1. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
2. Agnes of Merania – Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania was a Queen of France. She is called Marie by some of the French chroniclers, Agnes Maria was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania, who was Count of Andechs, a castle and territory near Ammersee, Bavaria. Her mother was Agnes of Rochlitz, in June 1196 Agnes married Philip II of France, who had repudiated his second wife Ingeborg of Denmark in 1193. Pope Innocent III espoused the cause of Ingeborg, but Philip did not submit until 1200, Agnes died broken-hearted in July of the next year, at the castle of Poissy, and was buried in the Convent of St Corentin, near Nantes. Agnes and Philip had two children, Philip I, Count of Boulogne and Mary, were legitimized by the Pope in 1201 at the request of the King, little is known of the personality of Agnes, beyond the remarkable influence which she seems to have exercised over Philip. She has been made the heroine of a tragedy by François Ponsard, Agnès de Méranie and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Agnes of Meran. Endnotes, See The notes of Robert Davidsohn in Philipp II, a genealogical notice is furnished by the Chronicon of the monk Alberic of Fontaines, in Pertz, Scriptores, vol. xxiii. Pp.872 f. and by the Genealogia Wettinensis, ibid. p.229, media related to Agnes of Merania at Wikimedia CommonsAgnes of Merania – Agnes of Merania
3. Antoine Lavoisier – Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology. He is widely considered in popular literature as the father of modern chemistry and it is generally accepted that Lavoisiers great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion and he recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the system, wrote the first extensive list of elements. He predicted the existence of silicon and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound and he discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Lavoisier was a member of a number of aristocratic councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research, at the height of the French Revolution, he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling adulterated tobaccoand of other crimes, and was eventually guillotined a year after Marats death. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743. The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a fortune at the age of five with the passing of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11, in his last two years at the school, his scientific interests were aroused, and he studied chemistry, botany, astronomy, and mathematics. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a degree in 1763. Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, however, he continued his scientific education in his spare time. Lavoisiers education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time and he attended lectures in the natural sciences. Lavoisiers devotion and passion for chemistry were largely influenced by Étienne Condillac and his first chemical publication appeared in 1764. From 1763 to 1767, he studied geology under Jean-Étienne Guettard, in collaboration with Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in June 1767. In 1768 Lavoisier received an appointment to the Academy of Sciences. In 1769, he worked on the first geological map of France, on behalf of the Ferme générale Lavoisier commissioned the building of a wall around Paris so that customs duties could be collected from those transporting goods into and out of the city. Lavoisier attempted to introduce reforms in the French monetary and taxation system to help the peasants, Lavoisier consolidated his social and economic position when, in 1771 at age 28, he married Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the 13-year-old daughter of a senior member of the Ferme généraleAntoine Lavoisier – Line engraving by Louis Jean Desire Delaistre, after a design by Julien Leopold Boilly
4. Cue sports – Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is employed by some as a generic label for all such games. There are other variants that use of obstacles and targets. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, and Jackie Gleason, the modern term cue sports can be used to encompass the ancestral mace games, and even the modern cueless variants, such as finger billiards, for historical reasons. Cue itself came from queue, the French word for a tail and this refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion. A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, king Louis XI of France had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, and it spread among the French nobility. Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed that her table de billiard had been taken away by those who became her executioners. In 1588, the Duke of Norfolk, owned a billyard bord coered with a greene cloth, three billyard sticks and 11 balls of yvery. Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in almost every Paris café, in England, the game was developing into a very popular activity for members of the gentry. By 1670, the butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion. The cue as it is today was finally developed by about 1800. Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them, the newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, after a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment. The demand for tables and other equipment was initially met in Europe by John Thurston, the early balls were made from wood and clay, but the rich preferred to use ivory. The early croquet-like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category – what most non-Commonwealth, variations include three-cushion, straight rail and the balkline variants, cushion caroms, five-pins, and four-ball, among others. In the United States pool and billiards had died out for a bit, players in annual championships began to receive their own cigarette cards. This was mainly due to the fact that it was a pastime for troops to take their minds off from battleCue sports – Inset from School of Recreation, 1710. "We perceive from the engraving of the Billiards of the seventtenth century, that the game was altogether different from what it is now."
5. Bastille Day – Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries/lands to the French National Day, which is celebrated on 14 July each year. In France, it is called la Fête nationale and commonly and legally le 14 juillet. On 19 May 1789, Louis XVI invited Estates-General to air their grievances, the deputies of the Third Estate, representing the common people—the two others were the Catholic clergy and the nobility —decided to break away and form a National Assembly. The Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing not to separate until a constitution had been established and they were gradually joined by delegates of the other estates, Louis XVI started to recognize the validity of their concerns on 27 June. The assembly renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July, jacques Necker, the finance minister, who was sympathetic to the Third Estate, was dismissed on 11 July. As it happened, at the time of the attack in July 1789 there were only seven inmates, the crowd was eventually reinforced by mutinous Gardes Françaises, whose usual role was to protect public buildings. They proved a match for the forts defenders, and Governor de Launay. However, possibly because of a misunderstanding, fighting resumed, shortly after the storming of the Bastille, late in the evening of 4 August, after a very stormy session of the Assemblée Constituante, feudalism was abolished. On 26 August, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the Fête de la Fédération on 14 July 1790 was a celebration of the unity of the French nation during the French Revolution. The aim of this celebration, one year after the Storming of the Bastille, was to symbolize peace, the event took place on the Champ de Mars, which was at the time far outside Paris. The place had been transformed on a basis by the population of Paris. A mass was celebrated by Talleyrand, bishop of Autun, the popular General Lafayette, as captain of the National Guard of Paris and a confidant of the king, took his oath to the constitution, followed by King Louis XVI. On 30 June 1878, a feast was arranged in Paris to honour the French Republic. On 14 July 1879, there was another feast, with a semi-official aspect, the days events included a reception in the Chamber of Deputies, organised and presided over by Léon Gambetta, a military review at Longchamp, and a Republican Feast in the Pré Catelan. All through France, Le Figaro wrote, people feasted much to honour the storming of the Bastille, on 21 May 1880, Benjamin Raspail proposed a law to have the Republic choose the 14 July as a yearly national holiday. The Assembly voted in favour of the proposal on 21 May and 8 June, the Senate approved it on 27 and 29 June, favouring 14 July against 4 August. The law was made official on 6 July 1880, and the Ministry of the Interior recommended to Prefects that the day should be celebrated with all the brilliance that the local resources allow, indeed, the celebrations of the new holiday in 1880 were particularly magnificent. This day cannot be blamed for having shed a drop of blood and it was the consecration of the unity of FranceBastille Day – Storming of the Bastille, by Jean-Pierre-Louis-Laurent Houel
6. Carlo Goldoni – Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice. His works include some of Italys most famous and best-loved plays, audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni for their ingenious mix of wit and honesty. His plays offered his contemporaries images of themselves, often dramatizing the lives, values, though he wrote in French and Italian, his plays make rich use of the Venetian language, regional vernacular, and colloquialisms. Goldoni also wrote under the pen name and title Polisseno Fegeio, Pastor Arcade, One of his best known works is the comic play Servant of Two Masters, which has been translated and adapted internationally numerous times. In 2011, Richard Bean adapted the play for the National Theatre of Great Britain as One Man and its popularity led to a transfer to the West End and in 2012 to Broadway. There is an abundance of information on Goldoni, most of which comes from the introductions to his plays. However, these memoirs are known to many errors of fact. In these memoirs, he himself as a born comedian, careless, light-hearted and with a happy temperament, proof against all strokes of fate. Goldoni was born in Venice in 1707, the son of Margherita, in his memoirs, Goldoni describes his father as a physician, and claims that he was introduced to theatre by his grandfather Carlo Alessandro Goldoni. In reality, it seems that Giulio was an apothecary, as for the grandfather and his father placed him under the care of the philosopher Caldini at Rimini but the youth soon ran away with a company of strolling players and returned to Venice. In 1723 his father matriculated him into the stern Collegio Ghislieri in Pavia, however, he relates in his Memoirs that a considerable part of his time was spent in reading Greek and Latin comedies. He had already begun writing at this time and, in his third year, as a result of that incident he was expelled from the school and had to leave the city. He studied law at Udine, and eventually took his degree at University of Modena and he was employed as a law clerk at Chioggia and Feltre, after which he returned to his native city and began practicing. Goldoni returned with her to Venice, where he stayed until 1743, Goldoni entered the Italian theatre scene with a tragedy, Amalasunta, produced in Milan. The play was a critical and financial failure, everything must be done according to a certain form which I will explain to you. Goldoni thanked his critic, went back to his inn and ordered a fire and his next play, Belisario, written in 1734, was more successful, though of its success he afterward professed himself ashamed. During this period he wrote librettos for opera seria and served for a time as literary director of the San Giovanni Grisostomo. He wrote other tragedies for a time, but he was not long in discovering that his bent was for comedyCarlo Goldoni – Carlo Goldoni
