1. Marco Polo – He learned the mercantile trade from Niccolò and Maffeo, who met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. He was released in 1299, had three children. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice. Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired other travellers. There is a substantial literature based on Polo's writings; he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic. His exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that date is not endorsed by scholarship. Marco Polo's birthplace also varies between the island of Korčula. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is as historical sources considered them to be of Dalmatian origin. The first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo, mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were also mentioned in the service of the realm. Whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia.Marco Polo – Polo wearing a Tatar outfit, date of print unknown
2. Adventure – An adventure is an exciting or unusual experience. It may also be a bold, usually risky undertaking, with an uncertain outcome. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger such as traveling, participating in extreme sports. Adventurous experiences create psychological arousal, which can be detrimental as stated by the Yerkes-Dodson law. For some people, adventure becomes a major pursuit of itself. According to adventurer André Malraux, in his La Condition Humaine, "If a man is not ready to risk his life, where is his dignity?". Similarly, Helen Keller stated that "Life is either a daring nothing." Outdoor activities are typically undertaken for the purposes of recreation or excitement: examples are adventure racing and adventure tourism. Education intentionally uses challenging experiences for learning. Some of the most widespread stories in the world are stories of adventure such as Homer's The Odyssey. Mythologist Joseph Campbell discussed his notion of the monomyth in The Hero with a Thousand Faces. The errant was the form the "adventure seeker" character took in the late Middle Ages. The novel exhibits these "protagonist on adventurous journey" characteristics as do many popular feature films, such as Star Wars and Raiders of the Lost Ark.. List of genres Exploration Tourism Travel Sports Adventure travel What is an adventure? A definition of "adventure", "hero" and "epic" with an illustration of the hero's journey.Adventure – Fridtjof Nansen won international fame after reaching a record latitude of 86°14′ during his North Pole expedition of 1893–96.
3. Abel Tasman – He was the first European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand, to sight the Fiji islands. Abel Jans Tasman was born in 1603 in the north of the Netherlands. In 1633 he sailed to Batavia in the service of the Dutch East India Company taking the southern Brouwer Route. Tasman took part to Seram Island; the locals had sold spices to others than the Dutch. He had a narrow escape from death, when in an incautious landing several of his companions were killed by people of Seram. The purchase was cancelled. In 1639 he was second-in-command of an expedition in the north Pacific under Matthijs Quast. The fleet reached Fort Zeelandia and Deshima. This expedition used two small ships, the Zeehaen. According to Marco Polo, Locach was a kingdom where gold was “so plentiful that no one who did not see it could believe it”. Beach was in fact a mistranscription of Locach. Locach was Marco Polo's name for the southern Thai kingdom of Lavo, or the "city of Lavo". In Chinese, Lavo was pronounced “Lo-huk”, from which Marco Polo took his rendition of the name. Book III of Marco Polo's Il Milione described his journey by sea from China by way of Champa, Java, Locach and Sumatra. After a chapter describing the kingdom of Champa there follows a chapter describing Java.Abel Tasman – Fragment of "Portrait of Abel Tasman, his wife and daughter" attributed to Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, 1637 (not fully authenticated)
4. Amerigo Vespucci – Amerigo Vespucci was born and raised in Florence on the Italian Peninsula. He was the third son of Lisabetta Mini. Amerigo Vespucci was educated by a Dominican friar of the monastery of San Marco in Florence. Vespucci acquired the favor and protection of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici who became the head of the business after the elder Lorenzo's death in 1492. Just around this time, Vespucci was engaged as the executor of Giannotto Berardi, an Italian merchant who had recently died in Seville. Vespucci organized the fulfillment of Berardi's outstanding contract with the Castilian crown to provide twelve vessels for the Indies. On the first of these voyages he was aboard the ship that discovered that South America extended much further south than previously thought. The expeditions became widely known in Europe after two accounts attributed to Vespucci were published between 1502 and 1504. In an accompanying book, Waldseemüller published one of the Vespucci accounts, which led to criticism that Vespucci was trying to upset Christopher Columbus' glory. In 1508, the position of chief of navigation of Spain was created for Vespucci, with the responsibility of planning navigation for voyages to the Indies. Two letters attributed to Vespucci were published during his lifetime. Mundus Novus was a Latin translation of a lost Italian letter sent from Lisbon to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. It describes a voyage to South America in 1501–1502. Mundus Novus was published in early 1503 and soon distributed in numerous European countries. Printed in 1505, it claimed to be an account of four voyages to the Americas made by Vespucci between 1504.Amerigo Vespucci – Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence.
