1. Leaning Tower of Pisa – It is the third oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry. The tower's tilt began on one side to properly support the structure's weight. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres from 56.67 metres on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons. The tower has 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. This means that the top of the tower is displaced 3.9 metres from the centre. There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. Construction of the tower occurred over 199 years. Work on the floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14, 1173 during a period of military success and prosperity. This floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals. The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design, flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, Florence.Leaning Tower of Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa
2. Geotechnical engineering – Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. A geotechnical engineer then pavement subgrades required for the man-made structures to be built. Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations. Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include sanitary landfills. Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, jetties. Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms. The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology. Humans have historically used soil as a material for as construction material for buildings. As the cities expanded, structures were erected supported by formalized foundations; Ancient Greeks notably constructed pad footings and strip-and-raft foundations. Several foundation-related engineering problems, such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa, prompted scientists to begin taking a more scientific-based approach to examining the subsurface.Geotechnical engineering – Boston 's Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment.
3. History of physics – Physics is ultimately defined as the study of matter, energy and the relationships between them. Today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics. Elements of what became physics were drawn primarily from the fields of astronomy, mechanics, which were methodologically united through the study of geometry. These mathematical disciplines began with the Babylonians and with Hellenistic writers such as Archimedes and Ptolemy. Ancient philosophy, meanwhile – including what was called "physics" – focused on explaining nature through ideas such as Aristotle's four types of "cause". The move towards a rational understanding of nature began with the Pre-Socratic philosophers. The early physicist Leucippus adamantly opposed the idea of direct intervention in the universe, proposing instead that natural phenomena had a natural cause. During the classical period in Hellenistic times, natural philosophy slowly developed into an exciting and contentious field of study. A student of Plato, promoted the concept that observation of physical phenomena could ultimately lead to the discovery of the natural laws governing them. Aristotle's writings cover physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, zoology. He attempted to explain ideas such as motion with the theory of four elements. Aristotle believed that all matter was made up of some combination of four elements: earth, water, air, fire. Eventually, Aristotelian physics became enormously popular for many centuries in Europe, informing the scholastic developments of the Middle Ages. It remained the scientific paradigm in Europe until the time of Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. Early in Classical Greece, knowledge that the Earth is spherical was common.History of physics – Aristotle (384–322 BCE)
4. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
5. Lead – Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. It is a malleable, heavy metal. Lead's density of 11.34 g/cm3 exceeds that of most common materials. Lead has the second highest atomic number of all practically stable elements. Lead is relatively inert unless powdered. Its weakened metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature: it and its oxides react with both acids and bases. It also displays a marked tendency toward covalent bonding. Its compounds are most commonly found unlike the lighter group 14 elements. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, where the positive charge on lead is stabilized. Like 14 elements, lead shows a tendency to bond to itself, forming complicated chain, ring, or polyhedral structures. The metal was known to prehistoric people in Western Asia. While its dullness prevented it from high demand, galena -- a principle ore of lead -- often bore silver in it, which helped initiate production of lead. Lead became easily available to common people. After the fall of Rome, those of Rome were not surpassed anywhere until as late as the Industrial Revolution. Lead has several properties that make it advantageous to use, alongside its commonness: relative inertness against oxygen attack.Lead – Lead, 82 Pb
6. Mass – In physics, mass is a property of a physical body. It is the measure of an object's resistance to acceleration when a force is applied. It also determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies. In the theory of relativity a related concept is the mass -- content of a system. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram. It would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized in an object. However, at very high speeds, special relativity postulates that energy is an additional source of mass. Thus, all forms of energy resist acceleration by a force and have gravitational attraction. In addition, "matter" thus can not be precisely measured. There are distinct phenomena which can be used to measure mass. Gravitational mass measures the gravitational force exerted by an object. Passive gravitational mass measures the gravitational force exerted on an object in a gravitational field. Mass–energy measures the total amount of energy contained within a body, using E = mc2.Mass – Depiction of early balance scales in the Papyrus of Hunefer (dated to the 19th dynasty, ca. 1285 BC). The scene shows Anubis weighing the heart of Hunefer.
