Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC)
South Asia (c. 3000– 1200 BC)
Europe (c. 3200–600 BC)
China (c. 2000–700 BC)
Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC)
South Asia (c. 3000– 1200 BC)
Europe (c. 3200–600 BC)
China (c. 2000–700 BC)
1. Bronze Age – The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly from outside the region. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems. Human-made technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make alloy. The Age was a time of developing trade networks. The dating of the foil has been disputed. The Age in the ancient Near East began in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics. The usual division into an Early, Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. Babylon in the Late Age similarly had large populations.Bronze Age – Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.
2. Chalcolithic – The Age was originally defined as a transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The archaeological site of Belovode on the Rudnik mountain in Serbia contains the world's oldest securely dated evidence of copper smelting from 5,000 BCE. The multiple names result from multiple recognitions of the period. Originally the term "Bronze Age" meant that either bronze was being used as the chief hard substance for the manufacture of tools and weapons. He did not, however, chose to retain the traditional three-age system. In 1884, Gaetano Chierici, perhaps following the lead of Evans, renamed it as the Eneo-litica, or "Bronze-stone" transition. This phrase was never intended to mean that the period was the only one in which both stone were used. The Age features the use of copper, excluding bronze; moreover, stone continued to be used throughout both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. "Litica" is not another - lithic age. Subsequently British scholars used either the term "Eneolithic", a translation of Chierici's eneo-litica. About the year 1900, many writers began to avoid the false segmentation. It was at this time that the misunderstanding began among those who had not understood the Italian. The - lithic was seen as a new - a part of the Stone Age in which copper was used, which may appear paradoxical. Today Copper Age, Eneolithic and Chalcolithic are used synonymously to mean Evans's original definition of Copper Age. The literature in general, avoids the use of ` chalcolithic', whereas Middle Eastern archaeologists regularly use it.Chalcolithic – Painting of a Copper Age walled city, Los Millares, Iberia
3. Ancient Near East – The ancient Near East is studied in the fields of Near Eastern ancient history. The ancient Near East is considered one of the cradles of civilization. During the period states became increasingly large, until by the end the region was controlled by military empires who had conquered a number of different cultures. The phrase "ancient Near East" utilizes Far East as global regions of interest to the British Empire. The distinction began during the Crimean War. The two theatres were described as "the Near East" and "the Far East." Shortly, they were to share the stage with Middle East, which continues in modern times. In the meanwhile, ancient Near East had become distinct. Ancient Near East periodization is the attempt to categorize or eras, of the Near East. The result is a descriptive abstraction that provides a useful handle on Near East periods of time with relatively stable characteristics. Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization. The late Uruk period saw the gradual emergence of corresponds to the Early Bronze Age. Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. The Akkadians eventually fragmented into Assyria and Babylonia.Ancient Near East – Overview map of the ancient Near East
4. Bronze Age Anatolia – The prehistory of Anatolia stretches from the Paleolithic era through to the appearance of classical civilisation in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The term Age is used to denote the period straddling the stone and Bronze Ages. Anatolia, also known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is considered to be the westernmost extent of Western Asia. The earliest representations of culture in Anatolia can be found in archaeological sites located in the central and eastern part of the region. Stone Age artifacts such as animal bones and food fossils were found at Burdur. After the fall of the Hittites, the new states of Phrygia and Lydia stood strong on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish. Only the threat from a Persian kingdom prevented them from advancing past their peak of success. The Stone Age is a prehistoric period in which stone was widely used in the manufacture of implements. In 2014, a tool was found in the Gediz River, securely dated to 1.2 million years ago. Evidence of paleolithic habitation the Okuzini, Beldibi and Belbasi, Kumbucagi and Kadiini caves in adjacent areas. Examples of paleolithic humans can be found in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, in other Turkish institutions. Evidence of fruit and of animal bones has been found at Yarimburgaz. The caves of the Mediterranean region contain murals. Remains of a mesolithic culture in Anatolia can be found also in Thrace and the western Black Sea area. Mesolithic remains have been located in the same caves as the paleolithic drawings.Bronze Age Anatolia – A royal tomb in Alaca Höyük
5. Bronze Age Caucasus – Up to including the early 19th century, a part of the Northern Caucasus all formed part of the Persian Empire. Russia annexed the rest of the Northern Caucasus in the course of the 19th century in the Caucasian Wars. The Northern Caucasus became the scene of intense fighting during the Second World War. The Nazis intended to establish a Reichskommissariat Kaukasus to control the Caucasian territories of the Soviet Union. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia became independent nations. The Russian Empire gains territories in the North Caucasus in the Russo-Persian war of 1722/3. Following the death of Nader Shah, Kartli and Kakheti were merged in 1762 seceding from Persian overlordship. King Erekle II concluded the Treaty of Georgievsk with the Russian Empire. Catherine the Great used Georgia against both Iran and the Ottoman Empire. The Qajar dynasty attempted to restore Persian hegemony over the Caucasus. While Georgia and Armenia remained Christian, the Chechens gradually adopted Sunni Islam. The Circassians were mostly Islamized under the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century. A Little War that Shook the World: Georgia, Russia, the Future of the West. NYU. ISBN 978-0-230-61773-5 de Waal, Thomas.Bronze Age Caucasus – Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, completed in 303 AD, UNESCO World Heritage Site, religious centre of the Armenia.
