1. San Francisco – San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area. It is located on the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the smallest county in the state. The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines. As of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the independent homestead, near a anchorage around what is Portsmouth Square. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later.San Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
2. Abner Doubleday – Abner Doubleday was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. His relief by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade caused lasting enmity between the two men. After the war, Doubleday obtained a patent on the cable car railway that still runs there. In his final years in New Jersey, Doubleday was a prominent member and later president of the Theosophical Society. He has been historically credited with inventing baseball, although this is untrue. As a child, Abner was very short. The family all slept in the loft of the one-room house. His paternal grandfather, also named Abner, had fought in the American Revolutionary War. His maternal grandfather was a mounted messenger for George Washington. Abner later was sent to Cooperstown to live with his uncle and attend a private preparatory high school. Doubleday practiced as a surveyor and civil engineer before entering the United States Military Academy in 1838. Doubleday was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery. In 1852, Doubleday married Mary Hewitt of Baltimore. He initially served from 1856 to 1858. In 1858 Doubleday was transferred to Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor serving under Colonel John L. Gardner.Abner Doubleday – Abner Doubleday, Major General USA
3. Accordion – Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist. The bandoneón are related; American reed organ are in the same family. These vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block. The accordion is widely spread across the world. Nevertheless, in Europe and North America, some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is also used in both orchestra performances of classical music. The accordion is the official instrument of San Francisco, California. The oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from musical. Native versions of the accordion are more common. These names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side". Accordions have many configurations and types. Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is made from pleated layers of cardboard, with added leather and metal.Accordion – A piano accordion (top) and a Russian bayan (bottom)
4. Abbreviation – An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr. abbrv. or abbrev. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction. Acronyms and initialisms are regarded as subsets of abbreviations. They are abbreviations that consist of the initial letters or parts of words. Abbreviations have a long history, created so that spelling out a whole word could be avoided. This might be done to save time and space, also to provide secrecy. Shortened words were used and initial letters were commonly used to represent words in specific applications. In classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was common. In Roman inscriptions, "Words were commonly abbreviated by using the initial letter or letters of words, most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation." However, "some could have more than one meaning, depending on their context." Abbreviations in English were frequently used from its earliest days. The standardisation of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviations. At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods.Abbreviation – Example of Latin text with abbreviations
5. Aleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, mountaineer. Crowley founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the 20th century. He published widely over the course of his life. Born to a wealthy Plymouth Brethren family in Warwickshire, he rejected this fundamentalist Christian faith to pursue an interest in Western esotericism. Crowley was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on poetry, resulting in several publications. Some biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British agency, further suggesting that he remained a spy throughout his life. Moving by Loch Ness in Scotland, Crowley went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India. In 1907, George Cecil Jones co-founded a Thelemite order, the A ∴ A ∴, through which they propagated the religion. Through the O.T.O. Thelemite groups were established in Britain, North America. In 1920 Crowley established the Abbey of a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he lived with various followers. The Italian government evicted him in 1923. Crowley continued to promote Thelema until his death. He gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, an individualist social critic. Crowley was denounced in the popular press as "the wickedest man in the world" and a Satanist. He continues to be considered a prophet in Thelema.Aleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley, c. 1912
6. American Chinese cuisine – American Chinese cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine developed by Americans of Chinese descent. The dishes served in many North American Chinese restaurants differ significantly from those found in China. Chinese immigrants arrived in the United States to work as miners and railroad workers. As the large groups of Chinese immigrants arrived, laws were put in place preventing them from owning land. They mostly lived together in ghettos, individually referred to as a Chinatown. Here the immigrants started their small businesses, including restaurants and laundry services. By the 19th century, the Chinese community in San Francisco operated sophisticated and sometimes luxurious restaurants patronised mainly by Chinese. The restaurants in smaller towns served food to beans and eggs. Many of these small-town restaurant owners were self-taught family cooks who improvised on different cooking ingredients. These smaller restaurants were responsible for developing Chinese cuisine, where the food was modified to suit a more American palate. Even though dishes meant they were not strictly Chinese cuisine, these Chinese restaurants have been cultural ambassadors to Americans. Along the way, cooks developed a style of Chinese food not found in China. Late 20th century tastes have been more accommodating. Take away food became popular amongst Americans, Chinese food becoming a favourite "take out" option. By this time it became evident that Chinese restaurants longer catered mainly for Chinese customers.American Chinese cuisine – A Chinese buffet restaurant in the United States
7. Archimedes – Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding statics, including an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed despite orders that he should not be harmed. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. The date of birth is based by the Byzantine Greek historian John Tzetzes that Archimedes lived for 75 years. In The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes gives his father's name as Phidias, an astronomer about whom nothing is known. Plutarch wrote in his Parallel Lives that Archimedes was related to the ruler of Syracuse. This work has been lost, leaving the details of his life obscure. It is unknown, for instance, whether he ever had children. During his youth, Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries. He referred as his friend while two of his works have introductions addressed to Eratosthenes. According to the popular account given by Plutarch, Archimedes was contemplating a mathematical diagram when the city was captured. He declined, saying that he had to finish working on the problem.Archimedes – Archimedes Thoughtful by Fetti (1620)
