Template:California cities and mayors of 100,000 population
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1. Los Angeles – Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles also has an economy in culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technology, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area also hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide. The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capitalLos Angeles
2. Kevin Faulconer – Kevin Lee Faulconer is the 38th and current mayor of San Diego, California. He was elected in an election in February 2014 after the resignation of Bob Filner and served the balance of his predecessors term. He was sworn in as mayor on March 3,2014, on June 7,2016, he won re-election to a second term. Prior to his election as mayor, Faulconer served as a San Diego City Council member representing City Council District 2. He served on the council from January 2006 to March 2014 and he is a Republican, although local government positions are officially nonpartisan per California state law. Faulconer was born and raised in Oxnard, California, where he learned to speak Spanish in grade school, graduating from San Diego State University in 1990, he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, and served one year as Student Body President of Associated Students. He and his wife Katherine, a business owner, live in Point Loma with their two children. Before running for office he was an executive with the public relations firm NCG Porter Novelli, Faulconer ran in the 2002 city council election for district 2 but lost to Michael Zucchet in a close-fought election. After Zucchet resigned in 2005, an election was held that November. There were 17 candidates and none got a majority, so a runoff was held on January 10,2006, Faulconer won the runoff with 51. 5% of the vote. He was elected to a term in June 2006 and re-elected in June 2010. He was ineligible to run for re-election in 2014 per city term limits, although Faulconer was once a supporter of alcohol being allowed on public beaches in San Diego, he changed his opinion after winning election to the city council. The ban has not been challenged since, with the community generally approving of cleaner beaches and fewer emergency calls, in the fall of 2006, over 30 bars and restaurants in Pacific Beach agreed with one another to limit the offering of discounts on alcohol drinks. Faulconer supported the agreement and spoke at the press conference announcing the agreement. He campaigned against a proposed tax increase in 2010. Other issues he promoted include the North Embarcadero Visionary Plan and more housing services for the homeless and he pushed for several years for an ordinance limiting the parking of oversize vehicles on the streets, the ordinance finally passed the city council in July 2013. Faulconer was chair of the councils Audit Committee, which is charged with clearing out an audit backlog and he was vice chair of the Rules and Economic Development Committee and a member of the Budget and Finance Committee. In September 2013 Faulconer entered the race to succeed mayor Bob Filner in the special election and he was endorsed by the local Republican Party and by former Mayor Jerry Sanders, now president of the San Diego Chamber of CommerceKevin Faulconer – Kevin Faulconer
3. San Diego – San Diego is a major city in California, United States. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,394,928 as of July 1,2015, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. San Diego has been called the birthplace of California, historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, the Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, in 1850, California became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War and the admission of California to the union. The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diegos main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San Dieguito, the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile, sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast, in May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California, in July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Junípero Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in, Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks, in 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began attempting to extend its authority over the territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1833, the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the voteSan Diego – Images from top, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Coronado Bridge, museum in Balboa Park, Serra Museum in Presidio Park and the Old Point Loma lighthouse
4. Sam Liccardo – Samuel Theodore Sam Liccardo is an American politician from California, currently serving as Mayor of San Jose. Liccardo was elected mayor in November 2014, One of five children to Salvador and Laura Liccardo, Sam Liccardo grew up in Saratoga, California and graduated from Bellarmine College Prep. Liccardo studied at Georgetown University and earned his law diploma at Harvard Law School, prior to his election to public office in 2006 he served as a criminal prosecutor in the Santa Clara County District Attorneys office. In 2006, Liccardo ran for San Joses District 3 Council seat, after placing first in an eight-candidate June primary with 43% percent of the vote, Liccardo went on to place first in the November runoff election, this time with 61. 3%. In June 2010, he won his reelection to the City Council with 80. 16% of the primary vote, as councilman, Liccardo advocated for more high rises in San José’s downtown, including the construction of the $135 million, 23-story high rise at One South Market. In 2014, Liccardo ran for Mayor of San Jose to succeed termed-out Mayor Chuck Reed and he placed second in a five-candidate June primary with 25. 7% of the vote and placed first in the November runoff with 50. 8% of the vote. The mayor offered policy suggestions in a book, Safer City. In his first year in office, he helped guide negotiations on an agreement with all 11 of citys employee unions that could save the city $3 billion in costs over the course of three decades. In the 2016 elections, voters approved the agreement by passing Measure F with more than 61% of the vote and this measure replaced a contentious pension reform plan, which has faced a series of legal challenges since its 2012 passage. The city has engaged in a number of efforts to expand its tax base, the city launched five new, direct international flights from the Mineta San José International Airport in 2016. Large Silicon Valley companies, such as Apple and Google, will also bring campuses to North San José, residents approved a quarter-percent sales taxes increase in June,2016, with a vote of 62% in favor. City officials estimate the tax will generate $40 million annually, in 2016, the San José City Council allocated $17.7 million of that new tax money to road repair, including potholes. In addition, Liccardo advocated for a half-cent sales tax increase called Measure B on the 2016 November ballot, the tax is devoted to transportation, with funds dedicated to expanding BART, reducing traffic congestion, and filling potholes. The City also launched a youth employment program called SJ Works during Liccardo’s first year in office, with a goal of serving 800 youth, in 2016, the City allocated funding to expand the program to 1,000 participants. In Liccardos second year, the City Council voted unanimously to raise the wage to $15 by 2019. This culminated a regional effort Liccardo began with mayors from Santa Clara County, including Los Altos, Mountain View, Cupertino and Palo Alto. In March 2016, Liccardo unveiled a Smart City Vision, with the goal to make San Jose the “most innovative city in America by 2020. ”This vision received unanimous approval from the City Council in March. Liccardo also advocated for ways to house the homeless, including rehabilitating two deteriorating motels, the Plaza Hotel and the Santa Clara Inn, according to a city staff report, such motel conversions represent a cost-effective way to house homeless householdsSam Liccardo – Sam Liccardo
5. San Jose, California – San Jose, officially the City of San José, is the economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2015 population of 1,026,908, it is the third most populous city in California and the tenth most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the shore of San Francisco Bay. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California. San Jose is the largest city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Ohlone people, San Jose was founded on November 29,1777, as the Pueblo of San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian town founded in Spanish Alta California. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose became the states first capital, following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 60s. The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from a center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had officially surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California, by the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries. San Jose is considered to be a city, notable for its affluence. San Joses location within the high tech industry, as a cultural, political. San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institute. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Brocade, Samsung, Acer, Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. The first lasting European presence began with a series of Franciscan missions established from 1769 by Junípero Serra, San Jose came under Mexican rule in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown. It then became part of the United States, after it capitulated in 1846, on March 27,1850, San Jose became the second incorporated city in the state, with Josiah Belden its first mayor. San Jose was Californias first state capital, and hosted the first, today the Circle of Palms Plaza in downtown is the historical marker for the first state capital. The city was a station on the Butterfield Overland Mail route, in the period 1900 through 1910, San Jose served as a center for pioneering invention, innovation, and impact in both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flight. These activities were led principally by John Montgomery and his peers, the City of San Jose has established Montgomery Park, a Monument at San Felipe and Yerba Buena Roads, and John J. Montgomery Elementary School in his honorSan Jose, California – Images, from top down, left to right: Downtown San Jose, Hotel De Anza, East San Jose suburbs, Lick Observatory, Plaza de César Chávez
6. Ed Lee (politician) – Edwin Mah Ed Lee is an American politician and attorney who is the 43rd and current Mayor of San Francisco, California. Lee won the election on November 8,2011 to serve a term as Mayor. Lee is the first Asian American mayor in San Franciscos history, before being appointed mayor, he was City Administrator. Prior to his employment with the City and County of San Francisco, Mayor Lee was the Managing Attorney for the San Francisco Asian Law Caucus, from 1989 to 1991, Lee worked as a Whistleblower Ordinance Investigator and the Deputy Director of Employment Relations in San Francisco. Lee later worked as the director of the Human Rights Commission from 1991 to 1996, afterwards, Lee became director of the City Purchasing Department in 1996 until his appointment to City Administrator in 2000. In 1989, Lee was appointed by Mayor Art Agnos as the Citys first investigator under the citys Whistleblower Ordinance, Agnos later appointed him deputy director of human relations. In 1991, he was hired as director of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission, serving in that capacity under Mayors Agnos, Frank Jordan. Brown appointed him Director of City Purchasing, where, among other responsibilities, in 2000, he was appointed Director of Public Works for the City, and in 2005 was appointed by Mayor Newsom to a five-year term as City Administrator, to which he was reappointed in 2010. As City Administrator, Lee oversaw the reduction of city government, speculation about possible appointees and debate on whether or not the old Board of Supervisors should cast the vote for the new mayor soon followed Newsoms election as lieutenant governor. The Board of Supervisors nominated four people, former Mayor Art Agnos, Sheriff Michael Hennessey, former Board of Supervisors president Aaron Peskin, and Lee. At the January 7 meeting, the old board voted 10–1 to elect Lee as mayor, at the time, Lee promised not to seek election if appointed, a statement which helped to gain support for his appointment. The vote was preliminary and non-binding, as Newsom had delayed his resignation until new members of the Board took office, a final vote was taken on January 11 by the new board to confirm Lee, one day after Newsoms resignation. The board voted unanimously for Lee and he took office immediately thereafter, as mayor, Lee reached an agreement with the Board of Supervisors to close a $380 million budget deficit. He implemented the City’s move to cleaner vehicles and an infrastructure to support electric vehicles, Mayor Lee also developed and oversaw implementation of the City’s first ever Ten Year Capital Plan to guide our capital priorities and infrastructure investment. In 2012, Mayor Lee pushed for the approval of the Housing Trust Fund which invested $1.5 billion in affordable housing production. In 2014, Mayor Lee pledged to construct 30,000 new and rehabilitated homes throughout the City by 2020, with half available to low, working and middle income San Franciscans. Mayor Lee launched a Small Site Acquisition Program, which funds the purchase & stabilization of multi-family rental buildings in neighborhoods that are susceptible to evictions, later, Lee created preferences for Neighborhood Residents and Displaced Tenants in our affordable housing programs to help keep residents in their communities. Lee launched the Ellis Act Housing Preference Program for tenants who are evicted under the State Ellis Act, Displaced tenants are now given preference for the City’s affordable housing programsEd Lee (politician) – Edwin Lee
7. San Francisco – San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings. The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold RushSan Francisco – San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge from Marin Headlands
8. Fresno, California – Fresno (/ˈfrɛznoʊ/ FREZ-no is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885. The population of Fresno proper soared in the half of the 20th century. It was here in Fresno in 1958 that Bank of America first launched the BankAmericard credit card, Fresno is near the geographical center of California. It lies approximately 220 miles northeast of Los Angeles,170 miles south of the capital, Sacramento. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Millerton, then on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaughs Ferry, Scottsburg and Elkhorn Springs, the San Joaquin River flooded on December 24,1867, inundating Millerton. Flooding also destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter, rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony McQeen Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont, Clovis and California avenues, unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church then formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, in 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterbys—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line. Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew the town of Fresno Station, many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became a city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track, in 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County, in carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, and spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno, when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires often ravaged American frontier towns, the greatest of Fresnos early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the cityFresno, California – An 1897 photo of K Street High School, which was replaced by Fresno High School in 1896. The school later became Emerson Elementary School and was demolished ca. 1930.
9. Darrell Steinberg – Darrell Steven Steinberg is an American politician who serves as the mayor of Sacramento, California. He was elected to be mayor on June 7,2016, before that, he was California Senate President pro Tempore and the leader of the majority party in the California State Senate from 2008 to 2014. Steinberg was a member of the California State Senate representing the 6th District and he had also previously served as a member of the California State Assembly and as a member of the Sacramento City Council. He is a member of the Democratic Party, Steinberg graduated from Capuchino High School in Millbrae-San Bruno, California, and from University of California, Los Angeles where he earned a BA in economics. He then earned a Juris Doctorate from University of California, Davis School of Law and he served as an employee rights attorney for the California State Employees Association for 10 years before his work as an Administrative Law Judge and mediator. Darrell Steinberg was a member of the California State Assembly from 1998 until he was termed out in 2004. During his time in the Assembly Steinberg served as Chair of the Assembly Committees on Budget, Appropriations, Judiciary, Labor and Employment, and he authored 70 bills that were signed into law in areas that included Mental Health, K-12 education, foster care and workplace safety. Steinberg is considered an advocate for children and mental health issues. He authored legislation to focus additional educational resources on high-poverty schools and he authored several nationally recognized laws to improve the state’s foster care system, including measures to improve system accountability and educational stability. His legislation in foster care included AB408, which mandated steps to help older foster youth find permanent homes and families and he also passed AB34, the first significant expansion of community mental health programs in more than a decade. Some supporters referred to this legislation as the Tosco bill because of an accident that occurred at the Tosco Refinery near Martinez, the accident, which resulted in four deaths, was held up as an example of insufficient penalties for dangerous workplace-safety violations. Steinberg was the President pro Tempore of the California State Senate from 2008 to 2014, in February 2008, he was selected by Senate Democrats to become Pro Tem in the next legislative session, when the incumbent would be termed-out. He took office in November 2008 as the first Senate leader from Sacramento since 1883, before being elevated to Pro Tem, he was Chair of the Senate Natural Resources and Water Committee. He also chaired the Senate Select Committee on High School Graduation, the Mental Health Services Oversight and Accountability Commission, and the Legislative Blue Ribbon Commission on Autism. As a member of the State Senate, Steinberg continued many of the causes he had undertaken as a member of the Assembly. He continued his work on improving test scores, aiding under performing schools, lowering dropout rates, and improving the states mental health system. In 2007, Steinberg introduced a bill to cap at 20 the number of high school students can work after school if their grade point average is not 2.5 or higher. The 6th District includes the city of Sacramento as well as parts of Elk GroveDarrell Steinberg – Darrell Steinberg
10. Sacramento, California – Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system. University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, Davis, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center, nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, bulbs, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were then christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres. The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William HSacramento, California
11. Robert Garcia (California politician) – Robert Garcia is a Peruvian-American politician who is the current Mayor of Long Beach, California. He previously represented the First Council District, which large areas of downtown, parts of the Port of Long Beach. In 2014 Garcia ran for Mayor of Long Beach and he qualified for the runoff by finishing first in the primary election. He won the election on June 3,2014 with 52. 1% of the vote. Garcia was the first openly gay person to be elected Mayor of Long Beach, Garcia was born on December 2,1977 in Lima, Peru. He immigrated to the United States with his mother at age 5 and his mother and aunt worked in many jobs, including as housekeepers, to support the family. He continued his education at the University of Southern California, where he received a Masters Degree, Garcia received his Ed. D. in Educational Policy from California State University, Long Beach, in June 2010. He has taught courses in Communication and Public Policy at the University of Southern California, California State University, Long Beach and he is fully bilingual, speaking, reading and writing both English and Spanish fluently. Originally a Republican, Garcia served as California Youth Coalition Coordinator for the 2000 George W. Bush presidential campaign while in college. In 2005, he founded and was president of the Long Beach Young Republicans, he worked as chief of staff for Long Beach City Councilmember Frank Colonna, Garcia changed his party to Democratic around 2007. In 2007, Garcia founded the Long Beach Post, a devoted to local news. The site soon became popular with political figures and community leaders. Garcia, with area residents, founded the North Pine Neighborhood Alliance in 2008 to advocate for the needs of downtown residents. This launched his career in earnest. In 2009, Garcia defeated six other candidates, including a former First District Councilmember and he was reelected in April 2010 by a margin of more than 40 percentage points. In July 2012, he was elected to a two-year term as Vice Mayor by the City Council, becoming the first Latino Vice Mayor in Long Beach. In January 2013, Garcia was appointed to the California Coastal Commission, in July 2013, after Bob Foster announced he would not seek re-election, Garcia entered the race for Long Beach Mayor. Upon being installed as Mayor, Garcia had to leave the Coastal Commission and he has shown interest in government reform and fiscal accountability, and supported the City Managers efforts to consolidate departmentsRobert Garcia (California politician) – Robert Garcia
12. Long Beach, California – Long Beach is the 36th most populous city in the United States and the 7th most populous in California. It is located on the Pacific Coast of the United States, as of 2010, its population was 462,257. Long Beach is the second largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the worlds largest shipping ports. The city also maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore, manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, petrochemicals, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the corner of Los Angeles County. Downtown Long Beach is approximately 22 miles south of Downtown Los Angeles, indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, and several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group were the Tongva people and they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxaanga was a settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuunga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the century due to missionization, political change. In 1784 the Spanish Empires King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto, the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was originally part of the Rancho San Pedro and its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto. In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England and he built what is now known as the Los Cerritos Ranch House, a still-standing adobe which is a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an attempt to establish a colony. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had also purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, to manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyns brother Jotham Bixby, the Father of Long Beach. Three years later Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land CompanyLong Beach, California – Images from top, left to right: Long Beach skyline from Bluff Park, RMS Queen Mary, Aquarium of the Pacific Blue Cavern exhibit, Hanjin Terminal at Port of Long Beach, Villa Riviera, Metro Blue Line, Long Beach Lighthouse
13. Oakland, California – Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, shipyards, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s. Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that later became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated. Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue, Broadway, and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an islandOakland, California – Oakland skyline, with the old eastern span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in background
14. Bakersfield, California – Bakersfield is a city in California, United States, and the county seat of Kern County. It covers about 142 square miles near the end of the San Joaquin Valley. Bakersfields population is approximately 365,000, making it the ninth-most populous city in California, the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas immediately around the city, such as East Bakersfield, the city is a significant hub for both agriculture and oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil producing county, and the fourth most productive county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, aerospace, mining, petroleum refining, manufacturing, distribution, food processing, the city is also the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years, the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River Delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, deer, bear, fish, and game birds. In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area, following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, the Bakersfield area, once a tule-reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area. In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna, among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Bakers Field, by 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was officially incorporated as a city, alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as. An old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, but he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, and not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him. Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, who was cantankerous, wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate, effectively leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia, the city was also failing to collect the taxes it needed for services, in 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizens council managed the community, by 1880, the town had a population of 801, and by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Southern California brought new residents, the city reincorporated on January 11,1898Bakersfield, California – Bakersfield skyline at night with the Rabobank Arena in the foreground.
