1. Louis XIV of France – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
2. Adam Smith – Adam Smith FRSA was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. He is best known for two classic works: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered the first modern work of economics. After graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures at Edinburgh, leading him to collaborate during the Scottish Enlightenment. During this time he wrote and published The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In his later life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met intellectual leaders of his day. Smith laid the foundations of classical market economic theory. The Wealth of Nations was a precursor to the academic discipline of economics. In other works, he developed the concept of division of labour, expounded upon how rational self-interest and competition can lead to economic prosperity. In 2005, The Wealth of Nations was named among the 100 Best Scottish Books of all time. The minor planet 12838 Adamsmith was named in his memory. Smith was born in the County of Fife, Scotland. His father, also Adam Smith, also served as comptroller of the Customs in Kirkcaldy. In 1720 he married daughter of the landed Robert Douglas of Strathendry, also in Fife. His father died two months after he was born, leaving a widow.Adam Smith – Adam Smith
3. Cuisine of the United States – The cuisine of the United States reflects its history. The European colonization of the Americas yielded the introduction of a number of ingredients and cooking styles to the latter. When the colonists came to the colonies, they farmed animals in a similar fashion to what they had done in Europe. They had cuisine similar to their British cuisine. The American diet varied depending on the settled region in which someone lived. Commonly hunted game included deer, bear, buffalo, wild turkey. A number of oils made from animals served to cook much of the colonial foods. In comparison to the northern colonies, the southern colonies did not have a central region of culture. During the 19th centuries, Americans developed many new foods. During the Progressive Era food presentation became more industrialized. One characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple regional approaches into completely new cooking styles. Whale was used for their meat and oil. Seal and walrus were also eaten, in addition to eel from New York's Finger Lakes region. Catfish was also popular amongst native peoples, including the Modocs. Crustacean included shrimp, lobster, crayfish, dungeness crabs in the East.Cuisine of the United States – Apple pie is one of a number of American cultural icons.
4. Aurangzeb – He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign, which lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire temporarily reached its greatest extent. Aurangzeb's policies partly abandoned the legacy of pluralism, which remains a very controversial aspect of his reign and led to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Rebellions and wars led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and army. He was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire came to an end. Nevertheless, the contiguous territory of the Mughal Empire still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shikoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' Lahore court. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500 which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, successfully defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. Death drops the curtain even on Emperors; it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did!Aurangzeb – Aurangzeb on horseback.
5. Cue sports – Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. There are other variants that make use of obstacles and targets, table-top games played with disks instead of balls. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, Jackie Gleason. "Cue" itself came from queue, the French word for a tail. This refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion. A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, was reminiscent of croquet. King Louis XI of France had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, it swiftly spread among the French nobility. Queen of Scots, claimed that her "table billiard" had been taken away by those who eventually became her executioners. In 1588, the Duke of Norfolk, owned a "billyard bord coered with a greene cloth... three billyard sticks and 11 balls of yvery". Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in almost every Paris café. In England, the game was developing into a very popular activity for members of the gentry. The cue as it is known today was finally developed by about 1800. Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them. The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge.Cue sports – Inset from School of Recreation, 1710. "We perceive from the engraving of the Billiards of the seventtenth century, that the game was altogether different from what it is now."
6. Baroque – The style spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period. It is also modern Spanish "barroco", German "Barock", Dutch "Barok", so on. Others derive it in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca. The term "Baroque" was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style: Federico Barocci. Long despised, Baroque architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, has largely remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste. William Watson describes a late phase of Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as "baroque". The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography, direct, simple, theatrical.Baroque – The Triumph of the Immaculate by Paolo de Matteis
7. Battle of Blenheim – The Battle of Blenheim, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance. Louis XIV of France sought to gain a favourable peace settlement. Vienna was also from Rákóczi's Hungarian revolt from its eastern approaches. After securing Donauwörth on the Danube, Marlborough sought to engage Marsin's army before Marshal Tallard could bring reinforcements through the Black Forest. Blenheim has gone down as one of the turning points of the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis' hopes for a quick victory came to an end. France suffered over 30,000 casualties including Marshal Tallard, taken captive to England. By 1704, the War of the Spanish Succession was in its fourth year. Vienna had been saved by dissension between the two commanders, leading to the brilliant Villars being replaced by the less dynamic Marsin. Both the Austrian Ambassador in London, Count Wratislaw, the Duke of Marlborough realised the implications of the situation on the Danube. – Winston Churchill. Marlborough's march started on 19 May from 20 miles north-west of Cologne. The army mortars totalling 21,000 men. This force was to be augmented en route such that by the time Marlborough reached the Danube, it would number 40,000.Battle of Blenheim – The Duke of Marlborough Signing the Despatch at Blenheim. Oil by Robert Alexander Hillingford.
