1. Leaning Tower of Pisa – The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply the Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. It is situated behind Pisas cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the citys Cathedral Square, after the cathedral, the towers tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structures weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres on the high side, the width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons, the tower has 296 or 294 steps, the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees and this means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 metres from the centre. There has been controversy about the identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano, Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast bearing his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14,1173 during a period of military success. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals, the tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled, in 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto, in an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is actually curved, construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. The seventh floor was completed in 1319, the bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower, there are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scaleLeaning Tower of Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa
2. Geotechnical engineering – Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the material properties. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place, a geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations, earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built. Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations, retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include embankments, tunnels, dikes and levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous waste, Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms. The fields of engineering and engineering geology are closely related. However, the field of engineering is a specialty of engineering. Humans have historically used soil as a material for flood control, irrigation purposes, burial sites, building foundations, as the cities expanded, structures were erected supported by formalized foundations, Ancient Greeks notably constructed pad footings and strip-and-raft foundations. Until the 18th century, however, no basis for soil design had been developed. Several foundation-related engineering problems, such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the earliest advances occurred in the development of earth pressure theories for the construction of retaining walls. Henri Gautier, a French Royal Engineer, recognized the natural slope of different soils in 1717, a rudimentary soil classification system was also developed based on a materials unit weight, which is no longer considered a good indication of soil type. The application of the principles of mechanics to soils was documented as early as 1773 when Charles Coulomb developed improved methods to determine the pressures against military ramparts. By combining Coulombs theory with Christian Otto Mohrs 2D stress state, although it is now recognized that precise determination of cohesion is impossible because c is not a fundamental soil property, the Mohr-Coulomb theory is still used in practice today. In the 19th century Henry Darcy developed what is now known as Darcys Law describing the flow of fluids in porous media, albert Atterberg developed the clay consistency indices that are still used today for soil classification. Osborne Reynolds recognized in 1885 that shearing causes volumetric dilation of dense, modern geotechnical engineering is said to have begun in 1925 with the publication of Erdbaumechanik by Karl Terzaghi. Terzaghi also developed the framework for theories of bearing capacity of foundations, in his 1948 book, Donald Taylor recognized that interlocking and dilation of densely packed particles contributed to the peak strength of a soil. Critical state soil mechanics is the basis for many contemporary advanced constitutive models describing the behavior of soil, Geotechnical centrifuge modeling is a method of testing physical scale models of geotechnical problemsGeotechnical engineering – Boston 's Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment.
3. History of physics – Physics is the fundamental branch of science that developed out of the study of nature and philosophy known, until around the end of the 19th century, as natural philosophy. Today, physics is defined as the study of matter, energy. The other sciences are more limited in their scope and may be considered branches that have split off from physics to become sciences in their own right. Physics today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics, elements of what became physics were drawn primarily from the fields of astronomy, optics, and mechanics, which were methodologically united through the study of geometry. These mathematical disciplines began in antiquity with the Babylonians and with Hellenistic writers such as Archimedes, Ancient philosophy, meanwhile – including what was called physics – focused on explaining nature through ideas such as Aristotles four types of cause. The move towards an understanding of nature began at least since the Archaic period in Greece with the Pre-Socratic philosophers. Anaximander, famous for his theory, disputed the Thales ideas and proposed that rather than water. Around 500 BCE, Heraclitus proposed that the basic law governing the Universe was the principle of change. This observation made him one of the first scholars in ancient physics to address the role of time in the universe, the early physicist Leucippus adamantly opposed the idea of direct divine intervention in the universe, proposing instead that natural phenomena had a natural cause. Leucippus and his student Democritus were the first to develop the theory of atomism, during the classical period in Greece and in Hellenistic times, natural philosophy slowly developed into an exciting and contentious field of study. Aristotle, a student of Plato, promoted the concept that observation of physical phenomena could ultimately lead to the discovery of the laws governing them. Aristotles writings cover physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. He wrote the first work which refers to line of study as Physics – in the 4th century BCE. He attempted to explain ideas such as motion with the theory of four elements, Aristotle believed that all matter was made up of aether, or some combination of four elements, earth, water, air, and fire. Eventually, Aristotelian physics became enormously popular for centuries in Europe. It remained the mainstream scientific paradigm in Europe until the time of Galileo Galilei, early in Classical Greece, knowledge that the Earth is spherical was common. Around 240 BCE, as the result a seminal experiment, Eratosthenes accurately estimated its circumference. In contrast to Aristotles geocentric views, Aristarchus of Samos presented an argument for a heliocentric model of the Solar system, i. e. for placing the Sun, not the EarthHistory of physics – Aristotle (384–322 BCE)
4. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldItaly – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
5. Lead – Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. When freshly cut, it is bluish-white, it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air and it is a soft, malleable, and heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials. Lead has the second-highest atomic number of the stable elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal and its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature and tendency to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, like the lighter members of the group, lead exhibits a tendency to bond to itself, it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores and was known to people in Western Asia. A principal ore of lead, galena, often bears silver, Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels again until the Industrial Revolution. Nowadays, global production of lead is about ten million tonnes annually, Lead has several properties that make it useful, high density, low melting point, ductility, and relative inertness to oxidation. In the late 19th century, lead was recognized as poisonous, Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders and, in mammals, blood disorders. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in a configuration of 4f145d106s26p2. The combined first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, leads upper neighbor in group 14. This is unusual since ionization energies generally fall going down a group as an elements outer electrons become more distant from the nucleus, the similarity is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, and the relatively small radii of the elements after hafnium. The contraction is due to shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The combined first four ionization energies of lead exceed those of tin, for this reason lead, unlike tin, mostly forms compounds in which it has an oxidation state of +2, rather than +4. Relativistic effects, which become particularly prominent at the bottom of the periodic table, as a result, the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, a phenomenon called the inert pair effect. A related outcome is that the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead is unusually long, the lighter group 14 elements form stable or metastable allotropes having the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure. The energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitalsLead – Lead, 82 Pb
6. Mass – In physics, mass is a property of a physical body. It is the measure of a resistance to acceleration when a net force is applied. It also determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit of mass is the kilogram, Mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the objects weight using a spring scale, rather than comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon would weigh less than it does on Earth because of the lower gravity and this is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object, however, at very high speeds, special relativity postulates that energy is an additional source of mass. Thus, any body having mass has an equivalent amount of energy. In addition, matter is a defined term in science. There are several distinct phenomena which can be used to measure mass, active gravitational mass measures the gravitational force exerted by an object. Passive gravitational mass measures the force exerted on an object in a known gravitational field. The mass of an object determines its acceleration in the presence of an applied force, according to Newtons second law of motion, if a body of fixed mass m is subjected to a single force F, its acceleration a is given by F/m. A bodys mass also determines the degree to which it generates or is affected by a gravitational field and this is sometimes referred to as gravitational mass. The standard International System of Units unit of mass is the kilogram, the kilogram is 1000 grams, first defined in 1795 as one cubic decimeter of water at the melting point of ice. Then in 1889, the kilogram was redefined as the mass of the prototype kilogram. As of January 2013, there are proposals for redefining the kilogram yet again. In this context, the mass has units of eV/c2, the electronvolt and its multiples, such as the MeV, are commonly used in particle physics. The atomic mass unit is 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom, the atomic mass unit is convenient for expressing the masses of atoms and molecules. Outside the SI system, other units of mass include, the slug is an Imperial unit of mass, the pound is a unit of both mass and force, used mainly in the United StatesMass – Depiction of early balance scales in the Papyrus of Hunefer (dated to the 19th dynasty, ca. 1285 BC). The scene shows Anubis weighing the heart of Hunefer.
