1. Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish Baroque painter. Rubens was a prolific artist. The catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly "history paintings", which included religious and mythological subjects, hunt scenes. Rubens in later life painted several landscapes. He designed prints, well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed. He also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. He was born to Maria Pypelincks. Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, where he was raised as a Catholic. Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting.Peter Paul Rubens – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
2. Achilles – In Greek mythology, Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His father, the mortal Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons. Achilles' most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan Hector outside the gates of Troy. Later legends state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. Alluding to these legends, the term "Achilles heel" has come to mean a point of weakness, especially with a strong constitution. Achilles' name can be analyzed as a combination of ἄχος "grief" and λαός "a people, nation." In other words, Achilles is an embodiment of the grief of the people, grief being a theme raised numerous times in the Iliad. Achilles' role as the hero of grief forms an ironic juxtaposition with the conventional view of Achilles as the hero of κλέος kleos. Laos has been construed following Leonard Palmer, to mean "a corps of soldiers", a muster. The poem is on the part of leadership. R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name. The name Achilleus was a attested name among the Greeks soon after the 7th century BC. Achilles was Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. For this reason, the two gods had her wed Peleus. Thetis, although a daughter of the sea-god Nereus, was also brought up by Hera, further explaining her resistance to the advances of Zeus.Achilles – Achilles and the Nereid Cymothoe: Attic red-figure kantharos from Volci (Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris)
3. Alboin – Alboin was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their migrations by settling in the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. After gathering a large coalition of peoples, Alboin crossed the Julian Alps in 568, entering an almost undefended Italy. He rapidly took control of most of Venetia and Liguria. In 569, unopposed, he took Milan. Pavia was taken only after a siege lasting three years. Alboin was assassinated on June 572, in a coup d'état instigated by the Byzantines. For many centuries following his death his success in battle were celebrated in Saxon and Bavarian epic poetry. Seven years later Walthari died, giving the opportunity to crown himself and overthrow the reigning Lethings. Alboin was probably born in the 530s in Pannonia, his wife, Rodelinda. She may have betrothed to Audoin through the mediation of Emperor Justinian. Alboin took as his first wife the Christian Chlothsind, daughter of the Frankish King Chlothar. The new Frankish alliance was important because of the Franks' known hostility to the Byzantine empire, providing the Lombards with more than one option. Alboin first distinguished himself with the Gepids. For this initiation, he went to the court of Thurisind, where the Gepid king gave Turismod's arms.Alboin – Woodcut vignette of Alboin in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
4. Amazons – In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a race of women warriors. Scythian women were the real-world basis for the myth. Herodotus reported that they were placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia. Other historiographers place them in Anatolia, or sometimes Libya. Amazon warriors were often depicted with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art. The Amazons have become associated throughout the Roman Empire period and Late Antiquity. In Roman historiography, there are various accounts of Amazon raids in Anatolia. From the modern period, their name has become a term for female warriors in general. The origin of the word is uncertain. Πέρσαι», where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make". Alternatively, a Greek derivation from *ṇ-mṇ-gw-jon-es "manless, without husbands" has been proposed, an explanation deemed "unlikely" by Hjalmar Frisk. 19th scholarship also connected the term to the ethnonym Amazigh. A further explanation proposes Iranian ama-janah "virility-killing" as source. He brings its residents in direct relation to the Amazons, namely based on its customs. The location of that land well as his conclusions are controversial.Amazons – Wounded Amazon of the Capitol, Rome.
5. Augustine of Hippo – Augustine was the bishop of Hippo Regius, located in Numidia. Augustine is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions. According to his contemporary, Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith." In his early years, Augustine was heavily influenced afterward by the neo-Platonism of Plotinus. After his conversion to Christianity in 386, he developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. In the Anglican Communion, Augustine is a saint, a preeminent Doctor of the Church, the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, a number of cities and dioceses. Especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. In the East, some of his teachings have in the 20th century in particular come under attack by such theologians as John Romanides. But other figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine surrounding his name is the filioque, rejected by the Orthodox Church. Disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, predestination.Augustine of Hippo – Saint Augustine from a 19th-century engraving
6. Belgium – Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is bordering Germany. Historically, Belgium, Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries; it once covered a somewhat larger area than the current Benelux group of states. The region was called Belgica after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. Until the 17th century the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three communities, that exist next to each other. Its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia. Related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union. Brussels, hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is also a part of the Schengen Area.Belgium – Charlemagne and Charles V
7. Baroque – The style spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumph, power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of sequentially increasing opulence. However, "baroque" has application that extend beyond a simple reduction to either style or period. It is also modern Spanish "barroco", German "Barock", Dutch "Barok", so on. Others derive it in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca. The term "Baroque" was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. Although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style: Federico Barocci. Long despised, Baroque architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, has largely remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste. William Watson describes a late phase of Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as "baroque". The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography, direct, simple, theatrical.Baroque – The Triumph of the Immaculate by Paolo de Matteis
8. Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national mourning. It became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream and gold scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The garden is the largest private garden in London. In the Middle Ages, the site of the future palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury. The marshy ground was watered by the Tyburn, which still flows below the courtyard and south wing of the palace. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey. In 1531, in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey. The freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century.Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace. This is the principal façade, the East Front; originally constructed by Edward Blore and completed in 1850. It acquired its present appearance following a remodelling, in 1913, by Sir Aston Webb.
