1. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
2. An American in Paris – An American in Paris is a jazz-influenced symphonic poem by the American composer George Gershwin, written in 1928. Gershwin composed An American from the conductor Walter Damrosch. He scored the piece plus celesta, saxophones, automobile horns. Gershwin completed the orchestration less than four weeks before the work's premiere. When the poem moves into the blues, "our American friend... has succumbed to a spasm of homesickness." But, "nostalgia is not a fatal disease." French atmosphere are triumphant." Gershwin was attracted by Maurice Ravel's unusual chords. Gershwin went in 1926 ready to study and to enjoy his first trip to Paris. Gershwin called "a rapsodic ballet' written so freely and much more modern than his prior works. Gershwin strongly encouraged Ravel to come for a tour, something Ravel had been reluctant to do. After a lunch together with Chaplin in Beverly Hills, Ravel was persuaded to perform an unscheduled ` concert' in a friend's music salon, performing among kindred spirits. Ravel's tour reignited Gershwin's desire to return to Paris which he did in March 1928. Ravel's high praise of Gershwin in an introductory letter to Boulanger caused Gershwin to seriously consider taking much more time to study abroad in Paris. Yet after playing for her, she told him she could not teach him.An American in Paris
3. Andrei Tarkovsky – Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky was a Soviet filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director. Tarkovsky's films include Ivan's Childhood, Stalker. His work is characterized by long takes, unconventional dramatic structure, spiritual and metaphysical themes. His contribution to cinema was so influential that works done in a similar way are described as Tarkovskian. Andrei's grandfather Aleksandr Tarkovsky was a Polish nobleman who worked as a clerk. He spent his childhood in Yuryevets. Tarkovsky was described as active and popular having many friends and being typically in the center of action. His father left the family in 1937, subsequently volunteering for the army in 1941. Tarkovsky stayed with his mother, moving with her and his sister Marina to Moscow, where she worked as a proofreader at a printing press. In 1939 he enrolled at the Moscow School № 554. During the war, the three evacuated to Yuryevets, living with his maternal grandmother. In 1943 the family returned to Moscow. He continued his studies at his old school, where the poet Andrey Voznesensky was one of his classmates. Tarkovsky attended classes at an art school. The family lived in Moscow.Andrei Tarkovsky – Andrei Tarkovsky
4. Albania – It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. The present territory of Albania was part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe following the Balkan Wars, Albania was recognized the following year. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. A socialist People's Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations from much of the international community. In 1991, the Republic of Albania was established. Albania is a parliamentary republic. Tirana, is its financial and industrial heartland, with a population of about 800,000. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and infrastructure. Albania provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is an upper-middle economy with the service sector dominating the country's economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, the Union for the Mediterranean. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union.Albania – Albanian Peasants costumes - illustration by Percy Anderson for Costume Fanciful, Historical and Theatrical, 1906
5. Ankara – Ankara, formerly known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey. With 5,150,072 in its province, it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul. Ankara is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkey's road and railway networks. The city gave its name from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat, the Angora cat. The area is also known for its pears, muscat grapes. Ankara is Ottoman archaeological sites. The hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel. As with ancient cities, Ankara has gone by several names over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite cult Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate. The form "Angora" is preserved in the names of several locations in the US. 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites. Persian sovereignty lasted at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander stayed in the city for a short period. By that time the city also took its Ἄγκυρα which, in slightly modified form, provides the modern name of Ankara. Other centers were Pessinos, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, Tavium, for the Tolstibogii tribe.Ankara – From top to bottom and left to right: Atatürk's Mausoleum, Kızılay Square, Kocatepe Mosque, A general view of the city centre, Atakule Tower and Ulus Square.
