1. Second Crusade – The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe as Catholic holy war against Islam. The Second Crusade was started to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century. The only Christian success of the Second Crusade came in 1147. The County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Count Baldwin II and count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the great city in 1129. In late 1144, Joscelin II marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid army against Aleppo.Second Crusade – Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. 1140), was recaptured by the Turks. This was the primary cause of the Second Crusade.
2. Antisemitism – Antisemitism is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. The root Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. Although the term did not come until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. The origin of "antisemitic" terminologies is found to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: "The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his'anti-Semitic prejudices'." Avner Falk similarly writes: ` The German antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile. Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan's false ideas to "Aryan races"'. He coined the phrase "the Jews are our misfortune" which would later be widely used by Nazis. In German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both "Jewry" and "jewishness". In the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga, apparently named to follow the "Anti-Kanzler-Liga". The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, "In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks as a designation which recently came into use. On 19 the editor says, ` This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old."'Antisemitism – Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition
3. Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric was King of Jerusalem from 1163, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. He was the second son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem, succeeded his older brother Baldwin III. During his reign, Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, the two states launched an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt. Meanwhile, the Muslim territories surrounding Jerusalem began to be united under Nur ad-Din and later Saladin. He was the father of three future rulers of Jerusalem, Sibylla, Baldwin IV, Isabella I. Now scholars recognize that the two names were not the same and no longer add the number for either king. Confusion between the two names was common even among contemporaries. Melisende did not step down when Baldwin came of age two years later, by 1150 the two were becoming increasingly hostile towards each other. In 1152 Baldwin had himself crowned sole king, civil war broke out, with Melisende retaining Jerusalem while Baldwin held territory further north. Melisende was defeated in this struggle and Baldwin ruled alone thereafter. In 1153 Baldwin captured the Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, then added to Amalric's fief of Jaffa. Amalric married Agnes of Courtenay in 1157. Agnes, daughter of Joscelin II of Edessa, had lived in Jerusalem since the western regions of the former crusader County of Edessa were lost in 1150. Agnes bore Amalric three children: Sibylla, the future Baldwin IV, Alix, who died in childhood. Nevertheless, consanguinity was enough for the opposition.Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric
4. Aimery of Cyprus – Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus from 1196 to 1205. Aimery was also King of Jerusalem by virtue of being the husband of Isabella I of Jerusalem, from 1197 to 1205. Aimery was the younger son of Hugh VIII of a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in 1168, Aimery went to the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. His marriage to Eschiva of Ibelin strengthened his position in the kingdom. Guy of Lusignan, married Sibylla, the sister of and heir to Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. Baldwin made Aimery Constable of Jerusalem around 1180. Henry of Champagne, arrested him for a short period. After his release, Aimery retired to Jaffa, the fief of Geoffrey of Lusignan, who had left the Holy Land. After Guy died in May 1194, his vassals in Cyprus elected Aimery as their lord. Aimery accepted the suzerainty of Henry VI. With the emperor's authorization, he was crowned King of Cyprus in September 1197. Aimery soon married Henry of Isabella I of Jerusalem. His wife were crowned king and queen of Jerusalem in January 1198. Aimery signed a truce with the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, which secured the Christian possession of the coastline from Acre to Antioch.Aimery of Cyprus – Godfrey *
5. Alfonso Jordan – Alfonso Jordan was the Count of Tripoli, Count of Rouergue and Count of Toulouse, Margrave of Provence and Duke of Narbonne. He was the son of Raymond IV of Toulouse by Elvira of Castile. He was born in the castle of Mont Pèlerin in Tripoli while his father was on the First Crusade. He was given the name "Jordan" after being baptised in the Jordan River. He was then taken to Europe, where his Bertrand had given him the county of Rouergue. Upon Bertrand's death in 1112, Alfonso succeeded to marquisate of Provence. He was not in full control until 1123. When at last successful, he was excommunicated by Pope Callixtus II for having expelled the monks of Saint-Gilles, who had aided his enemies. Alfonso next had to fight against Count Raymond Berengar III of Barcelona. Not until September 1125 did their war end in "peace and concord". At this stage, Alfonso was master of the regions lying between the Alps, the Auvergne and the sea. His ascendancy was, according to one commentator, industry flourished. In March 1126, Alfonso was at the court of Alfonso VII of León when he acceded to the throne. According to the Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris, Alfonso and Suero Vermúdez handed it over to Alfonso VII. Among those who may have accompanied Alfonso on one of his many extended stays in Spain was the Marcabru.Alfonso Jordan – A denier minted at Narbonne during the minority of Ermengard (1134–43) bearing the obverse inscription DUX ANFOS and on the reverse CIVI NARBON
