1. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
2. Attila – Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and was unable to take Constantinople. He subsequently was unable to take Rome. He died in 453. After Attila's death his close Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed. There is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus. The Gothic etymology can be tracked up in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were "not the true names of the Hun lords. Most powerful minister Onegesius, also have hypothetical Germanic etymology. Mikkola connected it with Turkic āt. Gerd Althoff considered it was Turkish at and dil. "The Gothic origin of the Attila is questionable," Snædal writes. "It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin". The article points out that the atta is a migratory term for "father/forefather" common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages.Attila – Portrait by Eugène Delacroix, painted between 1843 and 1847
3. Amsterdam – Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 847,176 within the city proper, 2,431,000 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. Amsterdam's name derives as a dam of the river Amstel. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. Many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 19 -- 20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Seven of the world's 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. The city was previously ranked 3rd in innovation by 2thinknow in the Innovation Cities Index 2009. Famous Amsterdam residents included Anne Frank the diarist, the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. The earliest recorded use of the name "Aemstelredamme" comes from a document dated October 1275.Amsterdam
4. Foreign relations of Armenia – It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia. US House Resolution 106 later referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The bill has 225 co-sponsors. The bill called for former President George W. Bush to use the word genocide in his annual 24 April speech which he never used. Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno -- Karabakh republic in the very bitter conflict against the Azerbaijani government. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Armenians in Armenia. In April 1991, Soviet forces targeted Armenian populations in Karabakh, known as Operation Ring. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Azerbaijan. Military action was influenced by the Russian military, which manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring sides in order to keep both under control. More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1988 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin. By October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in taking almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire, between the three sides.Foreign relations of Armenia – Armenia
5. Abbot – Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given to a clergyman, not actually the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess. The word is derived from abba, meaning "my father". In the Septuagint, it was written as "abbas". It was soon restricted by canon law to certain priestly superiors. The abbot came into fairly general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests. An abbot is the head and governor of a community of monks, called also in the East hegumen or archimandrite. The English version for a monastic head is abbess. In Taoism, the highest ranking abbot, only assigned to the most prominent temples is known as a Fangzhang. All Tao guan have ranking abbots, known as Zhu Chi. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was loosely defined. Sometimes he ruled sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under him. By the Rule of St Benedict, which, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.Abbot – Saint Peter
6. Alternate history – Alternate history or alternative history, sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently. These stories usually contain "what if" scenarios at crucial points in history and present outcomes other than those in the historical record. The stories are conjectural, but are sometimes based on scientific fact. Another term occasionally used for the genre is "allohistory". Cross-time, time-splitting, alternate history themes have become so closely interwoven that it is impossible to discuss them fully apart from one another. This neologism is based on the prefix ου- and the Greek χρόνος, meaning "time." A uchronia means literally " no time." This term apparently also inspired the name of the alternate history book list, uchronia.net. Several genres of fiction have been misidentified as alternate history. Alternate history is related to, but distinct from, counterfactual history. The earliest example of alternate history is found in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita Libri. Livy concluded that the Romans would likely have defeated Alexander. He saves the city from Islamic conquest, even chases the Turks deeper into lands they had previously conquered. In the English language, the first complete alternate history is "P.'s Correspondence," published in 1845. The alternate history in English would seem to be Castello Holford's Aristopia.Alternate history – The world in 1964 in the novel Fatherland where the Germans won World War II.
7. Athens – Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, cultural life in Greece. In 2015, Athens was ranked the world's 29th richest city by the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. The municipality of Athens had a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city also retains Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the medieval Daphni Monastery. 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. In an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. Different etymologies, commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century.Athens – From upper left: the Acropolis, the Hellenic Parliament, the Zappeion, the Acropolis Museum, Monastiraki Square, Athens view towards the sea
8. Antoninus Pius – Antoninus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva -- the Aurelii. He was succeeded by his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as co-emperors. He was born as the only child of consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus. The Aurelii Fulvii were therefore a relatively senatorial family from Gallia Narbonensis whose rise to prominence was supported by the Flavians. The link between their home province explains the increasing importance of the post of Proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis during the late Second Century. His mother was Arria Fadilla. The Arrii Antoninii were an older senatorial family from Italy, very influential during Nerva's reign. Some time between 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They are believed to have enjoyed a happy marriage. Faustina was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina. Despite rumours about her character, it is clear that Antoninus cared for her deeply. Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two daughters. They were: Marcus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found in Rome. Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus; his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome.Antoninus Pius – Bust of Antoninus Pius, at Glyptothek, Munich.
9. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
10. Abbess – In Christianity, an abbess is the female superior of a community of nuns, often an abbey. She must have been a nun for 10 years. The requirement in the Catholic Church has evolved over time, ranging from 30 to 60. The requirement of 10 years as a nun is only 8 in Catholicism. The office is the choice being by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community. Unlike the abbot, the abbess receives only the ring, a copy of the rule of the order. She does not receive a mitre as part of the ceremony. An abbess serves except in Italy and some adjacent islands. Abbesses are, according to canon law, the equivalents of abbots or bishops. They have full authority in its administration. However, there are significant limitations. They may not administer the sacraments, whose celebration is reserved to bishops, priests, namely, those in Holy Orders. They may not serve except by special rescript. They function as an ordained celebrant or concelebrant of the Mass.. On the other hand, they may not ordinarily read the Gospel during a Mass..Abbess – Xaveria Gasser, abbess of the Elisabeth Sisters Convent in Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria in 1756
11. Abbey – An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess. It provides a place of Christian monks and nuns. Religious life in an abbey may be monastic. An abbey may be open to visitors. The layout of associated buildings of an abbey often follows a set plan determined by the founding religious order. Some abbeys accommodation to people who are seeking spiritual retreat. There are famous abbeys across Europe. Monastic communities date back to pre-Christian times. The earliest known Christian monasteries were groups of huts built near the residence of other holy person. Disciples imitate their way of life. In the earliest times of Christian monasticism, ascetics would live near a village church. They would subsist whilst donating any excess produce to the poor. However, increasing religious fervor about or persecution of them would drive them further away from their community and further into solitude. For instance, the huts of anchorites have been found in the deserts of Egypt. In 312 AD, Anthony the Great retired to the Thebaid region of Egypt to escape the persecution of the Emperor Maximian.Abbey – Sénanque Abbey, Provence
12. Aachen – Aachen or Bad Aachen, traditionally known in English and French as Aix-la-Chapelle /ɛks.læ.ʃæ.pɛl/, is a spa and border town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was the preferred residence of Charlemagne, from 936 to 1531, the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Aachen is the westernmost city in Germany, located near the borders 61 km west-southwest of Cologne in a former coal-mining area. RWTH Aachen University is located in the city. Aachen's industries include science, engineering and technology. In 2009, Aachen was ranked eighth among cities in Germany for innovation. The location has been inhabited by humans since the Neolithic era, about 5,000 years ago, attracted to its warm mineral springs. Aachen's name in French and German evolved in parallel. Aachen's local dialect belongs to the Ripuarian language. Bronze settlement is evidenced by the remains of barrows found, for example, on the Klausberg. Later, the 25-hectare Roman spa resort town of Aquae Granni was, according to legend, founded by Grenus, under Hadrian, in ca. a.d. 124. A kind of forum, surrounded by colonnades, connected the two spa complexes. There was also part of it inhabited by a flourishing Jewish community. The Romans built bathhouses near Burtscheid.Aachen – Panoramic view of Aachen, including Kaiser Karls Gymnasium (foreground), townhall (back center) and cathedral (back right)
13. Acropolis – An acropolis is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. An example in Ireland is the Rock of Cashel. Acropolis is also the term used by archaeologists and historians for the urban Castro culture settlements located in Northwestern Iberian hilltops. Because of its classical Hellenistic style, the ruins of Mission San Juan Capistrano's Great Stone Church in California, United States has been called the "American Acropolis". Other parts of the world developed other names for the high citadel or alcázar, which often reinforced a naturally strong site. In Central Italy, many small rural communes still cluster at the base of a fortified habitation known as La Rocca of the commune.Acropolis – View of the Acropolis of Pergamon in the background, as seen from Via Tecta at the entrance to the Asclepeion.
14. Aeneas – In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus. His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas a second cousin to Priam's children. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid, where he is an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. He became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturlason identifies him with the Norse Æsir Vidarr. Aeneas is the Latin spelling of Greek Αἰνείας. It is a popular etymology for the name, apparently exploited by Homer in the Iliad. Later in the Medieval period there were writers who held that, because the Aeneid was written by a philosopher it is meant to be read philosophically. In the "natural order", the meaning of Aeneas' name combines Greek demas, which becomes ennaios, meaning "in-dweller". However, there is no certainty regarding the origin of his name. In imitation of the Iliad, Virgil borrows epithets of Homer, including; Anchisiades, magnanimum, bonus. Though he borrows many, Virgil gives Aeneas two epithets of his own in the Aeneid: pater and pius. Likewise, Aeneas is called pater when acting in the interest of his men. The story of the birth of Aeneas is told in the "Hymn to Aphrodite," one of the major Homeric Hymns.Aeneas – Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598.
15. Antonio Agliardi – Antonio Agliardi was an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal, archbishop, papal diplomat. Agliardi was born in what is now the Province of Bergamo. On his return he was appointed secretary to the Congregation of the Propaganda. In 1887 he again visited India, to carry out the terms of the concordat arranged with Portugal. The same year he was appointed secretary of the Congregation super negotiis ecclesiae extraordinariis. In 1889 he became papal Apostolic Nuncio in 1892 at Vienna. In the consistory of 1896 he was elevated to Cardinal-Priest of Santi Nereo e Achilleo. In 1899 he was made Cardinal Bishop of Albano. In 1903, he became the Chancellor of the Apostolic Chancery in the Secretariat of State in 1908. He was buried in Bergamo. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Agliardi, Antonio". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press.Antonio Agliardi – Antonio Agliardi.