9. British Museum – The British Museum is dedicated to Human history, art and culture, is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of scientist Sir Hans Sloane. The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of cultural art antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum". Its foundations lie in the will of naturalist Sir Hans Sloane. On 7 King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs. While including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. A list of donations to the Museum, dated January 1784, refers to the Hamilton bequest of a "Colossal Foot of an Apollo in Marble". Notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805. In 1816 these masterpieces of western art, deposited in the museum thereafter. The collections were supplemented from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815. The Ancient Near Eastern collection also had its beginnings in 1825 from the widow of Claudius James Rich.British Museum – British Museum
10. Bob Jones University – Bob Jones University is a private non-denominational Protestant university in Greenville, South Carolina, United States, known for its conservative cultural and religious positions. It is accredited by the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. In 2008, the university estimated the number of its graduates at 35,000. The university's athletic teams are collectively known as the Bruins. Children of church members were attending college, only to reject the faith of their parents. Bob Jones helped support the school with personal savings and income from his evangelistic campaigns. Both place were inauspicious. A hurricane in September 1926 further reduced land values. The Great Depression followed hard on its heels. Bob Jones College barely survived bankruptcy and its move in 1933. However, Jones's move to Cleveland proved extraordinarily advantageous. When, in 1966, Graham held his only American campaign in Greenville, the university forbade any BJU student from attending under penalty of expulsion. By 1970, there were 3300 students, approximately 60 % more than in 1958. Although BJU had admitted other ethnic groups from its inception, it did not enroll Africans or African-American students until 1971. However, in May of that year, BJU expanded rules against interracial marriage.Bob Jones University – Bob Jones, Sr., the university's founder
11. Copenhagen – Copenhagen; Danish: København ) is the capital and most populated city of Denmark. It has a larger urban population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over million inhabitants. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. Originally a Viking village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, waterfronts. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Copenhagen Business School. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Copenhagen – From upper left: Christiansborg Palace, Frederik's Church, Tivoli Gardens and Nyhavn.
12. Cerberus – Cerberus is primarily known for his capture by Heracles, one of Heracles' twelve labours. Descriptions of Cerberus vary, including the number of his heads. Cerberus was usually three-headed, though not always. Cerberus had a multi-headed heritage. And, like these close relatives, Cerberus was, with only the rare iconographic exception, multi-headed. In the earliest description of Hesiod's Theogony, Cerberus has fifty heads, while Pindar gave hundred heads. However, later writers almost universally give Cerberus three heads. An exception is the Latin poet Horace's Cerberus which has a single dog head, one hundred snake heads. In art Cerberus is most commonly depicted with two dog heads, never more than three, but occasionally with only one. On one of the two earliest depictions, a Corinthian cup from Argos, now lost, Cerberus is shown as a normal single-headed dog. The first appearance of a three-headed Cerberus occurs on a mid sixth century BC Laconian cup. Horace's many snake-headed Cerberus followed a long tradition of Cerberus being part snake. This is perhaps already implied early in Hesiod's Theogony, where Cerberus' mother is his father the snake-headed Typhon. Cerberus was given various other traits. According to Euripides, Cerberus not only had three heads but three bodies, according to Virgil he had multiple backs.Cerberus – Heracles presenting Cerberus to a frightened Eurystheus hiding in a pot. Etruscan hydria (c. 530 BC) from Caere (Louvre E701).
