1. Vincent van Gogh – Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter, among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around most in the last two years of his life. His suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh was serious, thoughtful. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He turned to religion, spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him financially, the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, still depictions of peasant labourers, contain few signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his later work. In 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes. During this period he broadened his matter to include olive trees, cypresses, sunflowers. His friendship with Gauguin ended with a razor when in a rage, he severed part of his left ear. He spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he moved in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris, he came under the care of the homeopathic doctor Paul Gachet.Vincent van Gogh – Self-Portrait, Spring 1887, Oil on pasteboard, 42 × 33.7 cm., Art Institute of Chicago (F 345)
2. Art – Until the 17th century, art was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis, expression, other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with science". Related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, military arts. However, there are many colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is not rational. In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic. For example, music imitates with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation -- through narrative or character, through drama or no drama. Aristotle constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals. The more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, ideas through the senses.Art – Clockwise from upper left: a self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh; a female ancestor figure by a Chokwe artist; detail from the Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli; and an Okinawan Shisa lion.
3. Amsterdam – Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 847,176 within the city proper, 2,431,000 in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. Amsterdam's name derives as a dam of the river Amstel. During that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. Many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned and built. The 19 -- 20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Seven of the world's 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. The city was previously ranked 3rd in innovation by 2thinknow in the Innovation Cities Index 2009. Famous Amsterdam residents included Anne Frank the diarist, the philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. The earliest recorded use of the name "Aemstelredamme" comes from a document dated October 1275.Amsterdam
4. Artist – The common usage in academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but mostly restricted to contexts like criticism. Wiktionary defines the noun'artist' as follows: A person who creates art. A person who creates art as an occupation. A person, skilled at some activity. A person whose trade or profession requires a knowledge of design, drawing, painting, etc. The Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words technique, technology, technical. In ancient Greece painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour. The art derives from the Latin "ars", which, although literally defined, means "skill method" or "technique", conveys a connotation of beauty. An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the field. In this period some "artisanal" products were expensive than paintings or sculptures. With the Academies in Europe the gap between applied arts was definitely set. Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person who engages in an activity deemed to be an art.Artist – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German artist known for his works of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, visual arts, and science.
5. Auguste Rodin – François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, deeply pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime. They clashed with figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, celebrated individual character and physicality. Rodin refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the artistic community. By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. He kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists. He married Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. Within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community. Rodin was born into a working-class family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin, a police department clerk.Auguste Rodin – Rodin circa 1862.
6. Black – It is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of light. Like grey, Black is an achromatic color, literally a color without hue. Black is often used to represent darkness; it is the symbolic opposite of white. It was one of the first colors used by artists in neolithic cave paintings. In the 14th century, Black began to be worn in much of Europe. Black became the color worn by English romantic poets, a high fashion color in the 20th century. In the Roman Empire, over the centuries it was frequently associated with death, evil, witches and magic. According to surveys in Europe and North America, Black is the color most commonly associated with the end, secrets, magic, force, violence, evil, elegance. More distant cognates include Ancient Greek phlegein. The Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos' could mean both dark black. The Ancient Romans had two words for black: ater was a dull black, while niger was a brilliant, saturated black. Old High German also had two words for black: swartz for dull blach for a luminous black. These are parallelled in Middle English for luminous black. Swart still survives as the swarthy, while blaek became the modern English black.Black – Outer space seen from Mars (Image taken by NASA 's MER Spirit rover)
7. Blue – Blue is the colour between violet and green on the optical spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive blue when observing light with a wavelength between 495 nanometres, between 45 and 49.5 ångströms. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometers. Blue mixed together form violet, blue and yellow together form green. Blue is also a primary colour in the RGB model, used to create all the colours on the screen of a television or computer monitor. The deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. More blue comes to our eyes. An optical effect called Tyndall scattering, similar to Rayleigh scattering, explains blue eyes; there is no blue pigment in blue eyes. Distant objects appear more blue because of another optical effect called atmospheric perspective. Blue has been used since ancient times. It is the most important color in Judaism. In the Middle Ages, blue was used to colour the stained glass windows of cathedrals. Beginning in the 9th century, Chinese artists used cobalt to make fine white porcelain. Blue dyes for clothing were made in Asia and Africa. Synthetic blue dyes and pigments gradually replaced mineral pigments and vegetable dyes.Blue – Sky blue or pale azure, mid-way on the RBG colour wheel between blue and cyan.