5. Aeronautics – The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of "aeronautical Art, Science and Engineering" and "the profession of Aeronautics." Wiser investigators sought to gain some rational understanding through the study of flight. An early example appears in Egyptian texts. Later Islamic scientists also made such studies. Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance and Cayley in 1799, both began their investigations with studies of bird flight. Man-carrying kites are believed to have been used extensively in ancient China. In 1282 the European explorer Marco Polo described the Chinese techniques then current. The Chinese also constructed rotary-wing toys. The medium for his balloon would be an "aether" whose composition he did not know. Although his designs were rational, they were not based on particularly good science. Many such as a four-person screw-type helicopter, have severe flaws. He did at least understand that "An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object." Da Vinci's work did not reappear until it had been overtaken by the work of George Cayley. The modern era of lighter-than-air flight began early in the 17th century with Galileo's experiments in which he showed that air has weight. These would be able to lift an airship.Aeronautics – Space Shuttle Atlantis on a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.
6. Brass – It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same structure. By comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of tin. However, brass may also include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, silicon. The distinction is largely historical. Modern practice in museums and archaeology increasingly avoids both terms for historical objects in favour of the all-embracing "alloy". It is also used in zippers. Brass has higher malleability than zinc. The relatively low point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses. The density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 g/cm³. Almost 90 % of all brass alloys are recycled. Because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are extruded into the desired form and size. The general softness of brass means that it can often be machined without the use of cutting fluid, though there are exceptions to this.Brass – Brass die, along with zinc and copper samples.
7. Boron – Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Boron is concentrated by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as kernite. The largest known boron deposits are in the largest producer of boron minerals. Elemental boron is a metalloid, found in small amounts in meteoroids but chemically uncombined boron is not otherwise found naturally on Earth. Industrially, very pure boron is produced by carbon or other elements. The primary use of elemental boron is as boron filaments with applications similar to carbon fibers in some high-strength materials. Boron is primarily used in chemical compounds. About half of all consumption globally, boron is used as an additive in glass fibers of boron-containing fiberglass for insulation and structural materials. The next leading use is in high-strength lightweight structural and refractory materials. Borosilicate glass is desired for thermal shock resistance than ordinary soda lime glass. Boron compounds are used in sodium perborate bleaches. A small amount of boron is used as reagent intermediates in the synthesis of organic fine chemicals. A few organic pharmaceuticals are used or are in study. Natural boron is composed of two stable isotopes, one of which has a number of uses as a neutron-capturing agent.Boron – β-rhombohedral boron (most thermodynamically stable allotrope)
8. Christopher Columbus – Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of trade routes and colonies. These voyages had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion. Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish, it is Cristóbal Colón. He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood.Christopher Columbus – Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.
9. History of China – Written records of the history of China can be found from as early as 1500 BC under the Shang dynasty. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization. Much of Chinese culture, philosophy further developed during the Zhou dynasty. This is one of multiple periods of failed statehood in the most recent being the Chinese Civil War that started in 1927. Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, administrative tasks were handled by a special elite, the Scholar-officials. Young men were well-versed in calligraphy and philosophy. What is now China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than a million years ago. Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to million years ago. The archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province is the earliest recorded use by Homo erectus, dated 1.27 million years ago. The excavations at later Lantian show early habitation. Perhaps the most famous specimen of Homo erectus found in China is the so-called Peking Man discovered in 1923–27. Fossilised teeth of Homo sapiens dating to 125,000–80,000 BC have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County in Hunan. The Neolithic age in China can be traced back to about 10,000 BC. Early evidence for proto-Chinese agriculture is radiocarbon-dated to about 7000 BC.History of China – History of China
10. Coal – Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen. This involves geological processes that take place over time. The extraction of coal, its byproducts are all associated with environmental and health effects including climate change. Coal is extracted by coal mining. Since 1983, the world's top producer has been China. In 2011 China produced million tonnes of coal -- 49.5 % of 7,695 million tonnes world coal production. In 2011 large producers were United States, India, European Union and Australia. In Old Turkic languages, kül is "cinders", öčür is "quench". The compound "charcoal" in Turkic is kül, literally "quenched ashes, cinders, coals" with elided anlaut ö - and inflection affixes - ülmüş. The word took in the thirteenth century. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed.Coal – Anthracite coal