15. Santa Ana, California – Santa Ana /ˌsæntə ˈænə/ is the county seat and second most populous city in Orange County, California. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2011 population at 329,427, Santa Ana is located in Southern California, adjacent to the Santa Ana River, about 10 miles away from the California coast. Founded in 1869, the city is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, Santa Ana is a very densely populated city, ranking fourth nationally in that regard among cities of over 300,000 residents. In 2011 Forbes ranked Santa Ana the fourth-safest city of over 250,000 residents in the United States, Santa Ana lends its name to the Santa Ana Freeway, which runs through the city. It also shares its name with the nearby Santa Ana Mountains, and the Santa Ana winds, the current Office of Management and Budget metropolitan designation for the Orange County Area is Santa Ana–Anaheim–Irvine, California. Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño are indigenous to the area, the Tongva called the Santa Ana area Hotuuk. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá out of Mexico City, then capitol of New Spain, on November 1,1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano was established within this valley. This Santa Ana Valley comprised most of what is now called Orange County, in 1810, year of the commencement of the war of Mexican Independence, Jose Antonio Yorba, a sergeant of the Spanish army, was granted land that he called Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Yorbas rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Orange, Irvine, Yorba Linda, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Tustin, Costa Mesa and unincorporated El Modena and this rancho was the only land grant in Orange County granted under Spanish Rule. Surrounding land grants in Orange County were granted after Mexican Independence by the new government, after the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, Alta California became part of the United States and American settlers arrived in this area. Claimed in 1869 by Kentuckian William H, by 1905 the Los Angeles Interurban Railway, a predecessor to the Pacific Electric Railway, extended from Los Angeles to Santa Ana, running along Fourth Street downtown. Firestone Boulevard, the first direct route between Los Angeles and Santa Ana, opened in 1935, it was enlarged into the Santa Ana Freeway in 1953. Santa Ana was the home of the original Glenn L. Martin aviation company, during World War II, the Santa Ana Army Air Base was built as a training center for the United States Army Air Forces. The base was responsible for continued growth in Santa Ana. In 1958, Fashion Square Mall was built, adjoining the existing Bullocks Department Store building that was built in 1954 and it opened north of downtown and became a major retail center for the area. In 1987, the mall was renovated and became MainPlace Mall. The current mayor of Santa Ana is Miguel A. Pulido, the first mayor of Latino descent in the citys history, since the 1980s, Santa Ana has been characterized by an effort to revitalize the downtown area which had declined in influence. The Santa Ana Artists Village was created around Cal State Fullertons Grand Central Art Center to attract artists and young professionals to live-work lofts, the process has continued into 2009 with the reopening of the historic Yost TheaterSanta Ana, California – Images, from top, left to right: The Old Orange County Courthouse, Bowers Museum, old city hall, Minter House, and Broadway street
16. Riverside, California – Riverside is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, located in the Inland Empire metropolitan area. Riverside is the county seat of the county and named for its location beside the Santa Ana River. It is the most populous city in the Inland Empire and in Riverside County and it is also part of the Greater Los Angeles area. Riverside is the 59th most populous city in the United States, as of the 2010 Census, Riverside had a population of 303,871. Riverside was founded in the early 1870s and it is the birthplace of the California citrus industry and home of the Mission Inn, the largest Mission Revival Style building in the United States. It is also home to the Riverside National Cemetery, the University of California, Riverside, is located in the northeastern part of the city. The university also hosts the Riverside Sports Complex, in the late 1700s and early 1800s, the area was inhabited by Cahuilla and the Serrano people. Californios such as Bernardo Yorba and Juan Bandini established ranches during the first half of the 19th century, in the 1860s, Louis Prevost launched the California Silk Center Association, a short-lived experiment in sericulture. In the wake of its failure, John W. North purchased some of its land, in March 1870, North distributed posters announcing the formation of a colony in California. North, a staunch temperance-minded abolitionist from New York State, had formerly founded Northfield, a few years later, some navel orange trees were planted and found to be such a success that full-scale planting began. Riverside was temperance minded, and Republican, there were four saloons in Riverside when it was founded. The license fees were raised until the saloons moved out of Riverside, investors from England and Canada transplanted traditions and activities adopted by prosperous citizens. As a result, the first golf course and polo field in Southern California were built in Riverside. C, the trees came from Bahia, Brazil. The Bahia orange did not thrive in Florida, but its success in Southern California was phenomenal, the three trees were planted on the Tibbetts property. One of the trees died after it was trampled by a cow during the first year it was planted, after the trampling, the two remaining trees were transplanted to property belonging to Sam McCoy to receive better care than L. C. That tree still stands to this day inside a protective fence abutting what is now a major intersection, the trees thrived in the Southern California climate and the navel orange industry grew rapidly. Many growers purchased bud wood and then grafted the cuttings to root stock, by 1882, there were more than half a million citrus trees in California, almost half of which were in Riverside. The development of refrigerated cars and innovative irrigation systems established Riverside as the richest city in the United States by 1895Riverside, California – Riverside skyline
17. Stockton, California – Stockton is the county seat of San Joaquin County located in the central valley portion of the U. S. State of California and the. Stockton was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Franceses, the city is named after Robert F. Stockton, and it was the first community in California to not have a name of Spanish or Native American origin. The city is located on the San Joaquin River in the northern San Joaquin Valley and had an population of 315,592 as of 2016. Stockton is the 13th largest city in California and the 63rd largest city in the United States and it was named an All-America City in 1999,2004 and again in 2015. Built during the California Gold Rush, Stocktons seaport serves as a gateway to the Central Valley and it provided easy access for trade and transportation to the southern gold mines. Stockton has been the location of the oldest university in California, as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, Stockton was the second largest city in the United States to file for bankruptcy protection. Stockton successfully exited bankruptcy in February 2015, Stockton is situated amidst the farmland of Californias San Joaquin Valley, a subregion of the Central Valley. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways, which make up the California Delta, Interstate 5 and State Route 99, inland Californias major north-south highways, pass through the city. State Route 4 and the dredged San Joaquin River connect the city with the San Francisco Bay Area to its west, Stockton and Sacramento are Californias only inland sea ports. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city occupies an area of 64.8 square miles. When Europeans first visited the Stockton area, the Yatchicumne, a branch of the Northern Valley Yokuts Indians and they built their villages on low mounds to keep their homes above regular floods. A Yokuts village named Pasasimas was located on a mound between Edison and Harrison Streets on what is now the Stockton Channel in downtown Stockton, the Siskiyou Trail began in the northern San Joaquin Valley. It was a centuries-old Native American footpath that lead through the Sacramento Valley over the Cascades, Gold rush era Europeans and Americans started to arrive in the area after gold was found in northern California, starting with the California Gold Rush in 1848. When Captain Charles Maria Weber, a German immigrant, decided to try his hand at mining in late 1848. As an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, born in New York, Gulnae had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, which then ruled California. He applied in Webers place for a grant of eleven square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River. Weber acquired the Rancho Campo de los Franceses Mexican land grant, Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the California Gold Rush, Stockton developed as a river port, during its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including Tuleburg, Fat City, Mudville, and Californias Sunrise SeaportStockton, California – Downtown Stockton waterfront
18. Don Wagner – Don Wagner is an American politician and the current mayor of Irvine, California. He previously served as a Republican member of the California State Assembly, representing the 68th district, Wagner is married to Superior Court Judge Megan Wagner, and he and his family resides in Irvine, California. Wagner was an attorney for Kindel and Anderson from 1987 to 1993 and he has been an attorney for Wagner Lautsch Limited Liability Partnership since 1998. Wagner served on several committees or advisory boards for the Orange County Bar Association, other previous positions include three active terms as a member of the South Orange County Community College District Board of Trustees. He founded and served as the first president of the Orange County Chapter of the Federalist Society, in 2010, Wagner narrowly won the Republican primary election for the 70th Assembly District over Irvine City Councilman Steven Choi. He then won the election with 58. 2% of the votes. National Rifle Association – A in 2010 Wagners Facebook profile Project Vote Smart BiographyDon Wagner – Donald P. Wagner
19. Irvine, California – Irvine is an affluent city in Orange County, California, United States. It is a city, the Irvine Company started developing the area in the 1960s. Formally incorporated on December 28,1971, the 66-square-mile city had a population of 212,375 as of the 2010 census, a number of corporations, particularly in the technology and semiconductor sectors, have their national or international headquarters in Irvine. The Gabrieleño indigenous group inhabited Irvine about 2,000 years ago, gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish explorer, came to the area in 1769, which led to the establishment of forts, missions and cattle herds. The King of Spain parceled out land for missions and private use, after Mexicos independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government secularized the missions and assumed control of the lands. It began distributing the land to Mexican citizens who applied for grants, three large Spanish/Mexican grants made up the land that later became the Irvine Ranch, Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Rancho San Joaquin and Rancho Lomas de Santiago. In 1864, Jose Andres Sepulveda, owner of Rancho San Joaquin sold 50,000 acres to Benjamin and Thomas Flint, Llewellyn Bixby, in 1866, Irvine, Flint and Bixby acquired 47, 000-acre Rancho Lomas de Santiago for $7,000. After the Mexican-American war the land of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana fell prey to tangled titles, in 1868, the ranch was divided among four claimants as part of a lawsuit, Flint, Bixby and Irvine. The ranches were devoted to sheep grazing, however, in 1870, tenant farming was permitted. In 1878, James Irvine acquired his partners interests for $150,000 and his 110,000 acres stretched 23 miles from the Pacific Ocean to the Santa Ana River. The ranch was inherited by his son, James Irvine, Jr. who incorporated it into The Irvine Company, James, Jr. shifted the ranch operations to field crops, olive and citrus crops. In 1888, the Santa Fe Railroad extended its line to Fallbrook Junction, north of San Diego, the town that formed around this station was named Myford, after Irvines son, because a post office in Calaveras County already bore the family name. The town was renamed Irvine in 1914, by 1918,60,000 acres of lima beans were grown on the Irvine Ranch. Two Marine Corps facilities, MCAS El Toro and MCAS Tustin, were built during World War II on ranch land sold to the government, James Irvine, Jr. died in 1947 at the age of 80. His son, Myford, assumed the presidency of The Irvine Company and he began opening small sections of the Irvine Ranch to urban development. The Irvine Ranch played host to the Boy Scouts of Americas 1953 National Scout Jamboree, Jamboree Road, a major street which now stretches from Newport Beach to the city of Orange, was named in honor of this event. David Sills, then a young Boy Scout from Peoria, Illinois, was among the attendees at the 1953 Jamboree, Sills came back to Irvine as an adult and went on to serve four terms as the citys mayor. The same year, the University of California asked The Irvine Company for 1,000 acres for a new university campus, the Irvine Company sold the requested land for $1 and later the state purchased an additional 500 acresIrvine, California – The Irvine Spectrum
20. Fremont, California – Fremont is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. It was incorporated on January 23,1956, from the merger of five communities, Centerville, Niles, Irvington, Mission San Jose. The city is named after American explorer John Charles Frémont, located in the southeast section of the San Francisco Bay Area in the East Bay region primarily, Fremont has a population of around 230,000. It is the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, and it is the closest East Bay city to Silicon Valley, and is thus sometimes associated with it. The area consisting of Fremont, Newark, and Union City, is now known as the Tri-City Area, Fremont is home to the largest population of Afghan Americans in the United States. The recorded history of the Fremont area began on June 6,1795, the Mission was established at the site of the Ohlone village of Oroysom. On their second day in the area, the Mission party killed a bear in Niles Canyon. The first English-speaking visitor to Fremont was the renowned trapper and explorer Jedediah Smith in 1827, the Mission prospered, eventually reaching a population of 1,887 inhabitants in 1831. The influence of the missionaries declined after 1834, when the Mexican government enacted secularization, José de Jesus Vallejo, brother of Mariano Vallejo, was the grantee of the Rancho Arroyo de la Alameda Mexican land grant. His family was influential in the Fremont area in the colonial era. In 1846 they were visited by the towns namesake John C, Frémont, who mapped a trail through Mission Pass to provide access for American settlers into the southeastern San Francisco Bay Area. The Fremont area grew rapidly at the time of the California Gold Rush, a town called Mission San Jose grew up around the old mission, with its own post office from 1850. Agriculture dominated the economy with grapes, nursery plants and olives as leading crops, in 1868 the 6. 8-magnitude Hayward earthquake on the Hayward Fault collapsed buildings throughout the Fremont area, ruining Mission San José and its outbuildings. Until the 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused its destruction, the Fremont areas Palmdale Winery was the largest in California, the ruins of the Palmdale Winery are still visible near the Five Corners in Irvington. From 1912 to 1915 the Niles section of the Fremont area was the earliest home of Californias motion picture industry, Charlie Chaplin filmed several movies in the Fremont area, most notably The Tramp. Fremont was incorporated under the leadership of Wally Pond in 1956, when the Glenmoor Gardens Homeowners Association was incorporated, in March 1953, there were no more than 75 houses in the subdivision. It was probably the first such organization in the Fremont area, in its scope, the five-member board of directors was set up to oversee a full range of services, from police and fire protection to street maintenance. Fremont became more industrialized between 1953 and 1962, a boom in high-tech employment in the 1980s to the late 1990s, especially in the Warm Springs District, caused rapid development in the city and linked the city with the Silicon ValleyFremont, California – A view of Mission Peak from Fremont Central Park
