1. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution. She was the second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. To Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of her four children. The Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Maria Antonia was born in Vienna. She was her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. Shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her three-year older sister Maria Carolina, with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. As to her relationship with her mother, her daughter loved each other. Despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in any language commonly used at court, such as Italian. Conversations with her were stilted.Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
2. Agnes of Merania – Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania was a Queen of France, She is called Marie by some of the French chroniclers. Agnes Maria was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania, Count of Andechs, a castle and territory near Ammersee, Bavaria. Her mother was Agnes of Rochlitz. In June 1196 Agnes married Philip II of France, who had repudiated his second wife Ingeborg of Denmark in 1193. Agnes was buried in the Convent near Nantes. Agnes and Philip had two children: Count of Boulogne and Mary, were legitimized at the request of the King. Little is known of the personality of Agnes, beyond the remarkable influence which she seems to have exercised over Philip. She has been made by La straniera. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: ed.. "Agnes of Meran". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 378. Endnotes: See The notes of Robert Davidsohn in Philipp II.Agnes of Merania – Agnes of Merania
3. Antoine Lavoisier – He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry". It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He predicted the existence of silicon and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Lavoisier was a powerful member of a number of aristocratic councils, an administrator of the Ferme générale. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a wealthy family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743. The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a large fortune at the age of five with the passing of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11. In his last two years at the school, he studied mathematics. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1763 and a licentiate in 1764. Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, but never practiced as a lawyer.Antoine Lavoisier – Line engraving by Louis Jean Desire Delaistre, after a design by Julien Leopold Boilly
4. Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen – He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Despite being epileptic, Charles achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of the Austrian army. He was considered one of Napoleon's most formidable opponents. He began his career fighting the revolutionary armies of France. Early in the wars of the First Coalition, he saw victory before tasting defeat at Wattignies 1793 and Fleurus 1794. Following these victories were others at Zürich, Ostrach, Stockach, Messkirch in 1799. Following Wagram, Charles saw no more significant action in the Napoleonic Wars. As a military strategist, historians compare him to 1st Duke of Wellington, conservative, competent. Charles was a study in contrasts. Yet, as a theoretician, his devotion to caution led Carl von Clausewitz, to criticize his rigidity and adherence to geographic strategy. Regardless, he remains among Austria's pantheon of heroes of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. Charles was born in Florence, Tuscany. He became Governor he also received the rank of Lieutenant Field Marshal. Shortly thereafter another promotion saw him made Feldzeugmeister. In the remainder of the war in the Low Countries he held high commands, was present at the Battle of Fleurus.Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen – Archduke Charles
5. Cue sports – Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. There are other variants that make use of obstacles and targets, table-top games played with disks instead of balls. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, Jackie Gleason. "Cue" itself came from queue, the French word for a tail. This refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion. A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, was reminiscent of croquet. King Louis XI of France had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, it swiftly spread among the French nobility. Queen of Scots, claimed that her "table billiard" had been taken away by those who eventually became her executioners. In 1588, the Duke of Norfolk, owned a "billyard bord coered with a greene cloth... three billyard sticks and 11 balls of yvery". Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in almost every Paris café. In England, the game was developing into a very popular activity for members of the gentry. The cue as it is known today was finally developed by about 1800. Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them. The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge.Cue sports – Inset from School of Recreation, 1710. "We perceive from the engraving of the Billiards of the seventtenth century, that the game was altogether different from what it is now."