6. Attila – Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and was unable to take Constantinople. He subsequently was unable to take Rome. He died in 453. After Attila's death his close Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed. There is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. The Gothic etymology can be tracked up in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were "not the true names of the Hun lords. Most powerful minister Onegesius, also have hypothetical Germanic etymology. Mikkola connected it with Turkic āt. Gerd Althoff considered it was Turkish at and dil. "The Gothic origin of the Attila is questionable," Snædal writes. "It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin". The article points out that the atta is a migratory term for "father/forefather" common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages.Attila – Portrait by Eugène Delacroix, painted between 1843 and 1847
7. Amsterdam – Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 847,176 within the city proper, 2,431,000 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. Amsterdam's name derives as a dam of the river Amstel. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. Many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 19 -- 20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Seven of the world's 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. The city was previously ranked 3rd in innovation by 2thinknow in the Innovation Cities Index 2009. Famous Amsterdam residents included Anne Frank the diarist, the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. The earliest recorded use of the name "Aemstelredamme" comes from a document dated October 1275.Amsterdam
8. Alfred Nobel – Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, philanthropist. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. After reading a premature obituary which condemned him for profiting from the sales of arms, he bequeathed his fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic nobelium was named after him. His name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and AkzoNobel, which are descendants of mergers with companies Nobel himself established. Born in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel was the third son of Immanuel Nobel, Carolina Andriette Nobel. The couple had eight children. Only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood. Alfred Nobel's interest in technology was inherited in Stockholm. Following various business failures, Nobel's father grew successful there as a manufacturer of machine tools and explosives. He started work on the torpedo. In 1842, the family joined him in the city. For 18 months, from 1841 to 1842, Nobel went to the only school he ever attended in Stockholm. As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin; then, in 1850, went to Paris to further the work. There he met Ascanio Sobrero, who had invented nitroglycerin three years before.Alfred Nobel – Alfred Nobel
9. Apple Inc. – Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, iCloud. It was founded by Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers. Apple joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. It is the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer. The company employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015 and maintains 478 retail stores in seventeen countries as of March 2016. It operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of, the world's largest music retailer. There are over billion actively used Apple products worldwide of March 2016. Apple's annual revenue totaled $ billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015. This revenue generation accounts for approximately 1.25% of the total United States GDP. The corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials. It was established by Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. The Apple I kits were computers first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard, less than what is now considered a complete personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66.Apple Inc. – Apple Campus (1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California)
10. Agatha Christie – Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, DBE was an English crime novelist, short story writer and playwright. Christie also wrote a murder mystery, The Mousetrap, six romances under the name Mary Westmacott. In 1971 Christie was made a Dame for her contribution to literature. She was born into a upper-middle-class family in Torquay, Devon. Christie served in a hospital before marrying and starting a family in London. The Guinness Book of World Records lists Christie as the best-selling novelist of all time. According to Index Translationum, Christie remains the individual author -- having been translated into at least 103 languages. In 1955 she was the first recipient of the Mystery Writers of the Grand Master Award. Later Witness for the Prosecution received an Edgar Award by the MWA for Best Play. In 2013, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd was voted the best novel ever by 600 fellow writers of the Crime Writers' Association. Agatha Mary Clarissa Miller was born on 15 September 1890, into a upper middle-class family in Ashfield, Torquay, Devon. Clara Boehmer, was an Englishwoman, born in Belfast in 1854 to Captain Frederick Boehmer and Mary Ann West, the couple's only daughter. Clara Boehmer had four brothers, one of whom died young. Under financial strain, Christie sent Clara to live with her aunt Margaret Miller, who had married Nathaniel Frary Miller, in 1863. The couple lived in West Sussex.Agatha Christie – Agatha Christie as a girl, date unknown
11. Aaron – In the Hebrew Bible and the Quran, Aaron was the older brother of Moses and a prophet of God. Knowledge of Aaron along with his brother Moses comes exclusively from religious texts such as the Bible and Quran. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served to Pharaoh. He was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is also mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses' assistant. Because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses' "prophet". At the command of Moses, he let his turn into a snake. Then he stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues. After that, Moses tended to speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God". When the revelation was given at Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. While Joshua went to the top however, Aaron and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, Joshua appears while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest.Aaron – Russian icon of Aaron from the 17th Century.