6. Ancient Egypt – It is one of six civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh Narmer. In the aftermath of Alexander one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it became a Roman province. The success of Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. Nomadic human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. The Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. This is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.Ancient Egypt – The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
7. Bronze Age Levant – The term normally does not include Anatolia, the Caucasus Mountains, any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. Multiple waves of humans came Out of Africa I. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens are demonstrated at the area of Mount Carmel, during the Middle Paleolithic dating from about c. 90,000 BC. The later Sebilian I Egyptian culture of c. 50,000 BC. Stephen Oppenheimer suggests that this reflects a movement of human groups back into North Africa, at this time. This culture was quite successful spreading as the Antelian culture, far as Southern Anatolia, with the Atlitan culture. After the Late Glacial Maxima, a new Epipaleolithic culture appears in Southern Palestine. The appearance of the Kebarian culture, of microlithic type implies a significant rupture in the cultural continuity of Levantine Upper Paleolithic. The Kebaran culture, with its use of microliths, is associated with the domestication of the dog. 24,000–17,000 BC Halfan culture of Egypt, that came from the still earlier Aterian tradition of the Sahara. Some linguists see this as the earliest arrival of Nostratic languages in the Middle East. Culture was quite successful, was ancestral to the later Natufian culture, which extended throughout the whole of the Levantine region. This was replaced by Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, dwelling in square houses, coming from Northern Syria and the Euphrates bend. During the period of 8500 -- another hunter-gatherer group, showing clear affinities with the cultures of Egypt was in Sinai. In the Amuq valley of Syria, PPNB culture seems influencing further cultural developments further south.Bronze Age Levant – The Levant
8. Bronze Age Mesopotamia – While in the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods only parts of Upper Mesopotamia were occupied, the southern alluvium was settled during the late Neolithic period. Mesopotamia literally means " between rivers" in ancient Greek. The neighbouring steppes to the western part of the Zagros Mountains are also often included under the wider term Mesopotamia. A further distinction is usually made between Lower or Southern Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia, also known as the Jezirah, is the area from their sources down to Baghdad. Lower Mesopotamia is the area from Baghdad to the Persian Gulf. In scientific usage, the term Mesopotamia often also has a chronological connotation. Two types of chronologies can be distinguished: an absolute chronology. The former establishes the order of phases, periods, reigns, whereas the latter establishes their absolute age expressed in years. In archaeology, relative chronologies are established by reconstructing their stratigraphy -- the order in which layers were deposited. In general, newer remains are deposited on top of older material. Absolute chronologies are established by dating the layers in which they are found, through absolute dating methods. These methods include the written record that can provide year names or calendar dates. This transition has been documented at sites like Abu Hureyra and Mureybet, which continued to be occupied from the Natufian well into the PPNB. One of the oldest known Neolithic sites in Mesopotamia is Jarmo, broadly contemporary with Jericho and Çatal Hüyük.Bronze Age Mesopotamia – Overview of Göbekli Tepe with modern roof to protect the site against the weather
9. Jiroft civilization – A "Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Sistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran. The proposed type site is Konar Sandal, near Jiroft in the Halil River area. Other significant sites associated with the culture include; Shahr-e Sukhteh, Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahdad, Tal-i-Iblis and Tepe Yahya. His conclusions have met from some reviewers. Other conjectures have connected the Konar Sandal with the obscure city-state of Marhashi, that apparently lay to the east of Elam proper. The team uncovered more than two square kilometers of remains from a city dating back to at least the late 3rd millennium BC. The data Madjidzadeh's team has gathered demonstrates that Jiroft's heyday was from 2500 B.C. to 2200 B.C. The "Jiroft civilization" hypothesis proposes that this "intercultural style" is in fact the distinctive style of a previously unknown, long-lived civilization. This is not universally accepted. Muscarella does nevertheless acknowledge the importance of the site. Earlier excavations at Kerman were conducted by Sir Aurel Stein around 1930. Archeological excavations in Jiroft led to the discovery of several objects belonging to the fourth millennium BC. According to the French experts who studied this area, the evidence remained from these civilizations may be traced up to 11 meters under the ground. "What is obvious is that the evidence of Tal-i-Iblis culture in Bardsir can be traced in all parts of the region. Tal-i-Iblis culture, known as Ali Abad period was revealed by Joseph R. Caldwell, American archaeologist," said Majidzadeh.Jiroft civilization – location of Jiroft in Iran
