1. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has since his discovery been colloquially referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenaten's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The "mysterious" deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamun's tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or possibly one of his cousins. As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended at the age of ten, taking the Nebkheperure. His wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem. When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun.Tutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
2. Alexander the Great – Born in Pella in 356 BC, he succeeded Philip II, at the age of twenty. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in human history, along with his teacher Aristotle. Alexander was the son of the king of his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.Alexander the Great – "Alexander fighting king Darius III of Persia ", Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
3. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
4. Almond – The almond is a species of tree native to the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent and North Africa. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell surrounding the seed. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, then removed to reveal the white embryo. The almond is a deciduous tree, growing 4–10 m in height, with a trunk of up to 30 cm in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year. The leaves are 3 -- 5 inches long, with a 2.5 cm petiole. The flowers are white in pairs and appearing before the leaves in early spring. Almond grows best in Mediterranean climates with mild, wet winters. Almonds begin bearing an economic crop in the third year after planting. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting. The fruit matures in 7 -- 8 months after flowering. The almond fruit measures 3.5–6 cm long.Almond – Almond
5. Augustus – Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an wealthy branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He instead called Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the frontiers, he made peace through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.Augustus – The statue known as the Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
6. Alabaster – Alabaster is a mineral or rock, soft and often used for carving, as well as being processed for plaster powder. However there are two different types, with broadly similar properties: gypsum and calcite, two distinct varieties of minerals. Both are usually light-coloured, soft stones that have been used mainly for carving decorative artifacts. Geologists define alabaster strictly as a compact and fine-grained variety of gypsum. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium. In general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is probably calcite, but may be either. Both are easy to work and slightly water-soluble. They have been used for making a variety of indoor artworks and carvings, as they will not survive long outdoors. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, while gypsum alabaster remains nearly unaffected when thus treated. The Greek words were used to identify a vase made of alabaster. This name may be derived further from the Egyptian a-labaste, which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast. She was represented as a lioness and frequently depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels. The softness of alabaster enables it to be carved readily into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough, whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre.Alabaster – Three Maries, alabaster sculpture by Master of the Rimini Crucifixion (c. 1430), National Museum, Warsaw.
7. Amasis II – Amasis II or Ahmose II was a pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais. He was the great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. Most of our information about him can only be imperfectly verified by monumental evidence. According to the Greek historian, he was of common origins. He was originally an officer in the Egyptian army. His birthplace was Siuph at Saïs. He took part in Nubia. A revolt which broke out among Egyptian soldiers gave him his opportunity to seize the throne. Apries was killed mounting an invasion of his native homeland in 567 BCE with the aid of a Babylonian army. Amasis then married Chedebnitjerbone one of the daughters of his predecessor Apries, in order to legitimise his kingship. A block from Mehallet el-Kubra also establishes that his maternal grandmother -- Tashereniset's mother -- was a certain Tjenmutetj. His court is well known. The head of the gate guard Ahmose-sa-Neith appears on numerous monuments, including the location of his sarcophagus. He was referenced on monuments of the 30th dynasty and apparently had a special significance in his time. Wahibre was ` Leader of the southern foreigners' and ` Head of the doors of foreigners', so he was the highest official for security.Amasis II – A fragmentary statue head of Amasis II
8. Art Deco – Art Deco, or Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in 1925. It combined modernist styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured expensive materials such as ebony and ivory and exquisite craftsmanship. Other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. After the Great Depression, the style became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, plastic. A more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s; it featured smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the United States, Russia, Latin America, Asia. The style came with the beginning of World War II. Deco was replaced by the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modernism and the International Style of architecture. The term décoratifs was first used in France in 1858; published in the Bulletin de la Société française de photographie. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra.Art Deco – Terracotta sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930