8. Copenhagen – Copenhagen; Danish: København ) is the capital and most populated city of Denmark. It has a larger urban population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over million inhabitants. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. Originally a Viking village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After suffering in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, waterfronts. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Copenhagen Business School. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Copenhagen – From upper left: Christiansborg Palace, Frederik's Church, Tivoli Gardens and Nyhavn.
9. Charles Dickens – Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. Dickens is regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. By the twentieth century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. Short stories enjoy lasting popularity. Born in Portsmouth, he left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors' prison. Dickens's literary success began with the 1836 publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years Dickens had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour, keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in weekly instalments, pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication. He often modified his plot and character development based on such feedback. He often wove elements from topical events into his narratives. Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers. He was regarded as the literary colossus of his age. A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. , like many of his novels, evoke images of early Victorian London. A Tale of Two Cities, set in London and Paris, is his best-known work of historical fiction.Charles Dickens – Dickens in New York, 1867
10. Color – Color or colour is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, purple, or bronze. This perception of color derives by electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of light. Physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them. This reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as emission spectra, etc.. Human trichromacy is the basis for all modern color spaces that assign associate corresponding distances between colors. The mere presence of "extra" photoreceptor types does not directly imply that they are being used functionally in an animal. Demonstrating improved spectral discrimination in any animal can be difficult since complex sets of neurons affect color perception in ways that are generally difficult to interrogate. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, simply color science. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity. When the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at different wavelengths; a source's spectrum is a distribution giving its intensity at each wavelength. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors. The wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. A common list identifies six main bands: red, orange, yellow, blue, violet.Color – Colored pencils
11. Camille Pissarro – Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Pissarro later worked alongside Paul Signac when he took at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Cézanne said "he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord," and he was also one of Gauguin's masters. Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on 10 July 1830 on the island of St. Thomas to Frederick and Rachel Manzano de Pissarro. His father was of Portuguese Jewish descent and held French nationality. His mother was from a French-Jewish family from the island of St. Thomas. His father was a merchant who came to the island from France to deal with the hardware store of a deceased uncle and married his widow. In subsequent years his four children were forced to attend the all-black primary school. Upon his death, his will specified that his estate be split equally between the synagogue and St. Thomas' Protestant church. When Camille was twelve his father sent him to boarding school in France.Camille Pissarro – Circa 1900
12. Drink – A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain water, milk, juices, coffee, soft drinks. In addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine, liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture and development for 8,000 years. Non-alcoholic drinks often signify drinks that are made with less than.5 percent alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcoholized wines. When the human body becomes dehydrated it experiences the sensation of thirst. This craving of fluids results in an instinctive need to drink. The complete elimination of i.e. water, from the body will result in death faster than the removal of any other substance. Milk have been basic drinks throughout history. As water is essential for life, it has also been the carrier of many diseases. As mankind evolved, new techniques were discovered to create drinks from the plants that were native to their areas. The earliest archaeological evidence of production yet found has been at sites in Georgia and Iran. Beer was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The invention of beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to build civilization.Drink – The world's second-most-consumed drink, tea
13. Digitalis – Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, biennials commonly called foxgloves. Recent phylogenetic research has placed it in the much enlarged family Plantaginaceae. This genus is native to southwestern Europe, western and central Asia and northwestern Africa. The scientific name refers to the ease with which a flower of Digitalis purpurea can be fitted over a human fingertip. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, vary in colour with species, from purple to pink, white, yellow. The best-known species is Digitalis purpurea. The flowers can also possess various spottings. The first year of growth of the common foxglove produces only the stem with its basal leaves. During the second year of the plant's life, a leafy stem from 50 to 255 centimetres tall grows atop the roots of healthy plants. Larvae of a moth, consume the flowers of the common foxglove for food. Other species of Lepidoptera eat the leaves, including the lesser yellow underwing. The digitalis is also used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides, particularly one called digoxin, extracted from various plants of this genus. The foxglove is formed of the elements fox and glove. The name is recorded in Old English as foxes glofe/glofa'fox's glove', though there it does not refer to Digitalis. Although the elements of the name are transparent, their meaning is not.Digitalis – Foxglove
14. Doctor Who – Doctor Who is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of the Doctor, -- a spacefaring and time-travelling humanoid alien. He explores the universe in a sentient time-travelling space ship. Its exterior appears as a British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes, while working to help people in need. Elsewhere it has become a cult television favourite. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series. The programme originally ran to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 in the form of a television film. The programme was relaunched in 2005, since then has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff. Twelve actors have headlined the series as the Doctor. All represent stages in the life of the same character and form a single narrative. The plot's time-travelling nature means that different incarnations of the Doctor occasionally meet. Peter Capaldi, took on the role after Matt Smith's exit in the 2013 Christmas special "The Time of the Doctor". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the primary character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey, who simply goes by the name "The Doctor".Doctor Who – The Present TARDIS prop used from 2010 till the present day.
