by Thomas Sandby. Dances growing family was probably the reason that in 1772 Soane continued his education by joining the household, Soane, a non-swimmer, was going to be with the party but decided to stay home and work on his design for a Triumphal Bridge. By 1777, Soane was living in his own accommodation in Hamilton Street, in 1778 he published his first book Designs in Architecture. He sought advice from Sir William Chambers on what to study, must discover their true beauties, and the secrets by which they are produced. Using his traveling scholarship of £60 per annum for three years, plus an additional £30 travelling expenses for each leg of the journey, Soane set sail on his Grand Tour, his ultimate destination being Rome, at 5,00 am,18 March 1778. His travelling companion was Robert Furze Brettingham, they travelled via Paris and they finally reached Rome on 2 May 1778. Soane wrote home my attention is taken up in the seeing and examining the numerousJohn Soane – Portrait painted by Thomas Lawrence
33. Paddle steamer – A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water. In antiquity, paddle wheelers followed the development of poles, oars and sails, modern paddle wheelers may be powered by diesel engines. The paddle wheel is a steel framework wheel. The outer edge of the wheel is fitted with numerous, regularly-spaced paddle blades, the bottom quarter or so of the wheel travels underwater. An engine rotates the wheel in the water to produce thrust. More advanced paddle wheel designs feature feathering methods that keep each paddle blade closer to vertical while in the water to increase efficiency, the upper part of a paddle wheel is normally enclosed in a paddlebox to minimise splashing. There are two ways to mount paddle wheels on a ship, either a single wheel on the rear, known as a sternwheeler, or a paddle wheel on each side. Both sternwheelers and sidewheelers were used as riverboats in the United States, some still operate for tourists, for example on the Mississippi River. Sidewheelers are used as riverboats and as coastal craft and this extra maneuverability makes sidewheelers popular on the narrower, winding rivers of the Murray-Darling system in Australia, where a number still operate. European sidewheelers, such as the PS Waverley, connect the wheels with solid drive shafts that limit maneuverability, some were built with paddle clutches that disengage one or both paddles so they can turn independently. However, wisdom gained from experience with sidewheelers deemed that they be operated with clutches out. Crews noticed that as ships approached the dock, passengers moved to the side of the ready to disembark. The shift in weight, added to independent movements of the paddles, could lead to imbalance, in a simple paddle wheel, where the paddles are fixed around the periphery, power is lost due to churning of the water as the paddles enter and leave the water surface. Ideally, the paddles should remain vertical while under water and this ideal can be approximated by use of levers and linkages connected to a fixed eccentric. The eccentric is fixed slightly forward of the wheel centre. It is coupled to each paddle via a rod and lever, the geometry is designed such that the paddles are kept almost vertical for the short duration that they are in the water. One of the drawings of the Anonymous Author of the Hussite Wars shows a boat with a pair of paddle-wheels at each end turned by men operating compound cranks. In 1704, the French physicist Denis Papin constructed the first ship powered by his steam engine and this made him the first to construct a steam-powered boatPaddle steamer – SS Natchez IX Sternwheeler paddleboat in Louisiana
34. The Persuaders! – The Persuaders. is an action/adventure/comedy series produced by ITC Entertainment, and initially broadcast on ITV and ABC in 1971. The Persuaders. was filmed in Britain, France and Italy between May 1970 and June 1971, despite its focus on the British and American markets, the show became more successful in other international markets. It won its highest awards in Australia and Spain, and Roger Moore and Tony Curtis were decorated in Germany and it persists in the memory of European film-makers and audiences, having been casually referenced in 21st-century productions made in Sweden, France, Britain and Germany. The show used many of the resources of Moores previous show and these included locations and the idea of reusing many of the visible vehicles from episode to episode. The most obvious, however, were the many guest stars, roles, the highlight being the undertaker role performed by Ivor Dean, who had portrayed police inspector Claud Eustace Teal in The Saint. The Persuaders are two equally matched men from different backgrounds who reluctantly team together to solve cases that the police, Danny Wilde is a rough diamond, educated and moulded in the slums of New York City, who escaped by enlisting in the US Navy. He later became a millionaire in the oil business, Curtis himself suffered a tough childhood in the Bronx, and served in the US Navy. He was 46 when he made The Persuaders, but he performed all his own stunts, Lord Sinclair is a polished British nobleman educated at Harrow and Oxford, a former British Army officer and an ex-racing car driver, who addresses his colleague as Daniel. As a pair of globe-trotting playboys, the men meet on holiday in the French Riviera, instantly disliking each other and they are arrested and delivered to retired Judge Fulton, who offers them the choice of spending 90 days in jail or helping him to right errors of impunity. Grudgingly, Wilde and Sinclair agree to help Fulton to solve a case and he then releases them from any threat of jail. The men develop an affection for each other and soon stumble into more adventures, sometimes by chance. Although the Judge recurs in the series, he has no relationship with his two agents. Eleven episodes depict his finding a way to convince Wilde and Sinclair to act on his behalf, for instance, in Angie, Angie he easily convinces one of the pair. In The Man in the Middle he endangers his agents so that they must act in his behalf, when they are short of cash he lures them with money. In Powerswitch he manipulates events from the shadows, and Sinclair, some episodes rely on Danny being mistaken for other people, usually by some bizarre coincidence. In Element of Risk he is mistaken for a mastermind named Lomax. In Anyone Can Play he is mistaken at a Brighton casino for a Russian spy paymaster, Wilde never reveals or explains his motives. Besides the premise and the characters The Persuaders is distinguished from other series by signature elements, notably the title sequenceThe Persuaders! – The Persuaders!