7. Pisa – Pisa is a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its tower, the city of over 90,834 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces. Much of the architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics. The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery, while the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city. Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks, the presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city, strabo referred Pisas origins to the mythical Nestor, king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was already a center by the times described. The Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the port along the western coast from Genoa to Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians, Gauls, in 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium, Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore, however, due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 kilometres north of the Arnos, the shore moved west. Strabo states that the city was 4.0 kilometres away from the coast, currently, it is located 9.7 kilometres from the coast. However it was a city, with ships sailing up the Arno. In the 90s AD, a complex was built in the city. During the later years of the Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the cities of Italy, probably thanks to the complexity of its river system. After Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, politically it became part of the duchy of LuccaPisa – Pisa
8. Viz (comics) – Viz is a popular British comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald. It parodies British comics of the period, notably The Beano and The Dandy. It also sends up tabloid newspapers, with mockeries of articles, occasionally, it satirises current events and politicians, but has no particular political standpoint. Its success in the early 1990s led to the appearance of numerous rivals crudely copying the format Viz pioneered and it once enjoyed being the third most popular magazine in the UK, but ABC-audited sales have since dropped, to an average of 50,750 per issue in 2014. Editor Chris Donald himself cannot remember exactly where the name of the magazine comes from, what had begun as a few pages, photocopied and sold to friends, became a publishing phenomenon. To meet the demand, and to make up for Brownlows diminishing interest in contributing, after a few years of steady sales, mostly in the North East of England, circulation had grown to around 5,000. As the magazines popularity grew, the bedroom became too small, Donald also hired another freelance artist, Simon Thorp, whose work had impressed him. For over a decade, these four would be the nucleus of Viz, in 1985, a deal was signed with Virgin Books to publish the comic nationally every two months. In 1987, the Virgin director responsible for Viz, John Brown, set up his own publishing company, John Brown Publishing, sales exceeded a million by the end of 1989, making Viz for a time one of the biggest-selling magazines in the country. Inevitably, a number of imitations of Viz were launched, but these never matched the original in popularity, and rarely in quality. In June 2001, the comic was acquired as part of a £6.4 million deal by I Feel Good, a company belonging to ex-Loaded editor James Brown, in 2003, it changed hands again when IFG were bought out by Dennis Publishing. Soon after, Simon Donald quit his role as co-editor, in an attempt to develop a career in television. For a complete list, see List of Viz comic strips Many Viz characters have featured in long-running strips, becoming known in their own right. Others are based on stereotypes of British culture, mostly via working class characters, such as Biffa Bacon, Cockney Wanker, in addition to this, the comic also contains plenty of in jokes referring to people and places in and around Newcastle upon Tyne. These very often have extremely surreal or bizarre storylines, and often feature celebrities, the latter type often follows the style of Enid Blyton and other popular childrens adventure stories of the 1950s. The one-off strips often have ludicrously alliterative and/or rhyming titles, for example, Reverend Milos Lino Rhino, Maxs Laxative Saxophone Taxi, some strips are built entirely around absurd puns, such as Noahs Arse and Feet and Two Reg. Most of the stories take place in the town of Fulchester. Fulchester was originally the setting of the British TV programme Crown Court before the name was adopted by the Viz team, billy the Fish plays for Fulchester United F. CViz (comics) – Cover of Issue 199
9. 1964 – January – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is dissolved. Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he seek the Republican nomination for President. In the first meeting between leaders of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches since the 15th century, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople meet in Jerusalem. January 7 – A British firm, the Leyland Motor Corp. announces the sale of 450 buses to the Cuban government, January 8 – In his first State of the Union Address, U. S. President Lyndon Johnson declares a War on Poverty. S. The Beatles is released by Chicagos Vee-Jay Records to get the jump on Capitol Records release of Meet the Beatles, the two record companies fight over Vee-Jays release of this album in court. January 11 – United States Surgeon General Luther Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to ones health, January 12 Zanzibar Revolution, The predominantly Arab government of Zanzibar is overthrown by African nationalist rebels, a United States Navy destroyer evacuates 61 U. S. citizens. Routine U. S. naval patrols of the South China Sea begin, January 13 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, 14-year-old Pamela Mason is murdered. Edward Coolidge is tried and convicted of the crime, but the conviction is set aside by the landmark Fourth Amendment case Coolidge vs, opens in New Yorks St. James Theatre. John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, resigns from NASA, January 17 John Glenn announces that he will seek the Democratic nomination for U. S. Roald Dahls Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is published by Alfred A. Knopf and it will later be published by George Allen & Unwin in the United Kingdom on November 23. January 18 – Plans to build the New York City World Trade Center are announced, January 20 – Meet the Beatles. The first Beatles album from Capitol Records in the United States, is released ten days after Chicagos Vee-Jay Records releases Introducing, the two record companies battle it out in court for months, eventually coming to a conclusion. January 22 – Kenneth Kaunda is inaugurated as the first Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia, January 23 Pope Paul VI institutes the World Day of Prayer for Vocations. During this celebration the Pope reminds the universal Church that still today salvation comes to everyone and it continues to be celebrated every Fourth Sunday of Easter also known as Good Shepherd Sunday. Arthur Millers After the Fall opens Off-Broadway, a semi-autobiographical work, it arouses controversy over his portrayal of late ex-wife Marilyn Monroe. January 27 France and the Peoples Republic of China announce their decision to establish diplomatic relations, Senator Margaret Chase Smith,66, announces her candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination. January 28 – A U. S. Air Force jet training plane that strays into East Germany is shot down by Soviet fighters near Erfurt, January 29–February 9 – The 1964 Winter Olympics are held in Innsbruck, Austria. January 29 The Soviet Union launches 2 scientific satellites, Elektron I and II, Ranger 6 is launched by NASA, on a mission to carry television cameras and crash-land on the Moon1964 – January 8: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson 's War on Poverty
10. 2001 – 2001 was designated as, International Year of Volunteers January 1 – Kolkata officially restores name from Calcutta, West Bengal, India. January 10 – The U. S. Federal Trade Commission approves the merger of America Online and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner. January 13 – A7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people, January 15 – Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online. January 20 George W. Bush is sworn in as President of the United States, impeachment proceedings against Philippine President Joseph Estrada, accused of playing Jueteng, end preeminently and trigger the second EDSA People Power Revolution or People Power II. His Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeds him as the 14th President of the Republic, January 23 – The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident occurs. January 26 – The 7.7 Mw Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X, leaving 13, 805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured. January 31 – The Congressional Budget Office of the United States forecasts a $5,600,000,000,000 budget surplus for the next 10 years, February 9 – The submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Japanese fishing vessel Ehime-Maru near Hawaii. February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the region of 433 Eros. February 13 – A6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, February 16 – Iraq disarmament crisis, British and U. S. forces carry out bombing raids, attempting to disable Iraqs air defense network. February 18 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years, February 20 – The 2001 UK foot-and-mouth crisis begins. February 28 – The Great Heck rail crash occurs, march 2 – The Taliban begins destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas. March 4 – A bomb explodes at BBC Television Centre in London, march 23 The deorbit of Russian space station Mir is carried out near Nadi, Fiji, with Mir falling into the Pacific Ocean. The World Wrestling Federation purchases rival organization World Championship Wrestling for an estimated US$7 million. March 24 - The first release of Mac OS X is released as the successor to Mac OS9 and the Mac OS X Public Beta, which would not cease to function until May 14. April 1 Hainan Island incident, A Chinese fighter jet bumps into a U. S. EP-3E surveillance aircraft, the U. S. crew is detained for 10 days and the F-8 Chinese pilot, Wang Wei, goes missing and is presumed dead. Former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, in the Netherlands, the Act on the Opening up of Marriage goes into effect. The Act allows same-sex couples to marry legally for the first time in the world since the reign of Nero, april 28 – Soyuz TM-32 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying the first space tourist, American Dennis Tito. May 6 – Space tourist Dennis Tito returns to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-31, may 7 – In Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, an attempt is made to reconstruct the Ferhadija mosque. However, the results in mass riots by Serb nationalists2001 – September 11 attacks
11. 1990 – Also in this year, Nelson Mandela was released from prison, and Margaret Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after over 11 years. 1990 was an important year in the Internets early history, in the fall of 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created the first web server and the foundation for the World Wide Web. Test operations began around December 20 and it was released outside of CERN the following year,1990 also saw the official decommissioning of the ARPANET, a forerunner of the Internet system and the introduction of the first content search engine, Archie on September 10. September 14,1990 saw the first case of successful somatic gene therapy on a patient, in most western countries the Echo Boom peaked in 1990, fertility rates declined thereafter. Encyclopædia Britannica, which ceased printing in 2012, saw its highest all time sales in 1990,120,000 volumes were sold that year, the number of librarians in the United States also peaked around 1990. January 1 Poland becomes the first country in Eastern Europe to begin abolishing its state socialist economy, Poland also withdraws from the Warsaw Pact. The first Internet companies catering to users, PSInet and EUnet begin selling Internet access to commercial customers in the United States. Glasgow begins its year as European Capital of Culture, rowan Atkinsons Mr. Bean debuts in a Thames Television special. January 3 – United States invasion of Panama, General Manuel Noriega is deposed as leader of Panama, January 4 – Two trains collide in Sangi, Pakistan, killing between 200 and 300 people and injuring an estimated 700 others. January 7 – The Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed to the public because of safety concerns, January 9 – Ugandan Lt. Gen. Bazilio Olara-Okello, who led a coup against Dr. Apolo Milton Obotes government, dies in Ormduruman Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. January 11 – Singing Revolution, In the Lithuania SSR,300,000 demonstrate for independence, January 12-January 19 - Most of the remaining 50,000 Armenians are driven out of Baku in the Azerbaijan SSR during the Baku pogrom. January 15 The National Assembly of Bulgaria votes to end one party rule by the Bulgarian Communist Party, thousands storm the Stasi headquarters in East Berlin in an attempt to view their government records. Martin Luther King Day Crash – Telephone service in Atlanta, St. Louis, January 17 – Smith & Wesson introduce the.40 S&W cartridge. Clashes break out between Indian troops and Muslim separatists in Kashmir, the government of Haiti declares a state of emergency, under which it suspends civil liberties, imposes censorship, and arrests political opponents. The state of siege is lifted on January 29, January 22 The League of Communists of Yugoslavia votes to give up its monopoly on power. Robert Tappan Morris is convicted of releasing the Morris worm, January 25 Avianca Flight 52 crashes into Cove Neck, Long Island, New York after a miscommunication between the flight crew and JFK Airport officials, killing 73 people on board. Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto gives birth to a girl, Pope John Paul II begins an eight-day tour of Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Chad. January 25–26 – The Burns Day storm kills 97 in northwestern Europe, January 27 – The city of Tiraspol in the Moldavian SSR briefly declares independence1990 – January 7: The Pisa tower closed.
12. Humour – Humour is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the medicine of the ancient Greeks. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour, most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour. The hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would likely find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, strange, for example, young children may favour slapstick such as Punch and Judy puppet shows or the Tom and Jerry cartoons, whose physical nature makes it accessible to them. By contrast, more sophisticated forms of such as satire require an understanding of its social meaning and context. Many theories exist about what humour is and what social function it serves, the benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humours existence. The theory says humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, Humour can be used as a method to easily engage in social interaction by taking away that awkward, uncomfortable, or uneasy feeling of social interactions. Others believe that the use of humour can facilitate social interactions. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained, white once said, Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind. Counter to this argument, protests against offensive cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and this process of dissecting humour does not necessarily banish a sense of humour but begs attention towards its politics and assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy, however, both humour and comic are often used when theorising about the subject. The connotations of humour as opposed to comic are said to be that of response versus stimulus, additionally, humour was thought to include a combination of ridiculousness and wit in an individual, the paradigmatic case being Shakespeares Sir John Falstaff. The French were slow to adopt the term humour, in French, non-satirical humour can be specifically termed droll humour or recreational drollery. As with any art form, the acceptance of a style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors. Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, both a social etiquette and a certain intelligence can be displayed through forms of wit and sarcasm. Eighteenth-century German author Georg Lichtenberg said that the more you know humour, later, in Greek philosophy, Aristotle, in the Poetics, suggested that an ugliness that does not disgust is fundamental to humour. Each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage, due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation, and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija. They viewed comedy as simply the art of reprehension and made no reference to light and cheerful events or troublesome beginnings, after the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term comedy thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literatureHumour – Smiling can imply a sense of humour and a state of amusement, as in this painting of Falstaff by Eduard von Grützner.
