1. Lana Del Rey – Elizabeth Woolridge Grant, better known by her stage name Lana Del Rey, is an American singer, songwriter, and model. Her music has been noted for its style, its preoccupation with themes of tragic romance and melancholia. Del Rey received further recognition after her major-label debut Born to Die peaked at two on the United States charts and was the fifth best-selling album of 2012. Three of the EPs tracks were featured in her short film Tropico, in 2014, Del Rey released her third studio album, Ultraviolence, which received positive critical and commercial reception, it became her first number-one record in the United States. In 2015, following a North American tour with Courtney Love and Grimes, Del Rey released her studio album. It also received critical and commercial response, the album had the fourth highest first week sales by a female artist in 2015. Del Rey is set to release her studio album, titled Lust for Life. She has one sister, Caroline Grant, and one brother. Her paternal grandfather, Robert England Grant, Sr. was a Kidder, Peabody & Co. investment banker, a president for Plough, Inc and Textron. Del Rey grew up in rural Lake Placid, New York, and attended a Catholic elementary school and for one year and she began singing in her church choir when she was a child, where she was the cantor. At age fifteen, she was sent to Kent School by her parents to deal with her rampant alcohol abuse, her uncle, before becoming a singer, Del Rey wanted to be a poet. As a child, her father wrote country songs for personal enjoyment, while her mother was interested in singing, during this time, Del Reys uncle taught her how to play guitar, and she realized could probably write a million songs with those six chords. Shortly after, she began writing songs and performing in nightclubs around the city under various names such as Sparkle Jump Rope Queen and Lizzy Grant, I was always singing, but didnt plan on pursuing it seriously, Del Rey said. The following fall, she enrolled at Fordham University where she majored in philosophy, Del Rey said she chose to study the subject because it bridged the gap between God and science. I was interested in God and how technology could bring us closer to finding out where we came from, according to Del Rey, she had trouble making friends in boarding school and college, and said, that was when my musical experience began. I kind of people for myself. After college, she moved to Brooklyn, where she resided for four years. On April 25,2005, a compact disc was registered under Elizabeth Woolridge Grant with the United States Copyright OfficeLana Del Rey – Del Rey performing during the Planeta Terra Music Festival in Brazil, 2013
2. Britney Spears – Britney Jean Spears is an American singer, dancer, and actress. Born in McComb, Mississippi, and raised in Kentwood, Louisiana, she performed acting roles in stage productions, Spearss first and second studio albums. Baby One More Time and Oops. I Did It Again, became international successes, with the former becoming the album by a teenage solo artist. Title tracks. Baby One More Time and Oops, I Did It Again broke international sales records. In 2001, Spears released her third studio album, Britney. She assumed creative control of her studio album, In the Zone. In 2007, Spearss much-publicized personal issues sent her career into hiatus and her fifth studio album, Blackout, was released later that year, and spawned singles such as Gimme More and Piece of Me. Her erratic behavior and hospitalizations continued through the year, at which point she was placed under a still ongoing conservatorship. Spearss sixth studio album, Circus, included the international chart-topping single Womanizer and her seventh studio album, Femme Fatale, became her first to yield three top-ten singles in the United States. She released her studio album Britney Jean in 2013. Later that year, Spears began the four-year residency show, Britney, Piece of Me, in 2016, Spears released her ninth studio album, Glory. In 2017, she announced that her show would develop into a world tour, Britney. Spears is regarded as a pop icon and credited with influencing the revival of teen pop during the late 1990s and she became the best-selling teenage artist of all time and garnered honorific titles including the Princess of Pop. In 2009, Billboard ranked her as the 8th overall Artist of the Decade, the Recording Industry Association of America lists Spears as the eighth top-selling female artist in the United States, with 34 million certified albums. She has sold 100 million albums and over 100 million singles worldwide making her one of the music artists of all time. According to Billboard Spears has sold about 22.38 million singles in digital downloads in US and is the fourth best-selling female artist since Nielsen SoundScan began. Forbes reported that Spears was the highest paid musician of 2012, with earnings of $58 million. Spears was born in McComb, Mississippi, the child of Lynne Irene Bridges and James Parnell SpearsBritney Spears – Spears at the 102.7 KIIS FM Wango Tango concert in Carson, California, May 2013
3. Blue Velvet (film) – Blue Velvet is a 1986 American neo-noir mystery film, written and directed by David Lynch. Blending psychological horror film noir, the film stars Kyle MacLachlan, Isabella Rossellini, Dennis Hopper. The title is taken from Bobby Vintons 1963 song of the same name, the screenplay of Blue Velvet had been passed around multiple times in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with many major studios declining it because of its strong sexual and violent content. The independent studio De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, owned at the time by Italian film producer Dino De Laurentiis, Blue Velvet initially received a divided critical response, with many stating that its objectionable content served little artistic purpose. It nevertheless earned Lynch his second Academy Award nomination for Best Director, publications including Sight & Sound, Time, Entertainment Weekly and BBC Magazine have ranked it among the greatest American films of all time. In 2008, Blue Velvet was chosen by the American Film Institute as one of the greatest American mystery films ever made, Jeffrey Beaumont returns to his logging home town of Lumberton, North Carolina, from Oak Lake College after his father suffers a near-fatal stroke. While walking home from the hospital, he cuts through a vacant lot, Jeffrey takes the ear to police detective John Williams and becomes reacquainted with the detectives daughter, Sandy. She tells him details about the ear case and a woman, Dorothy Vallens. Increasingly curious, Jeffrey enters Dorothys apartment by posing as an exterminator, Jeffrey and Sandy attend Dorothys nightclub act, in which she sings Blue Velvet, and leave early so Jeffrey can sneak into her apartment to snoop. He hurriedly hides in a closet when she returns home, however, Dorothy, wielding a knife, discovers him and threatens to kill him. Dorothy hides Jeffrey in the closet, from there he witnesses the visitor, Frank Booth, inflict his bizarre sexual proclivities—which include inhaling an unidentified gas, dry humping, and sadomasochism—upon Dorothy. Frank is an extremely foul-mouthed, violent sociopath whose orgasmic climax is a fit of both pleasure and rage and he continually refers to her as Mommy and to himself as both the Daddy and the Baby, who wants to fuck. Frank has kidnapped Dorothys husband and son to force her to sexual favors. When Frank leaves, a sad and desperate Dorothy tries to seduce Jeffrey again and demands that he hit her, when Jeffrey moves to leave, she asks him to stay, though he leaves anyway. Jeffrey relays his experience to Sandy, asking her why there are people like Frank, Sandy in turn tells him of a wonderful dream she had about robins that she interprets as a sign of hope for humanity. Jeffrey and Sandy find themselves attracted to other, though Sandy has a boyfriend. Jeffrey again visits Dorothys apartment and she tells him that although she knows nothing about him, Jeffrey attends another of Dorothys performances at the club, where she sings the same song. At the club, Jeffrey spots Frank in the audience fondling a piece of velvet fabric he cut from Dorothys robeBlue Velvet (film) – Theatrical release poster
4. Courtney Love – Courtney Michelle Love is an American singer, actress, writer, and visual artist. Prolific in the punk and grunge scenes of the 1990s, Love has enjoyed a career that spans four decades and she rose to prominence as the frontwoman of the alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989. Love has drawn attention for her uninhibited live performances and confrontational lyrics. The daughter of Hank Harrison and psychotherapist Linda Carroll, Love had an itinerant early life and she spent her formative years in San Francisco and Portland, Oregon, where she was in a series of short-lived bands before being cast in two films by British director Alex Cox. After forming Hole in 1989, she received attention from underground rock press for the groups debut album. Holes second release, Live Through This, gave her high-profile renown with critical accolades, in 1995, Love returned to acting, earning a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance as Althea Leasure in Miloš Formans The People vs. Larry Flynt, which established her as a mainstream actress, the following year, she saw further mainstream success with the release of Holes third album, Celebrity Skin, which was nominated for multiple Grammy Awards. Love continued to work as an actress into the early 2000s, appearing in pictures such as Man on the Moon and Trapped, before releasing her first solo album, Americas Sweetheart. That project became Nobodys Daughter, which was released in 2010 as a Hole album, between 2014 and 2015, she released two solo singles and returned to acting in the network series Sons of Anarchy and Empire. Love has also had endeavors in writing, co-creating and co-authoring three volumes of a manga, Princess Ai, between 2004 and 2006, as well as a memoir, Dirty Blonde, The Diaries of Courtney Love. In 2012, she premiered an exhibit of mixed media visual art titled And Shes Not Even Pretty. Love was born Courtney Michelle Harrison on July 9,1964 in San Francisco, California, the daughter of Linda Carroll and Hank Harrison, Loves godfather is the founding Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh. Her mother, who was adopted as a child, was revealed to be the biological daughter of novelist Paula Fox. Loves great-grandmother was screenwriter Elsie Fox, Love is of Cuban, English, German, Irish, and Welsh descent. Loves mother, who was studying to be a psychologist, had her in therapy by the age of two. In 1970, her mother moved the family to the community of Marcola, Oregon. She described her parents household as being full of hairy, wangly-ass hippies running around naked Gestalt therapy and my mom was also adamant about a gender-free household, no dresses, no patent leather shoes, no canopy beds, nothing. Love attended a Montessori school in Eugene, where she struggled academically and had trouble making friends, at age nine, a psychologist noted that she exhibited signs of autismCourtney Love – Love performing at Austin, Texas, in 2010.