9. Ark of the Covenant – According to various texts within the Hebrew Bible, it also contained Aaron's rod and a pot of manna. God was said to have spoken with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover. Moses instructed Bezalel and Oholiab to construct the Ark. In Deuteronomy, however, the Ark is said to have been built specifically by Moses himself without reference of Bezalel or Oholiab. The Book of Exodus gives detailed instructions on how the Ark is to be constructed. It is to be 1 1/2 in height. A molding of gold is to be put around it. A golden lid, the kapporet, covered with 2 golden cherubim, is to be placed above the Ark. Instructions missing from the biblical account include details concerning the cherubim. The Ark is finally to be placed under the veil of the covering. The biblical account continues that, after its creation by Moses, the Ark was carried by the Israelites during their 40 years of wandering in the desert. Whenever the Israelites camped, the Ark was placed in a separate room in a sacred tent, called the Tabernacle. As memorials, twelve stones were taken from the Jordan at the place where the priests had stood. After the defeat at Ai, Joshua lamented before the Ark. When Joshua read the Law to the people between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, they stood on each side of the Ark.Ark of the Covenant – Joshua passing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant by Benjamin West, 1800
10. Adhesive – The use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such as thermal bonding, etc.. Adhesives are typically organized by the method of adhesion. These are then organized into non-reactive adhesives, which refers to whether the adhesive chemically reacts in order to harden. Alternatively they can be organized by their starting physical phase. Adhesives may be produced synthetically. The earliest human use of adhesive-like substances was approximately 200,000 years ago. The first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in approximately 2000 BCE. The Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. In Europe, glue was not widely used until 1500 -- 1700 CE. From then until the 1900s increases in adhesive discovery were relatively gradual. Innovation in the field continues to the present. This is thought to be the oldest discovered human use of tar-hafted stones. The birch-bark-tar adhesive is a one-component adhesive. Although sticky enough, plant-based adhesives are vulnerable to environmental conditions. The first use of compound adhesives was discovered in South Africa.Adhesive – Nitrocellulose adhesive outside a tube
11. Black – It is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of light. Like grey, Black is an achromatic color, literally a color without hue. Black is often used to represent darkness; it is the symbolic opposite of white. It was one of the first colors used by artists in neolithic cave paintings. In the 14th century, Black began to be worn in much of Europe. Black became the color worn by English romantic poets, a high fashion color in the 20th century. In the Roman Empire, over the centuries it was frequently associated with death, evil, witches and magic. According to surveys in Europe and North America, Black is the color most commonly associated with the end, secrets, magic, force, violence, evil, elegance. More distant cognates include Ancient Greek phlegein. The Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos' could mean both dark black. The Ancient Romans had two words for black: ater was a dull black, while niger was a brilliant, saturated black. Old High German also had two words for black: swartz for dull blach for a luminous black. These are parallelled in Middle English for luminous black. Swart still survives as the swarthy, while blaek became the modern English black.Black – Outer space seen from Mars (Image taken by NASA 's MER Spirit rover)
12. Boomerang – A returning boomerang is designed to return to the thrower. It is well known as a weapon used for hunting. Boomerangs have been historically used for hunting, well as a sport, entertainment. They are commonly come in various shapes and sizes. A boomerang is traditionally a wooden device, although historically boomerang-like devices have also been made from bones. Boomerangs intended function. An important distinction should be made between returning non-returning boomerangs. Returning boomerangs are examples of the earliest heavier-than-air man-made flight. Its surfaces therefore are not uneven like the aerofoils which give the returning boomerang its characteristic curved flight. Returning boomerangs were also used into waiting nets. Modern returning boomerangs can be of various sizes as can be seen in a photo in the Modern use section. Indeed, some boomerangs were used in hand to hand combat by Indigenous Australians. Experiments have shown that they functioned as returning boomerangs. Boomerangs can be variously used as recreational play toys. The smallest boomerang may be the largest over 180 centimetres in length.Boomerang – A typical wooden returning boomerang
13. Bee – Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. The actual number is probably higher. They are found in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants. Some species including honey bees, stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Bee pollination is important both commercially; the decline in wild bees has increased the value of pollination by commercially managed hives of honey bees. They are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies. Vertebrate predators of bees include birds such as bee-eaters; insect predators include dragonflies. Human apiculture has been practised for millennia, since at least the times of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Apart from pollination, honey bees produce beeswax, royal jelly and propolis. Yeats's poem The Lake Isle of Innisfree. Bee larvae are included in the Javanese dish tawon, where they are eaten steamed with shredded coconut. The ancestors of bees were wasps in the Crabronidae, which were predators of other insects. This evolutionary scenario may have occurred within the vespoid wasps, where the pollen wasps evolved from predatory ancestors.Bee