35. Stefano Casiraghi – Stefano Casiraghi was an Italian socialite and businessperson. He was the son of Giancarlo Casiraghi and Fernanda Biffi, the son of Giancarlo Casiraghi, a businessperson and Fernanda, Stefano Casiraghi grew up in the Casiraghi familys estate, Villa Cigogne, in Fino Mornasco. He had two brothers, Marco and Daniele, and one sister, Rosalba and he also developed an early passion for the speedboat races on Lake Como. He followed the course of his brothers by enrolling at Milans Bocconi University and he was involved in the real estate and retail export enterprises of the family business that his father had built up. His obituary in The New York Times described him as a financier and said, at his death, the same source said he had a majority interest in Engeco, a Monaco-based construction company which he founded in 1984. At the time of his first childs birth, it was said that he was the director of the Christian Dior boutique in Monte Carlo, a self-styled throttle man, Casiraghi participated in eighty offshore races during his lifetime. Casiraghi had set the record for 172 mph on Lake Como in 1984 and it is a very dangerous sport, but as Casiraghi once said, There are more dangerous sports and I believe one should live life to the fullest. On 29 December 1983 in Monaco, he and Princess Caroline married in a ceremony in the Hall of Mirrors of the Monegasque Princely Palace. They were not able to have a Catholic ceremony because Caroline had been divorced from Philippe Junot, however, as Caroline was over three months pregnant, the couple did not want to wait any longer. Her father, Prince Rainier III was by all accounts initially suspicious of his new son-in-law as were many others, the Italian papers called Casiraghi Carolino and portrayed him as a mere plaything for his wife. Casiraghi was killed in a powerboat racing accident off the coast of Monaco near Cap Ferrat on 3 October 1990 while defending his world offshore title. He was 30 years old and had planned to retire after the race, only weeks earlier, he had escaped death when his boat blew up off the coast of Guernsey. There were three to four-foot wave conditions on the course, which caused Casiraghis 42-foot catamaran, Pinot di Pinot. As a result of his death, safety became more stringent. Races nowadays take place close to the harbor where waves are gentler, Casiraghis copilot, Patrice Innocenti, survived the accident. He was pulled from the water and taken to Monacos Princess Grace Hospital, the funeral Mass was held in Monacos Cathedral of St. Nicholas exactly eight years after Princess Graces funeral in the same place. Stefano Casiraghi is buried in the Chapelle de la Paix in Monaco, photograph of Stefano Casiraghi on the day he diedStefano Casiraghi – Stefano Casiraghi (in the middle)
36. In the Zone – In the Zone is the fourth studio album by American singer Britney Spears. It was released on November 12,2003, by Jive Records and its music incorporates dance, house, reggae, trip hop, and hip hop styles with instrumentation from guitars, drums, synthesizers, strings, and Middle Eastern musical instruments. Its themes range from love, dancing, empowerment, and in the case of such as Touch of My Hand, sex. Contributions to the production came from a wide range of producers, including Bloodshy & Avant, R. Kelly, Trixster, Moby, Guy Sigsworth. She began writing songs for the album while touring internationally, despite not knowing the direction of the album and she experimented with different producers, trying to find those with whom she had chemistry. The first song recorded was Touch of My Hand, which Spears claims set the mood for the album and she co-wrote all but four tracks, and often changed the lyrics to suit herself. Spears stated she was a songwriter, although not to the point where she felt self-exploited. She also explained that the nature of In the Zone was subconscious. Spears collaborated with such as Madonna in Me Against the Music. In the Zone received positive reviews music critics, who complimented its mix of different styles and Spearss songwriting. Commercially, In the Zone became a success, debuting atop the charts in France and the United States. In the United States, she became the first female artist to have four consecutive number-one albums, in the Zone went on to become the eighth best selling album of 2003. To promote In the Zone, Spears performed the songs in a number of television appearances, the album and its music videos are largely seen by critics as the end of her transition from teen pop star to a more adult female artist. In 2009, Amy Schriefer of NPR listed In the Zone as one of The 50 Most Important Recordings of the Decade, calling it a primer on the sound of pop in the 2000s. In November 2001, Spears released her album, Britney. The album sold 4 million copies in the United States, nevertheless, the following year, her relationship of three years with pop singer Justin Timberlake ended after months of speculation. After the Dream Within a Dream Tour in support of Britney finalized in July 2002, in November 2002, she revealed that she had started working on her next studio album. She explained, Well, actually, I just said that I wanted two or three weeks off, and the whole world was like, Ohmigod, shes goneIn the Zone – Spears performing "Me Against the Music" at the 2003 NFL Kickoff Live.