16. Agrippina the Elder – Vipsania Agrippina, most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder, was a distinguished and prominent Roman woman of the first century CE. Agrippina was the wife of the general and statesman Germanicus and a relative to the first Roman Emperors. Agrippina was born to the Elder. Agrippina’s mother Julia was the only natural child born to Augustus from his second marriage to noblewoman Scribonia. Her father’s marriage to Julia was his third marriage. From Agrippa’s previous two marriages, Agrippina had at least two half-sisters: Vipsania Agrippina and Vipsania Marcella Agrippina. Vipsania Agrippina later married senator and consul Gaius Asinius Gallus Saloninus after Tiberius was forced to divorce her and marry Julia the Elder. Less well known is Agrippa’s oldest daughter - Vipsania Marcella. She was the first wife Publius Quinctilius Varus. No son is attested, but a daughter is possibly the mother of Dec. Haterius Agrippa. Agrippina was born in Athens, as in the year of her birth Agrippa was in that city completing official duties on behalf of Augustus. Her mother and her siblings had traveled with Agrippa. Later Agrippina’s family returned to Rome. In 12 BCE, Agrippina’s father died. Augustus had forced his first stepson Tiberius to end his happy first marriage to Vipsania Agrippina to marry Julia the Elder.Agrippina the Elder – Agrippina the Elder
17. Agrippina the Younger – Agrippina the Younger has been described by modern scholars as violent, domineering. Many ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning Emperor Claudius, though accounts vary. Agrippina was the first daughter and fourth living child of Agrippina the Elder and Germanicus. She had Julia Livilla. Agrippina's two elder brothers and her mother were victims of the intrigues of the Praetorian Prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus. She was the namesake of her mother. Maternally, Agrippina descended directly from Augustus. Germanicus, Agrippina's father, was a very popular general and politician. His mother was Antonia Minor and his father was the general Nero Claudius Drusus. He was Antonia Minor's first child. Germanicus had two younger siblings; a sister, named Livilla, a brother, the future Emperor Claudius. Claudius was Agrippina's paternal uncle and third husband. In the year 9, Augustus ordered and forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus, who happened to be Tiberius's nephew, as his son and heir. Germanicus was a favorite of his great-uncle Augustus, who hoped that Germanicus would succeed his uncle Tiberius, Augustus's own adopted son and heir. This in turn meant that Tiberius was also Agrippina's adoptive grandfather in addition to her paternal great-uncle.Agrippina the Younger – Agrippina, mother of Nero, National Museum, Warsaw
18. Alaric I – Alaric I was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son of chieftain Rothestes. Alaric is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire. Alaric began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas and later joined the Roman army. In 394 he led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus. Despite sacrificing around 10,000 of his men, Alaric received little recognition from the Emperor. Disappointed, he left the army and was elected reiks of the Visigoths in 395, marched toward Constantinople until he was diverted by Roman forces. He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus and destroyed Corinth, Megara, Argos, Sparta. As a response, the Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius appointed Alaric magister militum in Illyricum. He was defeated on April 6, 402. During Radagaisus' Italian invasion in 406, Alaric remained idle in Illyria. In 408, Western Emperor Flavius Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho and his family, amid rumours that the general had made a deal with Alaric. Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of foederati Goths serving in the Roman military. Subsequently, around 30,000 Gothic soldiers defected to Alaric, joined his march on Rome to avenge their murdered families. Moving swiftly along Roman roads, Alaric sacked the cities of Aquileia and Cremona and ravaged the lands along the Adriatic Sea. The Visigothic leader thereupon laid siege to Rome in 408.Alaric I – Illustration from the 1920s depicting Alaric parading through Athens after conquering the city in 395
19. Albertus Magnus – Albertus Magnus, O.P. also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Dominican friar and Catholic bishop. Scholars such as Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages. The Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church. It seems likely that Albert was born sometime given well-attested evidence that he was aged over 80 on his death in 1280. More than one source says that Albert was 87 on his death, which has led 1193 to be commonly given as the date of Albert's birth. This might simply be a family name. Most probably his family was of ministerial class; his familiar connection with Bollstädt noble family was a 15th-century misinterpretation, now completely disproved. Albert was probably educated principally at the University of Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings. A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. In 1223 he studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. During his first tenure as lecturer at Cologne, Albert wrote his Summa bono after discussion with Philip the Chancellor concerning the transcendental properties of being. In 1245, Albert became master of theology under Gueric of Saint-Quentin, the first German Dominican to achieve this distinction. During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus. Albert was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate. In 1254 Albert fulfilled the duties of the office with great care and efficiency.Albertus Magnus – Saint Albertus Magnus, a fresco by Tommaso da Modena (1352), Church of San Nicolò, Treviso, Italy
