1. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
2. Byzantine bureaucracy and aristocracy – The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy, inherited from the Roman Empire. At the apex of the hierarchy stood the emperor, the sole ruler and, considered to be divinely ordained. Beneath him, a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the complex administrative machinery, necessary to run the empire. In addition to those officials, a large number of honorific titles existed, which the emperor awarded to foreign rulers. Over the more than thousand years of the empire's existence, many gained prestige. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire. However, by the time that Heraclius was emperor, many of the titles had become obsolete. By the time of Alexios I reign, many of the positions were either new or drastically changed. However, from that time on they remained essentially the same until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. In this, the new titles derived from older, now obsolete, public offices, dignities of a certain level were awarded with each office. During this period, many families remained important for several centuries, several Emperors rose from the aristocracy. The 10th and 11th centuries saw a rise in importance of the aristocracy, an increased number of new families entering it. These were the highest titles, usually limited to members of the imperial family or to a few very select foreign rulers, whose friendship the Emperor desired. Basileus: the Greek word for "sovereign" which originally referred to any king in the Greek-speaking areas of the Roman Empire. It also referred to the Shahs of Persia.Byzantine bureaucracy and aristocracy – Painting of Emperor Basil II in triumphal garb, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels.
3. Byzantine army – The Byzantine army or Eastern Roman army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy. A direct descendant of the Byzantine army maintained a similar level of discipline, strategic prowess and organization. It was for much of the Middle Ages. Over time the cavalry arm became more prominent in the Byzantine army as the system disappeared in the early 7th century. Restricted to mid-9th centuries, the Byzantines developed the theme-system to counter the more powerful Caliphate. After the collapse of the theme-system in the 11th century, the Byzantines grew increasingly reliant including ever-increasing numbers of foreign mercenaries. The Komnenian emperors made great efforts instituting the pronoia system of land grants in exchange for military service. The Komnenian successes were undone by the subsequent Angeloi dynasty, leading at the hands of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Emperors of Nicaea managed to form a effective force using the same structure of light and heavily armed troops, both natives and foreigners. It proved effective in reclaiming much of the Balkans and even Constantinople itself in 1261. The Eastern Empire dates by the Emperor Diocletian in 293. His reorganization of the army did by centuries. Rather than maintain the traditional infantry-heavy legions, Diocletian reformed it into limitanei and comitatenses units. In preparation for Justinian's African campaign of 533-534 AD, the army assembled amounted to 5,000 mounted archers and federate lancers. The ripenses were to occupy the limes, the Roman border fortifications.Byzantine army – Byzantine lamellar armour klivanium (Κλιβάνιον) - a predecessor of Ottoman krug mirror armour
4. Byzantine art – A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire were culturally influenced without actually being part of it. After the fall of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453, art produced by Eastern Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire was often called "post-Byzantine." Byzantine art never lost sight of this classical heritage. Constantinople, was adorned with a large number of classical sculptures, although they eventually became an object of some puzzlement for its inhabitants. The most salient feature of this new aesthetic was anti-naturalistic character. The nature and causes of this transformation, which largely took place during late antiquity, have been a subject of scholarly debate for centuries. Giorgio Vasari attributed it in artistic skills and standards, which had in turn been revived by his contemporaries in the Italian Renaissance. Alois Riegl and Josef Strzygowski, writing in the 20th century, were above all responsible for the revaluation of late antique art. Riegl saw it in Roman art whereas Strzygowski viewed it as a product of "oriental" influences. In any case, the debate is purely modern: it is clear that most Byzantine viewers did not consider their art to be unnaturalistic. Religious art was not, however, limited to the monumental decoration of church interiors. The illumination of manuscripts was another major genre of Byzantine art. The most commonly illustrated texts were religious, devotional or theological texts. Secular texts were also illuminated: important examples include the history of John Skylitzes. Small ivories were also mostly in relief.Byzantine art – The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople – the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. Christ is flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist. The mosaics were made in the 12th century.
