1. Hate crime – A hate crime is a prejudice-motivated crime, which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain social group. Examples of such groups can include and are almost exclusively limited to, sex, ethnicity, disability, language, nationality, physical appearance, religion, non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are often called bias incidents. Hate crime generally refers to acts which are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the types above. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, a hate crime law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence. Hate speech laws exist in many countries, the term hate crime came into common usage in the United States during the 1980s, but the term is often used retrospectively in order to describe events which occurred prior to that era. From the Roman persecution of Christians to the Nazi slaughter of Jews, during the past two centuries, typical examples of hate crimes in the U. S. The verb to lynch is attributed to the actions of Charles Lynch, originally the term referred to extrajudicial organized but unauthorized punishment of criminals. It later evolved to describe execution outside of ordinary justice and it is highly associated with white suppression of African Americans in the South, and periods of weak or nonexistent police authority, as in certain frontier areas of the Old West. The murders of Channon Christian and Christopher Newsom and the Wichita Massacre were not classified as crimes by U. S. investigative officials or the media. In the early 21st century, conservative commentators David Horowitz, Michelle Malkin and this is believed to be based on the history of African slavery in this country. One of the largest waves of hate crimes took place during the Civil Rights Movement, during the 1950s and 1960s, both violence and threats were common against African Americans, and hundreds of lives were taken due to such acts. Members of this social class faced violence from groups such as the Ku Klux Klan as well as violence from individuals who were committed to segregation. African Americans have been the target of hate crimes since the Civil War, other frequently reported bias motivations were bias against a religion, against a particular sexual orientation, and against an ethnicity/national origin. At times, these bias motivations overlap, as violence can be both anti-gay and anti-black, for example, analysts have compared groups in terms of the per capita rate of hate crimes committed against them, to allow for differing populations. Overall, the number of hate crimes committed since the first hate crime bill was passed in 1997 is 86,582. Among the groups mentioned in the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. During the Civil Rights Movement, some of the most notorious hate crimes included the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King Jr, such acts began to take place more frequently after the racial integration of many schools and public facilities. High-profile murders targeting victims based on their sexual orientation have prompted the passage of hate crimes legislation, notably the cases of Sean W. Kennedy, kennedys murder was mentioned by Senator Gordon Smith in a speech on the floor of the US Senate while he advocated such legislationHate crime – Postcard of the Duluth lynchings of African-American men on June 15, 1920
2. Polyamory – Polyamory is typically the practice of, or desire for, intimate relationships where individuals may have more than one partner, with the knowledge and consent of all partners. It has been described as consensual, ethical, and responsible non-monogamy, however, the meaning of polyamory is also an issue of ongoing debate. For example, although polyamory is typically defined as a practice or approach to relationships. As of July 2009, it was estimated more than 500,000 polyamorous relationships existed in the United States. People who identify as polyamorous typically reject the view that sexual and relational exclusivity are necessary for deep, committed and those who are open to, or emotionally suited for, polyamory may embark on a polyamorous relationship when single or already in a monogamous or open relationship. The word polyamorous came to prominence in an article by Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, A Bouquet of Lovers, published in May 1990 in Green Egg Magazine, where it appeared as poly-amorous. In May 1992, Jennifer L. Wesp created the Usenet newsgroup alt. polyamory, the words polyamory, -ous, and -ist were added to the OED in 2006. Polyamory is a specific term than polygamy, the practice or condition of having more than one spouse. No single definition of polyamory has universal acceptance, although many individuals would define polyamory as a relationship practice or form, some believe that it should be classified an orientation or identity. Most definitions of polyamory center on the concepts provided by Ravenhearts definition, areas of difference arise regarding the degree of commitment, such as in the practice of casual sexual activities, and whether it represents a viewpoint or a relational status quo. The practices of engaging in closed polyamorous relationships is sometimes called polyfidelity, the terms primary and secondary may be used to indicate a hierarchy of different relationships or the place of each relationship in a persons life. Thus, a person may refer to a partner as their primary partner. While such labels can be used as a tool to manage multiple relationships, some believe such a hierarchy is unfair, as all the involved partners deserve equal standing. Another model, sometimes referred to as a network, includes relationships that are of varying significance to the people involved. Within this model, a hierarchy may be fluid and vague, if non-monogamous relationships practice, ethics, honesty, transparency and mutual respect then they can also be considered polyamorous. Forms of non-monogamy and therefore potentially polyamory include, Polyfidelity, which involves multiple romantic relationships with sexual contact restricted to specific partners in the group. Solo Polyamory, in which one person, usually living alone, communicates ethically, to the people they date. Hierarchical Polyamory, which distinguish between primary and secondary relationships, in 1906 H. G. Wells presented a defense of this sort of polyamory in a utopian novel titled In the Days of the CometPolyamory – Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004