20. Alboin – Alboin was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their migrations by settling in the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. After gathering a large coalition of peoples, Alboin crossed the Julian Alps in 568, entering an almost undefended Italy. He rapidly took control of most of Venetia and Liguria. In 569, unopposed, he took Milan. Pavia was taken only after a siege lasting three years. Alboin was assassinated on June 572, in a coup d'état instigated by the Byzantines. For many centuries following his death his success in battle were celebrated in Saxon and Bavarian epic poetry. Seven years later Walthari died, giving the opportunity to crown himself and overthrow the reigning Lethings. Alboin was probably born in the 530s in Pannonia, his wife, Rodelinda. She may have betrothed to Audoin through the mediation of Emperor Justinian. Alboin took as his first wife the Christian Chlothsind, daughter of the Frankish King Chlothar. The new Frankish alliance was important because of the Franks' known hostility to the Byzantine empire, providing the Lombards with more than one option. Alboin first distinguished himself with the Gepids. For this initiation, he went to the court of Thurisind, where the Gepid king gave Turismod's arms.Alboin – Woodcut vignette of Alboin in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
21. Severus Alexander – Severus Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of his mother. As emperor, Alexander's peace reign was prosperous. However, militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. This led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him. Under the influence of his mother, he did much to enhance the dignity of the state. Alexander employed noted jurists to oversee the administration such as the famous jurist Ulpian. Alexander also created a municipal council of 14 who assisted the urban prefect in administering the affairs of the 14 districts of Rome. In religious matters, he preserved an open mind. It was dissuaded by the pagan priests. In legal matters, he did much to aid the rights of his soldiers. Alexander confirmed that soldiers could name anyone as heirs in their will, whereas civilians had strict restrictions over who could receive a legacy. He also confirmed that soldiers could free their slaves in their wills. On the whole, Alexander's reign was prosperous until the rise, in the east, of the Sassanids under Ardashir I. Of the war that followed there are various accounts.Severus Alexander – Bust of Severus Alexander
22. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist, historian, short story writer. Solzhenitsyn helped to raise global awareness of its Gulag forced labor system. He was allowed to publish only one work in the Soviet Union, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, in the periodical Novy Mir. After this Solzhenitsyn had to publish in the West, most notably The Gulag Archipelago. Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature". Solzhenitsyn was afraid to go to Stockholm to receive his award for fear that he would not be allowed to reenter. Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia after the state's dissolution. Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, RSFSR. His mother, Taisiya Zakharovna was of Ukrainian descent. During World War I, Taisiya went to Moscow to study. While there she met and married Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn, a young officer in the Imperial Russian Army of Cossack origins and fellow native of the Caucasus region. The background of his parents is vividly brought in the later Red Wheel novels. In 1918, Taisia became pregnant with Aleksandr. On 15 June, shortly after her pregnancy was confirmed, Isaakiy was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was raised by his widowed mother and aunt in lowly circumstances.Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – Solzhenitsyn in 1974
23. Alessandro Algardi – Algardi was born in Bologna, where at a young age, he was apprenticed in the studio of Agostino Carracci. However, his aptitude for sculpture led him to work for an artist of modest talents. By the age of twenty, he was also employed by local jewelers for figurative designs. Propelled by the Borghese and Barberini patronage, his studio garnered most of the major Roman sculptural commissions. For nearly a decade, Algardi struggled for recognition. In Rome he was aided by friends that included his fellow Bolognese, Domenichino. His early Roman commissions included some marble portrait busts, while he supported himself with small works like crucifixes. In the 1630s he worked in the Mellini Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo. The monument was started in 1640, mostly completed by 1644. Algardi's tomb is much less dynamic. The allegorical figures of Magnanimity and Liberality have an ethereal dignity. Some have identified the helmeted figure of Magnanimity with iconic images of Wisdom. Liberality rendered more elegant. The tomb lacks the polychromatic excitement that detracts from the elegiac mood of Urban VIII's tomb. In 1635–38, Pietro Boncompagni commissioned from Algardi a colossal statue of Philip Neri with kneeling angels for Santa Maria in Vallicella, completed in 1640.Alessandro Algardi – Tomb of Leo XI
24. Algiers – Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. The two quays form a triangle. The rue la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid -- Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.Algiers – Clockwise: Buildings along the Mediterranean coast of Algiers, Martyrs Memorial, Notre Dame d'Afrique, Ketchaoua Mosque, Casbah, the Grand Post Office and the Ministry of Finance of Algeria