6. Bernard of Clairvaux – Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist was a French abbot and the primary reformer of the Cistercian order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary." On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13 February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. After the council of Étampes, Bernard spoke with King Henry I of England, also known as Henry Beauclerc, about Henry I's reservations regarding Pope Innocent II. Henry I was sceptical because most of the bishops of England supported Antipope Anacletus II; Bernard persuaded him to support Innocent. Germany had decided to support Innocent through Norbert of Xanten, a friend of Bernard's. However, Innocent insisted on Bernard's company when he met with Holy Roman Emperor. Lothair III became Innocent's strongest ally among the nobility. Although the councils of Étampes, Wurzburg, Clermont, Rheims all supported large portions of the Christian world still supported Anacletus. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent. The first person he went to was Gerard of Angoulême. He proceeded to write a letter, known as Letter 126, which questioned Gerard's reasons for supporting Anacletus. Bernard would later comment that Gerard was his most formidable opponent during the whole schism.Bernard of Clairvaux – St Bernard in "A Short History of Monks and Monasteries" by Alfred Wesley Wishart (1900).
7. Damascus – Damascus is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people. The Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Today, it is the seat of the central government and all of the government ministries. The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC. The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic. It is attested in Akkadian Dammeśeq in Biblical Hebrew. The Akkadian spelling is found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name often include an intrusive resh, perhaps influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling".Damascus – View of Damascus from Mount Qassioun
8. Ephesus – Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built by Attic and Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. The city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. The city was famed for the nearby Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other monumental buildings are the Library of Celsus, a theatre capable of holding 25,000 spectators. Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils. It was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD. The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill. According to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa. Some scholars suggest that this is the later Greek Ephesus. In 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John.Ephesus – The Library of Celsus in Ephesus
9. Eleanor of Aquitaine – She inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine from her father, William X, in 1137, by successive marriages became queen of France and then England. She was the patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, Bernart de Ventadorn. She led armies several times in her life, was a leader of the Second Crusade. As Duchess of Aquitaine, Eleanor was the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after she became duchess, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon afterwards, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage, but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III. However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment, as fifteen years of marriage had not produced a son. The marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody was awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her. Henry was her third cousin, eleven years younger. The couple married on 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage, in a cathedral in Poitiers, France. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, three of whom would become kings; and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband.Eleanor of Aquitaine – Eleanor's effigy at Fontevraud Abbey
10. History of Islam – The history of Islam concerns the political, economic, social, cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about reliability of early sources, most historians believe that Islam originated at the start of the 7th century. A century later, the Islamic empire extended from Iberia in the west in the east. Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. The Islamic civilization produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. During the 19th and 20th centuries most parts of the Muslim world fell under influence or direct control of European Great Powers. Their efforts to build modern nation states over the course of the last two centuries continue to reverberate to the present day. The following timeline can serve as a visual guide to the most important polities in the Islamic world prior to the First World War. It covers major historical centers including Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Levant, Egypt, Maghreb, al-Andalus, Transoxania, Hindustan, Anatolia. Dates are approximate, consult particular articles for details. The study of the earliest periods in Islamic history is made difficult by a lack of sources. For example, the most important historiographical source for the origins of Islam is the work of al-Tabari. While al-Tabari was an excellent historian by the standards of his place, use of his work as a source is problematic for two reasons. For one, his style of historical writing nonetheless permitted liberal use of polemical presentations of its subject matter. Second, al-Tabari's descriptions of the beginning of Islam post-date the events by a large amount of time, al-Tabari having died in 923 CE.History of Islam – The Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan), founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670 AD, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Muslim West; its present form dates from the 9th century, Kairouan, Tunisia.
11. Heraldry – The pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as "the floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, heraldry is used by individuals, public and private organizations, corporations, regions to symbolize their heritage, achievements, aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for thousands of years. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour. The medieval heralds also devised arms from literature. These too are now regarded as a fanciful invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the heraldic language can not be attributed to a single individual, place. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic. In England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. A notable example of an armorial seal is attached to a charter granted in 1164. An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffrey's widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a blue shield decorated with six golden lions rampant. He wears a blue helmet adorned with another lion, his cloak is lined in vair. Richard is also credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant. It is from this garment that the phrase "coat of arms" is derived.Heraldry – The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late 15th century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest. (See Roll of arms).