5. Byzantine architecture – Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture. Political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Most of the surviving structures are sacred with secular buildings mostly known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of Byzantine architecture date from Justinian I's reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, as well as in Sofia. Secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an Byzantine palace. Remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge. The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a lasting legacy in architecture. The cross-in-square type also became predominant in the Slavic countries which were Christianized during the Macedonian period. Only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be also in Sicily and Veneto. The Paleologan period is well represented at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures. As a result, there is little grandeur in the medieval architecture of Byzantium.Byzantine architecture – Hagia Sophia Church, Sofia, Bulgaria
6. Byzantine calendar – It was also the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire from of Kievan Rus' and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. The supposed date of creation, was September 1, 5509 BC, to August 31, 5508 BC. It is not known when. He also already regards it as the most convenient for the Easter computus. This date underwent minor revisions before being finalized in the mid-7th century, although its precursors were developed c. AD 412. By the second half of the 7th century, the Era was known in Western Europe, at least in Great Britain. Thus historical time was calculated from the creation, not from Christ's birth, as in the west. Meanwhile, as Russia received Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, she inherited the Orthodox Calendar based on the Byzantine Era. It was only in AD 1700 that the Byzantine World Era in Russia was changed by Peter the Great. It still forms the basis of traditional Orthodox calendars up to today. September AD 2000 began the year AM. The "Alexandrian Era" developed in AD 412, was the precursor to the Byzantine Era. The Alexandrine monk Panodorus reckoned 5904 years to the year AD 412. It was the first day of the year in the nominal vernal equinox.Byzantine calendar – Byzantine mosaic of the Creation of Adam, (Monreale Cathedral).
7. Byzantine coinage – By the end of the empire the currency was issued only in silver stavrata and minor copper coins with no gold issue. This was then used until the modern period. The type of Justinian II was revived with variations remained the norm until the end of the Empire. In the 10th century, so-called "anonymous folles" were struck instead of the earlier coins depicting the emperor. Late Byzantine gold coins became thin wafers that could be bent by hand. The Byzantine coinage had a prestige that lasted near the end of the Empire. New bronze coins, multiples of the nummus were introduced, such as the 40 nummi, 20 nummi, 10 nummi, 5 nummi coins. Silver coins were rarely produced. It was succeeded by the initially ceremonial miliaresion established by Leo III the Isaurian in ca. 720, which became standard issue from ca. 830 on and until the late 11th century, when it was discontinued after being severely debased. Small transactions were conducted throughout this period. Until that time, the fineness of the gold remained consistent at about 0.955–0.980. The monetary system changed during the 7th century when the 40 nummi, now significantly smaller, became the only bronze coin to be regularly issued. Although Justinian II attempted a restoration of the follis size of Justinian I, the follis continued to slowly decrease in size. The full weight solidus was called the histamenon.Byzantine coinage – Solidus of Justinian II, second reign, after 705
8. Byzantine cuisine – Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy. The development of the Byzantine trade brought in spices, sugar and new vegetables to Greece. Cooks experimented with new combinations of food, creating two styles in the process. These were the Eastern, consisting of a leaner style primarily based on local Greek culture. Byzantine consumption varied by class. The Imperial Palace was a metropolis of exotic recipes; guests were entertained with fruits, honey-cakes and syrupy sweetmeats. Ordinary people ate more conservatively. The core diet consisted of bread, vegetables, cereals prepared in varied ways. Salad was very popular; to the amazement of the Florentines, the Emperor John VIII Palaiologos asked for it on his visit in 1439. The Byzantines produced various cheeses, including kefalintzin. They also relished fish, both fresh and salt-water. They prepared eggs to make famous omelettes — called sphoungata, i.e. "spongy" — mentioned by Theodore Prodromos. Every household also kept a supply of poultry. Byzantine elites obtained other kinds of meat by a favourite and distinguished occupation of men. They usually hunted with hawks, though sometimes employed trapping, netting, bird-liming.Byzantine cuisine – Byzantine culture
