1. Paris – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a townParis – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
2. An American in Paris – An American in Paris is a jazz-influenced symphonic poem by the American composer George Gershwin, written in 1928. Inspired by the time Gershwin had spent in Paris, it evokes the sights, Gershwin composed An American in Paris on commission from the conductor Walter Damrosch. He scored the piece for the instruments of the symphony orchestra plus celesta, saxophones. He brought back some Parisian taxi horns for the New York premiere of the composition, Gershwin completed the orchestration on November 18, less than four weeks before the works premiere. When the tone poem moves into the blues, our American friend, has succumbed to a spasm of homesickness. But, nostalgia is not a fatal disease, the American visitor once again is an alert spectator of Parisian life and the street noises and French atmosphere are triumphant. Gershwin was attracted by Maurice Ravels unusual chords, but Ravel accepted him as a student, and Gershwin went on his first trip to Paris in 1926 ready to study. After his initial student audition with Ravel turned into a sharing of musical theories, Ravel said he couldnt teach him but he would send a letter referring him to Nadia Boulanger. While the studies were cut short, that 1926 trip resulted in the version of An American in Paris written as a thank you note to Gershwins hosts, Robert. Gershwin called it a ballet written so freely and much more modern than his prior works. Gershwin strongly encouraged Ravel to come to the United States for a tour, Gershwin greeted Ravel in New York in February 1928 at the start of Ravels U. S. Tour, and joined Ravel again later in the tour in Los Angeles. After a lunch together with Chaplin in Beverly Hills, Ravel was persuaded to perform a house concert in a friends music salon. Ravels tour reignited Gershwins desire to return to Paris which he did in March 1928, Ravels high praise of Gershwin in an introductory letter to Boulanger caused Gershwin to seriously consider taking much more time to study abroad in Paris. Yet after playing for her, she told him she could not teach him, Nadia Boulanger gave Gershwin basically the same advice she gave all of her accomplished master students Dont copy others, be yourself. In this case Why try to be a second rate Ravel when you are already a first rate Gershwin. This did not set Gershwin back, as his real intent abroad was to complete a new work based on Paris and perhaps a second rhapsody for piano, Paris at this time hosted many expatriate writers, among them Ezra Pound, W. B. Yeats, Ernest Hemingway, and artist Pablo Picasso, Gershwin based An American in Paris on a melodic fragment called Very Parisienne, written in 1926 on his first visit to Paris as a gift to his hosts, Robert and Mabel Schirmer. He described the piece as a rhapsodic ballet because it was written freely and is more modern than his previous works, the piece is structured into five sections, which culminate in a loose ABA formatAn American in Paris
3. Andrei Tarkovsky – Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky was a Soviet filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director. Tarkovskys films include Ivans Childhood, Andrei Rublev, Solaris, Mirror and he directed the first five of his seven feature films in the Soviet Union, his last two films, Nostalghia and The Sacrifice, were produced in Italy and Sweden, respectively. His work is characterized by long takes, unconventional structure, distinctly authored use of cinematography. Tarkovskys works Andrei Rublev, Mirror, and Stalker are regularly listed among the greatest films of all time and his contribution to cinema was so influential that works done in a similar way are described as Tarkovskian. Ingmar Bergman said of him, Tarkovsky for me is the greatest, andreis paternal grandfather Aleksandr Tarkovsky was a Polish nobleman who worked as a bank clerk. She was married to Ivan Ivanovich Vishnyakov, a native of the Kaluga Governorate who studied law at the Moscow University, Tarkovsky spent his childhood in Yuryevets. He was described by friends as active and popular, having many friends. His father left the family in 1937, subsequently volunteering for the army in 1941, Tarkovsky stayed with his mother, moving with her and his sister Marina to Moscow, where she worked as a proofreader at a printing press. In 1939 Tarkovsky enrolled at the Moscow School №554, during the war, the three evacuated to Yuryevets, living with his maternal grandmother. In 1943 the family returned to Moscow, Tarkovsky continued his studies at his old school, where the poet Andrey Voznesensky was one of his classmates. He studied piano at a school and attended classes at an art school. The family lived on Shchipok Street in the Zamoskvorechye District in Moscow, from November 1947 to spring 1948 he was in the hospital with tuberculosis. Many themes of his childhood—the evacuation, his mother and her two children, the father, the time in the hospital—feature prominently in his film Mirror. Author Peter Green writes that Tarkovsky was evidently not a clever or industrious pupil at school. He nevertheless graduated, and from 1951 to 1952 studied Arabic at the Oriental Institute in Moscow and he participated in a year-long research expedition to the river Kureikye near Turukhansk in the Krasnoyarsk Province. During this time in the Taiga, Tarkovsky decided to study film, upon returning from the research expedition in 1954, Tarkovsky applied at the State Institute of Cinematography and was admitted to the film-directing program. He was in the class as Irma Raush whom he married in April 1957. The early Khrushchev era offered unique opportunities for film directorsAndrei Tarkovsky – Andrei Tarkovsky
4. Albania – Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeastern Europe. It has a population of 3.03 million as of 2016, Tirana is the nations capital and largest city, followed by Durrës and Vlorë. The country has a coastline on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea to the west. Albania is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. In antiquity, the area of Albania was home to several Illyrian, Thracian. After the Illyrian Wars, it part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. In 1190, the first Albanian state, the Principality of Arbanon was established by archon Progon in the region of Krujë, the territory of Albania was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, of which it remained part of for the next five centuries. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, following the Balkan Wars, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. The following year, a socialist Peoples Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the Republic of Albania was established, Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The service sector dominates the economy, followed by the industrial. After the fall of communism in Albania, Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy, Albania has a high HDI and provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the Council of Europe, the OSCE and it is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. Albania is one of the members of the Energy Community, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. It is home to the largest lake in Southern Europe and one of the oldest lakes in Europe, Albania is the Medieval Latin name of the country. The name may have a continuation in the name of a settlement called Albanon and Arbanon. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni, Albanians today call their country Shqipëri. As early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë gradually replaced Arbëria, the two terms are popularly interpreted as Land of the Eagles and Children of the EaglesAlbania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
5. Ankara – Ankara, formerly known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the center and 5,150,072 in its province. Ankara was Atatürks headquarters from 1920 and has been the capital of the Republic since its founding in 1923, the government is a prominent employer, but Ankara is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkeys road and railway networks. The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat, the area is also known for its pears, honey, and muscat grapes. Ankara is an old city with various Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine. The historical center of town is a hill rising 150 m over the left bank of the Ankara Çayı, a tributary of the Sakarya River. The hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel, as with many ancient cities, Ankara has gone by several names over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite cult center Ankuwaš, although remains a matter of debate. In classical antiquity and during the period, the city was known as Ánkyra in Greek and Ancyra in Latin. Following its annexation by the Seljuk Turks in 1073, the city known in many European languages as Angora. The form Angora is preserved in the names of breeds of different kinds of animals. The oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bronze Age and was gradually absorbed c, 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites. In Phrygian tradition, King Midas was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias mentions that the city was far older. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC, Alexander came from Gordion to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death at Babylon in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire among his generals, Ankara, by that time the city also took its name Ἄγκυρα which, in slightly modified form, provides the modern name of Ankara. Other centers were Pessinos, todays Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, the city was then known as Ancyra. The Celtic element was probably relatively small in numbers, an aristocracy which ruled over Phrygian-speaking peasants. However, the Celtic language continued to be spoken in Galatia for many centuriesAnkara – From top to bottom and left to right: Atatürk's Mausoleum, Kızılay Square, Kocatepe Mosque, A general view of the city centre, Atakule Tower and Ulus Square.