13. Gravity – Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy, including light, on Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the ocean tides. Gravity has a range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects. The most extreme example of this curvature of spacetime is a hole, from which nothing can escape once past its event horizon. More gravity results in time dilation, where time lapses more slowly at a lower gravitational potential. Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the gravitational attraction is approximately 1038 times weaker than the strong force,1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak force. As a consequence, gravity has an influence on the behavior of subatomic particles. On the other hand, gravity is the dominant interaction at the macroscopic scale, for this reason, in part, pursuit of a theory of everything, the merging of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics into quantum gravity, has become an area of research. While the modern European thinkers are credited with development of gravitational theory, some of the earliest descriptions came from early mathematician-astronomers, such as Aryabhata, who had identified the force of gravity to explain why objects do not fall out when the Earth rotates. Later, the works of Brahmagupta referred to the presence of force, described it as an attractive force. Modern work on gravitational theory began with the work of Galileo Galilei in the late 16th and this was a major departure from Aristotles belief that heavier objects have a higher gravitational acceleration. Galileo postulated air resistance as the reason that objects with less mass may fall slower in an atmosphere, galileos work set the stage for the formulation of Newtons theory of gravity. In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inverse-square law of universal gravitation. Newtons theory enjoyed its greatest success when it was used to predict the existence of Neptune based on motions of Uranus that could not be accounted for by the actions of the other planets. Calculations by both John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier predicted the position of the planet. A discrepancy in Mercurys orbit pointed out flaws in Newtons theory, the issue was resolved in 1915 by Albert Einsteins new theory of general relativity, which accounted for the small discrepancy in Mercurys orbit. The simplest way to test the equivalence principle is to drop two objects of different masses or compositions in a vacuum and see whether they hit the ground at the same time. Such experiments demonstrate that all objects fall at the rate when other forces are negligibleGravity – Sir Isaac Newton, an English physicist who lived from 1642 to 1727
14. Pavia – Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy,35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c, the city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia is the capital of the province of Pavia, known for agricultural products including wine, rice, cereals. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia. The city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, including several important churches and museums, dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia, then known as Ticinum, was a municipality and an important military site under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have founded by the Laevi and Marici. It was at Pavia in 476 AD that the reign of Romulus Augustulus, ten months after Romulus Augustulus’s reign began, Orestes’s soldiers under the command of one of his officers named Odoacer, rebelled and killed Orestes in the city of Pavia in 476. Without his father Romulus Augustulus was powerless, instead of killing Romulus Augustulus, Odoacer pensioned him off at 6,000 solidi a year before declaring the end of the Western Roman Empire and himself king of the new Kingdom of Italy. Odoacer’s reign as king of Italy did not last long, because in 488 the Ostrogothic peoples led by their king Theoderic invaded Italy and waged war against Odoacer. After fighting for 5 years Theoderic defeated Odoacer and on March 15,493 assassinated Odoacer at a banquet meant to negotiate a peace between the two rulers, with the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to restore and expand and he began the construction of the vast palace complex that would eventually become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. Near the end of Theoderic’s reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia’s churches from 522 to 525 before his execution for treason and it was during Boethius’s captivity in Pavia that he wrote his seminal work the Consolation of Philosophy. Pavia played an important role in the war between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths that began in 535, after the capitulation of the Ostrogothic leadership in 540 more than a thousand men remained garrisoned in Pavia and Verona dedicated to opposing Eastern Roman rule. The resilience of Ostrogoth strongholds like Pavia against invading forces allowed pockets of Ostrogothic rule to limp along until finally being defeated in 561, Pavia and the peninsula of Italy didn’t remain long under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire for in 568 a new people invaded Italy. This new invading people in 568 were the Lombards, in their invasion of Italy in 568, the Lombards were led by their king Alboin, who would become the first Lombard king of Italy. Alboin captured much of northern Italy in 568 but his progress was halted in 569 by the city of Pavia. Meanwhile Alboin, after driving out the soldiers, took possession of everything as far as Tuscany except Rome and Ravenna and some other fortified places which were situated on the shore of the sea. ”The Siege of Ticinum finally ended with the Lombards capturing the city of Pavia in 572. Pavia’s strategic location and the Ostrogoth palaces located within it would make Pavia by the 620s the main capital of the Lombards’ Kingdom of Pavia, under Lombard rule many monasteries, nunneries, and churches were built at Pavia by the devout Christian Lombard monarchsPavia – A view of the city's Cathedral from the Piazza della Vittoria
15. Romanesque architecture – Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches, examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture, each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan, the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics, Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete. The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Romanesque means descended from Roman and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages, Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language, Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture, the first use in a published work is in William Gunns An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries, Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period. Most have been altered, and many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches, the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. In the more northern countries Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost. There was a loss of continuity, particularly apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to later builders, the largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard bandRomanesque architecture – Maria Laach Abbey, Germany
16. Niles, Illinois – Niles is a village in Maine and Niles townships, Cook County, Illinois, United States. The 2010 population from the U. S. Census Bureau was 29,803, the current mayor of Niles is Andrew Przybylo. Niles was first settled in 1827, the village of Niles was incorporated on August 24,1899. The village had a population of 500 people at that time, among these individuals were Billy Caldwell, Victoria Pothier, and Jane Miranda. The land given to these individuals helped for what would eventually established part of the border of Niles. During the 1832 Black Hawk War, there is evidence that one band of Native Americans may have reached Billy Caldwells property as part of an attempt to land lost to the United States. Along with neighboring Skokie and several suburbs, Niles is partly in Niles Township. It should not be confused with Niles Center, the name of Skokie. There is no indication of the origin of the name Niles. Another belief is that the name Niles was named after Niles Construction which did much of the building early during the citys founding, Niles was the first community in Illinois and one of the first in the United States to establish free ambulance service, in 1946. Niles is located at 42°1′40″N 87°48′36″W, according to the 2010 census, Niles has a total area of 5.85 square miles, all land. Niles is adjacent to Chicago to the south, Skokie to the east, Morton Grove to the northeast, Glenview to the north, the town is centered along Milwaukee Avenue which forms a main artery diagonally through the town on a northwest-southeast bearing. The North Branch of the Chicago River flows through the part of the town roughly in a north-to-south direction. As of the census of 2000, there were 30,068 people,12,002 households, the population density was 5,117.9 people per square mile. There were 12,256 housing units at a density of 2,086.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 83. 22% White,0. 46% African American,0. 09% Native American,12. 68% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,1. 67% from other races, and 1. 87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. 03% of the population,30. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 18. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the family size was 3.01Niles, Illinois – Niles Free Bus at Golf Mill
17. World Monuments Fund – Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, and has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, France, Peru, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In addition to management, the affiliates identify, develop, and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships. WMF describes its mission as to preserve important historic architectural sites, the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Even though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia. In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, the project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Grays interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile, Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice. After the extremely high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, the International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as Chairman and Gray as Executive Secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public and these efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat, at the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepals Kathmandu Valley. The 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating that had been applied annually for protection. Also at the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, the site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods. IFM also sponsored an exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with community and government partners worldwide to safeguard. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites. Every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch, through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, and attracts technical and financial support for the sitesWorld Monuments Fund – The Mahadev Temple in Gokarna, Nepal, a conservation project of the International Fund for Monuments.