3. Homosexuality and religion – Present day doctrines of the worlds major religions vary vastly generally and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations. Religious fundamentalism has been found to correlate positively with anti-homosexual bias, many argue that it is homosexual actions which are sinful, rather than the state of being homosexual itself. To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation, several organizations exist that assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction. Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality, such mythologies, for example, Hinduism does not view homosexuality as a religious sin. In 2009, the Hindu Council UK released the statement Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality, the Sikh holy scriptures The Guru Granth Sahib, teaches tolerance, equality and acceptance of all people, regardless of race, religion, gender, or sexuality. Sikh wedding ceremonies are non-gender specific, and so same-sex marriage is possible within Sikhism, regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed, the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and teaching that such behavior is sinful. The Torah is the source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that, shall not lie with another man as with a woman, orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. Conservative Judaism has engaged in a study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa for communal consideration. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the basis as heterosexuality. Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful. Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God, as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovahs Witnesses and Mormons, Liberal Christians are supportive of homosexuals. Some Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad or evil, the United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions. The Episcopal Churchs recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England, in the United States and many other nations, the religious people are becoming more affirming of same-sex relationships. Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups, passages from the Mosaic Covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death. AIDS has also portrayed by some fundamentalist sects such as Fred Phelps. As such, it is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict Gods design are deemed sinful and are condemned by God, protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationshipsHomosexuality and religion – Conservative Christian protesters at a 2006 San Francisco Pride event
4. Conversion therapy – Conversion therapy is psychological treatment or spiritual counseling designed to change a persons sexual orientation from homosexual or bisexual to heterosexual. Such treatments are controversial, and are a form of pseudoscience, Medical, scientific, and government organizations in the United States and Britain have expressed concern over conversion therapy and consider it potentially harmful. United States Surgeon General David Satcher in 2001 issued a report stating there is no valid scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed. The main organization advocating secular forms of therapy is the National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality. Administered simultaneously with the presentation of homoerotic stimuli, and masturbatory reconditioning, by the 1920s analysts assumed that homosexuality was pathological and that attempts to treat it were appropriate, although psychoanalytic opinion about changing homosexuality was largely pessimistic. Those forms of homosexuality that were considered perversions were usually held to be uncurable, analysts tolerant statements about homosexuality arose from recognition of the difficulty of achieving change. Sigmund Freud was a physician and the founder of psychoanalysis, steinach’s method was doomed to failure because the immune system rejects transplanted glands, and was eventually exposed as ineffective and often harmful. Her father wanted this condition changed, in Freud‘s view, the prognosis was unfavourable because of the circumstances under which she entered therapy, and because homosexuality was not an illness or neurotic conflict. Success meant making heterosexual feeling possible, not eliminating homosexual feelings, Gay people could seldom be convinced that heterosexual sex would provide them with the same pleasure they derived from homosexual sex. Patients often wanted to become heterosexual for reasons Freud considered superficial, including fear of social disapproval, in 1935, a mother asked Freud to treat her son. Freud replied in a letter that became famous, I gather from your letter that your son is a homosexual. By asking me if I can help, you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality, the answer is, in a general way we cannot promise to achieve it. In a certain number of cases we succeed in developing the blighted germs of heterosexual tendencies and it is a question of the quality and the age of the individual. The result of treatment cannot be predicted, sándor Ferenczi was an influential psychoanalyst. In his view, a gay man who was confused about his sexual identity, Ferenczi believed that complete cures of homosexuality might become possible in the future when psychoanalytic technique had been improved. Melanie Klein was a pupil of Ferenczi, in 1949 she published Some Clinical Remarks Concerning the Treatment of Cases of Male Homosexuality in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis. The patient should be told that his choice of a partner allows him to enjoy a passive or receptive mode. Anna Freud in 1951 published Clinical Observations on the Treatment of Male Homosexuality in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, in these articles, she insisted on the attainment of full object-love of the opposite sex as a requirement for cure of homosexualityConversion therapy – Freud (1856–1939) was skeptical of the possibility of therapeutic conversion.