5. Erik Satie – Éric Alfred Leslie Satie, who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. Satie was a figure in the early 20th-century Parisian avant-garde. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, Surrealism, repetitive music, an eccentric, Satie was introduced as a gymnopedist in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies. Satie was the son of Alfred Satie and his wife Jane Leslie, Erik was born at Honfleur in Normandy, his home there is open to the public. When Satie was four years old, his family moved to Paris, his father having been offered a job in the capital. After his mothers death in 1872, he was sent, together with his brother, Conrad. There he received his first music lessons from a local organist, in 1878, when he was 12 years old, his grandmother died, and the two brothers were reunited in Paris with their father, who remarried shortly afterwards. From the early 1880s onwards, Satie started publishing salon compositions by his step-mother and himself, in 1879, Satie entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he was soon labelled untalented by his teachers. Georges Mathias, his professor of piano at the Conservatoire, described his pupils piano technique in flatly negative terms, insignificant and laborious, Émile Decombes called him the laziest student in the Conservatoire. Years later, Satie related that Mathias, with great insistence, however, Saties military career did not last very long, within a few months he was discharged after deliberately infecting himself with bronchitis. Satie moved from his fathers residence to lodgings in Montmartre in 1887, by this time he had started what was to be an enduring friendship with the romantic poet Patrice Contamine, and had his first compositions published by his father. He soon integrated with the clientele of the Le Chat Noir Café-cabaret. Publication of compositions in the same vein followed, in the same period he befriended Claude Debussy. He moved to a room, still in Montmartre, in 1890. Le Fils des étoiles, and the Sonneries de la Rose+Croix, Satie gave performances at the Salon de la Rose + Croix, organized by Péladan. While the comrades from both the Chat Noir and Miguel Utrillos Auberge du Clou sympathised, a brochure was produced for the project. In 1893, Satie met the young Maurice Ravel for the first time, one of Saties own compositions of that period, Vexations, was to remain undisclosed until after his death. By the end of the year he had founded the Église Métropolitaine dArt de Jésus ConducteurErik Satie – Erik Satie
6. Federico Fellini – Federico Fellini was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness. His films have ranked, in such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th greatest film of all time, in 1993, he was awarded an honorary Oscar for Lifetime Achievement at the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles. Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to parents in Rimini. His father, Urbano Fellini, born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola and his mother, Ida Barbiani, came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her familys vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents home in Gambettola, a civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later. The couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became a traveling salesman, Fellini had two siblings, Riccardo, a documentary director for RAI Television, and Maria Maddalena. In 1924, Fellini started primary school in a run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini. In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno, the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career. Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi, in Mussolini’s Italy, Fellini and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males. He visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation and it seems to me that I have invented almost everything, childhood, character, nostalgias, dreams, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them. In 1937, Fellini opened Febo, a shop in Rimini. with the painter Demos Bonini. His first humorous article appeared in the Postcards to Our Readers section of Milan’s Domenica del Corriere, deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school exasperating and, in one year, had 67 absences, failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents, biographer Hollis Alpert reports that there is no record of his ever having attended a class. Installed in a family pensione, he met lifelong friendFederico Fellini – Federico Fellini
7. Invictus – Invictus is a short Victorian poem by the English poet William Ernest Henley. It was written in 1875 and published in 1888—originally with no title—in his first volume of poems, Book of Verses, in the section Life and Death. Early printings contained a dedication To R. T. H. B. —a reference to Robert Thomas Hamilton Bruce, a successful Scottish flour merchant, baker, the title Invictus was added by editor Arthur Quiller-Couch when the poem was included in The Oxford Book of English Verse. With the message of displaying fortitude in the face of adversity, the poem evokes Victorian stoicism, Henleys literary reputation rests almost entirely upon this single poem. In 1875 one of Henleys legs required amputation due to complications arising from tuberculosis, immediately after the amputation he was told that his other leg would require a similar procedure. He chose instead to enlist the services of the distinguished English surgeon Joseph Lister, while recovering in the infirmary, he was moved to write the verses that became Invictus. This period of his life, coupled with recollections of a childhood, were primary inspirations for the poem. In a speech to the House of Commons on 9 September 1941 and we still are captains of our souls. While incarcerated at Robben Island prison, Nelson Mandela recited the poem to other prisoners and was empowered by its message of self-mastery, the poem was read by US POWs in North Vietnamese prisons. James Stockdale recalls being passed the last stanza, written with rat droppings on toilet paper, the line bloody, but unbowed was the Daily Mirrors headline the day after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The poem was chosen by Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh as his statement before his execution. C. S. Lewis included a quote from the last stanza in Book 5, in Oscar Wildes De Profundis letter in 1897, he reminisces that I was no longer the Captain of my soul. Ironically, after delivering this line, he is called away by an aide to Gestapo officer Major Strasser. Prior to the games in London in 2014, entertainers including Daniel Craig and Tom Hardy. The line bloody, but unbowed was quoted by Lord Peter Wimsey in Dorothy Sayers 1926 novel Clouds of Witness, in reference to his failure to exonerate his brother of the charge of murder. The last two lines I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul are shown in a picture during the 25th minute of the film The Big ShortInvictus – Portrait of William Ernest Henley by Leslie Ward published in Vanity Fair 26 November 1892
8. Marilyn Manson (band) – Marilyn Manson is an American rock band formed by singer Marilyn Manson and guitarist Daisy Berkowitz in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1989. Originally named Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids, they gained a cult following in South Florida in the early 1990s with their theatrical live performances. In 1993, they were the first act signed to Trent Reznors Nothing Records label. Until 1996, the name of each member was created by combining the first name of a female sex symbol. In the past, band members dressed in outlandish makeup and costumes and their lyrics often received criticism for their anti-religious sentiment and references to sex, violence and drugs, while their live performances were frequently called offensive and obscene. On several occasions, protests and petitions led to the group being blocked from performing and they released a number of platinum-selling albums, including Antichrist Superstar and Mechanical Animals. These albums, along with their music videos and worldwide touring. In 1999, news media blamed the band for influencing the perpetrators of the Columbine massacre. As this controversy began to wane throughout the 2000s, so did the mainstream popularity. Despite this, Jon Wiederhorn of MTV, in June 2003, vH1 ranked Marilyn Manson as the seventy-eighth best rock band on their 100 Great Artists of Hard Rock. They were inducted into the Kerrang, hall of Fame in 2000, and have been nominated for four Grammy Awards. In the US, the band has eight of its releases debut in the top ten. Marilyn Manson have sold in excess of 50 million records worldwide and it was in this capacity that he met several of the musicians to whom his own band would later be compared, including My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult and Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails. That December, he met Scott Putesky, who proposed that the two form a band together after reading some lyrics and poems written by the singer, bundy left the band soon after, and was replaced by Gidget Gein, born Brad Stewart. They were later joined on keyboard by Stephen Bier, who called himself Madonna Wayne Gacy, in 1991, drummer Fred Streithorst joined the band under the name Sara Lee Lucas. The stage names adopted by each member were representative of a concept the band considered central, the dichotomy of good and evil, Marilyn Monroe had a dark side, explained Manson in his autobiography, just as Charles Manson has a good, intelligent side. Images of both Monroe and Manson, as well as of other famous and infamous figures, were common in the early promotional materials. Band members variously performed in clothing or bizarre costumes, and, for lack of a professional pyrotechnicianMarilyn Manson (band) – Marilyn Manson performing in 2012.
9. Trip hop – Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom, especially Bristol. Trip hop can be highly experimental and it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack, Tricky, and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, and has described as Europes alternative choice in the second half of the 90s. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems, Bristols soundsystem DJs, drawing heavily on Jamaican dub music, typically used a laid-back, slow and heavy drum beat. Bristols Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristols signature sound of trip hop. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, another influence came from Gary Clails Tackhead soundsystem. Clail often worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart, produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hiphop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what later became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released Angel, one of the first examples of the crossing over to pop. In the 1990s, Janet Jackson brought trip hop into the American charts with the song If, several songs on her Janet. and The Velvet Rope used this genre of music, Songs like Got Til Its Gone and You. Massive Attacks first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK, Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. The term trip hop was coined that year, but not in reference to anything on the Massive Attack albums, in 1993, Icelandic musician Björk released Debut, produced by Wild Bunch member Nellee Hooper. The album, although rooted in four-on-the-floor house music, contained elements of trip hop and is credited as one of the first albums to introduce electronic music into mainstream pop. She had been in contact with Londons underground electronic music scene and was involved with trip hop musician Tricky. Björk embraced trip hop even more with her 1995 album Post by collaborating with Tricky, homogenic, her 1997 album, has been described as a pinnacle of trip hop music. 1994 and 1995 saw trip hop near the peak of its popularity, with such as Howie B, Naked Funk. The period also marked the debut of two acts who, along with Massive Attack, would define the Bristol scene for years to come, in 1994 Portishead, a trio comprising singer Beth Gibbons, Geoff Barrow, and Adrian Utley, released their debut album Dummy. Their background differed from Massive Attack in many ways, one of Portisheads primary influences was 1960s and 1970s film soundtrack LPs, nevertheless, Portishead shared the scratchy, jazz-sample-based aesthetic of early Massive Attack, and the sullen, fragile vocals of Gibbons also brought them wide acclaim. In 1995, Dummy was awarded the Mercury Music Prize as the best British album of the year, Tricky also released his debut solo album Maxinquaye in 1995, to great critical acclaimTrip hop – Massive Attack, a British trip hop group that helped bring the genre to mainstream success in the 1990s
10. Woodstock – Billed as An Aquarian Exposition,3 Days of Peace & Music, it was held at Max Yasgurs 600-acre dairy farm in the Catskills near the hamlet of White Lake in the town of Bethel. Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, during the sometimes rainy weekend,32 acts performed outdoors before an audience of 400,000 people. It is widely regarded as a moment in popular music history. Rolling Stone listed it as one of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock, in 2017 the festival site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Roberts and Rosenman financed the project. Lang had some experience as a promoter, having co-organized a small festival on the East Coast the prior year, the Miami Pop Festival, where an estimated 25,000 people attended the two-day event. Early in 1969, Roberts and Rosenman were New York City entrepreneurs, in the process of building Media Sound, unpersuaded by this Studio-in-the-Woods proposal, Roberts and Rosenman counter-proposed a concert featuring the kind of artists known to frequent the Woodstock area. Kornfeld and Lang agreed to the new plan, and Woodstock Ventures was formed in January 1969, the company offices were located in an oddly decorated floor of 47 West 57th Street in Manhattan. Burt Cohen, and his group, Curtain Call Productions. When Lang was unable to find a site for the concert, Roberts and Rosenman, growing increasingly concerned, took to the road, similar differences about financial discipline made Roberts and Rosenman wonder whether to pull the plug or to continue pumping money into the project. In April 1969, newly minted superstars Creedence Clearwater Revival became the first act to sign a contract for the event, the promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford later commented, Once Creedence signed, everyone else jumped in line, given their 3,00 a. m. start time and omission from the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed bitterness over their experiences at the famed festival. Woodstock was designed as a venture, aptly titled Woodstock Ventures. It famously became a free concert only after the event drew hundreds of more people than the organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the event cost $18 in advance and $24 at the gate. Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York City area, around 186,000 advance tickets were sold, and the organizers anticipated approximately 200,000 festival-goers would turn up. The original venue plan was for the festival to take place in Woodstock, New York, after local residents quickly shot down that idea, Lang and Kornfeld thought they had found another possible location in Saugerties, New York. But they had misunderstood, as the landowners attorney made clear, in a meeting with RobertsWoodstock – Arnold Skolnick (who designed the logo) says that the dove on the guitar was actually designed to resemble a catbird (and it was originally perched on a flute).