15. Dada – Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. A precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 when he created his first readymades. Dada, in addition to being anti-war, was also anti-bourgeois. The roots of Dada lay in pre-war avant-garde. The development of collage, combined with Wassily Kandinsky's theoretical writings and abstraction, detached the movement from the constraints of reality and convention. The writings of German Expressionists liberated Dada from the tight correlation between words and meaning. Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments. Futurism developed to the work of various artists. Dada subsequently combined these approaches. The movement influenced groups including surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, pop art and Fluxus. Dada was an international movement, with participants in Europe and North America. The beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of World War I. Many Dadaists believed that the ` reason' and ` logic' of capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to embrace chaos and irrationality. For example, George Grosz later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction."Dada – Cover of the first edition of the publication Dada by Tristan Tzara; Zürich, 1917
16. Drawing – Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium. A instrument releases small amount of material onto a surface, leaving a visible mark. The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as plastic, leather, canvas, board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on indeed almost anything. The medium has been a fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. It is one of most efficient means of communicating visual ideas. The wide availability of drawing instruments makes drawing one of the most common artistic activities. In addition to its more artistic forms, drawing is frequently used in animation, architecture, engineering and technical drawing. Usually not intended as a finished work, is sometimes called a sketch. An artist who works in technical drawing may be called a drafter, draftsman or a draughtsman. Drawing is one of the major forms of expression within the visual arts. Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour, while colored-pencil drawings may approach or cross a boundary between drawing and painting. In Western terminology, drawing is distinct from painting, even though similar media often are employed in both tasks. Dry media, normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel paintings. Drawing may be done with a liquid medium, applied with pens.Drawing – Pen and wash lion by Rembrandt in the Louvre
17. Don McLean – Donald "Don" McLean III is an American singer-songwriter best known for the 1971 album American Pie, containing the songs "American Pie" and "Vincent". McLean's father were also named Donald McLean. The family of McLean's mother, Elizabeth, came from Abruzzo in central Italy. They settled in Port Chester, New York, at the end of the 19th century. He has extended family in Los Angeles and Boston. That's what he did! We became good friends - he has the most remarkable memory of anyone I've ever known." When McLean was 15, his father died. Fulfilling his father's request, McLean briefly attended Villanova University, dropping out after four months. He received a bachelor's degree in business administration in 1968. He learned the art of performing from mentor Pete Seeger. McLean accompanied Seeger on his Clearwater trip up the Hudson River in 1969 to raise awareness about environmental pollution in the river. During this time McLean wrote songs that would appear on Tapestry. McLean co-edited Songs and Sketches of the First Clearwater Crew with sketches by Thomas B. Allen for which Pete Seeger wrote the foreword. Seeger and McLean sang "Shenandoah" on the 1974 Clearwater album.Don McLean – Don McLean at the Royal Albert Hall in 2012
18. Edvard Munch – One of his most well-known works is The Scream of 1893. Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had an elder sister, Johanne Sophie, three younger siblings: Peter Andreas, Inger Marie. Both Sophie and Edvard appear to have inherited their artistic talent from their mother. Edvard Munch was related to historian Peter Andreas Munch. The family moved to Christiania in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress. Edvard's mother died in 1877. After their mother's death, the Munch siblings were raised by their aunt Karen. Often ill for much of the winters and kept out of school, Edvard would draw to keep himself occupied. Munch was tutored by his aunt. Christian Munch also entertained the children with vivid ghost-stories and the tales of American writer Edgar Allan Poe. As Edvard remembered it, Christian's positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. He wrote, "My father was temperamentally nervous and obsessively religious -- to the point of psychoneurosis. From him I inherited the seeds of madness. The angels of fear, death stood by my side since the day I was born."Edvard Munch – A photograph of Munch.