11. Yangtze – The Yangtze River, known in China as the Cháng Jiāng or the Yángzǐ Jiāng, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It drains one-fifth of the land area of the People's Republic of China and its river basin is home to one-third of the country's population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world. The Yangtze River plays a large role in the history, culture and economy of China. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRC's GDP. For thousands of years, the river has been used for water, irrigation, war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, agricultural run-off, siltation, loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding. Some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves. Because the source of the Yangtze was not ascertained until modern times, the Chinese have given different names to lower and upstream sections of the river. "Yangtze" was actually the name of Chang Jiang for the lower part from Nanjing to the river mouth at Shanghai. In modern Chinese, Yangtze is still used to refer to the lower part of Chang Jiang from Nanjing to the river mouth. Yangtze never stands for the whole Chang Jiang. Chang Jiang literally means the "Long River."Yangtze – Dusk on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (Three Gorges)
12. Persian language – Some other regions which historically were Persianate societies. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis, modern-day Fars Province, hence the name Persian. A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone. There are approximately million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan. It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic, while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Muslim conquest of Persia. Persian is one of the Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. Other Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Talysh, Balochi. Persian is classified within Western Iranian along with Lari, Kumzari, Luri. Tajiki is the variety of Persian spoken by the Tajiks. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century. Native Persian speakers call it Fārsi. Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Muslim conquest of Persia, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic. The place of origin of the language, Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs. In English, this language has historically been known as "Persian", though "Farsi" has also gained some currency.Persian language – Old Persian
13. History of Islam – The history of Islam concerns the political, economic, social, cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated at the start of the 7th century. A century later, the Islamic empire extended from Iberia in the west in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. The Islamic civilization produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. During the 19th and 20th centuries most parts of the Muslim world fell under influence or direct control of European Great Powers. Their efforts to build modern nation states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day. The following timeline can serve as a visual guide to the most important polities in the Islamic world prior to the First World War. It covers major historical centers including Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Levant, Egypt, Maghreb, al-Andalus, Transoxania, Hindustan, Anatolia. Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details. The study of the earliest periods in Islamic history is made difficult by a lack of sources. For example, the most important historiographical source for the origins of Islam is the work of al-Tabari. While al-Tabari was an excellent historian by the standards of his place, use of his work as a source is problematic for two reasons. For one, his style of historical writing nonetheless permitted liberal use of polemical presentations of its subject matter. Second, al-Tabari's descriptions of the beginning of Islam post-date the events by a large amount of time, al-Tabari having died in 923 CE.History of Islam – The Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan), founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670 AD, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Muslim West; its present form dates from the 9th century, Kairouan, Tunisia.
14. History of science – The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. Historiography in contrast, studies the methods by which historians study the history of science. The English scientist is relatively recent -- first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Previously, people investigating nature called themselves "natural philosophers". Traditionally, historians of science have defined science broadly to include those earlier inquiries. In prehistoric times, knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. For example, the domestication of maize for agriculture has been dated before the development of writing systems. Similarly, archaeological evidence indicates the development of astronomical knowledge in preliterate societies. The development of writing enabled knowledge to be communicated across generations with much greater fidelity. Ancient civilizations collected astronomical information in a systematic manner through simple observation. Though they had no knowledge of the physical structure of the planets and stars, many theoretical explanations were proposed. Alchemy was practiced in several civilizations. Considerable observation of macroscopic fauna was also performed. Ancient Egypt made significant advances in astronomy, medicine. Their development of geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the ownership of farmland, flooded annually by the Nile river.History of science
15. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