12. Aarhus – Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. The urban area contains 264,716 inhabitants and the municipal population is 330,639. Aarhus is the central city in the East Jutland metropolitan area, which had a total population of million in 2016. Growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades and bombardments during the Swedish Wars. In the 19th century it avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest by the 20th century. Today Aarhus is in Jutland. The city ranks as number 234 among world cities. It is also a top 100 city in the world. Aarhus is the industrial port of the country in terms of container handling and an important trade hub in Kattegat. Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and leisure from a wide area in Region Midtjylland. Aarhus is notable for its musical history. In the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the scene diversified into rock and other genres. In the 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmark's rock music fostering many iconic bands such as TV-2 and Gnags.Aarhus – From top and left to right: Aarhus skyline, Aarhus City Hall, Isbjerget, Park Allé
13. Anatole France – Anatole France was a French poet, journalist, novelist. France was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Skeptical, France was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. Anatole France was also documented to have just two-thirds the normal size. He is also widely believed to be the model for narrator Marcel's idol Bergotte in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. The son of France spent most of his life around books and was a bibliophile. After graduation he helped his father by working in his bookstore. After several years France secured the position of cataloguer at Lemerre. In 1876 France was appointed librarian for the French Senate. Anatole France began his literary career as a journalist. In 1869, Le Parnasse Contemporain published one of La Part de Madeleine. In 1875, France sat on the committee, in charge of the third Parnasse Contemporain compilation. From 1867, France wrote many articles and notices. France became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard. Skeptical old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, embodied France's own personality.Anatole France – Anatole France
14. Antisemitism – Antisemitism is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. The root Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. Although the term did not come until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. The origin of "antisemitic" terminologies is found to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: "The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his'anti-Semitic prejudices'." Avner Falk similarly writes: ` The German antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile. Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan's false ideas to "Aryan races"'. He coined the phrase "the Jews are our misfortune" which would later be widely used by Nazis. In German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both "Jewry" and "jewishness". In the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga, apparently named to follow the "Anti-Kanzler-Liga". The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, "In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks as a designation which recently came into use. On 19 the editor says, ` This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old."'Antisemitism – Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition
15. Foreign relations of Armenia – It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia. US House Resolution 106 later referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The bill has 225 co-sponsors. The bill called for former President George W. Bush to use the word genocide in his annual 24 April speech which he never used. Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno -- Karabakh republic in the very bitter conflict against the Azerbaijani government. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Armenians in Armenia. In April 1991, Soviet forces targeted Armenian populations in Karabakh, known as Operation Ring. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Azerbaijan. Military action was influenced by the Russian military, which manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring sides in order to keep both under control. More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1988 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin. By October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in taking almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire, between the three sides.Foreign relations of Armenia – Armenia
16. Augustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel, was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both experimentally. His Fresnel equations on waves and reflectivity also form the basis for many applications in computer graphics today — for instance, the rendering of water. Fresnel was the son of an architect, born at Broglie. He still could not read when he was eight years old. At thirteen he entered the École Centrale at sixteen and a half the École Polytechnique, where he acquitted himself with distinction. From there he went to the École Ponts et Chaussées. He received only scant public recognition in the cause of optical science. Some of his papers were not printed by the Académie des Sciences after his death. But as he wrote to Young in 1824: in himself "that sensibility, or that vanity, which people call love of glory" had been blunted. Fresnel has been described as a man with deep faith in God. As a form of consolation, he took religion especially during his illness. He died of tuberculosis at Ville-d'Avray, near Paris. His is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. The writer Prosper Mérimée was his first cousin.Augustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel
17. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist. The bandoneón are related; American reed organ are in the same family. These vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The accordion is widely spread across the world. Nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is also used in both orchestra performances of classical music. The accordion is the official instrument of San Francisco, California. The oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from musical. Native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side". Accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is made from pleated layers of cardboard, with added leather and metal.Accordion – A piano accordion (top) and a Russian bayan (bottom)
18. Astronomical unit – The astronomical unit is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth orbits a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's perihelion, it is now defined as exactly 7011149597870700000 ♠ 149597870700 metres. The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System or around other stars. However, it is also a fundamental component in the definition of another unit of the parsec. A variety of unit abbreviations have been in use for the astronomical unit. In a 1976 resolution, the International Astronomical Union used the A for the astronomical unit. In 2006, the International Bureau of Measures recommended ua as the symbol for the unit. In 2012, the IAU, noting "that various symbols are presently in use for the astronomical unit", recommended the use of the symbol "au". In the 2014 revision of the SI Brochure, the BIPM used the symbol "au". In ISO 80000-3, the symbol of the astronomical unit is "ua". Earth's orbit around the Sun is an ellipse. The semi-major axis of this ellipse is defined to be half of the straight segment that joins the aphelion and perihelion. The centre of the sun lies on this straight segment, but not at its midpoint. A star's shift enabled the star's distance to be calculated.Astronomical unit – Transits of Venus across the face of the Sun were, for a long time, the best method of measuring the astronomical unit, despite the difficulties (here, the so-called " black drop effect ") and the rarity of observations.
19. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, cultural life in Greece. In 2015, Athens was ranked the world's 29th richest city by the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. The municipality of Athens had a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the medieval Daphni Monastery. 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. In an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. Different etymologies, commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century.Athens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
20. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
21. Amalaric – Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, was king of the Visigoths from 511 until his death in battle in 531. He was his first wife Theodegotha, daughter of Theoderic the Great. When Alaric II was killed fighting king of the Franks, in the Battle of Vouillé, his kingdom fell into disarray. His reign was disastrous. King Theoderic of the Ostrogoths sent an army, led by his sword-bearer Theudis, against Gesalec, ostensibly on behalf of Amalaric; Gesalec fled to Africa. The Ostrogoths then drove back their Burgundian allies, regaining possession of "the south of Novempopulana, Rodez, probably even Albi, even Toulose". In 522 the young Amalaric was proclaimed king, four years later, on Theoderic's death, he assumed royal power. The effects of Frankish intervention are clear enough." Childebert took Narbonne. Amalaric fled south to Barcelona, where according to Isidore of Seville, he was assassinated by his own men. According to Peter Heather, Theoderic's former governor Theudis was implicated in Amalaric's murder, "and was certainly its prime beneficiary." In Gregory's words she died on the journey home "by some ill chance". Childebert had her body brought to Paris where she was buried alongside her father Clovis. Media related to Amalarico at Wikimedia Commons Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter 39Amalaric – Illustration of Amalaric
22. Alabaster – Alabaster is a mineral or rock, soft and often used for carving, as well as being processed for plaster powder. However there are two different types, with broadly similar properties: gypsum and calcite, two distinct varieties of minerals. Both are usually light-coloured, soft stones that have been used mainly for carving decorative artifacts. Geologists define alabaster strictly as a compact and fine-grained variety of gypsum. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium. In general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is probably calcite, but may be either. Both are easy to work and slightly water-soluble. They have been used for making a variety of indoor artworks and carvings, as they will not survive long outdoors. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, while gypsum alabaster remains nearly unaffected when thus treated. The Greek words were used to identify a vase made of alabaster. This name may be derived further from the Egyptian a-labaste, which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast. She was represented as a lioness and frequently depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels. The softness of alabaster enables it to be carved readily into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough, whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre.Alabaster – Three Maries, alabaster sculpture by Master of the Rimini Crucifixion (c. 1430), National Museum, Warsaw.
23. Alain de Lille – Alain de Lille was a French theologian and poet. He was born before 1128. His exact date of death remains unclear as well, with most research pointing toward it being between April 5, 1203. He probably studied under masters such as Peter Abelard, Thierry of Chartres. This is known through the writings of John of Salisbury, thought to have been a near contemporary student of Alan of Lille. His earliest writings were probably written in the 1150s, probably in Paris. He attended the Lateran Council in 1179. He afterwards inhabited Montpellier, lived for a time outside the walls of any cloister, finally retired to Cîteaux, where he died in 1202. He had a very widespread reputation during his lifetime and his knowledge, more varied than profound, caused him to be called Doctor Universalis. The circumstances and details surrounding his writing are often unknown as well. He created the allegory of grammatical "conjugation", to have its successors throughout the Middle Ages. As a theologian Alain de Lille shared against the scholastic philosophy. His mysticism, however, is far from being as absolute as that of the Victorines. This rule is completed in his Ars catholicae fidei, as follows: Theology itself may be demonstrated by reason. Alain even tries to prove geometrically the dogmas defined in the Creed.Alain de Lille – Alanus ab Insulis (Alain de Lille).