13. Caravaggio – Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, Sicily between 1592 and 1610. Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under Simone Peterzano who had himself trained under Titian. Caravaggio's innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, use of chiaroscuro which came to be known as tenebrism. Thereafter he never lacked commissions or patrons, yet he handled his success poorly. In 1606 he killed a young man in a brawl and fled from Rome with a price on his head. He was involved in a brawl in Malta in 1608, another in Naples in 1609, possibly a deliberate attempt on his life by unidentified enemies. This encounter left him severely injured. Despite this, his influence on the new Baroque style that eventually emerged from the ruins of Mannerism was profound. The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy claimed: "What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite simply, modern painting." His mother, Lucia Aratori, came from a propertied family of the same district. In 1576 the family moved to Caravaggio to escape a plague which ravaged Milan, Caravaggio's father died there in 1577. Caravaggio left Milan for Rome in 1592, in flight after "certain quarrels" and the wounding of a police officer. He arrived in Rome "naked and extremely needy... without fixed address and without provision... short of money." Caravaggio left Cesari, determined to make his own way. At this point he forged some extremely important friendships, with the painter Prospero Orsi, the architect Onorio Longhi, the sixteen-year-old Sicilian artist Mario Minniti.Caravaggio – Chalk portrait of Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni, circa 1621.
14. Constantine the Great – Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, his consort Helena. His father became the deputy emperor in the west in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, financial, social, military reforms to strengthen the empire. Civil and military authority separated. The solidus, was introduced to combat inflation. It would become the standard for European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was professed by Christians. In military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself. His more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished after his reign.Constantine the Great – Colossal marble head of Emperor Constantine the Great, Roman, 4th century, located at the Capitoline Museums, in Rome.
15. Centaur – A centaur, or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body of a horse. The centaurs were usually said to have been born of Ixion and Nephele. Another version, however, makes children of a certain Centaurus, who mated with the Magnesian mares. Of Apollo and Stilbe, daughter of the river god Peneus. In the later version of the story his twin brother was ancestor of the Lapiths, thus making the two warring peoples cousins. Another tribe of centaurs was said to have lived on Cyprus. According to Nonnus, they were fathered by Zeus, who, in frustration after Aphrodite had eluded him, spilled his seed on the ground of that land. Unlike those of mainland Greece, the Cyprian centaurs were horned. There were also twelve rustic daimones of the Lamos river. The enraged goddess transformed them into ox-horned Centaurs. The Lamian Pheres later accompanied Dionysos against the Indians. Centaurs subsequently were familiar figures in the medieval bestiary. They remain a staple of fantastic literature. The strife among these cousins is a metaphor for civilized behavior in humankind. A hero and founder of cities, who happened to be present, threw the balance in favour of the right order of things, assisted Pirithous.Centaur – Greek, possibly Athenian, Statuette of a centaur, ca. 530 B.C., in the Princeton University Art Museum
16. Charles I of England – Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He became heir apparent on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles thought he could govern according to his own conscience. He failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years' War. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Charles was tried, executed for high treason in January 1649. A republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy was restored in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. He retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life.Charles I of England – Portrait from the studio of Anthony van Dyck, 1636
17. Diana (mythology) – She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was worshipped in ancient Roman religion and is revered in Roman Neopaganism and Stregheria. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak groves were especially sacred to her as were deer. According to mythology, Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She made up a triad with two other Roman deities: the nymph,; Virbius, the woodland god. On the Tablets of Pylos a theonym διϝια is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars mostly accept the identification. The ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon. The persona of Diana is complex and contains a number of archaic features. According to Georges Dumézil it falls into a particular subset of celestial gods, referred to in histories of religion as frame gods. The celestial character of Diana is reflected in her connection with light, inaccessibility, virginity, her preference for dwelling on high mountains and in sacred woods. Diana therefore reflects indifference towards such secular matters as the fates of states. These functions are apparent in the traditional institutions and cults related to the goddess.Diana (mythology) – The Diana of Versailles, a 2nd-century Roman version in the Greek tradition of iconography
18. Drawing – Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium. A instrument releases small amount of material onto a surface, leaving a visible mark. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as plastic, leather, canvas, board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on indeed almost anything. The medium has been a fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. It is one of most efficient means of communicating visual ideas. The wide availability of drawing instruments makes drawing one of the most common artistic activities. In addition to its more artistic forms, drawing is frequently used in animation, architecture, engineering and technical drawing. Usually not intended as a finished work, is sometimes called a sketch. An artist who works in technical drawing may be called a drafter, draftsman or a draughtsman. Drawing is one of the major forms of expression within the visual arts. Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour, while colored-pencil drawings may approach or cross a boundary between drawing and painting. In Western terminology, drawing is distinct from painting, even though similar media often are employed in both tasks. Dry media, normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel paintings. Drawing may be done with a liquid medium, applied with pens.Drawing – Pen and wash lion by Rembrandt in the Louvre