16. Indigo – Although traditionally considered one of seven spectral colors, sources differ as to its actual position in the electromagnetic spectrum. Indigo is a bright color close to the color wheel blue, as well as to some variants of ultramarine. The indigo is named after the indigo dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The first recorded use of indigo as a color name in English was in 1289. Species of Indigofera were cultivated in antiquity. The earliest direct evidence for the use of indigo comes from Huaca Prieta, in contemporary Peru. Pliny mentions India as the source of the dye, imported in small quantities via the Silk Road. The Greek term for the dye was Ἰνδικὸν φάρμακον, which, adopted via Portuguese gave rise to the modern word indigo. El Salvador has lately been the biggest producer of indigo. By 1289, knowledge of the dye made its way to Europe -- when the Venetian traveler Marco Polo reported on it. But it wasn’t until 1640 when demand started to pick up for indigo. Spanish explorers began to cultivate the product in Guatemala. The English and French subsequently began to encourage cultivation in their colonies in the West Indies. Indigo dye could be made from the woad plant. The British were producing indigo with a plant that yielded a lesser quality dye, but a plant they could grow.Indigo – A piece of indigo plant dye from India, about 2.5 inches (6 cm) square
17. Western imperialism in Asia – Western imperialism in Asia as presented in this article pertains to Western European entry into what was first called the East Indies. By the 16th century the Age of Sail greatly expanded Western European influence and development of the Spice Trade under colonialism. The empires introduced Western concepts of the multinational state. This article attempts to outline the consequent development of the Western concept of the state. With the ensuing rise of the rival Dutch East India Company, Portuguese influence in Asia was gradually eclipsed. None of the colonial powers, however, possessed the resources to maintain their direct rule in Asia. European exploration of Asia started in ancient Roman times. Knowledge of lands as distant as China were held by the Romans. Trade with India through the Roman Egyptian Red Sea ports was significant in the first centuries of the Common Era. In the 14th centuries, a number of Europeans, many of them Christian missionaries, had sought to penetrate into China. The most famous of these travelers was Marco Polo. Meanwhile, the Turks consolidated control over the eastern Mediterranean, closing off overland trade routes. Thus, until the 15th century, cultural exchanges between Europe and Asia continued at certain terminals controlled by Muslim traders. European rulers determined to find new trade routes of their own. The Portuguese spearheaded the drive to find oceanic routes that would provide easier access to South and East Asian goods.Western imperialism in Asia – Illustration of Marco Polo 's arrival in a Chinese city
18. Infanticide – Infanticide is the intentional killing of infants or children. In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible. In some countries, female infanticide is more common than the killing of male offspring, due to sex-selective infanticide. In English infanticide is established by the Infanticide Acts. The practice of infanticide has taken many forms over time. Rather than being an exception, then, it has been the rule." A frequent method of infanticide in ancient Europe and Asia was simply to abandon the infant, leaving it to die by exposure. Many Neolithic groups routinely resorted to infanticide in order to control their numbers so that their lands could support them. Both anthropologists believed that these high rates of infanticide persisted until the development of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution. Comparative anthropologists have calculated that 50 % of newborn babies were killed during the Paleolithic era. Decapitated skeletons of hominid children have been found with evidence of cannibalism. Archaeologists have uncovered physical evidence of child sacrifice at several locations. Some of the best attested examples are the diverse rites which were part of the religious practices in Mesoamerica and the Inca Empire. Thousand bones with evidence of sacrificial rituals, have been found in Sardinia. Pelasgians offered a sacrifice of every tenth child during difficult times.Infanticide – Infanticidio by Mexican artist Antonio García Vega.
19. Japan – Japan is an island nation in East Asia. It is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. Largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. The population of million is the world's tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98.5% of Japan's total population. Approximately million people live in the core city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet. Japan is considered a great power. The country has the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.Japan – The Golden Hall and five-storey pagoda of Hōryū-ji, among the oldest wooden buildings in the world, National Treasures, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site
20. Economy of Japan – According to the International Monetary Fund, the country's per capita GDP was at the 28th highest in 2014, down from the 22nd position in 2012. Japan is a member of the G7. The Japanese economy is forecasted by the Quarterly Tankan survey of sentiment conducted by the Bank of Japan. Nikkei 225 presents the monthly report of Blue chip equities on Japan Exchange Group. Due to a volatile currency rate, Japan's GDP as measured in dollars fluctuates widely. Accounting through use of the Atlas method, Japan is estimated to have a GDP per capita of around $38,490. Besides the Kantō region, the Kansai region is one of manufacturing centers for the Japanese economy. Japan is the world's largest nation as well as having the highest ratio of public debt to GDP. Japan generally has a considerable net international investment surplus. As of 2010, Japan possesses 13.7 % of the world's financial assets at an estimated $13.5 trillion. As of 2015, 54 of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Japan, down from 62 in 2013. By 1990, income per capita in Japan surpassed that in most countries in the West. However, in the second half of the 1980s, rising real estate prices caused the economic bubble to the Japanese economy by Bank of Japan. The economic bubble came to an abrupt end as the Tokyo Stock Exchange crashed in 1990–92 and real estate prices peaked in 1991. Growth in Japan throughout the 1990s at 1.5 % was slower than growth in other developed economies, giving rise to the term Lost Decade.Economy of Japan – Financial center in Tokyo