12. Hohenstaufen – The Hohenstaufen, also called the Staufer or Staufen, were a dynasty of German kings during the Middle Ages. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily. In Italian historiography, they are known as the Svevi, since they were dukes of Swabia from 1079. Three members of the dynasty -- Frederick II -- were crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The name "Staufen" was commonly applied to conical hills in Swabia in the Middle Ages. The family derives its name from the castle which the first Swabian duke of the lineage built there in the latter half of the 11th century. Castle was only finally called Hohenstaufen by historians in the 19th century, to distinguish it from other castles of the same name. In recent decades the trend in German historiography has been to prefer the name Staufer. The noble family first appeared around the former Carolingian court of Nördlingen. He held the office of a Swabian palatine; his son Frederick of Buren married Hildegard of Egisheim-Dagsburg, a niece of Pope Leo IX. Their son Frederick I was appointed Duke of Swabia by the Salian king Henry IV of Germany in 1079. At the same time, Duke Frederick I was engaged to Agnes. Frederick's Otto was elevated to the Strasbourg bishopric in 1082. Upon Frederick's death, he was succeeded in 1105. Around 1120, Frederick II married Judith of Bavaria from the rival House of Welf.Hohenstaufen – Ruins of Hohenstaufen castle
13. History of France – The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. Including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois later in the war. The war ended in 1453. Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into a absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Protestant Reformation. Scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide empire was established in the 16th century. Political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King", builder of Versailles Palace. In the 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution.History of France – Cave painting in Lascaux
14. History of Christianity – The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present. Christianity emerged in the mid-1st century AD. Christianity spread initially from Jerusalem into places such as Aram, Ethiopia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, Jordan and Egypt. After the Council of Ephesus in 431 the Nestorian Schism created the Church of the East. The Council of Chalcedon in 451 further divided Christianity into Chalcedonian Christianity. Chalcedonian Christianity divided in the Great Schism of 1054. The Protestant Reformation which began in the 1500s have evolved into many different denominations. Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread to all of Europe in the Middle Ages. Christianity expanded from the Renaissance onwards becoming the world's largest religion. There are more than two billion Christians worldwide. During its early history, Christianity grew to a religion that existed across the entire Greco-Roman world and beyond. The Roman persecution of Christians ended in AD 313 when Constantine the Great decreed tolerance for the religion. He then called the First Council of Nicaea beginning of the period of the First seven Ecumenical Councils. The Apostolic Church was the community led to some degree, Jesus' relatives. In his "Great Commission", the resurrected Jesus commanded that his teachings be spread to all the world.History of Christianity – Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century.
15. Kingdom of Jerusalem – The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted to 1187 when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. After the Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, lasted until that city's destruction in 1291. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. While all three were independent, they were closely tied to Jerusalem. East various Muslim emirates were located which were ultimately allied with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. In the 13th century the kingdom was reduced to a few cities along the Mediterranean coast. In this period, the kingdom was ruled by the Lusignan dynasty of the Kingdom of Cyprus, another state founded during the Third Crusade. Dynastic ties also strengthened with Tripoli, Antioch, Armenia. The kingdom was soon increasingly dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. His presence sparked a civil war among the kingdom's nobility. The Mamluk sultans Baibars and al-Ashraf Khalil eventually reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in 1291. The kingdom was linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority. The kingdom also inherited "oriental" qualities, influenced by the pre-existing populations. The majority of the kingdom's inhabitants were native Christians, Syrian Orthodox, as well as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims.Kingdom of Jerusalem – Flag
16. Knights Templar – They were prominent in Christian finance. The organization existed during the Middle Ages. Officially endorsed around 1129, the order became a favoured charity throughout Christendom and grew rapidly in membership and power. Templar knights, in their white mantles with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. The Templars were closely tied to the Crusades; when the Holy Land was lost, support for the order faded. In 1307 he had many of the order's members in France burned at the stake. Pope Clement V disbanded the order under pressure from King Philip. The abrupt reduction in power of a significant group in European society gave rise to speculation, legacy through the ages. The re-use of their name for later organizations has kept the name "Templar" alive to the modern day. After Europeans in the First Crusade recovered Jerusalem in 1099, many Christians made pilgrimages in the Holy Land. Although the city of Jerusalem was under relatively secure Christian control, the rest of Outremer was not. The Temple Mount had a mystique because it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon. The order, with about nine knights including André de Montbard, had few financial resources and relied on donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse, emphasising the order's poverty. The impoverished status of the Templars did not last long.Knights Templar – A Seal of the Knights Templar
17. Lisbon – Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. It is continental Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. It lies on the River Tagus. The westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. It is recognised as a global city because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international tourism. The city is the 7th-most-visited city with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. The city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area. It is also the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled from the 5th century, Lisbon was captured in the 8th century. In 1147, since then it has been a major political, cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been confirmed officially -- in written form.Lisbon – Clockwise, from top: Praça do Comércio, Parque Eduardo VII, Padrão dos Descobrimentos, Torre de Belém, the Sé de Lisboa, and Parque das Nações.