10. Canaan – Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. References to Canaan in the Bible are usually backward-looking, referring to a region that had become something else. The Amarna Letters and other cuneiform documents use Kinaḫḫu, while other sources of the Egyptian New Kingdom mention military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na. Much of the modern knowledge about Canaan stems at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo, Gezer. The English term Canaan comes via Greek Χαναάν Khanaan and Latin Canaan. Knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium. It first occurs as Khna. Scholars connect the Canaan with knʿn, Kana'an, the general Northwest Semitic name for this region. The etymology is uncertain. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic knʿ "to be low, humble, subjugated". Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite commodity, mentioned in Exodus. The dyes may have been named after their place of origin. The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was associated by the Romans with nobility and royalty. However, according to Robert Drews, Speiser's proposal has generally been abandoned. In Biblical usage, the name was confined to the west of the Jordan.Canaan – A 1692 depiction of Canaan, by Philip Lea
11. Bronze Age collapse – Before the Bronze collapse, Anatolia was dominated by a number of Indo-European peoples: Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni, Mycenaean Greeks, together with the Semitic Assyrians. From the 17th BC, the Mitanni formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a Hurro-Urartian language. Similarly, the Hittites absorbed the Hattians, a people speaking a language that may have been of the North Caucasian group. The Hittite capital, was burned, abandoned, never reoccupied. The corpses left unburied. Other sites that were not destroyed were abandoned. The Hittite Empire was destroyed by the Semitic-speaking Aramaeans. Troy was destroyed at least twice, before being abandoned until Roman times. Other groups of Indo-European warriors followed into the region, most prominently the Armenians, Scythians. The Semitic Arameans, Hurro-Urartuans also made an appearance in parts of the region. Afterwards the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Some towns show traces of destruction at the end of LCII. Whether or not this is really an indication of a Mycenean invasion is contested. Originally, two waves of destruction in c. 1230 BC by the Sea Peoples and c. 1190 BC by Aegean refugees have been proposed. The smaller settlements of Ayios Dhimitrios and Kokkinokremnos, well as a number of other sites, were abandoned but do not show traces of destruction.Bronze Age collapse – The fall of Troy, an event recounted in Greek mythology at the end of the Bronze Age, as represented by the 17th century painter Kerstiaen De Keuninck
12. Ochre Coloured Pottery culture – The Ochre Coloured Pottery culture is a 2nd millennium BC Bronze Age culture of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is a contemporary of and successor to the Indus Valley Civilization. Early specimens of the characteristic ceramics found near Jodhpura, Rajasthan date from the 3rd millennium. The culture reached the Gangetic plain in the early 2nd millennium. Initially, the copper hoards were known mostly from the Ganges-Yamuna doab and most characterizations dwell on this material. Characteristic hoard artefacts from southern Haryana/northern Rajasthan include antenna-hilted swords. The doab has a related repertory. Artefacts from the Chota Nagpur area are very different; they seem to resemble ingots and are votive in character. The raw material may have been derived from a variety of sources in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh. Some scholars regard the OCP culture as late or impoverished Harappan culture, while others see it as an indigenous culture unrelated to the Harappan. V. N. Misra regards the OCP as "only a final and impoverished stage of the Late Harappan culture" and designates this phase as "Degenerate Harappan". Together with the Cemetery H culture and the Gandhara Grave culture, some scholars believe the OCP was a factor in the formation of the Vedic civilization. Kallur archaeological site Yule, P. Metalwork of the Bronze Age in India, Munich: C.H. Series 2690Ochre Coloured Pottery culture – Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan movements.