37. Cisalpine Gaul – Cisalpine Gaul, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c.81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy. Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul, precisely that part of Gaul on the side of the Alps. Gallia Cisalpina was further subdivided into Gallia Cispadana and Gallia Transpadana, i. e. its portions south and north of the Po River and they brought a new funerary practice—cremation—which supplanted inhumation. Livy has the Insubres, led by Bellovesus, arrive in northern Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, Milan itself is presumably a Gaulish foundation of the early 6th century BC, its name having a Celtic etymology of in the middle of the plain. Polybius in the 2nd century BC wrote about co-existence of the Celts in northern Italy with Etruscan nations in the period before the Sack of Rome in 390 BC. Ligures lived in Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling South-east French and North-west Italian coasts, including parts of Tuscany, Elba island, Ligurian tribes were also present in Latium and in Samnium. According to Plutarch they called themselves Ambrones, which could indicate a relationship with the Ambrones of northern Europe, little is known of the Ligurian language. Only place-names and personal names remain and it appears to be an Indo-European branch with both Italic and particularly strong Celtic affinities. Because of the strong Celtic influences on their language and culture, modern linguists, like Xavier Delamarre argues that Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to, but not the same as Gaulish. The Ligurian-Celtic question is discussed by Barruol. Ancient Ligurian is either listed as Celtic, or Para-Celtic, the Veneti were an Indo-European people who inhabited north-eastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of the Veneto. By the 4th century BC the Veneti had been so Celticized that Polybius wrote that the Veneti of the 2nd century BC were identical to the Gauls except for language. He further suggested that the identification of the Adriatic Veneti with the Paphlagonian Enetoi led by Antenor — which he attributes to Sophocles — was a due to the similarity of the names. The Roman army was routed in the battle of Allia, the defeat of the combined Samnite, Celtic and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War ending in 290 BC sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe. At the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC, a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed, in the Second Punic War, the Boii and Insubres allied themselves with the Carthaginians, laying siege to Mutina. In response, Rome sent an expedition led by L. Manlius Vulso, vulsos army was ambushed twice, and the Senate sent Scipio with an additional force to provide support. These were the Roman forces encountered by Hannibal after his crossing of the Alps, the Romans were defeated in the Battle of the Ticinus, leading to all the Gauls except for the Cenomani to join the insurgencyCisalpine Gaul – Detail of the Tabula Peutingeriana showing northern Italy between Augusta Pretoria (Aosta) and Placentia (Piacenza); the Insubres are marked as inhabiting the Po Valley upstream of Ticeno (Pavia) and downstream of the Trumpli and Mesiates which occupy the upper reaches of the Sesia and Agogna rivers.