14. British Museum – The British Museum is dedicated to Human history, art and culture, is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of scientist Sir Hans Sloane. The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of cultural art antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum". Its foundations lie in the will of naturalist Sir Hans Sloane. On 7 King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs. While including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. A list of donations to the Museum, dated January 1784, refers to the Hamilton bequest of a "Colossal Foot of an Apollo in Marble". Notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805. In 1816 these masterpieces of western art, deposited in the museum thereafter. The collections were supplemented from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815. The Ancient Near Eastern collection also had its beginnings in 1825 from the widow of Claudius James Rich.British Museum – British Museum
15. Cairo – It is the capital and largest city of Egypt. It has music industries in the Arab world, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media, organizations have regional headquarters in the city; the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence. With a population of million spread over 453 square kilometers, it is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. It, like other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic. One of only two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides. The economy of Cairo was 43rd globally by Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians often refer as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country. The location of the ancient city is the suburb of Ain Shams. Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro. However, the origins of the modern city are generally traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. This fortress, known as Babylon, is the oldest structure in the city today. Cairo is also situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Byzantine church in the late 4th century. Many including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.Cairo – Cairo القاهرة al-Qāhirah
16. Celery – Celery, a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae, has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a hairy stalk. Depending on cultivar, either its stalks, leaves, or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Celery seed is also used as a spice; its extracts are used in medicines. Celery leaves are pinnate to bipinnate with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. The flowers are produced in dense compound umbels. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose, 1.5 -- 2 mm wide. Modern cultivars have been selected for leaf stalks. A celery stalk readily separates into "strings" which are bundles of angular cells exterior to the vascular bundles. The earliest attested form of the word is the Greek se-ri-no, written in Linear B syllabic script. Celery was described in 1753. Wild celery, Apium graveolens var. graveolens, grows to 1 m tall. By the 19th century, the season for celery had been extended, to last to late in April. In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the cultivar called'Pascal' celery. Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars, many of which differ mainly in having stouter leaf stems.Celery – Celery
17. Coin – A coin is a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored as bullion coins. Other coins are used in everyday transactions circulating alongside banknotes. Usually the highest coin in circulation is worth less than the lowest-value note. While the Eagle, Sovereign coins have nominal face values; the Krugerrand does not. The first coins were developed independently around the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. Coins spread rapidly throughout Greece and Persia, further to the Balkans. Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages. Fiat money first arose with the jiaozi paper money. The penny was minted until the 17th century.Coin – A Swiss ten-cent coin from 1879, similar to the oldest coins still in official use today
18. Dagger – A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon. Many cultures have used adorned daggers in ritual and ceremonial contexts. The distinctive shape and historic usage of the dagger have made it symbolic. Double-edged knives, however, play different sorts of roles in social contexts. Most daggers also feature a full crossguard to keep the hand from riding forwards onto the blade edges. Daggers are primarily weapons, so legislation in many places restricts their manufacture, sale, possession, transport, or use. The earliest daggers were made in Neolithic times. Copper daggers of Early Minoan III were recovered at Knossos. In ancient Egypt, daggers were usually made of bronze, while royalty had gold weapons. At least since pre-dynastic Egypt, daggers were adorned with golden hilts and later even more ornate and varied construction. One early dagger was recovered with midrib design. The 1924 opening of the tomb of Tutankhamun revealed two daggers, one of smelted iron. It is held that mummies of the Eleventh Dynasty were buried with bronze sabres; and there is a bronze dagger of Thut-mes III. circa B.C. 1600. The exceptional purity of the sophisticated method of forging, which included cold hammering, produced double-edged weapons of excellent quality. Iberian swords were later adopted by Hannibal and his Carthaginian armies.Dagger – The Fairbairn–Sykes fighting knife, a modern-day dagger
19. Green – It is the color between blue and yellow on the spectrum of visible light. Green is evoked with a predominant wavelength of roughly 495 -- 570 nm. The English word green comes from the Middle English and Anglo-Saxon word grene, from the same Germanic root as the words "grass" and "grow". Green is the color of grass leaves and as a result is the color most associated with springtime, growth and nature. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, colored green by its content. In surveys made in the United States, green is the color most commonly associated with nature, life, health, youth, spring, hope and envy. Green is also the traditional color of permission; a green light means go ahead, a green card permits permanent residence in the United States. Green is the most important color in Islam. Green is a color of the flag of Ireland. Because of its association with nature, Green is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties. This has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold environmentally friendly, products. The recorded use of the word as a color term in Old English dates to ca.Green – The word green has the same Germanic root as the words for grass and grow.