13. Cemetery H culture – The Cemetery H culture was a Bronze Age culture in the Punjab, north-western India, from about 1900 BCE until about 1300 BCE. It has been related to both the late phase of the Harappan civilisation, the Indo-Aryan migrations. The Cemetery H culture was located in and around the Punjab region in present-day India and Pakistan. It was named after a cemetery found in "area H" at Harappa. Remains of the culture have been dated until about BCE. According to Mallory & Adams, the Cemetery H culture also "shows biological affinities" with the earlier population of Harappa. 1700-1400 BCE. The distinguishing features of this culture include: The use of cremation of human remains. The bones were stored in painted pottery burial urns. This is completely different from the Indus civilization where bodies were buried in wooden coffins. The urn burials and the "grave skeletons" were nearly contemporaneous. Reddish pottery, painted in black with antelopes, peacocks etc. star motifs, to the earlier period. Expansion of settlements into the east. Rice became a main crop. Apparent breakdown of the widespread trade with materials such as marine shells longer used.Cemetery H culture – Geography of the Rigveda, with river names; the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are indicated.
14. Bronze Age Europe – The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements. The regional Age succeeds the Neolithic. It starts with the Aegean Bronze Age in spans the entire 2nd millennium BCE in Northern Europe, lasting until c. 600 BCE. The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3200 BCE when civilizations first established a far-ranging network. This network imported charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came as Great Britain. The Minoan civilization based from Knossos, Crete, defended its Bronze Age trade. One crucial lack in this period was that modern methods of accounting were not available. The eruption of Thera, which according to archaeological data occurred in c. 1500 BC, resulted in the decline of the Minoan. This turn of events gave the opportunity to the Mycenaeans to spread their influence throughout the Aegean. Around c. 1450 BC, they colonized several other Aegean islands, reaching as far as Rhodes. Mycenaean Greece was consisted of a network of palace states that developed rigid hierarchical, political, social and economic systems. At the head of this societies was the king, known as wanax. The Maykop culture was the major early Bronze culture in the North Caucasus.Bronze Age Europe – A display of Late Bronze Age vessels and tools from various Romanian locations, at the National Museum of the Union, Alba Iulia
15. Catacomb culture – The Catacomb culture is a group of related cultures in the early Bronze Age occupying essentially what is present-day eastern Ukraine and southern Russia. Parallels including provoked cranial deformations, provide a link to the East. It was preceded by the Yamna culture. The Catacomb culture in the Pontic steppe was succeeded by the Srubna culture from ca. the 17th century BC. The name culture comes from its burial practices. These are similar to those of the Yamna culture, but off the main shaft, creating the "catacomb". Animal remains were incorporated into a small minority of graves. The economy was essentially stock-breeding, although traces of grain have been found. There seem to have been skilled specialists, particularly metal-workers. The origin of the Catacomb culture is disputed. Jan Lichardus enumerates three possibilities: a local development departing from the previous Yamna Culture only, an oriental origin. Parallels including cranial deformations, provide a link to the East. Excavations in 2012 of 26 mounds near Storozhove village in Chutove Region of Poltava Oblast revealed 3 layers of Catacomb archaeology. The earliest were the burials of the'Donetsk' phase of Catacomb culture; the dates were 3050—2190 cal BC. Then came the burials of'Inhul' phase.Catacomb culture – Example of artifacts
16. Minoan civilization – It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythic King Minos, was originally given as a description to the pottery of this period. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos, the largest Minoan site. The poet Homer recorded a tradition that Crete once had 90 cities. The Minoan period saw significant contacts between Crete, the Aegean and the Mediterranean, particularly the Near East. Some of its best art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri, on the island of Santorini, destroyed during the Thera eruption. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythic "king" Minos of Knossos. Who first coined the term is debated. It is commonly attributed to the archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek myth with the labyrinth, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos. Likely, Arthur Evans read the book, continuing the use of the term in his own writings and findings. Evans claims to have applied it, but not to have invented it. Hoeck had in mind the Crete of mythology. He had no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed.Minoan civilization – Minoan civilization
17. Srubna culture – The Srubna culture, English: Timber-grave culture, was a Late Bronze Age culture. It is a successor to the Poltavka culture, well as the Potapovka culture. The name comes from Russian cруб, "timber framework", from the way graves were constructed. Animal parts were buried with the body. The economy was mixed agriculture and livestock breeding. The historical Cimmerians have been suggested as descended from this culture. The Srubna culture is succeeded by Scythians and Sarmatians in the 1st millennium BC, by Khazars and Kipchaks in the first millennium AD. In a study published on 10 October 2015, 14 individuals of the Srubna culture could be surveyed. Extractions from 100% of the males were determined to be of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1.Srubna culture – A reconstructed hut of the Srubna culture.