7. Pisa – Pisa is a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, straddling the River Arno just before it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the city of the Province of Pisa. Much of the city's architecture was financed as one of the Italian maritime republics. The origin of Pisa, is a mystery. Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls. The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins after the fall of Troy. The maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast from Genoa to Ostia. Pisa served against Ligurians, Gauls and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore.Pisa – Pisa
8. Viz (comics) – Viz is a popular British comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald. It also sends up tabloid newspapers, with mockeries of pages. Occasionally, it has no political standpoint. Editor Chris Donald himself cannot remember exactly where the name of the magazine comes from. What had begun as a few pages, sold to friends, became a phenomenon. To make up for Brownlow's diminishing interest in contributing, artist Graham Dury was hired and worked alongside Chris Donald. After a few years of steady sales, mostly in the North East of England, circulation had grown to around 5,000. As the magazine's popularity grew, the bedroom became too small and production moved to a nearby Jesmond office. Donald also hired another freelance artist, Simon Thorp, whose work had impressed him. For over a decade, these four would be the nucleus of Viz. In 1985, a deal was signed with Virgin Books to publish the comic nationally every two months. In 1987, John Brown, set up John Brown Publishing, to handle Viz. Sales exceeded a million by the end of 1989, making Viz for a time one of the biggest-selling magazines in the country. Inevitably, a number of imitations of Viz were launched, but these never matched the original in popularity, rarely in quality. In 2003, it changed hands again when IFG were bought out by Dennis Publishing.Viz (comics) – Cover of Issue 199
9. 1964 – January – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is dissolved. January 5 U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he will seek the Republican nomination for President. January 8 – In his first State of the Union Address, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson declares a "War on Poverty". January 10 – Introducing... The Beatles is released by Chicago's Vee-Jay Records to get the jump on Capitol Records' release of Meet the Beatles!, scheduled for January 20. The two record companies fight over Vee-Jay's release of this album in court. January 11 – United States Surgeon General Luther Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous to one's health. January 12 Zanzibar Revolution: The predominantly Arab government of Zanzibar is overthrown by African nationalist rebels; a United States Navy destroyer evacuates 61 U.S. citizens. Routine U.S. naval patrols of the South China Sea begin. January 13 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, 14-year-old Pamela Mason is murdered. Edward Coolidge is tried and convicted of the crime, but the conviction is set aside by the landmark Fourth Amendment case "Coolidge vs. New Hampshire." January 16 Musical Hello, Dolly! Opens in New York's St. James Theatre.1964 – January 8: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson 's War on Poverty
10. 2001 – 2001 was designated as: International Year of January 1 -- Kolkata restores officially name from Calcutta, West Bengal, India. January 10 – The U.S. Federal Trade Commission approves the merger of America Online and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner. January 13 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake hits all of El Salvador, killing at least 800 people and leaving thousands homeless. January 15 – Wikipedia, a free wiki content encyclopedia, goes online. January 20 George W. Bush is sworn as President of the United States. Impeachment proceedings against Philippine President Joseph Estrada, accused of playing Jueteng, trigger the second EDSA People Power Revolution or People Power II. His Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo succeeds him as the 14th President of the Republic. January 23 – The Tiananmen Square self-immolation incident occurs. January 26 – An earthquake hits Gujarat, India, killing almost 20,000. January 31 – The Congressional Budget Office of the United States forecasts a $5,600,000,000,000 budget surplus for the next 10 years. February 9 – The submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Japanese fishing vessel Ehime-Maru near Hawaii. February 12 – The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid. February 13 – A 6.6 magnitude earthquake hits El Salvador, killing at least 400. February 16 – Iraq disarmament crisis: British and U.S. forces carry out bombing raids, attempting to disable Iraq's air defense network. February 18 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years.2001 – September 11 attacks
11. 1990 – Also in this year, Margaret Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after over 11 years. 1990 was an important year in the Internet's early history. In the fall of 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created the foundation for the World Wide Web. It was released outside of CERN the following year. September 1990 saw the first case of successful somatic gene therapy on a patient. In most western countries the Echo Boom peaked in 1990; fertility rates declined thereafter. Encyclopædia Britannica, which ceased printing in 2012, saw its highest in 1990; 120,000 volumes were sold that year. The number of librarians in the United States also peaked around 1990. January 1 Poland becomes the first country in Eastern Europe to begin abolishing its state socialist economy. Poland also withdraws from the Warsaw Pact. The first commercial Internet companies, EUnet begin selling Internet access to commercial customers in the United States and Netherlands respectively. Glasgow begins its year as European Capital of Culture. Rowan Atkinson's Mr. Bean debuts in a Thames Television special. January 3 – United States invasion of Panama: General Manuel Noriega is deposed as leader of Panama and surrenders to the American forces. January 4 – Two trains collide in Sangi, Pakistan, killing between 200 and 300 people and injuring an estimated 700 others.1990 – January 7: The Pisa tower closed.
12. Humour – Humour is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. Most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour. The hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would likely find the behaviour inducing it to be even irrational. Many theories exist about what humour is and what social function it serves. The benign-violation theory, endorsed by Peter McGraw, attempts to explain humour's existence. The theory says ` humour only occurs when something simultaneously seems okay, safe'. Humour can be used as a method to easily engage by taking away that awkward, uneasy feeling of social interactions. Others believe that'the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions'. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained. Author E.B. Counter to this argument, protests against "offensive" cartoons invite the dissection of humour or its lack by aggrieved individuals and communities. This process of dissecting humour assumed universality. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of humour to mean any type of comedy. However, both humour and comic are often used when theorising about the subject.Humour – Smiling can imply a sense of humour and a state of amusement, as in this painting of Falstaff by Eduard von Grützner.
13. Gravity – Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. Since mass are equivalent, all forms of energy, including light, also cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity causes the ocean tides. Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects. The most extreme example of this curvature of spacetime is a black hole, from which nothing can escape once past its horizon, not even light. More gravity results in gravitational time dilation, where time lapses more slowly at a lower gravitational potential. Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental interactions of nature. As a consequence, gravity plays no role in determining the internal properties of everyday matter. On the other hand, gravity is the cause of the formation, shape and trajectory of astronomical bodies. While the European thinkers are rightly credited with development of gravitational theory, there were pre-existing ideas which had identified the force of gravity. Later, the works of Brahmagupta referred to the presence of this force. Modern work on gravitational theory began in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. This was a major departure from Aristotle's belief that heavier objects have a higher gravitational acceleration. Galileo postulated resistance as the reason that objects with less mass may fall slower in an atmosphere. Galileo's work set the stage for the formulation of Newton's theory of gravity.Gravity – Sir Isaac Newton, an English physicist who lived from 1642 to 1727
14. Pavia – It has a population of c. 68,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, known for agricultural products including wine, cereals, dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town. Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia. The city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia. Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia, then known as Ticinum, was an important military site under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres. Without his father Romulus Augustulus was powerless. With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to expand. He began the construction of the vast complex that would eventually become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. Near the end of Theoderic's reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia's churches before his execution for treason. It was during Boethius's captivity in Pavia that he wrote the Consolation of Philosophy.Pavia – A view of the city's Cathedral from the Piazza della Vittoria
15. Duomo – Duomo is a term for an Italian cathedral church. The Italian word for a church, now a cathedral is cattedrale; a duomo may be either a former cathedral. Some, like the Duomo of Monza, have never been cathedrals, although old and important. Many people refer to particular churches simply to the full proper name of the church. Similar words exist in other languages: Dom, dóm, domkirke, dómkirkja, domo domkyrka, domkirke, tuomiokirkko. In German the Dom became the synecdoche, used -- pro toto -- for most existing or former collegiate churches. Therefore, the uniform translation of these terms into English as cathedrals may not always be appropriate and should be used on a contextual basis. The Garzanti online dictionary also gives the etymology as deriving from house, but house of the bishop instead of the house of God. Italian cathedrals contain notable artworks; in the buildings themselves are true artworks. Notable examples are in Cefalù, Cremona, Enna, L'Aquila, Modena, Monreale, Naples, Genoa, Orvieto, Padua, Armerina Pisa, Prato, San Gimignano, Siena, Spoleto, Turin and Viterbo.Duomo – The Duomo of Milan.