8. Battle of Ramillies – The Battle of Ramillies /ˈræmɪliːz/, fought on 23 May 1706, was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. Yet despite his opponents' setbacks Louis XIV was desirous of peace – but he wanted it on reasonable terms. For this end and in order to maintain their momentum, the their allies took the offensive in 1706. Encouraged by these early gains Louis XIV urged Marshal Villeroi to go over to the offensive in the Spanish Netherlands and, with victory, gain a'fair' peace. Accordingly, the French Marshal marched towards Tienen, as if to threaten Zoutleeuw. In Marlborough's Dutch, English, Danish forces overwhelmed Villeroi's and Max Emanuel's Franco-Spanish-Bavarian army. With their foe routed, the Allies were able to fully exploit their victory. Town after town fell, including Brussels, Bruges and Antwerp; by the end of the campaign Villeroi's army had been driven from most of the Spanish Netherlands. Thus, the year 1706 proved, for the Allies, to be an annus mirabilis. After their disastrous defeat at Blenheim in 1704, the next year brought some respite. The resilience of the efforts of his generals, also added to Marlborough's problems. Marshal Villeroi, exerting considerable pressure on Count Overkirk, along the Meuse, took Huy on 10 June before pressing on towards Liège. "What a disgrace for Marlborough," exulted Villeroi, "to have made false movements without any result!" With Marlborough's north, the French transferred troops from the Moselle valley to reinforce Villeroi in Flanders, while Villars marched off to the Rhine. It seems that the Duke’s favoured scheme was to return to the Moselle valley and once more attempt an advance into the heart of France.Battle of Ramillies – The Queen’s Regiment of Horse breaking through on the right flank; seen here capturing the kettle-drummer of the Bavarian Electoral Guards.
9. Blaise Pascal – Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a prodigy, educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal also wrote in defence of the scientific method. In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. Following Galileo Galilei and Torricelli, in 1646, he rebutted Aristotle's followers who insisted that nature abhors a vacuum. Pascal's results caused many disputes before being accepted. In 1646, his sister Jacqueline identified with the religious movement within Catholicism known by its detractors as Jansenism. His father died in 1651. Following a religious experience in late 1654, he began writing influential works on theology. His two most famous works date from this period: the Lettres provinciales and the Pensées, the former set in the conflict between Jansenists and Jesuits. In that year, he also wrote an important treatise on the arithmetical triangle. Between 1659 he wrote on the cycloid and its use in calculating the volume of solids. He died just two months after his 39th birthday. Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, in France's Auvergne region. He lost Antoinette Begon, at the age of three.Blaise Pascal – Painting of Blaise Pascal made by François II Quesnel for Gérard Edelinck in 1691.
10. Bertrand Andrieu – Bertrand Andrieu was a French engraver of medals. He was born in Bordeaux. In France, he was considered as the restorer of the art, which had declined after the time of Louis XIV. During the last twenty years of his life, the French government commissioned him to undertake every major work of importance. French art Millin, Aubin-Louis. Medallic history of Napoleon. University of California Libraries. ASIN B007QNXEBQ. Bertrand Andrieu in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census websiteBertrand Andrieu – Bertrand Andrieu, Decoration Commemorating the Birth of the "King of Rome", 1811
11. Bordeaux – Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 243,626. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises". The term "Bordelais" may also refer to the city and its surrounding region. The city's titles are "La Perle d'Aquitaine", "La Belle Endormie" in reference to the old centre which had black walls due to pollution. Nowadays, this is not the case. In fact, a part of Le Port La Lune, was almost completely renovated. Bordeaux is the city which has the highest number of historical buildings except for Paris. Bordeaux is the world's major capital. It is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo, while the economy in the area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. In historical times, around 300 BC it was the settlement of the Bituriges Vivisci, who named Burdigala probably of Aquitanian origin. The Bourde is still the name of a south of the city.Bordeaux – Clockwise from top: Place de la Bourse by the Garonne, Allees du Tourny and Maison de Vin, Pierre Bridge on the Garonne, Meriadeck Commercial Centre, front of Palais Rohan Hotel, and Saint-Andre Cathedral with Bordeaux Tramway
12. British Empire – The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and 18th centuries. At its height, for over a century, was the foremost global power. As a result, its political, legal, cultural legacy is widespread. British attention soon turned towards Asia, the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal imperial power of the 19th century. The British Empire expanded to include India, many other territories throughout the world. Domestically, political attitudes favoured a gradual widening of the voting franchise. During this century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant economic stresses. New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century, the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous strain of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after World War I, Britain was longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in Southeast Asia were occupied by Imperial Japan.British Empire – A replica of The Matthew, John Cabot 's ship used for his second voyage to the New World.