18. Beaker culture – The term was coined based on the culture's distinctive pottery drinking vessels. Later, regional styles developed. Mead content have been identified from certain examples. However, not all Beakers were drinking cups. Some were used to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, still others were employed as funerary urns. They were used amongst disparate elites. Debates continued on for decades. Several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Netherlands and Central Europe. Similarly, scholars have postulated various mechanisms including migrations of populations, smaller warrior groups, individuals, or a diffusion of ideas and object exchange. Recent analyses have made significant inroads to understanding the Beaker phenomenon, mostly by analysing each of its components separately. However, radiocarbon dating from African sites is lacking for the most part. Furthermore, the ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites was intrusive into Western Europe. Such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions although, instead of'battle-axes', Bell Beaker individuals used copper daggers. Overall, all these elements appear to have first fused in the Lower Rhine region. The initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime.Beaker culture – The distinctive Bell Beaker pottery drinking vessels shaped like an inverted bell
19. Unetice culture – The Únětice culture is an archaeological culture at the start of the Central European Bronze Age, dated roughly to about 2300–1600 BC. The village of Únětice, is located in the central Czech Republic, northwest of Prague. This archaeological culture is known from Czech Republic and Slovakia from about 1,400 sites, from Poland and Germany. The Únětice culture is also known from western Ukraine. The Únětice culture originated in the territories of contemporary Bohemia. At the same time the first Úněticean ground was unearthed in Southern Moravia in Měnín by A. Rzehak. At the same time, Adlerberg and Straubing groups were defined by Schumacher. In Poland, the first archaeologist associated with the identification of the Únětice culture was Hans Seger. In 1935 Kostrzewski published the first data and findings of the Iwno culture, another and contemporaneous from Western Poland. In 1960 Wanda Sarnowska begun excavations in Szczepankowice near Wrocław, southwest Poland, where a new group of barrows was unearthed. The unified chronological system based on typology of ceramics and metal artifacts for the Únětice culture in Bohemia was introduced by Moucha in 1963. The ingots are found in hoards that can contain over hundred pieces. Axe-hoards are common as well, the hoard of Dieskau contained flanged axes. Thus, axes might have served as ingots well. After about 2000 BC, this tradition dies out and is only resumed in the urnfield period.Unetice culture – Map showing location of the Únětice culture in Czech Republic
20. Urnfield culture – The Urnfield culture was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe. The name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields. The Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the Hallstatt culture. Linguistic evidence and continuity with the following Hallstatt culture suggests that the people of this area spoke an early form of Celtic, perhaps originally proto-Celtic. As the transition from the middle Bronze Age to the Urnfield culture was gradual, there are questions regarding how to define it. This corresponds to the Phases Montelius III-IV of the Northern Bronze Age. Whether Reinecke's Bronze D is included varies according to author and region. The Urnfield culture is divided into the following sub-phases: The existence of the Ha B3-phase is contested, as the material consists of female burials only. As can be seen by the arbitrary 100-year ranges, the dating of the phases is highly schematic. The phases are based on typological changes, which means that they do not have to be strictly contemporaneous across the whole distribution. All in dendro-dates would be highly desirable. The Urnfield culture grew from the preceding tumulus culture. The transition is gradual, in the pottery as well as the burial rites. In some parts of Germany, cremation and inhumation existed simultaneously. Some graves contain a combination of tumulus-culture pottery and tumulus culture incised pottery together with early Urnfield types.Urnfield culture – Urnfield culture
21. Hallstatt culture – It is commonly associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in the Western Hallstatt zone and with Illyrians in the eastern Hallstatt zone. Material from Hallstatt has been classed into 4 periods, numbered "Hallstatt A" to "D". Parts of Britain and Iberia are included in the ultimate expansion of the culture. Social distinctions became increasingly important, with emerging elite classes of chieftains and warriors, perhaps those with other skills. Society was organized on a tribal basis, though very little is known about this. Only a few of the largest settlements, like Heuneburg in the south of Germany, were towns rather than villages by modern standards. In 1846, Johann Georg Ramsauer discovered a large prehistoric cemetery near Hallstatt, Austria, which he excavated during the second half of the 19th century. Eventually the excavation would yield 1,045 burials, although no settlement has yet been found. This may be covered by the later village, which has long occupied the whole narrow strip between the steep hillsides and the lake. Some 1,300 burials have been found, including around 2,000 individuals, with women and children but few infants. Nor is there a "princely" burial, as often found near large settlements. The community at Hallstatt was untypical of the wider, mainly agricultural, culture, as its booming economy exploited the salt mines in the area. The style and decoration of the grave goods found in the cemetery are very distinctive, artifacts made in this style are widespread in Europe. Phase A saw Villanovan influence. In this period, people were cremated and buried in simple graves.Hallstatt culture – A drawing commissioned by Johann G. Ramsauer documenting one of his cemetery digs at Hallstatt; an unknown local artist painted these watercolors.