38. Comacine masters – Their masons marks have suggested arcane meanings for some enthusiasts. The reference has been interpreted as granting certain privileges to magistri comacini, comacini are also mentioned in a passage in the Memoratorium of Liutprand the Lombard. Such, it supposed, were the comacini whose geographical center in the Early Middle Ages originated in Lombardy, in Como and Pavia. If masons marks were the sign of the comacini, then evidence of their work has found in several parts of Europe. Freemasons claimed descent from the guilds of comacini, another notable group of medieval stoneworkers were maestri Campionesi from Campione, not far from Como. Geza de Francovich, La corrente comasca nella scultura romanica I and II, Rivista dellIstituto della Storia dArte e Archeologia 8, joselita Raspi Serra, English Decorative Sculpture of the Early Twelfth Century and the Como-Pavian Tradition, The Art Bulletin 51.4, pp 352–362Comacine masters – Lion portal at the monastery church (Kaiserdom) in Königslutter
39. John Florio – John Florio, known in Italian as Giovanni Florio, was a linguist and lexicographer, a royal language tutor at the Court of James I, and a possible friend and influence on William Shakespeare. He was also the first translator of Montaigne into English and he was born in London, and in 1580 he married Aline, the sister of poet Samuel Daniel. The couple had three children, Joane Florio, baptised in Oxford in 1585, Edward, in 1588 and Elizabeth and he died in Fulham, London in 1625 Born in London, John Florio was of Anglo-Italian origin. He referred to himself as an Englishman in Italiane, johns father, Michelangelo Florio, born in Tuscany, had been a Franciscan friar before converting to the Protestant faith. He got into trouble with the Inquisition in Italy, after preaching in Naples, Padua, seeking refuge in England during the reign of Edward VI, he was appointed pastor of the Italian Protestant congregation in London in 1550. He was also a member of the household of William Cecil and he was dismissed from both on a charge of immorality, but William Cecil later fully forgave him. Little is known of Florios mother, she may have been English and he dedicated a book to Henry Herbert and Jane Grey, his highest-ranking pupils, Regole de la lingua thoscana. Lady Jane Greys youth, faith, and death affected him deeply and later, in seclusion, in Soglio in Switzerland and it was only published in 1607 but written around 1561/1562. He describes her as a martyr and innocent saint and it is possible that he had witnessed some of the events surrounding her or had told her about the persecutions in Italy. Anthony à Wood says that the Florio family, which now included infant John Florio, in Strasburg, Florio met members of the aristocratic de Salis family of Bregaglia, in the Alpine canton of the Grisons. Count de Salis offered Michelangelo the post of pastor at Soglio, which offered him the manse on the edge of a precipice, the post of school teacher. Soglio was remote from the Inquisition and was situated near Chiavenna, John Florio grew up speaking Italian with his father. His father would have taught him French and German, John returned to England, possibly with his mother, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the early 1570s, in possession of a formidable Christian Reformed and humanist education. John Florio considered the English uncouth and barbaric and set about teaching the Protestant aristocrats European manners, linguistic skills and polished expressions. This mission was in ways similar to that of reformer Philip Sidney who sought to educate the English to write. Florio introduced the English to Italian proverbs, Florio was a friend of Giordano Bruno, while he worked as tutor and spy in the home of the French Ambassador. John Florio resided for a time at Oxford, and was appointed, about 1576, as tutor to the son of Richard Barnes, Bishop of Durham, then studying at Magdalen College. In 1578 Florio published a work entitled First Fruits, which yield Familiar Speech, Merry Proverbs, Witty Sentences and this was accompanied by A Perfect Induction to the Italian and English TonguesJohn Florio – Giovanni Florio, 1611. Engraving by William Hole from the 2nd edition of Florio's dictionary
40. Christian Campbell – Christian Bethune Campbell is a Canadian American stage and screen actor, writer, and photographer. He is best known for his roles as Gabriel in the movie Trick, Greg Ivey in Big Love and he is married to actress America Olivo. Campbell was born in Toronto, Ontario, Campbells mother, Marnie, is a yoga instructor and psychologist from Amsterdam, Netherlands, who also ran a theatre in Guelph, Ontario. Campbells maternal grandparents ran a company in the Netherlands and his paternal grandparents were also performers. On his mothers side, Campbell descends from Sephardi Jews who immigrated to the Netherlands, Campbells parents divorced when he was three years old. His siblings are actress Neve Campbell, actor Alex Campbell, and he and his sister, Neve, resided largely with their father, with regular periods at their mothers home. Born into a family and his father an acting teacher. He was acting professionally by the age of fourteen and attended Claude Watson School for the Arts in Toronto, Campbell starred in the gay-themed romantic comedy Trick in 1999. The feature film was a Sundance Grand Jury Prize nominated film and it grossed the most per-screen average for a gay-themed film at the time. In celebration of the anniversary of the picture, Campbell spoke of the social climate at the time and how he. Opened up a community, he said, the gay community was incredibly