9. Byzantine dance – Byzantine culture was oriented towards Christianity, rather than Roman paganism, in development of the arts. The Byzantine Empire existed for more than a thousand years, to 1453. Greek dance in classical antiquity was originally held to have educational value, as Plato's dialogues on this point evidence in The Laws. However, as Greek culture gradually conquered Rome, dancing was more for entertainment purposes. At this time dancers were given a lower social status than other artists. The influence of Christianity condemned it for its pagan origins. This was similar to Christian reinterpretations of pre-Christian holidays, symbols. There are also similarities between modern Greek dance. The dances that won the approval of the church were group dances, typically circles in which men, separated from women, performed solemn decorous movements. However, the information on dancing at this period is very scarce. Actually, since the Byzantine art is mainly ecclesiastical, the references to dance are rare. Some images from the meta-Byzantine dances have been saved on sculptures, miniatures, manuscripts - but mainly in church frescos amongst religious subjects. In Culture of the Byzantines, Phaidon Koukoules assembled all known references to dance in texts of that time. There were dances at weddings, at banquets. The wealthy maidens to dance, being especially appreciated for their bodily agility and deft footwork.Byzantine dance – Byzantine culture
10. Byzantine diplomacy – All these neighbors lacked a key resource that Byzantium had taken over from Rome, namely a legal structure. When they set about forging political institutions, they were dependent on the empire. Whereas classical writers are fond of making a sharp distinction for the Byzantines diplomacy was a form of war by other means. With a regular army of,000 men after the losses of the seventh century, the empire's security depended on activist diplomacy. Byzantium's "Bureau of Barbarians" was the foreign intelligence agency, gathering information on the empire's rivals from every imaginable source. Their attendants, however, should be kept under surveillance to keep them from obtaining any information by asking questions of our people." Byzantine diplomacy drew its neighbors into a network of international and interstate relations, controlled by the empire itself. This process revolved around making. In order to drive this process, the Byzantines availed themselves of a number of mostly diplomatic practices. For example, embassies to Constantinople would often stay on for years. Another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. Constantinople's riches served the state's diplomatic purposes as a way to impress foreigners. When Liutprand of Cremona was sent to the Byzantine capital, he was overwhelmed by the imperial residence, the luxurious meals, acrobatic entertainment. The fact that Byzantium in its dealings with the barbarians generally preferred diplomacy to war is not surprising. The Byzantines were skilled at using diplomacy as a weapon of war.Byzantine diplomacy – Olga, ruler of Kievan Rus', along with her escort in Constantinople (Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid)
11. Byzantine dress – Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire, but was essentially conservative. Taste for upper classes followed the latest fashions at the Imperial Court. In the early stages of the Byzantine Empire the traditional Roman toga was still used as very official dress. The hems often curve down to a sharp point. Except for military and presumably riding-dress, men of higher status, all women, had clothes that came down to the ankles, or nearly so. Women often wore a top layer of the stola, for the rich in brocade. All of these, except the stola, might be belted or not. A semicircular cloak fastened to the right shoulder continued throughout the period. As well as his courtiers, Emperor Justinian wears one, with a huge brooch, in the Ravenna mosaics. A border of thick cloth, usually including gold, was also an indicator of rank. Sometimes an oblong cloak would be worn, especially by the ordinary people; it was not for court occasions. Cloaks were pinned on the right shoulder for access to a sword. Leggings and hose are not prominent in depictions of the wealthy; they were associated with barbarians, whether European or Persian. Even basic clothes appear to have been surprisingly expensive for the poor. Others, when engaged in activity, are shown with the sides of their tunic tied up to the waist for ease of movement.Byzantine dress – A 14th-century military martyr wears four layers, all patterned and richly trimmed: a cloak with tablion over a short dalmatic, another layer (?), and a tunic
12. Byzantine economy – The Byzantine economy was among the most robust economies in the Mediterranean for many centuries. Constantinople was a prime hub in a network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa. The Arab conquests, however, would represent a substantial reversal of fortunes contributing to a period of stagnation. Constantine V's reforms marked the beginning of a revival that continued until 1204. All this changed with the arrival of the Fourth Crusade, an economic catastrophe. The late Byzantine state would not gain full control of either the foreign or domestic economic forces. One of the economic foundations of the empire was trade. The state strictly retained the monopoly of issuing coinage. The Eastern Roman economy suffered less from the Barbarian raids that plagued the Western Roman Empire. Under Diocletian's reign, the Eastern Roman Empire's annual revenue was at 9,400,000 solidi, out of a total of 18,000,000 solidi for the entire Roman Empire. These estimates can be compared to the AD 215 of 22,000,000 solidi. Warren Treadgold estimates that during the period from Diocletian to Marcian, the Eastern Empire's agriculture declined a bit, but not much. Actually, the preserved figures show that the largest eastern cities grew somewhat between the 3rd and 5th centuries. The population had probably begun growing for the first time in centuries. The wealth of Constantinople can be seen by how Justin I used 3,700 pounds of gold just for celebrating his own consulship.Byzantine economy – Byzantine culture