19. Ezekiel – Ezekiel, meaning "May God strengthen him", "God will strengthen" is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, the Bahá' í Faith, Ezekiel is acknowledged as a Hebrew prophet. Apart from identifying himself, the author gives a chronology for the first divine encounter which he will present. He states that it happened "in the thirtieth year", which may be a reference to his age at the time. In such a case, the approximate year of birth is 622 BCE. He also dates the event 5 years after the exile of King of Judah Jehoiachin by the Babylonians, a recurring dating pattern throughout the book. Josephus claims that at the request of Nebuchadnezzar II, Babylonian armies exiled thousand Jews after deposing King Jehoiachin in 598 BCE. Ezekiel's wife died rather young, in the ninth year of exile, when he was 34 years of age. There is no mention of him having any offspring. For the next five years he incessantly acted out its temple, met with some opposition. The date of the sacking, 587 BCE, is confirmed by Babylonian cuneiform records discovered by archeologists. Ezekiel was 50 years old when he began to have visions of a new Temple. He served as a prophet for at least 22 years. Ezekiel last experienced an encounter with God in April 570 BCE. His time of death has not been recorded.Ezekiel – Ezekiel, as depicted by Michelangelo on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
20. Flanders – Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history. It is one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. In historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD 1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region". These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders has figured prominently in European history. As a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy. Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, however, Flanders' economy modernised rapidly, today Flanders is significantly more wealthy than its southern counterpart. Geographically, Flanders is generally flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue.Flanders – The Sack of Antwerp in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died.
21. Germany – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Largest metropolis is Berlin. Urban areas include Ruhr, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf. Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. In 1871, Germany became a state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and -- 1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and a genocide. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the Federal Republic of the German Democratic Republic.Germany – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
22. Ghent – Ghent is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is largest city of the East Flanders province and after Antwerp the largest municipality of Belgium. It is a port and city. With 240,191 inhabitants in the beginning of 2009, Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants. Daniël Termont, leads a coalition of the Socialistische Partij Anders, Groen and Open VLD. The ten-day-long Ghent Festival is attended by about 1 -- 1.5 million visitors. Most historians believe that the older name for ` Ganda', is derived from the Celtic word ganda which means confluence. Other sources connect its name with an obscure deity named Gontia. Archaeological research confirms that the region of Ghent was further inhabited. Around 650, Saint Amand founded two abbeys in Ghent: St Bavo's Abbey. The city grew from several nuclei, a commercial centre. Around 800, son of Charlemagne, appointed Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, as abbot of both abbeys. In 879, the city was however attacked and plundered twice by the Vikings. Within the protection of the County of Flanders, the city flourished from the 11th century, growing to become a small city-state. By the 13th century, Ghent was the biggest city of the Alps after Paris; it was bigger than Cologne or Moscow.Ghent – View of Ghent from the Cathedral with Belfry of Ghent and Saint Nicholas church visible
23. Hippocrates – Hippocrates is commonly credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. Historians agree that Hippocrates was born around the year 460 BC on the Greek island of Kos; biographical information, however, is likely to be untrue. A 2nd-century Greek gynecologist, was Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him. Later biographies are in the works of John Tzetzes, which date from the 12th century AD. Hippocrates is mentioned in passing in the writings of two contemporaries:, Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC. Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane. His son-in-law, Polybus, were his students. According to a later physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates. Soranus said that Hippocrates studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Hippocrates practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly, Thrace, the Sea of Marmara. Different accounts of his death exist. He died, probably in Larissa, at the age of 83, 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying medicine.Hippocrates – Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638
24. Hero – The concept of the hero was first founded in classical literature. The hero comes from the Greek ἥρως, "hero, warrior", particularly one such as Heracles with divine ancestry or later given divine honors. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Indo-European root is * meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs "is akin to" the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard. Hero would therefore be ` protector'." The word ` hero' is used in English to refer either as a gender neutral form. See also Gender neutrality in English. Each classical hero's life focuses on fighting, which occurs during an epic quest. Classical heroes, alternatively, are like Beowulf, evolving into heroic characters through their perilous circumstances. During classical times, people regarded heroes with utmost importance, explaining their prominence within epic literature. Hector was the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War, known primarily through Homer's The Iliad. Hector acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters," offers Hyginus. Hector was known not only for his courage but also for his courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector without darker motives. Achilles was a Greek Hero, considered the central character of The Iliad.Hero – Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend, detail of a painting by George Frederic Watts
