1. Palace of Versailles – The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built as a hunting lodge of brick and stone, the edifice was enlarged into a royal palace by Louis XIV. The first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. It culminated in the addition of three new wings of west. After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was completed by his assistant, François d'Orbay. André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost -- how much his successors spent on Versailles. Owing to the nature of the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was referred to as the "king's house". To counter the costs of Versailles during the early years of Louis XIV's personal reign, Colbert decided that Versailles should be the "showcase" of France. Accordingly, all materials that went into the decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France.Palace of Versailles – Aerial view of the Palace from above the Gardens of Versailles
2. Art – Until the 17th century, art was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with science". Related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, military arts. However, there are many colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is not rational. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation -- through narrative or character, through drama or no drama. Aristotle constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. The more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, ideas through the senses.Art – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
3. Albert Speer – Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer was a German architect, for most of World War II, Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany. Speer was Adolf Hitler's chief architect before assuming ministerial office. Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931, launching himself on a governmental career which lasted fourteen years. He became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Hitler instructed him to construct structures including the Reich Chancellery and the Zeppelinfeld stadium in Nuremberg where Party rallies were held. Speer also made plans to reconstruct Berlin on a grand scale, with a reorganized transportation system. In February 1942, Hitler appointed Speer Minister of Armaments and War Production. Despite repeated attempts to gain early release, he served most of it at Spandau Prison in West Berlin. He later wrote Infiltration, about the SS. Speer died to London. Speer was born into an upper-middle-class family. He was the second of three sons of Albert Friedrich Speer. In 1918, the family moved permanently on Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg, Heidelberg. Speer was active in sports, mountaineering. Speer was a participant.Albert Speer – Speer in 1933
4. Art Deco – Art Deco, or Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in 1925. It combined modernist styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured expensive materials such as ebony and ivory and exquisite craftsmanship. Other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. After the Great Depression, the style became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, plastic. A more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s; it featured smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the United States, Russia, Latin America, Asia. The style came with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced by the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modernism and the International Style of architecture. The term décoratifs was first used in France in 1858; published in the Bulletin de la Société française de photographie. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra.Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
5. Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I. It set the tone with patriotic messages. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m high and 8.44 m wide. Three weeks after the Paris parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane with the event captured on newsreel. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m. The Arc is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885. The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to avoid any ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy successfully flew his biplane under the Arc. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism.Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe from the Champs-Élysées
6. Austria-Hungary – Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. The Compromise required regular renewal, as did the customs union between the two components of the union. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous. The Empire built up the fourth-largest industry of the world, after the United States, the United Kingdom. The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population. Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on November 3, 1918. The realm's full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Hungary, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its governmental structures. This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.Austria-Hungary – Franz Joseph I. (1885)
7. Battle of Blenheim – The Battle of Blenheim, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance. Louis XIV of France sought to gain a favourable peace settlement. Vienna was also from Rákóczi's Hungarian revolt from its eastern approaches. After securing Donauwörth on the Danube, Marlborough sought to engage Marsin's army before Marshal Tallard could bring reinforcements through the Black Forest. Blenheim has gone down as one of the turning points of the War of the Spanish Succession. Louis' hopes for a quick victory came to an end. France suffered over 30,000 casualties including Marshal Tallard, taken captive to England. By 1704, the War of the Spanish Succession was in its fourth year. Vienna had been saved by dissension between the two commanders, leading to the brilliant Villars being replaced by the less dynamic Marsin. Both the Austrian Ambassador in London, Count Wratislaw, the Duke of Marlborough realised the implications of the situation on the Danube. – Winston Churchill. Marlborough's march started on 19 May from 20 miles north-west of Cologne. The army mortars totalling 21,000 men. This force was to be augmented en route such that by the time Marlborough reached the Danube, it would number 40,000.Battle of Blenheim – The Duke of Marlborough Signing the Despatch at Blenheim. Oil by Robert Alexander Hillingford.