21. San Bernardino, California – San Bernardino /ˈsæn ˌbɜːrnɑːrˈdiːnoʊ/ is a city located in the Riverside-San Bernardino metropolitan area. It serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, as one of the Inland Empires anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and has a population of 209,924 as of the 2010 census. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 100th-largest city in the United States, San Bernardino is home to numerous diplomatic missions for the Inland Empire, being one of four cities in California with numerous consulates. The governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established their consulates in the area of the city. California State University, San Bernardino is located in the part of the city. The university also hosts the Coussoulis Arena, in addition, the city is home to the Inland Empire 66ers baseball team, they play their home games at San Manuel Stadium in downtown San Bernardino. In August 2012, San Bernardino became the largest city to choose to file for protection under Chapter 9 of the U. S. Bankruptcy code, San Bernardinos case was filed on August 1. On December 2,2015, a terrorist attack left 14 people dead and 22 seriously injured, the city of San Bernardino, California, occupies much of the San Bernardino Valley, which indigenous tribespeople originally referred to as The Valley of the Cupped Hand of God. The Tongva Indians also called the San Bernardino area Waaach in their language, upon seeing the immense geological arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of the San Bernardino Mountains, they found the hot and cold springs to which the arrowhead seemed to point. Politana was the first Spanish settlement in the San Bernardino Valley, Two years later the settlement was destroyed by superstitious local tribesmen, following the powerful earthquakes that shook the region. Several years later, the Serrano and Mountain Cahuilla rebuilt the Politana rancheria and they did and established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia. Serrano and Cahuilla people inhabited Politana until long after the 1830s decree of secularization, the city of San Bernardino one of the oldest communities in the state of California, and in its present-day location, was not largely settled until 1851, after California became a state. The first Anglo-American colony was established by pioneers associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons, hardworking Mormon colonists developed irrigated, commercial farming and lumbering, supplying agricultural produce and lumber throughout Southern California. The city was incorporated in the year 1857. Later that year most of the colonists were recalled by Brigham Young in 1857 due to the Utah War, once highly regarded in early California, news of the Mountain Meadows Massacre poisoned attitudes toward the Mormons. They sold these lands to new settlers who came to dominate the culture and politics in the county, many the new land owners unlike the sober Mormons, indulged in drinking at saloons now allowed in the town. Disorder, fighting and violence in the vicinity became common, reaching a climax in the 1859 Ainsworth - Gentry Affair, in 1860 a gold rush began in the mountains nearby with the discovery of gold by William F. Holcomb in Holcomb Valley early 1860. Another strike followed in the reach of Lytle CreekSan Bernardino, California – Downtown San Bernardino
22. Modesto, California – Modesto /məˈdɛstoʊ/, officially the City of Modesto, is the county seat and largest city of Stanislaus County, California, United States. With a population of approximately 201,165 at the 2010 census, it is the 18th largest city in the state of California, the Modesto Census County Division, which includes the cities of Ceres and Riverbank, had a population of 312,842 as of 2010. Modesto has been honored as a Tree City USA numerous times and it is surrounded by rich farmland, Stanislaus County ranks sixth among California counties in farm production. Led by milk, almonds, chickens, walnuts, and corn silage, the farm-to-table movement plays a central role in Modesto living as in the Central Valley. The citys annual Architectural Festival honors Modestos history as a ground for mid-century modern architecture during the 1940s and 50s. Modestos mid-century buildings have been featured four times in Museum of Modern Art publications, in December 2009, Forbes ranked Modesto 48th out of 100 among Best Bang-for-the-Buck Cities. In this ranking, Modesto ranked 8th in housing affordability and travel time, Modesto is the home of Gallo Family Winery, the largest privately owned winery in the world. Modesto was originally a stop on the railroad connecting Sacramento to Los Angeles, at its founding in 1870, it was to be named Ralston after financier William C. Ralstons modesty prompted him to ask that another name be found, Modesto was incorporated in 1884 with a population of over 1,000. With fields of grain, a river for grain barges, and railroad traffic. Irrigation water came from dams installed in the foothills, and irrigated fields of vegetables and fruit, by 1900, Modestos population was over 4,500. During World War II, the area provided canned goods, powdered milk, for the next few decades, Modestos population grew about two percent per year to over 100,000 in 1980, and over 200,000 in 2001. The citys official motto, Water Wealth Contentment Health, is emblazoned on the downtown Modesto Arch, the motto was selected in a contest held in 1911. Modestos motto is sometimes spoofed as The land gets the water, the bankers get the wealth, the cows get contentment, Modesto is known for the following tourist attractions and historical sites. McHenry Mansion – Built in the early 1880s by Robert McHenry, the mansion is included on the National Register of Historic Places. McHenry Museum – Across the street from the McHenry Mansion, filled with tidbits from Modestos history George Lucas Plaza – American Graffiti-inspired bronze statue made in honor of Modesto filmmaker George Lucas, located at Five Points. Gallo Center for the Arts – Center for the performing arts opened in 2007 and is located in downtown Modesto at 1000 I Street, Downtown Modesto – Known for having a variety of restaurants and night life. It also hosts a multi-venue Art Walk year around on the third Thursday of the month, the State Theatre – Dating back to the 1920s, it was recently renovated and serves as a local performance arts center and as a theater specializing in independent and foreign filmsModesto, California – Modesto Arch, including the city motto
23. Fontana, California – Fontana is a city of 203,003 residents in San Bernardino County, California. Founded by Azariel Blanchard Miller in 1913, it remained essentially rural until World War II, when entrepreneur Henry J. Kaiser built a large steel mill in the area. It is home to the largest of the San Bernardino County system libraries, a historic theater, a municipal park. Fontana also hosts the Fontana Days Half Marathon and 5K run and this race is the fastest half-marathon course in the world. The United States Census Bureau estimated Fontanas 2013 population at 203,003, making it the second most populous city in San Bernardino county, the name fontana is Italian for fountain or water source, being in close proximity to the Santa Ana River to the west. Fontana was founded in 1913 by Azariel Blanchard Miller, within a few years it became an agricultural town of citrus orchards, vineyards and chicken ranches astride U. S. Route 66. The Fontana area was transformed during World War II when Henry J. Kaiser built one of only two steel mills west of the Mississippi River outside the city limits. To provide for the plant workers health needs, Henry J. Kaiser constructed the Fontana Kaiser Permanente medical facility, in the 1950s and 60s, Fontana was home to a drag racing strip that was a venue in the NHRA circuit. Mickey Thompsons Fontana International Dragway was also referred to as Fontana Drag City or Fontana Drag Strip. When the Ro-Val museum closed, the vehicles were sold to Bill Harrah, a Nevada casino owner and automobile collector, who placed them on display in the museum located at his casino. As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 128,929. There are also deposits of similar age from Etiwanda Creek on the western edge of the city. However, the northern and southern edges of the city are formed by the much older San Gabriel and Jurupa mountain ranges, the Jurupa Mountains are composed primarily of Cretaceous and Paleozoic-era rocks, as are the San Gabriels, which also include even older, Proterozoic formations. The most prominent of the San Gabriel Mountains visible from Fontana is Cucamonga Peak and it is estimated to be capable of producing earthquakes approximately of magnitude 6. 0-7.0. The citys listed elevation, measured from the northeast corner of the intersection of Upland Avenue and Sierra Avenue, however, the highest elevation within the city limits is approximately 2,600 feet, in the northernmost part of the Panorama neighborhood of Hunters Ridge. The lowest point within the city limits is approximately 840 feet, at the intersection of Etiwanda and Philadelphia avenues and this difference in elevation is due to the southward slope of the Lytle Creek alluvial fan. The city is affected by the strong, hot and dry Santa Ana winds as they blow through the nearby Cajon Pass of the San Gabriel mountains. Fontana can also be hot in summer, well over 100 degrees FahrenheitFontana, California – Fontana as seen from Mount Jurupa, looking north towards the Cajon Pass.
24. Oxnard, California – Oxnard /ˈɒksnɑːrd/ is a city in the United States, located along the coast of Southern California. It is the 19th most populous city in California and the most populous in Ventura County, the city lies approximately 30 miles west of the Los Angeles city limits, and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area. The population of Oxnard is 203,585 as of the 2012 Financial Report and it is located at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, sitting adjacent to an agricultural center of strawberries and lima beans. Oxnard is also a transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Metrolink, Greyhound. Oxnard also has a regional airport called Oxnard Airport. Oxnard is also the location of the National Weather Service forecast office that serves the Los Angeles area, before the arrival of Europeans, the area that is now Oxnard was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans. The first European to encounter the area was Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, during the mission period, it was serviced by the Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782. Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850, at about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for sugar, zachari, but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. The Oxnard factory operated from August 19,1899 until October 26,1959, factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903. Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30,1903, in the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, industry, retail, and a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. Smith became the most influential developer in the history of Oxnard during this time, smiths first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant and then the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947. In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6. 6-square-mile area of the district of the city. The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005, a similar injunction was imposed in September,2006 over a 4. 26-square-mile area of the south side of the city. Oxnard is located on the Oxnard Plain, an area with fertile soil, with its beaches, dunes, wetlands, creeks and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Also native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, the city of Oxnard is home to over 20 miles of scenic, relatively uncrowded coastline. The beaches in Oxnard are large and the sand is exceptionally soft, the sand dunes in Oxnard, which were once much more extensive, have been used to recreate Middle-Eastern desert dunes in many movies, the first being The Sheik with Rudolph Valentino. There are very few rocks or driftwood piles at most beaches, Oxnard has good surfing at many of its beachesOxnard, California – Oxnard gateway monument sign.
25. Glendale, California – Glendale /ˈɡlɛndeɪl/ is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and it is located about 8 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies on the end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains. The Golden State, Ventura, Glendale, and Foothill freeways run through the city, Glendale has one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LAs Neighborhood of the Year by the readers and editors of Curbed. com, Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh. The area was inhabited by the Tongva people, who were later renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession, of which 25 were made in California, unlike the later Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Verdugos descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, in 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name Glendale. Residents to the southwest formed Tropico in 1887, the Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, and annexed Tropico 12 years later, Brand loved to fly, and built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted fly-in parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport. The grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the Red Cars, to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of the main thoroughfares. The citys population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930, the Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party and its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978,10 murdered women were found in, the murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took placeGlendale, California – View of Glendale from Forest Lawn Memorial Park
26. Santa Clarita, California – Santa Clarita, officially the City of Santa Clarita, is the third largest city in Los Angeles County, California, and the seventeenth largest in the state of California. The city has annexed a number of unincorporated areas, contributing to the population increase. It is located about 35 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles and it is a notable example of a U. S. edge city or boomburb. Santa Clarita was ranked by Money magazine in 2006 as 18th of the top 100 places to live, the four communities retain separate identities, and it is common for residents to refer to a specific neighborhood when asked where they are from. Santa Clarita is bounded on the west by the Golden State Freeway, the Antelope Valley Freeway runs northeast-southwest through an irregular east border, and the Newhall Pass is the citys southernmost point. Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987, but its history stretches back several centuries, about AD450, the Tataviam arrived, numbering around 2,000 at their zenith. The Santa Clara River was named by Spanish explorers for Clare of Assisi, the valley and the settlement later became known as little Santa Clara in deference to the Northern California mission and city of Santa Clara, California. In time, little Santa Clara became Santa Clarita, in 1842, Francisco Lopez made the first documented discovery of gold in California. The event is memorialized in an 1842 mining claim issued by Gov. Juan B, the discovery was made in Placerita Canyon, an area later used as Hollywoods original back lot. Newhalls next business interest was railroads and he invested in rail companies that would connect San Francisco to other cities and became president of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. In 1870, he and his partners sold the company to Southern Pacific Railroad, after railroads, Newhall turned to real estate and ranching. He purchased a number of the old Spanish and Mexican land grants in the state for a total of 143,000 acres between Monterey and Los Angeles counties. The most significant portion was the 46,460 acres Rancho San Francisco in northern Los Angeles County, which he purchased for $2/acre, the first station built on the line he named for his hometown, Saugus, Massachusetts. After his death, Newhalls heirs incorporated the Newhall Land and Farming Company, on September 26,1876, Charles Alexander Mentry brought in the states first productive oil well at Mentryville, giving rise to the California oil industry. The oil was brought to a refinery at Newhall, now the oldest existing petroleum refinery in the world, it was operational from 1874 to 1888. A few days earlier, on September 5,1876, Charles Crocker and Leland Stanford joined their railroads in Canyon Country, linking Los Angeles with the rest of the nation for the first time. The Saugus Cafe, on Railroad Avenue in Saugus, was established in 1887 and appears to be, by far, the oldest still-operating restaurant in Los Angeles County. Filming in Santa Clarita began shortly after the turn of the 20th century with a veritable Whos Who of actors, including William S. Hart, Tom Mix, Harry Carey and a young John WayneSanta Clarita, California – Santa Clarita's Canyon Country in September 2008.