13. Baroque dance – Baroque dance is dance of the Baroque era, closely linked with Baroque music, theatre and opera. The majority of surviving choreographies from the period are English country dances, such as those in the many editions of Playford's The Dancing Master. Playford only gives patterns of the dances with no indication of the steps. English dance survived well beyond the Baroque era and eventually spread in various forms across Europe and its colonies, to all levels of society. See the article on English dance for more information. The basic technique was used both at social events, as theatrical dance in court ballets and at public theaters. This wealth of evidence has allowed modern dancers to recreate the style, although areas of controversy still exist. The modern introduction is Hilton. Many of these dance types are familiar from baroque music, perhaps most spectacularly in the stylized suites of J. S. Bach. Note however, that the allemandes, that occur in these suites do not correspond from the same period. The French noble style was danced both by professional dancers in theatrical productions such as opera-ballets and court entertainments. However, 18th century dance had at least two other styles: comic or grotesque, semi-serious. Beyond this, the cross-fertilisation of dance styles is an area of ongoing research. The revival of baroque music in the'70s sparked renewed interest in 17th and 18th century dance styles. Perhaps best known among these pioneers was Britain's Melusine Wood, who published several books on historical dancing in the 1950s.Baroque dance – A costume design for Louis XIV as The Rising Sun, from the final entrée of Le Ballet de la Nuit (1653).
14. Charlemagne – Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. Charlemagne laid the foundations for modern France, the Low Countries. He took the Frankish throne in 768 and became King of Italy in 774. From 800, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor—the first recognised emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Recognition from the pontiff granted divine legitimacy in the eyes of his contemporaries. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following the death of his father, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne also campaigned to his east leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred a period of energetic intellectual activity within the Western Church. These were but two of the machinations that led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. He died in 814, having ruled over thirteen years. Charlemagne was laid to rest in what is Germany.Charlemagne – A coin of Charlemagne with the inscription KAROLVS IMP AVG (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
15. Capetian dynasty – The Capetian dynasty /kəˈpiːʃⁱən/, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet. It is among the largest and oldest European royal houses, consisting of Hugh Capet's male-line descendants. They were succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and the Bourbon, which ruled until the French Revolution. The dynasty had a crucial role in the formation of the French state. For a detailed narration on the growth of French royal power, see Crown lands of France. Members of the dynasty were traditionally Catholic. The early Capetians had an alliance with the Church. The Capetian alliance with the papacy suffered a severe blow after the disaster of the Aragonese Crusade. Philip III's son and successor, Philip IV, humiliated a pope and brought the papacy under French control. The later Valois, starting with Francis I, ignored religious differences and allied with the Ottoman Sultan to counter the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry IV was a Protestant at the time of his accession, but realized the necessity of conversion after four years of religious warfare. The Capetians generally enjoyed a harmonious family relationship. When Capetian cadets did aspire for kingship, their ambitions were directed not at the French throne, but at foreign thrones. Through this, the Capetians spread widely over Europe. Along with the House of Habsburg, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.Capetian dynasty – Capetian Armorial
16. Celestial globe – Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky. There is an issue regarding the “handedness” of celestial globes. For this reason, celestial globes are often produced in image, so that at least the constellations appear the "right way round". Some modern celestial globes address this problem by making the surface of the globe transparent. Viewing the inside of the sphere from the outside, through its transparent surface, produces serious distortions. Written material on names of constellations etc. is printed in reverse, so it can easily be read in the mirror.Celestial globe – A modern raised-relief world globe
17. Diana (mythology) – She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves were especially sacred to her as were deer. According to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She made up a triad with two other Roman deities: the nymph,; Virbius, the woodland god. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods, referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects indifference towards such secular matters as the fates of states. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess.Diana (mythology) – The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography
18. Door – There are also doors that slide or spin inside of a space. Similar exterior structures to doors are called gates. Typically, doors have an interior side that faces the inside of an exterior side that faces the outside of that space. When open, doors admit animals, ventilation or light. Doors are significant in preventing the spread of fire. They also act to noise. Many doors are equipped with locking mechanisms to keep out others. As a form of civility, people often knock before opening a door and entering a room. Doors are used keeping formal and utility areas separate. Doors also have an aesthetic role in creating an impression of what lies beyond. Similarly, doorways frequently appear in metaphorical or allegorical situations, literature and the arts, often as a portent of change. Some doors leading to important places included designs of the afterlife. The stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, hinged, is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile. The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, middle or intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were in timber, those made for King Solomon's temple being in olive wood, which were overlaid with gold.Door – Door in Georgia
19. Detroit – It is the seat of the most populous county in the state. The municipality of Detroit had a 2015 estimated population of 677,116, making the 21st-most populous city in the United States. Roughly one-half of Michigan's population lives in Metro Detroit alone. The Detroit–Windsor area, a commercial link straddling the Canada–U.S. Border, has a total population of about 5.7 million. Detroit is a major port on a strait that connects the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the thirteenth-largest in the United States. Detroit was founded on a party of settlers. During the 19th century, it became an industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the American industry in the early 20th century, the Detroit area emerged as a significant metropolitan region within the United States. The city became the fourth-largest for a period. In the 1960s, suburban expansion continued with construction of a regional freeway system. Due to industrial loss of jobs in the auto industry, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to present. Between 2010 the city's population fell by 25 percent, changing its ranking from the nation's 10th-largest city to 18th.Detroit – From top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Detroit skyline and the Detroit River, Fox Theatre, Dorothy H. Turkel House in Palmer Woods, Belle Isle Conservatory, The Spirit of Detroit, Fisher Building, Eastern Market, Old Main at Wayne State University, Ambassador Bridge, and the Detroit Institute of Arts
20. Dragoon – The word dragoon originally meant mounted infantry, who were trained in horse riding as well as infantry fighting skills. However, usage altered during the 18th century, dragoons evolved into conventional cavalry units. In most armies, "dragoons" came to signify ordinary medium cavalry. Dragoon regiments were established during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The title has been retained by a number of armoured or ceremonial mounted regiments. The establishment of dragoons evolved from the practice of sometimes transporting infantry by horse when speed of movement was needed. In 1552 Prince Alexander of Parma mounted several companies of infantry on pack horses to achieve surprise. Another early instance was ordered during operations near Mons in Hainaut when 500 infantry were transported this way. It is also suggested the first dragoons were raised by the Marshal de Brissac in 1600. According to German literature, dragoons were invented by Count Ernst von Mansfeld, one of the greatest German military commanders, in the early 1620s. There are other instances of mounted infantry predating this. The practice comes from a time when all gunpowder weapons had distinctive names, including the culverin, serpentine, falconet, etc.. It is also sometimes claimed the burning match resembled a dragon. It has also been suggested that the name derives from the Dutch ` dragen', both being the verb ` to carry' in their respective languages. Dragoon is occasionally used to mean to persecute by the imposition of troops; and by extension to compel by any violent measures or threats.Dragoon – French dragoons with captured Prussian flag at the Battle of Jena.
21. Divine right of kings – The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm. It is often expressed in the phrase "by the Grace of God", attached to the titles of a reigning monarch. In the world, kings were often seen as either ruling with the backing of even being divine beings themselves. In ancient Rome the title Divus meaning godlike, was given to Julius Caesar by the senate declaring him a god posthumously. He claimed relation from both Venus and Mars through Aeneas and Ancus Marcius respectively. His great-nephew Augustus adopted the term Divi Filius as well. Adomnan of Iona is one of the earliest Christian proponents of this concept of kings ruling with divine right. He wrote of the Irish King Diarmait mac Cerbaill's assassination and claimed that divine punishment fell on his assassin for the act of violating the monarch. The same angel then visited Columba on three successive nights, then finally Columba agreed and Aedan came to receive ordination. Adomnan's writings, most likely influenced other Irish writers, who in turn influenced continental ideas as well. Pepin the short's coronation may have also come from the same influence. The Carolingian dynasty and the Holy Roman Emperors also influenced all subsequent western ideas of kingship. The immediate author of the theory was Jean Bodin, who based it on the interpretation of Roman law.Divine right of kings – Louis XIV of France depicted as the Sun King.