18. Bedum – Bedum is a municipality and a town in the northeastern Netherlands. Populated by 10,459 inhabitants in 2014, Bedum is one of the larger of Groningens several satellite towns, Bedum is the site of three supermarkets, several pubs, and a leaning church tower, dubbed the leaning tower of Bedum. Footballer Arjen Robben was born in Bedum, Bedum has a railway station - Bedum railway station. Bedums 36-metre tower of the St Walfridus church has been calculated as now leaning at a greater angle than the tower of Pisa. If both towers were the height, Bedums would have a greater displacement by 6 cm. Bedum Noordwolde Onderdendam Zuidwolde Ellerhuizen Westerdijkshorn 1860-1873 J. H. Leopold 1873-1878 W. J. Bekker 1878-1895 R. J. van Bruggen 1895-1909 dr H. V, schleurholts 1909-1914 Simon Berman 1914-1917 Klaas van Sevenhoven 1917-1943 M. Jouwstra 1943-194. Spoelstra 1962-1971 J. C. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, map of the municipality around 1868Bedum – Church in Westerdijkshorn
19. Lake Trasimeno – Lake Trasimeno, also referred to as Trasimene or Thrasimene in English, is a lake in the province of Perugia, in the Umbria region of Italy. The lake is south of the river Po and north of the nearby river Tiber, has an area of 128 km2 and is the fourth for surface area in Italy. Only two minor streams flow directly into the Lake and none flows out, the water level of the lake fluctuates significantly according to rainfall levels and the seasonal demands from the towns, villages and farms near the shore. Trasimeno is shallow, muddy, and rich in fish, including pike, carp, during the last 10 years has been 5 m deep on average. Lake Trasimeno is a body of water, it is an impounded lake that receives water but has no outlet. Other endorheic bodies of water include the Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, Utahs Great Salt Lake, evaporation can lead to a buildup of minerals in the water, resulting in saline conditions, making these lakes sensitive to pressures from pollution. The shallow waters meant that malarial mosquitoes prospered, to combat malaria, some mosquito larvae-eating fish were imported from USA during the 1950s. These fish are scattered, and some live in the lakes near Trasimeno. Although billions of larvae are eaten, there are many mosquitoes. The lakes water quality is very good, as a study by conservation group Italia Nostra showed in 2005. This is believed to be due to the small population. A proposal to drain the lake to solve the problems of malaria, at the end of the 19th century, the level changes were solved by building a channel near San Feliciano. This also lessened the malaria problem, three million years ago, there was a shallow sea in this part of Umbria. A depression formed by geologic fractures allowed the present-day Lake Trasimeno to form, historically, Trasimeno was known as the Lake of Perugia, being important for northwestern Umbria and for the Tuscan Chiana district. In prehistoric times, this lake extended almost to Perugia, Trasimeno is a mythological figure, joined with Agilla, a nymph born in Agello, now a hill midway between Perugia and Trasimeno, formerly an island in the lake. The first civilization to inhabit this area was the Etruscans, three of the main Etruscan cities - Perugia, Chiusi, and Cortona - are within 20 kilometres of the lake, little physical evidence remains from the period of Etruscan or later Roman settlement. Castiglione del Lago, has some Roman ruins and its streets are structured like a chessboard in the Roman style. The Battle of Lake Trasimeno occurred on the shore of the lake in April 217 B. C. during the Second Punic WarLake Trasimeno – Sunset on Lake Trasimeno
20. Pisa Cathedral – Pisa Cathedral is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy. It is an example of Romanesque architecture, in particular the style known as Pisan Romanesque. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Pisa, construction on the cathedral began in 1063 by the architect Buscheto, and expenses were paid using the spoils received fighting against the Muslims in Sicily in 1063. It includes various elements, classical, Lombard-Emilian, Byzantine. The church was erected outside Pisas high middle age-era walls, to show that Pisa that was so powerful, it had no fear of being attacked. The chosen area had already used in the Lombard era as a necropolis and at the beginning of the 11th century a church had been erected here, but never finished. Buschetos grand new church, was initially called Santa Maria Maggiore until it was officially named Santa Maria Assunta, in 1092 the cathedral was declared a primatial church, archbishop Dagobert having been given the title of Primate by Pope Urban II. The cathedral was consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II, who belonged to the Caetani family which was both in Pisa and in Rome. The exact date of the work is unclear, according to some the work was done right after the death of Buscheto about the year 1100, though others say it was done closer to 1140. In any case, work was finished in 1180, as documented by the date written on the bronze knockers made by Bonanno Pisano found on the main door, the structures present appearance is the result of numerous restoration campaigns that were carried out in different eras. In the early 18th century began the redecoration of the walls of the cathedral with large paintings. These works were made by the artists of the era. The presence of two raised matronea in the nave, with their solid, monolithic columns of granite, is a sign of Byzantine influence. Buscheto welcomed Islamic and Armenian influence, in the early 19th century the original sculpture, which can now be seen in the cathedral museum, was removed from the roof and replaced with a copy. The high arches show Islamic and southern Italian influence, the blind arches with lozenge shapes recall similar structures in Armenia. The facade of grey and white marble, decorated with colored marble inserts, was built by Master Rainaldo, above the three doorways are four levels of loggia divided by cornices with marble intarsia, behind which open single, double, and triple windows. The heavy bronze doors of the facade were made by different Florentine artists in the 17th century. Contrary to what might be thought, from the beginning the faithful entered the cathedral through the door of Saint Rainerius, found in the transept of the same name, which faces the bell towerPisa Cathedral – UNESCO World Heritage Site
21. Sassetti Chapel – The Sassetti Chapel is a chapel in the basilica of Santa Trinita in Florence, Italy. It is especially notable for its frescoes of the Stories of St. Francis, Francesco Sassetti was a rich banker and a member of the Medici entourage, for which he directed the Medici Bank. In 1478 he acquired the chapel of St and he commissioned the execution of the frescoes from the most famed artist of the city, Domenico Ghirlandaio. The date of the contract is that next to the portraits of Sassetti and his wife. The central altarpiece, depicting the Adoration of the Shepherds, is dated 1485, Ghirlandaio portrayed numerous figures of contemporary Florentine society in the scenes. All the work shows the importance of the influence on Ghirlandaio of Flemish school, in particular the Portinari Triptych by Hugo van der Goes, taken by him to Florence in 1483, the Chapel was restored in 2004. The chapel, like the church in which it is located, is in Gothic style, the fresco cycle covers three walls framed by fictive architectural elements. The altarpiece is framed by a painted marble decoration. The two side walls house the tombs of Francesco Sassetti and his wife Nera Corsi, under a gilded arch, Ghirlandaios frescoes can also be seen in the upper transept wall, outside the chapel. This area was plastered in the 18th century, the paintings being rediscovered only in 1895, the work outside the Sassetti chapel is attributed to the three Ghirlandaio brothers and assistants. Its perspective was devised to offer a view from below. The first scene painted above the chapel is the Tiburtine Sibyl Announces Jesus Coming to Augustus, the Sibyl is probably a portrait of Sassettis daughter, Sibilla. On the pilaster dividing the Sassetti Chapel from the subsequent one is a painted statue of David. Only the faces of the Sibyls are attributed to Ghirlandaio, the bodies were probably executed by his workshop. This scene is located on the left wall, and portrays the young Francis who having renounced all his assets by removing his clothes publicly, is protected by the bishop of Perugia. Francis raging father is shown with some people restraining him, the scene is set in a northern European city which had been identified as Geneva or Lyon, where Sassetti had served for the Medici. The secondary figures could be work by Domenicos brothers and workshop, the figures are portrayed in a cathedral interior, so that the chapels arch resembles the triumphal arch of the church. The scene is set in Florence instead of Rome, the showing the Piazza della Signoria, the Palazzo Vecchio and the Loggia dei LanziSassetti Chapel – Overview of the Chapel
22. Anti-austerity movement – Anti-austerity actions are varied and ongoing, and can be either sporadic and loosely organised or longer-term and tightly organised. They continue as of the present day, the global Occupy movement has arguably been the most noticeable physical enactment of anti-austerity and populist sentiment. An example of countries implementing severe austerity measures is Ireland, the loss for Fianna Fáil was so great that many commentators remarked that the results were historic. Fine Gael and the Labour Party formed a government. Sinn Féin, which for the first time won a notable percentage in the election, members of smaller parties, such as the Socialists, People Before Profit Alliance, the WUAG and Independents involved themselves in the Campaign Against Home and Water Taxes. Since the onset of the recession in Europe, the political establishment response has increasingly focused on austerity, attempts to bring down budget deficits. The anti-austerity movement has responded by giving rise to a wave of anti-establishment political parties, opposition to austerity is seen as the force behind the rise of Podemos in Spain, Italys Five Star Movement and the Syriza party in Greece. Ahead of the Scottish independence referendum in 2014, the Scottish Government pledged to end austerity in an independent Scotland, economist Thomas Piketty welcomed the political reaction to austerity, saying the rise of anti-austerity parties is good news for Europe. Its good to reduce deficits, but at a rate commensurate with growth and economic recovery. In late March 2011 the Portuguese Prime Minister resigned a few hours after the latest austerity bill he backed was rejected by the rest of government, the government called that particular austerity round unacceptable. In his resignation speech, Jose Socrates expressed concern that an IMF bailout akin to Greece, Dr Layla Jader, a public health physician, said, The NHS needs evolution not revolution - these reforms are very threatening to the future of the NHS. If they go through, our children will look back and say how could you allow this to happen, and Dr Barry Miller, an anaethetist from Bolton, added, The potential to do phenomenal damage is profound. I havent seen any evidence these proposals will improve healthcare in the long-term, there have also been various grassroots groups of UK citizenry virulently opposing the pending new bill, including NHS Direct Action,38 Degrees, and the trade union Unite. The 2010 UK student protests mark the coming into force of one of the United Kingdoms most severe austerity measures, on 9 December 2010 spending for higher education and tuition subsidies and assistance in English universities — historically rather substantial in scale — was cut by a total of 80%. On the day of the passage of the measure itself, there was an explosion of violence by enraged students and their allies. Shouts of off with their heads were reportedly heard, on 25 March 2011, Charlie Gilmour, son of Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour, became one of the more high-profile individuals to be officially charged in relation to those events. As a result of protests, a number of groups formed to combat the austerity measures that began with the cuts to higher education. One such example is Bloomsbury Fightback, UK Uncut attempts to organise flash mob protests inside the highest-profile buildings of the businesses of the rich people avoiding tax or paying less than they shouldAnti-austerity movement – 100,000 anti-austerity protesters in front of the Greek parliament in 2011