16. Romanesque architecture – Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making the architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and frequently in use. The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous including parts of rural Italy. Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language. Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture. The first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period.Romanesque architecture – Maria Laach Abbey, Germany
17. Archimedes' screw – Water is pumped by turning a screw-shaped surface inside a pipe. The pump is commonly attributed to Archimedes on the occasion of his visit to Egypt. This tradition may reflect only that the apparatus was introduced in Archimedes's lifetime by unknown Greek engineers. Some writers have suggested the device may have been in use in Assyria some 350 years earlier. The Archimedes screw consists of a screw inside a hollow pipe. The screw is turned usually by manual labour. As the shaft turns, the bottom end scoops up a volume of water. This water is then pushed up the tube by the rotating helicoid until finally it pours out from the top of the tube. If water into the next lower one, it will be transferred upwards by the next segment of the screw. In some designs, they both rotate together, instead of the screw turning within a stationary casing. A screw could be cast as a single piece in bronze. Some researchers have postulated this as being the device used to irrigate the Hanging Gardens of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. A triple helix was built of wood strips around a heavy wooden pole. It was used for draining land, underneath other places in the creation of polders. Archimedes screws are used in treatment plants because they cope well with varying rates of flow and with suspended solids.Archimedes' screw – An Archimedes screw in Huseby south of Växjö Sweden
18. Niles, Illinois – Niles is a village in Maine and Niles townships, Cook County, Illinois, United States. The 2010 population from the U.S. Census Bureau was 29,803. The current mayor of Niles is Andrew Przybylo. Niles was first settled in 1827. The village of Niles was incorporated on August 24, 1899. The village had a population of 500 people at that time. Among these individuals were Jane Miranda. The land given to these individuals helped for what would eventually established part of the border of Niles. Along with other suburbs, Niles is partly in Niles Township, from whence it draws its name. It should not be confused with "Niles Center", the original name of Skokie. There is no clear indication of the origin of the name "Niles." Another belief is that the name "Niles" was named after Niles Construction which did much of the building early during the city's founding. Niles was one in 1946. Niles is located at 87 ° 48 36 ″ W. According to the 2010 census, Niles has a total area of 5.85 square miles, all land.Niles, Illinois – Niles Free Bus at Golf Mill
19. World Monuments Fund – In addition to hands-on management, the affiliates identify, develop, manage projects, attract local support to complement funds provided by donors. WMF describes its mission as "to preserve important historic architectural sites and works of art to national boundaries". The International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray from the U.S. Army in 1960. In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, who offered $150,000 for this project. The project continued from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Gray's interests shifted in Chile. Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. After the extremely high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, including the historic Piazza San Marco, was inundated for more than twenty-four hours. The International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, as Executive Secretary. On the part of the Committee, local chapters set up in American cities.. . These efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain to Spain in 1965-67 Angier Biddle Duke. The 14th-century building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, the foundations were strengthened.World Monuments Fund – The Mahadev Temple in Gokarna, Nepal, a conservation project of the International Fund for Monuments.
20. Bedum – Bedum is a municipality and a town in the northeastern Netherlands. Populated by 10,459 inhabitants in 2014, Bedum is one of the larger of Groningen's several satellite towns. Bedum is the site of three supermarkets, a leaning church tower, dubbed "the leaning tower of Bedum". Footballer Arjen Robben was born in Bedum. Bedum has a railway - Bedum railway station. Bedum's 36-metre tower of the St Walfridus church has been calculated as now leaning at a greater angle than the leaning tower of Pisa. If both towers were the same height, Bedum's would have a greater displacement by 6 cm. Bedum Noordwolde Onderdendam Zuidwolde Ellerhuizen Westerdijkshorn 1860-1873 J.H. Leopold 1873-1878 W.J. Bekker 1878-1895 R.J. van Bruggen 1895-1909 dr H.V. Schleurholts 1909-1914 Simon Berman 1914-1917 Klaas van Sevenhoven 1917-1943 M. Jouwstra 1943-194? I.G. Timmer 19??-1962 J.N. Map of the municipality around 1868.Bedum – Church in Westerdijkshorn
21. Lake Trasimeno – Lake Trasimeno, also referred to as Trasimene or Thrasimene in English, is a lake in the province of Perugia, in the Umbria region of Italy. Only two minor streams flow directly into the Lake and none flows out. The level of the lake fluctuates significantly according to rainfall levels and the seasonal demands from the towns, farms near the shore. Trasimeno is rich in fish, including pike, carp, tench. During the last 10 years has been 5 m deep on average. Lake Trasimeno is an endorheic body of water; it is an impounded lake that receives water but has no outlet. Endorheic bodies of water include the Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, the Dead Sea. Evaporation can lead to a buildup of minerals in the water, resulting in saline conditions, making these lakes sensitive to pressures from pollution. The shallow waters meant that malarial mosquitoes prospered. To combat malaria, some mosquito larvae-eating fish were imported from USA during the 1950s. These fish are widely scattered, some live in the lakes near Trasimeno. Although billions of larvae are eaten, there are still many mosquitoes and other insects. The lake's quality is still very good, as a study by group Italia Nostra showed in 2005. This is believed to be largely due to the small population and a lack of large farms in the area. A proposal to drain the lake to solve the problems of malaria and depth changes was rejected.Lake Trasimeno – Sunset on Lake Trasimeno