25. Alfonso XIII of Spain – Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers in 1902. With the political failure of the dictatorship, Alfonso impelled a return to the democratic normality with the intention of regenerating the regime. Nevertheless, it was abandoned by all political classes, as they felt betrayed by the king's support of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. He left Spain voluntarily after the municipal elections of April of 1931, taken like a plebiscite between monarchy or republic. Buried in Rome, his remains were not transferred in the monastery of El Escorial. Alfonso was born in Madrid on 17 May 1886. He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, who had died in November 1885, became King of Spain upon his birth. The French newspaper Le Figaro described the young king as "the best-loved of all the rulers of the earth". Maria Christina of Austria, served until his 16th birthday. When he came in May 1902, the week of his majority was marked throughout Spain. By 1905, Alfonso was looking for a suitable consort. On a visit to the United Kingdom, he stayed with King Edward VII. There he met a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.Alfonso XIII of Spain – Alfonso XIII
26. St. Ambrose Traversari – Ambrose Traversari, O.S.B. He is honored as a saint by the Camaldolese Order. Traversari was born at the village of Portico di Romagna in 1386. In his study of Greek literature his master was Emmanuel Chrysoloras. He worked primarily as a scholar until he became in 1431. Ambrose emerged as a leading advocate of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff. The Pope transferred the Council to Ferrara on 18 September 1437. So strong was Ambrose's hostility to some of the delegates that he described Basel as a western Babylon. He likewise worked hard in the attempt to reconcile the Eastern and Western Churches. He died soon after. His feastday is celebrated by the Camaldolese Order on 20 November. He also translated four books against the errors of the Greeks, by Manuel Kalekas, Patriarch of Constantinople, a Dominican friar, P.G. CLII, col. 13-661, a work known only through Ambrose's translation. Dom Mabillon's Orations of St. Ambrose of Camaldoli was published at Florence, 1759. Vitae philosophorum Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite A number of his manuscripts remain in the library of St Mark at Venice.St. Ambrose Traversari – Bust of Traversari in the sacristy cloister of the Church of St. Mary of the Angels, Florence, Italy
27. Ancus Marcius – Ancus Marcius was the legendary fourth king of Rome. He was the son of Marcius, who may be identified with Pompilia. According to Festus, Marcius had the surname of Ancus from his crooked arm. Ancus Marcius was believed by the Romans to have been the namesake of a Plebeian family. A number of them were settled on the Aventine Hill. According to Livy the war was commenced by the Latins who anticipated Ancus would follow the pious pursuit of peace adopted by Numa Pompilius. The Latins initially made an incursion on Roman lands. When a Roman embassy sought restitution for the damage, the Latins gave a contemptuous reply. Ancus accordingly declared war on the Latins. Ancus Marcius took the Latin town of Politorium by storm. Its residents were removed to settle as new citizens, following the Roman traditions from wars with the Sabines and Albans. When the other Latins subsequently occupied the empty town of Politorium, Ancus demolished it. The Latin villages of Tellenae and Ficana were also demolished. The war then focused on the Latin town of Medullia. The town was well fortified.Ancus Marcius – Ancus Martius, fictional 16th-century depiction published by Guillaume Rouillé
28. Andrea Andreani – Andrea Andreani was an Italian engraver on wood, among the first printmakers in Italy to use chiaroscuro, which required multiple colours. Died at Rome in 1623. His engravings are chiefly copies of Mantegna, Albrecht Dürer, Parmigianino and Titian. He was active 1584–1610 in Florence. "Andrea Andreani" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th Edition, Vol. II, p. 20. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Andreani, Andrea". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Ticozzi, Stefano. Dizionario degli architetti, scultori, pittori, intagliatori in rame ed in pietra, coniatori di medaglie, niellatori, intarsiatori d'ogni etá e d'ogni nazione'. Gaetano Schiepatti; Digitized by Googlebooks, Jan 24, 2007. P. 53. Getty ULAN entry. ArtnetAndrea Andreani – Triumphus Caesari, by Andreani, after a painting by Mantegna
29. Andriscus – Andriscus, also often referenced as Pseudo-Philip, was the last King of Macedon. A pretender who claimed to be the son of Perseus of Macedon. In actually, he was a fuller from Adramyttium in Aeolis in western Anatolia. His reign lasted just a year. In 168 BC, the Romans invaded Macedonia and king Perseus in the First Battle of Pydna. In 149 BC, Andriskos, claiming to be Perseus' son, announced his intention to retake Macedonia from the Romans. As his first attempt, Andriskos travelled to Syria to request military help from Demetrius Soter of Syria. Demetrius instead raised a Thracian army. With this army, he defeated the Roman praetor Publius Juventius in 149 BC. Andriskos then declared King Philip VI of Macedonia. In 148 BC, Andriskos made an alliance with Carthage, thus bringing the Roman wrath on him. Andriscus' brief reign over Macedonia was marked by extortion. After this Macedonia was formally reduced to a Roman province. Velleius Paterculus i. 11; Florus ii. 14; Livy, Epit. 49, 50, 52; Diod.Andriscus – Coin of Andriscus. Greek inscription reads BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY (King Philip).