19. Erik Satie – Éric Alfred Leslie Satie, who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. Satie was a colourful figure in the 20th century Parisian avant-garde. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, Surrealism, the Theatre of the Absurd. An eccentric, Satie was introduced shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopédies. Satie was the son of Alfred Satie and his wife Jane Leslie, born in London to Scottish parents. Erik was born in Normandy; his home there is open to the public. When Satie was four years old, his family moved to Paris, his father having been offered a translator's job in the capital. After his mother's death in 1872, he was sent, together with Conrad, back to Honfleur to live with his paternal grandparents. There he received his first music lessons from a local organist. In 1878, the two brothers were reunited in Paris with their father, who remarried shortly afterwards. From the early 1880s onwards, Satie started publishing salon compositions among others. In 1879, Satie entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he was soon labelled untalented by his teachers. His professor of piano at the Conservatoire, described his pupil's piano technique in flatly negative terms, "insignificant and laborious" and "worthless". Émile Decombes called him "the laziest student in the Conservatoire". Years later, Satie related that Mathias, with great insistence, told him that his real talent lay in composing.Erik Satie – Erik Satie
20. Franz Kafka – Franz Kafka was a German-language writer of novels and short stories, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature. His best known works include "Die Verwandlung", Das Schloss. The Kafkaesque has entered the English language to describe situations like those in his writing. Kafka was born into a middle-class, Jewish family in Prague, the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He became engaged to several women but never married. He died in 1924 from tuberculosis. His work went on to influence a vast range of writers, critics, philosophers during the 20th century. Kafka was born near the Old Town Square in Prague, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His family were middle-class Ashkenazi Jews. Hermann brought the Kafka family to Prague. Julie, was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous retail merchant in Poděbrady, was better educated than her husband. Hermann and Julie had six children, of whom Franz was the eldest. Georg and Heinrich, died in infancy before Franz was seven; his three sisters were Gabriele, Valerie and Ottilie. They all died during the Holocaust of World War II. , the last documentation of her.Franz Kafka – Franz Kafka in 1906
21. The Metamorphosis – The Metamorphosis is a novella by Franz Kafka, first published in 1915. It is studied across the Western world. The story begins with Gregor Samsa, waking to find himself transformed into a large, insect-like creature. The cause of Gregor's transformation is never revealed, Kafka himself never gave an explanation. A traveling salesman, wakes up to find himself transformed into a giant insect. He reflects on how dreary life as a traveling salesman is. As he looks at the clock, he notices that he has missed his train for work. He ponders the consequences of this delay. Gregor's mother knocks on the door, he answers her. She is concerned for Gregor because he is late for work, unorthodox for him. Gregor answers his mother and realizes that his voice has changed, but his answer is short, so his mother does not notice. Grete, to whom he is very close, then begs him to open it. He tries to get out of bed but is incapable of moving his body. While trying to move, he finds that his office manager, the chief clerk, has shown up to check on him. He finally rocks his body to the floor and calls out that he will open the door shortly.The Metamorphosis – First edition cover
22. Georges Braque – Georges Braque was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. Braque's work between 1912 is closely associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso. The quiet nature of Braque was partially eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso. Georges Braque was born on 13 May 1882 in Argenteuil, Val-d'Oise. He trained to be a house painter and decorator like his father and grandfather. However, he also studied artistic painting during evenings at the École des Beaux-Arts, in Le Havre, to 1899. In Paris, he was awarded his certificate in 1902. He attended the Académie Humbert, also in Paris, painted there until 1904. It was here that he met Francis Picabia. After seeing the work exhibited by the artistic group known as the "Fauves" in 1905, he adopted a Fauvist style. A group that included Henri Matisse and André Derain among others, used brilliant colors to represent emotional response. In 1906, Braque traveled with Friesz to Antwerp, home to Le Havre to paint. In May 1907, he successfully exhibited works of the Fauve style in the Salon des Indépendants. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne greatly affected the avant-garde artists of Paris, resulting in the advent of Cubism. Braque's paintings of 1908–1913 reflected his new interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective.Georges Braque – Georges Braque, 1908, photograph published in Gelett Burgess, The Wild Men of Paris, Architectural Record, May 1910