6. Attila – Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, a confederation consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires and he crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire and he also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul, crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. He subsequently invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome and he planned for further campaigns against the Romans but died in 453. After Attilas death his close adviser Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, there is no surviving first-hand account of Attilas appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands and he was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body. He was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants, the Gothic etymology can be tracked up to Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were not the names of the Hun princes. The names of Attilas brother Bleda, and most powerful minister Onegesius, mikkola connected it with Turkic āt. Gerd Althoff considered it was related to Turkish atli, or Turkish at, the Gothic origin of the name Attila is questionable, Snædal writes. It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin, the article points out that the word atta is a migratory term for father/forefather common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages. He concludes, Of course we do not know how the name sounded in the language of the Huns, sometime, somewhere, somehow a proto-form like *agtala- changed to *attila. We cannot tell if the assimilation of gt to tt, and/or if loss of a final consonant took place in Hunnic or if these changes were part of the process into Latin, Gothic. Truly, our knowledge of the Hunnic language is almost zero, One can only guess a solution to this riddle of Attilas name. The historiography of Attila is faced with a challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek. Attilas contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain and he wrote a history of the late Roman Empire in eight books covering the period from 430 to 476. Today we have fragments of Priscus work, but it was cited extensively by 6th-century historians Procopius and Jordanes,413 especially in Jordanes The OriginAttila – Portrait by Eugène Delacroix, painted between 1843 and 1847
7. Amsterdam – Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization. The city is also the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, locks, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic LeagueAmsterdam
8. Alfred Nobel – Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist. Known for inventing dynamite, Nobel also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a manufacturer of cannon. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous, after reading a premature obituary which condemned him for profiting from the sales of arms, he bequeathed his fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic element nobelium was named after him and his name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and AkzoNobel, which are descendants of mergers with companies Nobel himself established. Born in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel was the son of Immanuel Nobel, an inventor and engineer. The couple married in 1827 and had eight children, the family was impoverished, and only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood. Alfred Nobels interest in technology was inherited from his father, an alumnus of Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, following various business failures, Nobels father moved to Saint Petersburg in 1837 and grew successful there as a manufacturer of machine tools and explosives. He invented modern plywood and started work on the torpedo, in 1842, the family joined him in the city. For 18 months, from 1841 to 1842, Nobel went to the school he ever attended as a child. As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin, then, in 1850, there he met Ascanio Sobrero, who had invented nitroglycerin three years before. Sobrero strongly opposed the use of nitroglycerin, as it was unpredictable, but Nobel became interested in finding a way to control and use nitroglycerin as a commercially usable explosive, as it had much more power than gunpowder. At age 18, he went to the United States for one year to study chemistry, working for a period under inventor John Ericsson. Nobel filed his first patent, an English patent for a gas meter, in 1857, while his first Swedish patent, the family factory produced armaments for the Crimean War, but had difficulty switching back to regular domestic production when the fighting ended and they filed for bankruptcy. In 1859, Nobels father left his factory in the care of the son, Ludvig Nobel. Nobel and his parents returned to Sweden from Russia and Nobel devoted himself to the study of explosives, Nobel invented a detonator in 1863, and in 1865 designed the blasting cap. On 3 September 1864, a used for preparation of nitroglycerin exploded at the factory in Heleneborg, Stockholm, killing five people. Dogged and unfazed by more minor accidents, Nobel went on to build further factories, Nobel invented dynamite in 1867, a substance easier and safer to handle than the more unstable nitroglycerin. Dynamite was patented in the US and the UK and was used extensively in mining, in 1875 Nobel invented gelignite, more stable and powerful than dynamite, and in 1887 patented ballistite, a predecessor of corditeAlfred Nobel – Alfred Nobel
9. Apple Inc. – Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Apples consumer software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the media player, the Safari web browser. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, Apple joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. In November 2014, Apple became the first U. S. company to be valued at over US$700 billion in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. The company employs 115,000 full-time employees as of July 2015 and it operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the worlds largest music retailer. Consumers use more than one billion Apple products worldwide as of March 2016, Apples worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015. This revenue accounts for approximately 1. 25% of the total United States GDP.1 billion, the corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials. Apple was founded on April 1,1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard, which was less than what is now considered a personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66, Apple was incorporated January 3,1977, without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple, during the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, the Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16,1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics. While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II. The Apple II was chosen to be the platform for the first killer app of the business world, VisiCalc. VisiCalc created a market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore, by the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production lineApple Inc. – Apple Campus (1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California)
10. Agatha Christie – Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, DBE was an English crime novelist, short story writer and playwright. She is best known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, particularly revolving around her fictional detectives Hercule Poirot. She also wrote the worlds longest-running play, a mystery, The Mousetrap. In 1971 she was made a Dame for her contribution to literature, Christie was born into a wealthy upper-middle-class family in Torquay, Devon. She served in a hospital during the First World War before marrying and starting a family in London and she was initially an unsuccessful writer, but The Mysterious Affair at Styles was published in 1920 featuring Hercule Poirot. Guinness World Records lists Christie as the best-selling novelist of all time and her novels have sold roughly 2 billion copies, and her estate claims that her works come third in the rankings of the worlds most-widely published books, behind only Shakespeares works and the Bible. According to Index Translationum, she remains the most-translated individual author – having been translated into at least 103 languages. And Then There Were None is Christies best-selling novel, with 100 million sales to date, making it the worlds best-selling mystery ever, in 1955 Christie was the first recipient of the Mystery Writers of Americas highest honour, the Grand Master Award. Later the same year, Witness for the Prosecution received an Edgar Award by the MWA for Best Play, in 2013, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd was voted the best crime novel ever by 600 fellow writers of the Crime Writers Association. Most of her books and short stories have been adapted for television, radio, video games and comics, Agatha Mary Clarissa Miller was born on 15 September 1890, into a wealthy upper middle-class family in Ashfield, Torquay, Devon. Her mother, Clara Boehmer, was an Englishwoman who was born in Belfast in 1854 to Captain Frederick Boehmer and Mary Ann West, Clara Boehmer had four brothers, one of whom died young. Captain Boehmer was killed in an accident while stationed on Jersey in April 1863. Under financial strain, she sent Clara to live with her aunt Margaret Miller, the couple lived in Prinsted, West Sussex. Clara stayed with Margaret, and there she met her husband, an American stockbroker named Frederick Alvah Miller. Christies father Frederick was a member of the American upper class and he was considered personable and friendly by those who knew him. He soon developed a relationship with Clara, and they were married in April 1878. Clara soon purchased a villa in Torquay named Ashfield in which to raise her family, Christie described her childhood as very happy. She was surrounded by a series of strong and independent women from an early ageAgatha Christie – Agatha Christie as a girl, date unknown
11. Aaron – In the Hebrew Bible, Aaron was the elder brother of Moses and a Prophet of God. Islamic literature, which also considers Aaron a Prophet of God, knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes exclusively from religious texts, such as the Bible and Qur’an. The Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court, Aaron, when Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brothers spokesman to Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the North Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is also mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible, according to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses assistant. Because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses prophet, at the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake. Then he stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues, after that, Moses tended to act and speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always prominent or active, at the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the rod of God. When the revelation was given to Moses at Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit, while Joshua went with Moses to the top, however, Aaron and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, Joshua appears in the role of Moses assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest. The books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God a monopoly over the priesthood for himself, the family of Aaron had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to the God of Israel. The rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary, Moses anointed and consecrated Aaron and his sons to the priesthood, and arrayed them in the robes of office. He also related to them Gods detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites listened, Aaron and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God could be determined. God commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, the priests were also commissioned to bless the people. In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established, in later books of the Old Testament, Aaron and his kin are not mentioned very often except in literature dating to the Babylonian Exile and later. The books of Judges, Samuel and Kings mention priests and Levites, the book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites after one of King Davids priests. It does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position, a two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles. As a result, many think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic IsraelAaron – Russian icon of Aaron from the 17th Century.