6. Bastille Day – Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries to the French National Day, celebrated on 14 July each year. In France, it is formally called la Fête nationale and legally le 14 juillet. Celebrations are held throughout France. On 19 Louis XVI invited Estates-General to air their grievances. The Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing not to separate until a constitution had been established. They were gradually joined by delegates of the other estates; Louis XVI started to recognize the validity of their concerns on 27 June. The assembly renamed the National Constituent Assembly on Jacques Necker, the finance minister, sympathetic to the Third Estate, was dismissed on 11 July. As it happened, in July 1789 there were only seven inmates, none of great political significance. The crowd was eventually reinforced by mutinous Gardes Françaises, whose usual role was to protect public buildings. However, possibly because of a misunderstanding, fighting resumed. Shortly after the storming of the Bastille, late in August, after a very stormy session of the Assemblée Constituante, feudalism was abolished. On 26 the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was proclaimed. The Fête la Fédération on 14 July 1790 was a celebration of the unity of the French nation during the French Revolution. One year after the Storming of the Bastille, was to symbolize peace. The event took place on the Champ de Mars, at the time far outside Paris.Bastille Day – Storming of the Bastille, by Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Houel
7. Carlo Goldoni – Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice. His works include some of Italy's most best-loved plays. Audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni for their ingenious mix of honesty. His plays offered his images of themselves, often dramatizing the lives, values, conflicts of the emerging middle classes. Though he wrote in Italian, his plays make rich use of the Venetian language, regional vernacular, colloquialisms. He also wrote under the pen name and title "Pastor Arcade," which he claimed in his memoirs the "Arcadians of Rome" bestowed on him. One of his best known works is the comic Servant of Two Masters, translated and adapted internationally numerous times. In 2011, Richard Bean adapted the play as One Man, Two Guvnors. Its popularity led to Broadway. There is an abundance of autobiographical information on Goldoni, most of which comes to his plays and from his Memoirs. However, these memoirs are known to contain many errors of fact, especially about his earlier years. He was born in 1707, the son of Margherita and Giulio Goldoni. In his memoirs, he claims that he was introduced to theatre by his grandfather Carlo Alessandro Goldoni. In reality, it seems that Giulio was an apothecary; as for the grandfather, he had died four years before Carlo's birth. In 1723 his father matriculated him in Pavia, which imposed the tonsure and monastic habits on its students.Carlo Goldoni – Carlo Goldoni
8. Denis Diderot – Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, writer. Denis Diderot began his formal education at a Jesuit collège in Langres. His parents were his wife Angélique Vigneron. Three of five siblings survived to adulthood, their youngest brother Pierre-Didier Diderot, finally their sister Angélique Diderot. According to Arthur McCandless Wilson, Denis Diderot greatly admired his sister Denise, sometimes referring as "a female Socrates". In 1732 Denis Diderot earned the Master of Arts degree in philosophy. Then he entered the Collège d'Harcourt of the University of Paris. He decided instead to study at the Paris Law Faculty. His study of law was short-lived however and in 1734 Diderot decided to become a writer. In 1742 he befriended Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In 1743 he further alienated his father by marrying a devout Roman Catholic. The match was considered inappropriate due to Champion's low social standing, lack of a dowry. She was about three years older than Diderot. The marriage in October 1743 produced a girl. Her name was Angélique, after sister.Denis Diderot – n° 9 de la place dans le centre ville de Langres in the background on the right side the birthplace of Denis Diderot
9. Jacques-Louis David – Jacques-Louis David was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. Imprisoned from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release: that of Napoleon, The First Consul of France. At this time he notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. David had a large number of pupils, making the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century, especially academic Salon painting. Jacques-Louis David was born on 30 August 1748. His mother left him with his well-off architect uncles. He once said, "I was always hiding behind the instructor's chair, drawing for the duration of the class". His uncles and mother wanted him to be an architect. He went to learn from François Boucher, the leading painter of the time, also a distant relative. Tastes were changing, the fashion for Rococo was giving way to a more classical style. There David attended the Royal Academy, based in what is now the Louvre. The Academy awarded an outstanding student the prestigious Prix de Rome, which funded a three - to five-year stay in the Eternal City. Each pensionnaire was lodged in the French Academy's Roman outpost, which from 1737 to 1793 was the Palazzo Mancini in the Via del Corso. David failed to win, the prize for three consecutive years, each failure contributing to his lifelong grudge against the institution. In October 1775 he made the journey with his mentor, Joseph-Marie Vien, who had just been appointed director of the French Academy at Rome.Jacques-Louis David – Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David, 1794, Musée du Louvre