25. Hercules – Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek divine hero Heracles, the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his numerous far-ranging adventures. The Romans adapted the Greek hero's iconography and myths under the name Hercules. In literature and in popular culture, Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled later writers to pick and choose how to represent him. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the later tradition. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the "Twelve Labours," but the list has variations. One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows: Slay the Nemean Lion. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull.Hercules – Hercules fighting the Nemean lion by Peter Paul Rubens
26. History of painting – The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though periodically disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity, that continues into the 21st century. Until the 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, vice versa. Initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, civic, religious patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class. From the Modern era, the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for a wealthy aristocracy. Beginning with the Baroque era artists received private commissions from a prosperous middle class. Turner. The 19th century saw the rise of the commercial gallery, which provided patronage in the 20th century. The oldest known paintings are approximately 40,000 years old. José Luis Sanchidrián at the University of Cordoba, Spain, believes the paintings are more likely to have been painted by Neanderthals than modern humans. Images at the Chauvet cave in France are thought to be about 32,000 years old. They are painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting.History of painting – Cave painting of aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France, prehistoric art
27. Hephaestus – Hephaestus is the Greek god of blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes. Hephaestus' Roman equivalent is Vulcan. In Greek mythology, he was queen of the gods. In another version, he was Hera's parthenogenous child, rejected by his mother because of his deformity and thrown off of Mount Olympus and down to earth. As a smithing god, Hephaestus made all the weapons of the gods in Olympus. Hephaestus was worshipped in industrial centers of Greece, particularly Athens. The cult of Hephaestus was based in Lemnos. Hephaestus' symbols are a smith's hammer, anvil, a pair of tongs. The name of the god in Greek, has a root which can be observed in names of places, of Pre-Greek origin, like Phaistos. Hephaestus is given many epithets. Hephaestus had his own palace on Olympus, containing his workshop with anvil and twenty bellows that worked at his bidding. In later accounts, Hephaestus worked with the help of the chthonic Cyclopes—among them his assistants in the forge, Brontes, Steropes and Pyracmon. Hephaestus built automatons of metal to work for him. This included tripods that walked to and from Mount Olympus. He gave to the blinded Orion his apprentice Cedalion as a guide.Hephaestus – Hephaestus at the Forge by Guillaume Coustou the Younger (Louvre)
28. Impressionism – Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition in France. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They also often painted outdoors. Previously, portraits as well as landscapes were usually painted in a studio. The Impressionists found that they could capture the transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. The Impressionists, however, developed new techniques specific to the style. In the middle of the 19th century -- a time as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war -- the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art. The Académie was the preserver of French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, portraits were valued; landscape and still life were not. The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artist's hand in the work. Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel.Impressionism – Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
29. Immaculate Conception – The Catholic Church teaches that Mary was conceived by normal biological means, but God acted upon her soul at the time of her conception. The Immaculate Conception is commonly mistaken to be the conception of the Child Jesus in her own womb and the Virgin Birth of Jesus. These are covered by the Doctrine of Incarnation, while the Immaculate Conception deals with the conception of Mary herself, not that of her son. The defined dogma of the Immaculate Conception regards original sin only, saying that Mary was preserved from any stain. The definition makes no declaration about the Church's belief that the Blessed Virgin was sinless in the sense of freedom from actual or personal sin. However, the Church holds that Mary was also sinless personally, "free from all sin, original or personal". The doctrine of the immaculate conception is not to be confused with her virginal conception of her son Jesus. This misunderstanding of the term immaculate conception is frequently met in the mass media. In 1677, the Holy See condemned the belief that Mary was virginally conceived, a belief surfacing occasionally since the 4th century. The Church celebrates the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December, exactly nine months before celebrating the Nativity of Mary. The feast of the Annunciation is celebrated on 25 March, nine months before Christmas Day. Another misunderstanding is that, by her immaculate conception, Mary did not need a saviour. When defining the dogma in Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX explicitly affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a manner more sublime. In Luke 1:47, Mary proclaims: "My spirit has rejoiced in God my Saviour." This is referred to as Mary's pre-redemption by Christ.Immaculate Conception – La Purísima Inmaculada Concepción by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 1678, now in Museo del Prado, Spain.