13. Byzantine gardens – The city of Byzantium in the Byzantine Empire occupies an important place in the history of garden design between eras and cultures. The gardens of Byzantium were, however, mostly destroyed after the 15th-century Turkish conquest of the city. These gradually grew to become more elaborate as time passed. Byzantine gardens have influenced Islamic gardens and particularly moorish gardens (because Spain was before a Byzantine province, Hispania Baetica. Little else is known about Byzantine gardens, however, very few references, let alone entire treatises, exist on the subject. The Byzantines, like their Greco-Roman predecessors, attached great importance to such matters of aesthetics. However, Roman gardens were documented. Marie-Luise Gothein: History of Byzantine GardensByzantine gardens – Byzantine culture
14. Byzantine law – Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law with increased Christian influence. The most important work of Byzantine law was the Ecloga, issued by the first major Roman-Byzantine legal code issued in Greek rather than Latin. Soon after the Farmer's Law was established regulating legal standards outside the cities. Byzantine law was effectively devolved into two spheres: Ecclesiastical law and law. Byzantium inherited its main political, social institutions from Rome. Similarly, Roman law constituted the basis for the legal system. For many centuries, the two great codifications of Roman law, carried out by Theodosius II and Justinian respectively, were the cornerstones of Byzantine legislation. Over the years these Roman codes were adjusted to the current circumstances, then replaced by new codifications, written in Greek. However, it is obvious in codifications, such as Basilika, based on Corpus Juris Civilis. In the 11th century, Michael Psellos prides himself for being acquainted with the Roman legal legacy. In accordance with the Roman legal tradition, the main source of law in Byzantium remained the enactments of the emperors. They also issued their own "new laws", the Novels. Laws were now regulating the main aspects of public, private, economic and social life. For example, Constantine I was Theodosius I intervened in faith issues, imposing a specific version of the Creed. From Diocletian to Theodosius I, namely during approximately 100 years, more than 2,000 laws were issued.Byzantine law – Byzantine culture
15. Byzantine literature – Byzantine literature is the Greek literature of the Middle Ages, whether written in the territory of the Byzantine Empire or outside its borders. This practice was perpetuated by a long-established system of Greek education where rhetoric was a leading subject. A typical product of this Byzantine education was the Greek Church Fathers, who shared the literary values of their pagan contemporaries. Consequently, the Christian literature of the 3rd to 6th centuries established a synthesis of Hellenic and Christian thought. However, the relations between the "high" and "low" forms of Greek changed over the centuries. Many of the early saints' lives were rewritten in an archaizing style. Satire made occasional use of elements from spoken Greek. At the same time there was the beginning of a flourishing literature in an approximation to the vernacular Modern Greek. However the literature was limited to poetic romances and popular devotional writing. All serious literature continued to make use of the archaizing language of Greek tradition. Byzantine literature has two sources: Orthodox Christian tradition. Each of those sources provided a series of references for the Byzantine writer and his readers. The oldest of these three civilizations is the Greek, centered not in Alexandria and Hellenistic civilization. Alexandria through this period is the center of Graeco-Judaic social life, looking towards Athens as well as towards Jerusalem. This intellectual dualism between that of the people permeates the Byzantine period.Byzantine literature – Byzantine culture
16. Byzantine medicine – Byzantine medicine encompasses the common medical practices of the Byzantine Empire from about 400 AD to 1453 AD. Byzantine medicine was notable for building upon the base developed by its Greco-Roman predecessors. In preserving medical practices from antiquity, Byzantine medicine influenced Islamic medicine well as fostering the Western rebirth of medicine during the Renaissance. Byzantine physicians often standardized medical knowledge into textbooks. Their records tended to include both diagnostic explanations and technical drawings. The Medical Compendium in Seven Books, written by the leading physician Paul of Aegina, survived as a particularly thorough source of medical knowledge. This compendium, written in the seventh century, remained in use as a standard textbook for the following 800 years. Historical records often mention civilian hospitals. Constantinople stood out during the Middle Ages, aided by its crossroads location, wealth, accumulated knowledge. Arguably, the Byzantine physician was the author of the Vienna Dioscurides manuscript, created circa 515 AD for the daughter of Emperor Olybrius. Arguably the most prolific Byzantine compiler of medical knowledge, frequently made note of standing medical assumptions that were proved incorrect. Therefore, it could be argued that previous misrepresentations about Byzantium being simply a ` carrier' of Medical knowledge to the Renaissance are wrong. The last Byzantine physician was John Actuarius, who lived in the early 14th Century in Constantinople. His works on urine laid much of the foundation for later study in urology. The Byzantine Empire was one of the first empires to have flourishing medical establishments.Byzantine medicine – Byzantine culture