20. History of Egypt – The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its rich history also comes from outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. One of the other Seven Wonders, is gone. The Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries. Human settlement in Egypt dates back to at least 40,000 BC with Aterian tool manufacturing. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominately Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire. Egypt remained entirely Ottoman except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell in 1882 following the Anglo-Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established.History of Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom.
21. Howard Carter – Howard Carter was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist who became world-famous after discovering the intact tomb of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, Tutankhamun in November 1922. Howard Carter was born in the son of Samuel Carter, an artist, Martha Joyce Carter. His father developed Howard's artistic talents. Howard Carter spent much of his childhood with relatives in the Norfolk town of Swaffham, the birthplace of both his parents. Nearby was the mansion of the Amherst family, Didlington Hall, containing a magnificent collection of Egyptian antiques, which sparked Carter's interest in that subject. Although only 17, Carter was innovative in improving the methods of copying decoration. In 1892, he worked at Amarna, the capital founded by the pharaoh Akhenaten. From 1894 to 1899, he worked at Deir el-Bahari where he recorded the wall reliefs in the temple of Hatshepsut. In 1899, Carter was appointed to the position of Chief Inspector of the Egyptian Antiquities Service. He supervised a number of excavations at Thebes. In 1904, he was transferred to the Inspectorate of Lower Egypt. The Antiquities Service also provided funding for Carter to head his own excavation projects. Carter sided with the Egyptian personnel. After three hard years for Carter, Lord Carnarvon employed him to supervise Carnarvon's Egyptian excavations in the Valley of the Kings. The intention of Gaston Maspero, who introduced the two, was to ensure that Howard Carter imposed archaeological methods and systems of recording.Howard Carter – Howard Carter
22. Iron Age – It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia in Africa. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC depending on the region. In most parts of the world, its end therefore marks the transition from prehistory to history. A characteristic iron -- nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the archeological record from the middle Age. Similarly, archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in South Asia. African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of large-scale production in around 1200 BC, marking the end of the Bronze Age. Between 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of iron objects was fast and far-flung. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled during this time. More widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in Northern Europe.Iron Age – Archaeological artifact from the work developed in the area of Citânia de Briteiros
23. Iron – Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Elemental iron is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. Iron metal has been used since ancient times, although copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history. Pure iron is unobtainable by smelting because it is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon, from the smelting process. A certain proportion of carbon produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. Crude metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, which has a high carbon content. Further refinement with oxygen reduces the content to the correct proportion to make steel. Iron chemical compounds have many uses. Iron oxide mixed with powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. Iron forms binary compounds with the chalcogens.Iron – Iron, 26 Fe
24. Incest – Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives. The taboo is and has been one of the most widespread of all cultural taboos, both in present and in many past societies. Most modern societies have laws regarding incest or social restrictions on closely consanguineous marriages. In societies where it is illegal, consensual incest is seen by some as a victimless crime. Some cultures extend the taboo to relatives with no consanguinity such as milk-siblings, stepsiblings, adoptive siblings. Third-degree relatives on sexual relations between them is viewed differently in various cultures, from being discouraged to being socially acceptable. The children of incestuous relationships are still so regarded in some societies today. In most cases, the parents did not have the option to marry to remove that status, as marriages were, are, normally also prohibited. A common justification for prohibiting incest is avoiding inbreeding: a collection of genetic disorders suffered with a close genetic relationship. But inbreeding is not the sole basis for the taboo for two reasons. First, most prohibitions on incest cover affinity relationships --, relationships created by marriage -- well as relationships created by adoption. And the incest taboo also applies to non-procreative sex -- for example, sex between infertile relatives and sex performed with birth control. Some societies, such as some Inuit tribes, have different views about what constitutes illegal and immoral incest. However, sexual relations with a first-degree relative are almost universally forbidden. The English incest is derived from the Latin incestus, which has a general meaning of "impure, unchaste".Incest – Maya king Shield Jaguar II with his aunt-wife, Lady Xoc. AD 709