23. Leaning Tower of Zaragoza – The Leaning Tower of Zaragoza, sometimes called by its Spanish name Torre Nueva, was a Mudéjar leaning tower located in current Plaza de San Felipe, in Zaragoza. Over years the tower became an icon for the city and it also was the highest Mudéjars style tower ever built. It had a diameter of 11.5 meters and a groundplan in the shape of a 16-pointed star, shortly after being built, its inclination could be noted, although it was said that there was no danger for its stability. In 1892, Zaragozas City Council decided to demolish the tower, justifying the decision with the inclination, the decision was opposed by many intellectuals and part of the population. After the towers demolition, citizens bought bricks as memories, the tower was built in 1504 during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs. The building was decorated with figures, ceramic, and openings with pointed arches. The top was added in 1749, being a spire, with slate roofs. The tower began to lean soon after construction, possibly due to haste while building the foundation, the southern part of the tower was forged faster than the northern part, which caused a difference in tension between both sides, which inclined the tower. It was attempted to remedy by reinforcing the foundation, but the inclination was maintained and its inclination or deviation from vertical was nearly three meters. From the same 16th century on, the became a symbol of the city. During the French Sieges to the city, the tower was used to monitor the movements of French troops and it was considered by Europeans as one of the most famous leaning towers. In the 19th century the tower was heavily reproduced by painters and photographers, among them Charles Clifford, on October 1860 and it also was photographed by local photographers like Júdez and Coyne. Imperial Brandss defunct Williams cigarette dedicated a picture and description as part of a series about interesting buildings around the world. In 1878 the tower was lopped, removing its triple spire, in 1892, Zaragozas City Council decided to tear down the tower, justifying the decision by inclination and alleged ruin of the work. The decision was opposed by many intellectuals and part of population, the complete demolition lasted a year, starting in the summer of 1892 with the installation of scaffolding. The bricks of the tower were sold for foundations of new houses in the city, during the 1990s, a memorial was placed where the tower once stood. It consists of the perimeter of the tower outlined on the pavement, in one of the shops of the square there is a small museum dedicated to the tower, with photographs and pieces of it. The Torre Nueva of Zaragoza and documentation of the 16th century, history, review of the Department of Art History at the University of Zaragoza, ISSN 0213-1498, Nº18,2003, pagsLeaning Tower of Zaragoza – The Leaning Tower of Zaragoza. Photo by J. Laurent (1816–1886)
24. Great Continental Railway Journeys – Great Continental Railway Journeys is a British television documentary series presented by Michael Portillo. The first series was originally broadcast on BBC Two in 2012, the first series was originally broadcast on BBC Two in 2012. Portillo made five separate journeys across France, Germany, the Low Countries, Switzerland, to avoid offending Spanish sensitivities, the line was built concluding in Algeciras, a town in Spain on the opposite side of the Bay of Gibraltar, rather than at the Gibraltar border. Despite it having no connection to the European railway network. The third series had six journeys, one of which saw Portillo travel on railway networks in modern-day Israel, the fourth series aired in 2015. It took Portillo to Bulgaria, Turkey, Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Greece, Germany, as of 2017 the first five series of Great Continental Railway Journeys have been released on DVD by FremantleMedia under licence from Boundless and the BBC. Great Continental Railway Journeys, written by Michael Portillo, was published by Simon & Schuster UK in October 2015Great Continental Railway Journeys – Great Continental Railway Journeys
25. Architecture of cathedrals and great churches – Cathedrals in particular, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches. Such a cathedral or great church is one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. Many cathedrals and basilicas, and a number of churches are among the worlds most renowned works of architecture. The earliest large churches date from Late Antiquity, as Christianity and the construction of churches and cathedrals spread throughout the world, their manner of building was dependent upon local materials and local techniques. Overlaid on each of the styles are the regional characteristics. Some of these characteristics are so typical of a country or region that they appear, regardless of style. Among the worlds largest and most architecturally significant churches, many were built to serve as cathedrals or abbey churches, among the Roman Catholic churches, many have been raised to the status of basilica. The categories below are not exclusive, a church can be an abbey, serve as a cathedral, and also be a basilica. Among the great Protestant churches, some, such as Ulm Minster have never served as any of these, others, such as Westminster Abbey, are former abbeys and cathedrals. Neither Orthodox or Protestant churches are designated as basilicas in the Catholic sense, the term cathedral in Orthodoxy and Protestantism is sometimes loosely applied to a large church that is not a bishops principal church. Some significant churches are termed temples or oratories, in fact, a cathedral does not have to be large or imposing, although many cathedrals are. The cathedral takes its name from the word cathedra, or bishops throne, a cathedral has a specific ecclesiastical role and administrative purpose as the seat of a bishop. The role of bishop as administrator of local clergy came into being in the 1st century and it was two hundred years before the first cathedral building was constructed in Rome. With the legalising of Christianity in 313 by the Emperor Constantine I, the architectural form which cathedrals took was largely dependent upon their ritual function as the seat of a bishop. But in a cathedral, in general, these things are done with an amount of elaboration, pageantry. This elaboration is particularly present during important liturgical rites performed by a Bishop, a cathedral is often the site of rituals associated with local or national Government, the Bishops performing the tasks of all sorts from the induction of a mayor to the coronation of a monarch. Some of these tasks are apparent in the form and fittings of particular cathedrals, the church that has the function of cathedral is not always a large building. It might be as small as Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, but frequently, the cathedral, along with some of the abbey churches, was the largest building in any regionArchitecture of cathedrals and great churches – Salisbury Cathedral from the east. 1220–1380. An essay in Early English Gothic with the tallest spire in England.
26. Forced perspective – Forced perspective is a technique which employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. It manipulates human visual perception through the use of scaled objects and it has applications in photography, filmmaking and architecture. One example of forced perspective is a scene in a movie in which dinosaurs are threatening the heroes. By placing a model of a dinosaur close to the camera. Forced perspective had been a feature of German silent films and Citizen Kane revived the practice, movies, especially B-movies in the 1950s and 1960s, were produced on limited budgets and often featured forced perspective shots. Forced perspective can be more believable when environmental conditions obscure the difference in perspective. For example, the scene of the famous movie Casablanca takes place at an airport in the middle of a storm. This was accomplished by using a backdrop of an aircraft. A downpour draws much of the attention away from the backdrop and extras. Early instances of forced perspective used in motion pictures showed objects that were clearly different from their surroundings. The principal cause of this was geometric, light from a point source travels in a spherical wave, decreasing in intensity as the inverse square of the distance travelled. This means that a light source must be four times as bright to produce the same illuminance at an object twice as far away. Thus to create the illusion of a distant object being at the distance as a near object and scaled accordingly. When shooting with forced perspective, its important to have the aperture stopped down sufficiently to achieve proper DOF, so that the foreground object, peter Jacksons film adaptations of The Lord of the Rings make extended use of forced perspective. Characters apparently standing next to other would be displaced by several feet in depth from the camera. This, in a shot, makes some characters appear much smaller in relation to others. If the cameras point of view is moved, then parallax would reveal the relative positions of the characters in space. Even if the camera is just rotated, its point of view may move if the camera is not rotated about the correct pointForced perspective – Unintentional forced perspective effect in this U.S. Navy photograph. The CH-47 Chinook helicopter at left is more than eighteen feet (5.4m) tall and almost one hundred feet (30.5m) long.
27. Counterweight – A counterweight is a weight that, by exerting an opposite force, provides balance and stability of a mechanical system. Its purpose is to make lifting the load more efficient, which saves energy and is less taxing on the lifting machine, Counterweights are often used in traction lifts, cranes and funfair rides. This distance times mass is called the load moment, a counterbalance is a weight or force that balances or offsets another as when two objects of equal weight, power, or influence are acting in opposition to each other. The objects are said to be in counterbalance. Trebuchet, There are five components of a trebuchet, beam, counterweight, frame, guide chute. After the counterweight drops from a platform on the frame, gravity pulls the counterweight, without the counterweight, the beam could not complete the arc that allows the sling to accurately release the projectile. Crankshaft, A counterweight is also used in rotating systems to reduce vibrations due to imbalances in the rotating assembly. A typical example is counterweights on crankshafts in piston engines, desk lamp, Some balanced arm lamps work with a counterweight to keep the arm and lamp in the desired position. Elevator, In traction elevators, a heavy counterweight counterbalances the load of the elevator carriage, the counterweight also increases the ascending acceleration force and decreases the descending acceleration force to reduce the amount of power needed by the motor. The elevator carriage and the both have wheel roller guides attached to them to prevent irregular movement and provide a smoother ride for the passengers. Space elevator, A space elevator is a structure designed to transport material from a celestial bodys surface into space. Metronome, A wind-up mechanical metronome has a weight and spring mechanism that allows the speed to be adjusted by placement of the weight on the spindle. The tempo speed is decreased by moving the weight to a higher spindle marking or increased by moving it to a lower marking, crane, The tower crane is a modern form of balance crane that is fixed to the ground. A horizontal boom is balanced asymmetrically across the top of the tower, the long arm carries the lifting gear. The short arm is called the arm, this holds the motors and electronics to operate the crane. Vertical lift bridge Drawbridge Bascule bridge Media related to Counterweights at Wikimedia CommonsCounterweight – César Pelli 's Ratner Athletic Center uses cables, masts and underground counterweights as a load-bearing support structure.