18. Medieval Inquisition – The Medieval Inquisition was a series of Inquisitions from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition and later the Papal Inquisition. The Medieval Inquisition was established to movements considered apostate or heretical to Christianity, in particular Catharism and Waldensians in Southern France and Northern Italy. These were the first inquisition movements of many that would follow. The Cathars were first noted in Northern Italy. Before this point, individual heretics such as Peter of Bruis had often challenged the Church. However, the Cathars were the first organization in the second millennium that posed a serious threat to the authority of the Church. The Portuguese Inquisition of various colonial branches followed the same pattern. An inquisition was a process that developed to investigate alleged instances of crimes. Its use in ecclesiastical courts was not at first directed to matters of heresy, but a broad assortment of offenses such as clandestine bigamy. There were different types of inquisitions depending on the location and methods; historians have generally classified them into the episcopal inquisition and the papal inquisition. Each tribunal worked independently. Early Medieval courts generally followed a process called accusatio, largely based on Germanic practices. In this procedure, an individual would make an accusation against someone to the court. However, if the suspect was judged innocent, the accusers faced legal penalties for bringing false charges. This provided a disincentive to make any accusation unless the accusers were sure it would stand.Medieval Inquisition – Pope Gregory IX
20. Northern Crusades – The crusades resulted in the forced baptism of indigenous peoples. Most notable campaigns were Livonian and Prussian crusades. The campaigns started with the 1147 Wendish Crusade against the Polabian Slavs of what is now northern and eastern Germany. The crusade occurred parallel to the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, continued irregularly until the 16th century. The Swedish crusades were campaigns from 1150 to 1293. The difference in creeds was one of the reasons they had not yet been effectively converted. Estonians for their part made raids upon Denmark and Sweden. There were peaceful attempts by some Catholics to convert the Estonians, starting with missions dispatched by Adalbert, Archbishop of Bremen in 1045-1072. However, these peaceful efforts seem to have had only limited success. Although the crusaders won their first battle, Bishop Berthold was mortally wounded and the crusaders were repulsed. In 1199, Albert of Buxhoeveden was appointed by the Archbishop Hartwig II of Bremen to Christianise the Baltic countries. By the time Albert died 30 years later, the conquest and formal Christianisation of present-day Estonia and northern Latvia was complete. The first crusaders usually returned in the autumn. To ensure a permanent military presence, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword were founded in 1202. The founding by Bishop Albert of the market at Riga in 1201 attracted citizens from the Empire and economic prosperity ensued.Northern Crusades – Ruins of the castle in Sigulda.
21. Saint Kitts – Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies. The eastern coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. The neighbouring island of Nevis constitute one country: the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Kitts and Nevis are separated by a 3-kilometre channel known as "The Narrows". The island is one in the Lesser Antilles. It is situated about 2,100 southeast of Miami, Florida. The area of St. Kitts is about 168 km2, being approximately 29 km long and on average about 8 km across. Saint Kitts has the majority of whom are mainly of African descent. The primary language is English, with a rate of approximately 98 %. Residents call themselves Kittitians. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest fortress ever built in the Eastern Caribbean. The island of Saint Kitts is home to the Warner Park Cricket Stadium, used to host 2007 Cricket World Cup matches. This made St. Kitts and Nevis the smallest nation to ever host a World Cup event. Also its largest port, is the town of Basseterre on Saint Kitts. There is a modern facility for handling large cruise ships there.Saint Kitts – Battle of St. Kitts, 1782, as described by an observer in a French engraving titled "Attaque de Brimstomhill".