30. Isabella d'Este – Isabella d'Este was Marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure. The poet Ariosto labeled her as the "magnanimous Isabella", while author Matteo Bandello described her as having been "supreme among women". Diplomat Niccolò da Correggio went even further by hailing her as "The First Lady of the world". In 1500 Isabella met King Louis XII of France in Milan on a diplomatic mission to persuade him not to send his troops against Mantua. She was a prolific letter-writer, maintained a lifelong correspondence with her sister-in-law Elisabetta Gonzaga. Lucrezia Borgia was another sister-in-law; she later became the mistress of Isabella's husband. Isabella d'Este grew up in the city-state of Ferrara. Isabella, as a girl, met many famous humanist scholars and artists. Due to the vast amount of her family and friends, her life is unusually well-documented. Eleanor was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Isabella of Clermont. In 1476 and 1477 two brothers, Alfonso and Ippolito arrived. In 1480 two more brothers were born; they were Ferrante and Sigismondo. Of all the children she was considered to have been the favourite. In the year of Ferrante's birth, she travelled with her mother. When her mother returned to Ferrara, she accompanied her, while the other children stayed behind for eight years.Isabella d'Este – Reliable identification Gian Cristoforo Romano 1495 – Portrait medal of Isabella d’Este (gold version 1505)
31. Jacob – Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Benjamin. His only daughter mentioned in Genesis is Dinah. The twelve sons became the progenitors of the "Tribes of Israel". As a result of a severe drought in Canaan, his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. The Hebrew Bible says at Genesis 32:28 35:10, that God changed Jacob's name to Israel. Etymologically, it has been suggested that the name "Israel" comes from the Hebrew words לִשְׂרות and אֵל. Other scholars speculate that the name is derived from a longer form such as Hebrew: יַעֲקֹבְאֵל meaning "may God protect". The biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of chapters 25-50. Esau, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age. Rebekah went to inquire of God why she was suffering. She would continue to fight all their lives, even after they became two separate nations. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named Hebrew: עשו, Esau.Jacob – Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Rembrandt
32. Judgement of Paris – As with mythological tales, details vary depending on the source. Lucian, The Bibliotheca and Hyginus, retell the story with skeptical, ironic or popularizing agendas. It appeared wordlessly on the ivory and gold votive chest of the 7th-century BC tyrant Cypselus at Olympia, described by Pausanias as showing:... It is recounted that Zeus held a banquet in celebration of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis. However, goddess of discord was not invited, for it was believed she would have made the party unpleasant for everyone. According to some later versions, upon the apple was the inscription καλλίστῃ. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. After failing to judge their beauty on, the three goddesses stripped nude to convince Paris of their worthiness. This was Helen of wife of the Greek king Menelaus. Paris awarded the apple to her, receiving Helen as well as the enmity of the Greeks and especially of Hera. The Greeks' expedition to retrieve Helen from Paris in Troy is the mythological basis of the Trojan War. The bribery involved is ironic and a late ingredient. According to a tradition suggested by Alfred J. Van Windekens, objectively, "cow-eyed" Hera was indeed the not Aphrodite. However, Hera was the goddess of cuckolded wives, amongst other things. She was careful to be modest when Paris was inspecting her.Judgement of Paris – The Judgement of Paris, Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1636 (National Gallery, London)
33. Jacques Maroger – Jacques Maroger was a painter and the technical director of the Louvre Museum's laboratory in Paris. He devoted his life to understanding the oil-based media of the Old Masters. He became an influential teacher. In 1907, Maroger worked under his direction until Anquetin's death in 1932. He was very active in the Impressionist movement of the time. In his later years, Anquetin became very interested in the works of the Flemish masters. As Maroger's teacher, Anquetin provided guidance in the study of drawing, anatomy and painting techniques. Maroger began to become famous around 1931, when the National Academy of Design in New York City reported Maroger's painting discoveries. From 1930 to 1939, Maroger started to work as Technical Director of the Louvre Laboratory. He became a lecturer at the Parsons School of Design in New York. In 1942, Maroger established a school of painting. Maroger published The Secret Formulas and Techniques of the Masters in 1948. Techniques have been studied by many modern painters who wish to obtain the paint quality of the Old Masters. The "secret formula" that Maroger devised during his lifetime included the main ingredient white lead. White lead when cooked as a drying agent accelerating the polymerization of the oil film.Jacques Maroger – Self portrait
34. Jacob and Esau – . Even since conception, their conflict was foreshadowed: "And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to enquire of the Lord. This passage in Genesis 25:26 is as if Jacob was seemingly trying to pull Esau back into the womb so that he could be firstborn. The grasping of the heel is also a reference to deceptive behavior. In Genesis, Esau returned to his brother Jacob being famished from the fields. He begged his twin brother to give him some "red pottage" (paralleling his nickname, Hebrew: אדום. Esau agreed. The birthright has to do with position both. The tale is typically biblical. Esau acts impulsively. Jacob shows his wiliness as well as forethought. What he does is not quite honorable, though not illegal. Later, Esau marries both Hittite women, locals, in violation of Abraham's injunction not to take wives from among the Canaanite population. Again, one gets the sense of a headstrong person who acts impulsively, without sufficient thought.Jacob and Esau – Hendrick ter Brugghen, Esau Selling His Birthright, c. 1627.