11. 1985 – The year 1985 was designated as the International Youth Year by the United Nations. January 1 The Internets Domain Name System is created, greenland is withdrawn from the European Economic Community. First UK Cellular Mobile Phone Network Launched by Vodafone January 7 – Cellnet Launches 2nd UK Cellular Network January 10 – Kenya recognizes the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, January 15 – Tancredo Neves is elected president of Brazil by the Congress, ending the 21-year military rule. January 17 – British Telecom announces it is going to phase out its famous red telephone boxes, January 20 – Ronald Reagan is privately sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. January 21 – President Ronald Reagan is publicly sworn in, January 27 – The Economic Cooperation Organization is formed. January 28 – The charity single record We Are the World is recorded by USA for Africa, February 4 – The border between Gibraltar and Spain reopens for the first time since Francisco Franco closed it in 1969. February 5 – Australia cancels its involvement in U. S. -led MX missile tests, February 9 – U. S. drug agent Kiki Camarena is kidnapped and murdered in Mexico February 10 – Nelson Mandela rejects an offer of freedom from the South African government. February 12 – Rafael Addiego Bruno is sworn in as interim President of Uruguay, February 14 – CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is freed from captivity in Lebanon. February 16 Israel begins withdrawing troops from Lebanon, the ideology of Hezbollah is declared in a program issued in Beirut. February 19 William J. Schroeder becomes the first artificial heart patient to leave hospital, china Airlines Flight 006 is involved in a mid-air incident, while there are 22 minor injuries and 2 serious injuries, no one is killed. The first episode of the long-running British soap opera EastEnders is broadcast on BBC One television, February 20 – Minolta releases the Maxxum 7000, the worlds first autofocus single-lens reflex camera. March – The GNU Manifesto, written by Richard Stallman, is first published, march 1 – After a 12-year-long dictatorship, Julio María Sanguinetti is sworn in as the first democratically elected President of Uruguay. March 3 – An 8.0 on the Richter magnitude scale earthquake hits Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile, leaving 177 dead,2,575 injured,142,489 houses destroyed, and about a million people homeless. March 4 – The United States Food and Drug Administration approves a blood test for AIDS, march 8 – A Beirut car bomb, planted in an attempt to assassinate Islamic cleric Sayyed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, kills more than 80 people, injuring 200. March 11 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, mohamed Al-Fayed buys the London-based department store company Harrods. March 14 – Five lionesses at the Singapore Zoo are put on birth control after the population increases from 2 to 16. March 15 – Vice-President José Sarney, upon becoming president, assumes the duties of president of Brazil, as the new president Tancredo Neves had become severely ill. Sarney will become Brazils first civilian president in 21 years, upon Neves death on April 21, march 16 – Associated Press reporter Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut1985 – Live Aid at JFK Stadium in Philadelphia
12. Stevie Nicks – Stephanie Lynn Stevie Nicks is an American singer-songwriter. Often regarded as the Queen of Rock n Roll, Nicks is best known for both her work as frontwoman of Fleetwood Mac and for her solo career and she is also known for her distinctive voice, mystical visual style, and symbolic lyrics. As a member of Fleetwood Mac, she was inducted into the Rock and she has garnered eight Grammy Award nominations and two American Music Award nominations as a solo artist. She has won awards with Fleetwood Mac, including a Grammy Award. Nicks joined Fleetwood Mac in 1975 along with her then boyfriend, the album remained at number one on the American albums chart for 31 weeks and reached Number One in various countries worldwide. The album won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1978 and it produced four U. S. top-10 singles, with Nicks Dreams being the bands first and only U. S. number-one hit. She has released a total of eight studio albums to date, with her most recent titled 24 Karat Gold, Songs from the Vault. During her solo career, she has had a working relationship with Tom Petty. They served as a band for several tracks on each of her solo albums. The song Stop Draggin My Heart Around, performed by Nicks, Nicks was born at Good Samaritan Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, to Jess Nicks, former president of Greyhounds Armour-Dial, and Barbara Nicks, a homemaker. Nicks, Sr. a struggling country singer, taught Nicks to sing duets with him by the time she was four years old. Nickss mother was so protective that she kept her at home more than most people, the infant Stephanie could pronounce her own name only as tee-dee, which led to her nickname of Stevie. Her fathers frequent relocation as a business executive had the family living in Phoenix, Albuquerque, El Paso, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles. With the Goya guitar that she received for her 16th birthday, Nicks wrote her first song, Ive Loved and Ive Lost and she spent her adolescence playing records constantly, and lived in her own little musical world. While attending Arcadia High School in Arcadia, California, she joined her first band, the Changing Times, Nicks first met her future musical and romantic partner, Lindsey Buckingham, during her senior year at Menlo-Atherton High School. When she saw Buckingham playing California Dreamin at Young Life club and she later recalled, I was a senior in high school and Lindsey was a junior. I thought he was a darling, I didnt see him again for two years and he called me up and asked if I wanted to be in a band. And so, I was in band with him for three and a half years ~ a band called FritzStevie Nicks – Nicks performing in 2015
13. Compact Cassette – The Compact Cassette or Musicassette, also commonly called cassette tape, audio cassette, or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. It was released by Philips in 1962, having developed in Hasselt. Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a cassette, or as a fully recordable blank cassette. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers, the first cassette player designed for use in car dashes was introduced in 1968. Between the early 1970s and the early 2000s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc. Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which a magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film is passed and wound and these spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell. This reversal is achieved either by flipping the cassette, or by having the machine itself change the direction of tape movement. In 1935, decades before the introduction of the Compact Cassette, AEG released the first reel-to-reel tape recorder and it was based on the invention of the magnetic tape by Fritz Pfleumer, which used similar technology but with open reels. These instruments were expensive and relatively difficult to use and were therefore used mostly by professionals in radio stations. In 1958, following four years of development, RCA Victor introduced the stereo, quarter-inch, reversible, however, it was a large cassette, and offered few pre-recorded tapes. Despite the multiple versions, it failed, consumer use of tape only took off in the early 1960s, after playback machines reached a comfortable, user-friendly design. This was achieved primarily by the introduction of transistors which replaced the bulky, fragile, reel-to-reel tape then became more suitable to household use, but still remained an esoteric product. The team at Philips was led by Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Philips was competing with Telefunken and Grundig in a race to establish its cassette tape as the worldwide standard, and it wanted support from Japanese electronics manufacturers. However, the Philips Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Philips decision to license the format free of charge, Philips also released the Norelco Carry-Corder 150 recorder/player in the US in November 1964. By 1966 over 250,000 recorders had been sold in the US alone, by 1968,85 manufacturers had sold over 2.4 million players. By the end of the 1960s, the business was worth an estimated 150 million dollars. In the early years sound quality was mediocre, but it improved dramatically by the early 1970s when it caught up with the quality of 8-track tape, the Compact Cassette went on to become a popular alternative to the 12-inch vinyl LP during the late 1970s. The mass production of blank Compact Cassettes began in 1964 in Hanover, prerecorded music cassettes were launched in Europe in late 1965Compact Cassette – A TDK D-C60 cassette, a common speech-quality tape with a 60-minute playing time, in a housing similar to that of the original Philips' Compact Cassette specification
14. Jessica Lange – Jessica Phyllis Lange is an American actress who has received worldwide acclaim for her work in film, theater, and television. In 2016, Lange became the twenty-second thespian in history to achieve the Triple Crown of Acting, Lange was discovered by producer Dino De Laurentiis while modeling part-time for the Wilhelmina modelling agency. She made her film debut in his 1976 remake of the 1933 action-adventure classic King Kong, for which she won her first Golden Globe Award. In 2010, she won her first Primetime Emmy Award for her portrayal of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis famed aunt, Big Edie, in addition to acting, Lange is a photographer with three published works. She has also been a parent and currently holds a Goodwill Ambassador position for UNICEF, specializing in HIV/AIDS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Lange was born in Cloquet, Minnesota, on April 20,1949 and her father, Albert John Lange, was a teacher and traveling salesman, and her mother, Dorothy Florence, was a housewife. She has two sisters, Ann and Jane, and a younger brother, George. Her paternal ancestry originates in Germany and the Netherlands, while her maternal ancestry originates in Finland, due to the nature of her fathers professions, her early home life was chaotic. Her family moved over a dozen times to various towns and cities in Minnesota before settling back down in her hometown, in 1967, she received an art scholarship to study art and photography at the University of Minnesota, where she met and began dating Spanish photographer Paco Grande. After the two married in 1971, Lange left college to pursue a bohemian lifestyle, opting to travel throughout the United States. The couple then moved to Paris, where they drifted apart, while in Paris, Lange studied mime theatre under the supervision of Étienne Decroux, and joined the Opéra-Comique as a dancer. While sharing an apartment with Jerry Hall and Grace Jones, she was discovered by fashion illustrator Antonio Lopez, in 1973, she returned to the States and began work in New York City as a waitress at the Lions Head Tavern in Greenwich Village. While modelling, Lange was discovered by Hollywood producer Dino De Laurentiis, who was looking to cast his next leading lady, Lange made her professional film debut in 1976s King Kong, beating out actresses Meryl Streep and Goldie Hawn for the role of damsel in distress. However, renowned film critic Pauline Kael praised her, noting, Lange went on to win the 1976 Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year. She would remain a favorite of Kaels, who would comment, She has a facial structure that the camera yearns for. A year later, she was contacted by director Bob Rafelson regarding a project on which he was working with Jack Nicholson, after his meeting with Lange, he wrote her name down on a piece of paper, placed it in an envelope, and sealed it. After several meetings and auditions with other actresses, the choice was between Lange and Meryl Streep. In the end, Rafelson offered Lange the lead role opposite Nicholson in his remake of the film noirJessica Lange – Lange at the 66th Primetime Emmy Awards
15. Glastonbury Festival – Glastonbury Festival is a five-day festival of contemporary performing arts that takes place near Pilton, Somerset. In addition to music, the festival hosts dance, comedy, theatre, circus, cabaret. Leading pop and rock artists have headlined, alongside thousands of others appearing on smaller stages, films and albums recorded at Glastonbury have been released, and the festival receives extensive television and newspaper coverage. The majority of staff are volunteers, helping the festival to raise millions of pounds for good causes, regarded as a major event in British culture, the festival is inspired by the ethos of the hippie, counterculture, and free festival movements. It retains vestiges of these traditions, such as the Green Fields area, after the 1970s, the festival took place almost every year and grew in size, with the number of attendees sometimes being swollen by gatecrashers. Michael Eavis hosted the first festival, then called Pilton Festival, after seeing an open-air Led Zeppelin concert at the 1970 Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music. They featured works by composers, sponsored by the Clark family, as well as a wide range of traditional works, from Everyman to James Shirleys Cupid. The festival retains vestiges of this such as the Green Fields area, encompassing the Green Futures. The first festival at Worthy Farm was the Pilton Pop, Blues & Folk Festival, mounted by Michael Eavis on Saturday 19 September 1970, and attended by 1,500 people. The original headline acts were The Kinks and Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders but these acts were replaced at short notice by Tyrannosaurus Rex, Other billed acts of note were Quintessence, Stackridge, and Al Stewart. The 1971 festival featured the first incarnation of the Pyramid Stage, conceived by Bill Harkin the stage was a one-tenth replica of the Great Pyramid of Giza built from scaffolding and metal sheeting and positioned over a blind spring which was found by dowsing. Performers included David Bowie, Mighty Baby, Traffic, Fairport Convention, Gong, Hawkwind, Skin Alley, The Worthy Farm Windfuckers and Melanie. It was paid for by its supporters and advocates of its ideal, and embraced a mediaeval tradition of music, dance, poetry, theatre, lights, the 1971 festival was filmed by Nicolas Roeg and David Puttnam and was released as a film called simply Glastonbury Fayre. The 1980s saw the festival become a fixture, barring periodic fallow years. In 1981, Michael Eavis took control of the festival, and that year a new Pyramid Stage was constructed from telegraph poles and metal sheeting, a permanent structure which doubled as a hay-barn and cow-shed during the winter. In the 1980s, the area of the festival became the starting point for a new childrens charity called Childrens World. 1981 was the first year that the festival profits. Since 1983, large festivals have required licences from local authorities and this led to certain restrictions being placed on the festival, including a crowd limit and specified times during which the stages could operateGlastonbury Festival