8. Airline – An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines. Airline services may be operated as scheduled services or charters. The largest airline currently is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the world's first airline. It operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt. The first fixed wing scheduled service was started on January 1, 1914 from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, Florida. The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed airline in Europe was the Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. On 15 the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. The airline soon began to attract European competition. In November 1919, it won the British civil airmail contract.Airline – Boeing 767-300ER of Delta Air Lines at Frankfurt Airport
9. Adobe Systems – Adobe Systems Incorporated /əˈdoʊbiː/ is an American multinational computer software company. The company is headquartered in California, United States. Adobe has historically focused with a more recent foray towards rich Internet application software development. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop revolution. As of 2015, Adobe Systems has about 40 % of whom work in San Jose. The name of Adobe, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind the houses of both of the company's founders. Adobe's corporate logo was designed by the wife of John Warnock, Marva Warnock, a graphic designer. Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer market with Adobe Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh. Illustrator, which grew from the firm's font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe Systems entered NASDAQ in 1986. Its revenue has grown from roughly $1 billion in 1999 in 2012. Adobe's fiscal years run to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 2007. In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Adobe Photoshop.Adobe Systems – Adobe Systems headquarters in San Jose, California
10. Anthroposophy – Anthroposophy aims to attain in its study of spiritual experience the precision and clarity attained by the natural sciences in their investigations of the physical world. The philosophy has double roots in German idealism and German mysticism and was initially expressed in language drawn from Theosophy. The Anthroposophical Society has its international center at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland. Modern critics, particularly Michael Shermer, have termed anthroposophy's application in areas such as medicine, biology, biodynamic agriculture to be pseudoscience. Anthroposophy has also been termed "the most important esoteric society in European history." The early work of the founder of anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner, culminated in his Philosophy of Freedom. Here, Steiner developed a concept of free will based on inner experiences, especially those that occur in the creative activity of independent thought. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Steiner's interests turned to explicitly spiritual areas of research. His work began to interest others interested in spiritual ideas; among these was the Theosophical Society. During the years of his leadership, membership increased dramatically, from a few individuals to sixty-nine Lodges. By 1907, a split between Steiner and the mainstream Theosophical Society had begun to become apparent. While the Society was oriented toward an Eastern and especially Indian approach, Steiner was trying to develop a path that embraced Christianity and natural science. The split became irrevocable when Annie Besant, then president of the Theosophical Society, began to present the child Jiddu Krishnamurti as the reincarnated Christ. Steiner strongly objected and considered any comparison between Krishnamurti and Christ to be nonsense; many years later, Krishnamurti also repudiated the assertion. By this time, Steiner had reached considerable stature as a spiritual teacher.Anthroposophy – Rudolf Steiner
11. Adam Carolla – Adam Carolla is an American comedian, radio personality, television host, actor, podcaster and director. He co-hosted the syndicated radio call-in program Loveline from 1996 to 2000. The co-creator and a regular performer on the television show Crank Yankers. Carolla hosted a home improvement television program which aired on TLC in 2005 and The Car Show on Speed TV in 2011. He has also appeared on the network television programs Dancing with the Stars and The Celebrity Apprentice. Adam Carolla was born in Los Angeles, California. His mother, Kris, was of Irish heritage. The two separated when Adam was young. Carolla was not given a middle name by his parents; on his driver's application he listed his middle name as "Lakers" as a joke. The name still appears as Adam Lakers Carolla to this day. His maternal step-grandfather was screenwriter László Görög, who wrote The Mole People. Adam was raised in the North Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Carolla attended Colfax Elementary School, North Hollywood High School. He did not receive his high diploma until years later as it was held by the school until a library fine was paid. He can be seen receiving his diploma in an episode of his 2005 television show, The Adam Carolla Project.Adam Carolla – Carolla in Seattle, Washington in 2007
12. Atari Jaguar – The Atari Jaguar is a home video game console, developed by Atari Corporation. The console was the sixth and last programmable console to be developed under the Atari brand, originally released in North America in November 1993. With development of the Jaguar running ahead of schedule, the Panther was cancelled, the release of the Jaguar was pushed forward. Underwhelming sales further contributed to the console's lack of third support. This, in addition to the lack of internal development at Atari, led to a limited games library, comprising only 67 licensed titles. The Jaguar prompted Atari to leave the home game console market. Since then, the Jaguar has gained a following, with a base that produces homebrew games for the console. The Jaguar was developed by the members of Flare Technology, a company formed by Martin Brennan and John Mathieson. The team had claimed that they could not only make a console superior to the Genesis or the Super NES, but they could also be cost-effective. Flare II initially set to work designing two consoles for Atari Corp. The Jaguar was unveiled in August 1993 at the Chicago Consumer Entertainment Show. The Jaguar was introduced under a $500 million manufacturing deal with IBM. A U.S.-wide release followed six months later, in early 1994. The Atari Jaguar struggled to attain a substantial user base. In 1993, Atari reported that they had shipped 17,000 units as part of the system's initial test market.Atari Jaguar – The Jaguar utilized a multi-chip architecture that was difficult for most developers to use.