8. Battle of Ramillies – The Battle of Ramillies /ˈræmɪliːz/, fought on 23 May 1706, was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. Yet despite his opponents' setbacks Louis XIV was desirous of peace – but he wanted it on reasonable terms. For this end and in order to maintain their momentum, the their allies took the offensive in 1706. Encouraged by these early gains Louis XIV urged Marshal Villeroi to go over to the offensive in the Spanish Netherlands and, with victory, gain a'fair' peace. Accordingly, the French Marshal marched towards Tienen, as if to threaten Zoutleeuw. In Marlborough's Dutch, English, Danish forces overwhelmed Villeroi's and Max Emanuel's Franco-Spanish-Bavarian army. With their foe routed, the Allies were able to fully exploit their victory. Town after town fell, including Brussels, Bruges and Antwerp; by the end of the campaign Villeroi's army had been driven from most of the Spanish Netherlands. Thus, the year 1706 proved, for the Allies, to be an annus mirabilis. After their disastrous defeat at Blenheim in 1704, the next year brought some respite. The resilience of the efforts of his generals, also added to Marlborough's problems. Marshal Villeroi, exerting considerable pressure on Count Overkirk, along the Meuse, took Huy on 10 June before pressing on towards Liège. "What a disgrace for Marlborough," exulted Villeroi, "to have made false movements without any result!" With Marlborough's north, the French transferred troops from the Moselle valley to reinforce Villeroi in Flanders, while Villars marched off to the Rhine. It seems that the Duke’s favoured scheme was to return to the Moselle valley and once more attempt an advance into the heart of France.Battle of Ramillies – The Queen’s Regiment of Horse breaking through on the right flank; seen here capturing the kettle-drummer of the Bavarian Electoral Guards.
9. Bordeaux – Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 243,626. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises". The term "Bordelais" may also refer to the city and its surrounding region. The city's titles are "La Perle d'Aquitaine", "La Belle Endormie" in reference to the old centre which had black walls due to pollution. Nowadays, this is not the case. In fact, a part of Le Port La Lune, was almost completely renovated. Bordeaux is the city which has the highest number of historical buildings except for Paris. Bordeaux is the world's major capital. It is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo, while the economy in the area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. In historical times, around 300 BC it was the settlement of the Bituriges Vivisci, who named Burdigala probably of Aquitanian origin. The Bourde is still the name of a south of the city.Bordeaux – Clockwise from top: Place de la Bourse by the Garonne, Allees du Tourny and Maison de Vin, Pierre Bridge on the Garonne, Meriadeck Commercial Centre, front of Palais Rohan Hotel, and Saint-Andre Cathedral with Bordeaux Tramway
10. Battle of the Nile – The British fleet was led by Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson; they decisively defeated the French under Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers. He chased the French on several occasions only missing them by a matter of hours. Bonaparte was aware of Nelson's pursuit and enforced absolute secrecy about his destination. He was able to capture Malta and then land in Egypt by the British naval forces. With the French army ashore, the French fleet anchored in Aboukir Bay, 20 miles northeast of Alexandria. Commander Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers believed that he had established a defensive position. Nelson ordered an immediate attack. His ships advanced into two divisions as they approached. At 22:00, the French flagship Orient exploded. It also was a factor in the outbreak of the War of the Second Coalition. His captains went on to form the nucleus of the legendary Nelsonic Band of Brothers. The legend of the battle has remained prominent with perhaps the best-known representation being Felicia Hemans' 1826 poem Casabianca. During the spring of 1798, Bonaparte developed a powerful fleet at Toulon. He also formed a body of scientists and engineers intended to establish a French colony in Egypt. Bonaparte demanded that his fleet be permitted entry to the fortified harbour of Valletta.Battle of the Nile – "The Destruction of L'Orient at the Battle of the Nile" George Arnald, 1827, National Maritime Museum, in Greenwich, London, England
11. Battle of Bouvines – The Battle of Bouvines, which took place on 27 July 1214, was a medieval battle which ended the 1202–1214 Anglo-French War. Philip Augustus of France defeated an army consisting of Imperial German, Flemish soldiers, led by Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor in the north. Allied with Philip was Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who controlled the southern Holy Roman Empire and afterwards deposed Otto. Other leaders included Count Ferrand of Renaud of Boulogne. King John of England was forced to agree to the Magna Carta by his discontented barons. The allies in the north moved slowly. John, after two encounters with the French, retreated on 3 July. After having summoned all his vassals, Philip had an army consisting of 4,000 cavalry and 11,000-foot soldiers. Otto was thought to have been caught unprepared by the King of France. Although he was under a Church interdict, Otto, already an excommunicate, decided to launch an attack on what was then the French rearguard. Philippe Auguste gave battle. His army quickly retreated. The total force was estimated at slightly fewer cavalry than the French. Philip's army contained 2,000 mounted sergeants with the rest being infantry. The evaluation of forces is controversial.Battle of Bouvines – La Bataille de Bouvines, by Horace Vernet. (Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles). The white Arabian horse and Moorish attendant (right) of Philippe Auguste at the Battle of Bouvines can be seen in this 19th-century painting.