7. Denis Diderot – Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, Denis Diderot was born in Langres, Champagne, and began his formal education at a Jesuit collège in Langres. His parents were Didier Diderot a cutler, maître coutelier, three of five siblings survived to adulthood, Denise Diderot and their youngest brother Pierre-Didier Diderot, and finally their sister Angélique Diderot. According to Arthur McCandless Wilson, Denis Diderot greatly admired his sister Denise, in 1732 Denis Diderot earned the Master of Arts degree in philosophy. Then he entered the Collège dHarcourt of the University of Paris and he abandoned the idea of entering the clergy and decided instead to study at the Paris Law Faculty. His study of law was short-lived however and in 1734 Diderot decided to become a writer, because of his refusal to enter one of the learned professions, he was disowned by his father, and for the next ten years he lived a bohemian existence. In 1742 he befriended Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in 1743 he further alienated his father by marrying Antoinette Champion, a devout Roman Catholic. The match was considered due to Champions low social standing, poor education, fatherless status. She was about three years older than Diderot, the marriage in October 1743 produced one surviving child, a girl. Her name was Angélique, after both Diderots dead mother and sister, the death of his sister, a nun, from overwork in the convent may have affected Diderots opinion of religion. Babuti, Madeleine de Puisieux, Sophie Volland and Mme de Maux and his letters to Sophie Volland are known for their candor and are regarded to be among the literary treasures of the eighteenth century. Though his work was broad as well as rigorous, it did not bring Diderot riches, when the time came for him to provide a dowry for his daughter, he saw no alternative than to sell his library. When Empress Catherine II of Russia heard of his financial troubles she commissioned an agent in Paris to buy the library and she then requested that the philosopher retain the books in Paris until she required them, and act as her librarian with a yearly salary. Between October 1773 and March 1774, the sick Diderot spent a few months at the court in Saint Petersburg. Diderot died of thrombosis in Paris on 31 July 1784. His heirs sent his vast library to Catherine II, who had it deposited at the National Library of Russia and this idea seems to have been shelved. In 1745, he published a translation of Shaftesburys Inquiry Concerning Virtue and Merit, in 1746, Diderot wrote his first original work, the Philosophical Thoughts. In this book, Diderot argued for a reconciliation of reason with feeling so as to establish harmony, according to Diderot, without feeling there would be a detrimental effect on virtue and no possibility of creating sublime workDenis Diderot – n° 9 de la place dans le centre ville de Langres in the background on the right side the birthplace of Denis Diderot
8. Jacques-Louis David – Jacques-Louis David was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. David later became a supporter of the French Revolution and friend of Maximilien Robespierre. Imprisoned after Robespierres fall from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release, at this time he developed his Empire style, notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. After Napoleons fall from Imperial power and the Bourbon revival, David exiled himself to Brussels, then in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, where he remained until his death. David had a number of pupils, making him the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century. Jacques-Louis David was born into a family in Paris on 30 August 1748. When he was nine his father was killed in a duel. He covered his notebooks with drawings, and he said, I was always hiding behind the instructors chair. Soon, he desired to be a painter, but his uncles and he overcame the opposition, and went to learn from François Boucher, the leading painter of the time, who was also a distant relative. Boucher was a Rococo painter, but tastes were changing, Boucher decided that instead of taking over Davids tutelage, he would send David to his friend, Joseph-Marie Vien, a painter who embraced the classical reaction to Rococo. There David attended the Royal Academy, based in what is now the Louvre, each year the Academy awarded an outstanding student the prestigious Prix de Rome, which funded a three- to five-year stay in the Eternal City. Each pensionnaire was lodged in the French Academys Roman outpost, which from the years 1737 to 1793 was the Palazzo Mancini in the Via del Corso. David competed for, and failed to win, the prize for three years, each failure contributing to his lifelong grudge against the institution. After his second loss in 1772, David went on a hunger strike, confident he now had the support and backing needed to win the prize, he resumed his studies with great zeal—only to fail to win the Prix de Rome again the following year. Finally, in 1774, David was awarded the Prix de Rome on the strength of his painting of Erasistratus Discovering the Cause of Antiochus Disease, a subject set by the judges. In October 1775 he made the journey to Italy with his mentor, Joseph-Marie Vien, while in Italy, David especially studied the works of 17th-century masters such as Poussin, Caravaggio, and the Carracci. Mengs principled, historicizing approach to the representation of classical subjects profoundly influenced Davids pre-revolutionary painting, such as The Vestal Virgin, mengs also introduced David to the theoretical writings on ancient sculpture by Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the German scholar held to be the founder of modern art history. In 1779, David toured the newly excavated ruins of Pompeii, while in Rome, David also assiduously studied the High Renaissance painters, Raphael making a profound and lasting impression on the young French artistJacques-Louis David – Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David, 1794, Musée du Louvre
9. Eleanor of Aquitaine – Eleanor of Aquitaine was a Queen consort of France and England. As a member of the Ramnulfids rulers in southwestern France, she was one of the most powerful and she inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine from her father, William X, in 1137, and by successive marriages became Queen of France and then of England. She was patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure and she led armies several times in her life and was a leader of the Second Crusade. As Duchess of Aquitaine, Eleanor was the most eligible bride in Europe, three months after she became duchess, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade, soon afterwards, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage, but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III. However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment, the marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody was awarded to Louis, as soon as the annulment was granted, Eleanor became engaged to the Duke of Normandy, who became King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry was her cousin and eleven years younger. The couple married on Whitsun,18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanors first marriage, in a cathedral in Poitiers, over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children, five sons, three of whom would become kings, and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged, Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting their son Henrys revolt against him. She was not released until 6 July 1189, when Henry died and their son, Richard the Lionheart. Now Queen dowager, Eleanor acted as regent while Richard went on the Third Crusade, on his return Richard was captured, Eleanor lived well into the reign of her youngest son, John. She outlived all her children except for John and Eleanor, on the other hand, some chronicles mention a fidelity oath of some lords of Aquitaine on the occasion of Eleanors fourteenth birthday in 1136. This, and her age of 82 at her death. Her parents almost certainly married in 1121 and her birthplace may have been Poitiers, Bordeaux, or Nieul-sur-lAutise, where her mother and brother died when Eleanor was 6 or 8. It became Eléanor in the langues doïl of northern France and Eleanor in English, there was, however, another prominent Eleanor before her, Eleanor of Normandy, an aunt of William the Conqueror, who lived a century earlier than Eleanor of Aquitaine. In Paris as the Queen of France she was called Helienordis, by all accounts, Eleanors father ensured that she had the best possible education. Eleanor came to learn arithmetic, the constellations, and history and she also learned domestic skills such as household management and the needle arts of embroidery, needlepoint, sewing, spinning, and weavingEleanor of Aquitaine – Eleanor's effigy at Fontevraud Abbey
10. Edmund Burke – Burke criticized British treatment of the American colonies, including through its taxation policies. Burke is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company, in the nineteenth century Burke was praised by both conservatives and liberals. Subsequently, in the century, he became widely regarded as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism. Burke was born in Dublin, Ireland, Burke adhered to his fathers faith and remained a practising Anglican throughout his life, unlike his sister Juliana who was brought up as and remained a Roman Catholic. Although never denying his Irishness, Burke often described himself as an Englishman, according to the historian J. C. D. Clark, this was in an age before Celtic nationalism sought to make Irishness and Englishness incompatible. As a child he spent time away from the unhealthy air of Dublin with his mothers family in the Blackwater Valley in County Cork. He received his education at a Quaker school in Ballitore, County Kildare, some 67 kilometres from Dublin. He remained in correspondence with his schoolmate from there, Mary Leadbeater, in 1744, Burke started at Trinity College Dublin, a Protestant establishment, which up until 1793, did not permit Catholics to take degrees. The minutes of the meetings of Burkes Club remain in the collection of the Historical Society, Burke graduated from Trinity in 1748. Burkes father wanted him to read Law, and with this in mind he went to London in 1750, after eschewing the Law, he pursued a livelihood through writing. The late Lord Bolingbrokes Letters on the Study and Use of History was published in 1752 and this provoked Burke into writing his first published work, A Vindication of Natural Society, A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind, appearing in Spring 1756. Burke imitated Bolingbrokes style and ideas in a reductio ad absurdum of his arguments for atheistic rationalism, Burke claimed that Bolingbrokes arguments against revealed religion could apply to all social and civil institutions as well. Lord Chesterfield and Bishop Warburton initially thought that the work was genuinely by Bolingbroke rather than a satire, all the reviews of the work were positive, with critics especially appreciative of Burkes quality of writing. Some reviewers failed to notice the ironic nature of the book, a minority of scholars have taken the position that, in fact, Burke did write the Vindication in earnest, later disowning it only for political reasons. It was his only purely philosophical work, and when asked by Sir Joshua Reynolds and French Laurence to expand it thirty years later and it was to be submitted for publication by Christmas 1758. G. M. Young did not value Burkes history and claimed that it was demonstrably a translation from the French. Lord Acton, on commenting on the story that Burke stopped his history because David Hume published his, Burke remained the chief editor of the publication until at least 1789 and there is no evidence that any other writer contributed to it before 1766. On 12 March 1757, Burke married Jane Mary Nugent, daughter of Dr Christopher Nugent and their son Richard was born on 9 February 1758, an elder son, Christopher, died in infancyEdmund Burke – Painting of Edmund Burke MP c. 1767, studio of Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792)