5. Stonewall riots – They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced a legal system. Early homophile groups in the U. S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society and these influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Very few establishments welcomed openly gay people in the 1950s and 1960s and those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia, Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. They attracted a crowd that was incited to riot, tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. After the Stonewall riots, gays and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians. Within a few years, gay organizations were founded across the U. S. On June 28,1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. The Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016, anarchists, communists, and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U. S. State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail, in 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Between 1947 and 1950,1,700 federal job applications were denied,4,380 people were discharged from the military, and 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and police departments kept lists of homosexuals, their favored establishments, and friends. Post Office kept track of addresses where material pertaining to homosexuality was mailed, State and local governments followed suit, bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, and their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed sweeps to rid neighborhoods, parks, bars, and they outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, and universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. Thousands of gay men and women were publicly humiliated, physically harassed, fired, jailed, many lived double lives, keeping their private lives secret from their professional ones. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic, a large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationshipsStonewall riots – The Stonewall Inn, taken September 1969. The sign in the window reads: "We homosexuals plead with our people to please help maintain peaceful and quiet conduct on the streets of the Village— Mattachine."
6. Mattachine Society – The Mattachine Society, founded in 1950, was one of the earliest homophile organizations in the United States, probably second only to Chicagos Society for Human Rights. Harry Hay and a group of Los Angeles male friends formed the group to protect, because of concerns for secrecy and the founders left-wing ideology, they adopted the cell organization being used by the Communist Party of the United States. Then, as formed in other cities, the Society splintered into regional groups by 1961. In 2002 Mattachine Midwest was inducted into the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame, a new Mattachine Society of Washington, D. C. was formed in 2011 and is dedicated to original archival research of LGBT political history. Harry Hay conceived of the idea of a gay activist group in 1948, encouraged by the response he received, Hay wrote the organizing principles that night, a document he referred to as The Call. However, the men who had been interested at the party were less than enthusiastic the following morning and he planned to call this organization Bachelors Anonymous and envisioned it serving a similar function and purpose as Alcoholics Anonymous. Hay met Rudi Gernreich in July 1950, the two became partners, and Hay showed Gernreich The Call. Gernreich, declaring the document the most dangerous thing ever read, became a financial supporter of the venture. James Gruber and Konrad Stevens joined the Society in April 1951, as the organization grew, the levels were expected to subdivide into new cells, creating both the potential for horizontal and vertical growth. The founding members constituted the so-called Fifth Order and from the outset remained anonymous, Mattachines membership grew slowly at first but received a major boost in February 1952 when founder Jennings was arrested in a Los Angeles park and charged with lewd behavior. Often, men in Jennings situation would simply plead guilty to the charge, Jennings and the rest of the Fifth Order saw the charges as a means to address the issue of police entrapment of homosexual men. The group began publicizing the case and the publicity it generated brought in financial support, Jennings admitted during his trial to being a homosexual but insisted he was not guilty of the specific charge. The jury deadlocked and Mattachine declared victory, in a 1976 interview with Jonathan Ned Katz, Hay was asked the origin of the name Mattachine. He mentioned the medieval-Renaissance French Sociétés Joyeuses, One masque group was known as the Société Mattachine, sometimes these dance rituals, or masques, were peasant protests against oppression—with the maskers, in the people’s name, receiving the brunt of a given lord’s vicious retaliation. This French group was named in turn after Mattaccino, a character in Italian theater, Mattaccino was a kind of court jester, who would speak the truth to the king when nobody else would. The mattachin were originally Moorish sword-dancers who wore elaborate, colorful costumes, the Mattachine Society used so-called harlequin diamonds as their emblem. The design consisted of four arranged in a pattern to form a larger diamond. Most of the Mattachine founders were communists, as the Red Scare progressed, the association with communism concerned some members as well as supporters and Hay, a dedicated member of the CPUSA for 15 years, stepped down as the Societys leaderMattachine Society – The May 1959 issue of the Mattachine Review, an American homophile magazine