12. Charlemagne – Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. Charlemagne laid the foundations for modern France, the Low Countries. He took the Frankish throne in 768 and became King of Italy in 774. From 800, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor—the first recognised emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Recognition from the pontiff granted divine legitimacy in the eyes of his contemporaries. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire. Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following the death of his father, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne also campaigned to his east leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred a period of energetic intellectual activity within the Western Church. These were but two of the machinations that led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. He died in 814, having ruled over thirteen years. Charlemagne was laid to rest in what is Germany.Charlemagne – A coin of Charlemagne with the inscription KAROLVS IMP AVG (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
13. Charles Martel – Apart from the military endeavours, Charles is considered to be a founding figure of the European Middle Ages. Moreover, Charles -- a great patron of Saint Boniface -- made the first attempt between the Franks and the Papacy. He divided Carloman and Pepin. The latter became the first of the Carolingians. Charlemagne, extended the Frankish realms to include much of the West, became the first Emperor in the West since the fall of Rome. Charles "The Hammer" Martel was the son of Pepin of his second wife Alpaida. He had a brother named Childebrand, who later became the Frankish dux of Burgundy. In older historiography, it was common to describe Charles as "illegitimate". This is still widely repeated in popular today. It is unlikely that Charles was considered "illegitimate". It is likely that the interpretation of "illegitimacy" is an derived of Pepin's first wife's desire to see her progeny as heirs to Pepin's power. They controlled the royal treasury, granted land and privileges in the name of the figurehead king. Pepin, was the second member of the family to rule the Franks. Pepin was able to unite all the Frankish realms by conquering Neustria and Burgundy. He was the first to call Duke and Prince of the Franks a title later taken up by Charles.Charles Martel – The statue of Charles Martel at the Palace of Versailles.
14. Diana (mythology) – She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves were especially sacred to her as were deer. According to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She made up a triad with two other Roman deities: the nymph,; Virbius, the woodland god. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods, referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects indifference towards such secular matters as the fates of states. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess.Diana (mythology) – The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography
15. Jacques-Louis David – Jacques-Louis David was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. Imprisoned from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release: that of Napoleon, The First Consul of France. At this time he notable for its use of warm Venetian colours. David had a large number of pupils, making the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century, especially academic Salon painting. Jacques-Louis David was born on 30 August 1748. His mother left him with his well-off architect uncles. He once said, "I was always hiding behind the instructor's chair, drawing for the duration of the class". His uncles and mother wanted him to be an architect. He went to learn from François Boucher, the leading painter of the time, also a distant relative. Tastes were changing, the fashion for Rococo was giving way to a more classical style. There David attended the Royal Academy, based in what is now the Louvre. The Academy awarded an outstanding student the prestigious Prix de Rome, which funded a three - to five-year stay in the Eternal City. Each pensionnaire was lodged in the French Academy's Roman outpost, which from 1737 to 1793 was the Palazzo Mancini in the Via del Corso. David failed to win, the prize for three consecutive years, each failure contributing to his lifelong grudge against the institution. In October 1775 he made the journey with his mentor, Joseph-Marie Vien, who had just been appointed director of the French Academy at Rome.Jacques-Louis David – Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David, 1794, Musée du Louvre
16. Eiffel Tower – The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres on each side. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second-tallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887.Eiffel Tower – The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ de Mars
17. Prince Eugene of Savoy – Born in Paris, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV. Following a scandal involving his Olympe, he was rejected in the French army. Eugene moved to Austria and transferred his loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy. Spanning six decades, Eugene served three Holy Roman Emperors: Leopold I, Joseph I, Charles VI. However, the Prince's fame was secured at the Battle of Zenta in 1697 earning Europe-wide fame. Renewed hostilities in the Austro-Turkish War consolidated his reputation, at the battles of Petrovaradin, the decisive encounter at Belgrade. Nevertheless, in Austria, Eugene's reputation remains unrivalled. Eugene died in his sleep at his home on 21 April 1736, aged 72. Prince Eugene was born in the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris on 18 October 1663. The Mancinis were raised at the Palais-Royal along with the young Louis XIV, with whom Olympia formed an intimate relationship. The King remained strongly attached to Olympia, so that many believed them to be lovers; but her scheming eventually led to her downfall. After falling out at court, Olympia turned to the arts of black magic and astrology. It was a fatal relationship. In February 1683, to the surprise of his family, Eugene declared his intention of joining the army. "The request was modest, not so the petitioner," he remarked.Prince Eugene of Savoy – Prince Eugene of Savoy
18. Emperor – An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. The female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated as "Emperor". Emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. Some empires, such as the Russian Empire, derived their office from the authority of the Roman Emperors. The title was a conscious attempt by monarchs to link themselves as part of state ideology. Pre-Roman titles as "Great King" or "King of Kings", used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. However such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified by the mid-18th century. The title was first used as an honorific for a military leader in ancient Rome, meaning general. Also the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below.Emperor – A statue of the dictator Julius Caesar.
19. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history. The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The few years featured right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed with estimates ranging from 16,000 to 40,000. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution.French Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
20. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
21. Gardening – Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture. Gardening is considered to be a relaxing activity for many people. Gardening may involve a large number of different plants in mixed plantings. It tends to be labor-intensive, which differentiates it from farming or forestry. A forest-based food production system, is the world's oldest form of gardening. Forest gardens originated in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful vine species were identified, protected and improved while undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually foreign species were also incorporated into the gardens. After the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy individuals began to create gardens for aesthetic purposes. Wealthy ancient Egyptians used gardens for providing shade. Egyptians associated gardens with gods as they believed that their deities were pleased by gardens. Gardens in ancient Egypt were often surrounded with trees planted in rows. Among the most popular species planted were date palms, sycamores, fir trees, nut trees, willows. These gardens were a sign of higher socioeconomic status. In addition, ancient Egyptians grew vineyards, as wine was a sign of the higher social classes.Gardening – Part of a parterre in an English garden
22. Gian Lorenzo Bernini – Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian sculptor and architect. While a major figure in the world of architecture, he was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. Bernini possessed the ability to depict dramatic narratives with characters showing psychological states, but also to organize large-scale sculptural works which convey a magnificent grandeur. Early in their careers they had all worked under Carlo Maderno and, following his death, under Bernini. Later on, fierce rivalries developed, particularly between Bernini and Borromini. Bernini's design of the Piazza San Pietro in front of the Basilica is one of his most successful architectural designs. During his long career, Bernini received important commissions, many of which were associated with the papacy. Other artists fell from favor in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque. Howard Hibbard concludes that, during the seventeenth century, "there were no sculptors or architects comparable to Bernini". Bernini was born to Angelica Galante and Mannerist sculptor Pietro Bernini, originally from Florence. He was the sixth of their thirteen children. Gianlorenzo Bernini was the definition of genius. He was "recognized as a prodigy when he was only eight years old, he was consistently encouraged by Pietro. His precocity earned the admiration and favor of powerful patrons who hailed him as ` the Michelangelo of his century"'. His father was so impressed by his son's obvious talent that he took him to Rome to showcase him to Pope.Gian Lorenzo Bernini – Self-portrait of Bernini, c. 1623
23. German Empire – The German Empire consisted with most being ruled by royal families. This included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, one imperial territory. Although the Kingdom of Prussia contained most of the Empire's territory, it played a lesser role. As Dwyer points out, Prussia's "political and influence had diminished considerably" by the 1890s. After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron, railways. By 1913 this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in the united Germany became predominantly urban. Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became only to Britain's Royal Navy. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had only one ally – Austria-Hungary. They were later joined by Bulgaria to form the Central Powers or Quadruple Alliance. In the First World War, the war on the Western Front became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts. However, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front; it occupied Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.German Empire
24. History of Germany – Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes. When the Frankish Empire was divided in 843, the eastern part became East Francia. In 962, Otto I became the first emperor of the medieval German state. In the High Middle Ages, the regional dukes, bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation after 1517 as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War, ruinous to the million civilians living in both states. After the Napoleonic Wars, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction. The 1848 March Revolution failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the emergence of the Socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for the humanities, while music and the arts flourished. Unification was achieved under the leadership of Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. An elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in Africa and the Pacific. Germany was the dominant power on the continent.History of Germany – The Steinheim Skull is at least 250,000 years old
25. Hungarian Defence Force – Hungarian Defence Forces is the national defence force of Hungary. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Air Force. Since 2007, the Hungarian Armed Forces is under a unified structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the civil control over the army. A subordinate Joint Forces Command is commanding the HDF corps. In 2016, the armed forces had 31.080 personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand. In 2017, military spending will be about 0.94 % of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2 %. In 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending by 2022. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime. In a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center is re-organized in 2016 in order to become more efficient through security. One soldier was killed in action because of a roadside bomb in Iraq. During the 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries. In 1848–49 HDF achieved incredible successes against better-trained and equipped Austrian forces, despite the obvious advantage in numbers on the Austrian side.Hungarian Defence Force – Operator of Hungarian Army's 34th ’László Bercsényi’ Special Operations Battalion (KMZ) about to storm the unit's own Killing House