21. Korea – Korea is a historical state in East Asia, since 1945 divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northeast. It is separated from Japan by the Korea Strait and the East Sea. Later Silla divided during the Later Three Kingdoms period. Later Goguryeo, which had succeeded Goguryeo, united the Korean Peninsula. Around the same time, its last remaining crown prince fled south to Goryeo, where he was accepted into the imperial family. Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a highly cultured state that created the world's first metal type in 1234. Following the Yuan Dynasty's collapse, Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1388. During the later part of the dynasty, however, Korea's policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. The Korean Academy claimed hominid fossils originating from about 100,000 BC in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. High-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000 BC. The Neolithic period begins around 6000 BC. Susumu Ōno, Homer B. Hulbert, Ki-Moon Lee and Choong-Soon Kim suspect that proto-Dravidian people migrated to Korea and parts of Japan.Korea
22. Kubla Khan – Upon waking, he set about writing lines of poetry that came to him from the dream until he was interrupted by a person from Porlock. The poem could not be completed according to its original 200–300 line plan as the interruption caused him to forget the lines. He left it unpublished and kept it for private readings for his friends until 1816 when, at the prompting of Lord Byron, it was published. Some of Coleridge's contemporaries denounced the poem and questioned his story of its origin. It was not until years later that critics began to openly admire the poem. Most modern critics now view "Kubla Khan" as one of Coleridge's three great poems, along with The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Christabel. The poem is considered one of the most famous examples of Romanticism in English poetry. A copy of the manuscript is a permanent exhibit at the British Museum in London. Some time between 9 and 14 October 1797, when Coleridge says he had completed the tragedy, he left Stowey for Lynton. Stay awhile, Poor youth! who scarcely dar'st lift up thine eyes-- The stream will soon renew its smoothness, soon The visions will return! And lo! he stays, And soon the fragments dim of lovely forms Come trembling back, unite, now once more The pool becomes a mirror. But the to-morrow is yet to come. As a contrast to this vision, I have annexed a fragment of a very different character, describing with equal fidelity the dream of pain and disease. The book contained a brief description of Xanadu, the summer capital of the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan. This quotation was based upon the writings of the Venetian explorer Marco Polo, widely believed to have visited Xanadu in about 1275.Kubla Khan – Title page of "Kubla Khan" (1816)
23. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It merged into the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into Late Middle Ages. Counterurbanisation, movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements including Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The Byzantine Empire remained a major power. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during 9th century. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by a philosophy that emphasised joining faith by the founding of universities. Controversy, the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms.Middle Ages – The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The body of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
24. Madagascar – The nation comprises numerous smaller peripheral islands. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90 % of its wildlife is found else on Earth. The island's diverse unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats. The archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar dates to 2000 BC. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD 550 from Borneo. These were joined by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is often divided into 18 or more sub-groups of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles. The monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has officially been governed at Antananarivo. However, presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed transparent by the international community.Madagascar – The terraced paddy fields of the central highlands of Madagascar (left) give way to tropical rainforest along the eastern coast (center) bordered by the shores of the Indian Ocean (right).
25. Malay Peninsula – The Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southernmost point of the Asian mainland. The area contains the southernmost tip of Myanmar, Southern Thailand. The Titiwangsa Mountains form the backbone of the Peninsula. They form the southernmost section of the central cordillera which runs from Tibet into the Malay Peninsula. The Malay term Tanah Melayu is derived from Melayu, thus it means "the Malay land". The term can be found in pre-modern Malay texts, of which the oldest dating back to the early 17th century. Tanah Melayu in the text is consistently employed to refer under Melakan dominance. Prior to the foundation of Melaka, reference to Malay peninsula was made from various foreign sources. According to Indian scholars, the word Malayadvipa, mentioned in the ancient Indian text, Vayu Purana, may possibly refer to the Malay peninsula. Geographia, written by Ptolemy, labelled a geographical part of Golden Chersonese as Maleu-kolon, a term thought to derive from Sanskrit malayakolam or malaikurram. Malay Archipelago "Malakka". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.Malay Peninsula – Photo of Malay Peninsula taken by the crew of Expedition 28 on board the International Space Station.