13. Arthur Jensen – Arthur Robert Jensen was a professor of educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. Jensen was known for his work in psychometrics and psychology, concerned with how and why individuals differ behaviorally from one another. He was rated as one of the 50 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. He was also a controversial figure, largely for his conclusions regarding the causes of race-based differences in intelligence. His mother was of half Polish Jewish and half German descent. From 1956 through 1958, he did postdoctoral research with Hans Eysenck. He was given his first sabbatical in 1964. He concentrated much of his work on the learning difficulties of disadvantaged students. In 2003, he was awarded the Kistler Prize for original contributions to the understanding of the connection between human society. In 2006, the International Society for Intelligence Research awarded its Lifetime Achievement Award. Jensen has had a lifelong interest in classical music and was, attracted by the idea of becoming a conductor himself. At 14, he conducted a band that won a nationwide contest held in San Francisco. Later, he attended a seminar given by Nikolai Sokoloff. Soon after graduating from Berkeley, he moved to New York, mainly to be near the conductor Arturo Toscanini. He was also deeply interested in the example of Gandhi, producing an unpublished book-length manuscript on his life.Arthur Jensen – Arthur Jensen, 2002 at ISIR
14. Alameda, California – Alameda is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. The city's estimated 2016 population was 79,277. Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city, allowing the city to provide for any form of government. Alameda became a charter city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916, which it retains to the present. The island Alameda occupies what was originally a peninsula connected to Oakland. The area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "forest of evergreen oak". Alameda is Spanish for "grove of poplar trees" or "tree-lined avenue", was chosen in 1853 by popular vote. The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted in 1820 to Luis Peralta by the Spanish king who claimed California. The grant was later confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the place became known as Bolsa de Encinal or Encinal de San Antonio. The city was founded on June 6, 1853, the town originally contained three small settlements. Eventually, the Central Pacific's ferry pier became the Alameda Mole, featuring transit connections between San Francisco ferries, local trollies and Southern Pacific commuter lines. The first post office opened in 1854. The first school, Schmermerhorn School, was opened in 1855, Encinal School was opened in 1860.Alameda, California – City Hall
15. Barry Bonds – Bonds received seven NL MVP awards and 14 All-Star selections, is considered to be one of the greatest baseball players of all time. He finished his regular career with a very high on-base percentage and isolated power. Most career walks. He also received eight Gold Gloves for his defense in the outfield. He is ranked second in career Wins Above Replacement among all major league position players by both Fangraphs and Baseball-Reference.com, behind only Babe Ruth. Bonds led a controversial career, notably as a central figure in baseball's steroids scandal. The perjury charges against Bonds were dropped, he was also initially convicted of obstruction of justice, but, overturned in 2015. Bonds has not been elected into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in his first four years of eligibility. In 2016, Bonds served as the hitting coach for the Miami Marlins for one season. He played on the junior varsity team during his freshman year and the remainder of his high school career on the varsity team. Bonds was named All-American. Bonds attended Arizona State University, hitting.347 with 45 home runs and 175 runs batted in. In 1984 he batted.360 and had 30 stolen bases. In 1985 Bonds hit 23 home runs with 368 batting average. He was a Sporting News All-American selection that year.Barry Bonds – Bonds in 2006
16. Barcelona – Founded in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Besieged several times during its history, it is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is a major economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $ billion; it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand. Since 2011 it is a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club. The abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is ` BCN', also the IATA code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear.Barcelona – Central business district, Sagrada Família, Camp Nou stadium, The Castle of the Three Dragons, Palau Nacional, W Barcelona hotel and beach
17. Brian Boitano – Brian Anthony Boitano is an American figure skater from Sunnyvale, California. Boitano is the 1988 Olympic champion, the 1986 and 1988 World Champion, -- 1988 U.S. National Champion. Boitano turned professional following the 1988 season. Boitano competed at the 1994 Winter Olympics, where he placed sixth. As an adult has lived in San Francisco. He is a graduate of Marian A. Peterson High School in Sunnyvale, California. In 1982 he became the first American to land a triple axel. In 1987 Boitano introduced his signature jump, triple lutz' in which the skater raises his left arm above his head. He, along with several other skaters, helped push the technical envelope of men's skating. It was not until his failure to defend his World title in 1987 that he focused specifically on improving his artistry. He placed second at the 1984 United States Figure Skating Championships, earning a trip to the 1984 Winter Olympics. Boitano placed 5th at the Olympics, setting the stage for his success over the next four years. Following the 1984 Olympics, several skaters emerged as likely medal hopes following the retirement of Scott Hamilton. He won the 1985 United States Figure the first of his four titles. At the first World Championships of the post-Hamilton era in 1985, Alexander Fadeev won, with Brian Orser finishing Boitano 3rd.Brian Boitano – Boitano in San Francisco in 2010