23. Genius – Despite the presence of scholars in many subjects throughout history, many geniuses have shown high achievements in only a single kind of activity. Many authors systematically distinguish these terms. In ancient Rome, the genius was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, place. The noun is related to the Latin verb genui, genitus, "to bring into being, produce", as well as to the Greek word for birth. The assessment of intelligence was initiated by James McKeen Cattell. Galton is regarded as the founder of psychometry. He studied Charles Darwin about biological evolution. Hypothesizing that eminence is inherited from ancestors, Galton did a study of families of eminent people in Britain, publishing it as Hereditary Genius. Galton's ideas were elaborated from the work of two 19th-century pioneers in statistics: Carl Friedrich Gauss and Adolphe Quetelet. His initial work in criminology led him to observe "the greater the number of individuals observed the more do peculiarities become effaced..." This ideal from which the peculiarities were effaced became "the average man". In contrast to Quetelet, Galton's average man was theoretical only. There was no measure of only a large number of very specific averages. Galton's method in Hereditary Genius was to assess the eminent relatives of eminent men. He found that the number of eminent relatives was greater with closer degree of kinship.Genius – Leonardo da Vinci is widely acknowledged as having been a genius and a polymath.
24. Green – It is the color between blue and yellow on the spectrum of visible light. Green is evoked with a predominant wavelength of roughly 495 -- 570 nm. The English word green comes from the Middle English and Anglo-Saxon word grene, from the same Germanic root as the words "grass" and "grow". Green is the color of grass leaves and as a result is the color most associated with springtime, growth and nature. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, colored green by its content. In surveys made in the United States, green is the color most commonly associated with nature, life, health, youth, spring, hope and envy. Green is also the traditional color of permission; a green light means go ahead, a green card permits permanent residence in the United States. Green is the most important color in Islam. Green is a color of the flag of Ireland. Because of its association with nature, Green is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties. This has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold environmentally friendly, products. The recorded use of the word as a color term in Old English dates to ca.Green – The word green has the same Germanic root as the words for grass and grow.
25. History of the Netherlands – The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized zone of the Roman empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against the new Protestantism and other dissent, which polarized those peoples of present-day Belgium and Holland. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the sciences. During the 18th century the wealth of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with French neighbors weakened it. Britain seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, turning it into New York. There was growing conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. A pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795 -- 1806. Napoleon made it the Kingdom of Holland, later simply a French imperial province.History of the Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
26. History of painting – The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, spans all cultures. It represents a continuous, though periodically disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity, that continues into the 21st century. Until the 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries earlier. African art, Jewish art, Islamic art, Indian art, Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, vice versa. Initially serving utilitarian purpose, followed by imperial, civic, religious patronage, Eastern and Western painting later found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class. From the Modern era, the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for a wealthy aristocracy. Beginning with the Baroque era artists received private commissions from a prosperous middle class. Turner. The 19th century saw the rise of the commercial gallery, which provided patronage in the 20th century. The oldest known paintings are approximately 40,000 years old. José Luis Sanchidrián at the University of Cordoba, Spain, believes the paintings are more likely to have been painted by Neanderthals than modern humans. Images at the Chauvet cave in France are thought to be about 32,000 years old. They are painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting.History of painting – Cave painting of aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France, prehistoric art