26. Northwest Passage – For centuries explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible route. Until 2009, the Arctic ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year. Arctic sea decline has rendered the waterways more navigable. Fully loaded, Nordic Orion was too large to sail through the Panama Canal. The Northwest Passage represented a new route to the established trading nations of Asia. England called the "Northwest Passage". The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. When it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned through northern waters. There was a lack of scientific knowledge about conditions; for instance, some people believed that seawater was incapable of freezing. Explorers thought that an open water close to the North Pole must exist. The belief that a route lay to the far north led to numerous expeditions into the Arctic. Many ended including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850. In 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first successfully completed a passage to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, fortified ships have made the journey.Northwest Passage – Northwest Passage routes
27. Pytheas – Pytheas of Massalia, was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia. His description of it, widely known in Antiquity, has not survived. In this voyage he visited a considerable part of Great Britain. He is the first person on record to describe the Midnight Sun. Similarly, reports of a country of perpetual snow and darkness had reached Mediterranean some centuries before. Pytheas is reporter of the Arctic, polar ice, the Germanic tribes. Pytheas may have also reached Iceland. Pliny says that Timaeus believed Pytheas' story of the discovery of amber. Strabo says that Dicaearchus did not trust the stories of Pytheas. That is all the information that survives concerning the date of Pytheas' voyage. Some would give an extra 5 years bringing the voyage down to 325 BC at earliest. There is no further evidence. If one presumes that Pytheas would not have written before reaching age 20, he would have been a competitor of Timaeus and Dicaearchus. As they read his writings he must have written toward the earlier years of the window. As is common with ancient texts, multiple titles may represent a single source, for example, if a title refers to a section rather than the whole.Pytheas – Statue of Pytheas outside the Palais de la Bourse, Marseilles.
28. Pasta – Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily. It is also commonly used to refer to the variety of pasta dishes. It can also be made from other cereals or grains. Pastas may be divided into two broad categories, fresh. Most dried pasta is commercially produced via an process although it can be produced in most homes. Both fresh pasta come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known variably by over 1300 names having been documented. In Italy the names of specific pasta types often vary with locale. For example, the cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending on region and town. Common forms of pasta include specialty or decorative shapes. As a category in Italian cuisine, both dried pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes. As asciutta cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary sauce or condiment. A second classification of pasta dishes is pasta in brodo in which the pasta is part of a soup-type dish. A third category is pasta al forno in which the pasta incorporated into a dish, subsequently baked. Pasta comes in many varieties due to its versatility. Some pasta dishes are served as a first course in Italy because the portion sizes are simple.Pasta – Different types of pasta on display in a shop window in Venice, Italy
29. Pope Gregory X – Pope Gregory X, born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order. He also made new regulations in regards to papal conclaves. Pope Clement XI beatified him after the confirmation of his cultus. He was attracted by the reputation of holiness which the Cardinal enjoyed; he had been elected abbot of the monstery of Trois-Fontaines in Champagne. Teobaldo was therefore in constant attendance. The Cardinal was Legate of Pope Gregory IX in Tuscany in 1239-1241. It was probably during the assignment in Provence that Teobaldo became known to laity. He was already Canon of the Basilica of S. Antonino in Piacenza when he returned to Piacenza in 1239. Early in 1239, the Pope had again excommunicated the Emperor. Each had demanded an Ecumenical Council to settle their differences. He planned that the council would meet under his auspices and in his territory. He would also bring to Rome all of the enemies of Frederick Hohenstaufen. He died on 22 August 1241. The search for a successor to Gregory IX took more than two months. Celestine IV, old and ill, survived his election by only 17 days, dying on 10 November 1241.Pope Gregory X – Blessed Pope Gregory X
30. Science fiction – Science fiction often has been called a "literature of ideas." Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of themes. Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible." Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about futures. A spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, mutants, androids, or humanoid robots and other types of characters arising from a future human evolution. Futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, humanoid computers. Scientific principles that contradict accepted physical laws, for example time travel, wormholes, or faster-than-light travel or communication. New and different political or social systems, e.g. utopian, dystopian, post-scarcity, or post-apocalyptic. Paranormal abilities such as control, telepathy, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Kepler's work the first science story. It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story to the moon. More examples appeared throughout the 19th century.Science fiction – A futuristic setting is a common but not a necessary hallmark of science fiction. A common thread in science fiction is exploring the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations on people's lives.