11. Fontainebleau – Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris, Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, and it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region, Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris, inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries and it became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a composite of two words, Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed with a hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. A century later, Louis IX, also called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as his wilderness, had a country house, philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there, the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile, mainly in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, an agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, during the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning Fountain by the Mountain. On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, from June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was very moving, the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau stripped Napoleon of his powers and sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a village and a suburb of Avon, later, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the portion of the modern pentathlon event. This event took place near a golf course, Fontainebleau also hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command, the air forces command was located nearby at Camp GuynemerFontainebleau – Palace of Fontainebleau
12. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. The Revolution also witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France. In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIVFrench Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
13. French Republican Calendar – The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France. Sylvain Maréchal, prominent anticlerical atheist, published the first edition of his Almanach des Honnêtes-gens in 1788, on pages 14–15 appears a calendar, consisting of twelve months. The first month is Mars, ou Princeps, the last month is Février, the lengths of the months are the same, however, the 10th, 20th, and 30th are singled out of each month as the end of a décade. Individual days were assigned, instead of to the saints, to people noteworthy for mostly secular achievements. Later editions of the almanac would switch to the Republican Calendar, the days of the French Revolution and Republic saw many efforts to sweep away various trappings of the ancien régime, some of these were more successful than others. The new Republican government sought to institute, among other reforms, a new social and legal system, a new system of weights and measures, and a new calendar. Amid nostalgia for the ancient Roman Republic, the theories of the Enlightenment were at their peak, natural constants, multiples of ten, and Latin as well as Old Greek derivations formed the fundamental blocks from which the new systems were built. The new calendar was created by a commission under the direction of the politician Charles-Gilbert Romme seconded by Claude Joseph Ferry and it is because of his position as rapporteur of the commission that the creation of the republican calendar is attributed to Romme. The calendar is called the French Revolutionary Calendar because it was created during the Revolution. Indeed, there was initially a debate as to whether the calendar should celebrate the Great Revolution, which began in July 1789, or the Republic, immediately following 14 July 1789, papers and pamphlets started calling 1789 year I of Liberty and the following years II and III. It was in 1792, with the problem of dating financial transactions. Originally, the choice of epoch was either 1 January 1789 or 14 July 1789, after some hesitation the assembly decided on 2 January 1792 that all official documents would use the era of Liberty and that the year IV of Liberty started on 1 January 1792. This usage was modified on 22 September 1792 when the Republic was proclaimed, the establishment of the Republic was used as the epochal date for the calendar, therefore, the calendar commemorates the Republic, not the Revolution. In France, it is known as the calendrier républicain as well as the calendrier révolutionnaire, the Revolution is usually considered to have ended with the coup of 18 Brumaire in Year VIII. The French Republic ended with the coronation of Napoleon I as Empereur des Français on 11 Frimaire, Year XIII, French coins of the period naturally used this calendar. Many show the year in Arabic numbers, although Roman numerals were used on some issues, Year 11 coins typically have a XI date to avoid confusion with the Roman II. Napoléon finally abolished the calendar with effect from 1 January 1806, however, it was used again during the brief Paris Commune, 6–23 May 1871. These documents have kept their original dates for legal accuracy and citation purposes, years appear in writing as Roman numerals, with epoch 22 September 1792, the beginning of the Republican EraFrench Republican Calendar – French Republican Calendar of 1794, drawn by Philibert-Louis Debucourt
14. Fashion – Fashion is a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body, or furniture. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which a person dresses and it is the prevailing styles in behaviour and the newest creations of textile designers. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous, early Western travelers, traveling whether to Persia, Turkey, India, or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in the respective places. The Japanese Shoguns secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years, however, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia, the beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers, the pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and mens fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex. Art historians are able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years. These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, in the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century. Though textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentlemans coat, by 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike, local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant. The Haute house was the established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. Since then, the idea of the designer as a celebrity in his or her own right has become increasingly dominant. The impact of unisex expands more broadly to various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail. Fashion weeks are held in cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. Modern Westerners have a number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests, when people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may startFashion – In Following the Fashion (1794), James Gillray caricatured a figure flattered by the short- bodiced gowns then in fashion, contrasting it with an imitator whose figure is not flattered.
15. Giacomo Puccini – Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was an Italian opera composer who has been called the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi. Puccinis early work was rooted in traditional late-19th-century romantic Italian opera, later, he successfully developed his work in the realistic verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. Puccinis most renowned works are La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, Puccini was born Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini in Lucca in Tuscany, in 1858. He was one of nine children of Michele Puccini and Albina Magi, the Puccini family was established in Lucca as a local musical dynasty by Puccinis great-great grandfather – also named Giacomo. This first Giacomo Puccini was maestro di cappella of the Cattedrale di San Martino in Lucca and he was succeeded in this position by his son, Antonio Puccini, and then by Antonios son Domenico, and Domenicos son Michele. Each of these men studied music at Bologna, and some additional musical studies elsewhere. Domenico Puccini studied for a time under Giovanni Paisiello, each composed music for the church. In addition, Domenico composed several operas, and Michele composed one opera, Puccinis father Michele enjoyed a reputation throughout northern Italy, and his funeral was an occasion of public mourning, at which the then-famed composer Giovanni Pacini conducted a Requiem. However, when Michele Puccini died in 1864, his son Giacomo was only six years old, as a child, he nevertheless participated in the musical life of the Cattedrale di San Martino, as a member of the boys choir and later as a substitute organist. Puccini was given an education at the seminary of San Michele in Lucca. One of Puccinis uncles, Fortunato Magi, supervised his musical education, Puccini got a diploma from the Pacini School of Music in Lucca in 1880, having studied there with his uncle Fortunato, and later with Carlo Angeloni, who had also instructed Alfredo Catalani. Puccini studied at the conservatory for three years, sharing a room with Pietro Mascagni, in 1880, at the age of 21, Puccini composed his Mass, which marks the culmination of his familys long association with church music in his native Lucca. Puccini wrote a piece called the Capriccio sinfonica as a thesis composition for the Milan Conservatory. Puccinis teachers Ponchielli and Bazzini were impressed by the work, and it was performed at a student concert at the conservatory on 14 July 1883, conducted by Franco Faccio. Puccinis work was reviewed in the Milanese publication Perseveranza. After the premiere of the Capriccio sinfonica, Ponchielli and Puccini discussed the possibility that Puccinis next work might be an opera, Ponchielli invited Puccini to stay at his villa, where Puccini was introduced to another young man named Fernando Fontana. Puccini and Fontana agreed to collaborate on an opera, for which Fontana would provide the libretto, the work, Le Villi, was entered into a competition sponsored by the Sozogno music publishing company in 1883. Although it did not win, Le Villi was later staged at the Teatro Dal Verme, G. Ricordi & Co. music publishers assisted with the premier by printing the libretto without chargeGiacomo Puccini – Giacomo Puccini