27. Impressionism – Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition in France. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They also often painted outdoors. Previously, portraits as well as landscapes were usually painted in a studio. The Impressionists found that they could capture the transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. The Impressionists, however, developed new techniques specific to the style. In the middle of the 19th century -- a time as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris and waged war -- the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art. The Académie was the preserver of French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, portraits were valued; landscape and still life were not. The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artist's hand in the work. Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel.Impressionism – Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
28. Joseph Conrad – Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Conrad was granted British nationality in 1886. Conrad wrote novels, many with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of an impassive, inscrutable universe. He is considered an early modernist, though his works still contain elements of 19th-century realism. Many films have been adapted from, or inspired by, Conrad's works. Conrad was the only child of his wife Ewa Bobrowska. His father was a writer, translator, would-be revolutionary. Conrad was subsequently known to his family as "Konrad", rather than "Józef". Particularly patriotic literature, was held in high esteem by the area's Polish population. The Korzeniowski family played a significant role in Polish attempts to regain independence. Conrad's paternal grandfather formed his own cavalry squadron during the November 1830 Uprising. His choice of exile over resistance, were a source of lifelong guilt for Conrad. Because of the father's attempts at his political activism, the family moved repeatedly. In May 1861 they moved to Warsaw, where Apollo joined the resistance against the Russian Empire. This led in Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel.Joseph Conrad – Nowy Świat 47, Warsaw, where three-year-old Conrad lived with his parents in 1861. In front: a "Chopin's Warsaw" bench.
29. John Wayne – Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed Duke, was an American actor, director, producer. An Academy Award-winner for True Grit, Wayne was among the top office draws for three decades. Born in Winterset, Iowa, he grew up in Southern California. Wayne found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship as a result of a bodysurfing accident. Initially working for the Fox Film Corporation, Wayne mostly appeared in small bit parts. Wayne's career took off with John Ford's Stagecoach making him an instant star. Wayne went on to star in 142 pictures. Biographer Ronald Davis said, "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's heritage. In them he played cowboys, cavalrymen, unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic's central creation myth." Wayne is also remembered in The Quiet Man, Rio Bravo, The Longest Day. In his final performance, Wayne starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist. His last public appearance was at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979. He was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa. Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the May 30, 1907 edition that Wayne weighed 13 pounds at birth. His middle name was soon changed to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert.John Wayne – Wayne in a 1965 publicity photo
30. Jacques Maroger – Jacques Maroger was a painter and the technical director of the Louvre Museum's laboratory in Paris. He devoted his life to understanding the oil-based media of the Old Masters. He became an influential teacher. In 1907, Maroger worked under his direction until Anquetin's death in 1932. He was very active in the Impressionist movement of the time. In his later years, Anquetin became very interested in the works of the Flemish masters. As Maroger's teacher, Anquetin provided guidance in the study of drawing, anatomy and painting techniques. Maroger began to become famous around 1931, when the National Academy of Design in New York City reported Maroger's painting discoveries. From 1930 to 1939, Maroger started to work as Technical Director of the Louvre Laboratory. He became a lecturer at the Parsons School of Design in New York. In 1942, Maroger established a school of painting. Maroger published The Secret Formulas and Techniques of the Masters in 1948. Techniques have been studied by many modern painters who wish to obtain the paint quality of the Old Masters. The "secret formula" that Maroger devised during his lifetime included the main ingredient white lead. White lead when cooked as a drying agent accelerating the polymerization of the oil film.Jacques Maroger – Self portrait
31. Lithography – Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto other suitable material. Lithography originally used an image drawn with wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. The ink would finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. It can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for publication. In fact, "photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique well as the term were introduced in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.Lithography – Charles Marion Russell 's The Custer Fight (1903), with the range of tones fading toward the edges