16. Lake Placid, New York – Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,521, the village of Lake Placid is near the center of the town of North Elba,50 miles southwest of Plattsburgh. Lake Placid, along with nearby Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, Lake Placid hosted the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid also hosted the 1972 Winter Universiade and the 2000 Winter Goodwill Games, roy suffering from malnutrition had a vision in which he was told to till the land til fertile. From this he decided that is was his duty to bring civilized man unto the land of lake placid. Roys delusions worsened and he began to believe that his salted fish meal had turned to men and he scattered 44 fish across the land gave each a name, proceeded to declare himself mayor of this land, then he died from malnutrition. The abolitionist John Brown heard about Gerrit Smiths reforms, and left his anti-slavery activities in Kansas to buy 244 acres of land here and this parcel later became known as the Freed Slave Utopian Experiment, Timbucto. Shortly before his execution in 1859, John Brown asked to be buried on his farm, as leisure time increased in the late 19th century, Lake Placid was discovered for resort use by the rich and famous, who were drawn to the fashionable Lake Placid Club. Melvil Dewey, who invented the Dewey Decimal System, designed what was then called Placid Park Club in 1895 and this inspired the village to change its name to Lake Placid, which became an incorporated village in 1900. Dewey kept the club open through the winter in 1905, which aided the development of sports in the area. Nearby Saranac Lake had hosted an international sporting event as early as 1889. The mountain air was considered good for them, by 1921, the Lake Placid area could boast a ski jump, speed skating venue and ski association. In 1929, Dr. Godfrey Dewey, Melvils son, convinced the International Olympic Committee Lake Placid had the best winter sports facilities in the United States, the Lake Placid Club was the headquarters for the IOC for the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. Lake Placid is best known as the site of the Winter Olympics. Lake Placid first hosted in 1932 and again 48 years later in 1980, in the U. S. the village is especially remembered as the site of the 1980 USA–USSR hockey game. Dubbed as the Miracle on Ice, a group of American college students and amateurs upset the heavily favored Soviet national ice hockey team, 4–3, another highpoint during the Games was American speed-skater Eric Heidens performance, who won five gold medals. During the 1932 games, the trails outside of the served for the cross-country skiing events. Lake Placid, St Moritz and Innsbruck are the sites to have twice hosted the Winter Olympic GamesLake Placid, New York – Lake Placid lake
17. Hole (band) – Hole was an American alternative rock band that formed in Los Angeles, California in 1989 by singer and guitarist Courtney Love and lead guitarist Eric Erlandson. The band had a revolving line-up of bassists and drummers, their most prolific being drummer Patty Schemel, influenced by Los Angeles punk rock scene, the band garnered critical acclaim for their frenetic debut album, Pretty on the Inside, produced by Kim Gordon of Sonic Youth. After signing with DGC Records, the sought to refine their sound on their second album, Live Through This. The album was acclaimed and reached platinum status within a year of its release. Their third album, Celebrity Skin, which garnered them four Grammy nominations, marked a departure from their earlier punk influences, boasting a more commercially viable. In 2002 the group disbanded to pursue other projects, eight years later in 2010, Hole was reformed by Love with new members, despite Erlandsons claim that the reformation breached a mutual contract he had with Love. The reformed band released the album Nobodys Daughter, which had originally conceived as Loves second solo album. In 2013, Love retired the Hole name, releasing new material, Hole formed after Eric Erlandson responded to an advertisement placed by Courtney Love in Recycler in the summer of 1989. The advertisement simply read, I want to start a band and my influences are Big Black, Sonic Youth, and Fleetwood Mac. She called me up and talked my ear off, said Erlandson and we met at this coffee shop, and I saw her and I thought Oh, God. Oh, no, What am I getting myself into and she grabbed me and started talking, and shes like I know youre the right one, and I hadnt even opened my mouth yet. In retrospect, Love said that Erlandson had a Thurston quality about him and was an intensely weird, in his 2012 book, Letters to Kurt, Erlandson revealed that he and Love had a sexual relationship during their first year together in the band, which Love also confirmed. Love had lived a nomadic life prior, immersing herself in numerous music scenes, after unsuccessful attempts at forming bands in San Francisco and Portland, Love relocated to Los Angeles, where she found work as an actress in two Alex Cox films. Erlandson was a California native and a graduate of Loyola Marymount University, Love had originally wanted to name the band Sweet Baby Crystal Powered by God, but opted for the name Hole instead. With Jools Holland, Love claimed the name for the band was inspired by a quote from Euripides Medea that read, There is a hole that pierces right through me. Additionally, Love cited a conversation with her mother as being the inspiration for the bands name. Love also acknowledged the obvious genital reference in the name, alluding to the vagina. Holes first official rehearsal took place at Fortress Studios in Hollywood with Love, Erlandson, according to Erlandson, these two girls show up dressed completely crazy, we set up and they said, okay, just start playing somethingHole (band) – Courtney Love performing with Hole at Big Day Out, Melbourne, January 22, 1995
18. Olympia (Paris) – Olympia is a music hall located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France. 28, Boulevard des Capucines, its closest métro/RER stations are Madeleine, Opéra, Havre – Caumartin, co-Founded in 1888, by Joseph Oller and Charles Zidler, the co-creators of the Moulin Rouge, today easily recognizable by its giant red glowing letters announcing its name. It opened in 1889 as the Montagnes Russes but was renamed the Olympia in 1893, besides musicians, the Olympia played host to a variety of entertainment including circuses, ballets, and operettas. However, following a decline in appearances by the great stars. It may have opened as a music hall under the German occupation of France during World War II, but certainly in 1945 after the Liberation, it was a music hall free to Allied troops in uniform. Attendees had to listen to the playing of four national anthems before the programs that always ended with a spirited can-can performed by dancers. Thereafter, at times it may have reverted to movies again until Bruno Coquatrix revived it as a hall with a grand re-opening in February 1954. Édith Piaf achieved great acclaim at the Olympia giving several series of recitals from January 1955 until October 1962, before coming to America, the Beatles performed eighteen days of concerts at the Olympia Theatre, playing two and sometimes three shows a day. They were staying at the Hotel George V and after returning at the end of their first day, they were told that I Want To Hold Your Hand had reached number one in America. Jeff Buckley, long an admirer of Piaf, gave what he considered the finest performance of his there in 1995. Jacques Brels 1961 and 1964 concerts at LOlympia are legendary and preserved to this day on new CD releases, marlene Dietrichs 1962 Olympia concert was broadcast. On May 3–4,1972, The Grateful Dead played two concerts here as part of their first major European tour, both shows were recorded and songs from each were released on their 1972 live album Europe 72. Dave Gahan played concert here and it was released on the 2004 DVD, Live MonstersOlympia (Paris) – Façade of music, shown at night (c. 2009)
19. NME – New Musical Express is a British music journalism magazine published since 1952. It was the first British paper to include a singles chart, in the 1970s it became the best-selling British music newspaper. It started as a newspaper, and gradually moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s and 1990s. An online version of NME, NME. com, was launched in 1996 and it became the worlds biggest standalone music site, with over seven million users per month. With newsstand sales falling across the UK magazine sector, the paid circulation in the first half of 2014 was 15,830. In 2013, the list of NMEs The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, NME magazine was relaunched in September 2015 as a nationally distributed free publication. NMEs headquarters are in Southwark, London, England, the brands editor-in-chief is Mike Williams, who replaced Krissi Murison in 2012. The paper was established in 1952, the Accordion Times and Musical Express was bought by London music promoter Maurice Kinn, for the sum of £1,000, just 15 minutes before it was due to be officially closed. It was relaunched as the New Musical Express, and was published in a non-glossy tabloid format on standard newsprint. On 14 November 1952, taking its cue from the US magazine Billboard, it created the first UK Singles Chart, the first of these was, in contrast to more recent charts, a top twelve sourced by the magazine itself from sales in regional stores around the UK. The first number one was Here in My Heart by Al Martino, during the 1960s the paper championed the new British groups emerging at the time. The NME circulation peaked under Andy Gray, Editor 1957–1972, with a figure of 306,881 for the period from January to June 1964, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones were frequently featured on the front cover. These and other artists appeared at the NME Poll Winners Concert. The concert also featured a ceremony where the winners would collect their awards. The NME Poll Winners Concerts took place between 1959 and 1972, from 1964 onwards they were filmed, edited and transmitted on British television a few weeks after they had taken place. The latter part of the 1960s saw the chart the rise of psychedelia. During this period some sections of pop music began to be designated as rock, in early 1972 the paper found itself on the verge of closure by its owner IPC. Alan Smith was made editor and in 1972 was told by IPC to turn things around quickly or face closure, according to The Economist, the New Musical Express started to champion underground, up-and-coming music. NME became the gateway to a more rebellious worldNME – Cover featuring Patti Smith for the week of 21 February 1976
20. Beat Generation – The Beat Generation is a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s, Allen Ginsbergs Howl, William S. Burroughss Naked Lunch and Jack Kerouacs On the Road are among the best known examples of Beat literature. Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the focus of obscenity trials that helped to liberalize publishing in the United States. The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, later, in the mid-1950s, the central figures ended up together in San Francisco where they met and became friends of figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance. In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the hippie, Neal Cassady, the driver for Ken Keseys bus Further, was the primary bridge between these two generations. Allen Ginsbergs work also became an element of early 1960s hippie culture. Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase Beat Generation in 1948 to characterize a perceived underground, the name arose in a conversation with writer John Clellon Holmes. Kerouac allows that it was street hustler Herbert Huncke who originally used the phrase beat, the origins of the Beat Generation can be traced to Columbia University and the meeting of Kerouac, Ginsberg, Lucien Carr, Hal Chase and others. Jack Kerouac attended Columbia on a football scholarship, though the beats are usually regarded as anti-academic, many of their ideas were formed in response to professors like Lionel Trilling and Mark Van Doren. Classmates Carr and Ginsberg discussed the need for a New Vision, to counteract what they perceived as their teachers conservative, Burroughs had an interest in criminal behavior and got involved in dealing stolen goods and narcotics. He was soon addicted to opiates, Burroughs guide to the criminal underworld was small-time criminal and drug-addict Herbert Huncke. The Beats were drawn to Huncke, who started to write himself. The police attempted to pull Ginsberg over while he was driving with Huncke, Ginsberg crashed the car while trying to flee and escaped on foot, but left incriminating notebooks behind. He was given the option to plead insanity to avoid a term, and was committed for 90 days to Bellevue Hospital. Carl Solomon was arguably more eccentric than psychotic, a fan of Antonin Artaud, he indulged in self-consciously crazy behavior, like throwing potato salad at a college lecturer on Dadaism. Solomon was given shock treatments at Bellevue, this one of the main themes of Ginsbergs Howl. Solomon later became the contact who agreed to publish Burroughs first novel Junky in 1953. Beat writers and artists flocked to Greenwich Village in New York City in the late 1950s because of low rent, folksongs, readings and discussions often took place in Washington Square ParkBeat Generation – Lawrence Ferlinghetti
21. Leaves of Grass – Leaves of Grass is a poetry collection by the American poet Walt Whitman. Though the first edition was published in 1855, Whitman spent most of his life writing and re-writing Leaves of Grass. This resulted in different editions over four decades—the first a small book of twelve poems. The poems of Leaves of Grass are loosely connected, with each representing Whitmans celebration of his philosophy of life and this book is notable for its discussion of delight in sensual pleasures during a time when such candid displays were considered immoral. Where much previous poetry, especially English, relied on symbolism, allegory, and meditation on the religious and spiritual, Leaves of Grass exalted the body and the material world. Influenced by Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Transcendentalist movement, itself an offshoot of Romanticism, Whitmans poetry praises nature and the individual humans role in it. However, much like Emerson, Whitman does not diminish the role of the mind or the spirit, rather, he elevates the human form, with one exception, the poems do not rhyme or follow standard rules for meter and line length. Among the poems in the collection are Song of Myself, I Sing the Body Electric, later editions included Whitmans elegy to the assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomd. Leaves of Grass was highly controversial during its time for its sexual imagery. Over time, the collection has infiltrated popular culture and been recognized as one of the works of American poetry. Whitman, reading the essay, consciously set out to answer Emersons call as he work on the first edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman, however, downplayed Emersons influence, stating, I was simmering, simmering, simmering, on May 15,1855, Whitman registered the title Leaves of Grass with the clerk of the United States District Court, Southern District of New Jersey, and received its copyright. The first edition was published in Brooklyn at the shop of two Scottish immigrants, James and Andrew Rome, whom Whitman had known since the 1840s. The shop was located at Fulton Street and Cranberry Street, now the site of apartment buildings that bear Whitmans name, Whitman paid for and did much of the typesetting for the first edition himself. The book did not include the name, instead offering an engraving by Samuel Hollyer depicting Whitman in work clothes. Early advertisements for the first edition appealed to lovers of literary curiosities as an oddity, sales on the book were few but Whitman was not discouraged. The first edition was small, collecting only twelve unnamed poems in 95 pages. Whitman once said he intended the book to be enough to be carried in a pocketLeaves of Grass – Frontispiece of the 1883 edition of Leaves of Grass.