7. Gay village – A gay village is a geographical area with generally recognized boundaries, inhabited or frequented by a large number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Gay villages often contain a number of gay-oriented establishments, such as gay bars and pubs, nightclubs, bathhouses, restaurants, such areas may represent a LGBTQ-friendly oasis in an otherwise hostile city, or may simply have a high concentration of gay residents and businesses. However, todays manifestations of queer ghettos bear little resemblance to those of the 1970s, the term ghetto originally referred to those places in European cities where Jews were required to live according to local law. These areas, however, have higher concentrations of LGBT residents, some cities like Austin, Texas did not develop a defined gay village despite the city of Austin being home to many LGBT people with developed LGBT-friendly businesses and a counterculture present. The neighbourhood of Schöneberg in Berlin, close to Nollendorfplatz, is the first gay village in the world, from the 1920s. In New York, for example, the congregation of gay men had not been illegal since 1965, however, the Stonewall Rebellion managed to change not only the profile of the gay community but the dynamic within the community itself. This transition from the bars to the streets, from nightlife to daytime, national Monument dedicated to the LGBTQ-rights movement. Gay villages can vary widely from city to city and country to country, furthermore, some large cities also develop satellite gay villages that are essentially overflow areas. The professors also noted that the presence of gay men in the real estate industry of San Francisco was a major factor facilitating the urban renaissance of the city in the 1970s. However, the gentrification of gay villages may serve to reinforce stereotypes of gays, by pushing out gay people who do not conform to the prevailing gay, white, affluent. Such people are forced out of the village due to rising rents or constant harassment at the hands of an increased policing presence. Especially in San Franciscos Polk Gulch neighborhood, gentrification seems to have had this result, Gay men and women have a reputation for driving the revitalization of previously run-down enclaves. Making these neighborhoods more desirable places to live, businesses and other classes of people move to the area and, accordingly, Richard Florida, an influential American academic, claims that their mere presence lures investors and jobs, particularly of the high-technology kind. They are, he says, the canaries of the creative economy, Cities that have gay villages and are more tolerant towards gays, generally tend to have stronger, more robust, and creative economies, as compared to cities that are less tolerant towards gays. Florida says that cities as such have a creative class. The gentrification of once rundown inner-city areas, coupled with the staging of pride parades in these areas, has resulted in the visibility of gay communities. The growing recognition of the value of the gay community is not only associated with their wealth but also with the role that lesbians. Provincetown, MA was ranked by the US Census Bureau as the gayest city in America, also Provincetown, or Ptown, was voted Best Resort Town in 2011 by Gaycities. comGay village – Gay village in Le Marais, Paris
8. Civil union – A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage. These unions have been established in a number of countries since the late 1990s, in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, they have since been replaced, and in a number of other countries supplemented, by same-sex marriage. Civil unions are often seen by campaigners as a first step towards legalizing marriage for same-sex couples, while civil unions are predominantly established for both opposite-sex and same-sex couples, in a number of countries they are available to same-sex couples only. In Brazil, civil unions were first created for opposite-sex couples in 2002, same-sex marriages performed abroad are commonly recognised as civil unions in jurisdictions that only have the latter. The terms used to designate civil unions are not standardized, the exact level of rights, benefits, obligations, and responsibilities also varies, depending on the laws of a particular country. Some jurisdictions allow same-sex couples to adopt, while others forbid them to do so, Civil unions are not seen as a replacement for marriage by many in the LGBT community. Marriage in the United States is a union, but a civil union, as it has come to be called, is not marriage. It is a proposed hypothetical legal mechanism, since it doesnt exist in most places, to some of the protections. Theres no good reason to do that, the California Supreme Court, in the In Re Marriage Cases decision, noted nine differences in state law. Civil unions are commonly criticised as being separate but equal, critics say they segregate same-sex couples by forcing them to use a separate institution. A New Jersey commission which reviewed the civil union law reported that the law invites and encourages unequal treatment of same-sex couples. Some have suggested that creating civil unions which are open to opposite-sex couples would avoid the accusations of apartheid and these have still been criticised as being separate but equal by former New Zealand MP and feminist Marilyn Waring as same-sex couples remain excluded from the right to marry. Many supporters of same-sex marriage state that the word marriage matters, former US Solicitor General and attorney in the Perry v. Many also contend that the fact that civil unions are not understood can cause difficulty for same-sex couples in emergency situations. Countries, territories and cities which introduced civil unions for same-sex and/or opposite-sex couples, the City of Villa Carlos Paz allowed it from 2007. And since 2009 the city of Río Cuarto allows Civil Unions too, all levels of Australian Governments under nearly all Australian statutes do recognise same-sex couples as de facto couples as unregistered co-habitation or de facto status since 2009. From 1 July 2009 Centrelink recognised same-sex couples equally regarding social security – under the common-law marriage, Cohabitation grants 112 benefits as family entities in Brazil since 2002. It is known as união estável when both parts are legally authorized to marry, and as concubinato when at least one part is legally prohibited from doing soCivil union – The notion of civil unions is rejected by some, such as this protester at a large demonstration in New York City against California Proposition 8.