16. History of Europe – The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. Some of the civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern empires, during the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe grew in strength, and repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD476 traditionally marks the end of the period and the start of the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples became more powerful in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own. Of all of the Germanic peoples, the Franks would rise to a position of hegemony over Western Europe, the British Isles were the site of several large-scale migrations. The Viking Age, a period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, the Normans, a Viking people who settled in Northern France, had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to Southern Italy and Sicily. The Rus people founded Kievan Rus, which evolved into Russia, after 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions originally intended to bring the Levant back under Christian rule. The Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa, the Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the rise, led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads who established a decentralized empire which, at its height, extended from China in the east to the Black and Baltic Seas in Europe. The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe, the epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period, in Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years War. Russia continued to expand southward and eastward into former Mongol lands, in the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire overran Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, which historians mark as the end of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century in Florence and later spreading through Europe, the rediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge had an enormous liberating effect on intellectuals. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation under German Martin Luther questioned Papal authority, henry VIII seized control of the English Church and its lands. The European religious wars between German and Spanish rulers, the Reconquista ended Muslim rule in Iberia. By the 1490s a series of oceanic explorations marked the Age of Discovery, establishing links with Africa, the AmericasHistory of Europe – Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
17. Horace Walpole – Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford — also known as Horace Walpole — was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. He had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London and his literary reputation rests on his Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto and his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. He was the son of the first British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, as Horace Walpole was childless, on his death his barony descended to his cousin of the same surname, who was created the new Earl of Orford. Walpole was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, like his father, he received early education in Bexley, he was also educated at Eton College and Kings College, Cambridge. Walpoles first friends were probably his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became strongly attached, at Eton he formed with Charles Lyttelton and George Montagu the Triumvirate, a schoolboy confederacy. More important were another group of friends dubbed the Quadruple Alliance, Walpole, Thomas Gray, Richard West, at Cambridge Walpole came under the influence of Conyers Middleton, an unorthodox theologian. Walpole came to accept the nature of Middletons attitude to some essential Christian doctrines for the rest of his life, including a hatred of superstition. Walpole ceased to reside at Cambridge at the end of 1738, according to one biographer his love for his mother was the most powerful emotion of his entire life. the whole of his psychological history was dominated by it. Walpole did not have any relationships with women, he has been called a natural celibate. Walpoles sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation, many contemporaries described him as effeminate. Biographers such as Timothy Mowl explore his possible homosexuality, including a passionate, some previous biographers such as Lewis, Fothergill, and Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer, however, have interpreted Walpole as asexual. Upon coming of age he became Comptroller of the Pipe and Clerk of the Estreats which gave him an income of £300 per annum, Walpole decided to go travelling with Thomas Gray and wrote a will whereby he left Gray all his belongings. They left Dover on 29 March and arrived at Calais later that day and they then travelled through Boulogne, Amiens and Saint-Denis, arriving at Paris on 4 April. Here they met many aristocratic Englishmen, in early June they left Paris for Rheims, then in September going to Dijon, Lyons, Dauphiné, Savoy, Aix-les-Bains, Geneva, and then back to Lyons. In October they left for Italy, arriving in Turin in November, then going to Genoa, Piacenza, Parma, Reggio, Modena, Bologna, and in December arriving at Florence. Here he struck up a friendship with Horace Mann, an assistant to the British Minister at the Court of Tuscany and wrote Epistle from Florence to Thomas Ashton, tutor to the Earl of Plymouth, a mixture of Whig history and Middletons teachings. In February 1740 Walpole and Gray left for Rome with the intention of witnessing the papal conclave upon the death of Pope Clement XII, Walpole wanted to attend fashionable parties and Gray wanted to visit all the antiquities. At social occasions in Rome he saw the Old Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart, Walpole and Gray returned to Florence in JulyHorace Walpole – Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds 1756 National Portrait Gallery, collection London.
18. House of Habsburg – The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740, from the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the name as his own. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, by 1276, Count Radbots seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg had moved the familys power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary. In the 16th century, the separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century, the senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine, the new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, the origins of the castles name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108. The Habsburg Castle was the seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, in the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were also able to high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake ConstanceHouse of Habsburg – House of Habsburg
19. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language, over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Romans and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire, in the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VIs attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its holder, Edward III of England. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine. The war ended with a Valois victory in 1453, victory in the Hundred Years War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into an absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, Henry, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century, French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, The Sun King, builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, the Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, and coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established, France slowly recovered economically, and enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its very low fertility rate. Long wars in Indochina and Algeria drained French resources and ended in political defeat, in the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments, since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO. It played a role in the unification process after 1945 that led to the European UnionHistory of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
20. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France and across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution, Rousseaus novel Emile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction and his Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club and he was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794,16 years after his death. Rousseau was born in Geneva, which was at the time a city-state, since 1536, Geneva had been a Huguenot republic and the seat of Calvinism. Rousseau was proud that his family, of the order, had voting rights in the city. Throughout his life, he signed his books Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Geneva, in theory, was governed democratically by its male voting citizens, the citizens were a minority of the population when compared to the immigrants, referred to as inhabitants, whose descendants were called natives and continued to lack suffrage. There was much debate within Geneva, extending down to the tradespeople. Much discussion was over the idea of the sovereignty of the people, in 1707, a democratic reformer named Pierre Fatio protested this situation, saying a sovereign that never performs an act of sovereignty is an imaginary being. He was shot by order of the Little Council, Jean-Jacques Rousseaus father, Isaac, was not in the city at this time, but Jean-Jacquess grandfather supported Fatio and was penalized for it. The trade of watchmaking had become a tradition by the time of Rousseaus father. Isaac followed his grandfather, father and brothers into the business, Isaac, notwithstanding his artisan status, was well educated and a lover of music. A Genevan watchmaker, Rousseau wrote, is a man who can be introduced anywhere, in 1699, Isaac ran into political difficulty by entering a quarrel with visiting English officers, who in response drew their swords and threatened him. After local officials stepped in, it was Isaac who was punished, Rousseaus mother, Suzanne Bernard Rousseau, was from an upper-class family. She was raised by her uncle Samuel Bernard, a Calvinist preacher and he cared for Suzanne after her father Jacques died in his early thirties. In 1695, Suzanne had to answer charges that she had attended a street theater disguised as a peasant woman so she could gaze upon M. Vincent Sarrasin, after a hearing, she was ordered by the Genevan Consistory to never interact with him again. She married Rousseaus father at the age of 31, isaacs sister had married Suzannes brother eight years earlier, after she had become pregnant and they had been chastised by the ConsistoryJean-Jacques Rousseau – Rousseau in 1753, by Maurice Quentin de La Tour