24. Alexander I of Serbia – Alexander was born on 14 August 1876 to King Milan and Queen Natalie of Serbia. He belonged to the Obrenović dynasty. His mother became his regent. His parents were second cousins. His action won popular support, as did his appointment of a radical ministry. In May 1894 King Alexander arbitrarily abolished King Milan's liberal constitution of 1888 and restored the conservative one of 1869. His attitude during the Greco-Turkish War was one of strict neutrality. In 1894 the young King brought his father, Milan, back to Serbia and, in 1898, appointed him commander-in-chief of the Serbian army. During that time, Milan was regarded as the de facto ruler of the country. Alexander was an only child, it was imperative to secure the succession. Both immediately resigned from their respective offices and Alexander had difficulty in forming a new cabinet. Alexander's mother also opposed the marriage and was subsequently banished from the kingdom. She was known to have been seen in the nearby countries, such as Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria. The marriage duly took place in August 1900. So, the unpopularity of the union weakened the King's position at large.Alexander I of Serbia – Alexander I
25. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist, historian, short story writer. Solzhenitsyn helped to raise global awareness of its Gulag forced labor system. He was allowed to publish only one work in the Soviet Union, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, in the periodical Novy Mir. After this Solzhenitsyn had to publish in the West, most notably The Gulag Archipelago. Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature". Solzhenitsyn was afraid to go to Stockholm to receive his award for fear that he would not be allowed to reenter. Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia after the state's dissolution. Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, RSFSR. His mother, Taisiya Zakharovna was of Ukrainian descent. During World War I, Taisiya went to Moscow to study. While there she met and married Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn, a young officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origins and fellow native of the Caucasus region. The background of his parents is vividly brought in the later Red Wheel novels. In 1918, Taisia became pregnant with Aleksandr. On 15 June, shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was raised by his widowed mother and aunt in lowly circumstances.Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Solzhenitsyn in 1974
26. Algiers – Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. The two quays form a triangle. The rue la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid -- Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.Algiers – Clockwise: Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, Martyrs Memorial, Notre Dame d'Afrique, Ketchaoua Mosque, Casbah, the Grand Post Office and the Ministry of Finance of Algeria
27. Ibn al-Haytham – Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham, also known by the Latinization Alhazen or Alhacen, was an Arab Muslim scientist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher. Ibn al-Haytham made significant contributions to the principles of optics, astronomy, mathematics and visual perception. He was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then is directed to one's eyes. In medieval Europe, Ibn al-Haytham was honored as Ptolemaeus Secundus or simply called "The Physicist". He is also sometimes called al-Baṣrī after his birthplace Basra in Iraq, or al-Miṣrī. Ibn al-Haytham was born c. 965 in Basra, then part of the Buyid emirate, to an Arab family. Alhazen arrived in Cairo under the reign of Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, a patron of the sciences, particularly interested in astronomy. Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, until his death in 1040. During this time, Alhazen continued to write further treatises on astronomy, natural philosophy. He made significant contributions to natural philosophy. Alhazen's work on optics is credited with contributing a new emphasis on experiment. In al-Andalus, it was used by the eleventh-century prince of the Banu Hud dynasty of Zaragossa and author of an important mathematical text, al-Mu'taman ibn Hūd. A Latin translation of the Kitab al-Manazir was made probably in the late twelfth or early thirteenth century. His research in catoptrics centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration. He made the observation that the ratio between the angle of incidence and refraction does not remain constant, investigated the magnifying power of a lens.Ibn al-Haytham – Front page of the Opticae Thesaurus, which included the first printed Latin translation of Alhazen's Book of Optics. The illustration incorporates many examples of optical phenomena including perspective effects, the rainbow, mirrors, and refraction.