22. Pisa Cathedral – Pisa Cathedral is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy. It is a notable example in particular the style known as Pisan Romanesque. It is the seat of the Archbishops of Pisa. It includes stylistic elements: classical, Lombard-Emilian, Byzantine, in particular, Islamic, as proof of the international presence of the Pisan merchants at that time. Buscheto's new church, in fact, was initially called Santa Maria Maggiore until it was officially named Santa Maria Assunta. In 1092 the cathedral was declared a primatial church, Dagobert having been given the title of Primate by Pope Urban II. The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Gelasius II, who belonged to the Caetani family, powerful both in Pisa and in Rome. The structure's present appearance is the result of numerous restoration campaigns that were carried out in different eras. A group of citizens arranged for the special financing of the project. The presence of two raised matronea in the nave, with monolithic columns of granite, is a clear sign of Byzantine influence. Buscheto welcomed Armenian influence. The high arches show southern Italian influence. The blind arches with lozenge shapes recall similar structures in Armenia. The facade of white marble, decorated with colored marble inserts, was built by Master Rainaldo. Above the three doorways are four levels of loggia divided by cornices behind which open single, double, triple windows.Pisa Cathedral – UNESCO World Heritage Site
23. Sassetti Chapel – The Sassetti Chapel is a chapel in the basilica of Santa Trinita in Florence, Italy. It is especially notable for its frescoes of the Stories of St. Francis, considered Domenico Ghirlandaio's masterwork. Francesco Sassetti was a member of the Medici entourage, for which he directed the Medici Bank. He commissioned the execution of the frescoes from the most famed artist of Domenico Ghirlandaio. The central altarpiece, depicting the Adoration of the Shepherds, is dated 1485. Ghirlandaio portrayed numerous figures of Florentine society in the scenes. The Chapel was restored in 2004. The chapel, like the church in which it is located, is in Gothic style, characterized by an ogival arch. The cycle covers three walls framed by fictive architectural elements. The altarpiece is also framed by a painted decoration. The two side walls house the tombs of his wife Nera Corsi, under a gilded arch, a creation of Giuliano da Sangallo. Ghirlandaio's frescoes can also be seen in the upper wall, outside the chapel. This area was plastered in the paintings being rediscovered only in 1895, which accounts for their poorer state of conservation. The work outside the Sassetti chapel is attributed to assistants. Its perspective was devised to offer a perfect view from below.Sassetti Chapel – Overview of the Chapel
24. Anti-austerity movement – Anti-austerity actions can be either sporadic and loosely organised or longer-term and tightly organised. They continue as of the present day. The global Occupy movement has arguably been the most physical enactment of populist sentiment. An example of countries implementing severe austerity measures is Ireland. The loss was for Fianna Fáil was so great that many commentators remarked that the results were "historic". Fine Gael promised to re-negotiate the terms of the IMF bailout end the programme. Labour dismissed this idea. Members of smaller parties, such as the Socialists, People Before Independents involved themselves in the Campaign Against Home and Water Taxes. The anti-austerity movement has responded by giving rise to a wave of anti-establishment political parties. The Syriza party in Greece. Ahead of the Scottish independence referendum in 2014, the Scottish Government pledged to end austerity in an independent Scotland. Economist Thomas Piketty welcomed the political reaction to austerity, saying the rise of anti-austerity parties is "good news for Europe". Here growth has been killed off." The global Occupy movement. In late March 2011 the Portuguese Prime Minister resigned a few hours after the latest austerity bill he backed was rejected by the rest of government.Anti-austerity movement – 100,000 anti-austerity protesters in front of the Greek parliament in 2011
25. Leaning Tower of Zaragoza – Over years the tower became an icon for the city. It also was the highest Mudéjar's tower ever built. It had a diameter of a groundplan in the shape of a 16-pointed star. Shortly after being built, its inclination could be noted, although it was said that there was no danger for its stability. In 1892, Zaragoza's City Council decided justifying the decision with the inclination and probable ruin. The decision was opposed by part of the population. After the tower's demolition, citizens bought bricks as memories. The tower was built during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs. It had four heights. The building was decorated with pointed arches. The top was added in 1749, being a triple spire, with slate roofs, removed in its last years. The tower began to lean possibly due to haste while building the foundation and the first body. The southern part of the tower was forged faster than the northern part, which caused a difference in tension between both sides, which inclined the tower. The inclination was maintained. Its deviation from vertical was nearly three meters.Leaning Tower of Zaragoza – The Leaning Tower of Zaragoza. Photo by J. Laurent (1816–1886)
26. Great Continental Railway Journeys – Great Continental Railway Journeys is a British television documentary series presented by Michael Portillo. The fourth series aired in 2015. The first series was originally broadcast in 2012. Portillo made five separate journeys across France, Germany, the Low Countries, the countries whose land made up the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Despite it having no direct connection to the European network, a chapter was devoted to Gibraltar in the 1913 guidebook. The third series had six journeys, one of which saw Portillo travel in modern-day Israel. The fourth series aired in 2015. It took Portillo to Spain. As of 2015, the first three series of Great Continental Railway Journeys have been released on DVD under licence from Boundless and the BBC. Great Continental Railway Journeys, written by Michael Portillo, was published by Simon & Schuster UK in October 2015.Great Continental Railway Journeys – Great Continental Railway Journeys
27. Architecture of cathedrals and great churches – Cathedrals in particular, well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches. Great church is generally one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. A number of abbey churches are among the world's most renowned works of architecture. The earliest large churches date from Late Antiquity. As the construction of churches and cathedrals spread throughout the world, their manner of building was dependent upon local materials and local techniques. Overlaid on each of the academic styles are the regional characteristics. Among the world's largest and most architecturally significant churches, many were built to serve as cathedrals or abbey churches. Among the Roman Catholic churches, many have been raised to the status of "basilica". The categories below are not exclusive. A church can serve as a cathedral, also be a basilica. Among the Protestant churches, some, such as Ulm Minster have never served as any of these. Others, such as Westminster Abbey, are former cathedrals. Neither Protestant churches are designated as "basilicas" in the Catholic sense. The term "cathedral" in Orthodoxy and Protestantism is sometimes loosely applied to a large church, not a bishop's principal church. Some significant churches are termed "temples" or "oratories".Architecture of cathedrals and great churches – Salisbury Cathedral from the east. 1220–1380. An essay in Early English Gothic with the tallest spire in England.