10. Eleanor of Aquitaine – She inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine from her father, William X, in 1137, by successive marriages became queen of France and then England. She was the patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, Bernart de Ventadorn. She led armies several times in her life, was a leader of the Second Crusade. As Duchess of Aquitaine, Eleanor was the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after she became duchess, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon afterwards, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage, but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III. However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment, as fifteen years of marriage had not produced a son. The marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody was awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her. Henry was her third cousin, eleven years younger. The couple married on 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage, in a cathedral in Poitiers, France. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, three of whom would become kings; and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband.Eleanor of Aquitaine – Eleanor's effigy at Fontevraud Abbey
11. Edmund Burke – In the nineteenth century Burke was praised by both conservatives and liberals. Subsequently, in the twentieth century, he became widely regarded as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism. Burke was born in Dublin, Ireland. The Burke dynasty descends from an Anglo-Norman knight surnamed de Burgh who arrived following Henry II of England's 1171 invasion of Ireland. Although never denying his Irishness, Burke often described himself as "an Englishman". According to the historian J. C. D. Clark, this was in an age "before'Celtic nationalism' sought to make Irishness and Englishness incompatible". As a child he sometimes spent time away from the unhealthy air of Dublin with his mother's family in the Blackwater Valley in County Cork. He received his early education in some 67 kilometres from Dublin. He remained throughout his life. In 1744, Burke started at Trinity College Dublin, a Protestant establishment, which up until 1793, did not permit Catholics to take degrees. The minutes of the meetings of Burke's Club remain in the collection of the Historical Society. Burke graduated from Trinity in 1748. After eschewing the Law, he pursued a livelihood through writing. The late Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the Study and Use of History was published in 1752 and his collected works appeared in 1754. Burke imitated Bolingbroke's style and ideas in a reductio ad absurdum of his arguments for atheistic rationalism, demonstrating their absurdity.Edmund Burke – Painting of Edmund Burke MP c. 1767, studio of Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792)
12. Fontainebleau – Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris. It is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest area in the Île-de-France region; it is the only one to cover a larger area than Paris itself. Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris. Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. It became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise as Bellifontains. The name originates as a medieval composite of two words: Fontaine -- meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person's Germanic Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. Philip the Fair died there in 1314. In thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, spent time at Fontainebleau. On 18 Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, were at Fontainebleau.Fontainebleau – Palace of Fontainebleau
13. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
14. French Republican Calendar – Prominent anticlerical atheist, published the first edition of his Almanach des Honnêtes-gens in 1788. On pages 14–15 appears a calendar, consisting of twelve months. The first month is "Mars, ou Princeps", the last month is "Février, ou Duodécembre". The lengths of the months are the same; however, the 10th, 30th are singled out of each month as the end of a décade. Individual days were assigned, instead of to people noteworthy for mostly secular achievements; December 25 is assigned to both Jesus and Newton. Later editions of the almanac would switch to the Republican Calendar. Natural constants, multiples of ten, Latin as well as Old Greek derivations formed the fundamental blocks from which the new systems were built. The new calendar was created under the direction of the politician Charles-Gilbert Romme seconded by Claude Joseph Ferry and Charles-François Dupuis. It is because of his position as rapporteur of the commission that the creation of the calendar is attributed to Romme. This is somewhat of a misnomer. Immediately following July 1789, papers and pamphlets started calling 1789 year I of Liberty and the following years II and III. It was with the practical problem of dating financial transactions, that the legislative assembly was confronted with the problem of the calendar. Originally, the choice of epoch was either 14 July 1789. The establishment of the Republic was used as the epochal date for the calendar; therefore, the calendar commemorates the Republic, not the Revolution. In France, it is known as the républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire.French Republican Calendar – French Republican Calendar of 1794, drawn by Philibert-Louis Debucourt
15. Fashion – Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body, or furniture. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses. It is the prevailing styles in behaviour and the newest creations of textile designers. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to Persia, Turkey, India, or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in the respective places. The Japanese Shogun's secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. The beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. This created the Western outline of a tailored top worn over trousers. These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating from Ancien Régime France. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike; local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant. The Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry.Fashion – In Following the Fashion (1794), James Gillray caricatured a figure flattered by the short- bodiced gowns then in fashion, contrasting it with an imitator whose figure is not flattered.