27. Oceanside, California – Oceanside is a coastal city located on Californias South Coast. It is the third-largest city in San Diego County, California, the city had a population of 167,086 at the 2010 census. Together with Carlsbad and Vista, it forms a tri-city area, Oceanside is located just south of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. Originally inhabited by Native Americans, the first European explorers arrived in 1769, Spanish missionaries under Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Luis Rey de Francia on a former site of a Luiseño Indian village on the banks of the San Luis Rey River. In the early 19th century, the introduction of farming and grazing changed the landscape of what would become Oceanside, the area—like all of California—was under Spanish, then in 1821 under Mexican rule, and then the U. S. in 1848. In the late 1850s, Andrew Jackson Myers lived in San Joaquin County, a native of LaSalle County, Illinois, he returned in the late 1880s and lived in San Luis Rey. In 1882 Myers moved on the land that was the town site for Oceanside. A patent for the land was issued in 1883 by the federal government and it was incorporated on July 3,1888. The city hall as of the early 21st century stands on the former Myers homestead, the town post office contains an oil-on-canvas mural, Air Mail, painted in 1937 by Elsie Seeds. Federally commissioned murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture, later called the Section of Fine Arts, in the 20th century, Oceanside was a beach town devoted to activities on a 6-mile stretch of beaches. Residential areas like downtown, South Oceanside, and developments east of Interstate 5 are preserved and remodeled when these houses are considered to have historical value. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported citys population as 91. 0% white,5. 1% black and 1. 7% Asian, after 1970, the main focus of Oceanside was suburban development and a choice for newcomers to move into then relatively affordable housing. Oceanside continues to be known for the value and appreciation as a home market. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 42.2 square miles. Traveling north on Interstate 5, Oceanside is the last city before Orange County, as the crow flies, it is roughly the same distance from Aliso Viejo as it is to downtown San Diego. Oceanside experiences a climate that is significantly tempered by maritime winds. The average high temperatures range from 64 °F to 77 °F, the 2010 United States Census reported that Oceanside had a population of 167,086. The population density was 3,961.8 people per square mileOceanside, California – Oceanside's Tyson St. Park beach
28. Rancho Cucamonga, California – Rancho Cucamonga is a suburban city situated at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in San Bernardino County, California. It is located 37 miles east of Downtown Los Angeles, the city had a population of 165,269 in 2010 and an estimated population of 174,305 in 2014. The city experiences an average of 287 sunny days per year and its climate is classified as warm Mediterranean, or Csa, under the Köppen climate classification system. The citys seal, which centers on a cluster of grapes, alludes to the agricultural history. The citys favorable location and host of public amenities have earned it numerous distinctions, notably, Money Magazine ranked Rancho Cucamonga 42nd on its Best Places to Live list in 2006. In addition, Insider Magazine established one Rancho Cucamonga neighborhood as the 13th richest neighborhood in Southern California, all of the citys four public high schools earned the Silver distinction in a 2015 ranking of the nations high schools by U. S. News & World Report. Rancho Cucamongas first settlers were Native American, by 1200 A. D. Kukamongan Native Americans had established a village settlement in the area around present-day Red Hill, near the citys western border. Kukamonga derives its name from a Native-American word meaning sandy place, after a half-century of political jockeying in the region, the land finally came under the control of Juan Bautista Alvarado, governor of Mexico. On March 3,1839, Alvarado granted 13,000 acres of land in the area called Cucamonga to Tubercio Tapia, a first-generation Spanish native of Los Angeles, successful merchant, Tapia went on to establish the first winery in California on his newly deeded land. Rancho Cucamonga was purchased by John Rains and his wife in 1858, the Rains familys home, Casa de Rancho Cucamonga, was completed in 1860 and now appears on the National Register of Historic Places. During the ensuing years the town prospered and grew, in 1887, irrigation tunnels were dug into Cucamonga Canyon by Chinese laborers and the Santa Fe Railroad was extended through the area. Among the towns economic mainstays was agriculture, including olives, peaches, citrus, in 1913, the Pacific Electric Railway was extended through Rancho Cucamonga in an effort to improve crop transportation. Several landmarks in existence today pay tribute to the citys multicultural founding, in 1977, the unincorporated communities of Alta Loma, Cucamonga, and Etiwanda voted to incorporate, forming the city of Rancho Cucamonga. The former community of Grapeland, first settled in 1869, lay roughly between todays Victoria Groves Park and Central Park, there was a schoolhouse which also doubled as a church. In 1890 an irrigation district was formed and $200,000 in bonds were sold to pay for improvements, the Sierra Vista reservoir was built in 1886-87 by J. L. Scofield as the focal point of a network of irrigation pipes. The system was unused, however, because the issue was declared illegal. Orchards and vineyards began to die, The Daily Report newspaper reported in a retrospective, the post office closed in 1905. Homes, buildings were destroyed or abandoned, the reservoir remained unused until 1956, when the Fontana Union Water Company filled it with 5 million gallons of waterRancho Cucamonga, California – Rancho Cucamonga
29. Santa Rosa, California – Santa Rosa is a city in and the county seat of Sonoma County, California, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 174,170, before the arrival of Europeans, the wide valley containing Santa Rosa was home to a strong and populous tribe of Pomo natives known as the Bitakomtara. The Bitakomtara controlled the valley closely, barring passage to others until permission was arranged and those who entered without permission were subject to harsh penalties. The tribe gathered at ceremonial times on Santa Rosa Creek near present-day Spring Lake Regional Park, upon the arrival of Europeans, the Pomos were decimated by smallpox brought from Europe, and by the eradication efforts of Anglo settlers. By 1900 the Pomo population had decreased by 95%, the first known permanent European settlement of Santa Rosa was the homestead of the Carrillo family, in-laws to Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, who settled the Sonoma pueblo and Petaluma area. This is supposedly the origin of the name of Matanzas Creek as, because of its use as a slaughtering place, by the 1850s, a Wells Fargo post and general store were established in what is now downtown Santa Rosa. The U. S. Census records, among others, show that after California became a state, Santa Rosa grew steadily early on, despite lagging behind nearby Petaluma in the 1850s. According to the U. S. Census, in 1870 Santa Rosa was the eighth largest city in California, growth and development after that were steady but never rapid. According to a 1905 article in the Press Democrat newspaper reporting on the Battle of the Trains, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake essentially destroyed the entire downtown, but the citys population did not greatly suffer. However, after that period the population growth of Santa Rosa, famed director Alfred Hitchcock filmed his thriller Shadow of a Doubt in Santa Rosa in 1943, the film gives glimpses of Santa Rosa in the 1940s. Many of the buildings seen in the film no longer exist due to major reconstruction following the strong earthquakes in October 1969. However, some, like the rough-stone Northwestern Pacific Railroad depot, a scene at the bank was filmed at the corner of Fourth Street and Mendocino Avenue, the KRESS building on Fourth Street is also visible. However, the courthouse and bank are now gone, the Coen brothers 2001 film The Man Who Wasnt There is set in Santa Rosa c. Santa Rosa grew following World War II, the city was a convenient location for San Francisco travelers bound for the Russian River. The population increased by 2/3 between 1950 and 1970, an average of 1,000 new residents a year over the 20 years, some of the increase was from immigration, and some from annexation of portions of the surrounding area. Santa Rosa continued as a center for civil defense activity until 1972 when the Federal Emergency Management Agency was created in its place. When the City Council adopted the citys first modern General Plan in 1991, in the 21 years following 1970, Santa Rosa grew by about 3,000 residents a year—triple the average growth during the previous twenty years. Santa Rosa 2010, the 1991 General Plan, called for a population of 175,000 in 2010, the Council expanded the citys urban boundary to include all the land then planned for future annexation, and declared it would be Santa Rosas ultimate boundarySanta Rosa, California – Old Courthouse Square, Downtown Santa Rosa
30. Elk Grove, California – Elk Grove is a city in Sacramento County, California, located just south of the state capital of Sacramento. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area, as of 2015, the population of the city was estimated at 167,965. The second-largest city in Sacramento County, Elk Grove was the fastest growing city in the U. S. between July 1,2004, and July 1,2005. A writer on Moragas expedition wrote of the region, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, in 1868 the Western Division of the Central Pacific Railroad came through about a mile east of Elk Grove. At this new location another hotel was built to accommodate travelers and was named the Elk Grove Hotel. In the following decades, Elk Grove remained a farming community with little urban development. However, in the late 1980s, suburban development projects began to spring up around the community and this was meant to serve Sacramentos population as well as San Francisco commuters looking for a community relatively near the San Francisco Bay Area which they could settle in and still commute from. This set off a period of suburban growth which hit its peak in the years 2004 and 2005 when Elk Grove was declared the fastest growing city in the US. On July 1,2000, Elk Grove incorporated as a city, in 2008 Elk Grove suffered heavily from the subprime mortgage crisis due to its suburban nature. The Elk Grove Unified School District is the fifth largest school district in California, located in southern Sacramento County, the district covers 320 square miles, one-third of the county. For the 2002-03 school year, the district served more than 52,500 students and those students attend 38 elementary schools,8 middle schools,8 high schools and 4 alternative high schools. There are also private schools in town. A local community college, Cosumnes River College, offers vocational training and a transfer program to four-year universities. Located nearby are California State University, Sacramento and the University of California, Davis, Elk Grove is also the home of the private six-year Universalist religious college Quest Seminary. In 2013, California Northstate University College of Pharmacy that offers a Doctor of Pharmacy degree program relocated to Elk Grove, the new Elk Grove Public Library is located at 8900 Elk Grove Blvd in a modern two story building. It moved to this location from just a block East, the library is part of the broader Sacramento Public Library system. The Elk Grove Library also serves neighboring communities such as Vineyard, Wilton, Sloughhouse, additional local libraries supplement neighborhoods, such as the public Franklin High LibraryElk Grove, California – Sunset on Laguna Blvd, Elk Grove
31. Hayward, California – Hayward is a city located in Alameda County, California in the East Bay subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area. With a 2014 population of 149,392, Hayward is the sixth largest city in the Bay Area, Hayward was ranked as the 37th most populous municipality in California. It is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont Metropolitan Statistical Area by the US Census and it is located primarily between Castro Valley and Union City, and lies at the eastern terminus of the San Mateo-Hayward Bridge. The city was devastated early in its history by the 1868 Hayward earthquake, from the early 20th century until the beginning of the 1980s, Haywards economy was dominated by its now defunct food canning and salt production industries. Human habitation of the greater East Bay, including Hayward, dates from at least 4000 B. C, the most recent pre-European inhabitants of the Hayward area were the Native American Ohlone people. In the 19th century, the land that is now Hayward became part of Rancho San Lorenzo, most of the citys structures were destroyed in the earthquake, the last major earthquake on the fault. In 1930, that site was chosen for the construction of the City Hall, William Dutton Hayward arrived during the gold rush and squatted, started building a house, next to the creek at the site of the old Polamares School. Guillermo Castros Vaqueros came by one day and told Hayward to get off of Castros property, William did leave, but went to Guillermo Castro directly and asked to buy a piece of his land. Castro sold him the area of what was east of Castro Street, now Mission Blvd, William Hayward built a grand hotel on the property. He and his wife ran the hotel, which burned to the ground around 1916. Hayward was originally known as Haywards, then as Haywood, later as Haywards, there is some disagreement as to how it was named. Most historians believe it was named for William Dutton Hayward, who opened a hotel there in 1852, the U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System states the city was named after Alvinza Hayward, a millionaire from the California Gold Rush. Regardless of which Hayward the area was named for, the name was changed to Haywood when the post office was first established in 1860, Castro emigrated to Chile with most of his family in 1864, after he lost his land in a card game. His name survives in the community of Castro Valley, located in the next to Hayward. The ranch was split up and sold to locals, William Hayward among them. William Haywards fortunes took a turn for the grander when he constructed a resort hotel, the surrounding area came to be called Haywards after the hotel. William Hayward eventually became the commissioner for Alameda County. He used his authority to influence the construction of roads in his own favor and he was also an Alameda County supervisorHayward, California – Historic Hunt's Cannery water tower
32. Salinas, California – Salinas /səˈliːnəs/ is the county seat and largest municipality of Monterey County, California. Salinas is located just outside the portion of the greater Bay Area and 10 miles east-southeast of the mouth of the Salinas River. The population was 155,662 as of 2013, the city is located at the mouth of the Salinas Valley roughly eight miles from the Pacific Ocean and has a climate more influenced by the ocean than the hot-summer interior. The marine climate is ideal for the industry, grape vineyards. Salinas is known for its vibrant and large industry and as the hometown of writer and Nobel Prize in Literature laureate John Steinbeck. The land currently occupied by the city of Salinas is thought to have settled by Native Americans known as the Esselen prior to 200 AD. Between 200 and 500 AD, they were displaced by the Rumsen group of Ohlone speaking people, before this time, Monterey was the capital of California and had been under military rule after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo at the end of the Mexican-American war. In the 1850s a junction of two main stage coach routes was located 18 miles east of Monterey and along the big bend of what is referred to as the Alisal Slough. Soon thereafter, in 1856, an inn called the Halfway House was opened at that junction in Salinas. The streets of Salinas were laid out in 1867, and the town was incorporated in 1874. The conversion of grazing land to crops and the coming of the road in 1868 to transport goods and people was a major turning point in the history. Dry farming of wheat, barley, and other grains as well as potatoes, irrigation changed farming in Salinas to mainly row crops of root vegetables, grapes and sugar beets. Many major vegetable producers placed their headquarters in Salinas, the camp opened on April 27,1942 and held a total of 3,608 people before closing two months later on July 4. Following World War II major urban and suburban development converted much farmland to city, the city experienced two particularly strong growth spurts in the 1950s and 1960s, and again in the 1990s and early 2000s. The Harden Ranch, Creekbridge and Williams Ranch neighborhoods constituting much of the citys North-East were built almost exclusively between 1990 and 2004, Salinas was also the birthplace of writer and Nobel Prize laureate John Steinbeck. The historic downtown, known as Oldtown Salinas, features much fine Victorian architecture, and is home to the National Steinbeck Center, the Steinbeck House, major development took place in the 1990s, with the construction of Creekbridge, Williams Ranch, and Harden Ranch. When annexed in 1963, Alisal was described as a large Mexican-American enclave, hispanic immigration peaked from the 1980s through the early 2000s. Mostly European-American neighborhoods in North Salinas, an expansion of the city built mostly in the 1950s and 60sSalinas, California – Main Street in downtown Salinas, 2006
33. Pomona, California – Pomona is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Pomona is located in the Pomona Valley, between the Inland Empire and the San Gabriel Valley, as of the 2010 United States Census, the citys population was 149,058. The area was occupied by the Tongva or Gabrielino Native Americans. The city is named for Pomona, the ancient Roman goddess of fruit, the first Anglo-Americans arrived in prior to 1848 when the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in California becoming part of the United States. By the 1880s, the arrival of railroads and Coachella Valley water had made it the anchor of the citrus-growing region. Pomona was officially incorporated on January 6,1888, in the 1920s Pomona was known as the Queen of the Citrus Belt, with one of the highest per-capita levels of income in the United States. In the 1940s it was used as a location for major motion picture studios to see how their films would play to modally middle class audiences around the country. Religious institutions are deeply embedded in the history of Pomona, there are now more than 120 churches, representing most religions in todays society. The historical architecture of these churches provide glimpses of the European church design, in 2005, Pomona citizens elected Norma Torres, the first woman of Guatemalan heritage to be elected to a mayoral post outside of Guatemala. Pomona is an area of Los Angeles County in the Pomona Valley. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 22.964 square miles. Pomona is approximately 27 miles east of downtown Los Angeles,25 miles north of Santa Ana,31 miles west of Riverside, the Los Angeles/San Bernardino county line forms most of the citys southern and eastern boundaries. Pomona has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, damp winters, august is the warmest month with an average daytime high temperature of 92 °F. Summers are characterized by days and very little rainfall during the months of June through September. Fall brings cooler temperatures and occasional showers, as well as seasonal Santa Ana winds originating from the northeast, december is the coolest month with an average high temperature of 68 °F. Winter also brings the majority of annual precipitation, snowfall is virtually unheard of, but frost can occur once or twice a year. The 2010 United States Census reported that Pomona had a population of 149,058, the population density was 6,491.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Pomona was 71,564 White,10,924 African American,1,763 Native American,12,688 Asian,282 Pacific Islander,45,171 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 105,135 personsPomona, California – The Los Angeles County Fair at Pomona in September 2008
34. Sunnyvale, California – Sunnyvale is a city located in Santa Clara County, California. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 140,095, Sunnyvale is the seventh most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area and one of the major cities comprising Silicon Valley. It lies along the historic El Camino Real and Highway 101, Sunnyvale was also the home to Onizuka Air Force Station, often referred to as the Blue Cube due to the color and shape of its windowless main building. The facility, previously known as Sunnyvale Air Force Station, was named for the deceased Space Shuttle Challenger astronaut Ellison Onizuka and it served as an artificial satellite control facility of the United States armed forces until August 2010 and has since been decommissioned and demolished. Library services for the city are provided by the Sunnyvale Public Library, when the Spanish first arrived in the 1770s at the Santa Clara Valley, it was heavily populated by the Ohlone Native Americans. In 1777, Mission Santa Clara was built by Ohlone who converted to Christianity, in 1842, Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was granted to Francisco Estrada and his wife Inez Castro. Portions of the land given in this grant later developed into the cities of Mountain View, two years later, in 1844, another land grant was provided to Lupe Yñigo, one of the few Native Americans to hold land grants. His land grant was first called Rancho Posolmi, named in honor of a village of the Ohlone that once stood in the area, Rancho Posolmi was later known as Rancho Ynigo. Martin Murphy Jr. came to California with his father as part of the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party in 1844, in 1850, Martin Murphy Jr. bought a piece of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas for $12,500. Murphy established a farm and ranch named Bay View. Murphy had the first wood frame house in Santa Clara County, the house was demolished in 1961 but was reconstructed in 2008 as the Sunnyvale Heritage Park Museum. When he died in 1884, his land was divided among his heirs, in 1860, The San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road was allowed to lay tracks on Bay View and established Murphy Station. Lawrence Station was later established on the edge of Bay View. In the 1870s, county property tax laws, imports and soil degradation caused wheat farming to become uneconomical in Santa Clara County, small fruit orchards replaced the large wheat farms. In 1871, James and Eloise Dawson established the first fruit cannery in the county, fruit agriculture for canning soon became a major industry in the county. The invention of the rail car further increased the viability of an economy based upon fruit. The fruit orchards became so prevalent that in 1886, the San Jose Board of Trade called Santa Clara County the Garden of the World, in the 1880s, Chinese workers made up 48 percent of the farm labor in Santa Clara County. This percentage reduced over time after the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, in the following decade, the 1890s, multitudes of immigrants from Italy, the Azores, Portugal, and Japan arrived to work in the orchardsSunnyvale, California – South Murphy Avenue
35. Escondido, California – Escondido is a city located in San Diego Countys North County region,30 miles northeast of Downtown San Diego, California. The city occupies a valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is one of the oldest cities in San Diego County, the city had a population of 143,911 in the 2010 census. Escondidos municipal government set itself an operating budget limit of $426,289,048 for the fiscal year 2010–2011, the city is known as Eskondiid in Diegueño. Escondido is a Spanish word meaning hidden, one source says the name originally referred to agua escondida or hidden water, another says it meant hidden treasure. The Escondido area was first settled by the Luiseño, who established campsites and villages along the running through the area. The Kumeyaay migrated from areas near the Colorado River, settling both in the San Pasqual Valley and near the San Dieguito River in the southwestern and western portions of what is now Escondido, most of the villages and campsites today have been destroyed by development and agriculture. Spain controlled the land from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the local land was divided into large ranchos. Most of what is now Escondido occupies the former Rancho Rincon del Diablo, Alvarado was a Regidor of Los Angeles at the time, and the first Regidor of the pueblo of San Diego. The southern part of Escondido occupies the former Rancho San Bernardo, in 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido. This battle pitted Mexican forces under Andrés Pico against Americans under Stephen W. Kearny, Archibald Gillespie, a park in Escondido is named for Carson. The city was home to a largely Spanish-speaking population in the first census, after statehood, non-Hispanic settlers came to Southern California in increasing numbers. The decade of the 1880s is known as the Southern California Land Boom because so many people moved to the state, in 1853, pro-Southern Copperheads proposed dividing the state of California to create a new Territory of Colorado. San Diego Judge Oliver S. Witherby suggested placing the capitol of the new territory in Rancho Rincon del Diablo and he envisioned a railroad connecting San Diego to Fort Yuma through an area about two miles south of the current Escondido site, heading east through San Pasqual. With a series of deeds in 1855 and 1856, the rancho was transferred from the heirs of Juan Bautista Alvarado to Witherby and he planned to profit from the town that he believed would be established from the dividing point on the railroad below the eastern hills. The proposal for splitting the state and creating the new territory passed in the California legislature and it was effectively killed in 1861 when Congress organized the Territory of Colorado in the area previously occupied by the Jefferson Territory. With Witherbys vision of owning a bustling state capitol unrealized, he set up an operation on the rancho instead. In 1868, Witherby sold the rancho for $8000 to Edward McGeary and John, Josiah, McGeary owned half the rancho, while the three Wolfskill brothers each owned an equal share of the other halfEscondido, California – Downtown Escondido's Grand Avenue in May 2006.