28. Amalric of Bena – Amalric of Bena was a French theologian and sect leader, after whom the Amalricians are named. Amalric was born in the latter part of the 12th century a village between Ollé and Chauffours in the diocese of Chartres. His death was caused, it is said, at the humiliation to which he had been subjected. The doctrines of his followers, known as the Amalricians, were formally condemned by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Amalric appears to have derived his philosophical system from Eriugena, whose principles he developed in a strongly pantheistic form. Because of the first proposition, God himself is thought only recognizable in his creation. There is no other life; man's fulfilment is in this life alone. Due to persecutions, this sect does not appear to have long survived the death of its founder. According to Hosea Ballou, then Pierre Batiffol and George T. Brethren of the Free Spirit Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Amalric, of Bena". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John Joseph.Amalric of Bena – 14th century picture of Amalric of Bena. He appears to be teaching people.
29. Arnold Schwarzenegger – Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, producer, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, former professional bodybuilder and politician. He served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011. Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. He is widely considered to be among the greatest bodybuilders of all time as well as bodybuilding's biggest icon. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. His breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit and resulted in a sequel. In 1984, Schwarzenegger appeared in James Cameron's science-fiction thriller film The Terminator, a massive critical and box-office success. Schwarzenegger subsequently reprised the Terminator character in the franchise's later installments in 1991, 2003, 2015. He appeared in a number of successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Predator, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop and True Lies. In 2015, it was announced Schwarzenegger would replace Donald Trump as the host of The Celebrity Apprentice. He was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career. As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, to serve the remainder of Davis's term.Arnold Schwarzenegger – Schwarzenegger in 2015
30. Antoine Lavoisier – He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry". It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He predicted the existence of silicon and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Lavoisier was a powerful member of a number of aristocratic councils, an administrator of the Ferme générale. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a wealthy family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743. The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a large fortune at the age of five with the passing of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11. In his last two years at the school, he studied mathematics. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1763 and a licentiate in 1764. Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, but never practiced as a lawyer.Antoine Lavoisier – Line engraving by Louis Jean Desire Delaistre, after a design by Julien Leopold Boilly
31. Augustin-Louis Cauchy – Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE was a French mathematician reputed as a pioneer of analysis. Cauchy was one of the first to prove theorems of calculus rigorously, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. Cauchy singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. Cauchy had a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings range widely in mathematical physics. "More theorems have been named for Cauchy than for any other mathematician." Cauchy was a prolific writer; he wrote five complete textbooks. He was the son of Louis François Cauchy and Marie-Madeleine Desestre. He married Aloise de Bure in 1818. She was a close relative of the publisher who published most of Cauchy's works. By her Cauchy had two daughters, Marie Mathilde. Cauchy's father was a high official in the Parisian Police of the New Régime. Cauchy lost his position because of the French Revolution that broke out month before Augustin-Louis was born. The Cauchy family survived the following Reign of Terror by escaping to Arcueil, where Cauchy received his first education, from his father. After the execution of Robespierre, it was safe for the family to return to Paris.Augustin-Louis Cauchy – Cauchy around 1840. Lithography by Zéphirin Belliard after a painting by Jean Roller.