16. Giacomo Puccini – Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was an Italian opera composer, called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi". Puccini's early work was rooted in traditional late-19th-century Italian opera. Later, he successfully developed his work in the realistic style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. Puccini's most renowned works are La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, all of which are among the important operas played as standards. Puccini was born Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini in Lucca in 1858. He was one of nine children of Michele Puccini and Albina Magi. The Puccini family was established in Lucca by Puccini's great-great grandfather -- also named Giacomo. This first Giacomo Puccini was maestro di cappella in Lucca. He was succeeded in Domenico's son Michele. Some took additional musical studies elsewhere. Domenico Puccini studied under Giovanni Paisiello. Each composed music for the church. In addition, Michele composed one opera. However, when Michele Puccini died in 1864, his son Giacomo was thus not capable of taking over his father's job. Puccini was given a general education at the seminary of San Michele in Lucca, then at the seminary of the cathedral.Giacomo Puccini – Giacomo Puccini
17. History of Europe – The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin in a vast empire based on Roman law. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. The British Isles were the site of large-scale migrations. A period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Rus' people founded Kievan Rus', which evolved into Russia. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back into Christian rule. The Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become economic powers. A related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. An associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period.History of Europe – Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
18. Horace Walpole – Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford — also known as Horace Walpole — was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. Walpole had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London, reviving some decades before his Victorian successors. His literary reputation rests on his Gothic novel, his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. Walpole was the son of the first British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. As he was childless, his barony descended to his cousin of the same surname, created the new Earl of Orford. He was born in the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole and his wife Catherine. Like his father, he received early education in Bexley; he was also educated at King's College, Cambridge. Walpole's first friends were probably his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became especially Henry. At Eton Walpole formed with George Montagu the "Triumvirate", a schoolboy confederacy. More important were another group of friends dubbed the "Quadruple Alliance": Walpole, Thomas Gray, Richard West and Thomas Ashton. At Cambridge he came under the influence of an unorthodox theologian. He left without taking a degree. In 1737 Walpole's mother died. Walpole did not have any serious relationships with women; he has been called "a natural celibate". Walpole's sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation.Horace Walpole – Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds 1756 National Portrait Gallery, collection London.
19. House of Habsburg – The House of Habsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1740. Following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation Rudolph of Habsburg had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, other territories. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine. The new house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.House of Habsburg – House of Habsburg
20. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, composer of the 18th century. Rousseau's novel Emile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. The New Heloise was in fiction. His Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death. Rousseau was born in Geneva, at the time a city-state and a Protestant associate of the Swiss Confederacy. Since 1536, Geneva had been a Huguenot republic and the seat of Calvinism. Rousseau was proud that his family, of the moyen order, had voting rights in the city. Throughout his life, he generally signed his books "Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Citizen of Geneva". Geneva, in theory, was governed democratically by its male voting "citizens". There was much political debate within Geneva, extending down to the tradespeople. Much discussion was over the idea of the sovereignty of the people, of which the ruling class oligarchy was making a mockery. In 1707, a democratic reformer named Pierre Fatio protested this situation, saying "a sovereign that never performs an act of sovereignty is an imaginary being". He was shot by order of the Little Council.Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Rousseau in 1753, by Maurice Quentin de La Tour
21. John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, an American historian, pastor, pedagogical writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine to Jacob and Betsey Abbott. Owing to the success of The Mother at Home, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature. He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian ethics, of popular histories, which were credited with cultivating a popular interest in history. Abbott takes a very favourable view towards his subject throughout. Also among his principal works Called Frederick the Great. He also did a forward to a book called Life of Boone about Daniel Boone in 1876. Except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. On August 1835 he married Jane Williams Bourne, daughter of Abner Bourne and Abagail Williams. John Stevens Cabot Abbott died at Connecticut. In 1910, a series of twenty short biographies of historical characters by J. S. C. and Jacob Abbott, was published. Gorham Dummer Abbott, was also an author. Willis Abbott, was a Christian Scientist and an editor of the Christian Science Monitor. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Abbott, John Stevens Cabot". Encyclopædia Britannica.John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott
22. Kirsten Dunst – Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress. Dunst made her debut in Oedipus Wrecks for the anthology film New York Stories. She appeared in Little Women the same year and in Jumanji the following year. Dunst achieved fame for her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy. Dunst starred to Lose Friends & Alienate People. She won the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and the Saturn Award for Best Actress for her performance in Lars von Trier's Melancholia. Dunst starred in 2015 playing the role of a slightly delusional and neurotic hairdresser. In 2001, Dunst made her singing debut in the film Get Over It, in which she performed two songs. She also sang the jazz song "After You've Gone" for the end credits of the film The Cat's Meow. Dunst was born in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, to Inez and Klaus Dunst. She has a younger brother, Christian. Her mother was an artist and one-time gallery owner. Dunst's father is German, originally from Hamburg, Dunst's mother was born in New Jersey. Until the age of eleven, Dunst lived in Brick Township, New Jersey, where she attended Ranney School. In 1995, her mother filed for divorce.Kirsten Dunst – Dunst at the 2013 premiere of Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues in Sydney, Australia
23. Louis XIV of France – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
24. Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer, philosopher, advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a children's book. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Until the 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several personal relationships, received more attention than her writing. With Gilbert Imlay, Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter, leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. After Wollstonecraft's death, her widower published a Memoir of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, which inadvertently destroyed her reputation for almost a century. Feminists often work as important influences. Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields, London. She was the second of the seven children of Elizabeth Dixon and Edward John Wollstonecraft. Although her family had a comfortable income when she was a child, her father gradually squandered it on speculative projects. Consequently, the family became financially unstable and they were frequently forced to move during Wollstonecraft's youth. The family's financial situation eventually became so dire that Wollstonecraft's father compelled her to turn over money that she would have inherited at her maturity. Moreover, he was apparently a violent man who would beat his wife in drunken rages.Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797)
25. Mary, Queen of Scots – Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. The only surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. Mary briefly became consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, Darnley was found murdered in the garden. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 she was forced to abdicate by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After a half years in custody, Mary was subsequently beheaded. Mary was born to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise. She was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.Mary, Queen of Scots – Portrait of Mary after François Clouet, c. 1559
26. Nursery rhyme – In the term Mother Goose Rhymes, introduced in the mid-18th century, is still often used. Most popular nursery rhymes date from the 17th and 18th centuries. Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. The oldest children's songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a sleep. Lullabies can be found in every human culture. Until the modern era lullabies were usually only recorded incidentally in written sources. "Lalla, Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta", is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive. However, most of those used date from the 17th century. A French poem, similar to "hath September", numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century. From the later Middle Ages there are records of short children's rhyming songs, often as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays. "pat-a-cake, baker's man" is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes. The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas d'Urfey's play The Campaigners from 1698. About half of "traditional" English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century. By the time of Sabine Baring-Gould's A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was full of comments and foot-notes.Nursery rhyme – Illustration of " Hey Diddle Diddle ", a popular nursery rhyme
27. Quasi-War – The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. It also contained economic clauses. First, French privateers began bringing them in as prizes to be sold. Next, the French government refused to receive the new U.S. Minister, when he arrived in Paris in December 1796. Meanwhile, the French Navy was inflicting substantial losses on American shipping. French marauders now cruised the length of the Atlantic seaboard virtually unopposed. A few somewhat neglected coastal forts. Congress authorized the president to acquire, man not more than twelve ships of up to twenty two guns each. Construction of the frigate Congress resumed. Congress rescinded the treaties on 7 July 1798; that date is now considered as the beginning of the Quasi-War. This was followed two days later with the passage of the Congressional authorization of attacks on French warships in American waters. French privateers generally resisted, as did La Croyable, captured on 7 July 1798, by Delaware outside of New Jersey. Enterprise freed eleven American merchant ships from captivity. Experiment captured the French privateers Deux Amis and Diane. American merchantmen were recaptured by Experiment.Quasi-War – From top to bottom: USS Constellation vs L 'Insurgente; U.S. Marines from the USS Constitution board and capture the French Privateer before spiking the cannons of the Spanish fort
28. Reign of Terror – The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine, another 25,000 in summary executions across France. During 1794, revolutionary France was beset by internal and foreign enemies. Within France, the revolution was opposed by the French nobility, which had lost its inherited privileges. They had the support of the Parisian population. Through the Revolutionary Tribunal, the Terror's leaders used them to eliminate the internal and external enemies of the republic. The Reign was a manifestation of the strong strain on centralized power. Many historians have debated the reasons the French Revolution took such a radical turn during the Reign of Terror of 1793–94. The public was frustrated that anti-poverty measures that the revolution originally promised were not materializing. The foundation of the Terror is centered on the April 1793 creation of the Committee of its militant Jacobin delegates. Those in power believed the Committee of Public Safety was an necessary and temporary, reaction to the pressures of foreign and civil war. Similar to Mathiez, Richard Cobb introduced competing circumstances of revolt and re-education as an explanation for the Terror. Marseille were threatening the revolution with royalist ideas. Terror was used in these rebellions both to provide a very visible example to those who might be considering rebellion. At the same time, Cobb rejects Mathiez's Marxist interpretation that elites controlled the Reign of Terror to the significant benefit of the bourgeoisie. Instead, Cobb argues that social struggles between the classes were seldom the reason for revolutionary sentiments.Reign of Terror – Nine emigrants are executed by guillotine, 1793