9. Matthew Shepard – Matthew Wayne Matt Shepard was an American student at the University of Wyoming who was beaten, tortured, and left to die near Laramie on the night of October 6,1998. Six days later, he died from head injuries at Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins. Perpetrators Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson were arrested shortly after the attack, significant media coverage was given to the killing and what role Shepards sexual orientation might have played as a motive in the perpetration of the crime. The prosecutor argued that McKinneys murder of Shepard was premeditated and driven by greed, McKinneys defense counsel countered that he had only intended to rob Shepard, but had killed him in a rage when Shepard made a sexual advance towards him. McKinneys girlfriend told police that he had been motivated by anti-gay sentiment, both McKinney and Henderson were convicted of the murder and each sentenced to two consecutive life sentences. Shepards murder brought national and international attention to hate crime legislation at the state and federal levels. In October 2009, the United States Congress passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, following her sons murder, Judy Shepard became a prominent LGBT rights activist and established the Matthew Shepard Foundation. Shepards death inspired notable films, novels, plays, songs, Shepard was born in 1976 in Casper, Wyoming, the first of two sons born to Judy and Dennis Shepard. His younger brother, Logan, was born in 1981, the two siblings had a close relationship. Matthew attended Crest Hill Elementary School, Dean Morgan Junior High School, as a child, he was friendly with all his classmates, but targeted for teasing due to his small stature and lack of athleticism. He developed an early interest in politics, Saudi Aramco hired his father in the summer of 1994, and Shepards parents subsequently resided at the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran. During that time, Shepard attended the American School in Switzerland, there, he participated in theater and took German and Italian courses. He then attended Catawba College in North Carolina and Casper College in Wyoming, before settling in Denver and he was described by his father as an optimistic and accepting young man who had a special gift of relating to almost everyone. He was the type of person who was very approachable and always looked to new challenges, Matthew had a great passion for equality and always stood up for the acceptance of peoples differences. Michele Josue, who had been Shepards friend and later created a documentary about him, Matt Shepard is A Friend of Mine, described him as a tenderhearted, in February 1995, Shepard was beaten and raped during a high school trip to Morocco. This caused him to depression and panic attacks, according to his mother. One of Shepards friends feared that his depression had driven him to become involved with drugs during his time in college, multiple times, Shepard was hospitalized due to his clinical depression and suicidal ideation. On the night of October 6,1998, Shepard met Aaron McKinney, McKinney and Henderson decided to give Shepard a ride homeMatthew Shepard – Matthew Shepard
10. Gay bashing – A bashing may be a specific incident, and one could also use the verb to bash. A verbal gay bashing might use sexual slurs, expletives, intimidation and it also might take place in a political forum and include one or more common anti-gay slogans. Similar terms such as bullying, queer bullying, and queer bashing may also be formed. Gay bashing has occurred worldwide for many decades and continues today, as historian David K. Johnson explains, The Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the Red Scare. In popular discourse, communists and homosexuals were often conflated, both groups were perceived as hidden subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed, and both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government, using rumors collected by Drew Pearson, one Nevada publisher wrote in 1952 that both McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, were homosexuals. Bradlee said, There was a lot of time spent investigating these allegations, No reputable McCarthy biographer has accepted it as probable. Egale Canada conducted a survey of more than 3700 high school students in Canada between December 2007 and June 2009, 58% or about 1400 of the 2400 heterosexual students participating in EGALEs survey found homophobic comments upsetting. Further, EGALE found that students not directly affected by homophobia, biphobia or transphobia were less aware of it, EGALE, along with previous research has found teachers and school administration may be complicit in queer bullying through their silence and/or inaction. Graffiti found on school grounds and property, and its relative permanence, is another form of queer bullying, some researchers suggest including youth questioning their sexuality in any research on queer bullying because they may be as susceptible to its effects as queer students. Building on the notion of masculinity defining itself by what it is not and these intertwining issues were examined in 2007, when American sociologist CJ Pascoe described what she calls the fag discourse at an American high school in her book, Dude, Youre a Fag. Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying, in one study, boys who were bullied with taunts of being gay suffered more bullying and more negative effects compared with boys who were bullied with other categories of taunting. Queer bullying may make some victims feel sad and unsafe in the world, Bullying will affect a students experience of school. Some victims might feel paralyzed and withdraw socially as a coping mechanism, other victims of queer bullying may begin to live the effects of learned helplessness. Queer or questioning students may try to pass as heterosexual in order to avoid queer bullying, passing isolates the student from other queer or questioning students, potential allies, and support. Adults who try to pass also may feel the effects emotionally and psychologically, queer and questioning youth who experience bullying have a higher incidence of substance abuse and STI and HIV infection, which may carry through to adulthood. Teens face harassment, threats, and violence, a 1998 study in the US by Mental Health America found that students heard anti-gay slurs such as homo, faggot and sissy about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutesGay bashing – LGBT history
11. Harvey Milk – Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 amid a migration of gay men to the Castro District and he took advantage of the growing political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and three times ran unsuccessfully for political office. His theatrical campaigns earned him increasing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, his election made possible by, and a key component of, a shift in San Francisco politics. Milk served almost 11 months in office and was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city, despite his short career in politics, Milk became an icon in San Francisco and a martyr in the gay community. In 2002, Milk was called the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States, anne Kronenberg, his final campaign manager, wrote of him, What set Harvey apart from you or me was that he was a visionary. He imagined a world inside his head and then he set about to create it for real. Milk was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009, Milk was born in Woodmere, New York, to William Milk and Minerva Karns. He was the son of Lithuanian Jewish parents and the grandson of Morris Milk. As a child, Harvey was teased for his ears, big nose, and oversized feet. He played football in school, and developed a passion for opera, in his teens, he acknowledged his homosexuality to himself, under his name in the high school yearbook, it read, Glimpy Milk—and they say WOMEN are never at a loss for words. Milk graduated from Bay Shore High School in Bay Shore, New York, in 1947 and attended New York State College for Teachers in Albany from 1947 to 1951 and he also wrote for the college newspaper. One classmate remembered, He was never thought of as a possible queer—thats what you called them then—he was a mans man, after graduation, Milk joined the United States Navy during the Korean War. He served aboard the rescue ship USS Kittiwake as a diving officer. He later transferred to Naval Station, San Diego to serve as a diving instructor, in 1955, he was discharged from the Navy at the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. Milks early career was marked by frequent changes, in years he would take delight in talking about his metamorphosis from a middle-class Jewish boy. He began teaching at George W. Hewlett High School on Long Island, in 1956, he met Joe Campbell, at the Jacob Riis Park beach, a popular location for gay men in Queens. Campbell was seven years younger than Milk, and Milk pursued him passionately, Even after they moved in together, Milk wrote Campbell romantic notes and poems. Campbell and Milk separated after almost six years, it would be his longest relationship, Milk tried to keep his early romantic life separate from his family and workHarvey Milk – Milk in 1978
12. Domestic partnership – A domestic partnership is an interpersonal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are not married. The term is not used consistently, which results in some inter-jurisdictional confusion, some legislatures have voluntarily established domestic partnership relations by statute instead of being ordered to do so by a court. In August 1979, gay rights activist Tom Brougham proposed a new category of relationship called domestic partnership, initially, the requirements were that only two people who resided together and were qualified to marry except that they were the same gender. Additional requirements were added for the partners to maintain mutual financial responsibility. In 1982, Broughams definition was modified by Supervisor Harry Britt, in 1989, a domestic partnership law was adopted in San Francisco. However, voters repealed the domestic law by initiative, a modified version was reinstated by another voter initiative, 1990s Proposition K. Currently, the city offers a domestic partnership status separate and differing in benefits from that offered by the state. According to the San Francisco Human Rights Commission, In 1982, mr. Brinkin, then an employee of Southern Pacific Railway, had recently suffered the loss of his partner of eleven years. When he was denied the three days of paid bereavement leave given to married employees, he filed suit with the assistance of the ACLU. Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary, the judge agreed with his employers claim that there was no way to know if his relationship was legitimate. In 1983, the City Council of Berkeley, California, under the leadership of Mayor Gus Newport, ordered their Human Relations, the Commission appointed its Vice-Chair, Leland Traiman, a gay activist, to head the Domestic Partner Task Force and draft a policy. A policy was adopted by the Commission and presented to the City Council, a copy was sent to the Berkeley School Board. In July 1984 the City Council voted down the proposal citing financial concerns, on August 1,1984, the Berkeley School Board enacted the policy by a 4 to 1 vote. The school board motion was made by board member and community activist Ethel Manheimer, in November 1984, all the city council members up for election who had voted against the policy lost reelection. Progressives from the Berkeley Citizens Action slate who replaced them had voiced support for a domestic partner policy. The East Bay Lesbian/Gay Democratic Club had worked hard to elect the BCA Slate and this was the first time domestic partners was a campaign issue. At the first meeting of the new City Council in December 1984, the first couple to file for benefits under Berkeleys sex-neutral policy were Brougham and his partner Barry Warren. However, the City Council did not create a registry for domestic partners until 1991, on October 11 of that year,28 lesbian and gay male couples and one heterosexual couple registered their partnershipsDomestic partnership – LGBT history
13. Biphobia – Biphobia is aversion toward bisexuality and toward bisexual people as a social group or as individuals. It can take the form of denial that bisexuality is a sexual orientation. People of any orientation can experience or perpetuate biphobia. Biphobia is a portmanteau word patterned on the term homophobia and it derives from the English neo-classical prefix bi- from bisexual and the root -phobia found in homophobia. Along with transphobia and homophobia, it is one of a family of terms used to describe intolerance, the adjectival form biphobic describes things or qualities related to biphobia, and the less-common noun biphobe is a label for people thought to harbor biphobia. Biphobia need not be a phobia as defined in clinical psychology and its meaning and use typically parallel those of xenophobia. Biphobia can deny that bisexuality is real, asserting that people who identify as bisexual are not genuinely bisexual, one form of this denial is based on the heterosexist view that heterosexuality is the only true or natural sexual orientation. Thus anything that deviates from that is either a psychological pathology or an example of anti-social behavior. In these instances, homophobia and biphobia are largely the same, another form of denial stems from binary views of sexuality, that people are assumed monosexual, i. e. exclusively homosexual or heterosexual. In that model, bisexuals are presumed to be either closeted lesbian/gay people wishing to appear heterosexual, maxims such as people are either gay, straight, or lying embody this dichotomous view of sexual orientation. Some people accept the existence of bisexuality but define it narrowly. Thus the many individuals with unequal attractions are instead categorized as either homosexual or heterosexual. Others acknowledge the existence of bisexuality in women, but deny that men can be bisexual, some denial asserts that bisexual behavior or identity is merely a social trend – as exemplified by bisexual chic or gender bending – and not an intrinsic personality trait. Same-gender sexual activity is dismissed as merely a substitute for sex with members of the opposite sex, situational homosexuality in sex-segregated environments is presented as an example of this behavior. This leaves some that identify as bisexual to be perceived as not enough of either or not real, many stereotypes about people who identify as bisexual stem from denial or bisexual erasure. Because their orientation is not recognized as valid, they are stereotyped as confused, indecisive, insecure, experimenting and this presumed behavior is further generalized as dishonesty, secrecy, and deception. Bisexuals can be characterized as being slutty, easy, indiscriminate, furthermore, they are strongly associated with polyamory, swinging, and polygamy, the last being an established heterosexual tradition sanctioned by some religions and legal in several countries. This is despite the fact that people are as capable of monogamy or serial monogamy as homosexuals or heterosexualsBiphobia – LGBT history