17. Byzantine music – Byzantine music, in a narrow sense, is the music of the Byzantine Empire. Originally it consisted of hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, or as paraliturgical and liturgical music. Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, burgeoning splinter nations in the Balkans declared autonomy or "autocephaly" against the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion. The term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed in processions of the Emperor's entourage. Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education. The mathematic science harmonics was usually not mixed with the concrete topics of a chant manual. Nevertheless, Byzantine music is entirely dependent on the Ancient Greek concept of harmonics. We have no sources left which explain us, how this synthesis was done. The organ, originated in the Hellenistic world and was used in the Hippodrome in Constantinople during races. A organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent by the emperor Constantine V to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepin's Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western church music. The aulos, was a double reeded woodwind like the modern oboe or Armenian duduk.Byzantine music – Music of Greece
18. Byzantine navy – The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. This process would be furthered with the onset of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century. Following the loss of later Africa, the Mediterranean Sea was transformed from a "Roman lake" into a battleground between Byzantines and Arabs. Initially, the defence of the approaches to Constantinople was borne by the great fleet of the Karabisianoi. By the 8th century, the Byzantine navy, a well-organized and maintained force, was again the dominant maritime power in the Mediterranean. During the 11th century, the navy, like the Empire itself, began to decline. Their efforts had only a temporary effect. The diminished navy, however, continued to be active until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. The Byzantine navy, like the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire itself, was a continuation of its institutions. The civil wars of the early 5th centuries, however, did spur a revival of naval activity, with fleets mostly employed to transport armies. The Vandal raids continued unabated over the next two decades, despite repeated Roman attempts to defeat them. Finally, it failed disastrously. This forced the Romans to sign a peace treaty. After Geiseric's death in 477, however, the Vandal threat receded. The 6th century marked the rebirth of Roman naval power.Byzantine navy – By the late 5th century, the Western Mediterranean had fallen into the hands of barbarian kingdoms. The conquests of Justinian I restored Roman control over the entire sea, which would last until the Muslim conquests in the latter half of the 7th century.
19. Byzantine Greeks – Throughout the Middle Ages, the Byzantine Greeks are referred to as "Byzantines" and "Byzantine Greeks" in modern historiography. The terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Byzantine Greeks" were first coined by British historian George Finlay. These peasants lived within three kinds of settlements: the proasteion or estate. Soldiers among the Byzantine Greeks were at trained on an annual basis. As the Byzantine Empire entered the 11th century, more of the soldiers within the army were either professional mercenaries. Success came easily to Greek merchants, who enjoyed a very strong position in international trade. Despite the challenges posed by Italian merchants, they held their own throughout the latter half of the Byzantine Empire's existence. The language of the Byzantine Greeks since the age of Constantine had been Greek, although Latin was the language of the administration. From the reign of Emperor Heraclius, Greek also replaced Latin in administration. Over time, the relationship between the West, particularly with Latin Europe, deteriorated. However, the Byzantine Empire continued the unbroken line of succession of the Roman emperors. During most of the Middle Ages, the Byzantine Greeks self-identified as a term which in the Greek language had become synonymous with Christian Greeks. The ancient name Hellenes was revived as an ethnonym in the Middle Byzantine period. "Byzantine Greeks" is an exonym applied by later historians like Hieronymus Wolf; the "Byzantines" continued to call themselves Romaioi in their language. Most historians agree that the defining features of their civilization were: 1) Greek language, culture, literature, science, 2) Roman law and tradition, 3) Christian faith.Byzantine Greeks – Byzantine culture
20. Byzantine science – Its historiographical tradition preserved ancient knowledge upon which splendid art, architecture, literature and technological achievements were built. Byzantine science was essentially classical science. Therefore, Byzantine science metaphysics. Despite some opposition to learning, many of the most distinguished classical scholars held high office in the Church. Even the latter included literary, philosophical, scientific texts in its curriculum. The monastic schools concentrated upon the Bible, liturgy. Byzantine scientists put mathematics in practice. In late Byzantium mathematicians like Michael Psellos considered mathematics as a way to interpret the world. Medicine was one of the sciences in which the Byzantines improved on their Greco-Roman predecessors. As a result, Byzantine medicine had an influence on Islamic medicine well as the medicine of the Renaissance. Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines typically used it to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. Greek fire proper however was invented in c. During the Middle Ages, there was frequently an exchange of works between Islamic science. There were also some Byzantine scientists who used Arabic transliterations to describe scientific concepts instead of the equivalent Ancient Greek terms.Byzantine science – The frontispiece of the Vienna Dioscurides shows a set of seven famous physicians. The most prominent man in the picture is Galen, who sits on a folding chair.