22. Prince Eugene of Savoy – Born in Paris, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV. Following a scandal involving his Olympe, he was rejected in the French army. Eugene moved to Austria and transferred his loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy. Spanning six decades, Eugene served three Holy Roman Emperors: Leopold I, Joseph I, Charles VI. However, the Prince's fame was secured at the Battle of Zenta in 1697 earning Europe-wide fame. Renewed hostilities in the Austro-Turkish War consolidated his reputation, at the battles of Petrovaradin, the decisive encounter at Belgrade. Nevertheless, in Austria, Eugene's reputation remains unrivalled. Eugene died in his sleep at his home on 21 April 1736, aged 72. Prince Eugene was born in the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris on 18 October 1663. The Mancinis were raised at the Palais-Royal along with the young Louis XIV, with whom Olympia formed an intimate relationship. The King remained strongly attached to Olympia, so that many believed them to be lovers; but her scheming eventually led to her downfall. After falling out at court, Olympia turned to the arts of black magic and astrology. It was a fatal relationship. In February 1683, to the surprise of his family, Eugene declared his intention of joining the army. "The request was modest, not so the petitioner," he remarked.Prince Eugene of Savoy – Prince Eugene of Savoy
23. Elias Boudinot – He was elected as a U.S. Congressman for New Jersey following the American Revolutionary War. He was appointed as Director of the United States Mint serving from 1795 until 1805. Elias Boudinot was born on May 2, 1740. Elias Boudinot III, was a merchant and silversmith; he was a neighbor and friend of Benjamin Franklin. Mary Catherine Williams, was born in the British West Indies; her father was from Wales. Elie Boudinot, was the son of Jean Boudinot and Marie Suire of Marans, Aunis, France. They were a Huguenot family who fled to New York about 1687 to avoid the religious persecutions of King Louis XIV. Mary Catherine Williams and Elias Boudinot, Sr. were married on August 1729. Over the next twenty years, they had nine children. John, was born in the British West Indies-Antigua. Of the others, only his siblings Annis, Mary, Elisha reached adulthood. Her work appeared in leading newspapers and magazines. Elisha Boudinot became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. After being tutored at home, Elias Boudinot went to Princeton, New Jersey to read the law as a legal apprentice to Richard Stockton.Elias Boudinot – Elias Boudinot
25. Foreign relations of France – Foreign relations France includes the government's external relations with other countries and international organizations since the end of the Middle Ages. France played the single most important role before 1815. France fared poorly in the Second World War. Since 1945 France has been a founding member of the United Nations, of the European Coal and Steel Community. Its main ally since 1945 has been Germany. It fought expensive wars, usually to protect its voice in the selection of monarchs in neighboring countries. A high priority was blocking the growth of power of the Habsburg rivals who controlled Austria and Spain. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. While his battlefield generals were not especially good, Louis XIV had excellent staff. His chief Vauban perfected the arts of fortifying French towns and besieging enemy cities. Jean-Baptiste Colbert dramatically improved the financial system so that it could support an army of 250,000 men. The system deteriorated under Louis XV so that wars drained the increasingly inefficient financial system.Foreign relations of France – Napoleon Bonaparte retreating from Moscow, by Adolf Northern.