supportive of me. In 2001, Campbell teamed up with Trick co-star John Paul Pitoc in the feature-film Thank You, Good Night, co-starring with Mark Hamill and he then starred in the 2004 short film Pretty Dead Girl. In 2009, Campbell starred in the feature film Neighbor along with America Olivo and he played conservative American political activist Ralph Reed in the 2010 movie Casino Jack. Campbell starred along with Amy Smart in director Russell Friedenbergs 2014 feature film Among Ravens, at the age of 16, Campbell made his television debut on the Canadian television series Degrassi High. Campbells first starring role was in the television movie City Boy, in which he starred alongside James Brolin, Campbell then starred in the 1995 ABC telefilm Picture Perfect. He moved to the United States in 1995 where he was soon cast as Teddy Delacourt in producer Aaron Spellings primetime teen drama/soap opera Malibu Shores, Campbell joined the cast of The $treet in 2000 as Tim Sherman. He then starred in the science fiction-action animated series Max Steel from 2000-2002, providing the voice of the protagonist, Josh McGrath, a 19-year-old fictional extreme sports star. Campbell joined All My Children as the recast Bobby Warner from 2004 to 2005, along with Shannon Elizabeth, he starred in the 2008 made-for-TV movie You Belong To MeChristian Campbell – Christian Campbell
41. Nicky Hilton Rothschild – Nicholai Olivia Nicky Rothschild is an American fashion designer, socialite, and model. She is a member of the Hilton family by birth, Hilton was born in New York City and raised in Los Angeles. She is the daughter of Richard Hilton, a heir of the Hilton family who works as a businessman in real estate and Kathy Hilton. Hilton was named after her great-uncle, Conrad Nicholson Hilton, Jr and she is the second of four children, she has an older sister, Paris Whitney Hilton, and two younger brothers, Barron Nicholas Hilton II and Conrad Hughes Hilton III. She has Norwegian, German, Italian, English, Irish, Hilton graduated from Convent of the Sacred Heart, an all-girls Catholic school on the Upper East Side, in 2001. She took courses at Fashion Institute of Technology and Parsons The New School for Design, in 2004, Hilton launched her own clothing line. She also designed a line of handbags for Japanese company Samantha Thavasa, in 2007, she started her second line, Nicholai, at a higher price point. Nicholai held its fashion show for the spring/summer 2008 season on September 9,2007, in 2014, Hilton launched a 10-piece collection with eLuxe. She designed each piece as a reflection of her style and named all products after the women in her family. In 2010, Hilton launched a line of jewellery, the pieces are costume jewellery and in an art deco style, averaging around $200 per piece. In 2015, she launched a collection of handbags as part of a collaboration with Linea Pelle. Hilton said she was approached by Linea Pelle to make a capsule collection, as in I didnt want to make these super trendy bags that would be out of style next season. In 2005, Hilton was the face of Australian underwear line Antz Pantz alongside Kimberly Stewart, Stewart remains contracted, but Hilton has been replaced by Australian model Megan Maitland. Around this time, Hilton modeled for the cover of Lucire for its New Zealand, in 2006, she entered a partnership to open two Nicky O Hotels, the first in Miami and the second in Chicago. That same year, Hilton sued her partner in Federal Court in Los Angeles for damages, on February 12,2007, Hilton was sued for breach of contract by her partners. In 2014, Hilton published her first book,365 Style,365 Style was published by Harlequin, a subsidiary of HarperCollins. In 2015, Hilton collaborated with Smashbox, the brand owned by Estée Lauder Companies. She has supported a range of organisations, including Starlight Childrens Foundation, Make-a-wish Foundation, Race to Erase MSNicky Hilton Rothschild – Nicky Hilton in 2010
42. Terrace garden – In gardening, a terrace is an element where a raised flat paved or gravelled section overlooks a prospect. A raised terrace keeps a house dry and provides a transition between the materials of the architecture and softer ones of the garden. Such a terrace had its origins in the far older practice of terracing a sloping site. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon must have built on an artificial mountain with stepped terraces. At Praeneste during the early Imperial period, the sanctuary of Fortuna was enlarged and elaborated, the imperial villas at Capri were built to take advantage of varied terraces. At the seaside Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the gardens of Julius Caesars father-in-law fell away in a series of terraces, giving pleasant. Only some of them have been excavated, at Villa of Livia, probably part of Livia Drusillas dowry brought to the Julio-Claudian dynasty, rooms in the cryptoporticus beneath terracing were frescoed with trees in bloom and fruit. At the influential Cortile del Belvedere at the Vatican Palace, perfected under a series of popes from the earliest 16th century, the view in this case was from the Stanze of Raphael on an upper floor of the Palace. They are often discussed in conjunction with roof gardens, although they are not always true roof gardens, instead being balconies and these outdoor spaces can become lush gardens through the use of container gardening, automated drip irrigation and low-flow irrigation systems, and outdoor furnishingsTerrace garden – Transverse view along a narrow terrace, Villa Carlotta on Lake Como, Tremezzo, Italy: stairs from an upper level are inset into the retaining wall.