22. The Crystals – The Crystals are an American vocal group based in New York, considered one of the defining acts of the girl group era in the first half of the 1960s. The latter three songs were originally ranked #267, #114, and #493, respectively, on Rolling Stone magazines list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time, however, two songs were dropped from the magazines 2010 update. In 1961, Barbara Alston, Mary Thomas, Dolores Dee Dee Kenniebrew, Myrna Giraud and Patricia Patsy Wright formed the Crystals with the help of Benny Wells, soon, the quintet signed with Phil Spectors label Philles Records. Their first hit, the gospel-influenced Theres No Other, debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 in November 1961, originally the B-side to Oh Yeah, Maybe Baby, the stirring pop ballad was co-written by Spector and Leroy Bates and featured Barbara Alston on vocals. The single reached number 20 in January 1962, marking a debut for Spectors Philles label. Brill Building songwriters Barry Mann and Cynthia Weils Uptown gave the girls their second radio hit, after the success of Uptown, a pregnant Giraud was replaced by Dolores LaLa Brooks. The controversial subject matter of the single, 1962s He Hit Me, resulted in limited airplay with the track only bubbling under the Billboard Hot 100. The Crystals were unavailable, but Love and the Blossoms were also based in L. A. so Spector recorded and released their version under the Crystals banner and it was not the first time Spector would promise the Blossoms a single and release it under the Crystals. Ironically, Liberty Records president Al Bennett had previously hired Spector as a staff producer, the song had originally been offered to The Shirelles, who turned it down because of the anti-establishment lyrics. It marked a shift in girl group thematic material, where the singer loves a bad boy, Hes a Rebel was the Crystals only US #1 hit. Their follow-up single, Hes Sure the Boy I Love, in actuality also featured Love and it reached #11 on the Billboard chart, and features a spoken intro by Darlene Love. After the success of Hes A Rebel, Spector wanted to sever his partnership with Lester Sill, Spector felt that—as he was a writer and producer—he shouldnt have to split royalties. The B-side, Part II, was more of the same, the Crystals sang the songs repetitive verses, though it is unclear if these singers were the original Crystals or the Blossoms. The recording was never released commercially as a single, and only a few copies are known to exist. The record was created to be a joke at Sills expense. Both parts of the song have since released on CD. Though it is unclear as to the level of their participation in Lets Dance The Screw, however, Thomas had departed to get married, only to join another mildly successful group, The Butterflys, along with another original Crystal, Myrna Giraud. This reduced the group to a quartet, Alston, known for her shyness and stage fright, was never comfortable with being out front, stepped down from the lead spot giving it to Dolores LaLa BrooksThe Crystals – The Crystals in 1963
23. Sean Lennon – Sean Taro Ono Lennon is an American singer, songwriter and actor. He is the son of John Lennon and Yoko Ono, sean Lennon was born in New York City on October 9,1975, his fathers 35th birthday. He is of Irish, Welsh, and English descent on his fathers side, julian Lennon is his half-brother, and Kyoko Chan Cox is his half-sister. After Seans birth, John became a husband, caring for his young son until his death on December 8,1980. He attended Columbia University for three semesters before dropping out to focus on his music, in January 1984, when Steve Jobs was visiting Manhattan, he attended a party that his mother was throwing for Lennon, and Jobs gave him one of the very first Macintosh computers. His parents kick-started his musical career, his debut into the world came at age five. From childhood into his teen years, Lennon continued to collaborate with his mother, contributing vocals and receiving credit on her solo albums Its Alright, Starpeace. At 16 Lennon co-wrote the song All I Ever Wanted with Lenny Kravitz for his 1991 album Mama Said, by 1995 Lennon had formed the band IMA to play alongside his mother on her album Rising. Lennon also made appearances in film, featured in the cast of Michael Jacksons 1988 Moonwalker, Escher prints in Sonys 1990 promotional short-film Infinite Escher. In 1996, Miho Hatori and Yuka Honda of Cibo Matto were invited by Ono to remix the song Talking to the Universe for a Rising remix EP Rising Mixes and they met Lennon and invited him to join them on tour as a bass player. This eventually led to Lennons contributing to their side-project Butter 08 and he continued to play with them on tour, joining them on television and providing bass guitar and vocals on their EP Super Relax. Through his association with Cibo Matto, Lennon was approached by Adam Yauch, regarding Grand Royal, Lennon has said, I think I found the only label on the planet who doesnt care who my parents are and what my name is. Its a good feeling to know that I wouldnt have gotten the offer if they wouldnt have liked my songs, thats pretty rare in the music business. Lennons solo debut Into the Sun, was released in 1998, a music video for Home, a single from the album, was directed by Spike Jonze and enjoyed extended airplay on MTV. The album was produced by fellow Cibo Matto member Yuka Honda and they struck up a personal relationship as well as a creative one. He went on to tour supporting Into the Sun, during this period he appeared on radio programs such as The Howard Stern Show and KCRWs Morning Becomes Eclectic. He later recalled promoting the album as a bitter experience due to the focus on his family rather than his own music. In 1999, Lennons EP Half Horse, Half Musician was released featuring new such as Heart & LungSean Lennon – Sean Lennon playing at The Saint in Asbury Park, New Jersey, with his band, The Ghost of a Saber Tooth Tiger, in September 2013
24. Jeff Buckley – Jeffrey Scott Jeff Buckley, raised as Scott Moorhead, was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. In 2004, Rolling Stone listed him at number 39 on their list of greatest singers of all time, over the following three years, the band toured widely to promote the album, including concerts in the U. S. Europe, Japan, and Australia. In 1996, they stopped touring and made attempts to record Buckleys second album in New York City with Tom Verlaine as producer. In 1997, Buckley moved to Memphis, Tennessee, to work on the album, to be titled My Sweetheart the Drunk. Buckley and his work remain popular and are featured in greatest lists in the music press. Born in Orange, California, Buckley was the son of Mary Guibert. His mother was a Zonian of mixed Greek, French, American and Panamanian descent, while his father was the son of an Irish American father, Buckley was raised by his mother and stepfather, Ron Moorhead, in Southern California, and had a half-brother, Corey Moorhead. Buckley moved many times in and around Orange County while growing up, as a child, Buckley was known as Scott Scottie Moorhead based on his middle name and his stepfathers surname. After his biological father died of an overdose in 1975, he chose to go by Buckley and his real first name. To members of his family he remained Scottie, Buckley was brought up around music. His mother was a trained pianist and cellist. His stepfather introduced him to Led Zeppelin, Queen, Jimi Hendrix, the Who, Buckley grew up singing around the house and in harmony with his mother, later noting that all his family sang. He began playing guitar at the age of five after discovering an acoustic guitar in his grandmothers closet, Led Zeppelins Physical Graffiti was the first album he ever owned, the hard rock band Kiss was also an early favorite. At the age of 12, he decided to become a musician and he attended Loara High School, and played in the schools jazz band. During this time, he developed an affinity for rock bands such as Rush, Genesis. After graduating from school, he moved north to Hollywood to attend the Musicians Institute. Buckley spent the six years working in a hotel and playing guitar in various struggling bands playing in styles from jazz, reggae. He toured with the reggae artist Shinehead and also played the occasional funk and R&B studio sessionJeff Buckley – Jeff Buckley
25. Lana Turner – Lana Turner was an American actress. Over the course of her nearly fifty-year career, Turner would achieve notoriety as both a model and a serious dramatic actress, as well as for her highly publicized personal life. In 1951, she was named the most glamorous woman in the history of international art, Turner was discovered in 1937 by William R. Wilkerson, founder of The Hollywood Reporter. At the age of 16, she was signed to a contract by Warner Bros. director Mervyn LeRoy. Turner attracted attention in her first film, LeRoys They Wont Forget and her auburn hair was bleached blonde for a 1939 film at MGM, and she remained blonde for the rest of her life, except for a few film roles. During the early 1940s, Turner established herself as an actress in such films as Johnny Eager, Honky Tonk, Ziegfeld Girl. She appeared in the 1941 horror film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and her popularity continued through the 1950s in such films as The Bad and the Beautiful and Peyton Place, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress. Turners next film, Imitation of Life, proved to be one of the greatest financial successes of her career, Turner spent most of the 1970s and early 1980s in semiretirement, only working occasionally. In 1982, she accepted a much publicized and lucrative recurring guest role in the television series Falcon Crest, Turner made her final film appearance in 1985, and died from throat cancer in 1995, aged 74. Lana Turner was born Julia Jean Turner on February 8,1921, in the mining town of Wallace. She was of Dutch, English, Irish, and Scottish ancestry, until her film career took off, young Julia Turner was known to family and friends as Judy. Turner expressed interest in performance at an age, performing short routines at her fathers Elks chapter in Wallace. Hard times eventually forced the family to relocate to San Francisco, California, on December 14,1930, her father won some money at a traveling craps game, stuffed his winnings in his left sock, and headed for home. He was later murdered on the corner of Minnesota and Mariposa Streets, on the edge of San Franciscos Potrero Hill. The robbery and homicide were never solved, Turner attended a Catholic church in Stockton, California with a local family. She converted to Catholicism taking the saints names Mildred Frances after her mother, in the mid-1930s, Mildred developed health problems and was advised by her doctor to move to a drier climate, she moved to Los Angeles with her daughter in 1936. Mildred and Lana were very poor, and Turner was sometimes separated from her mother and her mother worked eighty hours a week as a beautician to support them. After Turner was discovered, her mother became the overseer of her career, Turners discovery in Hollywood is considered by film historians to be a show-business legendLana Turner – Turner in a publicity photo for Slightly Dangerous (1943)
26. Giorgio Moroder – Giovanni Giorgio Moroder is an Italian singer, songwriter, DJ and record producer. Moroder is frequently credited with pioneering Italo disco and electronic dance music, when in Munich in the 1970s, he started his own record label called Oasis Records, which several years later became a subdivision of Casablanca Records. Moroder also composed the soundtrack for the film Midnight Express, which won an Academy Award, in 1990, he composed Unestate italiana, the official theme song of the 1990 FIFA World Cup. He also created a score of songs for performers including David Bowie, Kylie Minogue, Irene Cara, Janet Jackson, Madleen Kane, Melissa Manchester, Blondie, Japan, Moroder has stated that the work of which he is most proud is Berlins Take My Breath Away. What a Feeling earned him the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1986 and 1983, Moroder was born Giovanni Giorgio Moroder on 26 April 1940 in Urtijëi in South Tyrol, Italy. He came to prominence in 1969, when his recording Looky Looky and he then made a name for himself in studios around Germany in the early 1970s. That same year he co-wrote and produced the seminal Donna Summer hit single I Feel Love, the following year he released Chase, the theme from the film Midnight Express. Chase is often used on the American syndicated late-night radio show Coast to Coast and was used as an entrance theme for wrestlings group The Midnight Express. These songs achieved some success in the United Kingdom, the United States and across Europe. The full film score for Midnight Express won him his first Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1979, in 1979 Moroder released his album E=MC². Text on the albums cover stated that it was the first electronic live-to-digital album and he also released three albums between 1977–1979 under the name Munich Machine. In 1980, he composed and produced two soundtrack albums, the first for Foxes and the second for American Gigolo. A double album of the Foxes soundtrack was released on the disco label Casablanca Records which includes Donna Summers hit single On the Radio, the Foxes soundtrack also contains a song titled Bad Love, written and performed by the singer-actress Cher and produced by Moroder. The American Gigolo soundtrack featured the Moroder-produced Call Me by Blondie, the combined club play of the albums tracks was number two for five weeks on the disco/dance charts. In 1982 he wrote the soundtrack of the movie Cat People, in 1983, Moroder produced the soundtrack for the film Scarface. During its initial release, the album was available in a few countries. Notable Moroder-produced tracks included Scarface by Paul Engemann, Rush Rush by Debbie Harry, in 1984, Moroder compiled a new restoration and edit of the silent film Metropolis and provided it with a contemporary soundtrack. This soundtrack includes seven pop music tracks from Pat Benatar, Jon Anderson, Adam Ant, Billy Squier, Loverboy, Bonnie Tyler and Freddie MercuryGiorgio Moroder – Giorgio Moroder at Melt! Festival 2015.