26. House of Hohenzollern – The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestor of the Hohenzollerns was mentioned in 1061. They derived from the Burchardinger dynasty. The Hohenzollern family split into the Protestant Franconian branch, which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, also ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525. The Duchy of Prussia were called Brandenburg-Prussia. Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. Its ruling dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps. Later its capital was Hechingen. The Hohenzollern Castle still belongs to the family today.House of Hohenzollern – Hohenzollern Castle near Hechingen
27. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. Including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois later in the war. The war ended in 1453. Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. Scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide empire was established in the 16th century. Political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution.History of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
28. Louvre – The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the world's largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located in the city's 1st arrondissement. Nearly 35,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the world's second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China, receiving more than million visitors in 2014. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. The Académie remained for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces. The museum confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed until 1801. During the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily since the Third Republic. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known; it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf den.Louvre – the Richelieu wing (2005)
29. Louis XIV of France – His reign of 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history. In this age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power. Louis began his personal rule of France after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. There were also the War of the Reunions. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. His personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, pique," Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God.Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
30. Leto – In Greek mythology, Leto is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, the sister of Asteria, the mother, by Zeus, of Apollo and Artemis. The island of Kos is claimed as her birthplace. Finally, she can give birth. In Roman mythology, Leto's equivalent is a Latinization of her name, influenced by Etruscan Letun. Walter Burkert notes that in Phaistos she appears with an initiation cult. Leto was identified with the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia as the region became Hellenized. In Greek inscriptions, the Letoides are referred to as the "national gods" of the country. The Letoon near Xanthos predated Hellenic influence in the region, however, united the Lycian confederacy of city-states. The Hellenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own. Another sanctuary, more recently identified, was at Oenoanda in the north of Lycia. There was, of course, a further Letoon at Delos. Leto's primal nature may be deduced from the natures of her mother, who may have been Titans of the sun and moon. "Phoebe", is identical to the epithet of her son Apollo, Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, throughout Homer. Several explanations have been put forward to explain the meaning of her name. Older sources speculated that the name is related to the Greek λήθη lḗthē and λωτός lotus.Leto – The Rape of Leto by Tityos c. 515 BC. From Vulci. Leto is third from left.
31. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
32. Palace – The word itself is derived for Palatine Hill, the hill which housed the Imperial residences in Rome. In many parts of Europe, the term is also applied to private mansions of the aristocracy. Historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly building used for public entertainment or exhibitions. The palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a residential area. His descendants, especially Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over until it took up the hill top. The Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon, writing c. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the constantly travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the Holy Roman Empire the independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. In modern times, the term has been applied to large structures that housed combined ruler, court and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind.Palace – Schwerin Palace in Germany, historical ducal residence of Mecklenburg since 1348.
33. Racism – Racism is discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition. The Holocaust is the classic example of institutionalized racism which led based on their race. Researchers have found that teaching students about the Holocaust may require a more in-depth coverage. Therefore racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. Associated social actions may include nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races. The origin of the root "race" is not clear. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists generally held that differential treatment of races was consequently justified. These early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions; the collective endeavors to adequately form hypotheses about racial differences are generally termed scientific racism. The revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from 1903.Racism – A rally against school integration in 1959.