18. Bob Wills – James Robert "Bob" Wills was an American Western swing musician, songwriter, bandleader. Considered as the co-founder of Western swing, he was universally known as the King of Western Swing. The Texas Playboys recorded with several publishers and companies, including Vocalion, Okeh, Columbia, MGM, frequently moving. In 1950, he had "Ida Red Likes The Boogie" and "Faded Love", which were his last hits for a decade. The Country Music Hall of Fame inducted Wills in the Texas State Legislature honored him for his contribution to American music. In 1972, Wills accepted a citation in Nashville. He was recording an album with fan Merle Haggard in 1973 when a stroke left him comatose until his death in 1975. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted Wills and the Texas Playboys in 1999. He was born on a farm near Kosse, Texas, to Emma Lee Foley and John Tompkins Wills. In addition to picking cotton, the young Jim Bob learned to play the mandolin. Both several brothers played musical instruments, while another sister played piano. There was dancing in all four rooms. While living in Texas, they also played at ` ranch dances' which were popular in both North Texas and eastern New Mexico. His father enjoyed watching him jig dance with black children. In 1919 they bought a farm between the towns of Lakeview and Turkey.Bob Wills – Wills circa 1946
19. Berkeley, California – Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Anglo-Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley. It borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills. The 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. It also has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. It is one of the most politically liberal cities in the United States. The site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio." The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were also pursued. Eventually, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons.Berkeley, California – Downtown Berkeley viewed from the Berkeley Hills.
20. Book of Common Prayer – The original book, published in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured services of worship. The work of 1549 was the first book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It also set out in gospel readings for the Sunday Communion Service. The 1549 book was soon succeeded under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VI's death in 1553, his half-sister Mary I restored Roman Catholic worship. In 1604, James I ordered the most significant of these being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events leading to and including the English Civil War, another major revision was published in 1662. In many parts of the world, other books have replaced it in weekly worship. The forms of parish worship in the medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice. By far "use", found in Southern England was that of Sarum. The chant for worship was contained in the Antiphoner for the offices. In his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative: an admirer, if a critical one, of John Fisher. It may have been his visit in 1532 which began the change in his outlook. Then in 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy.Book of Common Prayer – Cranmer's 1549 Book of Common Prayer
21. Bill Bixby – Wilfred Bailey Everett "Bill" Bixby III was an American film and television actor, director, frequent game-show panelist. His career spanned more than three decades, including appearances on stage, on television series. An only child, Bixby was born a fourth-generation Californian of English descent, in San Francisco, California. His mother, Jane Bixby, was a senior manager at I. Magnin & Co.. In 1942, When Bixby was eight years old, his father traveled to the South Pacific. While in the seventh grade, he sang in the church's choir. In one notable incident, Bixby was kicked out of the choir. In 1946, from there he started dancing all around the city. While dancing, Bixby attended Lowell High School, where he perfected his dramatic skills as a member of the Lowell Forensic Society. Though he received average grades, Bixby also competed in speech tournaments regionally. Bixby and Meriwether later worked together on an episode of Barnaby Jones. Later, Bixby attended the University of his parents' alma mater. Just four credits short of earning a degree, he was drafted into the Marines. Bixby then moved to Hollywood, California, where he had a string of odd jobs that lifeguard. Bixby organized shows in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.Bill Bixby – Bixby as The Magician, 1973
22. Bela Lugosi – Lugosi had roles in several films before arriving in the United States as a seaman on a merchant ship. In 1927, Lugosi appeared in a Broadway adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel. Lugosi later appeared by Universal Pictures. Meanwhile, Lugosi was often paired with Boris Karloff, able to demand top billing. To his frustration, he was increasingly restricted to minor parts, kept employed by the studio on the posters. By this time, he became addicted to morphine and methadone. He had one son, Bela George Lugosi. He was a member of the American Screen Actors Guild. Lugosi later based his last name on his hometown. His sister Vilma were raised in a Roman Catholic family. At the age of 12, he dropped out of school. Lugosi began his acting career probably in 1902. His earliest known performances are from provincial theatres in the 1903 -- 04 season, playing small roles in several operettas. Lugosi went on to other major roles. Moving in 1911, Lugosi played dozens of roles with the National Theatre of Hungary between 1913 -- 19.Bela Lugosi – Bela Lugosi in The Devil Bat (1940)