26. Fontainebleau – Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris. It is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest area in the Île-de-France region; it is the only one to cover a larger area than Paris itself. Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris. Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. It became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise as Bellifontains. The name originates as a medieval composite of two words: Fontaine -- meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person's Germanic Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. Philip the Fair died there in 1314. In thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, spent time at Fontainebleau. On 18 Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, were at Fontainebleau.Fontainebleau – Palace of Fontainebleau
27. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg – Frederick William was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia – and thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia – from 1640 until his death. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "the Great Elector" because of his military and political achievements. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He promoted it vigorously. Elector Frederick William was born in Berlin to George William, Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. His inheritance consisted of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Cleves, the Duchy of Prussia. Of these unpromising beginnings Frederick William managed to rebuild his war-ravaged territories. With the help of French subsidies, he built up an army to defend the country. In the conflict for Pomerania inheritance, Frederick William had to accept two setbacks, one in the Scanian War. Though militarily successful in Swedish Pomerania, he had to return his gains to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. His standing army would later become the model for the Prussian Army. He later destroyed another Swedish army that invaded the Duchy of Prussia in 1678. Frederick William is notable for raising an army of 40,000 soldiers through the General War Commissariat presided over by Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal. He was an advocate of mercantilism, monopolies, subsidies, internal improvements. In return they agreed to dissolve the Estates-General.Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg – The Elector by Frans Luycx
28. List of French expressions in English – They are most common in written English, where they are usually printed in italics. Some of them were never "good French", in the sense of being grammatical, French usage. à gogo in abundance. In French this is colloquial. à la idiomatic: in the style; In the United States, the phrase is used to describe a dessert with an accompanying scoop of ice cream. In French, however, it only means trendy. à la mode for instance is a beef recipe with ale, carrots and onions. Aide-de-camp lit. "camp helper"; A military officer who serves as an adjutant to a higher-ranking officer, prince or other high political dignitary. aide-mémoire lit. "memory aid"; an object or memorandum to assist in remembrance, or a diplomatic paper proposing the major points of discussion Allons-y! "Let's go!" The letter "y" is as in "il y a". Amour propre "Self-love", Self-respect. Amuse-bouche or amuse-gueule lit. "mouth amuser"; a single, bite-sized hors d'œuvre.List of French expressions in English – Apéritifs with amuse-gueules
29. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Leibniz's notation has been widely used ever since it was published. It was only in the 20th century that his Law of Continuity and Transcendental Law of Homogeneity found mathematical implementation. He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. He also refined the binary number system, the foundation of virtually all digital computers. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th-century advocates of rationalism. Leibniz wrote works on philology. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, but primarily in Latin, French, German. There is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz. Gottfried Leibniz was born on July 1, 1646, toward the end of the Thirty Years' War, in Leipzig, Saxony, to Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina Schmuck. Friedrich noted in his family journal: 21. Juny am Sontag 1646 Ist mein Sohn Gottfried Wilhelm, post sextam vespertinam 1/4 uff 7 uhr abents zur welt gebohren, im Wassermann. In English: On Sunday 21 June 1646, my son Gottfried Wilhelm is born into the world a quarter after six in the evening, in Aquarius. Leibniz was baptized on July 3 of that year at St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig; his godfather was the Lutheran theologian Martin Geier. His father died when he was six and a half years old, from that point on he was raised by his mother.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Portrait by Christoph Bernhard Francke
30. Giulio Alberoni – Giulio Alberoni was an Italian cardinal and statesman in the service of Philip V of Spain. He is known also for being a remarkable soldier and great gourmet who advised the Spanish court on table menus. He was born near Piacenza, probably at the village of Fiorenzuola d'Arda in the Duchy of Parma. Alberoni afterwards accompanied the son of his patron to Rome. This joke started Alberoni's brilliant career. When the French forces were recalled in 1706, he accompanied the duke to Paris, where he was favourably received by Louis XIV. In 1711 he followed Vendôme as his secretary. He was very active in furthering the accession of the French candidate for the throne of Spain, Philip V. By a series of decrees in 1717, Alberoni reduced the powers of the grandees in royal councils. France launched an invasion of eastern Spain while the British successfully raided Vigo. At the next election he was secured ten votes at the conclave that elected Benedict XIII. The Cardinal's collections of art gathered in Rome and Piacenza, housed in his richly appointed private apartments, have been augmented by the Collegio. Alberoni was a gourmet. Interspersed in his official correspondence with Parma are requests for local delicacies triffole, salame, robiola cheeses, agnolini. The pork dish "a specialty of Piacenza, is named for him.Giulio Alberoni – Cardinal Alberoni
31. History of Germany – Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes. When the Frankish Empire was divided in 843, the eastern part became East Francia. In 962, Otto I became the first emperor of the medieval German state. In the High Middle Ages, the regional dukes, bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation after 1517 as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War, ruinous to the million civilians living in both states. After the Napoleonic Wars, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction. The 1848 March Revolution failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the emergence of the Socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for the humanities, while music and the arts flourished. Unification was achieved under the leadership of Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. An elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in Africa and the Pacific. Germany was the dominant power on the continent.History of Germany – The Steinheim Skull is at least 250,000 years old