25. Margaret Murray – Margaret Alice Murray was an Anglo-Indian Egyptologist, archaeologist, anthropologist, historian, folklorist. She worked at University College London from 1898 to 1935. She published widely over the course of her career. Recognising that British Egyptomania reflected the existence of a public interest in Ancient Egypt, Murray wrote several books on Egyptology targeted at a general audience. Although later academically discredited, the theory proved a significant influence on the emerging new religious movement of Wicca. From 1921 to 1931 Murray developed her interest in folkloristics. Awarded an honorary doctorate in 1927, she was retired from UCL in 1935. That year in 1937 she led a small excavation at Petra in Jordan. Conversely, her methods in these areas heavily criticised. Margaret Murray was born on 13 July 1863 in Calcutta, then a major military city in British India. Margaret, had moved to India from Britain in 1857 to work as a missionary, preaching Christianity and educating Indian women. She continued after marrying James and giving birth to her two daughters. In 1873, the girls' mother took them with her to Bonn in Germany, where they both became fluent in German. In 1875 they returned to Calcutta, staying there till 1877. They then moved with their parents back to England, where they settled in South London.Margaret Murray – Margaret Alice Murray
26. Mummy – Mummies of other animals have been found on every continent, both as cultural artifacts. Over one million animal mummies have been found in Egypt, many of which are cats. The Spirit Cave mummies of Fallon, Nevada in North America were accurately dated at more than 9,400 years old. These substances were defined as mummia. The OED defines a mummy as "the body of a human embalmed as a preparation for burial", citing sources from 1615 CE onward. Also applied to the frozen carcase of an animal imbedded in prehistoric snow". Wasps of the genus Aleiodes are known as "mummy wasps" because they wrap their caterpillar prey as "mummies". While interest in the study of mummies dates back as Ptolemaic Greece, most structured scientific study began at the beginning of the 20th century. Prior to this, rediscovered mummies were sold in pseudoscientific novelties such as mummia. The scientific examinations of mummies began in 1901, conducted by professors at the English-language Government School of Medicine in Cairo, Egypt. British chemist Alfred Lucas applied chemical analyses to Egyptian mummies during this same period, which returned many results about the types of substances used in embalming. Lucas also made significant contributions to the analysis of Tutankhamun in 1922. Pathological study of mummies saw varying levels of popularity throughout the 20th century. In 1992, the First World Congress on Mummy Studies was held in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. More than 300 scientists attended the Congress to share nearly 100 years of collected data on mummies.Mummy – Howard Carter opens the innermost shrine of King Tutankhamen's tomb near Luxor, Egypt.
27. Olive – Olea europeana sylvestris is a subspecies that corresponds to a smaller tree bearing noticeably smaller fruits. Its fruit give their name to the plant family, which also includes species such as lilacs, jasmine, Forsythia and the true ash trees. The word derives from Latin ŏlīva a borrowing from the Greek ἔλαιον in the archaic form * ἐλαίϝα. The oldest attested forms of the Greek words are e-ra-wa, e-ra-wo or, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The word "oil" in multiple languages ultimately derives from the name of its fruit. Olea europaea, is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean, Asia and Africa. It rarely exceeds 8 -- 15 m in height. The green leaves are oblong, measuring 4 -- 10 cm long and 1 -- 3 cm wide. The trunk is typically twisted. The fruit is 1 -- 2.5 cm long, thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Olives are harvested to purple stage. Black olives have often been artificially blackened and may contain the chemical ferrous gluconate to improve the appearance. Olea europaea contains a seed commonly referred in American English as a pit or a rock, in British English as a stone. There are six natural subspecies of Olea europaea distributed over a wide range: Olea europaea subsp. Europaea Olea europaea subsp.Olive – Olive