36. Terry Tornek – Terry E. Tornek is an American politician, and the mayor of Pasadena, California. He previously served on the Pasadena City Council, on April 21,2015 he defeated City Councilmember Jacque Robinson in the general election to replace Bill Bogaard, the longest serving mayor in Pasadenas history. Tornek was born to Allen Vernon Tornek and Gertrude Slotkin Tornek in New York City and he was an urban renewal representative with the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development in New York City from 1968 to 1969. Born and raised in New York City, Terry Tornek graduated from Princeton University with a degree in international affairs and his political career started in the Springfield, Massachusetts city council in the late 1970s. In 1982 he and his moved to Pasadena. Also he worked in the sector as a developer and planning director. Elected to the City Council as a member to the 7th District in 2009. He is married to his wife Maria since 1967 and they have three adult children, two daughters and a son and seven grandchildren. He serves on the Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority, the group that operates Hollywood-Burbank Airport, representing Pasadena, City of Pasadena - April 21,2015 - General Municipal ElectionTerry Tornek – History
37. Pasadena, California – Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of 2013, the population of Pasadena was 139,731. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, Pasadena was incorporated on June 19,1886, becoming one of the first cities be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, the only one being incorporated earlier being its namesake. It is one of the cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges and they lived on a diet of acorn meal, seeds and herbs, venison, and other small animals. They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island, the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area. The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, Altadena, before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, also owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles and he was the grandfather of WWII General George S. Patton, Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it. The newcomers were able to purchase a portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks AvenuePasadena, California – Pasadena City Hall
38. Fullerton, California – Fullerton is a city located in northern Orange County, California, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 135,161. It secured the land on behalf of the Atchison, Topeka, historically it was a center of agriculture, notably groves of Valencia oranges and other citrus crops, petroleum extraction, transportation, and manufacturing. It is home to higher educational institutions, particularly California State University. Evidence of prehistoric habitation, such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths, is present in Ralph B. Clark Regional Park in the northwest of the city. Europeans first passed through the area in 1769 when Gaspar de Portolà led a Spanish expedition north to Monterey. From the description recorded in the diary of Father Juan Crespi, it likely that the party camped on July 29 near present-day Laguna Lake. After establishment of Mission San Gabriel Arcangel in 1771, the local Tongva people were dubbed Gabrieliños by the Spanish, in 1837, the Fullerton area became part of Rancho San Juan Cajón de Santa Ana, granted to Juan Pacifico Ontiveros, a Spanish soldier. Ontiveros began to sell parcels of the Rancho to migrant Americans settling and developing California in the aftermath of the 1849 Gold Rush, in the 1860s, Stearns sold in turn to Domingo Bastanchury, a Basque shepherd. Sensing opportunity, they arranged to buy 430 acres north of Anaheim for approximately $68,000 and they then began negotiations with George H. Fullerton, president of the Pacific Land and Improvement Company, also a Santa Fe subsidiary. In 1894 Charles Chapman, a retired Chicago publisher and a descendant of John Johnny Appleseed Chapman, cultivation of walnuts and avocados also flourished, and the Western railroad town became an agricultural center. Drilling for petroleum began in 1880 with the discovery of the Brea-Olinda Oil Field and fueled the first real boom, benchley, and the citys chief landmark, the Plummer Auditorium and clock tower. Fullerton College was established at its present location at Chapman Avenue, through the mid-1900s the economy shifted toward food processing rather than food production, as well as manufacturing, southeastern Fullerton became an industrial center. Val Vita Food Products began operating a citrus plant in western Fullerton in 1932. By 1941 it had become the largest food processing company in the US, Leo, Tom Yates and Ralph Harrison developed the first Hawaiian Punch recipe in a converted garage in Fullerton. The city also became a producer of aerospace equipment, electrical and electronic components, navigation systems, and laboratory instruments. In 1949 Dick Riedel and Bill Barris piloted the Sunkist Lady, among them, Bruce Springsteen, Keith Richards, Joe Strummer, Waylon Jennings, Dwight Yoakam, Greg Camp, Jimmy Page, Kurt Cobain, James Burton, Jonny Greenwood and many others. Although Fullerton like other Southern California cities had experienced an expansion of population due to housing development, to serve the growing population, the California State Legislature authorized Orange County State College in 1957, which began operating out of Fullerton high schools in 1959Fullerton, California – Seal
39. Roseville, California – Roseville is the largest city in Placer County, California, United States, in the Sacramento metropolitan area. As of January 1,2015, the state Department of Finance estimated the population to be 128,382. Interstate 80 runs through Roseville and State Route 65 runs through part of the edge of the city. The settlement was originally a coach station called Griders. Junction eventually became known as Roseville, in 1909, three years after the Southern Pacific Railroad moved its facilities from Rocklin to Roseville, the town became an incorporated city. What followed was a period of expansion, with the community building more than 100 structures, the city was a railroad town for decades, with the railroad employing up to 1,225 people by 1929, out of a population of only 6,425 people. With the onset of World War II, the yards became busier than ever. However, the nature of the city changed dramatically in the 1950s, during the 1950s the railroad continued to expand and upgrade, converting its steam engine fleet to all diesel engines by the end of the decade. However, the railroads began falling in the shadow of air travel, thus, although the railroad remained a major employer, the expansion of the city began branching out into other employment sectors. Another important change during this period was the Washington Boulevard railroad underpass construction in 1950, the completion of Interstate 80 in 1956 shifted the population from downtown to what would become known as East Roseville. The old downtown area slid into a gradual decline, the city saw steady population growth throughout the ensuing decades, as shopping centers, major retailers, and homes were constructed throughout the city. The growth rate was modest until 1985, between 1929 when the population was 6,425 people and 1985, the population grew by only 22,563 people. In 1985 the population stood at 28,988 people, five years later it was 44,685 people, and by the year 2000 it was 74,234 people. Some of this growth was fueled by the location of major employers, such as Hewlett Packard, the population as of 2014 was 126,956 people. Roseville is no longer a town, but the Union Pacific Railroad is still the sixth largest employer. Current visitors can now visit the revitalized historic Vernon Street and old Downtown areas which had been in decline for decades, Roseville is located at 38°45′09″N 121°17′22″W. According to the Roseville Civic Center, the city has an area of 42.26 square miles. Several streams flow through Roseville, including Dry Creek, Linda Creek, Secret Ravine, Roseville has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate that is characterized by cool, wet winters and hot, dry summersRoseville, California – Roseville's Civic Center.
40. Visalia, California – The population was 130,104 at the 2015 census. Visalia is the 5th largest city in the San Joaquin Valley after Fresno, Bakersfield, Stockton and Modesto, the 44th most populous in California, and 198th in the United States. As the county seat of Tulare County, Visalia serves as the economic, Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon National Parks are located in the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains, the highest mountain range in the contiguous United States. The area around Visalia was first settled by the Yokuts and Mono Native American tribes thousands of years ago and it is unknown when the first Europeans arrived, but the first to make a written record of the area was Pedro Fages in 1722. When California achieved statehood in 1850, Tulare County did not exist, the land that is now Tulare County was part of the huge County of Mariposa. In 1852, some settled in the area, then called Four Creeks. The area got its name from the many watershed creeks and rivers flowing from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, all the water resulted in a widespread swampy area with a magnificent oak forest. The industrious group of settlers petitioned the legislature for county status and on July 10 of that same year. One of the first inhabitants of a built by the settlers was Nathaniel Vise. Nathaniel was responsible for surveying the new settlement, in November 1852, he wrote, The town contains from 60-80 inhabitants,30 of whom are children of school age. The town is located one of the subdivisions of the Kaweah River and is destined to be the county seat of Tulare. In 1853, that became a reality and Visalia has remained the county seat since that time. Visalia is named for Nathaniel Vises ancestral home, Visalia, Kentucky, early growth in Visalia can be attributed in part to the gold rush along the Kern River. The gold fever brought many transient miners through Visalia along the way, in 1859 Visalia was added to John Butterfields Overland Stage route from St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco. A plaque commemorating the location can be found at 116 East Main Street, included in the early crop of citizens were some notorious and nasty individuals who preyed upon the travelers along the Butterfield Stage route. Many saloons and hotels sprouted up around the stage stop downtown, the next memorable event was the arrival of the telegraph in 1860. Visalians then could get information of the events taking place on the East Coast which would ultimately develop into the American Civil War. During the Civil War, many citizens of Visalia couldnt decide whether Visalia should stand on the side of the North or the South, no one really knows the outcome of the war, but apparently it was concluded to the satisfaction of the participants and life returned to normalVisalia, California – Acequia Ave
41. Thousand Oaks, California – Thousand Oaks is a city in southeastern Ventura County, California, United States. It is in the part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. It was named after the oak trees that grow in the area. The city forms the core of the Conejo Valley, which includes Thousand Oaks proper, Newbury Park, Westlake Village, Agoura Hills. The Los Angeles County–Ventura County line crosses at the eastern border with Westlake Village. The population was estimated to be 129,339 in 2015, Thousand Oaks and Newbury Park were part of a master-planned city, created by the Janss Investment Company in the mid-1950s. It included about 1,000 custom home lots,2,000 single-family residences, a shopping center. The median home price is around $669,500, Thousand Oaks was ranked the fourth-safest among cities with a population greater than 100,000 in the United States by the FBIs 2013 Uniform Crime Reports. The area was occupied by the Chumash people, and 2000-year-old cave drawings may still be seen at the Chumash Indian Museum,3290 Lang Ranch Parkway. The Chumash village was known as Sapwi, which means House of the Deer, the areas recorded history dates to 1542 when Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo landed at Point Mugu and claimed the land for Spain. It eventually became part of the 48,671 acres Rancho El Conejo land grant by the Spanish government and it served as grazing land for vaqueros for the next fifty years. In the late 19th century it was on the route between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. The Stagecoach Inn was built in 1876, and is now a California Historical Landmark, the Janss family, developers of Southern California subdivisions, purchased 10,000 acres in the early 20th century. They eventually created plans for a community and the name remains prominently featured in the city. Jungleland USA was one of Southern Californias first theme parks, wild animal shows entertained thousands in the 1940s and 1950s. Many television and movie productions used the parks trained animals and were filmed there, including Birth of a Nation, Tarzan, jungleland closed in May 1968, in part due to competition from other amusement parks such as Knotts Berry Farm and Disneyland. The Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Center today stands on the site of the park, the City of Thousand Oaks was incorporated on October 7,1964, the first incorporated city in the Conejo Valley. Some sources mistakenly state that Thousand Oaks was incorporated on September 29,1964 and it is known for being a planned community, as the city is one of few that have actually stayed with the master planThousand Oaks, California – City of Thousand Oaks sign and oak tree
42. Concord, California – Concord is the largest city in Contra Costa County, California. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 122,067 making it the 8th largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area, founded in 1869 as the community of Todos Santos by Salvio Pacheco, the name was changed to Concord within months. The city is a major regional suburban East Bay center within the San Francisco Bay Area, Concord is located at 37°58′41″N 122°01′52″W. It is 29 miles northeast of San Francisco,22 miles northeast from Oakland,65 miles southwest of Sacramento, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.5 square miles, all of it land. Despite this, some crime and homelessness remain issues in the downtown area, to the north and east of downtown is the older residential area of Concord, with many homes dating back to before World War II. In the far edge of town is a primarily industrial area. The southeastern area of the city, centered along Clayton Road, is residential and was mostly developed in the 1960s and 1970s. In the southwest area of the city is the primarily Latino neighborhood known as Four Corners, centered around the intersection of Monument Boulevard, though it shares no border with Concord, Martinez is located almost immediately adjacent to Concord on the northwest. The North Concord BART station is known as Martinez BART. Concord has a hot summer Mediterranean climate, official data from the National Weather Service cooperative station in Concord shows average January temperatures are a maximum of 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit and a minimum of 41.6 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 87.8 °F, there are an average of 45.0 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 3.8 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The highest recorded temperature was 110 °F on July 23,2006, the lowest record temperature was 24 °F on December 23,1998. Average annual precipitation is 18.31 inches, falling on an average of 57 days annually, the wettest year was 1995 with 26.62 inches and driest year was 2007 with 10.57 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 11.79 inches in December 2005, the valleys north of Mount Diablo were inhabited by the Miwok people, who hunted elk and fished in the numerous streams flowing from the mountain into the San Francisco Bay. In 1772, Spanish explorers began to cross the area, in 1834 the Mexican land grant Rancho Monte del Diablo at the base of Mount Diablo was granted to Salvio Pacheco. Concord was founded under the name of Todos Santos, on the initiative of Pacheco in 1869 and it achieved prominence in the 19th century as a result of most residents of Pacheco relocating to Concord to avoid the devastation of fire and flood which crippled Pachecos formerly booming economy. Concord was incorporated on February 5,1905, the area around Concord in the surrounding Ygnacio and Clayton Valleys was a large agricultural area. Crops that were grown included grapes, walnuts, wheat, hay, the area to the east was the site of a few enormous wheat ranches over 5,000 acres, and was almost a sea of wheat all the way to the marshes bordering Suisun BayConcord, California – Todos Santos Plaza
43. Simi Valley, California – The city of Simi Valley, in the eponymous valley, is in the southeast corner of Ventura County, California, United States. 30 miles from Downtown Los Angeles, Simi Valley is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, the city sits next to Thousand Oaks, Moorpark, and Los Angeles. The citys 2014 population has been estimated at 126,871, the city of Simi Valley is surrounded by the Santa Susana Mountain range and the Simi Hills, west of the San Fernando Valley, and northeast of the Conejo Valley. It is largely a bedroom community, feeding the cities in the Los Angeles area and the San Fernando Valley to the east. The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where the president was buried in 2004, is in Simi Valley. Simi Valley has been ranked twice as the 18th most conservative city in the United States, once by The Bay Area Center For Voting Research, the Reagan Library has hosted Republican primary debates, last in 2012, and the first primary debates in 2016. A study done by the University of Vermont ranked Simi Valley as the fifth-happiest city in the United States, according to crime statistics by the FBI in 2013, Simi Valley is the seventh-safest city in the U. S. with a population of 100,000 or more. The U. S. Census Bureau of 2012 reported a household income of $87,894, which is higher than the California median of $70,231. Simi Valley was once inhabited by the Chumash people, who also settled much of the region from the Salinas Valley to the Santa Monica Mountains, with their presence dating back 10, around 5,000 years ago these tribes began processing acorns, and harvesting local marshland plants. Roughly 2,000 years later, as hunting and fishing techniques improved, shortly after this sharp increase a precious stone money system arose, increasing the viability of the region by offsetting fluctuations in available resources relating to climate changes. The native people who inhabited Simi Valley spoke a dialect of the Chumash language. Simi Valleys name derived from the Chumash word Shimiyi, which refers to the stringy, the name could have derived from strands of mist from coastal fog that move into the Oxnard Plain and wind their way up the Calleguas Creek and the Arroyo Las Posas into Simi Valley. The origin of the name was preserved because of the work of the anthropologist John P. Harrington, whose brother, the word Simiji was constructed by whites to the word Simi. There are other explanations about the name Simi, but this one was given to me by my brother who worked over 40 years for the Smithsonian Institution and it seems most plausible to me. Three Chumash settlements existed in Simi Valley during the Mission period in the late 18th and early 19th century, Shimiyi, Ta’apu, the cave is located on private land owned by Boeing, formerly operated by Rocketdyne for testing rocket engines and nuclear research. Other areas containing Chumash Native American pictographs in the Simi Hills are for instance by Lake Manor, the first Europeans to visit Simi Valley were members of the Spanish Portolà expedition, the first European land entry and exploration of the present-day state of California. The expedition traversed the valley on January 13–14,1770, traveling from Conejo Valley to San Fernando Valley and they camped near a native village in the valley on the 14th. Rancho Simi was the earliest Spanish colonial land grant within Ventura, the name derives from Shimiji, the name of the Chumash Native American village here before the SpanishSimi Valley, California – Aerial view of Simi Valley in 2014