30. Apuleius – Apuleius was a Latin-language prose writer. He was a Numidian, from Madauros. He studied Platonism in Athens, was an initiate in several cults or mysteries. The most famous incident in his life was when he was accused of using magic to gain the attentions of a wealthy widow. This is known as the Apologia. His most famous work is the Metamorphoses, otherwise known as The Golden Ass. It is the only Latin novel that has survived in its entirety. It relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, accidentally turned into a donkey. He described himself as "half-Numidian half-Gaetulian." Details regarding his life come mostly from his defense speech and his work Florida, which consists of snippets taken from some of his best speeches. His father was a provincial magistrate who bequeathed at his death the sum of nearly million sesterces to his two sons. Apuleius studied at Athens where he studied Platonist philosophy among other subjects. He also travelled extensively in Asia Minor and Egypt, burning up his inheritance while doing so. Apuleius was an initiate including the Dionysian Mysteries. According to Augustine, sacerdos provinciae Africae.Apuleius – Depiction of Apuleius
31. Aeschylus – Aeschylus was an ancient Greek tragedian. He is often described as the father of tragedy. Critics' and scholars' knowledge of the genre begins with his work, understanding of earlier tragedies is largely based on inferences from his surviving plays. According to Aristotle, he expanded the number of characters in theater allowing conflict among them; characters previously had interacted only with the chorus. Fragments of some other plays more continue to be discovered on Egyptian papyrus, often giving surprising insights into his work. He was probably the first dramatist to present plays as a trilogy; his Oresteia is the only ancient example of the form to have survived. At least one of his plays was influenced by the Persians' second invasion of Greece. The Persians, is a useful source of information about its period. Despite this, Aeschylus' work – particularly the Oresteia – is acclaimed by today's literary academics. He would win his first victory at the City Dionysia in 484 BC. In 510 BC, when Aeschylus was 15 years old, Cleomenes I expelled the sons of Peisistratus from Athens, Cleisthenes came to power. Cleisthenes' reforms included a system of registration that emphasized the importance of the deme over family tradition. In the last decade of the 6th century, Aeschylus and his family were living in the deme of Eleusis. The Persian Wars would play a large role in the playwright's life and career. In 490 BC, Aeschylus and his brother Cynegeirus fought to defend Athens against Darius I's invading Persian army at the Battle of Marathon.Aeschylus – Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums, Rome
32. Antonio Canova – Antonio Canova was an Italian neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures. In 1757, Antonio Canova was born to Pietro Canova, a stonecutter. In 1761, his father died. His mother remarried. Canova led Antonio into the art of sculpting. Before the age of ten, he began carving marble. Indeed, at the age of nine, Canova executed two small shrines of Carrara marble, which are still extant. After these works, Canova appears to have been constantly employed under his grandfather. In 1770, Canova was an apprentice for two years to Giuseppe Bernardi, also known as ` Torretto'. Afterwards, Canova was under the tutelage of Giovanni Ferrari until he began his studies at the Accademia di Arti di Venezia. At the Academy, Canova won several prizes. During this time, Canova was given his first workshop by some local monks. The Senator Giovanni Falier commissioned Canova to produce statues of Orpheus and Eurydice for his garden – the Villa Falier at Asolo. Both were completed by 1777. The pieces explify the Rococo style.Antonio Canova – Self-portrait, 1792
33. Acts of the Apostles – The Gospel of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke -- Acts, by the same anonymous author, usually dated to around 80 -- 90 AD. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesus' Ascension to Heaven. The early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the growth of the church in Jerusalem. Soon they turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles. The title "Acts of the Apostles" was first used in the late 2nd century. The Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts. The author is not named in either volume. His theology was significantly different from Paul's on key points and he does not represent Paul's views accurately. In either case there is evidence that it was still being substantially revised well into the 2nd century. Luke aligned Luke -- Acts, to the "narratives" which many others had written, described his own work as an "orderly account". It lacks exact analogies in Hellenistic or Jewish literature. There are also points of contacts with 1 Peter, 1 Clement. Other sources can only be inferred from internal evidence—the traditional explanation of the three "we" passages, for example, is that they represent eye-witness accounts. By the mid-20th it had largely been abandoned.Acts of the Apostles – Books of the New Testament
34. Adalbert of Prague – Adalbert of Prague, known in Czech by his birth name Vojtěch, was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint. St. Adalbert was later declared the patron saint of Prussia. Born as Vojtěch in Libice, he belonged to the Slavnik clan, one of the two most powerful families in Bohemia. Bohemian priest Cosmas of Prague recorded events from his life. His father was a duke ruling a province centred at Libice. His mother was Střezislava, according to some belonging to the Přemyslid dynasty. He had five brothers: Čáslav. Having survived a grave illness in childhood, his parents decided to dedicate him to the service of God. Adalbert was well educated, having studied under the tutelage of St. Adalbert of Magdeburg. The young Vojtěch took his tutor's name "Adalbert" at his Confirmation. His young protege Adalbert returned to Bohemia. Later Bishop Dietmar of Prague ordained a Roman Catholic priest. In 982, Adalbert, despite being under canonical age, was chosen to succeed him as Bishop of Prague. Somewhat worldly, he was not expected to trouble the secular powers by making excessive claims for the Church. Although Adalbert was from a wealthy family, he was noted for his charity and austerity.Adalbert of Prague – St. Adalbert of Prague