32. Absalon – Absalon combined the ideals of Gregorian Reform ideals with loyal support of a monarchical power. He was owned great land possessions. Absalon endowed several church institutions, most prominently his family's Sorø Abbey. Absalon was built the first fortification of the city that evolved into modern-day Copenhagen. His titles were passed on to his nephews Anders Sunesen and Peder Sunesen. Absalon was interred at Sorø Abbey. He was born around 1128 near Sorø, Zealand. Due to a name, unusual in Denmark, it is speculated that he was christened on October 30. Absalon was the son of a magnate of the Hvide clan from Fjenneslev on Zealand. Absalon was also a kinsman of Archbishop Eskil of Lund. At Paris, Absalon was influenced from Monarchical rule. Absalon also befriended William of Æbelholt at the Abbey of St Genevieve, whom he later made abbott of Eskilsø Abbey. Absalon was a guest at Roskilde banquet given in 1157 by Sweyn to his rivals Canute V and Valdemar. Escaped to Jutland, whither Sweyn followed them. He was chief promoter of the Danish crusades against the Wends.Absalon – Statue of Absalon in Copenhagen
33. Art Deco – Art Deco, or Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in 1925. It combined modernist styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured expensive materials such as ebony and ivory and exquisite craftsmanship. Other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. After the Great Depression, the style became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, plastic. A more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s; it featured smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the United States, Russia, Latin America, Asia. The style came with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced by the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modernism and the International Style of architecture. The term décoratifs was first used in France in 1858; published in the Bulletin de la Société française de photographie. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra.Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
34. Airline – An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline services may be operated as scheduled services or charters. The largest airline currently is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the world's first airline. It operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt. The first fixed wing scheduled service was started on January 1, 1914 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, Florida. The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed airline in Europe was the Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. On 15 the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. The airline soon began to attract European competition. In November 1919, it won the British civil airmail contract.Airline – Boeing 767-300ER of Delta Air Lines at Frankfurt Airport
35. Alexander Grothendieck – Alexander Grothendieck was a German-born French mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry. He is considered by many to be the greatest mathematician of the 20th century. Born in Germany, Grothendieck was lived primarily in France. For much of his working life, however, he was, in effect, stateless. Grothendieck began his public career as a mathematician in 1949. Soon after his formal retirement in 1988, he moved to the Pyrenees, where he lived until his death in 2014. Grothendieck was born to anarchist parents. Both had broken away in their teens. At the time of his birth, Grothendieck's mother was married to the journalist his birthname was initially recorded as "Alexander Raddatz." Schapiro/Tanaroff acknowledged his paternity, but never married Hanka. They left Grothendieck in Hamburg. In May 1939, Grothendieck was put for France. Shortly afterwards his father was interned in Le Vernet. His mother were then interned in various camps from 1940 to 1942 as "undesirable dangerous foreigners". Once Alexander managed to escape from the camp, intending to assassinate Hitler.Alexander Grothendieck – Alexander Grothendieck in Montreal, 1970
36. Aristide Maillol – Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol was a French sculptor, painter, printmaker. Maillol was born in Banyuls-sur-Mer, Roussillon. He moved to Paris in 1881 to study art. His early paintings show Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Paul Gauguin. Gauguin encouraged his growing interest in an interest that led Maillol to take up tapestry design. Within a few years his concentration on sculpture led to the abandonment of his work in tapestry. In July 1896, Maillol married one of his employees at his tapestry workshop. Lucian, was born that October. A Seated Woman, was modeled after his wife. The first version renamed La Méditerranée. Maillol, believing that "art does not lie in the copying of nature", produced a second, less naturalistic version in 1905. In 1902, Ambroise Vollard provided Maillol with his first exhibition. The subject of nearly all of Maillol's mature work is the female body, treated with a classical emphasis on stable forms. Josep Pla said of Maillol, "Greek, were the great novelty Maillol brought into the tendency of modern sculpture. His important public commissions include a 1912 commission for a monument to Cézanne, as well as numerous war memorials commissioned after World War I.Aristide Maillol – Aristide Maillol
37. Auguste Rodin – François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, deeply pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime. They clashed with figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, celebrated individual character and physicality. Rodin refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the artistic community. By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. He kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists. He married Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. Within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community. Rodin was born into a working-class family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin, a police department clerk.Auguste Rodin – Rodin circa 1862.