32. Martin Scorsese – Martin Charles Scorsese is an American director, producer, screenwriter, actor, film historian, whose career spans more than 53 years. Scorsese's body of work addresses such themes as Sicilian-American identity, Roman Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption, gang conflict. Many of his films are also notable for their depiction of violence and liberal use of profanity. Part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in history. In 1990, he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation. His work in television includes the episode of the latter of which he also co-created. He won the Academy Award for The Departed. With eight Best Director nominations, he is the most nominated living director, is tied with Billy Wilder for the second most nominations overall. Scorsese was born in Queens, New York. His family moved to the Little Italy section of Manhattan before he started school. Catherine Scorsese, both worked in New York's Garment District. His mother was an actress. His father's parents emigrated from Polizzi Generosa, in the province of Palermo, Sicily, his maternal grandparents were also from Palermo, precisely from Ciminna. Scorsese was raised in a devoutly Catholic environment. As a teenager in the Bronx, Scorsese frequently rented Powell and Pressburger's The Tales of Hoffmann from a store that had one copy of the reel.Martin Scorsese – Scorsese at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival
33. Modernism – Many modernists rejected religious belief. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel, atonal and twelve-tone music, abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century. Others focus as an aesthetic introspection. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites. The Pre-Raphaelites actually foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most definitely begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has also had later Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued. A 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. These technological advances led like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on how tall man-made objects could be. These engineering marvels radically altered the daily lives of people. His ideas had an important influence on later thinkers, including Nietzsche. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection undermined the idea of human uniqueness. Karl Marx argued that the workers were anything but free.Modernism
34. Mary Cassatt – Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. Cassatt lived much of her adult life in France, where she later exhibited among the Impressionists. She often created images of the private lives of women, on the intimate bonds between mothers and children. Cassatt was described alongside Marie Bracquemond and Berthe Morisot. Cassatt was born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, now part of Pittsburgh. She was born into an upper-middle-class family: Robert Simpson Cassat, was a successful stockbroker and speculator. He was descended from the French Huguenot Jacques Cossart, who came to New Amsterdam in 1662. Katherine Kelso Johnston, came from a family. Katherine Cassatt, educated and well-read, had a profound influence on her daughter. The ancestral name had been Cossart. A distant cousin of artist Robert Henri, Cassatt was one of seven children, of whom two died in infancy. One brother, Alexander Johnston Cassatt, later became president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The family moved eastward, first to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, then to the Philadelphia area, where she started her schooling at the age of six. While abroad she learned German and French and had her first lessons in drawing and music. It is likely that her first exposure to French artists Ingres, Delacroix, Corot, Courbet was at the Paris World’s Fair of 1855.Mary Cassatt – Self-portrait by Mary Cassatt, c. 1878, gouache on paper, 23⅝ × 16 3/16 in., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
35. Minimalism – In the visual arts and music, minimalism is a style that uses pared-down design elements. Minimalism began with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Frank Stella. It is often interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism and a bridge to postminimal art practices. The minimalist often colloquially refers to anything, spare or stripped to its essentials. In the wake of a few others the art movement called minimal art emerged. Minimalism was also a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1950s. Unlike the previous decade's more subjective philosophy about art making theirs was ` objective'. In general, minimalism's features included geometric, often cubic forms purged of equality of parts, repetition, neutral surfaces, industrial materials. A theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1-3", originally published across three issues of Artforum in 1966. In these essays, Morris attempted to define one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries. The general shift in theory of which this essay is an expression suggests the transition into what would later be referred to as postminimalism. In the catalog, Carl Andre noted, "Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes. There is nothing else in his painting."Minimalism – Yves Klein, IKB 191, 1962, Monochrome painting. Klein was a pioneer in the development of Minimal art.