34. Treaty of Versailles – The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919. This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion Marks. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently. Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference," only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the "Big Four" meetings taking place generally at the Quai d'Orsay. The First World War was fought across Europe, Asia. Countries beyond the war zones were also affected by the disruption of international trade, finance and diplomatic pressures from the belligerents. The American aim was to detach the war after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions.Treaty of Versailles – Cover of the English version
35. Versailles, Yvelines – According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. This formation is similar to Latin seminare which gave French semailles. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. Versailles was made the préfecture of the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise. At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790. The diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of the Ministry of National Education. The palace of Versailles is in the out-skirts of the city. Versailles is located km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a density of 3,344 / km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696 / km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets.Versailles, Yvelines
36. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. Born in Salzburg, he showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. On violin, Mozart performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons. He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, music. His influence is profound on Western music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg. This was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom died in infancy. His elder sister was Maria Anna, nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptized the day after his birth at St. Rupert's Cathedral.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Mozart c. 1780, detail from portrait by Johann Nepomuk della Croce
37. Wolfenstein 3D – Wolfenstein 3D is a first-person shooter video game developed by id Software and published by Apogee Software and FormGen. Originally released on May 5, 1992, for MS-DOS, the game was inspired by the Muse Software video games Castle Wolfenstein and Beyond Castle Wolfenstein. Wolfenstein 3D was the second major release by id Software, after the Commander Keen series of episodes. It features artwork by Adrian Carmack and sound effects and music by Bobby Prince. Spear of Destiny, was released soon as a stand-alone retail title through FormGen. Wolfenstein 3D was a commercial success, selling over 200,000 copies by the end of 1992. FormGen developed an additional two episodes for the game, while Apogee released a pack of over 800 fan-created levels. Wolfenstein 3D is a first-person shooter presented with pseudo-3D graphics. Each level is themed after Nazi buildings, though the level layouts are not based on any fictitious locations. To finish a level, the player must traverse through the area to reach an elevator. Groups of levels, typically ten, are grouped together with the final level focusing on a fight with a particularly difficult enemy. While traversing the levels, the player must fight other enemies while managing supplies of ammunition and health. The player's health is represented by a percentage starting at 100, diminished when they are shot or attacked by enemies. If the player's health falls to zero, they start the level over with a knife, eight bullets. The player can gain more by earning enough points.Wolfenstein 3D – Mail order cover art for the DOS version
38. War of the Spanish Succession – The Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. France faced invasion and ruin, but Allied unity broke first. British ministers prepared the groundwork in 1712 Britain ceased combat operations. By the terms of of Rastatt the Spanish empire was partitioned between the major and minor powers. The European balance of power was assured. The empire was still active and influential on the European and global stage. Unlike the French throne, the Spanish thrones could all be inherited by, or through, a female in default of a male line. The next in line after Charles II, therefore, were his two sisters: the younger. By him she had Louis, Dauphin of France. However the French, using in part the excuse that the dowry promised Maria Theresa was never paid, insisted that her renunciation was invalid. Nor was it clear whether a princess could waive the rights of her unborn children. Leopold I married Margaret Theresa in 1666. At her death in 1673 she left one living heir, Maria Antonia, who in 1685 married Max Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. Shortly before her death in 1692, she gave birth to a son, Joseph Ferdinand. England and the Dutch Republic had their own commercial, strategic and political interests within the Spanish empire, they were eager to return to peaceful commerce.War of the Spanish Succession – Philip V of Spain and the Duke of Vendôme pictured after the victory at the 1710 Battle of Villaviciosa.
39. 17th century – The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. The greatest military conflicts were the Dutch-Portuguese War. In the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was also a period of development of culture in general. 1600: On February 17 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake by the Inquisition. 1600: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. 1601: Michael the Brave, voivode of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania, is assassinated by the order of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii. 1601–1603: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia. 1602: Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. 1602: The Portuguese send a major expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control. 1602: The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1602: Two emissaries from the Aceh Sultanate visit the Dutch Republic.17th century – Europe and the Ottoman Empire (in purple) in the year 1600
40. 1919 – As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. The Czechoslovak Legions occupy much of the self-proclaimed "free city" of Pressburg, enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia. HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of Scotland; 206 die. Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company. Spartacist uprising: Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution. The beginning of the Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, suppressed by official forces. January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin. January 10–12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin. January 11 Romania annexes Transylvania. Georgians genocide in Alagir. January 13 – Worker's councils in Berlin end the general strike; the Spartacist uprising is over. January 14 – Estonian War of Independence: Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army. Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising. Great Molasses Flood: A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150. The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.1919 – January 1: Iolaire sinks.