28. Osiris – He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones". Osiris was considered the younger. He was described as the "Lord of love", "He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful" and the "Lord of Silence". Osiris was widely worshipped during the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Osiris is a Latin transliteration of the Greek IPA:, which in turn is the Greek adaptation of the original theonym in the Egyptian language. Several proposals have been made for the meaning of the original Wsjr. John Gwyn Griffiths proposed a derivation from wser signifying "the powerful". Moreover, one of the oldest attestations of the god Osiris appears in the mastaba of the deceased Netjer-wser. David Lorton proposed that Wsjr is composed by the morphemes set-jret signifying "ritual activity", Osiris being the one who receives it. Wolfhart Westendorf proposed an etymology from Waset-jret "she who bears the eye". He also carries the crook and flail. The crook is thought to represent Osiris as a shepherd god. The symbolism of the flail is more uncertain with shepherds association with the god Andjety of the ninth nome of Lower Egypt proposed. He was commonly depicted as a pharaoh with a complexion of either green or black in mummiform.Osiris – Head of the God Osiris, ca. 595-525 B.C.E. Brooklyn Museum
29. Pharaoh – The pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-3, ꜥꜣ "column". It was used only with specific reference to the buildings of the palace. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as hm.f,'Majesty'. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign as pr-aa continued in Egyptian narratives. By this time, the Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derove the name of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title also occurs as פרעה; from then Late Latin pharaō, both - n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it فرعون fir'awn with "n". English at first spelt it "Pharao", but the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ and then rro. Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos.Pharaoh – Den
30. Ptolemaic dynasty – Their rule lasted from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared later known as Sōter "Saviour". The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens regnant, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the most famous was Cleopatra, with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Arsinoe IV, in opposition to Cleopatra Ptolemy Keraunos - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter.Ptolemaic dynasty – Ptolemy I Soter.
31. Red – Red is the color at the longer-wavelengths end of the spectrum of visible light next to orange, at the opposite end from violet. Red color has a light wavelength of roughly 620 -- 740 nanometers. Light with a longer wavelength than red but shorter than terahertz microwave is called infrared. Red is one of the secondary colors, resulting from the combination of yellow and magenta. Red is the complementary color of cyan. In nature, the red color of blood comes from the iron-containing protein found in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. The red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by both forms of iron oxide. It also causes the red color of the planet Mars. Since red is the color of blood, it has historically been associated with sacrifice, courage. Modern surveys in the United States and Europe show red is also the color most commonly associated with heat, activity, passion, sexuality, anger, joy. In China, many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. In the United States, red pertains to its supporters, as in Red states and blue states. The red is derived from the Old English rēad. The word can be further traced to the Proto-Indo European root rewdʰ -. In Sanskrit, the rudhira means red or blood.Red – Pure, or solid red, the color of most ripe strawberries.
32. Sculpture – Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith. The revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may also decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, often also containing inscriptions. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden.Sculpture – The Dying Gaul, or The Capitoline Gaul a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BCE Capitoline Museums, Rome
33. Saluki – The Saluki is a dog originally bred in the Fertile Crescent. The Saluki is typically deep-chested and long-legged. Salukis run their quarry down to kill or retrieve it. Historically, Salukis were used for hunting by nomadic tribes. Typical quarry included the gazelle, hare, jackal. The two ancient Sumerian words "Salu-ki" translate into "plunge-earth." The name of the breed first may have derived from "Saluqiyyah," the Arabic form of Seleucia. However, this is disputed. British diplomat Sir Terence Clark wrote that the Arabic word "Saluqi" describes a thing from a place named Saluq. However, the word "saluqi" might have been derived from reference to several other places: three towns called Saluqiyah. One has become modern Silifke, third is located near Baghdad. Salukis run their quarry down to retrieve it. The normal range for the breed is 23 -- 28 inches high at the withers and 40 -- 60 pounds in weight. Females Salukis are slightly smaller than males. The head is narrow with large eyes and drop ears.Saluki – Salukis come in a variety of coat colours.