44. Santa Clara, California – Santa Clara is a city in Santa Clara County, California, named after the Spanish mission that was established there in 1777. The citys population was 116,468 at the 2010 United States Census, located 45 miles southeast of San Francisco, the city was founded in 1777 and incorporated in 1852. The city is the site of the eighth of 21 California missions, Mission Santa Clara de Asís, the Mission and Mission Gardens are located on the grounds of Santa Clara University. Saint Clare is the saint of Santa Clara. Santa Clara is located in the center of Silicon Valley and is home to the headquarters of several companies such as Intel. It is also home to Santa Clara University, the oldest institution of learning in the state of California. It is bordered by San Jose, Sunnyvale, and Cupertino, the first European to visit the valley was José Francisco Ortega in 1769. He found the area inhabited by Native Americans, whom the Spanish called the Costanos, coast people, the Spanish began to colonize California with 21 missions and the Mission Santa Clara de Asis was founded in 1777. In 1846, the American flag was raised over Monterey and symbolized the transfer of the sovereignty of the California Republic over to the United States of America, in 1851, Santa Clara College was established on the grounds of the original Mission. In 1852, Santa Clara was incorporated as a town, it became state-chartered by 1862, for the next century the economy centered on agriculture since orchards and vegetables were thriving in the fertile soil. By the beginning of the 20th century, the population had reached 5,000, in 1905, the first public high-altitude flights by humans were made over Santa Clara in gliders designed by John J. Montgomery. The semiconductor industry, which sprouted around 1960, changed the city and surrounding Valley of Hearts Delight, Santa Claras first medical hospital was built in 1963. This structure, on Kiely Boulevard, was replaced in 2007 with the new Kaiser Permanente medical center located on Lawrence Expressway at Homestead Road, Santa Clara was also home to a major mental health facility, Agnews State Hospital. According to the National Park Service, more than 100 persons were killed at this site in the 1906 earthquake, the site is the former home to Sun Microsystems and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Santa Clara is drained by three creeks, all of which empty into the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, these creeks are San Tomas Aquino Creek, Saratoga Creek. This owl uses burrows created by ground squirrels and prefers generally level grasslands, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 18.4 square miles, all of it land. The average daily temperatures in July range from 82 °F to 53 °F, winters are mild, with the mean daily temperatures in January ranging from 58 °F to 38 °F. Most of the rainfall comes in the winter months, the summer months are generally rainlessSanta Clara, California – The Santa Clara Convention Center in July 2007
45. Victorville, California – Victorville is a city located in the Victor Valley of southwestern San Bernardino County, California. Its estimated population as of July 1,2013 was 121,096, in 1858, Aaron G. Lane came to what is now known as Victorville and founded a way station called Lanes Crossing. For many years it provided shelter and supplies for making the journey across the desert from the east to San Bernardino. Lanes Crossing was on the Mojave River on todays Turner Road, captain Lane was a veteran of the Mexican-American War who had suffered from malaria during that war. Originally he migrated west to join the California gold rush, and he settled in Ione near Sutters Mill in northern California during those years, but he migrated to San Bernardino in 1857. He settled on the Mojave River in 1858, where he established his way station and he later sold out to Texan John Fry Miller, who changed the name of Lanes Crossing to Pioneer Station. Miller was a rancher and became involved in Mojave Valley politics and that first year, ten citizens cast their votes at Lanes residence, rather than making the long trip to San Bernardino. Census records show that ten people lived in two residences on the river by 1860, listed in Dwelling No.703 were Aaron Lane, William R. Levick, and the Nicholson family, consisting of George and Frances, and their three children aged 9 to 13. Joseph and Mary Highmoor lived in Dwelling No,704, with a seven-year-old female named Anna. The Levick, Nicholson and Highmoor families were Mormon pioneers, Highmoor established a way station called Highmoors Crossing, which was near todays Oro Grande bridge of the National Trails Highway, over the Mojave River at what is called the Lower Narrows. The Nicholson family moved downriver a few miles and established a way station at Point of Rocks in todays Helendale area. In 1867, Lafayette Meacham, a Mormon who ran a way station near todays Barstow area and it crossed the Mojave River at todays Sixth Street. This new road, now called Stoddard Wells Road, was a short-cut across the desert, the river crossing was called Mormon Crossing and the surrounding area became known by that name. In the 1870s, Heber Pete Huntington established a stop, Huntington Station. Also a Mormon pioneer, Huntington was leader Brigham Youngs nephew, the village which sprang up around that railroad facility became known by the same name of Victor. In 1901, at the suggestion of local postmistress Abbey Turner, post Office Department changed that name to Victorville to stop the postal confusion with the town of Victor, Colorado. In 1926, U. S. Route 66 was begun, in Victorville, US66 is marked on D and Seventh streets, with a section of Interstate 15 going towards the Cajon Pass. It is the street through Old Town VictorvilleVictorville, California – Seal
46. Vallejo, California – Vallejo is a waterfront port city in Solano County, California, located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 115,942 at the 2010 census and it is the tenth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, and the largest in Solano County. Vallejo sits on the shore of San Pablo Bay,30 miles north of San Francisco. Vallejo is home to the Six Flags Discovery Kingdom theme park, the now-defunct Mare Island Naval Shipyard, the colleges and universities in Vallejo are California Maritime Academy, the Vallejo Center campus of Solano Community College, and Touro University California. Ferry service runs from a terminal on Mare Island Strait to San Francisco, Vallejo has twice served as the capital of the state of California, once in 1852 and again in 1853, both periods being brief. The State Capitol building burned to the ground in the 1880s, as there were no bridges at that time, the Mare Island Fire Department had to be ferried across the Napa River, arriving to find only the foundation remaining. This was the first recorded mutual aid response in the state of California, some of the first Europeans drawn to the Vallejo area were attracted by the sulfur springs, in the year 1902 the area was named Blue Rock Springs. It was also known as White Sulfur Springs and that was the name of the leading to it from town. Vallejo is best known for the Zodiac Killer and being the hometown of Bay Area rappers E-40, according to United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.5 square miles. Land area is 30.7 square miles, and 18.9 square miles is water, the Napa River flows until it changes into the Mare Island Strait in Vallejo which then flows into the San Pablo Bay. Vallejo is located on the edge of Solano County, California in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California. Vallejo is accessible by Interstate 80 between San Francisco and Sacramento, and is the location for the half of the Carquinez Bridge. It is also accessible by Interstate 780 from neighboring Benicia to the east, Route 29 begins in the city near the Carquinez Bridge and travels north through the heart of the city and beyond into Napa County, entering neighboring American Canyon and eventually Napa. Several faults have been mapped in the vicinity of Vallejo, the San Andreas Fault and Hayward Faults are the most active faults, although the San Andreas is at some distance. Locally, the Sulphur Springs Valley Thrust Fault and Southampton Fault are found, no quaternary seismic activity along these minor faults has been observed with the possible exception of a slight offset revealed by trenching. The Sulphur Mountain and Green Valley faults have been associated with the Concord Fault to the south, the Concord Fault is considered active. Historically there have been local cinnabar mines in the Vallejo area, the Hastings Mine and St. Johns Mine contribute ongoing water contamination for mercury, furthermore, mine shaft development has depleted much of this areas spring water. Both Rindler Creek and Blue Rock Springs Creek have been affected, the city of Vallejo is located 24 miles northeast of San Francisco,20 miles north of Oakland,56 miles north of San Jose and 52 miles south of SacramentoVallejo, California – former Vallejo City Hall and County Building
47. Berkeley, California – Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Anglo-Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley and it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills, the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. It also has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world and it is one of the most politically liberal cities in the United States. The site of todays City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived, other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776, today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley. The De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay, luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, luis Peralta named his holding Rancho San Antonio. The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, eventually, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies mostly in the portion that went to Peraltas son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, no artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant, the Peraltas Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were quickly reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes, the rest of the land was surveyed and parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was initially part of a vast Contra Costa County, on March 25,1853, Alameda County was created from a division within Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County. The area of Berkeley was at this period mostly a mix of land, farms and ranches. It was not yet Berkeley, but merely the part of the Oakland Township subdivision of Alameda County. In 1866, Oaklands private College of California looked for a new site, according to the Centennial Record of the University of California, In 1866…at Founders Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. Although the philosophers name is pronounced bark-lee, the pronunciation of the name has evolved to suit American English as burk-lee. The College of Californias College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land, to this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeleys modern street planBerkeley, California – Downtown Berkeley viewed from the Berkeley Hills.
48. El Monte, California – El Monte /ɛl ˈmɒntiː/ is a residential, industrial, and commercial city in Los Angeles County of Southern California, the United States. The city lies in the San Gabriel Valley east of the city of Los Angeles, El Montes slogan is Welcome to Friendly El Monte and historically is known as The End of the Santa Fe Trail. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 113,475. As of 2010, El Monte was the 51st largest city in California, El Monte is situated between the San Gabriel and Rio Hondo Rivers, residents claimed that anything could be grown in the area. Between 1770 and 1830, Spanish soldiers and missionaries often stopped here for respite and they called the area El Monte, which in Spanish means the mountain. Most people assume the name refers to a mountain, but there were no mountains in the valley, the word is an archaic Spanish translation of that era, meaning the wood. The first explorers had found rich, low-altitude land, blanketed with thick growths of wispy willows, alders. They also found wild grapevines and watercress, El Monte is approximately 7 miles long and 4 miles wide. When the State Legislature organized California into more manageable designated townships in the 1850s, in a short time the name returned to the original El Monte. The area, beside the San Gabriel River, was part of the homeland of the Tongva people for thousands of years, the Spanish Portolá expedition of missionaries and soldiers passed through the area in 1769-1770. The site was within the Spanish land grant Rancho La Puente, mission San Gabriel Arcángel was the center of colonial activities in the area. From 1847, The Santa Fe Trail was also connected westward through the Southern Emigrant Trail, passing by the El Monte area, immigrant settlement began in 1849, El Monte was a stopping place for the American immigrants going to the gold fields during the California Gold Rush. The first permanent residents arrived in El Monte around 1849-1850 mostly from Texas, Arkansas and Missouri, the first settlers with families were Nicholas Schmidt, Ira W. Thompson, G. and F. Cuddeback, J. Corbin, and J. Sheldon. These migrants ventured upon the bounty of fruitful, rich land along the San Gabriel River, the farmers were very pleased at the increasing success of El Montes agricultural community, and it steadily grew over the years. In the 1850s the settlement was briefly named Lexington by American settlers and it was at the crossroad of routes between Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and the natural harbor at San Pedro. In the early days, it had a reputation as a town where men often settled disputes with knives. Defense against Indian raids and the crimes of bandit gangs, such as that of Juan Flores and Pancho Daniel, led to the formation of a local militia company called the Monte Rangers in February 1854. After the Monte Rangers disbanded, justice for Los Angeles County, in 1858 the adobe Monte Station was established, a stagecoach stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail Section 2 routeEl Monte, California – Oldest home in El Monte, built 1849 (photo 1922).
49. Downey, California – Downey is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, California, United States,21 km southeast of downtown Los Angeles. It is considered part of the Gateway Cities, the city is the birthplace of the Apollo space program, and is the hometown of Richard and Karen Carpenter. It is also the home of the oldest still operational McDonalds restaurant in the world, as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 111,772. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in Alta California, the area now comprises Downey was inhabited by the Tongva ethnic group. The nearest Tongva settlements appear to have been just north and northeast of present-day Downey, the villages of Naxaaw’nga and Sehat seem to have been situated near the present-day community of Los Nietos, or perhaps farther west on sites that were lost to floods of the San Gabriel River. Chokiishnga and Huutnga are other Tongva place names that may have referred to villages in the area north of Downey between the San Gabriel River and Rio Hondo. In all four cases, it is difficult to relate the original descriptions, based on ranchos and land grants. After five years, flooding forced the relocation of the mission to its present site in San Gabriel, in 1784, Governor Pedro Fages granted to former soldier Manuel Nieto the largest of the land concessions made during the Spanish control of California. Its 300,000 acres stretched from the Santa Ana River on the east to the Old San Gabriel River on the west and its acreage was slightly reduced later at the insistence of Mission San Gabriel on whose lands it infringed. The Rancho Los Nietos passed to Manuel Nietos four children upon his death and remained intact until, in 1833, his heirs petitioned Mexican Governor José Figueroa to partition the property. The northwestern portion of the rancho, comprising the Downey-Norwalk area, was granted as Rancho Santa Gertrudes to Josefa Cota. At approximately 21,000 acres, Santa Gertrudes was itself a sizable rancho and contained the old Nietos homestead and this migration was distinct from that prompted by the California Gold Rush farther north. Dairy was an industry in Downey. Some of Downeys settlers came from Ireland, Downey was founded by and named for the former and youngest ever governor of California, John Gately Downey, who was born in Ireland. Although he was an Irish Democrat, he supported the Republican Lincoln in his efforts to keep the Union intact during the American Civil War and he pioneered the modern subdivision with land he acquired between the Rio Hondo and the San Gabriel River, in about 1865. Downey was convinced that oranges would flourish in Southern California, so he imported several varieties, in conjunction with the construction of the Tehachapi Loop, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in 1873. Farmers in the area grew grain, corn, castor beans and fruit, Downey was incorporated in 1956, and instituted a charter form of government in 1964. Suburban homes and factories replaced the farms after World War II, aerospace Vultee Aircraft was Downeys largest employer during World War II, producing 15% of all of Americas military aircraft by 1941Downey, California – Downey City Hall
50. Costa Mesa, California – Costa Mesa is a city in Orange County, California. The population was 109,960 at the 2010 United States Census, members of the Gabrieleño/Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño nations long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junípero Serra named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana, on November 1,1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the areas first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain. In 1801, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres to Jose Antonio Yorba, yorbas great rancho included the lands where the communities of Olive, Orange, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Tustin, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today. An 1889 flood wiped out the serving the community, however. To the south, meanwhile, the community of Harper had arisen on a siding of the Santa Ana and Newport Railroad and this town prospered on its agricultural goods. On May 11,1920, Harper changed its name to Costa Mesa and this is a reference to the citys geography as being a plateau by the coast. Costa Mesa surged in population during and after World War II, as many thousands trained at Santa Ana Army Air Base, within three decades of incorporation, the citys population had nearly quintupled. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 15.7 square miles. 15.7 square miles of it is land and 0.05 square miles of it is water, Costa Mesa has a semi-arid climate with mild temperatures year round. Rain falls primarily in the months, and is close to nonexistent during the summer. Morning low clouds and fog are common due to its coastal location, the 2010 United States Census reported that Costa Mesa had a population of 109,960. The population density was 7,004.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Costa Mesa was 75,335 White,1,640 African American,686 Native American,8,654 Asian,527 Pacific Islander,17,992 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 39,403 persons. The Census reported that 106,990 people lived in households,2,232 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 3,013 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 281 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,963 households were made up of individuals and 2,775 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.68. There were 23,239 families, the family size was 3.30. The median age was 33.6 years, for every 100 females there were 103.7 malesCosta Mesa, California – An aerial view of Costa Mesa in March 2011.