38. Aircraft hijacking – Aircraft hijacking is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group. In most cases, the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers. However, the hijackers have flown the aircraft themselves, such as the September 11 attacks. In at least three cases, the plane was hijacked by co-pilot. Unlike the typical hijackings of land ships, skyjacking is not usually committed for robbery or theft. Most aircraft hijackers intend to use the passengers by authorities. Various motives have driven political asylum. Hijackers also have used aircraft as a weapon to target particular locations. Hijackings for hostages commonly produce an armed standoff followed by some form of settlement. Settlements do not always meet the hijackers' original demands. He was flying a postal route for the Mexican company Transportes Aeras Transcontinentales, ferrying mail from San Luis Potosí then on to Guadalajara. He was approached by Gen. Saturnino Cedillo, one of the last remaining lieutenants of Pancho Villa. Cedillo was accompanied by other men. He was told through an interpreter that he had no choice in the matter; he had to fly the group to their chosen destination. He stalled enough to convey the information to his boss, who told him to cooperate.Aircraft hijacking – Warning posters in a Central African airport, in French and English. June 2012
39. Autobiography – An autobiography is a written account of the life of a person written by that person. In other words, it is the story that a person wrote about themselves. However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Nonetheless, autobiography as a form goes back to Antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, whereas autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. Closely associated with autobiography is the memoir form. See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. In antiquity such works were typically entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's autobiography is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography with self-praise, followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Calamitatum of Peter Abelard, outstanding as an autobiographical document of its period. The first autobiographical work in Islamic society was written in the late 11th century, by Abdallah ibn Buluggin, last Zirid king of Granada. In the 15th century, Leonor López de Córdoba, a Spanish noblewoman, wrote her Memorias, which may be the first autobiography in Castillian. Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad Bābur,who founded the Mughal dynasty of South Asia kept a journal Bāburnāma, written between 1493 and 1529. These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them.Autobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
40. Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I. It set the tone with patriotic messages. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m high and 8.44 m wide. Three weeks after the Paris parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane with the event captured on newsreel. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m. The Arc is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885. The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to avoid any ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy successfully flew his biplane under the Arc. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, however, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch. The route taken is up to the arch and then around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism.Arc de Triomphe – The Arc de Triomphe from the Champs-Élysées
41. Airbus A300 – The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner, developed and manufactured by Airbus. The A300 can typically seat 266 passengers in a two-class layout, with a maximum range of 4,070 nautical miles when fully loaded, depending on model. Development of the A300 began during the 1960s as a European collaborative project between various aircraft manufacturers in Britain, France, West Germany. In September 1967, the participating nations signed a Memorandum of Understanding to manufacture the aircraft. The British withdrew from the project on 10 April 1969. The type first flew on 28 October 1972. Air France, the launch customer for the A300, introduced the type into service on 30 May 1974. During the 1990s, the A300 became popular with various freight operators, several different cargo aircraft variants were produced. Production of the A300 ceased in July 2007, along with its smaller A310 derivative. The freighter sales for which the A300 had previously competed in later life are instead fulfilled by the A330-200F, a derivative of the newer Airbus A330. To overcome this factor, the report recommended the pursuit of multinational collaborative projects between the region's leading aircraft manufacturers. European manufacturers were keen to explore prospective programs; the proposed 260-seat wide-body HBN 100 between Hawker Siddeley, Nord Aviation, Breguet Aviation being one such example. The word airbus at this point was a generic aviation term for a larger commercial aircraft, was considered acceptable in multiple languages, including French. Addition work included moving elements of the wings being produced in the Netherlands, Spain producing the horizontal tail plane. According to Airbus, this cultural approach to market research had been crucial to the company's long term success.Airbus A300 – A300
42. Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie – He was the older brother of Arnaud Michel d'Abbadie, with whom he traveled. He was born from a partially Basque noble family of the French province of Soule. His mother was Irish. His Jean-Pierre was an abbot and a notary in Soule. The family moved to France in 1818 where the brothers received a scientific education. In 1827, Antoine received a degree in Toulouse. Starting in 1829, he began his education in Paris, where he studied law. Abbadie was a member of the French Academy of Sciences. He bequeathed the Abbadi domain and castle in Hendaye, yielding 40,000 francs a year, to the Academy of Sciences. In 1837, the two brothers started for Ethiopia, landing at Massawa in February 1838. They journeyed throughout Ethiopia, travelling together and sometimes separately. In addition to his studies in the sciences, he delved into the political fray exerting influence in favor of the Roman Catholic missionaries. While in Ethiopia they returned with notes on the geography, geology, archaeology, natural history of the region. Antoine became involved in various controversies relating both to his political intrigues. He was especially attacked by Charles Tilstone Beke, who impugned his veracity, to Kana.Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie – Domaine d'Abbadia in Hendaye, designed by Viollet-le-Duc