28. Forced perspective – Forced perspective is a technique which employs optical illusion to make an object appear farther away, closer, larger or smaller than it actually is. It manipulates visual perception through the use of scaled objects and the correlation between them and the vantage point of the spectator or camera. It has applications in photography, architecture. One example of forced perspective is a scene in an action/adventure movie in which dinosaurs are threatening the heroes. Citizen Kane revived the practice. Movies, especially B-movies in the 1960s, were produced on limited budgets and often featured forced perspective shots. Forced perspective can be made more believable when environmental conditions obscure the difference in perspective. This was accomplished by using a painted backdrop of an aircraft, "serviced" by dwarfs standing next to the backdrop. A downpour draws much of the viewer's attention away from extras, making the simulated perspective less noticeable. The principal cause of this was geometric. Light from a source travels in a spherical wave, decreasing in intensity as the inverse square of the distance travelled. This means that a light source must be four times as bright to produce the same illuminance at an object twice as away. Thus to create the illusion of a distant object being scaled accordingly, much more light is required. Peter Jackson's film adaptations of The Lord of the Rings make extended use of forced perspective. Characters apparently standing next to each other would be displaced from the camera.Forced perspective – Unintentional forced perspective effect in this U.S. Navy photograph. The CH-47 Chinook helicopter at left is more than eighteen feet (5.4m) tall and almost one hundred feet (30.5m) long.
29. Counterweight – A counterweight is an equivalent counterbalancing weight that balances a load. Its purpose is to make lifting the load more efficient, less taxing on the lifting machine. Counterweights are often used in traction lifts, funfair rides. This distance times mass is called the moment. The objects are then said to be in counterbalance. Trebuchet: There are five major components of a trebuchet: beam, counterweight, frame, guide chute, sling. After the counterweight drops from a platform on the frame, gravity pivots the beam. Without the counterweight, the beam could not complete the arc that allows the sling to accurately release the projectile. Crankshaft: A counterweight is also used in many rotating systems to reduce vibrations due to imbalances in the rotating assembly. A typical example is counterweights on crankshafts in piston engines. Desk lamp: Some balanced arm lamps work with a counterweight to keep the arm and lamp in the desired position. Elevator: In traction elevators, a heavy counterweight counterbalances the load of the elevator carriage, so the motor lifts much less of the carriage's weight. The counterweight also decreases the descending acceleration force to reduce the amount of power needed by the motor. The counterweights both have wheel roller guides attached to them to prevent irregular movement and provide a smoother ride for the passengers. Space elevator: A space elevator is a proposed structure designed to transport material from a celestial body's surface into space.Counterweight – César Pelli 's Ratner Athletic Center uses cables, masts and underground counterweights as a load-bearing support structure.
30. Tower – A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-supporting structures. To serve other functions. Towers can be a feature on top of a large structure or building. Old English torr is from Latin turris via French tor. The Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the Illyrian Βου-δοργίς. The oldest known may be the circular tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho. Some of the earliest towers were ziggurats, which existed since the 4th millennium BC. The latter was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world. Some of the earliest surviving examples are the broch structures in northern Scotland, which are conical towerhouses. Other examples from Phoenician and Roman cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification and sentinel roles. For example, the name of the Moroccan city of Mogador, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for watchtower. The Chinese used towers in 210 BC during the Qin Dynasty. Towers were also an important element of castles. The Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in Tibet built approximately 14th to 15th century.Tower – The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France
31. David Copperfield (illusionist) – David Seth Kotkin, known professionally as David Copperfield, is an American illusionist, described by Forbes as the most commercially successful magician in history. Copperfield's television specials have won 21 Emmy Awards of a total 38 nominations. Copperfield has far sold 33 million tickets and grossed over $4 billion, more than any other solo entertainer in history. In 2015, Forbes ranked him the 20th highest earning celebrity in the world. When not performing, he manages his chain of eleven resort islands in the Bahamas, which he calls "the Islands of Copperfield Bay". Copperfield's mother was born in Jerusalem while his paternal grandparents were Jewish immigrants from USSR. In 1974, Copperfield graduated from Metuchen High School. A loner, the young Copperfield saw magic as a way of fitting in and, later, as a way to get girls. "At Camp Harmony, we spent two weeks searching for a guide who’d been kidnapped by Indians. It was just a game, but I was living it... My whole life goes back to that camp experience when I was three or four." As a teenager, Copperfield frequently sneaked into shows, especially musicals featuring the work of Stephen Sondheim or Bob Fosse. By age 16, he was teaching a course in magic at New York University. At age 18, Copperfield enrolled at New York City's Jesuit based school Fordham University. However, he left Fordham to play the lead role of the musical The Magic Man in Chicago.David Copperfield (illusionist) – David Copperfield