27. Polydor Records – Polydor is a British record label and company, that operates as part of Universal Music Group. It has a relationship with Universals Interscope Geffen A&M label. In turn, Polydor distributes Interscope releases in the United Kingdom, Polydor Records Ltd. was established in London in 1954 as a British subsidiary of German company Deutsche Grammophon GmbH. The Polydor label was founded on 2 April 1913 by German Polyphon-Musikwerke AG in Leipzig, during World War I on 24 April 1917, Polyphon-Musikwerke AG acquired the German Deutsche Grammophon-Aktiengesellschaft record plant and company from the German government. The German state was taken over Grammophon and the British holdings as enemies property during World War I, Polydor was originally an independent branch of the Polyphon-Grammophon-Konzern group. It was used as a label since 1924. The British and German branches of the Gramophone Company were so departed during World War I, in turn, Deutsche Grammophon records exported from Germany were released on the Polyphon Musik and Polydor labels. The new foreign branches were founded for example into Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Polydor became a popular music label in 1946, while the new Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft label was to become a classical music label in 1949. The previously used label, Grammophon, was disbanded, DGG gave, with an agreement dated 5 July 1949, an exclusive license from 1 July 1951 to use the Nipper-dog with gramophone to the original owners company Electrola, the German branch of EMI. In 1970, Polydor acquired the Hong Kong-based Diamond Records, which had owned and founded by the local Portuguese merchant Ren da Silva in the late 1950s. In 1972, The Grammophon-Philips Group reorganized to create PolyGram, the Polydor label continued to run as a subsidiary label under the new company. The name PolyGram is a portmanteau of Polydor and PhonoGram, into the 1980s, Polydor continued to do respectable business, in spite of becoming increasingly overshadowed by its PolyGram sister label Mercury Records. Polydor took over management of British Deccas pop catalog, A&R manager Frank Neilson was able to score a major top ten hit in March 1981 for the label with Do The Hucklebuck by Coast to Coast as well as signing Ian Dury and Billy Fury to the company. In 1984, the name was parodied in the rockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap. By the early 1990s, Polydor had begun to underperform, in 1994, as Island Records recovered from its sales slump, PolyGram dissolved most of PLG into it. Meanwhile, Polydor Records and Atlas Records merged, briefly called Polydor/Atlas, in 1995, Polydor/Atlas became simply Polydor Records again. Over the next few years, Polydor tried to keep itself afloat with new artist signings, new releases, in 1998, PolyGram was purchased by Seagram and absorbed into its Universal Music Group. Today, in America, the Polydor Records name and logo is used on reissues of older material from its 1960s and 1970s heydayPolydor Records – 1920s vintage Polydor export label with its double-horn gramophone logo
28. Nina Simone – Nina Simone was an American singer, songwriter, pianist, arranger, and activist in the Civil Rights Movement. Simone employed a range of musical styles including classical, jazz, blues, folk, R&B, gospel. Born in North Carolina, the child of a preacher. With the help of the few supporters in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina, Waymon then applied for a scholarship to study at the prestigious Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where she was denied despite a well-received audition. Waymon became fully convinced this rejection had been due to her race. Years later, two days before her death, the Curtis Institute of Music bestowed on her an honorary degree, to make a living, Eunice Waymon changed her name to Nina Simone. The change related to her need to disguise herself from family members and she was told in the nightclub that she would have to sing to her own accompaniment, and this effectively launched her career as a jazz vocalist. Simone recorded more than forty albums, mostly between 1958, when she made her debut with Little Girl Blue, and 1974, and had a hit in the United States in 1958 with I Loves You, Porgy. Simones musical style fused gospel and pop with music, in particular Johann Sebastian Bach. Simone was born Eunice Kathleen Waymon in North Carolina and raised in Tryon, the sixth of eight children in a poor family, she began playing piano at age three, the first song she learned was God Be With You, Till We Meet Again. Demonstrating a talent with the instrument, she performed at her local church, but her concert debut, a classical recital, was given when she was 12. Simone later said that during this performance, her parents, who had taken seats in the front row, were forced to move to the back of the hall to make way for white people. She said that she refused to play until her parents were moved back to the front, Simones mother, Mary Kate Waymon, was a Methodist minister and a housemaid. Simones father, John Divine Waymon, was a handyman who at one time owned a dry cleaning business, Simones music teacher helped establish a special fund to pay for her education. Subsequently, a fund was set up to assist her continued education. With the help of this scholarship money she was able to attend Allen High School for Girls in Asheville, North Carolina. After her graduation, Simone spent the summer of 1950 at the Juilliard School, as a student of Carl Friedberg, discouraged, she took private piano lessons with Vladimir Sokoloff, a professor at Curtis, but never re-applied to the institution. She took a job as an assistant, but also found work as an accompanist at Arlene Smiths vocal studioNina Simone – Simone in 1965
29. Hollywood Bowl – The Hollywood Bowl is an amphitheater in Hollywood, California. The shell is set against the backdrop of the Hollywood Hills, the bowl refers to the shape of the concave hillside the amphitheater is carved into. The bowl is owned by the County of Los Angeles and is the home of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. It is at 2301 North Highland Avenue, north of Hollywood Boulevard, the Reeds selected a natural amphitheater, a shaded canyon and popular picnic spot known as Daisy Dell in Bolton Canyon. On 11 November 1921 the first Sunrise Service took place at the bowl, the Bowl officially opened on July 11,1922. At first, the Bowl was very close to its state, with only makeshift wooden benches for the audience. In 1926, a known as the Allied Architects was contracted to regrade the Bowl, providing permanent seating. For the 1927 season, Lloyd Wright, built a shell, with a vaguely Southwestern look. This was generally regarded as the best shell the Bowl ever had from a standpoint, unfortunately, its appearance was deemed too avant-garde. It did, however, get Wright a second chance, this time with the stipulation that the shell was to have an arch shape. For the 1928 season, Lloyd Wright built a shell in the shape of concentric 120-degree arches and it was designed to be easily dismantled and stored between concert seasons, apparently for political reasons this was not done, and it did not survive the winter. For the 1929 season, the Allied Architects built the shell that stood until 2003, sculptor George Stanley designed the Muse Fountain. He had previously done the Oscar statuette, shortly after the end of the 2003 summer season the 1929 shell was replaced with a new, somewhat larger, acoustically improved shell, which had its debut in the 2004 summer season. Preservationists fiercely opposed the demolition for many years, citing the shells storied history, however, even when it was built, the 1929 shell was only the third-best shell in the Bowls history, behind its two immediate predecessors. By the late 1970s, the Hollywood Bowl became a liability because of continued hardening of its transite skin. The new shell incorporates design elements of not only the 1929 shell, during the 2004 summer season, the sound steadily improved, as engineers learned to work with its live acoustics. This results in the audience in the rear sections hearing the audio, at the same level. This electronic processing includes sound level, frequency equalization, occasional special effects, the system is maintained by Rat Sound Systems, the same company that has provided audio for the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival commonly known as the Coachella Festival, since its inceptionHollywood Bowl – Hollywood Bowl in 2005 (with Hollywood Sign in background)
30. Maxim (magazine) – Maxim has a circulation of about 9 million readers each month. Maxim Digital reaches more than 4 million unique viewers each month, Maxim magazine publishes 16 editions, sold in 75 countries worldwide. Maxim has expanded into other countries, including Australia. It contains content not included in the print version and focuses on the general topics, along with exclusive sections such as the Girls of Maxim galleries. Maxim Video contains video clips of interviews, music videos, photo shoots, on February 5,2005, Maxim Radio, featuring male-oriented talk programming, debuted on Sirius Satellite Radio. Following the Sirius-XM merger in late 2008, the Maxim brand was dropped, the land was sold to MGM Mirage. As of April 23,2009 Dennis Publishing has announced that it no longer continue producing a print edition of Maxim in the UK. In July 2009, Maxim partnered with the UFC for the first-ever Maxim UFC Octagon Girl Search at the UFC Fan Expo,40 girls participated in the contest, and the winner was Natasha Wicks. Quadrangle Group gave up on its investment in Alpha Media Group in August 2009, in 2013, Alpha announced the sale of Maxim to the newly created Darden Media Group, but Darden was unable to raise the money. Calvin Darden, Jr. was later charged with fraud relating to the transaction. Between 2010 and 2012, Maxim eliminated two issues, going from 12 issues a year to 10, and decreased its circulation numbers by 20%, maximum Warrior debuted in 2011, as an online reality competition that tests ten of Americas most elite military operators in ten military-inspired challenges. The videos are available online and on the Maxim app on Xbox Live, several episodes feature Dakota Meyer, Maxims Military Advisor. Maximum Warrior is produced by Grand Street Media, on February 27,2014, entrepreneur Sardar Biglari, the founder of Biglari Holdings and Biglari Capital, purchased Maxim. We plan to build the business on multiple dimensions, he said at the time, during Lanphears tenure, the September 2015 issue featured actor Idris Elba on its cover, marking the first time that the magazine didnt have a woman on the cover. Lanphear left the magazine in November 2015, at one point last year, the staffer said, he decided to throw out a nearly-complete version of the December issue in order to completely redesign the magazine. On January 13,2016 Gilles Bensimon joined Biglari as a creative director. What drew me to Maxim was Sardars vision for the brand, the Centre described Maxim as consisting of sexist bravado and racist imagery. In 2006, Alok Jha of The Guardian criticized Maxim for encouraging excessive alcohol consumption, in June 2007, Israeli diplomat David Saranga invited Maxim to the countryMaxim (magazine) – April 2014 Maxim cover
31. Lollapalooza – Lollapalooza /ˌlɒləpəˈluːzə/ is an annual music festival featuring popular alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, hip hop, and EDM bands and artists, dance and comedy performances and craft booths. It has also provided a platform for non-profit and political groups, conceived and created in 1991 by Janes Addiction singer Perry Farrell as a farewell tour for his band, Lollapalooza ran annually until 1997, and was revived in 2003. From its inception through 1997 and its revival in 2003, the festival toured North America, in 2004, the festival organizers decided to expand the dates to two days per city, but poor ticket sales forced the 2004 tour to be cancelled. In 2011, the company Geo Events confirmed the Brazilian version of the event, the music festival hosts more than 160,000 people over a two or three day period. Lollapalooza is broadcast live and globally on Red Bull TV and its earliest known use was in 1896. In time the term came to refer to a large lollipop. Farrell, searching for a name for his festival, liked the euphonious quality of the term upon hearing it in a Three Stooges short film. Paying homage to the double meaning, a character in the festivals original logo holds one of the lollipops. The word has caused a slang suffix to appear in event-planning circles as well as in news and opinion shows that is used synonymously with other suffixes like a-go-go, o-rama. The suffix palooza is often used to imply that an event or crowd was made over that term, e. g. Parks-apalooza, Nipple-apalooza. Another key concept behind Lollapalooza was the inclusion of non-musical features, performers like the Jim Rose Circus Side Show, an alternative freak show, and the Shaolin monks stretched the boundaries of traditional rock culture. There was a tent for display of art pieces, virtual reality games and it was at Lollapalooza where Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. Punk rock standbys like mosh pits and crowd surfing became part of the canon of the concerts, after 1991, the festival included a second stage for up-and-coming bands or local acts. Attendee complaints of the festival included high ticket prices as well as the high cost for food, grunge band Nirvana was scheduled to headline at the festival in 1994, but the band officially dropped out of the festival on April 7,1994. Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobains body was discovered in Seattle the next day, Cobains widow, Courtney Love, made guest appearances at several shows, including the Philadelphia show at FDR Park, speaking to the crowds about the loss, then singing a minimum of two songs. In 1996, Farrell, who had been the soul of the festival, decided to focus his energy to produce his new project, ENIT. Moreover, festival cofounder Farrell felt that Metallicas macho image violated his peaceful vision for the festival, Farrell quit the tour in protest. Responding to the controversial Metallica tour, Lollapalooza made efforts to revive its relevance to audiences, the festival booked eclectic acts such as country superstar Waylon Jennings in 1996, and emphasized heavily electronica groups such as The Orb and The Prodigy in 1997Lollapalooza – Lollapalooza 2011.