21. John Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott, an American historian, pastor, and pedagogical writer, was born in Brunswick, Maine to Jacob and Betsey Abbott. He was a brother of Jacob Abbott, and was associated with him in the management of Abbotts Institute, New York City, dr. Owing to the success of a little work, The Mother at Home, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature. He was a writer of books on Christian ethics, and of popular histories. He is best known as the author of the widely popular History of Napoleon Bonaparte, in which the various elements, Abbott takes a very favourable view towards his subject throughout. Also among his works are, History of the Civil War in America. He also did a forward to a book called Life of Boone by W. M. Bogart, in general, except that he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott. On August 17,1835 he married Jane Williams Bourne, daughter of Abner Bourne, Abbott was given guardianship of Shige Nagai, a Japanese girl sent to the United States to be educated. John Stevens Cabot Abbott died at Fair Haven, Connecticut, in 1910, a series of twenty short biographies of historical characters by J. S. C. and Jacob Abbott, was published. Their brother, Gorham Dummer Abbott, was also an author, Abbotts grandson, Willis Abbott, was a Christian Scientist and an editor of the Christian Science Monitor. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Abbott. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Cousin. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, london, J. M. Dent & SonsJohn Stevens Cabot Abbott – John Stevens Cabot Abbott
22. Kirsten Dunst – Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress. She made her debut in Woody Allens short film Oedipus Wrecks for the anthology film New York Stories. At the age of twelve, Dunst gained widespread recognition as Claudia in Interview with the Vampire and she appeared in Little Women the same year and in Jumanji the following year. Dunst achieved fame for her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in Sam Raimis Spider-Man trilogy and she played the title role in Sofia Coppolas biographical film Marie Antoinette and starred in the comedy film How to Lose Friends & Alienate People. She won the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and she starred in the second season of the television series Fargo in 2015, playing the role of Peggy Blumquist, a slightly delusional and neurotic hairdresser. In 2001, Dunst made her debut in the film Get Over It. She also sang the jazz song After Youve Gone for the end credits of the film The Cats Meow, Dunst was born in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, to Klaus Hermann Dunst and Inez Dunst. She has a brother, Christian. Her father worked as a medical services executive, and her mother worked for Lufthansa as an attendant and was an artist. Dunsts father is German, originally from Hamburg, and Dunsts mother was born in New Jersey, until the age of eleven, Dunst lived in Brick Township, New Jersey, where she attended Ranney School. In 1993, her parents separated, and she moved with her mother and brother to Los Angeles, California. In 1995, her mother filed for divorce, after graduating from Notre Dame in 2000, Dunst continued the acting career that she had begun. As a teenager, she found it difficult to deal with her rising fame, however, she later expressed that her mother always had the best intentions. When asked if she had any regrets about the way she spent her childhood, Dunst said, Well, its not a way to grow up. I have my stuff to work out, I dont think anybody can sit around and say, My life is more screwed up than yours. Dunst began her career when she was three years old as a fashion model in television commercials. She was signed with Ford Models and Elite Model Management, at the age of six, she made her feature film debut in a minor role in Woody Allens short film Oedipus Wrecks that was released as one-third of the anthology film New York Stories. Soon after, she co-starred with Tom Hanks in the comedy-drama The Bonfire of the Vanities, based on Tom Wolfes novel of the same name, where she played the daughter of Hanks characterKirsten Dunst – Dunst at the 2013 premiere of Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues in Sydney, Australia
23. Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time, contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by bloodLouis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
24. Mary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of womens rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men and she suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecrafts life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, after two ill-fated affairs, with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay, Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38, eleven days after giving birth to her second daughter and this daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, became an accomplished writer herself, as Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. After Wollstonecrafts death, her widower published a Memoir of her life, revealing her unorthodox lifestyle, today Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences. Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields, London and she was the second of the seven children of Elizabeth Dixon and Edward John Wollstonecraft. Although her family had a comfortable income when she was a child, consequently, the family became financially unstable and they were frequently forced to move during Wollstonecrafts youth. The familys financial situation became so dire that Wollstonecrafts father compelled her to turn over money that she would have inherited at her maturity. Moreover, he was apparently a violent man who would beat his wife in drunken rages, as a teenager, Wollstonecraft used to lie outside the door of her mothers bedroom to protect her. Wollstonecraft played a similar role for her sisters, Everina and Eliza. The human costs, however, were severe, her sister suffered social condemnation and, because she could not remarry, was doomed to a life of poverty, two friendships shaped Wollstonecrafts early life. The first was with Jane Arden in Beverley, the two frequently read books together and attended lectures presented by Ardens father, a self-styled philosopher and scientist. Wollstonecraft revelled in the atmosphere of the Arden household and valued her friendship with Arden greatly. Wollstonecraft wrote to her, I have formed romantic notions of friendship, I am a little singular in my thoughts of love and friendship, I must have the first place or none. In some of Wollstonecrafts letters to Arden, she reveals the volatile, unhappy with her home life, Wollstonecraft struck out on her own in 1778 and accepted a job as a ladys companion to Sarah Dawson, a widow living in Bath. However, Wollstonecraft had trouble getting along with the irascible woman, in 1780 she returned home, called back to care for her dying mother. Rather than return to Dawsons employ after the death of her mother and she realized during the two years she spent with the family that she had idealized Blood, who was more invested in traditional feminine values than was WollstonecraftMary Wollstonecraft – Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797)
25. Mary, Queen of Scots – Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman. This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolveMary, Queen of Scots – Portrait of Mary after François Clouet, c. 1559
26. Nursery rhyme – A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. In North America the term Mother Goose Rhymes, introduced in the century, is still often used. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays, the first English collections, Tommy Thumbs Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumbs Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. John Newberys compilation of English rhymes, Mother Gooses Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle, is the first record we have of many classic rhymes, the oldest childrens songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a child sleep. Lullabies can be found in human culture. The English term lullaby is thought to come from lu, lu or la la sounds made by mothers or nurses to calm children, until the modern era lullabies were usually only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses lullaby, Lalla, Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta, is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive. Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including Lullay, my liking, my son, my sweting. However, most of those used today date from the 17th century, for example, a well known lullaby such as Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top, cannot be found in records until the late-18th century when it was printed by John Newbery. A French poem, similar to Thirty days hath September, numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century, from the later Middle Ages there are records of short childrens rhyming songs, often as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays, pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, bakers man is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes. The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas dUrfeys play The Campaigners from 1698. The publication of John Newberys compilation of English rhymes, Mother Gooses Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle, is the first record we have of many classic rhymes, about half of the currently recognised traditional English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century. In the early 19th century printed collections of rhymes began to spread to countries, including Robert Chamberss Popular Rhymes of Scotland and in the United States. Early folk song also often collected nursery rhymes, including in Scotland Sir Walter Scott and in Germany Clemens Brentano. By the time of Sabine Baring-Goulds A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was a study, full of comments. A professional anthropologist, Andrew Lang produced The Nursery Rhyme Book in 1897, the early years of the 20th century are notable for the illustrations to childrens books including Caldecotts Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book and Arthur Rackhams Mother Goose. The definitive study of English rhymes remains the work of Iona, many nursery rhymes have been argued to have hidden meanings and originsNursery rhyme – Illustration of " Hey Diddle Diddle ", a popular nursery rhyme
27. Quasi-War – The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. Louis XVI of France fell from power in 1792 during the French Revolution, the United States had already declared neutrality in the conflict between Great Britain and revolutionary France, and American legislation was being passed for a trade deal with Britain. When the U. S. refused to continue repaying its debt using the argument that the debt was owed to the government, not to the French First Republic. First, French privateers began seizing American ships trading with Britain, next, the French government refused to receive Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, the new U. S. Minister, when he arrived in Paris in December 1796. In April 1798, President Adams informed Congress of the XYZ Affair, meanwhile, French privateers inflicted substantial losses on American shipping. On 21 February 1797, Secretary of State Timothy Pickering told Congress that during the eleven months. French marauders cruised the length of the Atlantic seaboard virtually unopposed, the United States government had nothing to combat them, as the navy had been abolished at the end of the Revolutionary War and its last warship sold in 1785. The United States had only a flotilla of small revenue cutters, increased depredations by French privateers led to the rebirth of the United States Navy and the creation of the United States Marine Corps to defend the expanding American merchant fleet. Congress authorized the president to acquire, arm, and man not more than twelve ships of up to twenty two guns each, several merchantmen were immediately purchased and refitted as ships of war, and construction of the frigate Congress resumed. Congress rescinded the treaties with France on 7 July 1798 and that date is now considered the beginning of the Quasi-War. This was followed two days later with the passage of the Congressional authorization of attacks on French warships in American waters. The U. S. Navy operated with a fleet of about twenty five vessels. French privateers generally resisted, as did La Croyable, which was captured on 7 July 1798, by Delaware outside of Egg Harbor, enterprise captured eight privateers and freed eleven American merchant ships from captivity. Experiment captured the French privateers Deux Amis and Diane, numerous American merchantmen were recaptured by Experiment. Boston forced Le Berceau into submission, silas Talbot engineered an expedition to Puerto Plata harbor in the Colony of Santo Domingo, a possession of Frances ally Spain, on 11 May 1800. Sailors and Marines from Constitution under Lieutenant Isaac Hull captured the French privateer Sandwich in the harbor, the U. S. Navy lost only one ship to the French, Retaliation, which was later recaptured. She was the captured privateer La Croyable, recently purchased by the U. S. Navy, Retaliation departed Norfolk on 28 October 1798, with Montezuma and Norfolk, and cruised in the West Indies protecting American commerce. Montezuma and Norfolk escaped after Bainbridge convinced the senior French commander that those American warships were too powerful for his frigates, renamed Magicienne by the French, the schooner again came into American hands on 28 June, when a broadside from Merrimack forced her to haul down her colorsQuasi-War – From top to bottom: USS Constellation vs L 'Insurgente; U.S. Marines from the USS Constitution board and capture the French Privateer before spiking the cannons of the Spanish fort