12. Aarhus – Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the centre of Denmark,187 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres north of Hamburg. The inner urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the population is 330,639. Aarhus is the city in the East Jutland metropolitan area. The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century, the city was founded on the northern shores of a fjord at a natural harbour and the primary driver of growth was for centuries seaborne trade in agricultural products. Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades, in the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest in the country by the 20th century, today Aarhus is at the cultural and economic core of the region and the largest centre for trade, services and industry in Jutland. The city ranks as the 92nd largest city in the European Union and it is also a top 100 conference city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling. Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and it is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavias largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park. Aarhus is notable for its musical history, in the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the music scene diversified into rock and other genres, in the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmarks rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags. Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus International Jazz Festival, the SPoT Festival, in 2017 Aarhus are European Capital of Culture. In Valdemars Census Book the city was called Arus, and in Icelandic it was known as Aros and it is a compound of the two words ār, genitive of ā, and ōss. The name originates from the location around the mouth of Aarhus Å. The spelling Aarhus is first found in 1406 and gradually became the norm in the 17th century, aarhus/Århus spelling With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, Aa was changed to Å. Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg, Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness. In 2010, the city voted to change the name from Århus to Aarhus in order to strengthen the international profile of the cityAarhus – From top and left to right: Aarhus skyline, Aarhus City Hall, Isbjerget, Park Allé
13. Anatole France – Anatole France was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers, ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. Anatole France was also documented to have a brain size just three-quarters the normal weight, France is also widely believed to be the model for narrator Marcels literary idol Bergotte in Marcel Prousts In Search of Lost Time. The son of a bookseller, France spent most of his life around books and was a bibliophile and his fathers bookstore, called the Librairie France, specialized in books and papers on the French Revolution and was frequented by many notable writers and scholars of the day. France studied at the Collège Stanislas, a private Catholic school, after several years he secured the position of cataloguer at Bacheline-Deflorenne and at Lemerre. In 1876 he was appointed librarian for the French Senate, Anatole France began his literary career as a poet and a journalist. In 1869, Le Parnasse Contemporain published one of his poems, in 1875, he sat on the committee which was in charge of the third Parnasse Contemporain compilation. As a journalist, from 1867, he wrote articles and notices. He became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard and its protagonist, skeptical old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, embodied Frances own personality. The novel was praised for its elegant prose and won him a prize from the Académie française, in La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque Anatole France ridiculed belief in the occult, and in Les Opinions de Jérôme Coignard, France captured the atmosphere of the fin de siècle. France was elected to the Académie française in 1896, France took an important part in the Dreyfus affair. He signed Émile Zolas manifesto supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer who had been convicted of espionage. France wrote about the affair in his 1901 novel Monsieur Bergeret and it is a satirical history of France, starting in Medieval times, going on to the writers own time with special attention to the Dreyfus Affair and concluding with a dystopian future. Les dieux ont soif is a novel, set in Paris during the French Revolution, about a true-believing follower of Robespierre and it is a wake-up call against political and ideological fanaticism and explores various other philosophical approaches to the events of the time. La Revolte des Anges is often considered Frances most profound novel, loosley based on the Christian myth of the War in Heaven, it tells the story of Arcade, the guardian angel of Maurice dEsparvieu. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 and he died in 1924 and is buried in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery near Paris. On 31 May 1922, Frances entire works were put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum of the Roman Catholic Church and he regarded this as a distinction. This Index was abolished in 1966, in 1877, Anatole France married Valérie Guérin de Sauville, a granddaughter of Jean-Urbain Guérin a miniaturist who painted Louis XVI, with whom he had a daughter, Suzanne, in 1881Anatole France – Anatole France
14. Antisemitism – Antisemitism is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination directed against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite, Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. The root word Semite gives the impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. However, the compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 as a term for Judenhass Jew-hatred. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, the origin of antisemitic terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes, The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, avner Falk similarly writes, The German word antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile. Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renans false ideas about how Semitic races were inferior to Aryan races and he coined the phrase the Jews are our misfortune which would later be widely used by Nazis. According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was used by its authors to stress the radical difference between their own antisemitism and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism. In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum, vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both Jewry and jewishness. The pamphlet became very popular, and in the year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga. The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks of Anti-Semitism as a designation which recently came into use, on 19 July 1882, the editor says, This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old. The related term philosemitism was coined around 1885, from the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial connotations and meant specifically prejudice against Jews. The term is confusing, for in modern usage Semitic designates a language group, though antisemitism has been used to describe bigotry against people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage has been questioned. The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen, for example, Emil Fackenheim supported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to the notion that there is an entity Semitism which anti-Semitism opposes. Objections to the usage of the term, such as the nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least the 1930s. Because of this bad nature, Jews have to be not as individuals. Jews remain essentially alien in the surrounding societies, Jews bring disaster on their host societies or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly, therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial, bad Jewish character. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist, bernard Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the restAntisemitism – Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition
15. Foreign relations of Armenia – However, the dispute over the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and the recent war over Nagorno–Karabakh have created tense relations with two of its immediate neighbors, Azerbaijan and Turkey. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, US House Resolution 106 was introduced on 30 January 2007, and later referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The bill called for former President George W. Bush to recognize, Armenia supports Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in the longstanding, and very bitter conflict against the Azerbaijani government. Soon, violence broke out against Armenians in Azerbaijan and Azeris in Armenia, in April 1991, Azerbaijani militia and Soviet forces targeted Armenian populations in Karabakh, known as Operation Ring. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, supported by Armenia and Azerbaijan. Military action was influenced by the Russian military, which inspired and manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring sides in order to keep both under control, more than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting during the period of 1988 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin, by October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in taking almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 at which time Russia brokered a cease-fire between the three sides, negotiations to resolve the conflict peacefully have been ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Minsk Group is co-chaired by Russia, France, and the United States and has representation from Turkey, despite the 1994 cease-fire, sporadic violations, sniper-fire and landmine incidents continue to claim over 100 lives each year. Since 1997, the Minsk Group co-chairs have presented three proposals to serve as a framework for resolving the conflict, beginning in 1999, the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia initiated a direct dialogue through a series of face-to-face meetings, often facilitated by the Minsk Group Co-Chairs. The OSCE sponsored a round of negotiations between the presidents in Key West, Florida, U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell launched the talks 3 April 2001, and the negotiations continued with mediation by the U. S. Russia and France until 6 April 2001, the Co-Chairs are still continuing to work with the two presidents in the hope of finding a lasting peace. The two countries are still at war, citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a persons passport shows evidence of travel to Nagorno–Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan, in 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia forces and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the sides was brief, with few casualties on either side, kitts and Nevis Dominica Trinidad and Tobago Barbados Armenia also has no diplomatic relations with states with limited recognition. Armenia has diplomatic relations with 162 sovereign entities. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index. html and this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website http, //www. state. gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index. htm. Chile Proves Genocide Recognition is Based on Truth, Not Lobbying,5 International Khachatrian, Haroutiun, Foreign Investments in Armenia, Influence of the Crisis and Other Peculiarities in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No.28Foreign relations of Armenia – Armenia
16. Augustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel, was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally and he is perhaps best known as the inventor of the Fresnel lens, first adopted in lighthouses while he was a French commissioner of lighthouses, and found in many applications today. His Fresnel equations on waves and reflectivity also form the basis for many applications in computer graphics today — for instance, Fresnel was the son of an architect, born at Broglie. His early progress in learning was slow, and he still could not read when he was eight years old, at thirteen he entered the École Centrale in Caen, and at sixteen and a half the École Polytechnique, where he acquitted himself with distinction. From there he went to the École des Ponts et Chaussées and he received only scant public recognition during his lifetime for his labours in the cause of optical science. Some of his papers were not printed by the Académie des Sciences until many years after his death, but as he wrote to Young in 1824, in himself that sensibility, or that vanity, which people call love of glory had been blunted. Fresnel has been described as a man with interest in religious questions, as a form of consolation, he took religion very seriously especially during his illness. He spent much of his life in Paris, and died of tuberculosis at Ville-dAvray and his is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. The writer Prosper Mérimée was his first cousin and he served as an engineer successively in the departments of Vendée, Drôme and Ille-et-Vilaine, but having supported the Bourbons in 1814 he lost his appointment on Napoleons return to power. He appears to have begun his research in optics around 1814, in 1815, on the second restoration of the monarchy, he obtained a post as engineer in Paris. In 1818 he wrote a memoir on diffraction, for which he received the prize of the Académie des Sciences at Paris the following year and he was the first to construct a special type of lens, now called a Fresnel lens, as a substitute for mirrors in lighthouses. In 1819, he was nominated to be a commissioner of lighthouses, in 1823 he was unanimously elected a member of the academy. In 1825 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, in 1827, the time of his last illness, the Royal Society of London awarded him the Rumford Medal. In 1818 he published his Memoir on the Diffraction of Light, in 1817, Young had proposed a small transverse component to light, while yet retaining a far larger longitudinal component. Fresnel, by the year 1821, was able to show by mathematical methods that polarization could be explained if light was entirely transverse. He proposed the aether drag hypothesis to explain a lack of variation in astronomical observations. His use of two plane mirrors of metal, forming with other a angle of nearly 180°, allowed him to avoid the diffraction effects caused in the experiment of F. M. Grimaldi on interference. This allowed him to account for the phenomenon of interference in accordance with the wave theoryAugustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel
17. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist, the concertina and bandoneón are related, the harmonium and American reed organ are in the same family. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open and these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instruments reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the manual. The accordion is widely spread across the world, nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, zydeco, jazz music. The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San Francisco, the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, and is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal. It is used to pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibration. These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals, each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, and to allow the sound to better project. The grille for the manual is usually larger and is often shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment. The manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it, the different types have varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format, the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, which is used for many musical genresAccordion – A piano accordion (top) and a Russian bayan (bottom)
18. Astronomical unit – The astronomical unit is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum to a minimum. Originally conceived as the average of Earths aphelion and perihelion, it is now defined as exactly 149597870700 metres, the astronomical unit is used primarily as a convenient yardstick for measuring distances within the Solar System or around other stars. However, it is also a component in the definition of another unit of astronomical length. A variety of symbols and abbreviations have been in use for the astronomical unit. In a 1976 resolution, the International Astronomical Union used the symbol A for the astronomical unit, in 2006, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures recommended ua as the symbol for the unit. In 2012, the IAU, noting that various symbols are presently in use for the astronomical unit, in the 2014 revision of the SI Brochure, the BIPM used the unit symbol au. In ISO 80000-3, the symbol of the unit is ua. Earths orbit around the Sun is an ellipse, the semi-major axis of this ellipse is defined to be half of the straight line segment that joins the aphelion and perihelion. The centre of the sun lies on this line segment. In addition, it mapped out exactly the largest straight-line distance that Earth traverses over the course of a year, knowing Earths shift and a stars shift enabled the stars distance to be calculated. But all measurements are subject to some degree of error or uncertainty, improvements in precision have always been a key to improving astronomical understanding. Improving measurements were continually checked and cross-checked by means of our understanding of the laws of celestial mechanics, the expected positions and distances of objects at an established time are calculated from these laws, and assembled into a collection of data called an ephemeris. NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides one of several ephemeris computation services, in 1976, in order to establish a yet more precise measure for the astronomical unit, the IAU formally adopted a new definition. Equivalently, by definition, one AU is the radius of an unperturbed circular Newtonian orbit about the sun of a particle having infinitesimal mass. As with all measurements, these rely on measuring the time taken for photons to be reflected from an object. However, for precision the calculations require adjustment for such as the motions of the probe. In addition, the measurement of the time itself must be translated to a scale that accounts for relativistic time dilationAstronomical unit – Transits of Venus across the face of the Sun were, for a long time, the best method of measuring the astronomical unit, despite the difficulties (here, the so-called " black drop effect ") and the rarity of observations.
19. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, culture, education and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the later on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom, Athena, and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines, Satine, and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat commonAthens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
20. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards. He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic WarAugustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
21. Amalaric – Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, was king of the Visigoths from 511 until his death in battle in 531. He was a son of king Alaric II and his first wife Theodegotha, when Alaric II was killed fighting Clovis I, king of the Franks, in the Battle of Vouillé, his kingdom fell into disarray. More serious than the destruction of the Gothic army, writes Herwig Wolfram, Alaric had made no provision for a successor, and although he had two sons, one was of age but illegitimate and the other the offspring of a legal marriage but still a child. The older son, Gesalec, was king but his reign was disastrous. King Theoderic of the Ostrogoths sent an army, led by his sword-bearer Theudis, against Gesalec, ostensibly on behalf of Amalaric, Gesalec fled to Africa. The Ostrogoths then drove back the Franks and their Burgundian allies, regaining possession of the south of Novempopulana, Rodez, probably even Albi, and even Toulose. Following the 511 death of Clovis, Theoderic negotiated a peace with Clovis successors, in 522 the young Amalaric was proclaimed king, and four years later, on Theoderics death, he assumed full royal power. His kingdom was faced with a threat from the north from the Franks, according to Peter Heather, this was his motivation for marrying Chrotilda, the daughter of Clovis. Peter Heather agrees with Woods implication in this instance, I doubt that this is the full story, childebert defeated the Visigothic army and took Narbonne. Amalaric fled south to Barcelona, where according to Isidore of Seville, according to Peter Heather, Theoderics former governor Theudis was implicated in Amalarics murder, and was certainly its prime beneficiary. As for Chrotilda, in Gregorys words she died on the home by some ill chance. Childebert had her brought to Paris where she was buried alongside her father Clovis. Media related to Amalarico at Wikimedia Commons Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter 39Amalaric – Illustration of Amalaric
22. Alabaster – Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft and often used for carving, as well as being processed for plaster powder. The term is used in different ways by archaeologists and the processing industry on the one hand. The first use is in a meaning, covering varieties of two different minerals, the fine-grained massive type of gypsum, as well as the fine-grained banded type of calcite. Geologists only define the gypsum variety as alabaster, chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium. Both types of alabaster have broadly similar properties and they are usually light-coloured, translucent and soft stones that have been used throughout human history mainly for carving decorative artifacts. Onyx-marble must be understood as a traditional, but geologically inaccurate term, in general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is calcite, but may be either. Both are easy to work and slightly water-soluble and they have been used for making a variety of indoor artworks and carvings, as they will not survive long outdoors. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, the origin of the word alabaster is in Middle English through Old French alabastre, in turn derived from the Latin alabaster, and that from Greek ἀλάβαστρος or ἀλάβαστος. The Greek words were used to identify a vase made of alabaster and this name may be derived further from the Ancient Egyptian word a-labaste, which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast. She was represented as a lioness and frequently depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels, other suggestions include derivation from the town of Alabastron in Egypt, described in sometimes contradictory manner by Roman-era authors Pliny and Ptolemy and whose location is not yet known. The purest alabaster is a material of fine uniform grain, but it often is associated with an oxide of iron. The coarser varieties of gypsum alabaster are converted by calcination into plaster of Paris, the softness of alabaster enables it to be carved readily into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a smooth, polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough, dull and whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre. The finer kinds of alabaster are employed largely as a stone, especially for ecclesiastical decoration and for the rails of staircases. Alabaster is mined and then sold in blocks to alabaster workshops, the effect of heating appears to be a partial dehydration of the gypsum. If properly treated, it closely resembles true marble and is known as marmo di Castellina. Alabaster is a stone and can be dyed into any colour or shadeAlabaster – Three Maries, alabaster sculpture by Master of the Rimini Crucifixion (c. 1430), National Museum, Warsaw.
23. Alain de Lille – Alain de Lille was a French theologian and poet. He was born in Lille, some time before 1128 and his exact date of death remains unclear as well, with most research pointing toward it being between April 14,1202, and April 5,1203. Little is known of his life, however it is clear that Alan entered the schools no earlier than the late 1140s, first attending the school at Paris and he probably studied under masters such as Peter Abelard, Gilbert of Poitiers, and Thierry of Chartres. This is known through the writings of John of Salisbury, who is thought to have been an exact contemporary student of Alan of Lille. His earliest writings were written in the 1150s, and probably in Paris. Alan spent many years teaching at the school in Paris and he attended the Lateran Council in 1179 and he afterwards inhabited Montpellier, lived for a time outside the walls of any cloister, and finally retired to Cîteaux, where he died in 1202. He had a widespread reputation during his lifetime and his knowledge, more varied than profound. Many of Alan’s writings are unable to be dated. He created the allegory of grammatical conjugation which was to have its successors throughout the Middle Ages, the Anticlaudianus, a treatise on morals as allegory, the form of which recalls the pamphlet of Claudian against Rufinus, is agreeably versified and relatively pure in its latinity. As a theologian Alain de Lille shared in the reaction of the second half of the 12th century against the scholastic philosophy. His mysticism, however, is far from being as absolute as that of the Victorines and this rule is completed in his treatise, Ars catholicae fidei, as follows, Theology itself may be demonstrated by reason. Alain even ventures an immediate application of this principle, and tries to prove geometrically the dogmas defined in the Creed. This bold attempt is entirely factitious and verbal, and it is only his employment of terms not generally used in such a connection that gives his treatise its apparent originality. Alan’s philosophy was a sort of mixture of Aristotelian logic and Neoplatonic philosophy, in this work, Alan uses prose and verse to illustrate the way in which nature defines its own position as inferior to that of God. He also attempts to illustrate the way in which humanity, through sexual perversion and specifically homosexuality, has defiled itself from nature and God. In Anticlaudianus, another of his works, Alan uses a poetical dialogue to illustrate the way in which nature comes to the realization of her failure in producing the perfect man. She has only the ability to create a body, and thus she is “persuaded to undertake the journey to heaven to ask for a soul, ”. The Five Senses are the horses”, the Anticlaudianus was translated into French and German in the following century, and toward 1280 was re-worked into a musical anthology by Adam de la BasséeAlain de Lille – Alanus ab Insulis (Alain de Lille).