23. Casino – In modern English, a casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the industry. Casinos are most commonly combined with hotels, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether or not the economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated. Some casinos are also known for sporting events. The term "casino" is a linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the casa originally meant a small country villa, summerhouse, or social club. In modern-day Italian, the casino designates a bordello, while the gambling house is spelled casinò with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming. Until 1937, it was a Danish theatre. The Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. In non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess. In Italian -- the source-language of the word -- a casino is either a brothel, a noisy environment, while a gaming house is called a casinò. The precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is generally believed that gambling in another has been seen in almost every society in history.Casino – Slot machines in Atlantic City. Slot machines are a standard attraction of casinos
24. City – A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, transportation. Metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are usually associated with urban areas, creating numerous business commuters traveling to urban centers for employment. Once a city expands enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world. In terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities. Some theorists have speculated on what they consider basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to settle near others who lived by agricultural production. The increased density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up this position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example: "Western Europe during the density must have been less than 0.1 person per square kilometre".City – 1908 map of Piraeus, the port of Athens, showing the grid plan of the city
25. California – California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. The capital is Sacramento. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, largest after New York City. The state also has the nation's most populous county, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. A major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. The Spanish Empire then claimed it in their New Spain colony. The western portion of Alta California then was admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. If it were a country, California would be the 35th most populous. Fifty-eight percent of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the state's economy, California's industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a remote land rich in gold. They were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. This conventional wisdom that maps were drawn to reflect this way, lasted as late as the 1700's. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.California – A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
26. Courtney Love – Courtney Michelle Love is an American musician, actress, visual artist. Prolific in the grunge scenes of the 1990s, Love's career has spanned four decades. Love rose as the frontwoman of the alternative rock band Hole, which she formed in 1989. After forming Hole in 1989, Love received substantial attention for the group's debut album, produced by Kim Gordon. Hole's second release, Live Through This, lent her high-profile renown with multi-platinum sales. In 1995, Love returned to acting, earning a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance in Miloš Forman's The People vs. Larry Flynt, which established her as a mainstream actress. She saw further mainstream success with the release of Hole's third album, Celebrity Skin, nominated for multiple Grammy Awards. Love returned with Nobody's Daughter, a new album as Hole but without any members of the original lineup. Between 2015, Love released two solo singles and returned to acting in the network series Empire and Sons of Anarchy. Love's godfather is the founding Grateful Dead bassist Phil Lesh. Her mother, adopted as a child, was later revealed to be the biological daughter of novelist Paula Fox. Love's great-grandmother was screenwriter Elsie Fox. Love is of English descent. She described her parents' household as being full of "wangly-ass hippies running around naked."Courtney Love – Love performing at Austin, Texas, in 2010.
27. Foreign relations of Colombia – Colombia seeks diplomatic and commercial relations with all countries, regardless of their ideologies or political or economic systems. For this reason, the Colombian economy relying on international trade and following the guidelines given by international law. Regional relations have also vastly improved under the Santos Administration. The FARC numbers have significantly diminished to an estimated 5,000-7,000. In 2002, the Ecuadorian government closed its main border crossing with Colombia, restricting its hours of operation. Ecuador continues to voice its concerns over an influx of émigré stemming at its borders. Returning Ecuadorian émigré have faced re-entry restrictions. In 2012, relations with Nicaragua and Venezuela were tested over territorial island disputes. Bilateral committees are negotiating the dispute with Venezuela over waters in the Gulf of Venezuela. In 1969, Colombia formed what is now the Andean Community along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru. In addition, it has signed free trade agreements with Chile, Mexico, Venezuela. Colombia has traditionally played an active role in their subsidiary agencies. Former President César Gaviria was reelected in 1999. Colombia regularly participates in international fora, including CICAD, the Organization of American States' body on money laundering, drug abuse prevention. Colombia subsequently withdrew some of its reservations, most notably a reservation on extradition.Foreign relations of Colombia – Embassy of Colombia in Washington, D.C.