35. Leonardo da Vinci – He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, architecture, is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal. Many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the "Universal Genius" or "Renaissance Man", an individual of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. Leonardo was, is, renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, textbooks, T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings have survived. Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. Leonardo conceptualised the double hull. A number of Leonardo's most practical inventions are nowadays displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci. Today, Leonardo is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. He was the out-of-wedlock son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, Caterina, a peasant. The inclusion of the title "ser" indicated that Leonardo's father was a gentleman. Little is known about Leonardo's early life.Leonardo da Vinci – Portrait of Leonardo
36. Book of Leviticus – The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Greek Old Testament of Christian biblical canons, the third of five books of the Pentateuch. The book, however, addresses all the people of Israel though some passages address the priests specifically. Most of its chapters consist of God's speeches to Moses which he is commanded to repeat to the Israelites. This takes place within the story of the Israelites' Exodus after they escaped Egypt and reached Mt. Sinai. The Book of Exodus narrates how Moses led the Israelites in building the Tabernacle based on God's instructions. Leviticus takes place during the month-and-a-half between the Israelites' departure from Sinai. The instructions of Leviticus emphasize ritual, legal and moral practices rather than beliefs. Nevertheless, they reflect the view of the story in Genesis 1 that God wishes to live with humans. The book teaches that faithful performance of the sanctuary rituals can make that impurity whenever possible. I. Laws on sacrifice A. Instructions for the laity on bringing offerings 1–5. The types of offering: burnt, cereal, peace, purification, reparation offerings B. Instructions for the priests 1–6. The various offerings, with the addition of the priests' cereal offering 7.Book of Leviticus – Tanakh (Judaism)
37. Leda and the Swan – In the W. B. In some versions, she laid two eggs from which the children hatched. In other versions, Helen is a daughter of Nemesis, the goddess who personified the disaster that awaited those suffering from the pride of Hubris. The fate of the erotic album I Modi some years later shows why this was so. The theme remained a dangerous one in the Renaissance, as the fates of the three best known paintings on the subject demonstrate. The earliest depictions were all in the more private medium of the old master print, mostly from Venice. The earliest known explicit Renaissance depiction is one of the many woodcut illustrations to a book published in 1499. An engraving dating at the latest, by Giovanni Battista Palumba, in deserted countryside. Another engraving, certainly from Venice and attributed by many to Giulio Campagnola, shows a love-making scene, but there Leda's attitude is highly ambiguous. There were also significant depictions in the smaller decorative arts, also private media. Benvenuto Cellini made a medallion, now in Vienna, early in his career, Antonio Abondio one on the obverse of a medal celebrating a Roman courtesan. Leonardo da Vinci began making studies in 1504 for a painting, apparently never executed, of Leda seated on the ground with her children. The original of this is lost, deliberately was last recorded in the French royal Château de Fontainebleau in 1625 by Cassiano dal Pozzo. 1530, in the National Gallery, London. The Michelangelo composition, of about 1530, shows Mannerist tendencies of elongation and twisted pose that were popular at the time.Leda and the Swan – Leda and the Swan, a 16th-century copy by Peter Paul Rubens, after a lost painting by Michelangelo (National Gallery, London)
38. Munich – Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. The Munich Metropolitan Region is home to million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015. The name of the city is derived from meaning "by the monks". Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes. Like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered economically. In the 1920s, Munich became home among them the NSDAP, founded in the city in 1920. During World War II, more than 50 % of the entire city and up to 90 % of the historic centre were destroyed. The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz, MunichRE well as many small and medium-sized companies. Munich is home to many national and international authorities, major universities, theatres. Its numerous architectural attractions, international sports events, exhibitions, Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany. It is a top-ranked destination for migration and location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of international background, making up 37.7% of the entire population.Munich – From left to right: The Munich Frauenkirche, the Nymphenburg Palace, the BMW Headquarters, the New Town Hall, the Munich Hofgarten and the Allianz Arena.