28. Tower – A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, Towers are specifically distinguished from buildings in that they are not built to be habitable but to serve other functions. Towers can be stand alone structures or be supported by adjacent buildings or can be a feature on top of a structure or building. Old English torr is from Latin turris via Old French tor, the Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the Illyrian toponym Βου-δοργίς. The oldest known may be the stone tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho. Some of the earliest towers were ziggurats, which existed in Sumerian architecture since the 4th millennium BC, the most famous ziggurats include the Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, built the 3rd millennium BC, and the Etemenanki, one of the most famous examples of Babylonian architecture. The latter was built in Babylon during the 2nd millennium BC and was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world, some of the earliest surviving examples are the broch structures in northern Scotland, which are conical towerhouses. These and other examples from Phoenician and Roman cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification, for example, the name of the Moroccan city of Mogador, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for watchtower. The Romans utilised octagonal towers as elements of Diocletians Palace in Croatia, which monument dates to approximately 300 AD, while the Servian Walls, the Chinese used towers as integrated elements of the Great Wall of China in 210 BC during the Qin Dynasty. Towers were also an important element of castles, other well known towers include the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy built from 1173 until 1372 and the Two Towers in Bologna, Italy built from 1109 until 1119. The Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in Tibet built approximately 14th to 15th century, up to a certain height, a tower can be made with the supporting structure with parallel sides. However, above a height, the compressive load of the material is exceeded. This can be avoided if the support structure tapers up the building. A second limit is that of buckling—the structure requires sufficient stiffness to avoid breaking under the loads it faces, many very tall towers have their support structures at the periphery of the building, which greatly increases the overall stiffness. A third limit is dynamic, a tower is subject to varying winds, vortex shedding and these are often dealt with through a combination of simple strength and stiffness, as well as in some cases tuned mass dampers to damp out movements. Varying or tapering the outer aspect of the tower with height avoids vibrations due to vortex shedding occurring along the building simultaneously. Although not correctly called towers many modern skyscraper are often called towers, in the United Kingdom, tall domestic buildings are referred to as tower blocks. In the United States, the original World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, the tower throughout history has provided its users with an advantage in surveying defensive positions and obtaining a better view of the surrounding areas, including battlefieldsTower – The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France
29. David Copperfield (illusionist) – David Seth Kotkin, known professionally as David Copperfield, is an American illusionist, described by Forbes as the most commercially successful magician in history. Copperfields television specials have won 21 Emmy Awards of a total 38 nominations, Copperfield has so far sold 33 million tickets and grossed over $4 billion, which is more than any other solo entertainer in history. In 2015, Forbes listed his earnings at $63 million for the previous 12 months, when not performing, he manages his chain of eleven resort islands in the Bahamas, which he calls Musha Cay and the Islands of Copperfield Bay. Copperfields mother was born in Jerusalem while his grandparents were Jewish immigrants from USSR. In 1974, Copperfield graduated from Metuchen High School, when Copperfield was 10, he began practicing magic as Davino the Boy Magician in his neighborhood, and at the age of 12, became the youngest person admitted to the Society of American Magicians. Shy and a loner, the young Copperfield saw magic as a way of fitting in and, later, as a way to get girls. As a child, Copperfield attended a day camp called Camp Harmony, in nearby Warren, New Jersey, where he began practicing magic and ventriloquy, at Camp Harmony, we spent two weeks searching for a guide who’d been kidnapped by Indians. It was just a game, but I was living it and my whole life goes back to that camp experience when I was three or four. As a teenager, Copperfield became fascinated with Broadway and frequently sneaked into shows, by age 16, he was teaching a course in magic at New York University. At age 18, Copperfield enrolled at New York Citys Jesuit based school Fordham University, however, three weeks into his freshman year he left Fordham to play the lead role of the musical The Magic Man in Chicago. It was on occasion that he adopted the stage name David Copperfield. Copperfield sang, danced and created most of the illusions used in the show. The Magic Man became the longest running musical in Chicagos history, at age 19, he was headlining at the Pagoda Hotel in Honolulu, Hawaii for several months. Copperfields career in began in earnest when he was discovered by Joseph Cates. Cates produced a special in 1977 for ABC called The Magic of ABC hosted by Copperfield. There have been 17 Copperfield TV specials and 2 documentaries between September 7,1977, and April 3,2001, Copperfield also played the character of The Magician in the 1980s horror film Terror Train and an uncredited appearance in the 1994s film Prêt-à-Porter. Most of his appearances have been through television specials and guest spots on television programs. A helicopter hovered overhead to give a view of the illusionDavid Copperfield (illusionist) – David Copperfield
30. San Gimignano – San Gimignano is a small walled medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Within the walls, the buildings include notable examples of both Romanesque and Gothic architecture, with outstanding examples of secular buildings as well as churches. The Palazzo Comunale, the Collegiate Church and Church of Sant Agostino contain frescos, the Historic Centre of San Gimignano, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the 3rd century BC a small Etruscan village stood on the site of San Gimignano. The name of Silvia was changed to San Gimignano in 450 AD after Bishop Geminianus, from 929 the town was ruled by the bishops of Volterra. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance era, it was a point for Catholic pilgrims on their way to Rome. In 1199, the city made itself independent of the bishops of Volterra and established a podestà, however, the peace of the town was disturbed for the next two centuries by conflict between Guelphs and Ghibellines, and family rivalries. This resulted in families building tower houses of increasing height, towards the end of the Medieval period they were 72 in number and up to 70 metres tall. The rivalry was finally restrained when it was ordained by the council that no tower was to be taller than that adjacent to the Palazzo Comunale. While the official patron is Saint Geminianus, the town also honours Saint Fina, known also as Seraphina and Serafina, the Chapel of Santa Fina in the Collegiate Church houses her shrine and frescos by Ghirlandaio. The house said to be her home stands in the town. On 8 May 1300, San Gimignano hosted Dante Alighieri in his role as ambassador of the Guelph League in Tuscany, the city flourished until 1348, when it was struck by the Black Death that affected all of Europe, and about half the townsfolk died. The town submitted to the rule of Florence, initially, some Gothic palazzi were built in the Florentine style, and many of the towers were reduced to the height of the houses. There was little subsequent development, and San Gimignano remained preserved in its medieval state until the 19th century, the city is on the ridge of a hill with its main axis being north/south. It is encircled by three walls and has at its highest point, to the west, the ruins of a fortress dismantled in the 16th century, there are eight entrances into the city, set into the second wall, which dates from the 12th and 13th centuries. The main gates are Porta San Giovanni on the ridge extending south, Porta San Matteo to the north west, the main streets are Via San Matteo and Via San Giovanni, which cross the city from north to south. At the heart of the town are four squares, the Piazza Duomo, on which stands the Collegiate Church, the Piazza della Cisterna, the Piazza Pecori and the Piazza delle Erbe. To the north of the town is another significant square, Piazza Agostino, the locations of the Collegiate Church and Sant Agostinos and their piazzas effectively divide the town into two regionsSan Gimignano – View of the town from the south
31. Mosul – Mosul is a major city in northern Iraq. Since October 2016 it has been the site of an operation led by the Iraqi Government, under Haider al-Abadi, in an effort to dislodge. The city has been under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since June 2014, and no westerner has entered the city until the latest initiative. The Battle of Mosul, an offensive to retake the city begun in October 2016, is the largest deployment of Iraqi forces since the 2003 invasion by U. S. Located some 400 km north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the Left Bank and the Right Bank, as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the direction of Tigris. Mosuls population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500, an estimated half million people fled Mosul in the second half of 2014 when the IS fought with government forces for control of the city. On November 17,2014, ISIS attacked the city of Mosul, ultimately killing seven civilians, while some residents returned, more fled in 2015 as fighting and violence increased, and US bombings pounded the city. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil, the city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. The University has since been closed, the Islamic States leadership in Mosul has kept the Medical College open but it is reported to be barely functional. The name of the city is first mentioned by Xenophon in his expeditionary logs in Achaemenid Assyria of 401 BC, there, he notes a small Assyrian town of Mépsila on the Tigris somewhere about where modern Mosul is today. Be that as it may, the name Mepsila is doubtless the root for the modern name, in its current Arabic form and spelling, the term Mosul, or rather Mawsil, stands for the linking point – or loosely, the Junction City, in Arabic. Mosul should not be confused with the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh and this area is known today as the town of Nebi Yunus and is now populated largely by Kurds. It is the only neighborhood in Mosul. The site contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he lived and died in the capital of ancient Assyria. Today, this area has been absorbed into the Mosul metropolitan area. The indigenous Assyrians still refer to the city of Mosul as Nineveh. The ancient Nineveh was succeeded by Mepsila after the fall of Assyria between 612-599 BC at the hands of a coalition of Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Cimmerians and Sagartians, the Assyrians largely abandoned the city, building new smaller settlements such as Mepsila nearbyMosul – Tigris River and bridge in Mosul
32. Oldehove (tower) – De Oldehove is an unfinished church tower in the medieval centre of the Dutch city of Leeuwarden. It leans more than the tower of Pisa in Italy, Oldehove is also the name of an artificial mound on which in the late 9th century a church dedicated to Saint Vitus was built. Construction of the adjoining Late Gothic tower began in 1529, after the citizens of Leeuwarden demanded a tower taller than the one in the city of Groningen, in charge were Jacob van Aken and, after his death, Cornelis Frederiksz. During construction, the tower began to sag, which the builders tried to compensate for by inserting several kinks, in 1595–1596, the then derelict church was demolished, but the tower remains. It consists mostly of brick, but the also used so-called Bentheim sandstone. It is listed as a Rijksmonument, number 24331, monumenten in Nederland, Fryslân, p.25,41 and 189–196Oldehove (tower) – The Oldehove in 2014
33. Mini-Europe – Mini-Europe is a miniature park located in Bruparck at the foot of the Atomium in Brussels, Belgium. Mini-Europe has reproductions of monuments in the European Union on show, roughly 80 cities and 350 buildings are represented. Mini-Europe receives 350,000 visitors per year and has a turnover of 4 million Euros, the park contains live action models such as trains, mills, an erupting Mount Vesuvius, and cable cars. A guide gives the details on all the monuments, at the end of the visit, the “Spirit of Europe” exhibition gives an interactive overview of the European Union in the form of multimedia games. The park is built on an area of 24,000 m², the initial investment was of €10 million in 1989, on its inauguration by Prince Philip of Belgium. The monuments were chosen for the quality of their architecture or their European symbolism, most of the monuments were made using moulds. The final copy used to be cast from epoxy resin, three of the monuments were made out of stone. A computer-assisted milling procedure was used for two of the models, after painting the monument was installed on site, together with decorations and lighting. The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela required more than 24,000 hours of work, many of the monuments were financed by European countries or regions. The Brussels Grand-Place model cost €350,000 to make, ground cover plants, dwarf trees, bonsais and grafted trees are used alongside miniature monuments, and the paths are adorned with bushes and flowers. Madurodam — Model village in Netherlands containing miniature famous Dutch landmarks Catalunya en Miniatura — miniature park located 17 km away from Barcelona, Mini-Europe official website Mini-Europe in Brussels Koshy, Yohann. These Photos of a Crumbling Pro-EU Theme Park Show a Europe in Existential CrisisMini-Europe
34. Republic of Pisa – The Republic of Pisa was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries. It rose to become a powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for a century before being surpassed and superseded by the Republic of Genoa. The power of Pisa as a mighty maritime nation began to grow, during the High Middle Ages the city grew into a very important commercial and naval center and controlled a significant Mediterranean merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its influence through the sack of Reggio di Calabria in the south of Italy in 1005, Pisa was in continuous conflict with the Saracens, whose bases were in the Italian astersa, for control of the Mediterranean. In alliance with Genoa, Sardinia was captured in 1016 with the defeat of the Saracen leader Mujāhid al-‘Āmirī and this victory gave Pisa supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict, between 1030 and 1035 Pisa went on to successfully defeat several rival towns in the Emirate of Sicily and conquer Carthage in North Africa. In 1051-1052 Admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, provoking more resentment from the Genoese. In 1063, the Pisans approached the Norman Roger I of Sicily, Roger declined due to other commitments. With no land support, the Pisan attack against Palermo failed, in 1060 Pisa engaged in its first battle against Genoa and the Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because at the time the marquis of Tuscany had already excluded from power. Pisa sacked the Zirid city of Mahdia in 1088, four years later, Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castile force El Cid out of Valencia. In 1092 Pope Urban II awarded Pisa supremacy over Corsica and Sardinia, a Pisan fleet of 120 ships participated in the First Crusade and the Pisans were instrumental in the siege of Jerusalem in 1099. On their way to the Holy Land the Pisan ships did not miss the opportunity to sack several Byzantine islands, the Pisan crusaders were led by their archbishop, Dagobert, the future Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. Pisa and the maritime republics took advantage of the crusade to establish trading posts and colonies in the eastern coastal regions of Syria, Lebanon. In particular the Pisans founded colonies in Antioch, Acre, Jaffa, Tripoli, Tyre, in all these cities the Pisans were granted privileges and immunity from taxation, but had to contribute to their defence in case of attack. In the 12th century the Pisan quarter in the part of Constantinople had grown to 1,000 people. For some years of that century Pisa was the most prominent merchant and military ally of the Byzantine Empire, Pisa, as an international power, was destroyed forever by the crushing defeat of its navy in the Battle of Meloria against Genoa in 1284. In this battle, most of the Pisan galleys were destroyed, in 1290, an assault by Genoese ships against the Porto Pisano sealed the fate of the independent Pisan stateRepublic of Pisa – Map of Pisa in the 11th century