28. Commuter rail – Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Pricing may be used. They primarily serve suburban areas, often right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Others uses fewer departures during off peak weekends. Average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 15 and 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are usually much longer than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are often available on board trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce construction costs. Most such trains run on the standard track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters.Commuter rail – The Long Island Rail Road operates electric and diesel service into New York City along with Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit Rail.
29. Charles Farrar Browne – See also Artemas Ward. Charles Farrar Browne was a United States writer, better known under his nom de plume, Artemus Ward. He is considered to be America's first comedian. At birth, his surname was "Brown"; he added the "e" after he became famous. Browne was born in Waterford, Maine. He began his career to the daily and weekly journals. His chair was a fit a wabbling, unsteady affair, sometimes with four and sometimes with three legs. When writing, his form looked ridiculous enough. In 1860, he became editor of a humorous New York weekly, which proved a failure. About the same time, he began to appear as a lecturer and, by his eccentric humor, attracted large audiences. In 1863, Browne came to San Francisco to perform. On November 1863, he performed to a packed crowd at Platt's Music Hall. Ward played the part of Artemus with "Yankee common sense." "Artemus Ward" was the favorite author of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. Before presenting "The Emancipation Proclamation" to his Cabinet, Lincoln read to them "Outrage in Utiky", also known as High-Handed Outrage at Utica.Charles Farrar Browne – "Artemus Ward"
30. Cape Town – It is a coastal city in South Africa. Cape Town is the populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg. Cape Town is also the capital and city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa, Cape Town is also the legislative capital of the country. Cape Town forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. As of 2014, Cape Town is home to 64 % of the Western Cape's population. Cape Town is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, it was named the best place in the world to visit by both the British Daily Telegraph. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first European settlement in South Africa. Until the development of Johannesburg, it was the largest city in South Africa. The earliest known remnants in the region were found to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In Portuguese, French, Danish, Dutch and English ships regularly stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco, copper and iron in exchange for fresh meat.Cape Town – Clockwise from top: Cape Town CBD, Strand, Clifton beach, Table Mountain, Port of Cape Town, Cape Town City Hall
31. Coyote – The coyote is a canid native to Central and North America. The species is able to adapt to environments modified by humans. As human activity has altered the landscape, the coyote's range has expanded. In 2013, coyotes were sighted for the first time. The coyote is more closely related to other canids than the gray wolf. As of 2005, 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The male coyote weighs 8 to 20 kilograms and the average female 7 to 18 kilograms. Their color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. The coyote's characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans aside, gray wolves are the coyote's only serious enemies. Nevertheless, coyotes do sometimes mate with gray, red wolves, producing hybrids colloquially called "coywolves". Most recent studies show that most wolves contain some degree of DNA. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might.Coyote
32. Carl Barks – Carl Barks was an American cartoonist, author, painter. He is best known as the creator of Scrooge McDuck. He worked anonymously until late in his career; fans dubbed The Duck Man and The Good Duck Artist. In 1987, Barks was one of Fame. Cartoonist Will Eisner called him "the Hans Christian Andersen of comic books." Barks was born to William Barks and his wife Arminta Johnson. He had an older brother named Clyde. His paternal grandparents were his wife Ruth Shrum. Little else is known about his ancestors. Barks was the descendant of Jacob Barks who came from North Carolina around 1800. They lived in Bollinger County. Jacob Barks' son Isaac was the father of the David Barks noted above. According to Barks' description of his childhood, he was a rather lonely child. His parents owned one square mile of land that served as their farm. He was more an acquaintance to Barks' parents than a friend.Carl Barks – Carl Barks at the 1982 San Diego Comic Con
33. Computer security – A vulnerability is flaw. Many vulnerabilities are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures database. An exploitable vulnerability is one for which at least one working attack or "exploit" exists. They may exist including by original design or from poor configuration. Denial of service attacks are designed to make a machine or resource unavailable to its intended users. An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, using wireless mice. Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks. Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private conversation, typically between hosts on a network. For instance, programs such as Carnivore and NarusInsight have been used by the FBI and NSA to eavesdrop on the systems of service providers. Spoofing, in general, is a malicious practice in which communication is sent from an unknown source disguised as a source known to the receiver. Spoofing is most prevalent in communication mechanisms that lack a high level of security. Tampering describes a malicious modification of products. Security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples. Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, access level.Computer security – Common consumer devices that can be used to transfer data surreptitiously.