32. CBGB – CBGB was a New York City music club opened in 1973 by Hilly Kristal in Manhattans East Village. The club was previously a bar and before that was a dive bar. From the early 1980s onward, CBGB was known for hardcore punk, one storefront beside CBGB became the CBGB Record Canteen, a record shop and café. In the late 1980s, CBGB Record Canteen was converted into an art gallery and second performance space, on the other side, CBGB was operating a small cafe and bar in the mid-1990s, which served classic New York pizza, among other items. The club closed upon its final concert, played by Patti Smith, CBGB Radio launched on the iheartradio platform in 2010, and CBGB music festivals began in 2012. In 2013, CBGBs onetime building,315 Bowery, was added to the National Register of Historic Places as part of the National Bowery Historic District. CBGB was founded in December 1973 on the site of Kristals earlier bar, Hillys on the Bowery, initially, Kristal focused on his more profitable East Village nightspot, Hillys, which Kristal closed amid complaints from the bars neighbors. After Hillys closure, Kristal focused on the Bowery club and its full name — CBGB & OMFUG — stands for Country, Bluegrass, Blues and Other Music for Uplifting Gormandizers. Although a gormandizer is usually a ravenous eater of food, what Kristal meant is a voracious eater of, Kristals intended theme of country, bluegrass, and blues music along with poetry readings yielded to the American movement in punk rock. A pioneer in the genre, the Ramones played their first shows at CBGB, in 1973, while the future CBGB was still Hillys, two locals—Bill Page and Rusty McKenna—convinced Kristal to let them book concerts. In February 1974, Hilly booked local band Squeeze to a residency, playing Tuesdays and Wednesdays, Squeeze was led by guitarist Mark Suall, later with CBGBs virtual house band the Revelons, which included Fred Smith of Television and JD Daugherty of the Patti Smith Group. Although these bands did not play punk rock, they helped lay its foundation, the August 1973 collapse of the Mercer Arts Center left unsigned bands little option in New York City to play original music. Mercer refugees—including Suicide, The Fast, Wayne County, and the Magic Tramps—soon played at CBGB, in 1974, on April 14, in the audience of Televisions third gig were Patti Smith and Lenny Kaye, whose Patti Smith Group debuted at CBGB on February 14,1975. Other early performers included the Dina Regine Band, dennis Lepri was lead guitarist as well as the Stillettos which included Deborah Harry on vocals. The newly formed band Angel & the Snake, later renamed Blondie, mink DeVille, Talking Heads, the Shirts, the Heartbreakers, the Fleshtones and other bands soon followed. In April 1977, The Damned played the club, marking the first time a British punk band had played in America. During 1975 and 1976, Metropolis Video recorded some shows on film, starting in 1977, Metropolis Video filmmaker Pat Ivers and partner Emily Armstrong continued to record shows in a project called Advanced TV, later renamed GoNightclubbing. Ivers and Armstrongs films are available at the New York University Fales Library, CBGBs two rules were that a band must move its own equipment and play mostly original songs—that is, no cover bands—although regular bands often played one or two covers in setCBGB – CBGB
33. MTV Video Music Award – An MTV Video Music Award is an award presented by the cable channel MTV to honor the best in the music video medium. By 2001, the VMA had become a coveted award, the statue given to winners is an astronaut on the moon, one of the earliest representations of MTV, and colloquially called a moonman. The statue is now made by New York firm, Society Awards, since the 2006 ceremony, viewers are able to vote for their favorite videos in all general categories by visiting MTVs website. The first VMA ceremony was held in 1984 at New York Citys Radio City Music Hall, the ceremonies are normally held in either New York City or Los Angeles. However, the ceremonies have also hosted in Miami and Las Vegas. 1984, At the first MTV Video Music Awards in 1984, Madonna performed her hit Like a Virgin wearing a combination bustier/wedding gown, during the performance, she rolled around on the floor, revealing lacy stockings and a garter. Cyndi Lauper spoke in Exorcist-esque gibberish to explain the VMA rules right before winning the Best Female video for Girls Just Want to Have Fun, David Bowie and The Beatles were rewarded with the first ever Video Vanguard Awards for their work in pioneering the music video. 1988, At the 1988 Video Music Awards Michael Jackson appeared for the first time, a pre-recorded live performance of Bad was shown. He was also awarded the Video Vanguard Award, paula Abdul was nominated for six awards, picking up four wins. She performed a medley of her singles Straight Up, Cold Hearted. When Madonna won the Viewers Choice Award for her Like a Prayer video, the tone that the commercial sought to convey sharply contrasted with the music video. When Pepsi executives saw the video, they yanked the advertisement after only two airings, in an attempt to dissociate themselves from Madonna. She also gave one of the most memorable performances of her hit Express Yourself, the performance consisted of both a dramatic 18th-century reinterpretation of Vogue as well as her dramatically becorseted breasts. His video Thriller influenced and changed music videos into what it is like today, a conflict between Poisons Bret Michaels and C. C. DeVille culminated in a fistfight at the Video Music Awards in 1991, deVille was fired and replaced by Pennsylvanian guitarist Richie Kotzen. Paul Reubens had his first public appearance following an arrest for lewd-conduct earlier that year, taking the stage in costume as Pee-wee Herman, he received a standing ovation, after which he asked the audience, Heard any good jokes lately. Prince & The New Power Generation performed their sexually charged song Gett Off on a Caligula-esque set and his trousers were parodied numerous times throughout the following year, on In Living Color & even on the next years VMAs by Howard Stern. It also marked the last TV appearance of Kiss with Eric Carr,1992, In the 1992 show, MTV requested Nirvana perform Smells Like Teen Spirit, while the band itself had indicated it preferred to play new songs Rape Me and tourettesMTV Video Music Award – The 1983-1984 Video of the Year "Moonman" award.
34. Daniel Johnston – Daniel Dale Johnston is an American singer-songwriter, musician, and artist. Johnston was the subject of the 2005 documentary The Devil and Daniel Johnston, Johnston has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. He has been regarded as an important figure in outsider, lo-fi, Johnston was born in Sacramento, California, and grew up in New Cumberland, West Virginia. He is the youngest of five children of William Dale Bill Johnston and he began recording music in the late 1970s on a $59 Sanyo monaural Boombox, singing and playing piano as well as the chord organ. Following graduation from Oak Glen High School, Johnston spent a few weeks at Abilene Christian University in West Texas and he later attended the art program at the East Liverpool campus of Kent State University, during which he recorded Songs of Pain and More Songs of Pain. Johnstons musical work gained some notability when he moved to Austin, Johnston began to attract the attention of the local press and gained a following augmented in numbers by his habit of handing out tapes to people he met. Live performances were well-attended and hotly anticipated and his local standing led to him being featured in a 1985 episode of the MTV program The Cutting Edge featuring performers from Austins New Sincerity music scene. Subsequently, he performed at the 1985 Woodshock music festival in Austin, in 1988, Johnston visited New York City and recorded 1990 with producer Kramer at his Noise New York studio. It was released in 1990 on Kramers Shimmy-Disc label and this was Johnstons first experience in a professional recording environment after a decade of releasing home-made cassette recordings. His mental health deteriorated during the making of 1990. In 1989 Johnston released the album Its Spooky in collaboration with Half Japanese singer Jad Fair, in 1990, Johnston played at a music festival in Austin, Texas. His father, a former Air Force pilot, managed to successfully crash-land the plane, even there was nothing down there. Although the plane was destroyed, Johnston and his father emerged with only minor injuries, as a result of this episode, Johnston was involuntarily committed to a mental hospital. Interest in Johnston increased when Kurt Cobain was frequently photographed wearing a T-shirt featuring the image of Johnstons album Hi. Kurt Cobain listed Yip/Jump Music as one of his albums in his journal in 1993. In spite of Johnston being resident in a hospital at the time. He refused to sign a deal with Elektra Records because Metallica was on the labels roster and he was convinced that they were of Satan. He also dropped his manager after having an episode at a Butthole Surfers concertDaniel Johnston – Johnston in December 2006
35. Interscope Records – Interscope Records is an American record company. At the time, it differed from most record companies by giving decision-making authority to its A&R staff and it had its first hit records less than a year after it was founded and achieved profitability in 1993. In 1992, Interscope acquired the rights to market and distribute the hardcore rap label Death Row. Albums by Death Row artists included rappers Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, as a result, Time Warner severed ties with Interscope by selling its 50 percent stake back to Field and Iovine for $115 million in 1995. In 1996, 50% of the label was acquired by the MCA Music Entertainment Group for a reported $200 million, Iovine served as chairman and CEO until May 2014. He was succeeded by John Janick, Interscope is headquartered in Santa Monica, California. The labels best-selling artists include U2, Eminem, Lady Gaga, in 1989, Ted Field began to build Interscope Records as a division of his film company, Interscope Communications. To run it, he hired John McClain, who had played a role in Janet Jacksons success at A&M Records, and Tom Whalley. Separately, Iovine, who had produced records by U2, Bruce Springsteen, I thought, Music is going to change, Iovine said in 1997. Young bands arent going to be asking for me, but I love working with the new thing. I always liked the part of the business thats the first time you hear something, Iovine and Field were introduced by Paul McGuinness, then U2s manager. After a series of negotiations led by David Geffen, they came to an agreement, in a 1997 article in Rolling Stone, David Wild wrote, Interscopes start-up coincided with a period of incredible change in the music world. Nirvana had ushered in the alternative revolution, based in Westwood, California, Interscope was run by music men. It was a departure from the industry practices of the 1970s and 1980s. A founding tenet of the label was that artists would have creative control. Interscopes first release was Rico Suave by Ecuadoran rapper Gerardo in December 1990, Primus Interscope debut was released in May, followed by Marky Mark and the Funky Bunchs Music for the People in July. It included the #1 single Good Vibrations, two days after first hearing his demo, Whalley signed Tupac Shakur, and in November 1991, Interscope released 2pacalypse Now, Shakurs studio debut. Interscope began to develop a significant presence in the genre in 1992Interscope Records – Interscope Records