22. Apennine culture – The Apennine culture is a technology complex in central and southern Italy from the Italian Middle Bronze Age. This phase is succeeded by the Subappennine facies of 13th-century. Apennine pottery is a burnished ware incised with spirals, geometrical zones, filled with dots or transverse dashes. The people of the Apennine culture were alpine cattle herdsmen grazing their animals over the groves of mountainous central Italy. They lived in small hamlets located in defensible places. On the move between summer pastures they lived in caves and rock shelters. In the 19th and 20th centuries various theorists made various imputations of ethnicity concerning the Apennine culture. In the 20th century, Massimo Pallottino, who specialized in Etruscan civilization, rejected them as oversimple. At least with reference to Italy, he discarded Kossinna's Law, which states ethnic groups are to be identified with archaeological groups. Therefore, Pallottino argued that terms such as "the Terramare culture" or "the Apennine culture" have no linguistic significance. The Apennine drew from the north. It introduced cremation; however, in Italy cremation existed side-by-side with continued inhumation. The Tiber river was the dividing line. It also divided the two main language groups: Etruscan and Italic. Whatever the Proto-Villanovan represents culturally it can not have been ethnic group; hence, an "Italic" invasion at that time is to be excluded.Apennine culture – The monumental building at Luni sul Mignone.
23. Canegrate culture – Canegrate represented a completely new cultural dynamic to the area expressed in bronzework making it a typical example of the western Hallstatt culture. The name comes from the locality of Canegrate in Lombardy, 25 km north of Milan, where Guido Sutermeister discovered important archaeological finds. It is one of the richer archeological sites of Northern Italy. The necropolis found in Canegrate is very similar to those realized in the same period in the north of Alps. They brought a new practice -- cremation -- which supplanted inhumation. From the archaeological evidence it can be deduced that their interactions with the native populations had not been completely peaceful. "I Celti Golasecchiani". In Multiple Authors, I Celti, Bompiani. De Marinis, Raffaele.Canegrate culture – Archaeological find of Canegrate culture
24. Golasecca culture – Most of the inventoried objects were from different graves located in the areas of Sesto Calende, Castelletto sopra Ticino. He misinterpreted the findings, attributing them to a Roman population from the 4th century BCE. The excavations spread throughout the late 19th century. Alexandre Bertrand, also curator in turn went on site in 1873 and conducted some excavations by himself. It ended in 388 BCE. The modern assessment of Golasecca culture is derived on Monsorino, directed by A. Mira Bonomi. More recent chronological studies have been produced by Raffaele De Marinis. More recent historical studies on the subject have been produced by Raffaele De Marinis. Of the 44 graves identified in the excavations, 33 were still almost intact. Subsequent phases of the Golasecca culture are so periodized: culture: XIII century BC. Proto-Golasecca: XII-X century BC. Type Ascona I or A Type Ascona II or B Type Ca’ Morta - Malpensa. Golasecca I A: IX-VIII century BC. Golasecca I B: late VIII - early VII century BC. Golasecca I C: VII century BC.Golasecca culture – Negau type helmet from the Golasecca III period (480/450 BCE).