32. San Gimignano – San Gimignano is a small walled medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy. Within the walls, the well-preserved buildings include notable examples of both Gothic architecture, with outstanding examples of secular buildings as well as churches. The Palazzo Comunale, Church of Sant' Agostino contain frescos, including cycles dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. The "Historic Centre of San Gimignano", is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the 3rd BC a small Etruscan village stood on the site of San Gimignano. From 929 the town was ruled by the bishops of Volterra. However, the peace of the town was disturbed by conflict between Guelphs and Ghibellines, family rivalries. This resulted in families' building tower houses of increasing height. Towards the end of the Medieval period they were 72 in number and up to 70 metres tall. The rivalry was finally restrained when it was ordained by the council that no tower was to be taller than that adjacent to the Palazzo Comunale. The Chapel of Santa Fina in the Collegiate Church houses her shrine and frescos by Ghirlandaio. The house said to be her home still stands in the town. On 8 San Gimignano hosted Dante Alighieri in his role as ambassador of the Guelph League in Tuscany. About half the townsfolk died. The town submitted to the rule of Florence.San Gimignano – View of the town from the south
33. Mosul – Mosul is a city in northern Iraq. No westerner has entered the city until the latest initiative. The city's population grew rapidly by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. An estimated half million people fled Mosul in the second half of 2014 when the IS fought for control of the city. While some residents returned, US bombings pounded the city. On November 2016, ISIS attacked the city of Mosul, ultimately killing seven civilians, two soldiers, wounding 35 others. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul oil. The University has since been closed. It is reported to be barely functional. There, he notes a small Assyrian town of "Mépsila" on the Tigris somewhere about where modern Mosul is today. Be as it may, the name Mepsila is doubtless the root for the modern name. In spelling, the term Mosul, or rather "Mawsil", stands for the "linking point" -- or loosely, the "Junction City," in Arabic. This area is now populated largely by Kurds. It is the only fully-Kurdish neighborhood in Mosul. The site contains the tomb of the Biblical Jonah, as he died in the then capital of ancient Assyria.Mosul – Tigris River and bridge in Mosul
34. Watkin's Tower – Watkin's Tower was a partially completed iron lattice tower in Wembley Park, London, England, UK. Marketed as the "Great Tower of London", it was designed to surpass the height of the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The tower was never completed and it was demolished in 1907. The site of the tower is now occupied by the English national football ground, Wembley Stadium. Numerous names were given during its planning, legacy. These include Watkin's Tower, Watkin's Folly, the Wembley Park Tower, the London Stump. Sir Edward Watkin was entrepreneur, noted for being chairman of nine different British railway companies. He presided over large-scale engineering projects to fulfil his business aspirations. Although the project failed in 1881, Watkin remained a driven innovator, inspired by grand schemes which could augment his railway empire. Watkin was keen to attract more passengers onto his trains and was aggressively extending his railway into Buckinghamshire. The station opened in 1893-4. An architectural design competition was held in 1890, a total of 68 designs were submitted. The winning entry, number 37, was submitted by Stewart, MacLaren and Dunn of London. They proposed an 1,200-foot tower -- 45.8 metres taller than the Eiffel Tower, 312.2 metres at the time. It was to have two observation decks -- each with restaurants, theatres, dancing rooms and exhibitions -- a 90-bedroom hotel.Watkin's Tower – Proposed design of Watkin's Tower
35. Oldehove (tower) – De Oldehove is an unfinished church tower in the medieval centre of the Dutch city of Leeuwarden. It leans more than the tower of Pisa in Italy. Oldehove is also the name of an artificial mound on which in the 9th century a church dedicated to Saint Vitus was built. In charge were Jacob van Aken and, after his death, Cornelis Frederiksz. The project was stopped in 1532. The tower remains. The builders also used so-called Bentheim sandstone. It is listed as number 24331. Stenvert, R. et al.. Monumenten in Nederland: Fryslân, p. 25, 41 and 189–196. Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle, the Netherlands. ISBN 90-400-9476-4.Oldehove (tower) – The Oldehove in 2014
36. Soil mechanics – Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and engineering mechanics that describes the behavior of soils. Example applications are bridge foundations, retaining walls, dams, buried pipeline systems. Principles of soil mechanics are also used in related disciplines such as engineering geology, geophysical engineering, coastal engineering, agricultural engineering, soil physics. The strength of soils is primarily derived from friction between the particles and interlocking, which are very sensitive to the effective stress. The primary mechanism of creation is the weathering of rock. All rock types may be broken down into small particles to create soil. Weathering mechanisms are physical weathering, biological weathering Human activities such as excavation, blasting, waste disposal, may also create soil. Physical weathering includes freeze and thaw of water in cracks, rain, wind, impact and other mechanisms. Chemical weathering includes dissolution of matter composing a precipitation in the form of another mineral. Clay minerals, for example can be formed by weathering of feldspar, the most common present in igneous rock. The most common constituent of silt and sand is quartz, also called silica, which has the chemical name silicon dioxide. Particles larger than gravel are called boulders. Soil deposits are affected to their location. Soils that are not transported are called residual soils—they exist at the same location as the rock from which they were generated. Decomposed granite is a common example of a residual soil.Soil mechanics – The Tower of Pisa – an example of a problem due to deformation of soil.