51. Fairfield, California – Fairfield is a city in, and the county seat of, Solano County, California, United States. It is located in the North-eastern part of the Bay Area, Fairfield was founded in 1856 by clippership captain Robert H. Waterman, and named after his former hometown of Fairfield, Connecticut. It is the home of Travis Air Force Base and the headquarters of Jelly Belly, with a population of 108,321 at the 2010 census, it is slightly smaller in population than Vallejo. Other nearby cities include Suisun City, Vacaville, Rio Vista, Benicia, and Napa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 37.6 square miles. The total area is 5. 65% water, the city is located within the California Coastal Ranges. The city is centered directly north of the Suisun Bay and northeast of the San Pablo Bay, much of the Suisun Bay contains the Suisun Marsh, the largest saltwater marsh on the west coast of the United States. According to the City of Fairfield website, Native Americans, such as those from the Ion culture, settled in the Rockville, the first European contact came in 1810 when the Spanish army was ordered to attack the Suisun Indians. In 1835 the Mexican General Vallejo was so magnanimous in victory over the Indian Chief Sem Yeto that the later became his ally in conflicts against other tribes. In 1837 the Indian Chief Solano received the Rancho Suisun Mexican land grant and this grant eventually came into the hands of a clipper ship captain from Fairfield, Connecticut named Robert H. Waterman. He not only parceled out the town in 1856, but also, in a shrewd move, entered Fairfield in the race for Solano County seat in 1858. As an inducement he granted 16 acres of land for the construction of county buildings, in 1903 Fairfield was incorporated as a city. The 2010 United States Census reported that Fairfield had a population of 105,321, the population density was 2,798.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Fairfield was 48,407 White,16,586 African American,869 Native American,15,700 Asian,1,149 Pacific Islander,13,301 from other races, and 9,309 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,789 persons,21. 2% of Fairfield is Mexican,1. 1% Puerto Rican,1. 0% Salvadoran,0. 5% Nicaraguan,0. 3% Guatemalan,0. 2% Cuban, and 0. 2% Peruvian. The Census reported that 102,832 people lived in households,1,221 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 2,052 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 237 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,802 households were made up of individuals and 2,500 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.98. There were 25,843 families, the family size was 3.42Fairfield, California – The "Welcome to Fairfield" roadside sign along Interstate 80
52. Temecula, California – Temecula /təˈmɛkjᵿlə/ is a city in southwestern Riverside County, California, United States, with a population of 100,097 during the 2010 census and an estimated 2013 population of 106,780. It was incorporated on December 1,1989, Temecula is bordered by the City of Murrieta to the North and the Pechanga Indian Reservation and San Diego County to the south. The City of Temecula forms the anchor of the Inland Empire region. The area was inhabited by the Temecula Native Americans for hundreds of years before their contact with the Spanish missionaries, the Pechanga Band of Luiseño believe their ancestors have lived in the Temecula area for more than 10,000 years. In Pechanga mythology, life on earth began in the Temecula Valley and they call it, Exva Temeeku, the place of the union of Sky-father, and Earth-mother. The Temecula Indians lived at Temeekunga – the place of the sun, other popular interpretations of the name, Temecula, include The Sun That Shines Through The Mist or Where the sun breaks through the mist. The first recorded Spanish visit occurred in October 1797, with a Franciscan padre, Father Juan Norberto de Santiago, Father Santiago kept a journal in which he noted seeing Temecula. an Indian village. The trip included the Lake Elsinore area and the Temecula Valley, today, over 1,000 Native Americans live in the Temecula Valley. The wine industry was founded by the Californios, colonial Spanish settlers planted grapes, the vineyards were then adapted by Anglo-American settlers and European immigrants from Spain, Italy and France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1798, Spanish Missionaries established the Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia and designated the Indians living in the region Sanluiseños, in the 1820s, the Mission San Antonio de Pala was built. The Mexican land grants made in the Temecula area were Rancho Temecula granted to Felix Valdez, Rancho Little Temecula was made in 1845 to Luiseño Pablo Apis, one of the few former mission converts to be given a land grant. It was fertile well watered land at the end of the valley. A fourth grant, known as Rancho Santa Rosa was made to Juan Moreno in 1846, the Luiseño and Cahuilla were involved in local battles not part of the Mexican-American War. In January 1847 in the Pauma Massacre, Luiseños captured 11 Mexican soldiers, the Californios in Los Angeles mounted a military retaliation directed by General Pio Pico. In the Temecula Massacre, a force of Mexican soldiers. As American settlers moved into the area after the war, conflict with the tribes increased. A treaty was signed in the Magee Store in Temecula in 1852, in addition, the Luiseños challenged the Mexican land grant claims, as under Mexican law, the land was held in trust to be distributed to the indigenous population after becoming subjects. They challenged the Apis claim to the Little Temecula Rancho by taking the case to the 1851 California Land Commission, on November 15,1853, the commission rejected the Luiseño claim, an appealed in 1856 to the district court found in favor of the heirs of Pablo ApisTemecula, California – Temecula City Hall
53. James T. Butts Jr. – James Thurman Butts Jr. is the mayor of Inglewood, California. He rose through the ranks of law enforcement in Inglewood during the 1970s and 1980s and he then worked as Chief of Police in Santa Monica, California from 1991 to 2006. Butts then took a safety position with Los Angeles World Airports in 2006. He was elected mayor of Inglewood in 2010 and re-elected in 2014 with an 84% vote and he led efforts to renovate and reopen the sports stadium The Forum in Inglewood and develop a plan for a new NFL stadium in Inglewood. Butts holds an MBA degree from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, according to James Butts, he lost an opportunity for a basketball scholarship to go to Cal State-Los Angeles in his youth, due to an injury. To pay for college, he worked part-time at the Inglewood Police Department as the divisions second African American cadet and it later turned into a full-time job. Butts earned an MBA degree from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, James Butts joined the police force of Inglewood, California in 1972. He held several positions as an officer, commander of a SWAT team, an undercover officer. Butts was promoted to Sergeant in 1981, to Lieutenant in 1984 and he led a team of 30 undercover agents that helped reduce drug trafficking in the Dixon-Darby and Lockhaven neighborhoods. In 1986, Butts was promoted to Chief of Operations and became the first African American at that level within a South Bay, in 1991, Butts moved to Santa Monica to accept a job as the citys Chief of Police, a position he served until 2006. During Butts tenure, crime was reduced by 64 percent, early in his tenure, Butts conducted a month-long crime assessment at the request of the city council. In his assessment, Butts concluded that drug dealing and violent crime at Palisades Park could be reduced by enforcing a city ordinance against sleeping in public parks. The city ordinance had been controversial, its enforcement was opposed by city attorney Robert M. Myers and this made it difficult for Butts to it, since those arrested would not be prosecuted. In 1995, Butts was one of five police officers named as a defendant in a lawsuit alleging the police department was engaging in forceful questioning that violated Miranda rights. In 2006, Butts took a position as the head of security, according to the Los Angeles Times, Butts improved training and discipline at LAWA and fostered better relationships with local law enforcement agencies. After returning to Inglewood, Butts began campaigning for mayor and his primary platform was a promise to reduce crime. Inglewood has a crime rate and its prior mayor plead guilty to charges of public corruption. He was officially elected as the mayor of Inglewood, California and he won against incumbent Danny Tabor by a vote of 3,776 to 3,000James T. Butts Jr. – Butts in 2009
54. Inglewood, California – Inglewood is a city in southwestern Los Angeles County, California, southwest of downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 109,673 and it was incorporated on February 14,1908. The city is in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park is currently under construction in the city and when completed around 2019 will be the new home of both the Los Angeles Rams and the Los Angeles Chargers. The earliest residents of what is now Inglewood were Native Americans who used the springs in todays Edward Vincent Jr. Park. Local historian Gladys Waddingham wrote that these took the name Centinela from the hills that rose gradually around them. These settlers, she wrote, were ordered by the officials of the San Gabriel Mission to graze their animals on the side of Los Angeles in order not to infringe on Mission lands. Later Avila constructed an adobe on a slight rise overlooking the creek that ran from Centinela Springs all the way to the ocean. According to the LAOkay web site, this adobe was built where the present baseball field is in the park, two years later, Waddingham writes, Ygnacio was granted the 2, 220-acre Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela even though this land had already been claimed by Avila. Inglewood Park Cemetery, a widely used cemetery for the region, was founded in 1905. The city has been home to the Hollywood Park Racetrack from 1938 to 2013, fosters Freeze, the first Soft Serve ice cream chain in California, was founded by George Foster in 1946 in Inglewood. Inglewood was named an All-America City by the National Civic League in 1989, on January 12,2016, Inglewood was selected to be the home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. The raid led to the death of one of the culprits. A jury returned a not guilty verdict for all defendants who completed the trial and it was this scandal, according to the Los Angeles Times, that eventually led to the outlawing of the Klan in California. The Klan had a chapter in Inglewood as late as October 1931, no blacks had ever lived in Inglewood, Gladys Waddingham wrote, but by 1960, they lived in great numbers along its eastern borders. This came to the displeasure of the predominantly white residents already residing in Inglewood. In 1960, the census counted only 29 Negroes among Inglewoods 63,390 residents, not a single black child attended the citys schools. Real estate agents refused to show homes to blacks, a rumored curfew kept blacks off the streets at night. Inglewood was a target because of its history of restrictionsInglewood, California – Rancho Aguaje de la Centinela Adobe, 1889
55. Antioch, California – Antioch is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States. Located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area along the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta, it is a suburb of San Francisco, the citys population was 102,372 at the 2010 census and estimated to be 110,542 in 2015. Antioch is one of the oldest towns in California, in 1848, John Marsh, owner of Rancho Los Meganos, one of the largest ranches in California, built a landing on the San Joaquin River in what is now Antioch. It became known as Marshs Landing, and was the point for the 17. It included a pier extending out into the river, enabling vessels drawing 15 feet of water to tie up there at any season of the year. In 1850, two brothers, William and Joseph Smith, founded a town slightly west of Marshs Landing, in 1851, the towns new minister persuaded the residents to change the name of the town to Antioch, for the biblical city of Antioch. This new industry resulted in the founding of the towns of Nortonville, Somersville, Stewartsville, and Black Diamond, the Empire Coal Company was formed by John C. Rouse and George Hawxhurst in 1876, which built a railroad that passed from Antioch toward the mines over what is now F Street, however, later on, both the mine and the railroad passed into the hands of the Belshaw brothers. In 1863, a great excitement arose over the discovery of ore near Antioch. Smelting works were built at Antioch, and a value of fifteen to twenty-five dollars per ton was paid for the ore, unfortunately the copper bubble eventually burst, to the dismay of the citizens with connections. Petroleum was first drilled for near Antioch in 1865, but not enough oil was found to make a decent profit. The Antioch Post Office was opened in 1851, closed in 1852, re-opened in 1855, closed again in 1862, the city of Antioch was incorporated in 1872. The Antioch Ledger was first issued on March 10,1870, in memory of when the paper was formed, a copy of its first issue has been framed and hangs over the desk of the present editor. It is five by eight inches in size, printed on one side only, the Ledger later merged with the Contra Costa Times and printed its last issue in 2005. Today, Antioch is mainly a community, with most adults working in larger cities toward Oakland. However, the Contra Costa Times and affiliated newspapers contradicted their claim, Disturbing, only its not, according to a Bay Area News Group analysis of sex offender addresses and census data. Monte Rio ranked first with 4.5 per 1000, the city was attempting in 2012 to annex an adjacent 678-acre area of unincorporated land, which includes a GenOn Energy 760-megawatt power plant, to include the plant within city limits. Antioch is located at 38°00′18″N 121°48′21″W, along the San Joaquin River at the end of the San Joaquin-Sacramento River DeltaAntioch, California – View of Antioch from Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve.
56. Richmond, California – Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, California, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7,1905, under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population is at 103,710. The largest, Richmond, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city, the Ohlone Indians were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago. The name Richmond appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond. The first post office opened in 1900, Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name. Until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world, in the 1920s the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city. In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened a plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in the 1960s. The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II which brought on a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up here in 1901, including a what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers, the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. Many of these lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond, Berkeley. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards, kaisers Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S. The city broke many records and even built one Liberty ship in a five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days, the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital eventually became todays Kaiser Permanente HMO. It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, Point Richmond was originally the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city. It was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Sears, Macys, during the war the population increased dramatically and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war. Once the war ended the workers were no longer neededRichmond, California – Point Richmond seen from nearby Nicholl Knob
57. West Covina, California – West Covina is a city in Los Angeles County, California, located 19 miles east of Downtown Los Angeles in the eastern San Gabriel Valley and is part of Greater Los Angeles. The population for the city was 106,098 at the 2010 census, West Covina was incorporated as an independent city in 1923 to prevent the city of Covina from building a sewage farm in the area. Walnut groves and orange groves continued to flourish during the subsequent decades, the population in 1930 was 769 and blossomed to 1,549 in 1940. The decades between 1960 and 2000 demonstrated steady growth, which slowed significantly by the time of the 2010 census, the City of West Covina began the second half of the 20th century with new developments and projects, mostly brought on by big business. The City Hall and police facility were built in 1969 as the first phase of an example of a Joint Powers Authority in the County of Los Angeles. The Civic Center Joint Powers Authority, consisting of the County of Los Angeles, the Civic Center complex includes the Los Angeles County Regional Library and the Citrus Municipal Court building and the city offices. The first Redevelopment Agency project included a shopping center, the West Covina Fashion Plaza. It also included the revitalization of the sections of the shopping center. The Fashion Plaza has provided the citizens of the San Gabriel Valley with convenient access to all shopping needs, in 1991 the mall was renovated adding a food court and additional shops, as well as the redecorating of the entire mall. The mall was renamed The Plaza at West Covina, the Plaza opened a new 100,000 sq ft. wing in October 1993 featuring 50 new stores including a new Robinsons-May and interior renovation throughout The Plaza. The 2010 United States Census reported that West Covina had a population of 106,098, the population density was 6,594.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of West Covina was 42. 8% White,4. 5% African American,1. 0% Native American,25. 8% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,21. 3% from other races, and 4. 4% from two or more races. Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin were 53. 2%, the Census reported that 105,424 people lived in households,351 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 323 were institutionalized. There were 1,664 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 202 same-sex married couples or partnerships,4,795 households were made up of individuals and 2,164 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.34, there were 25,360 families, the average family size was 3.68. The median age was 36.0 years, for every 100 females there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. There were 32,705 housing units at a density of 2,032.7 per square mile, of which 20,703 were owner-occupiedWest Covina, California – The 14 story Wells Fargo Building, tallest in the city.
58. Daly City, California – Daly City is the largest city in San Mateo County, California, United States, with an estimated 2014 population of 106,094. Located immediately south of San Francisco, it is named in honor of businessman, archaeological evidence suggests the San Francisco Bay Area has been inhabited as early as 2700 BC. People of the Ohlone language group occupied Northern California from at least the 6th century, seven years later, in 1776, an expedition led by Juan Bautista de Anza selected the site for the Presidio of San Francisco, which José Joaquín Moraga would soon establish. Later the same year, the Franciscan missionary Francisco Palóu founded the Mission San Francisco de Asís, as part of the founding, the priests claimed the land south of the mission for sixteen miles for raising crops and for fodder for cattle and sheep. In 1778, the priests and soldiers marked out a trail to connect San Francisco to the rest of California, at the top of Mission Hill, the priests named the gap between San Bruno Mountain and the hills on the coast La Portezuela. La Portezuela was later referred to as Dalys Hill, the Center of Daly City, during Spanish rule, the area between San Bruno Mountain and the Pacific remained uninhabited. Upon independence from Spain, prominent Mexican citizens were granted land parcels to establish large ranches, Rancho Buri Buri was granted to Jose Sanchez in 1835 and covered 14,639 acres including parts of modern-day Colma, Burlingame, San Bruno, South San Francisco, and Millbrae. Rancho Laguna de la Merced was 2,219 acres acres, following the Mexican Cession of California at the end of the Mexican–American War the owners of Rancho Laguna de La Merced tried to claim land between San Bruno Mountain and Lake Merced. An 1853 US government survey declared that the area was in fact government property. There was a land rush as settlers, mainly Irish established ranches in farms in parts of what is now the neighborhoods of Westlake, Serramonte. A decade later, several families left as increase in the fog density killed grain, the few remaining families switched to dairy and cattle farming as a more profitable enterprise. In the late 19th century as San Francisco grew and San Mateo County was established, Daly City also gradually grew including homes, Daly City served as a location where San Franciscans would cross over county lines to gamble and fight. As tensions built in approach to the American Civil War, California was divided between pro-slavery, and Free Soil advocates, two of the main figures in the debate were US Senator David C. Broderick, a Free Soil advocate and David S. Terry who was in favor of extension of slavery into California. Quarreling and political fighting between the two led to a duel in the Lake Merced area at which Terry mortally wounded Broderick. The site of the duel is marked with two shafts were the men stood, and designated is California Historical Landmark number 19. On the morning of April 18,1906 a major earthquake struck just off the coast of Daly City near Mussel Rock. After quake and subsequent fire destroyed many San Franciscans homes, they left to temporary housing on the ranches of the area to the south, including the large one owned by John DalyDaly City, California – Part of Daly City with San Bruno Mountain and the San Francisco neighborhood of Crocker Amazon in the background.