28. Reign of Terror – The Reign of Terror or The Terror, is the label given by some historians to a period of violence during the French Revolution. Different historians place the date at either 5 September 1793 or June 1793 or March 1793 or September 1792 or July 1789. Between June 1793 and the end of July 1794, there were 16,594 official death sentences in France, but the total number of deaths in France in 1793–96 in only the civil war in the Vendée is estimated at 250,000 counter-revolutionaries and 200,000 republicans. During 1794, revolutionary France was beset with conspiracies by internal, within France, the revolution was opposed by the French nobility, which had lost its inherited privileges. The Catholic Church opposed the revolution, which had turned the clergy into employees of the state, in addition, the French First Republic was engaged in a series of wars with neighboring powers, and parts of France were engaging in civil war against the loyalist regime. The latter were grouped in the parliamentary faction called the Mountain. Through the Revolutionary Tribunal, the Terrors leaders exercised broad powers, the Reign was a manifestation of the strong strain on centralized power. Many historians have debated the reasons the French Revolution took such a turn during the Reign of Terror of 1793–94. The public was frustrated that the equality and anti-poverty measures that the revolution originally promised were not materializing. Jacques Rouxs Manifesto of the Enraged on 25 June 1793, describes the extent to which, four years into the revolution, the foundation of the Terror is centered on the April 1793 creation of the Committee of Public Safety and its militant Jacobin delegates. Those in power believed the Committee of Public Safety was an unfortunate, according to Mathiez, they touched only with trepidation and reluctance the regime established by the Constituent Assembly so as not to interfere with the early accomplishments of the revolution. Similar to Mathiez, Richard Cobb introduced competing circumstances of revolt, counter-revolutionary rebellions taking place in Lyon, Brittany, Vendée, Nantes, and Marseille were threatening the revolution with royalist ideas. Cobb writes, the revolutionaries themselves, living as if in combat… were easily persuaded that only terror, Terror was used in these rebellions both to execute inciters and to provide a very visible example to those who might be considering rebellion. Cobb agrees with Mathiez that the Terror was simply a response to circumstances, at the same time, Cobb rejects Mathiezs Marxist interpretation that elites controlled the Reign of Terror to the significant benefit of the bourgeoisie. Instead, Cobb argues that social struggles between the classes were seldom the reason for actions and sentiments. Widespread terror and a consequent rise in executions came after external and internal threats were vastly reduced, with the backing of the national guard, they persuaded the convention to arrest 29 Girondist leaders, including Jacques Pierre Brissot. On 13 July the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat – a Jacobin leader, georges Danton, the leader of the August 1792 uprising against the king, was removed from the committee. The Jacobins identified themselves with the movement and the sans-culottesReign of Terror – Nine emigrants are executed by guillotine, 1793
29. Ralph Abercromby – Sir Ralph Abercromby KB was a Scottish soldier and politician. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars and he twice served as MP for Clackmannanshire, and he was appointed Governor of Trinidad. He was the eldest son of George Abercromby of Tullibody, Clackmannanshire, and he was born at Menstrie Castle, Clackmannanshire. Educated at Rugby and at the University of Edinburgh, he was sent to Leipzig University in 1754 to study law with a view to career as an advocate. He was a member of Canongate Kilwinning Lodge No 2, Edinburgh, on returning from the continent, Abercromby expressed a strong preference for the military profession, and a cornets commission was accordingly obtained for him in the 3rd Dragoon Guards. He rose through the grades to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the regiment and brevet colonel in 1780. When that regiment was disbanded in 1783, he retired upon half pay and he also entered Parliament as MP for Clackmannanshire. He was a supporter of the American cause in the American Revolutionary War. When France declared war against Great Britain in 1793, he resumed his duties and he was appointed command of a brigade under the Duke of York for service in the Netherlands, where he commanded the advanced guard in the action at Le Cateau. During the 1794 withdrawal to Holland, he commanded the forces in the action at Boxtel and was wounded directing operations at Fort St Andries on the Waal. In 1795, he was appointed a Knight of the Bath for his services and that same year, he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey as commander-in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a detachment of the army under his orders, afterwards, Abercromby secured possession of the settlements of Demerara and Essequibo in South America, the islands of Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Trinidad. A major assault on the port of San Juan, Puerto Rico, Abercromby returned to Europe and, in reward for his services, was appointed colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons. He was also made Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, Governor of Fort George and Fort Augustus in the Scottish Highlands and he again entered Parliament as member for Clackmannanshire from 1796 to 1798. From 1797 to 1798, he was Commander-in-Chief of the forces in Ireland, when he was appointed to the command in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the French was confidently anticipated by the British government. The campaign of 1799 ended in disaster, but friend and foe alike confessed that the most decisive victory could not have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distinguished officer, in 1801, he was sent with an army to recover Egypt from France. The debarkation of the troops at Abukir, in the face of opposition, is justly ranked among the most daring. Abercromby was injured at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801 and died of his wounds seven days later aboard HMS Foudroyant and he was buried on St. Johns Bastion within Fort Saint Elmo in Valletta, MaltaRalph Abercromby – Sir Ralph Abercromby, by John Hoppner
30. Thomas Paine – Thomas Paine was an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of human rights. He has been called a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, virtually every rebel read his powerful pamphlet Common Sense, proportionally the all-time best-selling American title, which crystallized the rebellious demand for independence from Great Britain. His The American Crisis was a pamphlet series. Common Sense was so influential that John Adams said, Without the pen of the author of Common Sense, Paine lived in France for most of the 1790s, becoming deeply involved in the French Revolution. He wrote Rights of Man, in part a defense of the French Revolution against its critics and his attacks on Anglo-Irish conservative writer Edmund Burke led to a trial and conviction in absentia in 1792 for the crime of seditious libel. In 1792, despite not being able to speak French, he was elected to the French National Convention, the Girondists regarded him as an ally. Consequently, the Montagnards, especially Robespierre, regarded him as an enemy, in December 1793, he was arrested and was taken to Luxembourg Prison in Paris. While in prison, he continued to work on The Age of Reason, future President James Monroe used his diplomatic connections to get Paine released in November 1794. He also published the pamphlet Agrarian Justice, discussing the origins of property, in 1802, he returned to the U. S. where he died on June 8,1809. Only six people attended his funeral as he had been ostracized for his ridicule of Christianity, Paine was born on January 29,1736, the son of Joseph Pain and Frances, in Thetford, Norfolk, England. Joseph was a Quaker and Frances an Anglican, born Thomas Pain, despite claims that he changed his family name upon his emigration to America in 1774, he was using Paine in 1769, while still in Lewes, Sussex. He attended Thetford Grammar School, at a time there was no compulsory education. At the age of 13, he was apprenticed to his stay-maker father, Paine researchers contend his fathers occupation has been widely misinterpreted to mean that he made the stays in ladies corsets, which likely was an insult later invented by his political foes. Actually, the father and apprentice son made the thick rope stays used on sailing ships, Thetford historically had maintained a brisk trade with the downriver, then major, port town of Kings Lynn. A connection to shipping and the sea explains why, in adolescence, Thomas enlisted and briefly served as a privateer. There, he became a master stay-maker, establishing a shop in Sandwich, on September 27,1759, Thomas Paine married Mary Lambert. Mary became pregnant, and, after they moved to Margate, she went into labor, in which sheThomas Paine – Portrait by Auguste Millière (1880) oil on canvas