31. Sumatra – Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia, part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island, entirely in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2. Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders southwest sides of Sumatra with the chain of Simeulue, Nias and Mentawai bordering the southwestern coast. On the northeast side the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, an extension of the Eurasian continent. On the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java. The equator crosses the island at its center on West Sumatra and Riau provinces. The climate of the island is humid with tropical rain forest once dominating the landscape. Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, because of the gold deposits of the island's highland. The first word mentioning the name of Sumatra was the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, on letters written in 1602 addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England, referred to himself as "king of Aceh and Samudra". The word itself is from Sanskrit "Samudra", meaning "gathering together of waters, sea or ocean". European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island. The Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya. Srivijaya was a Buddhist monarchy centred in what is now Palembang.Sumatra – Batak warriors, 1870
32. Tamil Nadu – Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the eleventh-largest state in India by area and the sixth-most populous. The state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index in 2011, with the second-largest state economy. Tamil Nadu is the second largest economy in India with billion in domestic product. Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources. In addition, its people continue classical literature. Religious sites include Hindu temples of Tamil architecture, hill stations, eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu.Tamil Nadu – Location of Tamil Nadu (marked in red) in India
33. Summary of Decameron tales – This article contains summaries and commentaries of the 100 stories within Giovanni Boccaccio's The Decameron. Each story of the Decameron begins with a short heading explaining the plot of the story. The 1903 J. M. Rigg English translation headings are used in many of these summaries. Commentary on the tale itself follows. Each agrees to tell each day for ten days. The stories are told in the garden of the first villa that the company stays at, located a few miles outside the city. Under the rule of Pampinea, the first day of story-telling is open topic. There, he soon falls terminally ill. Ciappelletto proceeds to tell the friar lies about his life that make him seem very pure, while pretending to cringe over venial sins. He is completely believed by the friar, who preaches a sermon on his life after he passes away. The townspeople who hear the sermon revere him as a saint long after Ciapelletto died. Panfilo is the storyteller of the first tale of the entire collection, also the first tale ridiculing then-current practices of the Roman Catholic Church. The earliest source of this story is found in chapter eight of Saint Sulpicius Severus's biography of Saint Martin of Tours. The biography dates from around 400 AD. A Jew of Paris, is the friend of Giannotto di Civignì, who for years has urged him to become a Christian.Summary of Decameron tales – A tale from The Decameron, by John William Waterhouse.
34. Thomas the Apostle – Thomas the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament. According to undocumented traditions, the Apostle reached Muziris, in baptized several people, founding what today are known as Saint Thomas Christians or Nasranis. In 1258, some of the relics were brought in Ortona, Italy, where they have been held in the Church of Saint Thomas the Apostle. The name Thoma remains quite popular among Saint Thomas Christians of India. Today scholars say the legends are "no more than possible" for there is no written claim before centuries later. Thomas first speaks in the Gospel of John. In John 11:16, when Lazarus had recently died, the apostles do not wish to go back to Judea, where some Jews had attempted to stone Jesus. Thomas says: "Let us also go, that we may die with him". He speaks again in John 14:5. Thomas reacted by saying, "Lord, we don’t know where you are going, so how can we know the way?" But when Jesus invited Thomas to touch his wounds and behold him, Thomas showed his belief by saying, "My Lord and my God". Jesus then said, "Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast have believed." The name Thomas is derived from the Aramaic or Syriac: equivalently from Hebrew Teom, meaning "twin" via Koine Greek: Θωμᾶς. The term for twin in Greek is Δίδυμος Didymus. The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins: "Didymos Judas Thomas recorded."Thomas the Apostle – Eastern icon of Thomas
35. Venice – Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 117 small islands that are linked by bridges. These are located in an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, artwork. A part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is only a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th BC. The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. This made a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known especially the Renaissance period. It is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. The Venetia, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Eneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root * wen, so * wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly".Venice – A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore
36. Zheng He – Zheng He, formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty. Born He, Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages from 1405 to 1433. His larger ships stretched 120 meters in length. These carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks. A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Sri Lanka shortly thereafter. Zheng He was the second son of a family from Kunyang, Yunnan. He was originally born with the name Ma He. His family were Hui people. He had four sisters and one older brother. Zheng He was born into a Muslim family. However, his religious beliefs became all-embracing and eclectic in his adulthood. His great-grandfather may have been stationed in Yunnan. His grandfather carried the title hajji. His father had the hajji. The title suggests that they had made the pilgrimage to Mecca.Zheng He – Statue from a modern monument to Zheng He at the Stadthuys Museum in Malacca Town, Malaysia
37. 13th century – 1202—Introduction of Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. 1202—Battle of Basian occurred on July 27, between Kingdom of Georgia and Seljuks. 1204—Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204 captures Zara for Venice and sacks Byzantine Constantinople, creating the Latin Empire. 1204—Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, end of Norman domination of France. 1206—Genghis Khan is declared Great Khan of the Mongols. 1213—France defeats the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. 1214—France defeats English and Imperial German forces at the Battle of Bouvines. 1215—King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1217–1221—Fifth Crusade captures Egyptian Ayyubid port city of Damietta; ultimately the Crusaders withdraw. 1221—Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire. 1222—Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility. 1223-The Signoria, of the Republic of Venice consists of the Doge, the Minor Council and the three leaders of the Quarantia. 1223—The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities at the Battle of the Kalka River. 1228-1229—Sixth Crusade under the excommunicated Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who returns Jerusalem to the Crusader States. 1228-1230- First clash between Gregory IX and Frederick II.13th century – Map of Eurasia circa 1200 A.D.