34. Carson City, Nevada – As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,274. Prior to 1969, Carson City was the county seat of Ormsby County. In 1969, the county was abolished, its territory was merged with Carson City to form the Consolidated Municipality of Carson City. With the consolidation, the city limits today extend west across the Sierra Nevada to the California state line in the middle of Lake Tahoe. Like other independent cities in the United States, it is treated as a county-equivalent for census purposes. The first European Americans to arrive in what is known as Eagle Valley were John C. Fremont and his exploration party in January 1843. Prior to the Fremont expedition, the Washoe people inhabited the valley and surrounding areas. Settlers named the area Washoe in reference to the tribe. As the area was part of the Utah Territory, it was governed from Salt Lake City, where the territorial government was headquartered. Early settlers bristled at the control exerted by Mormon-influenced officials and desired the creation of the Nevada territory. A vigilante group of influential settlers, headed by Abraham Curry, sought a site for a capital city for the envisioned territory. In 1858, Abraham Curry bought Eagle Station and thereafter renamed the settlement Carson City. As Curry and several other partners had Eagle Valley surveyed for development. Following the discovery of gold and silver in 1859 on the nearby Comstock Lode, Carson City's population began to rise.Carson City, Nevada – Carson City Mint at night
35. Dead Kennedys – Dead Kennedys are an American punk rock band formed in San Francisco, California in 1978. The band was one of the first American hardcore bands to make a significant impact in the United Kingdom. During their initial incarnation between 1978 and 1986, they attracted considerable controversy for their provocative lyrics and artwork. This culminated in an obscenity trial between 1985 and 1986, which resulted in a hung jury. They released a total of four studio albums and one EP before disbanding in 1986. In 2000, Jello Biafra lost an legal case initiated over unpaid royalties. In 2001, the band reformed without Biafra; various singers have since been recruited for vocal duties. The original lineup consisted of Jello Biafra on vocals, Ted on drums and percussion. This lineup recorded their first demos. In early to mid July, the band recruited 6025 as a rhythm guitarist. Their first show was on July 19, 1978, at the Mabuhay Gardens in San Francisco, California. Dead Kennedys played numerous shows at local venues afterwards. Due to the provocative name of the band, they sometimes played under pseudonyms, including "The DK's", "The Sharks", "The Creamsicles" and "The Pink Twinkies". The band's real name generated controversy. Despite mounting protests, the owner of Mabuhay declared, "I can't cancel them NOW—there's a contract.Dead Kennedys – From left to right: Klaus Flouride, Jello Biafra, D.H. Peligro and East Bay Ray
36. Disco – Disco is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk, soul, pop, salsa. It achieved popularity to the early 1980s. Disco can be seen as a reaction against both the domination of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music during this period. It was popular with both women, from many different backgrounds. In most disco tracks, string sections, horns, electric rhythm guitars create a lush background sound. Lead guitar is less frequently used in disco than in rock. Many disco songs use electronic synthesizers, particularly in the late 1970s. Well-known 1970s disco performers included Donna Summer, the Bee Gees, Boney M, KC and the Sunshine Band, The Trammps, Chic. While singers garnered much public attention, record producers working behind the scenes played an important role in developing the "disco sound". Disco was the last mass popular movement, driven by the baby boom generation. An anti-disco protest held in Chicago on 12 July 1979, is commonly thought of as a factor in disco's fast and drastic decline. By the late 1970s most major U.S. cities had thriving club scenes, where DJs would mix a seamless sequence of dance records. A venue popular amongst celebrities, is a well-known example of a disco club. Popular dances included a sexually suggestive dance. Discotheque-goers often wore expensive, sexy fashions.Disco – A disco ball
37. Dave Brubeck – David Warren "Dave" Brubeck was an American jazz pianist and composer, considered to be one of the foremost exponents of cool jazz. Brubeck wrote a number of jazz standards, including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke". Brubeck's style ranged to bombastic reflecting his mother's attempts at classical training and his improvisational skills. His music is known for superimposing contrasting rhythms, meters, tonalities. He grew up in Ione. His father had possibly Native American Modoc lineage, while his maternal grandparents were English and German. He originally took lessons from his mother. Intending to work with his father on their ranch, he entered the College of the Pacific in Stockton, California, studying veterinary science. He changed on the urging of the head of zoology, Dr. Arnold, who told him "Brubeck, your mind's not here. It's across the lawn in the conservatory. Please go there. Stop wasting my yours." Later, he was nearly expelled when one of his professors discovered that he could not read music on sight. Several of his professors demonstrated his familiarity with music notation. The college was still afraid that it agreed to let Brubeck graduate only after he had promised never to teach piano.Dave Brubeck – Dave Brubeck, October 8, 1954