32. Hungary – Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, the most widely spoken uralic language in the world. Largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha - global city. Urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended in 1000 converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship. On 23 Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic. As a substantial actor in several technological sectors, it is both the world's 36th largest exporter and importer of goods. Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a tuition-free university education. Hungary joined part of the Schengen Area since 2007. Hungary is a member of NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group.Hungary – Italian fresco depicting a Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
33. Holy Roman Empire – Some historians refer as the origin of the empire while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, by Napoleon. Before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire. By the end of the 18th century, the term'Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation' had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, Germanic tribes assumed control. In 751, Martel's Pepin became King of the Franks, later gained the sanction of the Pope. The Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin's Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of France Germany, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. On Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, however, the Carolingian Empire was never restored. According to Regino of Prüm, each part elected a kinglet "from its own bowels". After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy.Holy Roman Empire – The Holy Roman Empire at its maximal extent, in the 13th century
34. History of the Netherlands – The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized zone of the Roman empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against the new Protestantism and other dissent, which polarized those peoples of present-day Belgium and Holland. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the sciences. During the 18th century the wealth of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with French neighbors weakened it. Britain seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, turning it into New York. There was growing conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. A pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795 -- 1806. Napoleon made it the Kingdom of Holland, later simply a French imperial province.History of the Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
35. History of Spain – The history of Spain dates back to the Early Middle Ages. After the completion of the Reconquista, the kingdoms of Spain were united under Habsburg rule in 1516. The war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco, which controlled the Spanish government until 1975. The country experienced rapid economic growth in the 1960s and early 1970s. Only with the death of Franco in 1975 did Spain return to Bourbon constitutional monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos and to democracy. Spain entered the Eurozone in 1999. Spain is part of the G6. The Iberian Peninsula was first inhabited by modern humans about 32,000 years BP. Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. The Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the northeast coast in the 9th century BC, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks are responsible for the Iberia, apparently after the river Iber. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova. The Celts mostly inhabited the north-west part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians.History of Spain – A painting of bison dating from the Upper Paleolithic era in the Altamira caves
36. History of Haiti – It was inhabited by an Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio, or Kiskeya. Columbus promptly claimed the island for the Spanish Crown, naming La Isla Española, later Latinized to Hispaniola. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean. Around AD 600, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island, displacing the previous inhabitants. They were organized into cacicazgos, each led by a cacique. The Taíno people called Quisqueya and Ayiti. At the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Higüey. Two of Marien and Jaragua, were on the territory of present-day Haiti. Guacanagarix, who ruled Marien from his capital El Guarico near present-day Cap-Haïtien, gave him permission to construct La Navidad. Christopher Columbus established La Navidad, near the modern town of Cap-Haïtien. It was built during his first voyage in December 1492. When he returned on his second voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed and all 39 settlers killed. Columbus founded a new settlement at La Isabela on the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic in 1493. The Spanish returned in 1502 establishing a settlement at Yaguana, near modern-day Léogâne. Following the arrival of Europeans, La Hispaniola's indigenous population suffered near extinction, in the Americas.History of Haiti – Christopher Columbus landing on the island of Hispaniola in 1492.
37. House of Hohenzollern – The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestor of the Hohenzollerns was mentioned in 1061. They derived from the Burchardinger dynasty. The Hohenzollern family split into the Protestant Franconian branch, which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, also ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525. The Duchy of Prussia were called Brandenburg-Prussia. Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. Its ruling dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps. Later its capital was Hechingen. The Hohenzollern Castle still belongs to the family today.House of Hohenzollern – Hohenzollern Castle near Hechingen
38. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. Including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois later in the war. The war ended in 1453. Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. Scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide empire was established in the 16th century. Political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution.History of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
39. History of Christianity – The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present. Christianity emerged in the mid-1st century AD. Christianity spread initially from Jerusalem into places such as Aram, Ethiopia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, Jordan and Egypt. After the Council of Ephesus in 431 the Nestorian Schism created the Church of the East. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 further divided Christianity into Chalcedonian Christianity. Chalcedonian Christianity divided in the Great Schism of 1054. The Protestant Reformation which began in the 1500s have evolved into many different denominations. Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread to all of Europe in the Middle Ages. Christianity expanded from the Renaissance onwards becoming the world's largest religion. There are more than two billion Christians worldwide. During its early history, Christianity grew to a religion that existed across the entire Greco-Roman world and beyond. The Roman persecution of Christians ended in AD 313 when Constantine the Great decreed tolerance for the religion. He then called the First Council of Nicaea beginning of the period of the First seven Ecumenical Councils. The Apostolic Church was the community led to some degree, Jesus' relatives. In his "Great Commission", the resurrected Jesus commanded that his teachings be spread to all the world.History of Christianity – Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century.
40. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, notable author of Latin prose. Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. He became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome. Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, he began a programme of governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. The era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. He is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section.Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
41. Jacobitism – The movement took its name from Jacobus, the original Latin form of James. Adherents rebelled on several occasions between 1688 and 1746. The strongholds of Jacobitism were parts of the Scottish Highlands and parts of Northern England. Significant support also existed in Wales and South-West England. The Jacobites believed that parliamentary interference with the line of succession to the English and Scottish thrones was illegal. Catholics also hoped the Stuarts would end recusancy. In Scotland, the Jacobite cause became intertwined with the last throes of the warlike system. The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade. White Rose Day is celebrated on June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. From the second half of the 17th century onwards, a time of religious turmoil existed in the kingdoms. The Commonwealth ended with the Restoration of Charles II. Episcopal church government was restored in Scotland. The authorities attempted some accommodation with Presbyterian dissidents, meeting with some limited success. This was particularly true of the followers of the Reverend Richard Cameron, soon to be known as the Cameronians. In part, however, the apologists of royal authority based their claims on a just assessment of the powers claimed by England and Scotland's medieval monarchs.Jacobitism – David Morier 's depiction of the Battle of Culloden in 1746
42. Konstantin Stanislavski – Konstantin Sergeievich Stanislavski was a seminal Russian theatre practitioner. Influence, however, rests on his ` system' of actor training, preparation, rehearsal technique. At the MAT's 30-year anniversary celebrations in 1928, a massive heart on-stage put an end to his acting career. He wrote that "actors should be banned from talking about themselves". Two English-language biographies have been published: David Magarshack's Stanislavsky: A Life and Jean Benedetti's Stanislavski: His Life and Art. He subjected his direction to a rigorous process of artistic self-analysis and reflection. His'system' of acting developed out of his persistent efforts to remove the blocks that he encountered in his performances, beginning with a major crisis in 1906. Stanislavski also introduced into the process a period of discussion and detailed analysis of the play by the cast. Despite the success that this approach brought, particularly with his Naturalistic stagings of the plays of Maxim Gorky, he remained dissatisfied. His focus shifted from his productions to rehearsal process and pedagogy. Stanislavski pioneered the use of theatre studios to experiment with new forms of theatre. The'system' cultivates what Stanislavski calls the "art of experiencing". In rehearsal, the actor searches for inner motives to justify the definition of what the character seeks to achieve at any given moment. Stanislavski's earliest reference to his ` system' appears in the same year that he first incorporated it into his rehearsal process. The MAT adopted it in 1911.Konstantin Stanislavski – Stanislavsky in 1936
43. History of Luxembourg – The history of Luxembourg consists of the history of the country of Luxembourg and its geographical area. Although its recorded history can be traced back to Roman times, the history of Luxembourg proper is considered to begin in 963. Its extinction put an end to the country's independence. After a brief period of Burgundian rule, the country passed in 1477. After the Eighty Years' War, Luxembourg became a part of the Southern Netherlands, which passed in 1713. After occupation by Revolutionary France, the 1815 Treaty of Paris transformed Luxembourg with the Netherlands. The treaty also resulted in the second partitioning of Luxembourg, a third in 1839. Although these treaties greatly reduced Luxembourg's territory, the latter established its formal independence, confirmed after the Luxembourg Crisis of 1867. In the following decades, Luxembourg fell further into Germany's sphere of influence, particularly after the creation of a separate house in 1890. It was occupied by Germany from 1914 until 1918 and again from 1940 until 1944. The oldest artefacts from this period are decorated bones found at Oetrange. However, the real evidence of civilisation is from the Neolithic or 5th millennium BC, from which evidence of houses has been found. Traces have been found at Grevenmacher, Diekirch, Aspelt and Weiler-la-Tour. The dwellings were made for the basic structure, mud-clad wickerwork walls, roofs of thatched reeds or straw. Pottery from this period has been found near Remerschen.History of Luxembourg – Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg city's fortifications