36. Netherlands – The Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country located in Western Europe with three island territories in the Caribbean. The largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament. The name Holland is also incorrectly used to refer informally to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" literally influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50 % of its land exceeding one metre above sea level. Most of the areas below level are man-made. Since the 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17 % of the country's current land mass. With a density of 408 people per km2 -- 505 if water is excluded -- the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, Taiwan have both a larger population and higher population density. England at 420 people per km2 is also more densely populated when the total area of the Netherlands including water is used. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, after the United States. This is partly due to the fertility of the mild climate. In 2001, it became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union.Netherlands – The Netherlands in 5500 BC
37. Otterlo – Otterlo is a small village in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands, in or near the Nationaal Park De Hoge Veluwe. The Kröller-Müller Museum, named after Helene Kröller-Müller, has a considerable collection of Vincent van Gogh paintings. Otterlo was a separate municipality until 1818, when it merged with Ede. Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Otterlo". Map of the former municipality, around 1868. CBC Archives - CBC Radio reporting from Otterlo April 17, 1945.Otterlo – Otterlo, reformed church
38. Oil painting – Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, safflower oil. The choice of oil imparts a range such as the amount of drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are also visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine frankincense, to gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, replaced traditional paint. Traditional painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with thinned paint. Oil paint is usually mixed with other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of application is ` fat over lean'. This means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will crack and peel.Oil painting – Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06
39. Paris – Paris is the capital and the most populous city of France. It has a population in 2013 of 2,229,621 within the administrative limits. The agglomeration has grown well beyond the city's administrative limits. The Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris was founded by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its name. It retains that position still today. The city is also a major rail, highway, air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily. It is the second busiest system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Paris is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, the Francilienne motorway. Most of France's major universities and écoles are located in Paris, as are France's major newspapers, including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération. The rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros.Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
40. Postmodernism – Accordingly, thought is broadly characterized to pluralism, self-referentiality, irony. Postmodernism includes critical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, linguistics, economics, architecture, criticism. Postmodernism is often associated with schools of thought such as post-structuralism, well as philosophers such as Jacques Derrida, Frederic Jameson. The term postmodern was first used around the 1880s. John Watkins Chapman suggested "a Postmodern style of painting" as a way to depart from French Impressionism. In 1921 and 1925, postmodernism had been used to describe new forms of art and music. In 1942 H. R. Hays described it as a new literary form. Peter Drucker suggested the transformation into a post modern world happened between 1937 and 1957. Post-structuralism resulted similarly to postmodernism by following a time of structuralism. It is characterized by new ways of thinking through structuralism, contrary to the original form. "Postmodernist" describes part of a movement; "Postmodern" places it in the period of time since the 1950s, making it a part of contemporary history. Martin Heidegger Rejected the philosophical basis of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity" and asserted that similar grounding oppositions in logic ultimately refer to one another. He stressed the historicity and cultural construction of concepts while simultaneously advocating the necessity of an atemporal and immanent apprehension of them. In this latter premise, Heidegger shares an affinity with the late Romantic philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, another principal forerunner of Post-structuralist and Postmodernist thought. Instead, Foucault focused on the ways in which such constructs can foster cultural hegemony, violence and exclusion.Postmodernism – Portland Building, an example of Postmodern architecture
41. Princeton University – Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, where it was renamed Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides instruction in the humanities, engineering. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. The university has graduated many notable alumni. Two U.S. Presidents, 12 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in order to train ministers. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College. Gov. Jonathan Belcher replied: "What a hell of a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation.Princeton University – A commemorative 3-cent stamp from 1953 celebrating the bicentennial of Nassau Hall
42. Pablo Picasso – Picasso demonstrated artistic talent in his early years, painting through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with ideas. His work is often categorized into periods. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish law. His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa. Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later on become an atheist. Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats. Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "the Spanish word for "pencil". From the age of seven, Picasso received artistic training in figure drawing and oil painting. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork. The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts.Pablo Picasso – Picasso in 1908
43. Pencil – Pencils create marks by physical abrasion, leaving behind a trail of solid material that adheres to a sheet of paper or other surface. They are distinct from pens, which instead disperse a trail of liquid or ink that stains the light colour of the paper. Most pencil cores are made of graphite mixed with a binder which leaves grey or black marks that can be easily erased. Other types of core are less widely used, such as charcoal pencils, which are mainly used by artists for drawing and sketching. Grease pencils have a softer, waxy core that can leave marks on smooth surfaces such as glass or porcelain. The most common type of casing is of thin wood, usually hexagonal in section but sometimes cylindrical, permanently bonded to the core. Permanent casings may be constructed of other materials such as plastic or paper. To use the pencil, the casing must be peeled off to expose the working end of the core as a sharp point. Mechanical pencils retracted through the casing tip as needed. The meaning of "writing implement" apparently evolved late in the 16th century. Prior to 1565, a large deposit of graphite was discovered on the approach to Grey Knotts in Borrowdale parish, Cumbria, England. It could easily be sawn into sticks. This remains the only large-scale deposit of graphite ever found in this solid form. The substance was thought to be a form of lead. Consequently, it was called plumbago.Pencil – HB graphite pencils.