31. The Age of Reason – The Age of Reason, Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work written by English and American political activist Thomas Paine. It follows in the tradition of eighteenth-century British deism, and challenges institutionalized religion, originally distributed as unbound pamphlets, it was published in three parts in 1794,1795, and 1807. It was a best-seller in the United States, where it caused a deistic revival. British audiences, however, fearing increased political radicalism as a result of the French Revolution, the Age of Reason presents common deistic arguments, for example, it highlights what Paine saw as corruption of the Christian Church and criticizes its efforts to acquire political power. Paine advocates reason in the place of revelation, leading him to reject miracles and it promotes natural religion and argues for the existence of a creator-God. Most of Paines arguments had long been available to the educated elite, the book was also inexpensive, putting it within the reach of a large number of buyers. Fearing the spread of what they viewed as potentially revolutionary ideas, nevertheless, Paines work inspired and guided many free thinkers. Paines book followed in the tradition of early eighteenth-century British deism and these deists, while maintaining individual positions, still shared several sets of assumptions and arguments that Paine articulated in The Age of Reason. The most important position that united the early deists was their call for free inquiry into all subjects. Saying that early Christianity was founded on freedom of conscience, they demanded religious toleration and they also demanded that debate rest on reason and rationality. Deists embraced a Newtonian worldview, and they believed all things in the universe, even God, without a concept of natural law, the deists argued, explanations of the workings of nature would descend into irrationality. This belief in natural law drove their skepticism of miracles, along these lines, deistic writings insisted that God, as the first cause or prime mover, had created and designed the universe with natural laws as part of his plan. They held that God does not repeatedly alter his plan by suspending natural laws to intervene in human affairs and they therefore distinguished between revealed religions, such as Christianity, and natural religion, a set of universal beliefs derived from the natural world that demonstrated Gods existence. While some deists accepted revelation, most argued that revelations restriction to small groups or even a single person limited its explanatory power, moreover, many found the Christian revelations in particular to be contradictory and irreconcilable. According to these writers, revelation could reinforce the evidence for Gods existence already apparent in the natural world, most deists argued that priests had deliberately corrupted Christianity for their own gain by promoting the acceptance of miracles, unnecessary rituals, and illogical and dangerous doctrines. The worst of these doctrines was original sin, by convincing people that they required a priests help to overcome their innate sinfulness, deists argued, religious leaders had enslaved the human population. Deists therefore typically viewed themselves as intellectual liberators, by the time Part I of The Age of Reason was published in 1794, many British and French citizens had become disillusioned by the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror had begun, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had been tried and executed and those few British radicals who still supported the French revolution and its ideals were viewed with deep suspicion by their countrymenThe Age of Reason – Several early copies of The Age of Reason
32. Voltaire – Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 21,000 letters and over two books and pamphlets. He was an advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma. Some speculation surrounds Voltaires date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the son of a nobleman. Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy and his brother, Armand. Nicknamed Zozo by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, and Marie Daumard, the wife of his mothers cousin, standing as godparents. He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand, where he was taught Latin, theology, and rhetoric, later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father out, he sent Voltaire to study law. Nevertheless, he continued to write, producing essays and historical studies, Voltaires wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, at The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their scandalous affair was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year, Most of Voltaires early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government and these activities were to result in two imprisonments and a temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his own daughter, the Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, and it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release. Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation, both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation. He mainly argued for tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, and supported a constitutional monarchy that protects peoples rights, the author adopted the name Voltaire in 1718, following his incarceration at the BastilleVoltaire – Portrait by Nicolas de Largillière
33. Yellow – Yellow is the color between green and orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of roughly 570–590 nm, in traditional color theory, used in painting, and in the subtractive color system, used in color printing, yellow is a primary color. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is made by combining red, the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, geolwe, meaning yellow, yellowish, derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz yellow. It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel-, as the gold and yell. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but also wisdom and it plays an important role in Asian culture, particularly in China, where it is seen as the color of happiness, glory, wisdom, harmony, and culture. The word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, geolwe, meaning yellow, yellowish and it has the same Indo-European base, gʰel-, as the words gold and yell, gʰel- means both bright and gleaming, and to cry out. The English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, and Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700. Yellow, in the form of yellow pigment made from clay, was one of the first colors used in prehistoric cave art. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old, in Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be imperishable, eternal and indestructible. The skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold, the Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb paintings, they usually used either yellow ochre or the brilliant orpiment, though it was made of arsenic and was highly toxic. A small paintbox with orpiment pigment was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun, men were always shown with brown faces, women with yellow ochre or gold faces. The ancient Romans used yellow in their paintings to represent gold and it is found frequently in the murals of Pompeii. During the Post-Classical period, yellow became firmly established as the color of Judas Iscariot, from this connection, yellow also took on associations with envy, jealousy and duplicity. The tradition started in the Renaissance of marking non-Christian outsiders, such as Jews, in 16th century Spain, those accused of heresy and who refused to renounce their views were compelled to come before the Spanish Inquisition dressed in a yellow cape. The color yellow has been associated with moneylenders and finance. The National Pawnbrokers Associations logo depicts three golden spheres hanging from a bar, referencing the three bags of gold that the saint of pawnbroking, St. Nicholas, holds in his hands. Additionally, the symbol of three golden orbs is found in the coat of arms of the House of Medici, a fifteenth century Italian dynasty of bankers and lendersYellow – Yellow is the color of gold, butter, and ripe lemons.
34. 18th century – The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued. Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, however, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England. 1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and then commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, Almira, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India18th century – Washington crossing the Delaware, December 25, 1776, an iconic event of the American Revolution
35. 1770s – January 1 – Foundation of Fort George, Bombay laid by Colonel Keating, principal engineer, on the site of the former Dongri Fort. March 5 – Boston Massacre, Eleven American men are shot, five fatally, march 26 – First voyage of James Cook, English explorer Captain James Cook and his crew aboard HMS Endeavour complete the circumnavigation of New Zealand. April 1818,00 – First voyage of James Cook, English explorer Captain James Cook, April 20 – Georgian king Erekle II defeats the Ottoman forces in the battle of Aspindza, despite being abandoned by an ally, Russian General Totleben. April 29 – First voyage of James Cook, Captain Cook drops anchor on HMS Endeavour in a bay about 16 km south of the present city of Sydney. Because the young botanist on board the ship, Joseph Banks, discovers 30,000 specimens of plant life in the area,1,600 of them unknown to European science, may 7 – Fourteen-year-old Marie Antoinette arrives at the French court. May 16 –Marie Antoinette marries Louis-Auguste, may 20 – A stampede at a celebration of the newly wedded Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste in Paris kills more than a hundred people. June 9 – Falklands Crisis, Some 1600 Spanish marines, sent by the Spanish governor of Buenos Aires in five frigates, the small British force present promptly surrenders. June 11 – First voyage of James Cook, HMS Endeavour grounds on the Great Barrier Reef, july 1 – Lexells Comet passes the Earth at a distance of 2184129 km, the closest approach by a comet in recorded history. July 5 – Battle of Chesma and Battle of Larga, The Russian Empire defeats the Ottoman Empire in both battles, august 1 – Russo-Turkish War – Battle of Kagul, Russian commander Pyotr Rumyantsev routs 150,000 Turks. Johann Gottfried Herder meets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Strasbourg, Joseph Priestley, British chemist, recommends the use of a rubber to remove pencil marks. The Baron dHolbachs materialist work Le Système de la Nature ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du Monde Moral is produced in Neuchâtel, January 9 – Emperor Go-Momozono accedes to the throne of Japan, following his aunts abdication. February 12 – Upon the death of Adolf Frederick, he is succeeded as King of Sweden by his son Gustav III, at the time, however, Gustav is unaware of this, since he is abroad in Paris. The news of his fathers death reaches him about a month later, march – War of the Regulation, North Carolina Governor William Tryon raises a militia to put down the long-running uprising of backcountry militias against North Carolinas colonial government. March 12 – The North Carolina General Assembly establishes Wake County from portions of Cumberland, Johnston, bloomsbury is made the informal county seat. March 15 – Society of Civil Engineers first meets, the worlds oldest engineering society, may 11 – War of the Regulation, North Carolina Governor William Tryon marches his military out of Hillsborough to come to the aid of General Hugh Waddells beleaguered forces. Tryons army stops at Alamance Creek,5 miles away from the Regulator army, may 16 – War of the Regulation, The Battle of Alamance commences after Regulators reject an appeal by Governor Tryon to peacefully disperse. Governor Tryons forces crush the rebellion, causing many Regulators to move to areas outside of North Carolina. May 23 – Battle of Lanckorona, A force of 4,000 Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat a Polish formation of 1,300 men, july 13 – Russo-Turkish War, Russian forces occupy the Crimea under Prince Vasily Dolgorukov1770s – July 5: Battle of Chesma, painting by Ivan Aivazovsky.