29. Ralph Abercromby – Sir Ralph Abercromby KB was a Scottish soldier and politician. He served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland. He twice served as MP for Clackmannanshire, he was appointed Governor of Trinidad. He was the eldest son of a brother of the advocate Alexander Abercromby, General Sir Robert Abercromby. He was born at Menstrie Castle, Clackmannanshire. Abercromby was a Freemason. He was a member of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge No 2, Edinburgh, Scotland. When that regiment was disbanded in 1783, he retired upon half pay. He also entered Parliament as MP for Clackmannanshire. He was a strong supporter of the American cause in the American Revolutionary War, remained in Ireland to avoid having to fight against the colonists. When France declared war against Great Britain in 1793, he resumed his duties. In 1795, he was appointed a Knight of the Bath for his services. That same year, he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey as commander-in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a detachment of the army under his orders. Afterwards, Abercromby secured possession of the settlements of Demerara and Essequibo in the islands of Saint Lucia, Trinidad.Ralph Abercromby – Sir Ralph Abercromby, by John Hoppner
30. Thomas Paine – Thomas Paine was an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, revolutionary. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights. He has been called "a propagandist by inclination." Virtually every rebel read his Common Sense, proportionally the all-time best-selling American title, which crystallized the rebellious demand for independence from Great Britain. His The American Crisis was a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series. Paine lived in France for most of the 1790s, becoming deeply involved in the French Revolution. He wrote Rights of Man, in part a defense of the French Revolution against its critics. His attacks on conservative writer Edmund Burke led for the crime of seditious libel. In 1792, despite not being able to speak French, he was elected to the French National Convention. The Girondists regarded him as an ally. Consequently, the Montagnards, especially Robespierre, regarded him as an enemy. In December 1793, he was arrested and was taken to Luxembourg Prison in Paris. While in prison, he continued to work on The Age of Reason. Future President James Monroe used his diplomatic connections to get Paine released in November 1794. He introduced the concept of a guaranteed income.Thomas Paine – Portrait by Auguste Millière (1880) oil on canvas
31. The Age of Reason – The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work written by English and American political activist Thomas Paine. Challenges institutionalized religion and the legitimacy of the Bible. Originally distributed as unbound pamphlets, it was published in three parts in 1794, 1807. It was a best-seller in the United States, where it caused a deistic revival. British audiences, however, fearing increased political radicalism as a result of the French Revolution, received it with more hostility. It argues for the existence of a creator-God. The book was also inexpensive, putting it within the reach of a large number of buyers. Fearing the spread of what they viewed as potentially revolutionary ideas, the British government prosecuted book-sellers who tried to publish and distribute it. Nevertheless, Paine's work guided many free thinkers. Paine's book followed in the tradition of early British deism. These deists, while maintaining individual positions, still shared several sets of arguments that Paine articulated in The Age of Reason. The most important position that united the early deists was their call for "rational inquiry" into all subjects, especially religion. Saying that early Christianity was founded on freedom of conscience, they demanded an end to religious persecution. They also demanded that rest on reason and rationality. They believed all things in the universe, even God, must obey the laws of nature.The Age of Reason – Several early copies of The Age of Reason
32. Voltaire – He was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, historical and scientific works. Voltaire wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. Voltaire was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, Voltaire frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, the French institutions of his day. Sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Voltaire, pretending to work as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father found out, Voltaire sent Voltaire to law, this time in Caen, Normandy. Nevertheless, Voltaire continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. At The Hague, he fell with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From on, he had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government. These activities were to result to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his own daughter, led in the Bastille.Voltaire – Portrait by Nicolas de Largillière
33. Yellow – Yellow is the color between green and orange in the spectrum of visible light. It is the color of ripe sunflowers and gold. It is a primary color in subtractive color, used in printing. It plays an important role in Asian culture, particularly in China, where it is seen as the color of glory, wisdom, harmony, culture. The yellow comes from the Old English geolu, geolwe, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the Indo-European base, gʰel -, as the words gold and yell; gʰel - means both bright and gleaming, to cry out. Yellow is a color which cries out for attention. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700. Yellow, in the form of yellow pigment made from clay, was one of the first colors used in prehistoric cave art. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old. In Ancient Egypt, + blue was associated with gold, considered to be imperishable, eternal and indestructible. The skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold. A small paintbox with orpiment pigment was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Men were always shown with brown faces, women with yellow gold faces. The ancient Romans used yellow in their paintings to also in skin tones.Yellow – Yellow is the color of gold, butter, and ripe lemons.