22. Stephen, King of England – Stephen, often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was King of England from 1135 to his death, also the Count of Boulogne in right of his wife. Stephen's reign was marked by rival, the Empress Matilda. He was succeeded by the first of the Angevin kings. Placed into the court of his uncle, Henry I of England, Stephen rose in prominence and was granted extensive lands. He married Matilda of Boulogne, inheriting additional estates in Kent and Boulogne that made the couple one of the wealthiest in England. In 1138 the Empress's half-brother Robert of Gloucester rebelled against Stephen, threatening civil war. Together with his close advisor, Waleran de Beaumont, Stephen took firm steps to defend his rule, including arresting a powerful family of bishops. When the Empress and Robert invaded in 1139, however, Stephen was unable to crush the revolt rapidly, it took hold in the south-west of England. Captured in 1141, Stephen was abandoned by lost control of Normandy. Stephen became increasingly concerned with ensuring that his son Eustace would inherit his throne. In 1153 Henry FitzEmpress, built an alliance of powerful regional barons to support his claim for the throne. The two armies met at Wallingford, but neither side's barons were keen to fight another pitched battle. Stephen began to examine a negotiated peace, a process hastened by the sudden death of Eustace. Stephen died the following year.Stephen, King of England – Stephen
23. 12th century – In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians. In dynasty China an invasion by Jurchens caused a political schism of south. The Khmer Empire of Cambodia flourished during this century, while the Fatimids of Egypt were overtaken by the Ayyubid dynasty. China is under the Northern Song dynasty. Early in the century, Zhang Zeduan paints Along the River During the Qingming Festival. It will later end up in the Palace Museum, Beijing. In southeast Asia, there is conflict between the Khmer Empire and the Champa. Angkor Wat is built under the Hindu king Suryavarman II. By the end of the century the Buddhist Jayavarman VII becomes the ruler. Japan is in its Heian period. The Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga is made and attributed to Toba Sōjō. It ends up at the Kōzan-ji, Kyoto. In Oceania, the Tuʻi Tonga Empire expands to a much greater area. Europe undergoes the Renaissance of the 12th century. The furnace for the smelting of iron is imported from China, appearing around Lapphyttan, Sweden, as early as 1150.12th century – Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 12th century.
24. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor – Frederick I, also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Two years later, the sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia. Frederick therefore descended from the two leading families in Germany, making an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors. Frederick was born in 1122. Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. He was crowned King of the Romans at several days later, on 9 March 1152. His mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany. For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was largely a nominal title with no real power.Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor – A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. It was used as a reliquary in Cappenberg Abbey and is said in the deed of the gift to have been made "in the likeness of the emperor".
25. House of Babenberg – The House of Babenberg was a noble dynasty of Austrian margraves and dukes. 2) The Austrian Babenbergs, descendants of Margrave Leopold I, who ruled Austria from 976 onwards. This second group claimed to have originated from the first, however, scholars have not been able to verify that claim. A direct lineal descent from the Bavarian House of Luitpolding is assumed. Like the royal Capetian dynasty, the Elder Babenbergs descended from the Robertians. He may be a descendant of the Robertian Cancor of Hesbaye. He was killed fighting during the Siege of Paris in 886. Poppo II, was margrave in Thuringia from 880 to 892, when he was deposed by King Charles' successor Arnulf of Carinthia. The city of Bamberg was built around the ancestral castle of the family. The Conradines were led by Conrad the Elder and his brothers probably the sons of Count Udo of Neustria. The struggle intensified during the troubled reign of Arnulf's son King Louis the Child. Clashes of arms occurred in 902, when the Conradine laid siege to arrested Adalhard von Babenberg. Adalhard was executed at the Reichstag of Forchheim; in return, the Babenbergs occupied the city of Würzburg and expelled Bishop Rudolf. Two of the Babenberg brothers were also killed. Adalbert of Prague, was summoned before the imperial court by the regent Archbishop Hatto I of Mainz, a partisan of the Conradines.House of Babenberg – The Babenberg family tree triptych at Klosterneuburg Monastery (c. 1490, based on the genealogy by Ladislaus Sunthaym)
26. Conrad III of Germany – Conrad III was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and Agnes, a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV. The origin of the House of Hohenstaufen in the Duchy of Swabia has not been conclusively established. Conrad's father took advantage of the conflict between King Henry IV of Germany and the Swabian duke Rudolf of Rheinfelden during the Investiture Controversy. He died in 1105, leaving Frederick II, who inherited the ducal title. Their mother entered into a second marriage with Babenberg margrave Leopold III of Austria. In 1105 Holy Roman Emperor since 1084, was overthrown by Conrad's uncle. Conrad was marked out to act with Duke Frederick II of Swabia. At the death of Henry V in 1125, Conrad unsuccessfully supported Frederick II for the kingship of Germany. Conrad was deprived of the Kingdom of Burgundy, of which he was rector. With the support of the Duchy of Austria, Conrad was elected anti-king at Nuremberg in December 1127. Conrad quickly crossed the Alps to be crowned King of Italy by Anselm V, Archbishop of Milan. After this they were pardoned and could take again possession of their lands. After Lothair's death, Conrad was elected March 1138 in the presence of the papal Theodwin. Conrad was acknowledged by several princes of southern Germany.Conrad III of Germany – King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a 13th-century miniature from the Chronica sancti Pantaleonis
27. Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem – Melisende was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153, regent for her son between 1153 and 1161 while he was on campaign. She was the Armenian princess Morphia of Melitene. She was named after her paternal grandmother, wife of Hugh I, Count of Rethel. She had three younger sisters: princess of Antioch; Hodierna, countess of Tripoli; and Ioveta, abbess of St. Lazarus in Bethany. Melisende of Tripoli, was named in honor of the queen. Melisende grew up in Edessa until she was 13, when her father was elected as the King of Jerusalem as successor of his cousin Baldwin I. By the time of his election as king, Baldwin II and Morphia already had three daughters. Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa refused to consider divorcing her. As the eldest child, Melisende was raised as presumptive. Contemporaries of Melisende who did rule, however, included Urraca of Castile, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Baldwin deferred to King Louis VI of France to recommend a Frankish vassal for his daughter's hand. The Frankish connection remained an important consideration for Crusader Jerusalem, as the kingdom depended heavily on manpower and connections from France, Germany, Italy. Fulk's son from Geoffrey was married to Empress Matilda, Henry I of England's designated heir as England's next queen regnant. Fulk V could be a potential grandfather to a future ruler of a relationship that would out-flank Louis VI. Influence made him as powerful as the King of France, according to historian Zoe Oldenbourg.Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem – Melisende
28. William of Tyre – William of Tyre was a medieval prelate and chronicler. As archbishop of Tyre, William is sometimes known as William II to distinguish him from William of Malines. Following William's return to Jerusalem in 1165, King Amalric made an ambassador to the Byzantine Empire. He became tutor to the future King Baldwin IV, whom William discovered to be a leper. As he was involved in the dynastic struggle that developed during Baldwin IV's reign, his importance waned when a rival faction gained control of royal affairs. William died in obscurity, probably in 1186. He wrote a history of the Islamic states from the time of Muhammad. Neither work survives. William is famous today as the author of a history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He composed his chronicle for his time, with numerous quotations from classical literature. The chronicle is sometimes given Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum or Historia Ierosolimitana, or the Historia for short. It was translated soon after his death, thereafter into numerous other languages. However, more recent historians have shown that William's involvement in the kingdom's political disputes resulted in his account. Despite this, William is considered one of the best authors of the Middle Ages. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded at the end of the First Crusade.William of Tyre – William of Tyre writing his history, from a 13th-century Old French translation, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, MS 2631, f.1r
29. Manuel I Komnenos – Manuel I Komnenos was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent West. He invaded the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, although unsuccessfully. The passage of the potentially dangerous Second Crusade was adroitly managed through his empire. Manuel established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader states of Outremer. Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land, he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Called ho Megas by the Greeks, Manuel is known to have inspired intense loyalty in those who served him. He also appears as the hero of a history written by his secretary, John Kinnamos, in which every virtue is attributed to him. Modern historians, however, have been less enthusiastic about him. Manuel Komnenos was the fourth son of John II Komnenos and Piroska of Hungary, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed his father. His maternal grandfather was St. Ladislaus. After John died on 8 April 1143, his son, Manuel, was acclaimed emperor by the armies. Axouch arrived in the capital even before news of the emperor's death had reached it. He quickly secured the loyalty of the city, when Manuel entered the capital in August 1143, he was crowned by the new Patriarch, Michael Kourkouas.Manuel I Komnenos – Manuscript miniature of Manuel I (part of double portrait with Maria of Antioch, Vatican Library, Rome)