25. Atlantic Bronze Age – Commercial contacts extended from Sweden and Denmark to the Mediterranean. The period was defined by a number of regional centres of production, unified by a regular maritime exchange of some of their products. The major centres were southern England and Ireland, north-western France, western Iberia. They are deposited in ritual areas, usually watery contexts: rivers, bogs. Which they see as indicating possible processes linked to language shift. However, this stands in contrast to what remains the more generally accepted view that Celtic origins lie with the Central European Hallstatt C culture.Atlantic Bronze Age – Bronze cauldron and flesh hook, in the British Museum
26. Bronze Age Britain – Bronze Age Britain is an era of British history that spanned from c. 2500 until c. 800 BC. Lasting for approximately 1,700 years, it was in turn followed by the period of Iron Age Britain. Great Britain in the Age also saw the widespread adoption of agriculture. This has been described as a time "when ceremonial practices emerged among some communities of subsistence agriculturalists of western Europe". There is no clear consensus on the date for the beginning of the Age in Great Britain and Ireland. Some sources give a date as late as 2000 BC, while others set 2200 BC as the demarcation between the Bronze Age. The period from 2500 BC to 2000 BC has been called the "Late Neolithic/Early Age", in recognition of the difficulty of exactly defining this boundary. 2500–2000 BC: Mount Pleasant Phase, Early Beaker culture:; Britain: copper+tin. 2100–1900 BC: Late Beaker: knives, tanged spearheads. 1800–1600 BC: Fargo Phase; burials. 1500–1300 BC: Acton Park Phase: palstaves, socketed spearheads; copper+tin, also lead. 1300–1200 BC: Knighton Heath Period; "rapiers." 1200–1000 BC: Early Urnfield; Wilburton-Wallington Phase. 1000–900 BC: Late Urnfield: socketed axes, palstaves. 800–700 BC: Ewart Park Phase, Llyn Fawr Phase: leaf-shaped swords.Bronze Age Britain – Bronze shield, 1200-700 BC
27. Nordic Bronze Age – The Nordic Bronze Age is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC. The Bronze culture of this era succeeded the Late Neolithic Stone Age culture and was followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Some scholars also include sites in what is now Estonia, northern Germany and Pomerania, as part of its cultural sphere. Even though Scandinavians joined the European Bronze Age cultures late through trade, Scandinavian sites present a rich and well-preserved legacy of bronze and gold objects. The rock carvings have been dated through comparison for example bronze axes and swords. There are also Nordic Stone Age rock carvings, those of northern Scandinavia mostly portray elk. The depicted ships, most likely represents plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. For Central Europe a different system developed by Paul Reinecke is commonly used, as each area has archaeological periods. A broader subdivision is the Early Bronze Age, the Late Bronze Age, 1100 BC to 550 BC. These periods are followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Nordic Age was characterized first by a warm climate that began with a climate change around 2700 BC. The warm climate permitted good farming; for example, grapes were grown in Scandinavia at this time. A wetter, colder climate prevailed around 650 BC. There is no coherent knowledge about the Nordic Bronze religion; its pantheon, world view and how it was practised.Nordic Bronze Age – History of Scandinavia
28. Bronze Age China – The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic from outside the region. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of extensive use of metals and of developing trade networks. The dating of the foil has been disputed. The Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics. The usual tripartite division into an Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. Ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations.Bronze Age China – Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley, Negev Desert, Israel.