24. Alexander I of Serbia – Alexander I or Aleksandar Obrenović was king of Serbia from 1889 to 1903 when he and his wife, Queen Draga, were assassinated by a group of Army officers, led by Captain Dragutin Dimitrijević. Alexander was born on 14 August 1876 to King Milan and Queen Natalie of Serbia and he belonged to the Obrenović dynasty. In 1889, King Milan unexpectedly abdicated and withdrew to private life, in 1893, King Alexander, aged sixteen, arbitrarily proclaimed himself of full age, dismissed the regents and their government, and took the royal authority into his own hands. His action won popular support, as did his appointment of a radical ministry, in May 1894 King Alexander arbitrarily abolished King Milans liberal constitution of 1888 and restored the conservative one of 1869. His attitude during the Greco-Turkish War was one of strict neutrality, in 1894 the young King brought his father, Milan, back to Serbia and, in 1898, appointed him commander-in-chief of the Serbian army. During that time, Milan was regarded as the de facto ruler of the country, in the summer of 1900, King Alexander suddenly announced his engagement to the widowed Madame Draga Mašin, formerly a lady-in-waiting to his mother and 12 years older than him. The proposed union aroused great opposition, not only was Draga of unequal birth and obscure family, but at 36 years of age, Alexander was an only child, and it was imperative to secure the succession. Vladan Đorđević, who was visiting the Paris Universal Exhibition at the time of the announcement, both immediately resigned from their respective offices and Alexander had difficulty in forming a new cabinet. Alexanders mother also opposed the marriage and was banished from the kingdom. She was known to have seen in the nearby countries, such as Austria-Hungary. The marriage duly took place in August 1900, even so, the unpopularity of the union weakened the Kings position in the eyes of the army and of the country at large. Meanwhile, the independence of the senate and of the council of state caused increasing irritation to King Alexander, in March 1903 the King suspended the constitution for half an hour, time enough to publish the decrees dismissing and replacing the old senators and councillors of state. This arbitrary act increased dissatisfaction in the country, several politicians were also part of the conspiracy, and allegedly included former Prime Minister, Nikola Pašić. The royal couples palace was invaded and they hid in a cupboard in the Queens bedroom, the conspirators searched the palace and eventually discovered the royal couple and murdered them in the early morning of May 29,1903. The King was only 26 years old at the time of his death, King Alexander and Queen Draga were buried in the crypt of StAlexander I of Serbia – Alexander I
25. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer. He was a critic of the Soviet Union and communism. He was allowed to only one work in the Soviet Union, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. After this he had to publish in the West, most notably Cancer Ward, August 1914, Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature. Solzhenitsyn was afraid to go to Stockholm to receive his award for fear that he would not be allowed to reenter and he was eventually expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974, but returned to Russia in 1994 after the states dissolution. Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, RSFSR and his mother, Taisiya Zakharovna was of Ukrainian descent. Her father had risen from humble beginnings to become a wealthy landowner, during World War I, Taisiya went to Moscow to study. While there she met and married Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn, a officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origins. The family background of his parents is vividly brought to life in the chapters of August 1914. In 1918, Taisia became pregnant with Aleksandr, on 15 June, shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was raised by his mother and aunt in lowly circumstances. His earliest years coincided with the Russian Civil War, by 1930 the family property had been turned into a collective farm. Later, Solzhenitsyn recalled that his mother had fought for survival and his educated mother encouraged his literary and scientific learnings and raised him in the Russian Orthodox faith, she died in 1944. As early as 1936, Solzhenitsyn began developing the characters and concepts for an epic work on World War I. This eventually led to the novel August 1914 – some of the chapters he wrote then still survive, Solzhenitsyn studied mathematics at Rostov State University. At the same time he took courses from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature and History. As he himself makes clear, he did not question the state ideology or the superiority of the Soviet Union until he spent time in the camps. During the war Solzhenitsyn served as the commander of a battery in the Red Army, was involved in major action at the frontAleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Solzhenitsyn in 1974
26. Algiers – Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the portion of Algeria. The casbah and the two form a triangle. A Phoenician commercial outpost called Ikosim which later developed into a small Roman town called Icosium existed on what is now the quarter of the city. The rue de la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street, Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian, the bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri and he had earlier built his own house and a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards, thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, in 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards, Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk, Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy, repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland. The United States fought two wars over Algiers attacks on shipping, among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, who was captive in Algiers almost five years, and who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the periodAlgiers – Clockwise: Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, Martyrs Memorial, Notre Dame d'Afrique, Ketchaoua Mosque, Casbah, the Grand Post Office and the Ministry of Finance of Algeria
27. Ibn al-Haytham – Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham, also known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen, was an Arab Muslim scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. Ibn al-Haytham made significant contributions to the principles of optics, astronomy, mathematics and he was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then is directed to ones eyes. He spent most of his close to the court of the Fatimid Caliphate in Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises. In medieval Europe, Ibn al-Haytham was honored as Ptolemaeus Secundus or simply called The Physicist and he is also sometimes called al-Baṣrī after his birthplace Basra in Iraq, or al-Miṣrī. Ibn al-Haytham was born c.965 in Basra, which was part of the Buyid emirate. Alhazen arrived in Cairo under the reign of Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, until his death in 1040. Legend has it that after deciding the scheme was impractical and fearing the caliphs anger, during this time, he wrote his influential Book of Optics and continued to write further treatises on astronomy, geometry, number theory, optics and natural philosophy. Among his students were Sorkhab, a Persian from Semnan who was his student for three years, and Abu al-Wafa Mubashir ibn Fatek, an Egyptian prince who learned mathematics from Alhazen. Alhazen made significant contributions to optics, number theory, geometry, astronomy, Alhazens work on optics is credited with contributing a new emphasis on experiment. In al-Andalus, it was used by the prince of the Banu Hud dynasty of Zaragossa and author of an important mathematical text. A Latin translation of the Kitab al-Manazir was made probably in the twelfth or early thirteenth century. His research in catoptrics centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration and he made the observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant, and investigated the magnifying power of a lens. His work on catoptrics also contains the known as Alhazens problem. Alhazen wrote as many as 200 books, although only 55 have survived, some of his treatises on optics survived only through Latin translation. During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin, Hebrew, the crater Alhazen on the Moon is named in his honour, as was the asteroid 59239 Alhazen. In honour of Alhazen, the Aga Khan University named its Ophthalmology endowed chair as The Ibn-e-Haitham Associate Professor, Alhazen, by the name Ibn al-Haytham, is featured on the obverse of the Iraqi 10, 000-dinar banknote issued in 2003, and on 10-dinar notes from 1982. The 2015 International Year of Light celebrated the 1000th anniversary of the works on optics by Ibn Al-Haytham, Alhazens most famous work is his seven-volume treatise on optics Kitab al-Manazir, written from 1011 to 1021. Optics was translated into Latin by a scholar at the end of the 12th century or the beginning of the 13th centuryIbn al-Haytham – Front page of the Opticae Thesaurus, which included the first printed Latin translation of Alhazen's Book of Optics. The illustration incorporates many examples of optical phenomena including perspective effects, the rainbow, mirrors, and refraction.
28. Amalric of Bena – Amalric of Bena was a French theologian and sect leader, after whom the Amalricians are named. Amalric was born in the part of the 12th century at Bennes. In 1204 his doctrines were condemned by the university, and, on an appeal to Pope Innocent III. His death was caused, it is said, by grief at the humiliation to which he had been subjected, in 1209 ten of his followers were burnt before the gates of Paris, and Amalrics own body was exhumed and burnt and the ashes given to the winds. The doctrines of his followers, known as the Amalricians, were condemned by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Amalric appears to have derived his system from Eriugena, whose principles he developed in a one-sided. Because of the first proposition, God himself is thought as invisible, there is no other life, mans fulfilment is in this life alone. Due to persecutions, this sect does not appear to have survived the death of its founder. Not long after the burning of ten of their members, the sect itself lost its importance, according to Hosea Ballou, then Pierre Batiffol and George T. Knight Amalric was a believer that all people would eventually be saved, Brethren of the Free Spirit Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Amalric, of Bena. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, ABecket. W. Preger, Geschichte der deutschen Mystik im Mittelalter Haureau, schmidt, Histoire de lÉglise dOccident pendant le Moyen Âge Hefele, Conciliengeschichte. Amaury de Bène, étude sur son panthéisme formel, the Influence of Amalric of Bene in Thirteenth Century PantheismAmalric of Bena – 14th century picture of Amalric of Bena. He appears to be teaching people.