35. Autobiography – An autobiography is a written account of the life of a person written by that person. In other words, it is the story that a person wrote about themselves. However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Nonetheless, autobiography as a form goes back to Antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, whereas autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. Closely associated with autobiography is the memoir form. See also: List of autobiographies and Category:Autobiographies for examples. In antiquity such works were typically entitled apologia, purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman's autobiography is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus introduces his autobiography with self-praise, followed by a justification of his actions as a Jewish rebel commander of Galilee. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Calamitatum of Peter Abelard, outstanding as an autobiographical document of its period. The first autobiographical work in Islamic society was written in the late 11th century, by Abdallah ibn Buluggin, last Zirid king of Granada. In the 15th century, Leonor López de Córdoba, a Spanish noblewoman, wrote her Memorias, which may be the first autobiography in Castillian. Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad Bābur,who founded the Mughal dynasty of South Asia kept a journal Bāburnāma, written between 1493 and 1529. These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them.Autobiography – Cover of the first English edition of Clayton Baggett Born on Feb.28,1982
36. Archbishop of Canterbury – The current archbishop is Justin Welby. His enthronement took place on 21 March 2013. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams. During the English Reformation the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the King of England. Founded in 597, it is the oldest see in the English church. He is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and religious figure of the Church of England. Since 1867 he has convened less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences. In the last two of these functions he has an important interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide. The archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. He also has lodgings in Canterbury, located beside Canterbury Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits. As holder of one of the "five great sees", the Archbishop of Canterbury is officio one of the Lords Spiritual of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence.Archbishop of Canterbury – The Archbishop of Canterbury's official London residence is Lambeth Palace, photographed looking east across the River Thames.
37. A.S. Roma – Associazione Sportiva Roma, commonly referred to as simply Roma, is a professional Italian football club based in Rome. Founded by a merger in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for 1951 -- 52. For their 65th season in a row, Roma are competing in Serie A for the 2016–17 season. Therefore, Roma is the Italian club by major honours won, behind Juventus, Milan and Inter. Home games are currently played at a venue they share with city rivals Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the second largest of its kind in Italy, with only the San Siro able to seat more. In September 2009 the club unveiled plans to build a Stadio della Roma in the western suburbs of Rome. A.S. An early season in which Roma made a large mark was the 1930 -- the club finished as runners-up behind Juventus. Captain Attilio Ferraris along with Guido Masetti, Rodolfo Volk were highly important players during this period. After the departure of high key players, Roma eventually rebuilt their squad adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita. Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in 1935–36; finishing just one point behind champions Bologna. The eighteen goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer coached Roma side winning the title. Roma were playing at the Stadio del Partito Nazionale Fascista. After the war Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s.A.S. Roma – 17 June 2001 – Roma-Parma 3–1: Roma won its third Italian championship in its history. Fans of the Curva Sud are overjoyed
38. Alessandro Scarlatti – Alessandro Scarlatti was an Italian Baroque composer, especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera. He was the father of two other composers, Pietro Filippo Scarlatti. Scarlatti was born in Palermo, then part of the Kingdom of Sicily. Here he produced a long series of operas, as well as other music for state occasions. In 1702 Scarlatti did not return until the Spanish domination had been superseded by that of the Austrians. After visiting Venice and Urbino in 1707, Scarlatti remained there until 1717. His last work on a large scale appears to have been the unfinished serenata for the marriage of the prince of Stigliano in 1723. He died in 1725. His best operas of this period are Pirro e Demetrio, in which occur the arias "Le Violette", "Ben ti sta, traditor". In his Teodora he originated the use of the orchestral ritornello. Besides the operas, serenatas, which all exhibit a similar style, Scarlatti composed upwards of five hundred chamber-cantatas for solo voice. His instrumental music, though not without interest, is curiously antiquated as compared with his vocal works. Akademie für alte Musik Berlin, René Jacobs. .Alessandro Scarlatti – Scarlatti as a young man.