38. 2nd millennium – The second millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, 1001 and ended on December 31, 2000 of the Gregorian calendar. It was the second period of thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era. The Renaissance saw the beginning of the second migration of humans to the Americas beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization. The international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought. The population doubled over the first seven centuries of the millennium and later increased tenfold over its last three centuries, exceeding 6 billion in 2000. Consequently, human activity had considerable social and environmental consequences, giving rise to extreme poverty, climate change and biotic crisis. The 2nd millennium was a period of time that ended on December 31, 2000. It was the second period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era. The beginning date is usually according to the Julian calendar. Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium ended on December 31, 2000. The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme. The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme. The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme. See also Lists of people by nationality Category: People by Category: People by nationality and period Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper; Henry Gottlieb; Barbar Bowers; Brent Bowers.2nd millennium
39. 1260s – The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269. In Asia, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the supreme leader of the Mongol Empire, although his title was only partially recognized. The Empire of Nicaea succeeded in the rest of the Latin Empire, thus re-establishing the Byzantine Empire. In Europe, political territorial disputes led to widespread warfare around the continent. England witnessed the Second Barons' War, a civil war fought with King Henry III's attempts to maintain an absolute monarchy. Meanwhile, King Otakar II of Bohemia became the most powerful prince in Europe, expanding his territories through both inheritance. In Spain, the Reconquista continued as important cities were recaptured from the Moors. Several cultural achievements were made in the decade, including publication of Roger Bacon's important scientific work Opus Majus and Thomas Aquinas' Summa contra Gentiles. In religion, the Sukhothai kingdom in Thailand adopted Buddhism as its official religion. 1260 – The Baltic Samogatians and Curonians defeat the Teutonic knights in the Battle of Durbe. 1263 – October – King Alexander III of Scotland fights a minor skirmish against King Haakon IV of Norway in the Battle of Largs. 1260 – September 4 – The forces of King Manfred of Sicily, in league with the Ghibellines, defeat the Guelphs in the Battle of Montaperti. 1260 – War breaks out in the Valais as the Bishopric of Sion defends against an invasion by the County of Savoy. 1261 – Byzantine Empire reemerges, Latin empire brought down 1263 – Genoa captures the city of Chania on Crete from the Venetians. 1264 – The Thuringian War of Succession ends.1260s – Kublai Khan
40. Cotton – The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions including the Americas, Africa, India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often used to make a soft, breathable textile. Current estimates for production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5 % of the world's arable land. Most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is usually measured in bales, which weigh 226.8 kilograms. Some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around BC. The domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico is dated between 2300 BC.Cotton – Cotton
41. Lion – Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery. The two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell. Lithium-ion batteries are common in home electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries with a high energy density, tiny memory effect and low self-discharge. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, battery electric aerospace applications. For example, lithium-ion batteries are becoming a common replacement for the lead–acid batteries that have been used historically for golf carts and utility vehicles. Chemistry, performance, safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on lithium oxide, which offers high energy density, but presents safety risks, especially when damaged. Lithium iron phosphate, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide offer lower energy density, but longer lives and inherent safety. Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide and titanate are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles. The newer lithium–sulfur batteries promise the highest performance-to-weight ratio. There have been battery-related recalls by some companies. Although the word "battery" is a common term to describe an electrochemical system, international industry standards differentiate between a "cell" and a "battery".Lion – An example of a Li-ion battery (used on the Nokia 3310 mobile phone)