59. Burbank, California – Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in Southern California, United States,12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340, Entertainment, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, NBC, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, and Insomniac Games. The city is home to Bob Hope Airport. Burbank consists of two areas, a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains. Burbank is the easternmost city in the San Fernando Valley, Burbanks neighbor, Glendale, is the westernmost city in the San Gabriel Valley. The city was referred to as Beautiful Downtown Burbank on Laugh-In, the city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire-born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. Historically, this area was the scene of a skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California. Remnants of the battle reportedly were found many years later in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs, by 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County. But the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for water supplies. A professionally trained dentist, Dr. Burbank began his career in Waterville and he joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, Dr. Burbanks property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Dr. Burbank wouldnt acquire full titles to both properties until after a decision known as the Great Partition was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael. Dr. Burbank also later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27,1893, though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally. The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, when the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles. These were largely the roads the Indians traveled and the settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach, stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858Burbank, California – Looking northwest over Burbank from Griffith Park.
60. Santa Maria, California – Santa Maria is a city near the Southern California coast in Santa Barbara County. It is approximately 160 miles northwest of Los Angeles and its estimated 2014 population was 103,410, making it the most populous city in the county and the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metro Area. The city is notable for its industry and Santa Maria-style barbecue. Sunset magazine called Santa Maria The Wests Best BBQ Town, the Santa Maria Valley, stretching from the Santa Lucia Mountains toward the Pacific Ocean, was the homeland of the Chumash people for several thousand years. The Native Americans made their homes on the slopes of the hills among the oaks, on the banks of the Santa Maria River among the sycamores. They had unique plank-built boats, called Tomol, which used for ocean fishing. In 1769, the Portolá Expedition passed through the Santa Maria Valley during the first Spanish land exploration up the coast of Las Californias Province. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was established just north of the valley in 1772, rather than rich soil, white settlers were attracted here by the possibility of free land. In 1821, after the Mexican War of Independence, the lands in Santa Maria Valley were made available for private ownership under a Mexican land grant called Rancho Punta de Laguna. At the end of the Mexican War in 1848, California was ceded to the United States, in the late 19th century, after California gained statehood in 1850, the areas rich soil attracted farmers and other settlers. By the end of the century, the Santa Maria River Valley had become one of the most productive areas in the state. Agriculture is still a key component of the economy for the city, the townsite was recorded in Santa Barbara in 1875. The new town was named Grangerville, then changed to Central City and it became Santa Maria on February 18,1885, since mail was often being sent by mistake to Central City, Colorado. Santa Maria was chosen from the name Juan Pacifico Ontiveros had given to his property 25 years earlier, streets named after the four settlers now form a 6 block square centered at Broadway and Main Street, the center of town. Oil exploration began in 1888, leading to discoveries at the turn of the 20th century. In 1902, Union Oil discovered the large Orcutt Oil Field in the Solomon Hills south of town, two years later, Union Oil had 22 wells in production. Other significant discoveries followed, including the Lompoc Oil Field in 1903, over the next 80 years more large oil fields were found, and thousands of oil wells drilled and put into production. By 1957 there were 1,775 oil wells in operation in the Santa Maria Valley, Santa Maria is located at 34°57′5″N 120°26′0″WSanta Maria, California – Along Foxen Canyon Road. This route provides a link between the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez Valleys
61. Clovis, California – Clovis is a city in Fresno County, California, United States. The 2014 population was estimated to be 102,189, Clovis is located 6.5 miles northeast of downtown Fresno, at an elevation of 361 feet. The city of Clovis began as a stop along the San Joaquin Valley Railroad. Organized on January 15,1890, by Fresno businessmen Thomas E. Hughes, Fulton Berry, Gilbert R. Osmun, colson, John D. Gray, and William M. The railroad purchased right-of-way from both farmers, half from each – the east side from Cole and the west side from Owen –, the railroad agreed to establish a station on the west side of the tracks and to call it Clovis. The Clovis station, after which the town was named, was positioned on the Owen side of the track, Cole and Owen later sold land to Marcus Pollasky for development of a townsite. Fresno civil engineer Ingvart Tielman mapped the townsite on behalf of Pollasky on December 29,1891, the original townsite featured streets named for the officers and principal investors of the railroad, Woodworth, Pollasky, Fulton, Hughes, Osmun, and Baron. The townsite, named Clovis by Pollasky, was out on what was originally Owens land. The railroad was completed as far as the town of Hamptonville on the banks of the San Joaquin River, at the time, Hamptonville was called Pollasky. A celebration of the completion of track-laying was held at the Pollasky terminus on the Wednesday before Thanksgiving of 1891 with a reported 3,000 Fresnans attending, the railroad began official operation in January 1892. The first year of operation of the railroad coincided with the beginnings of a national economic decline. Farmers were unable to get profitable return on their crops, banks, the SJVRR was unable to generate sufficient revenues to pay its debt, was leased to the Southern Pacific Railroad and subsequently bought by SPRR in 1893. By reducing the railroads schedule of operation and trimming costs, the Southern Pacific was able to turn a profit in the first years after its acquisition. At the same time that the railroad was being planned, a group of Michigan lumbermen began acquiring thousands of acres of timber in the Sierra Nevada about 75 miles northeast of Fresno. A dam was built across Stevenson Creek to create a lake that would enable them to move freshly cut timber to a mill beside the lake and they then constructed a 42-mile, 25-foot-high, V-shaped flume that started at the foot of the dam. As lumber was rough-cut at the mill, it was loaded into the flume, the lumber mill and yard had its own network of rails to move lumber around the yard and to connect with the SJVRR just south of Clovis station. The completion in 1894 of the flume and commencement of mill operations provided the impetus for further development of the area around the Clovis Station. The town began to shape as lumber yard employees built homes close to their employmentClovis, California – Pollasky Avenue, Old Town Clovis
62. El Cajon, California – El Cajon is a city in San Diego County, California, United States. In a valley surrounded by mountains, the city has acquired the nickname of The Big Box and its name originated similarly, from the Spanish phrase el cajón, which means the box or the drawer. El Cajon, Spanish for the big box, was first recorded on September 10,1821, the name appeared on maps in 1873 and 1875, shortened to Cajon, until the modern town developed in which the post office was named Elcajon. In 1905, the name was again expanded to El Cajon under the insistence of California banker and historian. El Cajon is located at 32°47′54″N 116°57′36″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles, all land. It is bordered by San Diego and La Mesa on the west, Spring Valley on the south, Santee on the north and it includes the neighborhoods of Fletcher Hills, Bostonia, and Rancho San Diego. Under the Köppen climate classification system, El Cajon straddles areas of Mediterranean climate, as a result, it is often described as arid Mediterranean and semi-arid Steppe. Like most inland areas in Southern California, the climate varies dramatically within a short distance, El Cajons climate has greater extremes compared to coastal San Diego. The farther east from the coast, the more arid the climate gets, until one reaches the mountains, El Cajons climate is warm during summer with mean temperatures averaging 70.1 °F or higher and cool during winter with mean temperatures averaging 55.4 °F or higher. The warmest month of the year is August with an maximum temperature of 88.1 °F. Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate with a difference of 24 °F during the summer. The annual average precipitation at El Cajon is 11.96 inches, rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the winter months, but rare in summer. The wettest month of the year is December with a rainfall of 3.80 inches. The record high temperature was 113 °F on June 14,1917, September 1,1955, July 22,2006, the record low temperature was 19 °F on January 8,1913. The wettest year was 1941 with 28.14 inches and the dryest year was 1989 with 1.51 inches, the most rainfall in one month was 11.43 inches in January 1993. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 5.60 inches on January 27,1916, a rare snowfall in November 1992 totaled 0.3 inches. 3 inches of snow covered the ground in January 1882, during Spanish rule, the government encouraged settlement of territory now known as California by the establishment of large land grants called ranchos, from which the English word ranch is derived. Land grants were made to the Roman Catholic Church which set up numerous missions throughout the region, in the early nineteenth century, mission padres search for pasture land led them to the El Cajon ValleyEl Cajon, California – Office building on El Cajon's Main Street
63. San Mateo, California – San Mateo is a city in San Mateo County, California, in the high-tech enclave of Silicon Valley in the San Francisco Bay Area. The 2015 population was estimated to be 103,536, San Mateo was incorporated in 1894. Documented by Spanish colonists as part of the Rancho de las Pulgas and the Rancho San Mateo, in 1789 the Spanish missionaries had named a Native American village along Laurel Creek as Los Laureles or the Laurels. At the time of Mexican Independence there were 30 native Californians at San Mateo, an 1835 sketch map of the Rancho refers to the creek as arroyo de los Laureles. In the 21st century, most of the laurels are gone, in 1810 Coyote Point was an early recorded feature of San Mateo. Beginning in the 1850s, some wealthy San Franciscans began building summer or permanent homes in the milder mid-peninsula, while most of this early settlement occurred in adjacent Hillsborough and Burlingame, a number of historically important mansions and buildings were constructed in San Mateo. A. P. Giannini, founder of the Bank of Italy and his mansion, Seven Oaks, is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Located at 20 El Cerrito Drive, it has been deteriorating as it has not been preserved or occupied for years, in 1858 Sun Water Station, a stage station of the Butterfield Overland Mail route, was established in San Mateo. It was located 9 miles south of Clarks Station in what is now San Bruno and 9 miles north of the station at Redwood City. The Howard Estate was built in 1859 on the hill accessed by Crystal Springs Road, the Parrott Estate was erected in 1860 in the same area, giving rise to two conflicting names for the hill, Howard Hill and Parrot Hill. After use of the changed traffic patterns, neither historic name was commonly applied to that hill. The Borel Estate was developed near Borel Creek in 1874 and it has been redeveloped since the late 20th century for use as modern offices and shops. The property is managed and owned by Borel Place Associates and the Borel Estate Company, a smaller portion of the property and the mansion, was converted into The Peninsula Hotel in 1908, following Haywards death in 1904. The Hotel burned down in a fire on 25 June 1920. In the early 20th century, Japanese immigrants came to San Mateo to work in the salt ponds, although Japanese-Americans only account for 2. 2% of the population today, they continue to be a major cultural influence and a draw for the rest of the region. The Eugene J. De Sabla Japanese Teahouse and Garden was established in 1894 at 70 De Sabla Road, designed by Makoto Hagiwara and he arranged for Japanese artisans to be brought to the United States primarily for its teahouse construction. The parcel was purchased in 1988 by San Francisco businessman Achille Paladini and wife Joan, the garden features hundreds of varieties of plants and several rare trees. A large koi pond surrounds an island, the property was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992San Mateo, California – San Mateo from above
64. Rialto, California – Rialto is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. The population was 99,171 with the 2010 Census, one of the United States largest fireworks companies, Pyro Spectaculars, is also headquartered in Rialto. The particularly arid climate during the summer prevents tropospheric clouds from forming, meaning temperatures rise to what is considered Class Orange by NOAA, Rialto gets an average of 16 inches of rain, and maybe hail most of this rainfall precipitates in winter. During winter, Rialtos northern-most neighborhood gets snow, heavily at times as a result of its elevation of about 3,000 feet above sea level, however, most of the city is out of snowfalls path. This phenomenon markedly increases the danger in the foothill, canyon. Rialto is located at 34°6′41″N 117°22′57″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles. 22.4 square miles of it is land and 0. 06% is water, as of the census of 2000, there are 91,873 people,24,659 households, and 20,516 families residing in the city. There are 26,045 housing units at a density of 459. 8/km². The racial makeup of the city is 39. 37% White,22. 27% African American,1. 05% Native American,2. 47% Asian,0. 43% Pacific Islander,29. 20% from other races, and 5. 21% from two or more races. 51. 21% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race,13. 4% of all households are made up of individuals and 5. 4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.69 and the family size is 4.01. In the city, the population is out with 37. 7% under the age of 18,10. 4% from 18 to 24,29. 1% from 25 to 44,16. 4% from 45 to 64. The median age is 26 years, for every 100 females there are 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.7 males, the median income for a household in the city is $41,254, and the median income for a family is $42,638. Males have an income of $34,110 versus $26,640 for females. The per capita income for the city is $13,375,17. 4% of the population and 13. 8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the population,21. 7% of those under the age of 18 and 9. 7% of those 65. The 2010 United States Census reported that Rialto had a population of 99,171, the population density was 4,434.1 people per square mileRialto, California – Seal
65. Vista, California – Vista is a city in Southern California and is located in northwestern San Diego County. Vista is a city within the San Diego Metropolitan Area and had a population of 93,834 at the 2010 census. Vista also includes portions of unincorporated San Diego County to north and east, with a county island in the central west, located just seven miles inland from the Pacific Ocean, it has a Mediterranean climate. Originally the lands of Rancho Buena Vista, Vista was founded on October 9,1882 with an establishment of a post office and it was incorporated January 28,1963 and became a charter city on June 13,2007. Vista has more than 25 educational institutions for youth, and a park home to over 800 companies. Vista is ranked as the 173rd-best place in California for families, based on such as family life, recreational opportunities, education, health, safety. The Vista area was inhabited by the Luiseño Indians, who lived on the land until the founding of the San Luis Rey Mission in 1798. The prosperity of the mission-era declined by the 1830s with the independence of Mexico from Spain, the Mexican government began to grant land ownerships to a variety of people, thus beginning the Rancho era of California. Three ranchos were granted in the Vista area, Rancho Guajome, Rancho Buena Vista, in the 1850s the ranchos began to fade due to changing political conditions and the scarcity of water. A growing number of settlers came to the area after California became a state in 1850, one settler in the Vista area, John Frazier, applied to open the first post office and after several attempts to name the city, Frazier finally chose the name Vista. With the opening of the first post office in 1882, Vista had officially arrived, in 1870, Bernard Delpy arrived from France to build what eventually became known as Delpy Corners at the intersection of todays East Vista Way and Foothill Drive. His nephew, Jules Jacques Delpy, joined him in 1879, in 1886, they built the first successful winery in the country. The winery was shut down by the prohibition era, inhibited by the lack of water, Vista grew slowly through the early 1910s to less than 1,000 people. With the vote of the people in 1923, the Vista Irrigation District had the funding to construct a new water supply from Lake Henshaw. New buildings in downtown sprang up almost immediately, agriculture began to flourish with crops such as tomatoes, celery, and citrus fruits. The City of Vista was incorporated on January 23,1963, the frequent housing booms of the 1970s through early 2000s greatly increased the population of Vista. Numerous apartment complexes were built in these booms. Many light manufacturing businesses moved into the Business Park area on the south side, in the 1990s, Wal-Mart, Target and Costco opened large storesVista, California – View of South Santa Fe
66. Jurupa Valley, California – Jurupa Valley is a city in Riverside County, California. On March 8,2011, voters approved a measure, designated as Measure A, to incorporate the area into its own city, as a result. The city of Jurupa Valley covers approximately 43.5 square miles and it is north and west of the Santa Ana River, south of the Riverside-San Bernardino County line, and east of Interstate 15. It includes the neighborhoods of Mira Loma, Glen Avon, Sky Country, Indian Hills, Pedley, Rubidoux, Belltown, Jurupa, Jurupa Hills, and Sunnyslope. Residents of the area had voted on incorporation in 1992, however. According to the United States Census Bureau the 2014 estimated population was 98,842, Jurupa Valley is home to the Jurupa Unified School District. Also, Jurupa Valley Station is served by Metrolink, and the city is served by Ontario International Airport, some major roads in Jurupa Valley include the following, Interstate 215, Interstate 10, and Interstate 15. City of Jurupa Valley Jurupa Unified School District web site Jurupa Valley Measure A official sample ballotJurupa Valley, California – Seal