29. Arnold Schwarzenegger – Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, producer, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician and former professional bodybuilder. He served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011, Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. He is widely considered to be among the greatest bodybuilders of all time as well as bodybuildings biggest icon, Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. His breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, in 1984, Schwarzenegger appeared in James Camerons science-fiction thriller film The Terminator, which was a massive critical and box-office success. Schwarzenegger subsequently reprised the Terminator character in the later installments in 1991,2003. He appeared in a number of films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Predator, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop. In 2015, it was announced Schwarzenegger would replace Donald Trump as the host of The Celebrity Apprentice and he was nicknamed the Austrian Oak in his bodybuilding days, Arnie during his acting career, and The Governator during his political career. As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7,2003, Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, to serve the remainder of Daviss term. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his term on January 5,2007. In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his term as governor. Schwarzenegger was born in Thal, Styria, and christened Arnold Alois and his parents were Gustav Schwarzenegger and Aurelia Schwarzenegger. He married Aurelia on October 20,1945, he was 38, according to Schwarzenegger, both of his parents were very strict, Back then in Austria it was a very different world. If we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared, Schwarzenegger grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday. Gustav had a preference for his son, Meinhard, over Arnold. His favoritism was strong and blatant, which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child, Schwarzenegger has said his father had no patience for listening or understanding your problems. He had a relationship with his mother and kept in touch with her until her death. Gustavs background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign, at school, Schwarzenegger was reportedly academically average, but stood out for his cheerful, good-humored, and exuberant characterArnold Schwarzenegger – Schwarzenegger in 2015
30. Antoine Lavoisier – Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology. He is widely considered in popular literature as the father of modern chemistry and it is generally accepted that Lavoisiers great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion and he recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the system, wrote the first extensive list of elements. He predicted the existence of silicon and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound and he discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Lavoisier was a member of a number of aristocratic councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research, at the height of the French Revolution, he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling adulterated tobaccoand of other crimes, and was eventually guillotined a year after Marats death. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743. The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a fortune at the age of five with the passing of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11, in his last two years at the school, his scientific interests were aroused, and he studied chemistry, botany, astronomy, and mathematics. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a degree in 1763. Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, however, he continued his scientific education in his spare time. Lavoisiers education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time and he attended lectures in the natural sciences. Lavoisiers devotion and passion for chemistry were largely influenced by Étienne Condillac and his first chemical publication appeared in 1764. From 1763 to 1767, he studied geology under Jean-Étienne Guettard, in collaboration with Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in June 1767. In 1768 Lavoisier received an appointment to the Academy of Sciences. In 1769, he worked on the first geological map of France, on behalf of the Ferme générale Lavoisier commissioned the building of a wall around Paris so that customs duties could be collected from those transporting goods into and out of the city. Lavoisier attempted to introduce reforms in the French monetary and taxation system to help the peasants, Lavoisier consolidated his social and economic position when, in 1771 at age 28, he married Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the 13-year-old daughter of a senior member of the Ferme généraleAntoine Lavoisier – Line engraving by Louis Jean Desire Delaistre, after a design by Julien Leopold Boilly
31. Augustin-Louis Cauchy – Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE was a French mathematician who made pioneering contributions to analysis. He was one of the first to state and prove theorems of calculus rigorously and he almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy had an influence over his contemporaries. His writings range widely in mathematics and mathematical physics, more concepts and theorems have been named for Cauchy than for any other mathematician. Cauchy was a writer, he wrote approximately eight hundred research articles. Cauchy was the son of Louis François Cauchy and Marie-Madeleine Desestre, Cauchy married Aloise de Bure in 1818. She was a relative of the publisher who published most of Cauchys works. By her he had two daughters, Marie Françoise Alicia and Marie Mathilde, Cauchys father was a high official in the Parisian Police of the New Régime. He lost his position because of the French Revolution that broke out one month before Augustin-Louis was born, the Cauchy family survived the revolution and the following Reign of Terror by escaping to Arcueil, where Cauchy received his first education, from his father. After the execution of Robespierre, it was safe for the family to return to Paris, there Louis-François Cauchy found himself a new bureaucratic job, and quickly moved up the ranks. When Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, Louis-François Cauchy was further promoted, the famous mathematician Lagrange was also a friend of the Cauchy family. On Lagranges advice, Augustin-Louis was enrolled in the École Centrale du Panthéon, most of the curriculum consisted of classical languages, the young and ambitious Cauchy, being a brilliant student, won many prizes in Latin and Humanities. In spite of successes, Augustin-Louis chose an engineering career. In 1805 he placed second out of 293 applicants on this exam, one of the main purposes of this school was to give future civil and military engineers a high-level scientific and mathematical education. The school functioned under military discipline, which caused the young, nevertheless, he finished the Polytechnique in 1807, at the age of 18, and went on to the École des Ponts et Chaussées. He graduated in engineering, with the highest honors. After finishing school in 1810, Cauchy accepted a job as an engineer in Cherbourg. Cauchys first two manuscripts were accepted, the one was rejectedAugustin-Louis Cauchy – Cauchy around 1840. Lithography by Zéphirin Belliard after a painting by Jean Roller.
32. Absalon – Absalon or Axel was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and churchfather of Denmark in the half of the 12th century. He combined the ideals of Gregorian Reform ideals with loyal support of a strong monarchical power, Absalon was born into the powerful Hvide clan, and owned great land possessions. He endowed several church institutions, most prominently his familys Sorø Abbey and he was granted lands by the crown, and built the first fortification of the city that evolved into modern-day Copenhagen. His titles were passed on to his nephews Anders Sunesen and Peder Sunesen and he died in 1201, and was interred at Sorø Abbey. Absalon was born around 1128 near Sorø, Zealand, due to a name which is unusual in Denmark, it is speculated that he was christened on the Danish Absalon name day, October 30. He was the son of Asser Rig, a magnate of the Hvide clan from Fjenneslev on Zealand and he was also a kinsman of Archbishop Eskil of Lund. He grew up at the castle of his father, and was brought up alongside his older brother Esbern Snare and the young prince Valdemar, who later became King Valdemar I of Denmark. During the civil war following the death of Eric III of Denmark in 1146, Absalon travelled abroad to study theology in Paris, at Paris, he was influenced by the Gregorian Reform ideals of churchly independence from Monarchical rule. He also befriended the canon William of Æbelholt at the Abbey of St Genevieve and he was a guest at following Roskilde banquet given in 1157 by Sweyn to his rivals Canute V and Valdemar. Both Absalon and Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of Sweyn on this occasion, Absalon probably did not take part in the following battle of Grathe Heath in 1157, in which Sweyn was defeated and slain and led to Valdemar ascending the Danish throne. On Good Friday 1158, bishop Asser of Roskilde died, and Absalon was eventually elected bishop of Roskilde on Zealand with the help of Valdemar, Absalon was a close counsellor of Valdemar, and chief promoter of the Danish crusades against the Wends. During the Danish civil war, Denmark had been open to coastal raids by the Wends and it was Absalons intention to clear the Baltic Sea of the Wendish pirates who inhabited its southern littoral zone which was later called Pomerania. The pirates had raided the Danish coasts during the war of Sweyn III, Canute V. Absalon formed a fleet, built coastal defenses, and led several campaigns against the Wends. He even advocated forgiving the earlier enemies of Valdemar, which helped stabilize Denmark internally, the first expedition against the Wends that was conducted by Absalon in person, set out in 1160. These expeditions were successful, but brought no lasting victories, what started out as mere retribution, eventually evolved into full-fledged campaigns of expansion with religious motives. In 1164 began twenty years of crusades against the Wends, sometimes with the help of German duke Henry the Lion, in 1168 the chief Wendish fortress at Arkona in Rügen, containing the sanctuary of their god Svantevit, was conqueredAbsalon – Statue of Absalon in Copenhagen
33. Art Deco – Art Deco, sometimes simply referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Decorators, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 and it combined modernist styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured rare and expensive materials such as ebony and ivory, the Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel and plastic, a more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s, it featured curving forms and smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the style came to an end with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced as the dominant global style by the functional and unadorned styles of modernism. The term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858, in 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de lOpéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile, jewelry and glass designers and it took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. The term Art déco was then used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major book on the style. Hillier noted that the term was already being used by art dealers and cites The Times, in 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, the term arts décoratifs had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture, textiles, and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, a similar movement developed in Italy. The first international exhibition devoted entirely to the arts, the Esposizione international dArte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration, Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, and later in the Salon dautomne. French nationalism also played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts, in 1911 the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