34. Snake – Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca. Additionally, sea snakes are widespread throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. More than 20 families are currently recognized, comprising about 3,400 species. They range from the tiny, 10.4 cm-long thread snake to the reticulated python of 6.95 meters in length. The fossil species Titanoboa cerrejonensis was 12.8 meters long. The diversity of modern snakes appeared during the Paleocene period. The oldest preserved descriptions of snakes can be found in the Brooklyn Papyrus. Most species are those that have venom use it primarily to kill and subdue prey rather than for self-defense. Some possess venom potent enough to cause painful death to humans. Nonvenomous snakes either kill by constriction. The word ousted adder, as adder went on to narrow in meaning, though in Old English næddre was the general word for snake. Serpent, is from French, ultimately from Indo-European * serp -, which also gave Ancient Greek hérpō "I crawl". The fossil record of snakes is relatively poor because snake skeletons are typically fragile making fossilization uncommon.Snake
35. Trumpet – A trumpet is a musical instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles. The group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpets are used for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music. They are played by blowing air through almost-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the 15th century they have primarily been constructed of brass tubing, usually bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments generally have three valves in order to change their pitch. Most trumpets have valves of the type, while some have the rotary type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country. Each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter. The earliest trumpets date earlier. Metal trumpets from China date back to this period. The Shofar, made from the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible. They were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago.Trumpet – B ♭ trumpet
36. Viz (comics) – Viz is a popular British comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald. It also sends up tabloid newspapers, with mockeries of pages. Occasionally, it has no political standpoint. Editor Chris Donald himself cannot remember exactly where the name of the magazine comes from. What had begun as a few pages, sold to friends, became a phenomenon. To make up for Brownlow's diminishing interest in contributing, artist Graham Dury was hired and worked alongside Chris Donald. After a few years of steady sales, mostly in the North East of England, circulation had grown to around 5,000. As the magazine's popularity grew, the bedroom became too small and production moved to a nearby Jesmond office. Donald also hired another freelance artist, Simon Thorp, whose work had impressed him. For over a decade, these four would be the nucleus of Viz. In 1985, a deal was signed with Virgin Books to publish the comic nationally every two months. In 1987, John Brown, set up John Brown Publishing, to handle Viz. Sales exceeded a million by the end of 1989, making Viz for a time one of the biggest-selling magazines in the country. Inevitably, a number of imitations of Viz were launched, but these never matched the original in popularity, rarely in quality. In 2003, it changed hands again when IFG were bought out by Dennis Publishing.Viz (comics) – Cover of Issue 199
37. Yellow – Yellow is the color between green and orange in the spectrum of visible light. It is the color of ripe sunflowers and gold. It is a primary color in subtractive color, used in printing. It plays an important role in Asian culture, particularly in China, where it is seen as the color of glory, wisdom, harmony, culture. The yellow comes from the Old English geolu, geolwe, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the Indo-European base, gʰel -, as the words gold and yell; gʰel - means both bright and gleaming, to cry out. Yellow is a color which cries out for attention. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700. Yellow, in the form of yellow pigment made from clay, was one of the first colors used in prehistoric cave art. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old. In Ancient Egypt, + blue was associated with gold, considered to be imperishable, eternal and indestructible. The skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold. A small paintbox with orpiment pigment was found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Men were always shown with brown faces, women with yellow gold faces. The ancient Romans used yellow in their paintings to also in skin tones.Yellow – Yellow is the color of gold, butter, and ripe lemons.
38. 1920s – The 1920s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1920, ended on December 31, 1929. French speakers refer to the period as the "années folles", emphasizing the era's social, cultural dynamism. The economic prosperity experienced during the 1920s was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s. Each period of prosperity was the result of a shift in global affairs. The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the world’s second largest oil producing nation. Prosperity in the 1920s was not ubiquitous, however. The economic crisis that resulted led in 1923 and to severe economic problems. The economic hardships experienced during this period resulted in an environment conducive to the rise of the Nazi Party. The 1920s were also characterized by the rise of political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. Communism spread in the Russian Civil War. Fear of the spread of Communism led in Europe. The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America and Europe. The Roaring Twenties brought about highly visible social and cultural trends. These trends, made possible by economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Chicago, Paris, Berlin and London.1920s – Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol.
39. 1922 – As of the start of 1922, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained until 1923. January 7 – Dáil Éireann, the parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64–57 votes. January 8 – The Social Democratic Youth League of Norway is founded. January 9 – Julieta founded the Chilean communist party. January 10 – Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann. January 11 – The first successful insulin treatment of diabetes is made, by Frederick Banting in Toronto. January 12 – The British government releases the remaining Irish prisoners captured in the War of Independence. January 13 – The flu epidemic has claimed 804 victims in Britain. January 15 – Michael Collins becomes Chairman of the Irish Provisional Government. January 24 – Christian K. Nelson patents the Eskimo Pie. January 26 – Italian forces occupy Misrata in Libya. The reconquest of Libya begins. January 28 – Knickerbocker Storm: Snowfall from the biggest-ever recorded snowstorm in Washington, D.C. causes the roof of the Knickerbocker Theatre to collapse, killing 98. January 29 – The union of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador is dissolved. January 30 – Radio KZKZ-AM, the second radio station in the Philippines, begins broadcasting.1922 – January 11: Use of insulin for diabetes.