39. Aedile – Aedile was an office of the Roman Republic. Based in Rome, the aediles were responsible for regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order. An aedilis curulis was classified as a magister curulis. The plebeian aediles were created in the same year as the Tribunes of the People. Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they guarded the rights of the plebs to their headquarters, the Temple of Ceres. Subsequently, they assumed responsibility as a whole. Their duties at first were simply ministerial. Around 446 BC, they were given the authority to care for the decrees of the senate. When a senatus consultum was passed, it deposited in the public treasury, the Aerarium. They were given this power because the Roman Consuls, who had held this power before, arbitrarily altered the documents. They also maintained the acts of the "plebiscites". Plebiscites, once passed, were also transcribed into a physical document for storage. While their powers grew over time, it is not always easy to distinguish those of the Roman Censors. Occasionally, if a Censor was unable to carry out one of his tasks, an Aedile would perform the task instead.Aedile – Ancient Rome
40. Arnulf of Carinthia – After Arnulf's birth, Carloman married, before a daughter of that same Count Ernst, who died after 8 August 879. From later events it may be inferred that the Carantanians, from an early time, treated him as their own Duke. However, Bavaria was less ruled by Arnulf. The division of the realm was confirmed after Carloman's death. This put him at war with Svatopluk of Moravia. Arnulf refused to give up the young Wilhelminers. Arnulf did not make peace until late 885, by which time Moravian ruler was loyal to the emperor. Some scholars see this war as destroying Arnulf's hopes at succeeding the Fat. Arnulf took the leading role in the deposition of Emperor Charles the Fat. With the support of the Frankish nobles, Arnulf called a Diet at Tribur and deposed Charles under threat of military action. Arnulf, having distinguished himself in the war against the Slavs, was then elected king by the nobles of East Francia. The Kingdom of Burgundy and the Kingdom of Italy at this point elected their own kings from the Carolingian family. Like all Germanic rulers, he was heavily involved in ecclesiastical disputes. Arnulf was fighter, not a negotiator. In 890 he was successfully battling Slavs in Pannonia.Arnulf of Carinthia – Arnulf of Carinthia
41. Adelaide of Italy – Emma of Italy, was born about 948. According to Odilo of Cluny, she managed to escape from captivity. After a time spent in the marshes nearby, she was taken to a "certain impregnable fortress," likely the fortified town of Canossa near Reggio. She asked the East Frankish king for his protection. They married in 951. Pope John XII crowned Otto Holy Roman Emperor in Rome on February 962, breaking tradition, also crowned Adelaide as Holy Roman Empress. Adelaide remained in Rome for six years while Otto ruled his kingdom from Italy. In 983, her son Otto II was succeeded by her grandson Otto III under the regency of his mother Adelaide's daughter-in-law Dowager Empress Theophanu. When Theophanu died in 991, Adelaide assumed regency on behalf of her grandson the Emperor until he reached legal majority four years later. Adelaide resigned as regent when Otto III was declared of legal majority in 995. Adelaide had long entertained close relations in particular with its abbots Majolus and Odilo. She retired to a nunnery she had founded at Selz in Alsace. Some of her relics are preserved in a shrine in Hanover. December 16, is still kept in many German dioceses. In 947, Adelaide was married to King Lothair II of Italy.Adelaide of Italy – Saint Adelaide of Italy
42. Ab urbe condita – "Ab urbe condita" is a Latin phrase meaning "from the founding of the City", traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a year-numbering system used by some Roman historians to identify particular Roman years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The dominant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held that year. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use. The traditional date for the founding of Rome of 21 April 753 BC, was initiated by 1st century BC scholar Marcus Terentius Varro. It is still used worldwide. From Emperor Claudius onwards, Varro's calculation superseded contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in 48 AD, 800 years after the founding of the city. Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in 121 AD and 147/148 AD respectively. During 248 AD, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome's first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome's tenth saeculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. In the year 532 AD was equated with the regnal year 248 of Emperor Diocletian. It was later calculated that the year 1 AD corresponds based on Varro's epoch.Ab urbe condita – Antoninianus of Pacatianus, usurper of Roman emperor Philip in 248. It bears the legend ROMAE AETER[NAE] AN[NO] MIL[LESIMO] ET PRIMO, "To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year".
43. Aeclanum – Aeclanum was an ancient town of Samnium, southern Italy, c. 25 km east-southeast of Beneventum, on the Via Appia. It lies near the modern Mirabella Eclano. This led to Aquilonia and Venusia. Another route to Apulia, the Via Aurelia Aeclanensis diverged here, leading through modern Ariano to Herdoniae. The road from Aeclanum to Abellinum may also follow an ancient line. There are ruins of the city walls, of an aqueduct, baths and an amphitheatre; nearly 400 inscriptions have also been discovered. Excavation has revealed a long history of pre-Roman settlement. Aeclanum became the chief town of the Hirpini, after Beneventum had become a Roman colony. Sulla sacked it. It quickly recovered, new fortifications were erected, it became a municipium. Hadrian, who repaired the Via Appia to this point, made it a colonia. Aeclanum became a Christian episcopal see, whose best known bishop was Julian of Eclanum, consecrated by Pope Innocent I in about 417. He refused to sign the condemnation of Pelagianism carried on a war of writings against Augustine of Hippo. From 1059 it was definitively united with Frequentium. No longer a residential bishopric, Aeclanum is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.Aeclanum – View of the thermae with the opus reticulatum brickwork