30. Louis VII of France – Louis VII was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death. Immediately after the annulment of her marriage, Eleanor married Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, to whom she gave the Aquitaine. When Henry became King of England as Henry II, Louis ruled over a large empire that spanned from Scotland to the Pyrenees. Henry's efforts to expand on this patrimony for the Crown of England would mark the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England. Louis VII's reign saw the founding of the disastrous Second Crusade. Louis was succeeded by his son Philip II. He was born in 1120 in Paris, Adelaide of Maurienne. The early education of Prince Louis anticipated an ecclesiastical career. In October 1131, his father had him crowned by Pope Innocent II in Reims Cathedral. In this way, Louis VI sought to add the large, sprawling territory of the Aquitaine in France. On 1 August 1137, Prince Louis became king of France, reigning as Louis VII. Louis and Eleanor had two daughters, Alix. In the first part of his reign, Louis VII was zealous in his prerogatives. His accession was marked by the burgesses of Orléans and Poitiers, who wished to organise communes. Louis soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II, however, when the archbishopric of Bourges became vacant.Louis VII of France – Effigy of Louis VII, denier, Bourges
31. Empress Matilda – Empress Matilda, also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, acted as the imperial regent in Italy. When Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies. Meanwhile, William Adelin, died in the White Ship disaster of 1120, leaving England facing a potential succession crisis. Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from the Norman barons and were unable to pursue their claims. The throne was instead taken by Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois, who enjoyed the backing of the English Church. Stephen faced threats both from neighbouring powers and from opponents within his kingdom. As a result of this retreat, Matilda was instead titled the Lady of the English. Matilda agreed to exchange him for Stephen. Matilda was forced to escape across the frozen River Isis at night to avoid capture. Stephen the south-east and the Midlands. Large parts of the rest of the country were in the hands of independent barons. She for the rest of her life concerned herself with the administration of Normandy, acting on Henry's behalf when necessary. Particularly in the early years of her son's reign, she attempted to mediate during the Becket controversy.Empress Matilda – 12th-century depiction of Matilda and Henry 's wedding feast
32. Cistercians – A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃⁱən/, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist, a religious order of monks and nuns. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries. After that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. The best known of them were Robert of Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread into Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. During the first year, the monks set about making use of a nearby chapel for Mass.. In Robert's absence from Molesme, a former Cluniac monk, ordered him to return. The remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding. Robert had been the idealist of the order, Alberic was their builder.Cistercians – St Bernard of Clairvaux, one of the most influential early Cistercians
33. Ashkelon – The ancient seaport of Ashkelon dates back to the Neolithic Age. The Arab village of al-Majdal Asqalan, was established a few kilometres inland from the ancient site under Ottoman rule. In 1918, it became part of the British Occupied Enemy Territory Administration and in 1920 became part of Mandatory Palestine. Al-Majdal on the eve of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War had 10,000 Arab inhabitants and in October 1948, the city accommodated thousands more refugees from nearby villages. Al-Majdal was the forward position of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force based in Gaza. Most of the remaining Arabs were evicted by 1950. In 1953, the nearby neighborhood of Afridar was incorporated and the name "Ashkelon" was readopted to the town. By 1961, Ashkelon was ranked 18th among Israeli urban centers with a population of 24,000. In 2015 the population of Ashkelon was 130,660. The Ashkelon might be connected to the root š-q-l perhaps attesting to its importance as a center for mercantile activities. Shallot are derived from the Latin name for Ashkelon. Ashkelon was south of Jaffa. The Neolithic site of Ashkelon is located on 1.5 north of Tel Ashkelon. It is dated by Radiocarbon dating to ca. 7900 bp, to the poorly known Pre-Pottery Neolithic C phase of the Neolithic. It was excavated by French archaeologist Jean Perrot.Ashkelon – אַשְׁקְלוֹן (help · info)
34. Haifa – Haifa, is the third-largest city in the State of Israel, with a population of 278,903 in 2015. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including Daliyat al-Karmel, the Krayot, Nesher, some kibbutzim. It is also home to the Bahá' í World Centre, a destination for Baha'i pilgrims. Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the settlement has a history spanning more than 3,000 years. The earliest known settlement in the vicinity was a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age. In the 3rd CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center. Over the centuries, the city has changed hands: being ruled by the Phoenicians, Persians, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Ottomans, British, the Israelis. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haifa Municipality has governed the city. As of 2016, the city is a major seaport located in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres. It is the major regional center of northern Israel. The city plays an important role in Israel's economy. Haifa Bay is a center of heavy industry, chemical processing. Haifa formerly functioned from Iraq via Jordan. The earliest named settlement within the domain of modern-day Haifa was a city known as Sycaminum. Haifa is also mentioned more than 100 times in the Talmud, a book central to Judaism.Haifa – Western Haifa from the air