39. Mary Magdalene – She is said to have witnessed Jesus' resurrection. Within the four Gospels she is named at least 12 times, more than most of the apostles. Based on texts of the Christian era in the third century, it seems that her status as an "apostle" rivals even Peter's. She is most prominent in the narrative of the crucifixion of Jesus, at which she was present. Mark 16:9 specifically name her as the first person to see Jesus after his resurrection. Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by Anglican, Lutheran churches -- with a feast day of July 22. Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith. The Eastern Orthodox churches also commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of the Western Three Marys traditions. Mary was a very common name in New Testament times, held by a number of women in the canonical Gospels. Mary Magdalene In addition, there were Mary, Mary Salome. In the four Gospels, Mary Magdalene is always distinguished from other women named Mary by adding "the Magdalene" to her name. This has been interpreted to mean a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Luke 8:2 says that she was actually "called Magdalene". In Hebrew מגדל Migdal means "tower", "fortress"; in Aramaic, "Magdala" means "tower" or "elevated, great, magnificent". In the Gospel of John, Mary Magdalene is also referred to simply as "Mary" twice.Mary Magdalene – Domenico Tintoretto, The Penitent Magdalene, c. 1598
40. Oil painting – Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, safflower oil. The choice of oil imparts a range such as the amount of drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are also visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine frankincense, to gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, replaced traditional paint. Traditional painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with thinned paint. Oil paint is usually mixed with other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of application is ` fat over lean'. This means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will crack and peel.Oil painting – Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06
41. Pierre-Auguste Renoir – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir, was a French artist, a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir, ceramic artist Claude Renoir. He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir, son of Pierre. Pierre-Auguste Renoir was born in 1841. Léonard Renoir, was a tailor of modest means, so in 1844, Renoir's family moved to Paris in search of more favorable prospects. The location in rue d'Argenteuil in central Paris, placed Renoir in proximity to the Louvre. Although the young Renoir had a natural proclivity for drawing, he exhibited a greater talent for singing. His talent was encouraged by Charles Gounod, the choir-master at the Church of St Roch at the time. Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre. The owner of the factory communicated this to Renoir's family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare into Ecole des Beaux Arts. When the factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning. Before he enrolled in school, he also painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans. In 1862, he began studying art under Charles Gleyre in Paris. There he met Alfred Sisley, Claude Monet.Pierre-Auguste Renoir – Pierre-Auguste Renoir
42. Portland Vase – It since 1810 has been in the British Museum in London. It is normally on display in Room 70. The vase is about 25 centimetres high and 56 in circumference. This roundel clearly has been displayed separately since 1845. None of the many theories put forward have been found generally satisfactory. They fall into two main groups: historical, though a historical interpretation of a myth is also a possibility. Interpretations of the portrayals have included that of a marine setting, of a theme/context, as the vase may have been a wedding gift. Many scholars have concluded that the figures do not fit into a iconographic set. Interpretations include: The marriage of the sea-gods Peleus and Thetis, "the most enduring mythological interpretation". The dream of Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great, emerging from the building to greet her, with his father Apollo as the serpent. This was the first theory, dating to 1633, connected to his mother, "of whom a similar tale of reptilian paternity was told". On the reverse is Octavian, Octavia his sister, widow of Mark Anthony and Livia, Octavian's third wife who outlived him. These two are looking directly at each other. Octavian commanded she marry him with a few weeks of meeting, she was mother to the future Emperor Tiberius. It explains most mysteries.Portland Vase – Portland Vase on display at the British Museum
43. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
44. Scylla – In Greek mythology, Scylla was a monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis. Scylla Charybdis on their travels. Later myth gave an origin story as a beautiful nymph who gets turned into a monster. The strait where Scylla dwelled has been associated with the Strait of Messina between Italy and Sicily. The idiom "between Scylla and Charybdis" has come to mean being forced to choose between two equally dangerous situations. The parentage of Scylla varies according to author. Other authors have Hecate as Scylla's mother. The Hesiodic Megalai Ehoiai gives Hecate and Phorbas as the parents of Scylla, while Acusilaus says that Scylla's parents were Hecate and Phorkys. Likewise, Semos of Delos says that Crataeis was mother of Scylla by Deimos. A similar story Glaucus himself was also loved by the sorceress Circe. Her body consisted of a cat's tail, while four to six dog-heads ringed her waist. In this form, she attacked the ships of passing sailors, seizing one of the crew with each of her heads. In a Greek myth, recorded in Eustathius' commentary on Homer and John Tzetzes, Heracles encountered Scylla during a journey to Sicily and slew her. The sea-god Phorcys, then applied flaming torches to her body and restored her to life. When he went to Circe to ask for a potion to win her, the sorceress herself fell in love with him.Scylla – The Rock of Scilla, Calabria