38. Delroy Lindo – Delroy George Lindo is a British-American actor and theatre director. Lindo has won a Satellite Award. Lindo starred on the series Believe, which premiered in 2014. Delroy Lindo was born in Eltham, south-east London, the son of Jamaican parents who had emigrated to Britain. He got interested in acting as a child in a Nativity play. His mother was his father worked in various jobs. As a teenager, his mother moved to Toronto, Ontario, Canada. When he was sixteen, they moved to San Francisco. At the age of 24, Lindo started acting studies at the American Conservatory Theater, graduating in 1979. He quit film for 10 years to concentrate on acting. In 1982 he debuted in "Master Harold"... and the Boys, directed by the play's South African author Athol Fugard. By 1988 Lindo had earned a Tony nomination for his portrayal of Herald Loomis in August Wilson's Joe Turner's Come and Gone. As a actor, Lindo has readily taken on roles as treacherous bad guys as well as those of trustworthy professionals. In 1998 Lindo co-starred as African-American explorer Matthew Henson, in the film Glory & Honor, directed by Kevin Hooks. It portrayed his nearly 20-year partnership with their effort to find the Geographic North Pole in 1909.Delroy Lindo – Lindo on March 29, 2008
39. David Mamet – David Alan Mamet is an American playwright, essayist, screenwriter, film director. As a playwright, he received Tony nominations for Glengarry Glen Ross and Speed-the-Plow. He first gained acclaim in 1976, The Duck Variations, Sexual Perversity in Chicago, American Buffalo. His Race opened on Broadway on December 6, 2009. As a screenwriter, he has received the Dog. Feature films that Mamet both directed include Redbelt, The Spanish Prisoner, House of Games, Spartan, Heist, State and Main, The Winslow Boy, Oleanna. His drama Glengarry Glen Ross, in 1992, was adapted into a film version which also received an Academy Award nomination. He was also frequent writer for the TV show The Unit. He was born in 1947 to Jewish parents, Lenore June, a teacher, Bernard Morris Mamet, an attorney. One of his first jobs was as a busboy at Chicago's The Second City. Mamet was educated at Goddard College in Plainfield, Vermont. At the Chicago Public Library Foundation 20th fundraiser in 2006, though, he announced "My alma mater is the Chicago Public Library. I got what educational foundation I got in the third-floor reading room, under the tutelage of a Coca-Cola sign". Mamet was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1984 for Glengarry Glen Ross, which received its first Broadway revival in the summer of 2005. In 2002, he was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame.David Mamet – Mamet at the premiere of Redbelt at the Tribeca Film Festival, April 25, 2008
40. Dyson sphere – A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure that completely encompasses a star and captures most or all of its power output. He proposed that searching for such structures could lead to the detection of extraterrestrial life. Different types of their energy-harvesting ability would correspond on the Kardashev scale. These later proposals have not been limited with many involving industrial elements. Most fictional depictions describe a solid shell of matter enclosing a star, considered the least plausible variant of the idea. In May 2013, at the Starship Century Symposium in San Diego, Dyson repeated his comments that he wished the concept had not been named after him. He reasoned that if human civilization expanded energy demands enough, there would come a time when it demanded the total output of the Sun. He proposed a system of orbiting structures designed to intercept and collect all energy produced by the Sun. However, Dyson was not the first to advance this idea. Although such megastructures may be theoretically possible, all plans to build a fixed-in-place Dyson sphere are far beyond humanity's capacity. However, parts like solar sails, have already been developed. Deployment of spacecraft and satellites using photovoltaics might be seen as the first small steps towards building a Dyson swarm. However, the number of craft required to maintain a complete Dyson sphere far exceeds present-day industrial capabilities. George Dvorsky has advocated use of self-replicating robots to overcome this limitation in the relatively near term. Some have suggested that such habitats could be built around white dwarfs and even pulsars.Dyson sphere – A Dyson ring — the simplest form of the Dyson swarm — to scale. Orbit is 1 AU in radius, collectors are 1.0 × 10 7 km in diameter (10 Gm or ~25 times the Earth–Moon distance), spaced 3 degrees from center to center around the orbital circle.