35. Acre, Israel – Acre is a city in the northern coastal plain region of the Northern District, Israel at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay. The city occupies an important location, as it sits on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, traditionally linking the commercial activity with the Levant. This location helped it become one of the oldest cities in the world, continuously inhabited since the Middle Bronze Age some 4000 years ago. As such receives many Baha'i pilgrims. In 2015 the population was 47,675. Acre is a mixed city, that includes Muslims, Christians and Baha'is. The mayor is Shimon Lankri, reelected in 2011. Acre's etymology is a matter of controversy, though most likely deriving from the early Canaanite language. According to Biblical tradition, the name is derived from Canaanite Adco, referring to North-most border of the Israelite tribes. The city was known during the Hellenistic and Roman-Byzantine periods. During the Crusades it was known as St. John d'Acre after the Knights Hospitaller, who had their headquarters there. Acre is therefore counted among the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the region. Egyptian sources seem to be mentioning Acre, starting possibly with execration texts from ca. 1800 BCE. The Aak, which appears on the tribute lists of Thutmose III, may be a reference to Acre. The Amarna letters also mention a place named Akka, well as the Execration texts, that pre-date them.Acre, Israel – עַכּוֹ
36. Belgrade – Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. Its name translates to "White city". The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of million, while over 1.65 million people live within its administrative limits. The Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, after 279 BC Celts conquered the city, naming it Singidūn. It awarded city rights in the mid-2nd century. In 1521, Belgrade became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo. It frequently passed to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost post until 1918, when the city was reunited. As a strategic location, the city was razed to the ground 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia to its final dissolution in 2006. It is one of five statistical regions of Serbia. Its metropolitan territory is divided into each with its own local council.Belgrade
37. Sixth Crusade – The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It involved very little actual fighting. However, Frederick again promised to go on a crusade by Pope Honorius III. In 1225 Frederick married Yolande of Jerusalem, Maria of Montferrat. Frederick now reason to attempt to restore it. Gregory stated that the reason for the excommunication was Frederick's reluctance to go on crusade, dating back to the Fifth Crusade. Frederick claimed that his regency was demanded the surrender of John's mainland fief of Beirut to the imperial throne. This would have important consequences for the crusade, as it alienated the powerful Ibelin faction, turning them against the emperor. Acre, as the nominal capital of the seat of the Latin Patriarchate, was split in its support for Frederick. Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne followed the hostile papal line. Once news of Frederick's excommunication had spread, public support for him waned considerably. The native barons were wary of the emperor's history of centralization and his desire to impose imperial authority. This was largely due to his apparent disdain for the constitutional concerns of the barons. Even with the military orders on board, Frederick's force was a mere shadow of the army that had amassed when the crusade had originally been called. In addition, Frederick received Bethlehem.Sixth Crusade – Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right).
38. List of popes – The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, the family name of one pope. The pope is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders. This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, Servus servorum Dei. Unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification. Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to the popes continuously. His list ends with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, in the public domain. The first 31 popes, with the exception of Zephyrinus, died as martyrs. This pope resigned his office.List of popes – Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St Peter's (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)
39. Tortosa – Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain. Across the river, rise the massive Ports de Tortosa-Beseit mountains. The area around other high summits are often covered with snow in the winter. Tortosa is probably identical to capital of Ilercavonia. This may be the ancient settlement the remains of which have been found on the hill named Castillo de la Zuda. In Roman times, the town adopted the Dertosa. The siege of Tortosa was narrated by diplomat Caffaro. Formerly there was a line between Tortosa and Alcañiz, opening a communication gate between this region and Aragon. It was haphazard and the first trains between Alcañiz and Tortosa began only in 1942. The last stretch between Sant Carles de la Ràpita was never completed before the line was terminated by RENFE in 1973. Castle of Suda, commanding the city from a 59-metre-high hill. Though the Romans were the first to fortify the place, the current structure dates to Muslim Caliph Abd ar-Rahman III. The Cathedral, begun in 1347 and consecrated in 1597. Bishop Palace Convent of Santa Clara, founded in 1283. Composer and musicologist, was born in Tortosa.Tortosa – Tortosa