35. Bridgnorth Castle – Bridgnorth Castle is a castle in the town of Bridgnorth, Shropshire beside the River Severn. The castle was founded in 1101 by Robert de Belleme, the son of the French Earl, Roger de Montgomery and its principal feature, a square great tower, was built during the reign of Henry II. During the Civil War, Bridgnorth was one of the Midlands main Royalist strongholds, in 1646, Cromwell’s Roundheads arrived with orders to take Bridgnorth for the Parliamentarians from the garrison led by Sir Robert Howard. Following a three-week siege, Cromwell was successful and he ordered that the castle be demolished, by 1647 little of the structure remained. The Parliamentarians left it much as it is today, the stone from the castle being taken and used to repair the towns damaged buildings. Parts of the tower still remain, but because of the damage caused during the Civil War. The castle grounds were excavated over three days by archaeological television programme Time Team, clarifying the layout of the castle and the history of its construction. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles Book of Castles, David & Charles,1980Bridgnorth Castle – Bridgnorth Castle
36. Mosques and shrines of Mosul – The mosques and shrines of Mosul, Iraq are of varied ages, the oldest being the Umayyad Mosque from 640 AD. The Umayyad Mosque was the first in the occupied by modern-day Iraq. It was built in 640 AD by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami after he captured Mosul during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. The Great Mosque was originally built under Nur al-Din al-Zangi Atabeg of Damascus and it may have been a development of a previous Mosque. All that remains from this complex are the minaret, two mihrabs, a marble slab, and some stucco decoration. The elaborate 52′ brick minaret that leans like the Tower of Pisa is called Al-Hadba, the Great Mosque was built by Nuriddin Zanki in 1172 AD next to the Umayyad Mosque. Ibn Battuta found a marble fountain there and a mihrab with a Kufic inscription, on one of the two most prominent mounds of Ninevehs ruins, rose the Mosque of the prophet Jonah, the son of Amittai. The mosque, which earlier was an Assyrian Church, was believed to be the place of Jonah. It is also where the Assyrian King Esarhaddon had once built a palace and this shrine on the site of a Christian church was a stones throw from the built-up walls and gates of Nineveh. A whales tooth, appropriate to Jonahs well-known adventure at sea, was said to be preserved there and it was one of the most important mosques in Mosul and one of the few historic mosques in the east side of the city. On July 24,2014, the building was blown up by the Islamic State, a security source, who kept his identity anonymous, told the Iraq-based al-Sumaria News that ISIS militants seized control of the mosque completely. The militants then closed all doors and prevented worshipers from entering to pray and they then detonated explosives, destroying the mosque and damaging several nearby houses. They stated “the mosque had become a place for apostasy, not prayer. ”In March 2017, after ISIS was driven out, although all moveable items had been removed there were still Assyrian reliefs, structures and carvings along the walls. The Mujahidi Mosque dates back to 12th century AD, and is distinguished for its beautiful dome, the Mosque of Jerjis is believed by Muslims to be the burial place of Jerjis. It is made of marble with reliefs and was last renovated in 1393. The explorer Ibn Jubair mentioned it in the 12th century, the court of the ruler at the time of Ummaveet is thought to be not far from this mosque. On July 27,2014, the Jerjis Mosque was destroyed by Islamic State, on the right bank of the Tigris, it is known for its conical dome, decorative brickwork and calligraphy engraved in Mosul blue marble, 13th century. On July 23,2014, the Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem shrine was destroyed by Islamic State, qara Serai are the remnants of the 13th-century palace of Sultan Badruddin LuluMosques and shrines of Mosul – Prophet Yunus Mosque
37. Lafayette Square (Buffalo) – Lafayette Square is a park in the center of downtown Buffalo, Erie County, New York, United States that hosts a Civil War monument. The block, which was square, is lined by many of the citys tallest buildings. The square was named for General Lafayette, who visited Buffalo in 1825, the square was part of the original urban plan for the city as laid out by Joseph Ellicott in 1804. Its eastern edge has long been defined by important civic structures, first, presidential history was made in Lafayette Square when former United States President Martin Van Buren received the Free Soil Party nomination for the 1848 election. President-elect Abraham Lincoln also spoke at the square, today, the square offers a clear view of Buffalo City Hall, an Art Deco building three blocks to the west. A granite Civil War monument, titled Soldiers and Sailors, gives a vertical and ceremonial definition to the space. Conceived by Mrs. Horatio Seymour, the dedication ceremony was attended by Grover Cleveland. Until 2011, Lafayette Square hosted the annual Thursday at the Square summer concert series and is occasionally the site of rallies, Lafayette Square is one of three squares laid out in Joseph Ellicotts city plan. The square is located three blocks east of Niagara Square and is the second most important space in downtown Buffalo, buildings flanking the square include the Liberty Building, the Main Court Building,10 Lafayette Square, the Rand Building, and the Buffalo & Erie County Public Library. The corner north of the current library and northeast of the square hosted the Buffalo Savings Bank building that was demolished in 1922. Lafayette Square is served by several Metro Bus routes and the Lafayette Square rapid transit station of Buffalos Metro Rail system. In 2003, Lafayette Square became the site of the first free municipal wifi hotspot in the city, the square once was surrounded by an iron fence that was no longer present by 1905. By the 1860s, the square was a wooded park. In 1876-7, trees lined the square along main street were removed. Lafayette Square was the last park in the heart of the city, the original parklike square was originally viewed by urban planners as an impediment to crosstown traffic. The square has since been redeveloped a few times and is now more of a thoroughfare than a park, in 1920, the square circumscribed a vehicular circle with the monument in the center surrounded by sidewalks and grass. Bronze bas-reliefs encircle the column above the statues, the female figure is an allegorical figure representing the Union. By the time of the 1979 report for the Mayors Committee on the Arts and Cultural Affairs, the dedication on the west side honors those who laid down their lives in the war to maintain the union for the cause of their country and of mankindLafayette Square (Buffalo) – Soldiers and Sailors, the monument at Lafayette Square
38. Giorgio Panariello – Giorgio Panariello is an Italian comedian. Originally from Naples, he graduated from school in Marina di Massa. His classmate was the disc jockey radio and television presenter Carlo Conti. Together they take an apprenticeship in radio and at local venues in Tuscany as impressionists. He immediately gained success with an impersonation of the singer Renato Zero, at the end of the 1970s he lived in Versilia doing several jobs, including as a waiter in various places including The Shed Cinquale. He created a partnership with others from Versilia including Franco Ginesi, Rino Rivieri, Adolfo Dragon, Mario Bertoncini, Ennio Bongiorni and Umberto musts. With them he formed the group The Lambrettomani, taking their act to Florence where he meets at the Aloha of Fiesole, Carlo Conti and Leonardo Pieraccioni. Forte is the imitation / disguise Renato Zero, paired with that Dragon, in the role of the driver, began performing solo with greater frequency in the clubs of Tuscany, before arriving in transmissions for launching new talent, Tonight I throw myself. At the same time began an internship with two performances in which he began to bring people typically Tuscan, by his pupil Simone dallubriaco Mario Merigo to the lifeguard. Together with Carlo Conti is still on the screen in the 1994. The following year the couple collects more success with Fresh Air, on the local Channel 10, Videomusic and after a few episodes of transferred Telemontecarlo thanks to the excellent ratings. The duo Panariello-Conti is thus able to land on the RAI and together they are the protagonists of the program Hands On in the summer of 1996 and It is now airing in the summer of 1997. At the movies, where it then in a brilliant role in the comedy of Umberto Marino Alone at last prefers the stage. In 2005 returns to the big screen in films shot by Pieraccioni I love you in all the languages of the world, one of the blockbusters at Christmas of that year. In 2007 interprets Night Before Exams - Today by Fausto Brizzi and SMS - In disguise by Vincenzo Salemme, with which to work again the next year in No problem. Among the important guests Sophia Loren, Luciano Pavarotti, Vasco Rossi, Joe Cocker, Andrea Bocelli, Joe Cocker, Raffaella Carra, Gianni Morandi and Claudio Baglioni as a duet. Even on television, after appearing as a guest of honor of Festival of Sanremo in March 2004 faces his first American tour, in October 2004 returns television in the live broadcast from Montecatini But the sky is always bluer. In 2005 interprets the fiction Matilda by Sabrina Ferilli, in 1984 wrote and acted in theater, the show Brothers of Italy, supported by Leonardo Pieraccioni and Carlo ContiGiorgio Panariello – Giorgio Panariello
39. Salvo (artist) – Salvatore Mangione, known as Salvo, was an Italian artist who lived and worked in Turin. Salvo was born in Leonforte in 1947, after having spent his early childhood in Sicily, in 1956 he and his family moved from Catania to Turin. In 1963 he participated in the 121st exhibition of the Società Promotrice delle Belle Arti and he painted and tried to sell portraits, copied from Rembrandt and Van Gogh and from Fontana to Chagall. From September to December 1968, he was in Paris, drawn by the climate that flourished around the student movement. Back in Turin, he began to meet with a group of artists involved in the Arte Povera. In the summer, he traveled extensively through Afghanistan, in the 12 autoritratti series, he used photomontages to apply his face to pictures clipped from newspapers. Concurrently with his work, Salvo produced marble tombstones on which he engraves words or phrases, such as Idiota, Respirare il padre. Salvo è vivo, currently at the Australian National Gallery in Canberra, dates back to 1970, while 40 Nomi, a list of illustrious characters from Aristotle to Salvo, to the following year. The tombstone series continued through 1972 with inscriptions drawn from a variety sources, such as an Assyrian text in Il lamento di Assurbanipal, in the same year, he was introduced to Paul Maenz by Robert Barry. In June 1972, he met John Weber, arrangements were made, in this occasion, for what would be the final exhibition of Salvos conceptual works, in the following year at Webers gallery in New York. Also in 1972, Salvo exhibited his work in Documenta 5 in Kassel, in the aim of revisiting art history, Salvo went on with his series of daprès, which he commenced in 1970 with his Autoritratto come Raffaello. In December 1973, his recent works, inspired by great masters of the century such as Cosmè Tura. The following year saw the inauguration of the important art show Projekt 74 in Cologne, a new phase of his research began as of 1976. The following January, for the first time, a hosted a retrospective exhibition dedicated to him. Curated by Zdenek Felix on behalf of the Museum Folkwang in Essen and that year he also produced the book On Painting – In the style of Wittgenstein, a collection of 238 short paragraphs in which Salvo discloses his thoughts through axioms and rhetorical questions. The booklet is published in Italian, English, German and Spanish, the years 1982 and 1983 saw a further consolidation of his fame in Europe. In 1984, Maurizio Calvesi invited Salvo to participate in Arte allo specchio, Salvo contributed six works, including San Martino e il povero, Il bar of 1981, and a painting of the Rovine series, which he took up again that same year. After his return from a trip to Greece, Yugoslavia and Turkey, he painted the mishramsSalvo (artist) – Salvo, Autoritratto (Come Raffaello), 1970, photo mounted on aluminium, 65 cm × 49 cm (26 in × 19 in)
40. Italians – Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a native tongue. The majority of Italian nationals are speakers of Standard Italian. Italians have greatly influenced and contributed to the arts and music, science, technology, cuisine, sports, fashion, jurisprudence, banking, Italian people are generally known for their localism and their attention to clothing and family values. The term Italian is at least 3,000 years old and has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. According to one of the common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The Etruscan civilization reached its peak about the 7th century BC, but by 509 BC, when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan monarchs, its control in Italy was on the wane. By 350 BC, after a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, and they managed to unite the entire Italian peninsula. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, in the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Finally, in 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage completely destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. After two centuries of rule, in the 3rd century AD, Rome was threatened by internal discord and menaced by Germanic and Asian invaders. Emperor Diocletians administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief, it became permanent in 395, in 313, Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity, and churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he moved his capital from Rome to Constantinople. The last Western emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy and his defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. During most of the period from the fall of Rome until the Kingdom of Italy was established in 1861, Odoacer ruled well for 13 years after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, Theodoric and Odoacer ruled jointly until 493, when Theodoric murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy with an army of Ostrogoths and a government that was mostly Italian, after the death of Theodoric in 526, the kingdom began to grow weakItalians – Amerigo Vespucci, the notable geographer and traveller from whose name the word America is derived.