40. 2nd millennium BC – The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent propagates the use of the chariot. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age. World population begins to rise steadily, reaching some 50 million towards 1000 BC. Farther east, the Indus Valley civilization was in a period of decline, possibly as a result of intense, ruinous flooding. Egypt and Babylonia's military tactics were still based on foot soldiers transporting their equipment on donkeys. They were riding fast two-wheeled chariots powered by horses, a system of weaponry developed earlier in the context of plains warfare. This tool of war was unknown among the classical civilizations. The peoples in place were quick to adapt to the new tactics, a new international situation resulted from the change. Also contributing to the changes were the Sea Peoples, ship-faring raiders of the Mediterranean. C. 1600 BC–1360 BC Egyptian domination over Canaan and Syria. In the history of the Egyptian language, the early 2nd millennium saw a transition from Old Egyptian to Middle Egyptian. As the most used written form of the Ancient Egyptian language, it is frequently referred to simply as "Hieroglyphics".2nd millennium BC – Women figure in Menhir
41. Museum – More local ones exist in smaller cities, towns and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving specialists to serving the general public. The goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums and children's museums. The city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" is pluralized as "museums". The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens. However, Pausanias gives another place called "Museum," namely a small hill to the Akropolis. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve, display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. The purpose can also depend on one's point of view. To a professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism. Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the diffusion of knowledge." Museums of natural history in the 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order.Museum – The Louvre Museum in Paris (France), one of the largest and most famous museums in the world.
42. Norfolk – Norfolk /ˈnɔːrfək/ is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the west and north-west, Suffolk to the south. Its eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash.. The town is Norwich. Per cent of the county's population live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford. The Broads is a network of lakes on the county's east coast, extending south into Suffolk. The area is a not a National Park although is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled with camps along the higher land in the west where flints could be quarried. The Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD. Again in 60 AD led by Boudica. The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. Farming took place widely. Forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. Norfolk, several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which later merged with Mercia and then Wessex. The influence of the English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in" - ton"," - ham".Norfolk – Wells-next-the-Sea.
43. Seal (emblem) – The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal die; the imprint it creates as the seal impression. However engraved gems were often carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals. The process is essentially that of a mould. These "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used. These could be used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. It is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images, very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. Recently, seals have come to light to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse as to read correctly in the impression. From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were show particular characteristic forms. By a new set for seal forms, motifs and materials appear.Seal (emblem) – Present-day impression of a Late Bronze Age seal
44. Stargate SG-1 – Stargate SG-1 is an adventure and military science fiction television series and part of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Stargate franchise. The show, created by Jonathan Glassner, is based Stargate by Roland Emmerich. The television series was filmed in and around the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The series draws primarily upon Arthurian legend. The series was a ratings success for its first-run broadcasters and in syndication and was particularly popular in Europe and Australia. Stargate SG-1 was honored with numerous awards and award nominations in its ten-season run. Merchandise for Stargate SG-1 includes an audio series. The plot of Stargate SG-1 picks up a year after the conclusion of the events recounted in the original feature film. It follows the present-day adventures of SG-1, a military team from Earth. The SGC is brought back into action when the Stargate is revealed to be part of an interplanetary network connecting countless planets. SG teams are created to help defend Earth against the Goa'uld, who have interstellar pyramid warships and vast armies of Jaffa at their disposal. Another alien threat arises in the season 3 finale in the form of sentient machines called Replicators. Meanwhile, rogue agents of a shadowy agency on the NID, repeatedly attempt to take control of other alien technology. Despite Apophis's death in the beginning of season 5, the Goa'uld Empire remains a major foe in Stargate SG-1 until the end of season 8. The only influential Goa'uld in the last two seasons of Stargate SG-1 is the System Lord Ba'al, defeated in the direct-to-DVD film Stargate: Continuum.Stargate SG-1 – The Main cast of Stargate SG-1