38. Mini-Europe – Mini-Europe is a miniature park located in Bruparck at the foot of the Atomium in Brussels, Belgium. Mini-Europe has reproductions of monuments in the European Union at a scale of 1:25. 350 buildings are represented. Mini-Europe has a turnover of 4 million Euros. The park contains live action models such as trains, mills, cable cars. A guide gives the details on all the monuments. At the end of the visit, the "Spirit of Europe" exhibition gives an interactive overview of the European Union in the form of games. The park is built on an area of 24,000 m². The initial investment was by Prince Philip of Belgium. The monuments were chosen for the quality of their European symbolism. Most of the monuments were made using moulds. Now polyester is used. Three of the monuments were made out of stone. A computer-assisted procedure was used for two of the models. After painting the monument was installed on site, together with decorations and lighting.Mini-Europe
39. Republic of Pisa – The Republic of Pisa was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries. During the High Middle Ages the city controlled a significant Mediterranean merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its influence in 1005. Pisa was with the Saracens, whose bases were in the Italian astersa, for control of the Mediterranean. In alliance with Genoa, Sardinia was captured with the defeat of the Saracen leader Mujāhid al - ` Āmirī. This victory gave supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, rivalry was born between the two maritime republics. Between 1035 Pisa went on to successfully defeat several rival towns in the Emirate of Sicily and conquer Carthage in North Africa. In 1051-1052 Admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, provoking more resentment from the Genoese. Roger declined due to other commitments. With no support, the Pisan attack against Palermo failed. The Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because at the time the marquis of Tuscany had already been excluded from power. Pisa sacked the Zirid city of Mahdia in 1088. Four years later, Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castile force El Cid out of Valencia.Republic of Pisa – Map of Pisa in the 11th century
40. Bridgnorth Castle – Bridgnorth Castle is a castle in the town of Bridgnorth, Shropshire beside the River Severn. A square great tower, was built during the reign of Henry II. During the Civil War, in 1642 many Royalist troops were garrisoned there. In 1646, Cromwell’s Roundheads arrived with orders to take Bridgnorth for the Parliamentarians from the garrison led by Sir Robert Howard. Following a three-week siege, he ordered that the castle be demolished. By 1647 little of the structure remained. The Parliamentarians left it much as it is the stone from the castle being taken and used to repair the town's damaged buildings. The castle grounds were excavated over three days by archaeological programme Time Team, clarifying the layout of the castle and the history of its construction. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles Book of Castles, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3Bridgnorth Castle – Bridgnorth Castle
41. Mosques and shrines of Mosul – The mosques and shrines of Mosul, Iraq are of varied ages, the oldest being the Umayyad Mosque from 640 AD. The Umayyad Mosque was the first in the area occupied by modern-day Iraq. It was built by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami after he captured Mosul during the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It may have been a development of a previous Mosque. All that remains from this complex are the minaret, two mihrabs, some stucco decoration. The elaborate 52 ′ minaret that leans like the Tower of Pisa is called Al-Hadba. The Great Mosque was built by Nuriddin Zanki in 1172 AD next to the Umayyad Mosque. Ibn Battuta a mihrab with a Kufic inscription. Of the two most prominent mounds of Nineveh's ruins rose the Mosque of the prophet Yunus the son of Amittai. The mosque, which earlier was an Assyrian Church, was believed to be the place of Yunus. It is also where King Esarhaddon had once built a palace. This shrine on the site of a Christian church was a stone's throw from the built-up gates of Nineveh. A whale's tooth, appropriate to Jonah's well-known adventure at sea, was said to be preserved there. It was one of one of the few historic mosques in the east side of the city. On July 2014, the building was blown up by the Islamic State.Mosques and shrines of Mosul – Prophet Yunus Mosque
42. Lafayette Square (Buffalo) – Lafayette Square is a park in the center of downtown Buffalo, Erie County, New York, United States that hosts a Civil War monument. The block, square, is lined by many of the city's tallest buildings. The square was named for General Lafayette, who visited Buffalo in 1825. The square was part of the urban plan for the city as laid out by Joseph Ellicott in 1804. Its eastern edge has long been defined by civic structures; first, the Erie County Courthouse, followed by the original Buffalo & Erie County Public Library. Presidential history was made in Lafayette Square when former United States President Martin Van Buren received the Free Soil Party nomination for the 1848 election. President-elect Abraham Lincoln also spoke at the square. The square offers a clear view of Buffalo City Hall, an Art Deco building three blocks to the west. Titled Soldiers and Sailors, gives a strong vertical and ceremonial definition to the space. Conceived by Mrs. Horatio Seymour, the monument's ceremony was attended by Grover Cleveland and other prominent figures. Until 2011, Lafayette Square is occasionally the site of rallies and demonstrations. Lafayette Square is one of three squares laid out in Joseph Ellicott's plan. The square is the second most important space in downtown Buffalo. Buildings flanking the square include the Liberty Building, the Main Court Building, 10 Lafayette Square, the Buffalo & Erie County Public Library. The north of the current library and northeast of the square once hosted the Buffalo Savings Bank building, demolished in 1922.Lafayette Square (Buffalo) – Soldiers and Sailors, the monument at Lafayette Square
44. Imperial College Civil & Environmental Engineering – The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Imperial College London is located in the Skempton Building at the South Kensington Campus in London. It is one of 10 academic departments of the Faculty of Engineering. The current Head of the Department is Professor Nick Buenfeld. The Department is currently a part of the Imperial College Faculty of Engineering, formed in 1907 when Imperial College was founded. Before that, the Faculty of Engineering was the City and Guilds of London Institute, formed in 1878. Research carried out in the department covers experimental, analytical, theoretical work. Additionally, research is conducted, especially in the Environmental and Geotechnical Engineering Sections. Each section is responsible for their postgraduate taught and non-taught. The Department also houses the Laing O'Rourke Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation. The Department covers postgraduate level studies, as well as a number of short courses for practising engineers. The Department offers the opportunity to follow Undergraduate studies leading to the MEng degree. Students can study in Civil Engineering with a year abroad. In the latter, the students may choose to spend their final year at a collaborating institution. They are leading to the award of the MSc degree. The former are designed to last normally for 3–4 years whereas the latter are normally designed to last for 4 years.Imperial College Civil & Environmental Engineering – Campus