41. Andrea Bocelli – Andrea Bocelli, OMRI, OMDSM is an Italian classical crossover tenor, recording artist, and singer-songwriter. Born with poor eyesight, Bocelli became permanently blind at the age of 12, Bocelli has recorded fifteen solo studio albums, of both pop and classical music, three greatest hits albums, and nine complete operas, selling over 80 million records worldwide. He has had success as a crossover performer bringing classical music to the top of international pop charts, in 1998, Bocelli was named one of Peoples 50 Most Beautiful People. In 1999, Bocelli was nominated for Best New Artist at the Grammy Awards, the Prayer, his duet with Celine Dion for the animated film Quest for Camelot, won the Golden Globe for Best Original Song and was nominated for an Academy Award in the same category. Seven of his albums have reached the top 10 on the Billboard 200. The single went on to sell twelve million copies worldwide. Bocelli was born to Alessandro and Edi Bocelli, doctors had advised Bocellis parents to abort Bocelli before birth as they predicted, based on studies, that Bocelli would be born with a disability. The Bocellis declined and gave birth to Andrea and it was evident at birth that Bocelli had numerous problems with his sight, and after visits to many doctors, he was diagnosed with congenital glaucoma. Bocelli has stated that his mothers decision to give birth to him and overrule the doctors advice was the inspiration for him to hold a pro-life view towards abortion. Bocelli grew up on his familys farm, where they sold farm machinery and made wine in the village of La Sterza. Bocellis mother and younger brother Alberto still live in the family home, as a young boy, Bocelli showed a great passion for music. His mother has said music was the only thing that would comfort him. At the age of 6, Bocelli started piano lessons, and later, also learned to play the flute, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, guitar and drums. Then, when his nanny, Oriana, gave him the first record of Franco Corelli, Bocelli began to show interest in pursuing the career of a tenor, by seven, he was able to recognize the famous voices of the time and tried to emulate the great interpreters. At the age of 12, Bocelli lost his sight completely following an accident during a football game and he was hit in the eye playing goalkeeper during a match and suffered a brain hemorrhage. Doctors resorted to leeches in an effort to save his sight, but they were unsuccessful. Bocelli also spent time singing during his childhood and he gave his first concert in a small village not far from where he was born. At the age of 14, Bocelli won his first song competition, after finishing secondary school in 1980, he studied law at the University of PisaAndrea Bocelli – Bocelli rehearsing for his Under the Desert Sky concert in Lake Las Vegas, 2006
42. Piazza dei Miracoli – Considered sacred by the Catholic Church, its owner, the square is dominated by four great religious edifices, the Pisa Cathedral, the Pisa Baptistry, the Campanile, and the Camposanto Monumentale. Partly paved and partly grassed, the Piazza dei Miracoli is also the site of the Ospedale Nuovo di Santo Spirito, which houses the Sinopias Museum, the square is sometimes called the Campo dei Miracoli. In 1987, the square was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The heart of the Piazza del Duomo is the Duomo, the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Pisa. The cathedral has two aisles on either side of the nave, the transept consists of three aisles. The church is also as the Primatial, the archbishop of Pisa being a Primate since 1092. Its construction began in 1064 by the architect Buscheto and it set the model for the distinctive Pisan Romanesque style of architecture. The mosaics of the interior, as well as the pointed arches, the façade, of grey marble and white stone set with discs of coloured marble, was built by a master named Rainaldo, as indicated by an inscription above the middle door, Rainaldus prudens operator. The massive bronze doors were made in the workshops of Giambologna. The original central door was of bronze, made around 1180 by Bonanno Pisano, however, worshippers have never used the façade doors to enter, instead entering by way of the Porta di San Ranieri, in front of the Leaning Tower, built around 1180 by Bonanno Pisano. Above the doors are four rows of galleries with, on top, statues of Madonna with Child and, on the corners. Also in the façade is found the tomb of Buscheto and an inscription about the foundation of the Cathedral, the interior is faced with black and white marble and has a gilded ceiling and a frescoed dome. It was largely redecorated after a fire in 1595, which destroyed most of the Renaissance art works, fortunately, the impressive mosaic of Christ in Majesty, in the apse, flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist, survived the fire. It evokes the mosaics in the church of Monreale, Sicily, although it is said that the mosaic was done by Cimabue, only the head of St. John was done by the artist in 1302, his last work, since he died in Pisa the same year. The cupola, at the intersection of the nave and transept, was decorated by Riminaldi showing the assumption of the Blessed Virgin. Galileo is believed to have formulated his theory about the movement of a pendulum by watching the swinging of the lamp hanging from the ceiling of the nave. That lamp, smaller and simpler than the present one, is now kept in the Camposanto, the granite Corinthian columns between the nave and the aisle came originally from the mosque of Palermo, captured by the Pisans in 1063. The coffer ceiling of the nave was replaced after the fire of 1595, the present gold-decorated ceiling carries the coat of arms of the MediciPiazza dei Miracoli – UNESCO World Heritage Site
43. Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower – The Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower, or simply Old Joe, is a clock tower and campanile located in Chancellors court at the University of Birmingham, in the suburb of Edgbaston. It is the tallest free-standing clock tower in the world, although its height is the subject of some confusion. The university lists it as both 110 metres and 99 metres tall, whereas other sources state that it is 100 metres tall, the nicknames Old Joe, Big Joe, or simply The Clock Tower are used by the student population and local residents. A prominent landmark in Birmingham, the grade II listed tower can be seen for miles around the campus, the tower is modelled on the Torre del Mangia in Siena. The original tower designs were amended due to Chamberlains great admiration for the Italian citys campanile, on 1 October 1905, the Birmingham Post reported that Chamberlain had announced to the University Council an anonymous gift of £50,000. In 1940, Sir Mark Oliphant used the tower for radar experiments, the tower remained the tallest structure in Birmingham until 1969, when construction on the 152 m tall BT Tower was completed in the Jewellery Quarter area of the city. However, Old Joe is still one of the fifty tallest buildings in the UK, the asteroid 10515 Old Joe, discovered in 1989, is named in the clock towers honour. There is a superstition that if students walk through the archway when it chimes. The base is solid concrete,50 ft square by 10 ft thick, the clock hands are made out of sheet copper. There are ten floors served by a lift in the SW corner. The tower was built from the inside, without scaffolding, up to the level of the balcony and it is built of Red Accrington brick with Darley Dale dressings and tapers from 29 ft square to 23 ft below the balcony. Owing to its having been built from the inside it was not pointed and had to be pointed in 1914 and was subsequently repointed in 1957 and its weight, solid brick corners linked by four courses of brick resists the overturning wind forces. The original design for Old Joe is thought to have been based upon St Marks Campanile in Venice, the final design is thought to have been inspired by Torre del Mangia which is of similar design but for the clock being placed towards the bottom of the tower. It is also said to have been inspiration for the Eye of Sauron in J. R. R Tolkiens Lord of the Rings due to the clock face. However, The Two Towers themselves are widely accepted as having been inspired by Edgbaston Waterworks, general Article from the Birmingham Magazine, including some history of the Clock Tower A 360° view of the Clock TowerJoseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower – Old Joe, the University Clock Tower