36. 1790s – January 8 – United States President George Washington gives the first State of the Union address, in New York City. January 11 –11 minor states of the Austrian Netherlands which took part in the Brabant Revolution at the end of 1789 sign a Treaty of Union creating the United States of Belgium, prime Minister of Great Britain William Pitt refuses to recognize the new confederations independence. January 26 – Mozarts opera Così fan tutte premiered in Vienna, January 30 – The first boat specialized as a rescue lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne in England. February 1 – In New York City the Supreme Court of the United States convenes for the first time, February 4 – Louis XVI of France declares to the National Assembly that he will maintain the constitutional laws. February 11 – Two Quaker delegates petition the United States Congress for the abolition of slavery, march 1 – The first United States Census is authorized, it is held later in the year. March 4 – France is divided into 83 départements, which cut across the former provinces, march 21 – Thomas Jefferson reports to President George Washington in New York as the new United States Secretary of State. April 10 – The United States patent system is established, may 17–18 – Battle of Andros, an Ottoman–Algerian fleet destroys the fleet of the Greek privateer Lambros Katsonis. May 29 – Rhode Island ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the last of the 13 original states to do so, June 9 – Royal assent is given to establishment of the port of Milford Haven in Wales. June 23 – The alleged London Monster is arrested in London, july – Louis XVI of France accepts a constitutional monarchy. July 12 – French Revolution, The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed and this completes the destruction of the monastic orders, legislating out of existence all regular and secular chapters for either sex, abbacies and priorships. July 14 – French Revolution, Citizens of Paris celebrate the unity of the French people, july 16 – The signing of the Residence Bill establishes a site along the Potomac River as the District of Columbia, the capital district of the United States. S. July 27 – The Convention of Reichenbach is signed between Prussia and Austria, july 31 – Inventor Samuel Hopkins becomes the first to be issued a U. S. patent. August 4 – A newly passed U. S. tariff act creates the system of cutters for revenue enforcement, August 14 – The Treaty of Värälä ends the Russo-Swedish War. December 11 – Russo-Turkish War,26,000 Turkish soldiers lose their lives during Alexander Suvorovs storm of Izmail, January 12 – Holy Roman troops reenter Liège, heralding the end of the Liège Revolution and the restoration of its Prince-Bishops. January 25 – The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act 1791, February 21 – The United States opens diplomatic relations with Portugal. March 2 – In France, Abolition of guilds is enacted, a mechanical semaphore line for rapid long-distance communication is demonstrated by Claude Chappe in Paris. March 4 – Vermont is admitted as the 14th U. S. state, march 13 – Thomas Paines chief work Rights of Man is published in London. March – In France, the National Constituent Assembly accepts the recommendation of its Commission of Weights, april 21 – The first of forty boundary stones delineating the borders of the new District of Columbia in the United States is laid at Jones Point Light, in Alexandria, Virginia1790s – May 12: Battle of Reval
37. 1792 – As of the start of 1792, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 9 – The Treaty of Jassy ends the Russian Empires war with the Ottoman Empire over Crimea, february 20 – The Postal Service Act, establishing the United States Post Office Department, is signed by President George Washington. March 1 – Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, the last emperor, a few months later the capital is officially named Raleigh in honor of Sir Walter Raleigh. April 2 – The Coinage Act is passed, establishing the United States Mint, april 5 – United States President George Washington vetoes a bill designed to apportion representatives among U. S. states. This is the first time the presidential veto is used in the United States, april 20 – France declares war against Austria, beginning the French Revolutionary Wars. April 21 – Tiradentes, prime figure in the Inconfidência Mineira plot, is executed in Rio de Janeiro, april 25 Highwayman Nicolas Pelletier becomes the first person executed by guillotine in France. La Marseillaise, the French national anthem, is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, may 11 – Robert Grays Columbia River expedition, Captain Robert Gray on the Columbia Rediviva becomes the first white man to enter the Columbia River. May 17 – The Buttonwood Agreement is signed, beginning the New York Stock Exchange, may 18 – War in Defence of the Constitution, Russia invades Poland. May 21 – An old lava dome collapses in Kyūshū, Japan when Mount Unzen volcano erupts, june 1 – Kentucky becomes the 15th state of the United States of America. June 4 – Captain George Vancouver claims Puget Sound for Great Britain, june 13 Vancouver becomes the first European to enter Burrard Inlet. August 10 – French Revolution, The Tuileries Palace is stormed, september – Macartney Embassy, George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, sails from Portsmouth in HMS Lion as the first official envoy from the Great Britain to China. September 11 – Six men steal some of the former French Crown Jewels from a warehouse where the government had stored them. September 14 – Thomas Paine flees from England to France after being indicted for treason and he is tried in absentia during December and outlawed. September 20 – Battle of Valmy, The French revolutionary army defeats Prussians under the Duke of Brunswick after a 7-hour artillery duel, september 21 – Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy by the French Convention and establishment of the French First Republic with effect from the following day. September 22 – The Era of the historical French Republican Calendar begins, october 12 – The first Columbus Day celebration in the United States is held in New York City,300 years after his arrival in the New World. October 13 – Foundation of Washington, D. C, the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion, known as the White House after 1818, is laid. October 29 – Mount Hood is named after the British Admiral Lord Hood by Lt. William Broughton of the Vancouver Expedition, December 3 – George Washington is re-elected President of the United States. December 26 – The trial of Louis XVI of France begins, the Baptist Missionary Society is founded in Kettering, England1792 – April 24: Guillotine (1792 model, left).
38. 1755 – As of the start of 1755, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 25 – Moscow University is established, february 13 – The kingdom of Mataram on Java is divided in two, creating the sultanate of Yogyakarta and the sunanate of Surakarta. February 20 – General Braddock lands in Virginia to take command of the British forces against the French in North America, april 2 – A naval fleet led by Commodore William James of the East India Company captures Tulaji Angres fortress Suvarnadurg from the Marathas. April 15 – A Dictionary of the English Language is published by Samuel Johnson, july 9 – French and Indian War – Braddock Expedition, British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed and suffer a devastating defeat inflicted by French and Indian forces. During the battle, British General Edward Braddock is mortally wounded, in 1998,1,400 coins are offered for sale, and in 2002 a portion is given to the South African government. July 25 – The decision to deport the Acadians is made during meetings of the Nova Scotia Council meeting in Halifax, contrary to popular belief, no Acadians are sent to Louisiana. Those sent to Virginia are refused and then sent on to Liverpool, Bristol, Southampton, in 1758 the Fortress of Louisbourg falls and all of the civilian population of Isle Royal and Isle St. Jean are repatriated to France. Among them were several thousand Acadians who had escaped the deportation by fleeing into those areas, very few Acadians successfully escape the deportation and do so only by fleeing into some of the northern sections of present day New Brunswick. The event inspires Longfellow to write the epic poem Evangeline, august 10 – The Expulsion of the Acadians begins with the Bay of Fundy Campaign. November 1 –1755 Lisbon earthquake, In Portugal, Lisbon is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami, killing 60. November 18 – An earthquake occurs in the vicinity of Cape Ann, Massachusetts, november 25 – King Ferdinand VI of Spain grants the Religious of the Virgin Mary in the Philippines royal protection. December 2 – The second Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of England is destroyed by fire, wolsey, the clothes manufacturer, is established in Leicester, England, the business celebrates its 250th anniversary in 2005. Construction of the Puning Temple complex in Chengde, China is complete, construction of St Ninians Church, Tynet, Scotland, the countrys oldest surviving post-Reformation Roman Catholic clandestine church. Joseph Black describes his discovery of carbon dioxide and magnesium in a paper to the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, the brine shrimp Artemia salina is first described, in Linnaeus Systema Naturæ. January 11 – Alexander Hamilton, first U. S1755 – August 15: Acadians
39. 1770 – As of the start of 1770, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Foundation of Fort George, Bombay laid by Colonel Keating, principal engineer, march 5 – Boston Massacre, Eleven American men are shot, five fatally, by British troops in an event that helps starting the American Revolutionary War five years later. March 26 – First voyage of James Cook, English explorer Captain James Cook, april 1818,00 – First voyage of James Cook, English explorer Captain James Cook and his crew become the first recorded Europeans to encounter the eastern coastline of the Australian continent. April 20 – Georgian king Erekle II defeats the Ottoman forces in the battle of Aspindza, despite being abandoned by an ally, Russian General Totleben. April 29 – First voyage of James Cook, Captain Cook drops anchor on HMS Endeavour in a bay about 16 km south of the present city of Sydney. Because the young botanist on board the ship, Joseph Banks, discovers 30,000 specimens of plant life in the area,1,600 of them unknown to European science, may 7 – Fourteen-year-old Marie Antoinette arrives at the French court. May 16 –Marie Antoinette marries Louis-Auguste, may 20 – A stampede at a celebration of the newly wedded Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste in Paris kills more than a hundred people. June 9 – Falklands Crisis, Some 1600 Spanish marines, sent by the Spanish governor of Buenos Aires in five frigates, the small British force present promptly surrenders. June 11 – First voyage of James Cook, HMS Endeavour grounds on the Great Barrier Reef, july 1 – Lexells Comet passes the Earth at a distance of 2184129 km, the closest approach by a comet in recorded history. July 5 – Battle of Chesma and Battle of Larga, The Russian Empire defeats the Ottoman Empire in both battles, august 1 – Russo-Turkish War – Battle of Kagul, Russian commander Pyotr Rumyantsev routs 150,000 Turks. Johann Gottfried Herder meets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Strasbourg, Joseph Priestley, British chemist, recommends the use of a rubber to remove pencil marks. The Baron dHolbachs materialist work Le Système de la Nature ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du Monde Moral is produced in Neuchâtel, london, H. G. Bohn – via Hathi Trust1770 – July 5: Battle of Chesma, painting by Ivan Aivazovsky.