29. Erlitou culture – The Erlitou culture was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River valley from approximately 1750 to 1530 BC. The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei. The Erlitou culture may have evolved from the matrix of Longshan culture. Originally centered around Henan and Shanxi Province, the culture spread to Shaanxi and Hubei Province. After the rise of the Erligang culture, the site at Erlitou diminished in size but remained inhabited. Discovered by Xu Xusheng, Erlitou is the largest site associated with palace buildings and bronze smelting workshops. Erlitou monopolized the production of ritual bronze vessels, including the earliest recovered dings. The city is on the Yi River, a tributary of the Luo River, which flows into the Yellow River. The city was km by km; however, because of flood damage only 3 km2 are left. The site is divided into four phases, each of roughly 50 years. Urbanization began in Phase II, expanding to 300 ha with a population around 11,000. A palace area of 12 ha was demarcated by four roads. It contained the 150x50 m Palace 3, composed of three courtyards along a 150-meter axis, Palace 5. A bronze foundry was established to the south of the palatial complex, controlled by the elite who lived in palaces.Erlitou culture – Bronze jue (wine vessel)
30. Erligang culture – The Erligang culture is a Bronze Age urban civilization and archaeological culture in China that existed from approximately 1510 to 1460 BC. Zhengzhou Shang City, was discovered at Erligang, in 1951. The culture was centered in the Yellow River valley. In its early years, it expanded rapidly, reaching the Yangtze River. The culture then gradually shrank from its early peak. Later investigations showed that the Erligang site was part of an ancient city surrounded by a roughly rectangular wall with a perimeter of about 7 kilometres. The walls were of a technique dating back to Neolithic sites of the Longshan culture. It has been estimated that the walls would have been 20 metres wide at the base, rising to a height of 8 metres. Large workshops were located including a bone workshop, two bronze vessel workshops. The modern city sits on the remains of the Erligang city, rendering archaeological excavations impossible. Therefore, most of the information about the culture comes from studying other Erligang sites. The large site at Panlongcheng, on the Yangtze River in Hubei, is currently the largest excavated site of Erligang culture. Excavated in 1976. Since Zhengzhou lacked access to local bronze metals, sites like Panlongcheng were probably used to secure distant metal resources. Erligang bronzes developed from the style and techniques of the earlier Erlitou culture, centred 85 kilometres to the west of Zhengzhou.Erligang culture – Erligang culture
31. Bronze Age writing – The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the study and description of these developments. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. Writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. See History of writing ancient numbers for how the writing of numbers began. It is generally agreed that true writing of language was invented independently around 600 BC. Several Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being of Mexico. Similar debate surrounds the Indus script of the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilization in Ancient India. An additional possibility is the undeciphered Rongorongo script of Easter Island. It is debated if it is, whether it is another case of cultural diffusion of writing. The oldest example is from 1851, 139 years after their first contact with Europeans. One explanation is that the script was inspired by Spain's written proclamation in 1770. Recent examples are the Pahawh Hmong system for writing the Hmong language. Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems such as information signs, painting, mathematics often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Every human community possesses a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind.Bronze Age writing – Writing systems
32. Bronze Age sword – Bronze Age swords appear from around the 17th century BC, in the Black Sea region and the Aegean, as a further development of the dagger. They are replaced during the early part of the 1st millennium BC. From an early time the swords reach lengths in excess of 100 cm. Before bronze, stone was used as the primary material for edged cutting weapons. Stone, however, is therefore not practical to be used for swords. With the introduction of copper, subsequently bronze, daggers could be made leading to the sword. A cache of daggers was found; they are composed of arsenic-copper alloy. Among them, three swords were beautifully inlaid with silver. These are the weapons of a total length of 45 to 60 cm which could be described as long daggers. Some similar swords have been found in Turkey, are described by Thomas Zimmermann. The sword became more widespread only with the closing of the 3rd millennium. These are the "type" swords of the Aegean Bronze Age. The Minoan and Mycenaean swords are classified in types labeled A to H following the "Sandars typology". The 13th to 12th centuries also see a revival of the "Horned" type, classified as types G and H. Type H swords are associated with the Sea Peoples and were found in Anatolia and Greece.Bronze Age sword – Apa type swords, 17th century BC.
33. Chariot – A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power. The word "chariot" comes from the Latin carrus, itself a loanword from Gaulish. A chariot of one used in military parades was called a car. In some other ancient Mediterranean civilizations, a biga required two horses, a triga three, a quadriga four. The critical invention that allowed the construction of horse-drawn chariots was the spoked wheel. The earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca. 2000 BCE. The use of chariots peaked around 1300 BCE. Chariot races continued to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century. The domestication of the horse was an important step toward civilization. An increasing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that horses were domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes approximately 4000-3500 BCE. The invention of the wheel used in transportation most likely took place in Europe. Evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in Central Europe. The earliest vehicles may have been ox carts. Starokorsunskaya kurgan in the Kuban region of Russia contains a grave of the Maikop Culture. The two wooden wheels from this kurgan have been dated to the second half of the fourth millennium.Chariot – A chariot drawn by horses
34. Iron Age – It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia in Africa. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC depending on the region. In most parts of the world, its end therefore marks the transition from prehistory to history. A characteristic iron -- nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the archeological record from the middle Age. Similarly, archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in South Asia. African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of large-scale production in around 1200 BC, marking the end of the Bronze Age. Between 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of iron objects was fast and far-flung. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled during this time. More widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in Northern Europe.Iron Age – Archaeological artifact from the work developed in the area of Citânia de Briteiros