34. 18th century – The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1700 to December 31, 1799 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions. Science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a age. This dream turned with the French Revolution of 1789 - though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. With the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Great Britain became a major power in North America in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain with the production of the improved steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change the environment. Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. 1700-1721: Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire.18th century – Washington crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
35. 1770s – March 5 – Eleven American men are shot, five fatally, by British troops in an event that helps starting the American Revolutionary War five years later. March 26 – First voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain James Cook and his crew aboard HMS Endeavour complete the circumnavigation of New Zealand. April 20 – Georgian king Erekle II defeats the Ottoman forces in the battle of Aspindza, despite being abandoned by an ally, Russian General Totleben. May 7 – Fourteen-year-old Marie Antoinette arrives at the French court. May 16 Marie Antoinette marries Louis-Auguste. Fireworks lit in Paris cause a fire, killing 132 people. The British present promptly surrenders. June 11 – First voyage of James Cook: HMS Endeavour grounds on the Great Barrier Reef. July 1 – Lexell's Comet passes the Earth at a distance of 2184129 km, the closest approach by a comet in recorded history. July 5 – Battle of Chesma and Battle of Larga: The Russian Empire defeats the Ottoman Empire in both battles. August 1 – Russo-Turkish War – Battle of Kagul: Russian commander Pyotr Rumyantsev routs 150,000 Turks. Johann Gottfried Herder meets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Strasbourg. Joseph Priestley, British chemist, recommends the use of a rubber to remove pencil marks. Joseph-Louis Lagrange proves Bachet's Conjecture. The Baron d'Holbach's materialist work Le Système la Nature ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du Monde Moral is produced in Neuchâtel.1770s – July 5: Battle of Chesma, painting by Ivan Aivazovsky.
36. 1790s – Prime Minister of Great Britain William Pitt refuses to recognize the new confederation's independence. January 26 – Mozart's opera Così fan tutte premiered in Vienna. January 30 – The first boat specialized as a rescue lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne in England. February 1 – In New York City the Supreme Court of the United States convenes for the first time. February 4 – Louis XVI of France declares to the National Assembly that he will maintain the constitutional laws. February 11 – Two Quaker delegates petition the United States Congress for the abolition of slavery. March 1 – The first United States Census is authorized; it is held later in the year. March 21 – Thomas Jefferson reports to President George Washington in New York as the new United States Secretary of State. April 10 – The United States patent system is established. May 17–18 – Battle of Andros: an Ottoman–Algerian fleet destroys the fleet of the Greek privateer Lambros Katsonis. May 29 – Rhode Island ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the last of the 13 original states to do so. June 9 – Royal assent is given to establishment of the port of Milford Haven in Wales. June 23 – The alleged London Monster is arrested in London: he later receives 40 years for 10 assaults. July – Louis XVI of France accepts a constitutional monarchy. July 12 – French Revolution: The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed.1790s – May 12: Battle of Reval
37. 1792 – As of the start of 1792, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 9 – The Treaty of Jassy ends the Russian Empire's war with the Ottoman Empire over Crimea. February 20 – The Postal Service Act, establishing the United States Post Office Department, is signed by President George Washington. March 1 -- Francis II, the last emperor, takes office. A few months later the capital is officially named Raleigh in honor of Sir Walter Raleigh. April 2 – The Coinage Act is passed, establishing the United States Mint. April 5 – United States President George Washington vetoes a bill designed to apportion representatives among U.S. states. This is the first time the presidential veto is used in the United States. April 20 – France declares war against Austria, beginning the French Revolutionary Wars. April 21 – Tiradentes, prime figure in the Inconfidência Mineira plot, is executed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Highwayman Nicolas Pelletier becomes the first person executed by guillotine in France. The French national anthem, is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle. May 11 -- Robert Gray's Columbia River expedition: Captain Robert Gray on the Columbia Rediviva becomes the white man to enter the Columbia River. May 17 – The Buttonwood Agreement is signed, beginning the New York Stock Exchange. May 18 – War in Defence of the Constitution: Russia invades Poland.1792 – April 24: Guillotine (1792 model, left).