36. Chateau Marmont Hotel – Chateau Marmont is a hotel located at 8221 Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, California. The hotel was designed by architect William Douglas Lee and completed in 1929 and it was modeled loosely after the Château dAmboise, a royal retreat in Frances Loire Valley. The hotel has 63 rooms and suites, in 1926, Fred Horowitz, a prominent Los Angeles attorney, chose the site at Marmont Lane and Sunset Boulevard to construct an apartment building. Horowitz had recently traveled to Europe for inspiration and returned to California with photos of a Gothic Chateau along the Loire River, in 1927, Horowitz commissioned his brother-in-law, European-trained architect Arnold A. Weitzman, to design the seven-story, L-shaped building based on his French photos. On February 1,1929, Chateau Marmont opened its doors to the public as the newest residence of Hollywood, for the inaugural reception, over 300 people passed through the site, including local press. Due to the rents and inability to keep tenants for long-term commitments during the depression. In 1931, Chateau Marmont was converted into a hotel, the apartments became suites with kitchens and living rooms. The property was refurbished with antiques from depression-era estate sales. Designed and constructed to be proof, Chateau Marmont survived major earthquakes in 1933,1953,1971,1987 and 1994 without sustaining any major structural damage. Nine Spanish cottages, as well as a pool, were built next to the hotel in the 1930s and were acquired by the hotel in the 1940s. Craig Ellwood designed two of the four bungalows in 1956, after he completed Case Study Houses, during the 1930s, the hotel was managed by former silent film actress Ann Little. During the 1940s, the served as an air-raid shelter for residents in the surrounding area. On March 24,1976, Chateau Marmont was named one of Los Angeles Historical-Cultural Landmarks, the hotel was acquired and restored in 1990 by André Balazs. Updating the property was a task as he faced the need to modernize the hotel. For the restoration, Balazs strove to create the illusion that the hotel had been untouched notwithstanding renovations, the entire facility was re-carpeted, repainted and the public spaces were upgraded. The hotel restaurant terrace and Bar Marmont both feature market-fresh California cuisine from chef Dean Yasharian, throughout the years, Chateau Marmont has gained recognition. Director Sofia Coppola shot her film Somewhere at the hotel in 2010, james Franco created a grand scale replica of the Chateau Marmont for his Rebel Without a Cause exhibit at MOCA in 2012. The opening scene of the indie neo-noir film The Canyons was shot at the Bar Marmont, the hotel was also a location for Oliver Stones The DoorsChateau Marmont Hotel – Chateau Marmont
37. Brit Awards – The Brit Awards are the British Phonographic Industrys annual pop music awards. The name was originally a form of British, Britain or Britannia. In addition, an equivalent awards ceremony for music, called the Classic Brit Awards, is held each May. Robbie Williams holds the record for the most Brit Awards,13 as a solo artist, the awards originated as an annual event in 1982 under the auspices of the British record industrys trade association, the BPI. In 1989 they were renamed the Brit Awards, masterCard has been the long-term sponsor of the event. The Brit Awards were broadcast live until 1989, when Samantha Fox, in subsequent years, the event was recorded and broadcast the following night. From 2007, the Brit Awards reverted to a live broadcast on British television, on 14 February on ITV. In that year, comedian Russell Brand was presenter and three awards were dropped from the ceremony, Best British Rock Act, Best British Urban Act, on 18 February 2009, the venue for the BRITs was once again the Earls Court, London. The Brit Awards were held at The O2 in London for the first time in 2011, the Brit Award statuette given to the winners features Britannia, the female personification of Britain. The first awards ceremony was in 1977, as The BRITish Record Industry BRITannia Awards, there have been 36 editions to date. The 2016 Brit Awards was held on 24 February 2016, the 1988 BPI Awards was the first of the ceremonies to be broadcast on live television. The BBC had previously broadcast the ceremony from 1985, with the shows from 1982 to 1984 not broadcast on television, the BBC continued to broadcast the renamed BRIT Awards, live in 1989 and pre-recorded from 1990 to 1992. ITV have broadcast the awards since 1993, pre-recorded until 2006, BBC Radio 1 has provided backstage radio coverage since 2008. In 1987 the BPI Awards ceremony was held in the Great Room at the Grosvenor House Hotel, at the time there was a BBC electricians strike in effect, and the organisers decided to use a non-TV events production company, called Upfront, to manage the show. Despite the show being picketed, the event was transmitted as intended, for a while the outdoor broadcast scanner was rocked on its wheels by the protesters and they managed to shut off the power to one of the big GE video screen projectors. In 1989, the ceremony was broadcast live and presented by Fleetwood Macs Mick Fleetwood, the inexperience of the hosts, an ineffective autocue and little preparation combined to create an unprofessional show that was poorly received. The 1990 awards ceremony saw the last public appearance of Queen frontman Freddie Mercury, Queen appeared at the ceremony to receive the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. Mercury did not make a speech, as Brian May did the talking on behalf of the other members, in 1992, dance/art band The KLF were awarded Best British Group and were booked to open the showBrit Awards – The entrance to Earls Court in London on the evening of the 2008 BRIT Awards ceremony.
38. Chevrolet Hall (Belo Horizonte) – Chevrolet Hall is a convention centre in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, created by the Marist Brothers institution UBEE, the Brazilian Association of Education and Teaching. The goal was to create an environment with a diversity of spaces. Construction began in March 1997, and the deadline was December 1998. However, this deadline was postponed, and the building did not open until June 25,2003. Further dissatisfaction came when Chevrolet began to sponsor the convention center in 2005, the arena show has a capacity of 18,000 people and 40,000 people, and the sports facilities conform to official international rules. Dom Silvério Theater has a capacity of 400 people. O. DChevrolet Hall (Belo Horizonte) – Chevrolet Hall
39. Rick Rubin – Frederick Jay Rick Rubin is a Jewish-American record producer and former co-president of Columbia Records. Along with Russell Simmons, Rubin is the co-founder of Def Jam Records, with the Beastie Boys, LL Cool J, Public Enemy, and Run–D. M. C. Rubin helped popularize hip hop music, in 2007, MTV called him the most important producer of the last 20 years, and the same year Rubin appeared on Times 100 Most Influential People in the World. Frederick Jay Rubin was born in Long Beach, New York and grew up in Lido Beach and his father, Michael was a shoe wholesaler and his mother, Linda, a housewife. While a student at Long Beach High School he befriended the schools audiovisual department director Steve Freeman who gave him a few lessons in playing and songwriting. Their biggest claim to fame was being thrown off the stage at CBGB after two songs for brawling with the heckling audience and these hecklers were friends of the band instructed to instigate a confrontation so as to get the show shut down and create a buzz. Somewhat anecdotally, this story was confirmed in an interview with music journalist Zane Lowe. Although he had no authority in New York City, Rubins father traveled from Nassau County, New York, during his senior year, Rubin founded Def Jam Records using the schools four-track recorder. He moved on to form Hose, influenced by San Franciscos Flipper, in 1982, a Hose track became Def Jams first release, a 45 rpm 7 vinyl single in a brown paper bag, and no label. The band broke up in 1984 as Rubins passion moved towards the NYC hip hop scene, having befriended Zulu Nations DJ Jazzy Jay, Rubin began to learn about hip hop production. By 1983, the two men produced Its Yours for rapper T La Rock, and released it on their independent label, Producer Arthur Baker helped to distribute the record worldwide on Bakers Streetwise Records in 1984. Jazzy Jay introduced Rubin to concert promoter/artist manager Russell Simmons in a club, Simmons and Rubin edged out Jazzy Jay and the official Def Jam record label was founded while Rubin was attending New York University in 1984. Their first record released was LL Cool Js I Need a Beat, Rubin went on to find more hip-hop acts outside The Bronx, Brooklyn and Harlem including rappers from Queens, Staten Island and Long Island, which eventually led to Def Jams signing of Public Enemy. Rubin was instrumental in pointing the members of the Beastie Boys away from their roots and into rap. 1985s Rock Hard/Partys Gettin Rough/Beastie Groove EP by the Beastie Boys came out on the success of Rubins production work with breakthrough act Run–D. M. C, which previous recordings were produced by Russell Simmons and Orange Krushs musician Larry Smith. His productions were characterized by occasionally fusing rap with heavy rock, Rubin tapped Adam Dubin and Ric Menello to co-direct the music videos for the Beastie Boys Fight for Your Right and No Sleep till Brooklyn, effectively launching the bands mainstream hip hop careers. It was the idea of Rick Rubins friend Sue Cummings, an editor at Spin magazine, to have Run–D. M. C. and this 1986 production is often credited with both introducing rap hard rock to mainstream ears and revitalizing Aerosmith. In 1986, he worked with Aerosmith again on demos for their forthcoming album, in the same year, Rubin began his long musical partnership with Slayer, producing Reign in Blood, considered a classic of the heavy metal genreRick Rubin – Rubin, September 14, 2006, Abbey Road Studios, London, working with U2
40. Swan song – The swan song is a metaphorical phrase for a final gesture, effort, or performance given just before death or retirement. The phrase refers to an ancient belief that swans sing a song in the moment just before death. This belief, whose basis in actuality is long-debated, had become proverbial in ancient Greece by the 3rd century BC, and was reiterated many times in later Western poetry and art. Aesops fable of The Swan and the Goose incorporates the swan song legend as saving its life when it was caught by mistake instead of the goose but was recognized by its song, there is a subsequent reference in Aeschylus Agamemnon from 458 BC. In that play, Clytemnestra compares the dead Cassandra to a swan who has sung her last final lament, platos Phaedo records Socrates saying that, although swans sing in early life, they do not do so as beautifully as before they die. Furthermore, Aristotle noted in his History of Animals that swans are musical, by the third century BC the belief had become a proverb. The swan was described as a singer in the works of the poets Virgil. The most familiar European swan, the swan, although not actually mute, is known neither for musicality nor to vocalize as it dies. Peterson et al. note that Cygnus olor is not mute but lacks bugling call, merely honking, grunting and this was proposed by naturalist Peter Pallas as the basis for the legend. Both mute and whooper swans appear to be represented in ancient Greek, the whooper swans nearest relatives, the trumpeter and tundra swans, share its musical tracheal loop. Chaucer wrote of The Ialous swan, ayens his deth that singeth, leonardo da Vinci noted The swan is white without spot, and it sings sweetly as it dies, that song ending its life. In Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice, Portia exclaims Let music sound while he doth make his choice, Then, if he lose, he makes a swan-like end, Fading in music. The concerto of Telemann begins with a sad part later a part, the singing of the swan itself, another sad part. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the English phrase swan song or swan-song borrows from the German schwanensang or schwanenlied, the Scottish cleric John Willison, in one of his Scripture Sermons,1747, proposes a verse from Psalm 48 as a swan-song for the faithful. Danish painter Nicolai Abildgaard painted Ossian synger sin Svanesang, or Ossian sings his swan song, the band Led Zeppelins record label is Swan Song Records. By extension, swan song has become an idiom referring to a theatrical or dramatic appearance. For example, an athlete that wins a championship or breaks records in their final season are sometimes said to have had a swan song season, examples Peyton Manning winning the Super Bowl in his last season. Kobe Bryant dropping 60 points in his final game, ned Jarrett winning the 1965 NASCAR title and then surprisingly retiringSwan song – " The singing swan " (1655) by Reinier van Persijn.