34. Airline – An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body, Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, domestic, regional, or international, the largest airline currently is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the worlds first airline and it was founded on November 16,1909 with government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. The first fixed wing scheduled air service was started on January 1,1914 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, the four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands KLM, Colombias Avianca, Australias Qantas, and the Czech Republics Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was the Aircraft Transport and Travel, using a fleet of former military Airco DH. 4A biplanes that had been modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris - Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH. 16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather and began to attract European competition. In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract, six Royal Air Force Airco DH. 9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force, the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère, later known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919, in its first year, the D. L. R. Operated regularly scheduled flights on routes with a length of nearly 1000 miles. Network was more than 3000 km long, and included destinations in the Netherlands, Scandinavia, another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921. It was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, and is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a Royal predicate from Queen Wilhelmina. Its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, in 1921, KLM started scheduled servicesAirline – Boeing 767-300ER of Delta Air Lines at Frankfurt Airport
35. Alexander Grothendieck – Alexander Grothendieck was a German-born French mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry. He is considered by many to be the greatest mathematician of the 20th century, born in Germany, Grothendieck was raised and lived primarily in France. For much of his life, however, he was, in effect. Grothendieck began his productive and public career as a mathematician in 1949 and he later became professor at the University of Montpellier and, while still producing relevant mathematical work, he withdrew from the mathematical community and devoted himself to political causes. Soon after his retirement in 1988, he moved to the Pyrenees. Grothendieck was born in Berlin to anarchist parents, both had broken away from their early backgrounds in their teens. At the time of his birth, Grothendiecks mother was married to the journalist Johannes Raddatz, the marriage was dissolved in 1929 and Schapiro/Tanaroff acknowledged his paternity, but never married Hanka. Grothendieck lived with his parents in Berlin until the end of 1933 and they left Grothendieck in the care of Wilhelm Heydorn, a Lutheran pastor and teacher in Hamburg. During this time, his parents took part in the Spanish Civil War, according to Winfried Scharlau, as non-combatant auxiliaries, in May 1939, Grothendieck was put on a train in Hamburg for France. Shortly afterwards his father was interned in Le Vernet and he and his mother were then interned in various camps from 1940 to 1942 as undesirable dangerous foreigners. The first was the Camp de Rieucros, where his mother contracted the tuberculosis which eventually caused her death, once Alexander managed to escape from the camp, intending to assassinate Hitler. Later, his mother Hanka was transferred to the Gurs internment camp for the remainder of World War II, in Chambon, Grothendieck attended the Collège Cévenol, a unique secondary school founded in 1938 by local Protestant pacifists and anti-war activists. Many of the refugee children hidden in Chambon attended Cévenol, after the war, the young Grothendieck studied mathematics in France, initially at the University of Montpellier where he did not initially perform well, failing such classes as astronomy. Working on his own, he rediscovered the Lebesgue measure, after three years of increasingly independent studies there, he went to continue his studies in Paris in 1948. Initially, Grothendieck attended Henri Cartans Seminar at École Normale Supérieure, on the advice of Cartan and André Weil, he moved to the University of Nancy where he wrote his dissertation under Laurent Schwartz and Jean Dieudonné on functional analysis, from 1950 to 1953. At this time he was an expert in the theory of topological vector spaces. By 1957, he set this subject aside in order to work in algebraic geometry, the prospect did not worry him, as long as he could have access to books. In 1958 Grothendieck was installed at the Institut des hautes études scientifiques, Grothendieck attracted attention by an intense and highly productive activity of seminars thereAlexander Grothendieck – Alexander Grothendieck in Montreal, 1970
36. Aristide Maillol – Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol was a French sculptor, painter, and printmaker. Maillol was born in Banyuls-sur-Mer, Roussillon and he decided at an early age to become a painter, and moved to Paris in 1881 to study art. His early paintings show the influence of his contemporaries Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Gauguin encouraged his growing interest in decorative art, an interest that led Maillol to take up tapestry design. In 1893 Maillol opened a workshop in Banyuls, producing works whose high technical. He began making small terracotta sculptures in 1895, and within a few years his concentration on sculpture led to the abandonment of his work in tapestry, in July 1896, Maillol married Clotilde Narcis, one of his employees at his tapestry workshop. Their only son, Lucian, was born that October, maillol’s first major sculpture, A Seated Woman, was modeled after his wife. The first version was completed in 1902, and renamed La Méditerranée, Maillol, believing that art does not lie in the copying of nature, produced a second, less naturalistic version in 1905. In 1902, the art dealer Ambroise Vollard provided Maillol with his first exhibition, the subject of nearly all of Maillols mature work is the female body, treated with a classical emphasis on stable forms. Josep Pla said of Maillol, These archaic ideas, Greek, were the great novelty Maillol brought into the tendency of modern sculpture. What you need to love from the ancients is not the antiquity, it is the sense of permanent, renewed novelty and his important public commissions include a 1912 commission for a monument to Cézanne, as well as numerous war memorials commissioned after World War I. Maillol served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal a grant awarded to painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers and he made a series of woodcut illustrations for an edition of Vergils Eclogues published by Harry Graf Kessler in 1926–27. He also illustrated Daphnis and Chloe by Longus and Chansons pour elle by Paul Verlaine and he died in Banyuls at the age of eighty-three, in an automobile accident. While driving home during a thunderstorm, the car in which he was a passenger skidded off the road and rolled over. A large collection of Maillols work is maintained at the Musée Maillol in Paris and his home a few kilometers outside Banyuls, also the site of his final resting place, has been turned into a museum where a number of his works and sketches are displayed. Three of his bronzes grace the staircase of the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City, Summer, Venus Without Arms. The third is the only reference to music, created for a monument at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Flora, Nude, Houston, Texas LAir Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, “Aristide Maillol, 1861-1944”, New York, frèches-Thory, Claire, & Perucchi-Petry, Ursula, ed. Die Nabis, Propheten der Moderne, Kunsthaus Zürich & Grand Palais, Paris & Prestel, Munich 1993 ISBN 3-7913-1969-8, Lorquin, BertrandAristide Maillol – Aristide Maillol
37. Auguste Rodin – François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past and he was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Pariss foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed an ability to model a complex, turbulent. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime and they clashed with predominant figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodins most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, Rodin was sensitive to the controversy surrounding his work, but refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the government and the artistic community, by 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodins work after his Worlds Fair exhibit and he married his lifelong companion, Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. His sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community. Rodin was born in 1840 into a family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin. He was largely self-educated, and began to draw at age ten, between ages 14 and 17, Rodin attended the Petite École, a school specializing in art and mathematics, where he studied drawing and painting. His drawing teacher, Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, believed in first developing the personality of his students so that they observed with their own eyes, Rodin still expressed appreciation for his teacher much later in life. It was at Petite École that he first met Jules Dalou, in 1857, Rodin submitted a clay model of a companion to the École des Beaux-Arts in an attempt to win entrance, he did not succeed, and two further applications were also denied. Given that entrance requirements at the Grande École were not particularly high, Rodins inability to gain entrance may have been due to the judges Neoclassical tastes, while Rodin had been schooled in light, 18th-century sculpture. Leaving the Petite École in 1857, Rodin earned a living as a craftsman, Rodins sister Maria, two years his senior, died of peritonitis in a convent in 1862. Rodin was anguished and felt guilty because he had introduced Maria to an unfaithful suitor, turning away from art, he briefly joined a Catholic order, the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament. Saint Peter Julian Eymard, founder and head of the congregation, recognized Rodins talent and, sensing his lack of suitability for the order and he returned to work as a decorator, while taking classes with animal sculptor Antoine-Louis Barye. The teachers attention to detail – his finely rendered musculature of animals in motion – significantly influenced Rodin, in 1864, Rodin began to live with a young seamstress named Rose Beuret, with whom he would stay – with ranging commitment – for the rest of his life. The couple had a son, Auguste-Eugène Beuret and that year, Rodin offered his first sculpture for exhibition, and entered the studio of Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, a successful mass producer of objets dartAuguste Rodin – Rodin circa 1862.