45. Giorgio Panariello – Giorgio Panariello is an Italian comedian. Originally from Naples, he graduated in Marina di Massa. His classmate was television presenter Carlo Conti. Together they take a long apprenticeship as impressionists. He immediately gained success with an impersonation of the singer Renato Zero. At the end of the 1970s he lived including as a waiter in various places including The Shed Cinquale. He created a partnership from Versilia including Franco Ginesi, Rino Rivieri, Adolfo Dragon, Mario Bertoncini, Ennio Bongiorni and Umberto musts. With them he formed taking their act to Florence where he meets at the Aloha of Fiesole, Carlo Conti and Leonardo Pieraccioni. Forte is the imitation / disguise Renato Zero: paired in the role of the driver, creating a true touring show nights in Viareggio. Began performing solo before arriving in transmissions for launching new talent, Tonight I throw myself. Together with Carlo Conti is still on the small screen in the 1994, transmission Fresh Paint on Teleregione Tuscany. Among the important guests Luciano Pavarotti, Vasco Rossi, Joe Cocker, Andrea Bocelli, Joe Cocker, Raffaella Carra, Gianni Morandi and Claudio Baglioni as a duet. Even on television, after appearing in March 2004 faces his first American tour, to New York City. The sky is always bluer. In 2005 interprets the fiction' Matilda by Sabrina Ferilli.Giorgio Panariello – Giorgio Panariello
46. Salvo (artist) – Salvatore Mangione, known as Salvo, was an Italian artist who lived and worked in Turin. Salvo was born in 1947. After having spent his early childhood in 1956 he and his family moved from Catania to Turin. In 1963 he participated in the 121st exhibition of the Società Promotrice delle Belle Arti. He tried to sell portraits, copied from Rembrandt and Van Gogh and from Fontana to Chagall. From September to December 1968, he was in Paris, drawn by the cultural climate that flourished around the movement. In the summer, he traveled extensively through Afghanistan. In the "12 autoritratti" series, he used photomontages to apply his face to pictures clipped from newspapers. In the same year, he was introduced by Robert Barry. In June 1972, he met John Weber. Also in 1972, Salvo exhibited his work in Kassel. In the aim of revisiting history, Salvo went on with his series of d'après, which he commenced in 1970 with his "Autoritratto come Raffaello". In December 1973, his recent works, inspired by great masters of the fifteenth century such as Cosmè Tura and Raphael, were on display in different shows. The following year saw the inauguration of the important show "Projekt' 74" in Cologne. A new phase of his research began as of 1976.Salvo (artist) – Salvo, Autoritratto (Come Raffaello), 1970, photo mounted on aluminium, 65 cm × 49 cm (26 in × 19 in)
47. Italians – Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Italians have greatly contributed to science, arts, technology, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence and banking both abroad and worldwide. Italian people are generally known to clothing and family values. The term Italian has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Emperor Diocletian's administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief; it became permanent in 395. In 313, churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he also moved his capital to Constantinople greatly reducing the importance of the former. Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy, Odoacer. His defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. Odoacer ruled well after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths.Italians – Amerigo Vespucci, the notable geographer and traveller from whose name the word America is derived.
48. It's a Small World – The WED Enterprises company was given only 11 months to build the pavilion. Mary Blair was responsible for the attraction's whimsical design and styling. Blair had been an director on several Disney animated features, including Cinderella, Alice In Wonderland, Peter Pan. Like many Disneyland attractions, characters were designed by Marc Davis, while his wife, Alice Davis, designed the costumes for the dolls. Rolly Crump designed other supplemental figures on display. The animated dolls were sculpted by Blaine Gibson. Walt was personally involved with Gibson's development of the dolls' facial design; each animated face is completely identical in shape. Arrow Development was deeply involved in the design of the passenger-carrying boats and system of the attraction. The firm is credited with manufacturing the Disneyland installation. "Children of the World" was the working title of the attraction. When they first presented it to Walt, they played it as a slow ballad. Walt requested something more cheerful, so they sang in counterpoint. Walt was so delighted with the final result that he renamed the attraction "It's a Small World" after the Sherman Brothers' song. It is argued that this song is the single most translated piece of music on Earth. A third verse celebrating the attraction's 45th anniversary was popularized, but not incorporated into the ride.It's a Small World – It's a Small World at Disneyland in 1983
49. Andrea Bocelli – Andrea Bocelli, OMRI, OMDSM is an Italian classical crossover tenor, recording artist, singer-songwriter. Born with poor eyesight, he became permanently blind at the age of 12 following a football accident. He has had success as a crossover performer bringing classical music to the top of international pop charts. In 1998, he was named one of People's 50 Most Beautiful People. In 1999, he was nominated for Best New Artist at the Grammy Awards. The single went on to sell over million copies worldwide, making one of the best-selling singles of all time. Bocelli was born to Alessandro and Edi Bocelli, even though they were advised to abort him. Younger brother Alberto still live in the home. Bocelli's father died in 2000. As a young boy, Bocelli showed a great passion for music. His mother has said that music was the only thing that would comfort him. At the age of six, also learned to play the flute, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, guitar and drums. Then, when Oriana, gave him the first record of Franco Corelli, Bocelli began to show interest in pursuing the career of a tenor. By seven, he was able to recognize the famous voices of the time and tried to emulate the great interpreters. Bocelli also spent time singing during his childhood.Andrea Bocelli – Bocelli rehearsing for his Under the Desert Sky concert in Lake Las Vegas, 2006