38. 1755 – As of the start of 1755, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 25 – Moscow University is established. February 13 – The kingdom of Mataram on Java is divided in two, creating the sultanate of Yogyakarta and the sunanate of Surakarta. February 20 – General Braddock lands in Virginia to take command of the British forces against the French in North America. April 2 – A naval fleet led by Commodore William James of the East India Company captures Tulaji Angre's fortress Suvarnadurg from the Marathas. April 15 – A Dictionary of the English Language is published by Samuel Johnson. During the battle, British General Edward Braddock is mortally wounded. Colonel George Washington survives. In 1998, in 2002 a portion is given to the South African government. July 25 – The decision to deport the Acadians is made during meetings of the Nova Scotia Council meeting in Halifax. Contrary to popular belief, no Acadians are sent to Louisiana. Those sent to Virginia are then sent on to Liverpool, Bristol, Southampton and Penryn in England. In 1758 all of the civilian population of Isle Royal and Isle St. Jean are repatriated to France. Among them were several thousand Acadians who had escaped the deportation by fleeing into those areas. Few Acadians successfully escape the deportation and do so only by fleeing into some of the northern sections of present day New Brunswick.1755 – August 15: Acadians
39. 1770 – As of the start of 1770, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 1 – Foundation of Fort George, Bombay laid by Colonel Keating, principal engineer, on the site of the former Dongri Fort. March 5 – Eleven American men are shot, five fatally, by British troops in an event that helps starting the American Revolutionary War five years later. March 26 – First voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain James Cook and his crew aboard HMS Endeavour complete the circumnavigation of New Zealand. April 20 – Georgian king Erekle II defeats the Ottoman forces in the battle of Aspindza, despite being abandoned by an ally, Russian General Totleben. May 7 – Fourteen-year-old Marie Antoinette arrives at the French court. Marie Antoinette marries Louis-Auguste. Fireworks lit by Eric Engelbrecht in Paris cause a fire, killing 132 people. The British force present promptly surrenders. June 11 – First voyage of James Cook: HMS Endeavour grounds on the Great Barrier Reef. July 1 – Lexell's Comet passes the Earth at a distance of 2184129 km, the closest approach by a comet in recorded history. July 5 – Battle of Chesma and Battle of Larga: The Russian Empire defeats the Ottoman Empire in both battles. August 1 – Russo-Turkish War – Battle of Kagul: Russian commander Pyotr Rumyantsev routs 150,000 Turks. Johann Gottfried Herder meets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Strasbourg. British chemist, recommends the use of a rubber to remove pencil marks.1770 – July 5: Battle of Chesma, painting by Ivan Aivazovsky.
40. 1793 – January 7 – The Ebel riot in Sweden. January 9 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first to fly in a gas balloon in the United States. January 21 -- After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France, is guillotined. January 23 – Second Partition of Poland: The Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia partition the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. February 1 – French Revolutionary Wars: France declares war on Great Britain and the Netherlands. February 25 – George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting as President of the United States. February 27 – The Giles resolutions are introduced to the United States House of Representatives, asking the House to condemn Alexander Hamilton's handling of loans. March 1–3 – John Langdon serves as President pro tempore of the United States Senate. March 4 – George Washington is sworn in as President of the United States in Philadelphia for his second term. March 5 – French troops are defeated by Austrian forces and Liège is recaptured. March 7 – France declares war on Spain. The Republic of Mainz, is declared by Andreas Joseph Hofmann. April 6 – The Committee of Public Safety is established in France with Georges Danton as its head. May 31 – Regular troops under François Hanriot demand that the Girondins be expelled from the national convention. June 2 – The Girondins are overthrown in France.1793 – October 16: Marie Antoinette 's execution