38. Aircraft hijacking – Aircraft hijacking is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers, occasionally, however, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves, such as the September 11 attacks. In at least three cases, the plane was hijacked by the pilot or co-pilot. Unlike the typical hijackings of vehicles or ships, skyjacking is not usually committed for robbery or theft. Most aircraft hijackers intend to use the passengers as hostages, either for monetary ransom or for political or administrative concession by authorities. Various motives have driven such occurrences, including demanding the release of inmates, highlighting the grievances of a particular community. Hijackers also have used aircraft as a weapon to target particular locations, hijackings for hostages commonly produce an armed standoff during a period of negotiation between hijackers and authorities, followed by some form of settlement. Settlements do not always meet the original demands. If the hijackers demands are deemed too great and the show no inclination to surrender. 1929, In the Fort Worth Star-Telegram daily newspaper 19 September 1970 and he was flying a postal route for the Mexican company Transportes Aeras Transcontinentales, ferrying mail from San Luis Potosí to Toreon and then on to Guadalajara. He was approached by Gen. Saturnino Cedillo, governor of the state of San Luis Potosí, Cedillo was accompanied by several other men. He was told through an interpreter that he had no choice in the matter and he stalled long enough to convey the information to his boss, who told him to cooperate. He had no maps, but was guided by the men as he flew above Mexican mountains and he landed on a road as directed, and was held captive for several hours under armed guard. He eventually was released with a Buenos from Cedillo and his staff, DeCelles kept his flight log, according to the article, but he did not file a report with authorities. He went on to work for the FAA in Fort Worth after his flying career,1931, The first recorded aircraft hijack took place on February 21,1931, in Arequipa, Peru. Byron Richards, flying a Ford Tri-Motor, was approached on the ground by armed revolutionaries and he refused to fly them anywhere and after a 10-day standoff, Richards was informed that the revolution was successful and he could go in return for flying one group member to Lima. 1939, The worlds first fatal hijacking occurred on 28 October 1939, larry Pletch shot Carl Bivens,39, a flight instructor who was offering Pletch lessons in a yellow Taylor Cub monoplane with tandem controls in the air after taking off in Brookfield, Missouri. Bivens, instructing from the front seat, was shot in the back of the head twice, Carl was telling me I had a natural ability and I should follow that line, Pletch later confessed to prosecutors in MissouriAircraft hijacking – Warning posters in a Central African airport, in French and English. June 2012
39. Autobiography – An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of a person. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, however, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Autobiography thus takes stock of the life from the moment of composition. While biographers generally rely on a variety of documents and viewpoints. The memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self. See also, List of autobiographies and Category, Autobiographies for examples, in a classic essay on American autobiography James M. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information, some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of a struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion. The author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine, the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of his or her religion. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography, while an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record. One early example is that of Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish, the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby. French examples from the period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz. Daniel Defoes Moll Flanders is an early example, charles Dickens David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, the term may also apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. g. Robert Nyes Memoirs of Lord ByronAutobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
40. Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I and it set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Roman Arch of Titus, the Arc de Triomphe has an height of 50 metres, width of 45 m. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m high and 8.44 m wide, three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the archs primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel. Pariss Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, the Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m. The Arc is located on the bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes, the architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. On 15 December 1840, brought back to France from Saint Helena, prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885. The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, the relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy successfully flew his biplane under the Arc, Jean Navarre was the pilot who was tasked to make the flight, but he died on 10 July 1919 when he crashed near Villacoublay while training for the flight. Following its construction, the Arc de Triomphe became the point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans in 1940, and the French and Allies in 1944 and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the Arc de Triomphe in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées, after the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb, both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom. By the early 1960s, the monument had grown very blackened from coal soot and automobile exhaust, and during 1965–1966 it was cleaned through bleaching. In the prolongation of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, a new arch, after the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and the Arc de Triomphe de lÉtoile, the Grande Arche is the third arch built on the same perspective. In 1995, the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria placed a bomb near the Arc de Triomphe which wounded 17 people as part of a campaign of bombings, the astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin, in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture. Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe, Jean-Pierre Cortot, François Rude, Antoine Étex, James Pradier and Philippe Joseph Henri LemaireArc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe from the Champs-Élysées
41. Airbus A300 – The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus. The A300 can typically seat 266 passengers in a layout, with a maximum range of 4,070 nautical miles when fully loaded. Development of the A300 began during the 1960s as a European collaborative project between various aircraft manufacturers in Britain, France, and West Germany, in September 1967, the participating nations signed a Memorandum of Understanding to manufacture the aircraft. The British withdrew from the project on 10 April 1969, a new agreement was reached between Germany and France on 29 May 1969, and Airbus Industrie was formally created on 18 December 1970 to develop and produce the A300. The type first flew on 28 October 1972, Air France, the launch customer for the A300, introduced the type into service on 30 May 1974. During the 1990s, the A300 became popular with freight operators. Production of the A300 ceased in July 2007, along with its smaller A310 derivative, the freighter sales for which the A300 had previously competed in later life are instead fulfilled by the A330-200F, a derivative of the newer Airbus A330. To overcome this factor, the report recommended the pursuit of multinational collaborative projects between the leading aircraft manufacturers. European manufacturers were keen to explore prospective programs, the proposed 260-seat wide-body HBN100 between Hawker Siddeley, Nord Aviation, and Breguet Aviation being one such example. During the mid-1960s, both Air France and American Airlines had expressed interest in a twin-engine wide-body aircraft, indicating a market demand for such an aircraft to be produced. The word airbus at this point was an aviation term for a larger commercial aircraft. Addition work included moving elements of the wings being produced in the Netherlands, as such, the A300 would feature the first use of composite materials of any passenger aircraft, the leading and trailing edges of the tail fin being composed of glass fibre reinforced plastic. Béteille opted for English as the language for the developing aircraft, as well against using Metric instrumentation and measurements. According to Airbus, this approach to market research had been crucial to the companys long term success. On 26 September 1967, the British, French, and West German governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding to start development of the 300-seat Airbus A300, at this point, the A300 was only the second major joint aircraft programme in Europe, the first being the Anglo-French Concorde. Under the terms of the memorandum, Britain and France were each to receive a 37.5 per cent work share on the project, sud Aviation was recognized as the lead company for A300, with Hawker Siddeley being selected as the British partner company. In December 1968, the French and British partner companies proposed a revised configuration and it had been feared that the original 300-seat proposal was too large for the market, thus it had been scaled down to produce the A250. The dimensional changes involved in the reduced the length of the fuselage by 5.62 metersAirbus A300 – A300
42. Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie – Antoine Thomson dAbbadie dArrast was a French explorer, geographer, ethnologist, linguist and astronomer notable for his travels in Ethiopia during the first half of the 19th century. He was the brother of Arnaud Michel dAbbadie, with whom he traveled. He was born in the British city of Dublin, Ireland and his father, Michel Abbadie, was born in Arrast-Larrebieu and his mother was Irish. His grandfather Jean-Pierre was an abbot and a notary in Soule, the family moved to France in 1818 where the brothers received a careful scientific education. In 1827, Antoine received a degree in Toulouse. Starting in 1829, he began his education in Paris, where he studied law and he married Virginie Vincent de Saint-Bonnet on 21 February 1859, and settled in Hendaye where he purchased 250ha to build a castle, and became the mayor of the city from 1871 to 1875. Abbadie was a knight of the Legion of Honour, which he received on 27 September 1850, and he died in 1897, and bequeathed the Abbadi domain and castle in Hendaye, yielding 40,000 francs a year, to the Academy of Sciences. In 1837, the two brothers started for Ethiopia, landing at Massawa in February 1838 and they journeyed throughout Ethiopia, travelling as far south as the Kingdom of Kaffa, sometimes together and sometimes separately. In addition to his studies in the sciences, he delved into the political fray exerting influence in favor of France, while in Ethiopia they returned to France in 1848 with notes on the geography, geology, archaeology, and natural history of the region. Antoine became involved in controversies relating both to his geographical results and his political intrigues. He was especially attacked by Charles Tilstone Beke, who impugned his veracity, the topographical results of his explorations were published in Paris between 1860 and 1873 in Géodésie dÉthiopie, full of the most valuable information and illustrated by ten maps. Of the Géographie de lÉthiopie only one volume was published, in Un Catalogue raisonné de manuscrits éthiopiens is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by Antoine. He also compiled various vocabularies, including a Dictionnaire de la langue amariñña and he published numerous papers dealing with the geography of Ethiopia, Ethiopian coins and ancient inscriptions. Under the title of Reconnaissances magnétiques he published in 1890 an account of the observations made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red Sea. The general account of the travels of the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the title of Douze ans dans la Haute Ethiopie, Antoine was responsible for streamlining techniques towards geodesy, along with inventing a new theodolite for measuring angles. Basque through his father, Abbadie developed a particular interest about the Basque Language after meeting the Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte in London and he started his academic work on Basque in 1852. A speaker of both Souletin and Lapurdian, a resident of Lapurdi, Abbadie considered himself a Basque from Soule, the popularity of the motto Zazpiak Bat is attributed to Abbadie, coined in the framework of the Lore Jokoak Basque festivals, fostered by himself. Abbadie gave his home the name Abbadia, which is the name still used in BasqueAntoine Thomson d'Abbadie – Domaine d'Abbadia in Hendaye, designed by Viollet-le-Duc